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Sample records for analytical methods development

  1. Prioritizing pesticide compounds for analytical methods development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Julia E.; Kuivila, Kathryn M.; Nowell, Lisa H.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has a periodic need to re-evaluate pesticide compounds in terms of priorities for inclusion in monitoring and studies and, thus, must also assess the current analytical capabilities for pesticide detection. To meet this need, a strategy has been developed to prioritize pesticides and degradates for analytical methods development. Screening procedures were developed to separately prioritize pesticide compounds in water and sediment. The procedures evaluate pesticide compounds in existing USGS analytical methods for water and sediment and compounds for which recent agricultural-use information was available. Measured occurrence (detection frequency and concentrations) in water and sediment, predicted concentrations in water and predicted likelihood of occurrence in sediment, potential toxicity to aquatic life or humans, and priorities of other agencies or organizations, regulatory or otherwise, were considered. Several existing strategies for prioritizing chemicals for various purposes were reviewed, including those that identify and prioritize persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic compounds, and those that determine candidates for future regulation of drinking-water contaminants. The systematic procedures developed and used in this study rely on concepts common to many previously established strategies. The evaluation of pesticide compounds resulted in the classification of compounds into three groups: Tier 1 for high priority compounds, Tier 2 for moderate priority compounds, and Tier 3 for low priority compounds. For water, a total of 247 pesticide compounds were classified as Tier 1 and, thus, are high priority for inclusion in analytical methods for monitoring and studies. Of these, about three-quarters are included in some USGS analytical method; however, many of these compounds are included on research methods that are expensive and for which there are few data on environmental samples. The remaining quarter of Tier 1

  2. 40 CFR 766.16 - Developing the analytical test method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Developing the analytical test method. 766.16 Section 766.16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC... analytical test method. Because of the matrix differences of the chemicals listed for testing, no one...

  3. Recent developments in detection methods for microfabricated analytical devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, M A; Hauser, P C

    2001-09-01

    Sensitive detection in microfluidic analytical devices is a challenge because of the extremely small detection volumes available. Considerable efforts have been made lately to further address this aspect and to investigate techniques other than fluorescence. Among the newly introduced techniques are the optical methods of chemiluminescence, refraction and thermooptics, as well as the electrochemical methods of amperometry, conductimetry and potentiometry. Developments are also in progress to create miniaturized plasma-emission spectrometers and sensitive detectors for gas-chromatographic separations.

  4. Developments and retrospectives in Lie theory geometric and analytic methods

    CERN Document Server

    Penkov, Ivan; Wolf, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    This volume reviews and updates a prominent series of workshops in representation/Lie theory, and reflects the widespread influence of those  workshops in such areas as harmonic analysis, representation theory, differential geometry, algebraic geometry, and mathematical physics.  Many of the contributors have had leading roles in both the classical and modern developments of Lie theory and its applications. This Work, entitled Developments and Retrospectives in Lie Theory, and comprising 26 articles, is organized in two volumes: Algebraic Methods and Geometric and Analytic Methods. This is the Geometric and Analytic Methods volume. The Lie Theory Workshop series, founded by Joe Wolf and Ivan Penkov and joined shortly thereafter by Geoff Mason, has been running for over two decades. Travel to the workshops has usually been supported by the NSF, and local universities have provided hospitality. The workshop talks have been seminal in describing new perspectives in the field covering broad areas of current re...

  5. Analytical Method Development & Validation for Related Substances Method of Busulfan Injection by Ion Chromatography Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rewaria S

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A new simple, accurate, precise and reproducible Ion chromatography method has been developed forthe estimation of Methane sulfonic acid in Busulfan injectable dosage. The method which is developedis also validated in complete compliance with the current regulatory guidelines by using well developedanalytical method validation techniques and tools which comprises with the analytical method validationparameters like Linearity, LOD and LOQ determination, Accuracy, Method precision, Specificity,System suitability, Robustness, Ruggedness etc. by adopting the current method the linearity obtained isnear to 0.999 and thus this shows that the method is capable to give a good detector response, therecovery calculated was within the range of 85% to 115% of the specification limits.

  6. Analytical Quality by Design Approach to Test Method Development and Validation in Drug Substance Manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. V. S. S. Raman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pharmaceutical industry has been emerging rapidly for the last decade by focusing on product Quality, Safety, and Efficacy. Pharmaceutical firms increased the number of product development by using scientific tools such as QbD (Quality by Design and PAT (Process Analytical Technology. ICH guidelines Q8 to Q11 have discussed QbD implementation in API synthetic process and formulation development. ICH Q11 guidelines clearly discussed QbD approach for API synthesis with examples. Generic companies are implementing QbD approach in formulation development and even it is mandatory for USFDA perspective. As of now there is no specific requirements for AQbD (Analytical Quality by Design and PAT in analytical development from all regulatory agencies. In this review, authors have discussed the implementation of QbD and AQbD simultaneously for API synthetic process and analytical methods development. AQbD key tools are identification of ATP (Analytical Target Profile, CQA (Critical Quality Attributes with risk assessment, Method Optimization and Development with DoE, MODR (method operable design region, Control Strategy, AQbD Method Validation, and Continuous Method Monitoring (CMM. Simultaneous implementation of QbD activities in synthetic and analytical development will provide the highest quality product by minimizing the risks and even it is very good input for PAT approach.

  7. Flammable gas safety program. Analytical methods development: FY 1994 progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the status of developing analytical methods to account for the organic components in Hanford waste tanks, with particular focus on tanks assigned to the Flammable Gas Watch List. The methods that have been developed are illustrated by their application to samples obtained from Tank 241-SY-101 (Tank 101-SY)

  8. Development of CAD implementing the algorithm of boundary elements’ numerical analytical method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulia V. Korniyenko

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Up to recent days the algorithms for numerical-analytical boundary elements method had been implemented with programs written in MATLAB environment language. Each program had a local character, i.e. used to solve a particular problem: calculation of beam, frame, arch, etc. Constructing matrices in these programs was carried out “manually” therefore being time-consuming. The research was purposed onto a reasoned choice of programming language for new CAD development, allows to implement algorithm of numerical analytical boundary elements method and to create visualization tools for initial objects and calculation results. Research conducted shows that among wide variety of programming languages the most efficient one for CAD development, employing the numerical analytical boundary elements method algorithm, is the Java language. This language provides tools not only for development of calculating CAD part, but also to build the graphic interface for geometrical models construction and calculated results interpretation.

  9. Development of an Analytical System for Determination of Free Acid via a Joint Method Combining Density and Conductivity Measurement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Determination of free acid plays an important role in spent nuclear fuel reprocessing. It is necessary to develop a rapid analytical device and method for measuring free acid. A novel analytical system and method was studied to monitor the acidity

  10. Development of analytical methods for multiplex bio-assay with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Ornatsky, Olga I.; Kinach, Robert; Bandura, Dmitry R.; Lou, Xudong; Tanner, Scott D; Baranov, Vladimir I.; Nitz, Mark; Mitchell A. Winnik

    2008-01-01

    Advances in the development of highly multiplexed bio-analytical assays with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) detection are discussed. Use of novel reagents specifically designed for immunological methods utilizing elemental analysis is presented. The major steps of method development, including selection of elements for tags, validation of tagged reagents, and examples of multiplexed assays, are considered in detail. The paper further describes experimental protocols for...

  11. Experimental design and multiple response optimization. Using the desirability function in analytical methods development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candioti, Luciana Vera; De Zan, María M; Cámara, María S; Goicoechea, Héctor C

    2014-06-01

    A review about the application of response surface methodology (RSM) when several responses have to be simultaneously optimized in the field of analytical methods development is presented. Several critical issues like response transformation, multiple response optimization and modeling with least squares and artificial neural networks are discussed. Most recent analytical applications are presented in the context of analytLaboratorio de Control de Calidad de Medicamentos (LCCM), Facultad de Bioquímica y Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad Nacional del Litoral, C.C. 242, S3000ZAA Santa Fe, ArgentinaLaboratorio de Control de Calidad de Medicamentos (LCCM), Facultad de Bioquímica y Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad Nacional del Litoral, C.C. 242, S3000ZAA Santa Fe, Argentinaical methods development, especially in multiple response optimization procedures using the desirability function.

  12. DEVELOPMENT OF ANALYTICAL METHODS IN METABOLOMICS FOR THE STUDY OF HEREDITARY AND ACQUIRED GENETIC DISEASE

    OpenAIRE

    Arvonio, Raffaele

    2011-01-01

    METABOLOMICS AND MASS SPECTROMETRY The research project take place in the branch of metabolomics, which involves the systematic study of the metabolites present in a cell and in this area MS, thanks to its potential to carry out controlled experiments of fragmentation, plays a role as a key methodology for identification of various metabolites. The work of thesis project is focused on the analytical methods development for the diagnosis of metabolic diseases and is divided as follows: ...

  13. Application of quality by design to the development of analytical separation methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlandini, Serena; Pinzauti, Sergio; Furlanetto, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    Recent pharmaceutical regulatory documents have stressed the critical importance of applying quality by design (QbD) principles for in-depth process understanding to ensure that product quality is built in by design. This article outlines the application of QbD concepts to the development of analytical separation methods, for example chromatography and capillary electrophoresis. QbD tools, for example risk assessment and design of experiments, enable enhanced quality to be integrated into the analytical method, enabling earlier understanding and identification of variables affecting method performance. A QbD guide is described, from identification of quality target product profile to definition of control strategy, emphasizing the main differences from the traditional quality by testing (QbT) approach. The different ways several authors have treated single QbD steps of method development are reviewed and compared. In a final section on outlook, attention is focused on general issues which have arisen from the surveyed literature, and on the need to change the researcher's mindset from the QbT to QbD approach as an important analytical trend for the near future.

  14. Analytical Quality by Design Approach in RP-HPLC Method Development for the Assay of Etofenamate in Dosage Forms

    OpenAIRE

    Peraman, R.; Bhadraya, K.; Reddy, Y. Padmanabha; Reddy, C. Surayaprakash; Lokesh, T.

    2015-01-01

    By considering the current regulatory requirement for an analytical method development, a reversed phase high performance liquid chromatographic method for routine analysis of etofenamate in dosage form has been optimized using analytical quality by design approach. Unlike routine approach, the present study was initiated with understanding of quality target product profile, analytical target profile and risk assessment for method variables that affect the method response. A liquid chromatogr...

  15. Development of analytical methods for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in airborne particulates:A review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Li-bin; LIU Yan; LIN Jin-ming; TANG Ning; HAYAKAWA Kazuichi; MAEDA Tsuneaki

    2007-01-01

    In the present work,the different sample collection, pretreatment and analytical methods for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in airborne particulates is systematacially reviewed, and the applications of these pretreatment and analytical methods for PAHs are compared in detail. Some comments on the future expectation are also presented.

  16. CRMS vegetation analytical team framework: Methods for collection, development, and use of vegetation response variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cretini, Kari F.; Visser, Jenneke M.; Krauss, Ken W.; Steyer, Gregory D.

    2011-01-01

    This document identifies the main objectives of the Coastwide Reference Monitoring System (CRMS) vegetation analytical team, which are to provide (1) collection and development methods for vegetation response variables and (2) the ways in which these response variables will be used to evaluate restoration project effectiveness. The vegetation parameters (that is, response variables) collected in CRMS and other coastal restoration projects funded under the Coastal Wetlands Planning, Protection and Restoration Act (CWPPRA) are identified, and the field collection methods for these parameters are summarized. Existing knowledge on community and plant responses to changes in environmental drivers (for example, flooding and salinity) from published literature and from the CRMS and CWPPRA monitoring dataset are used to develop a suite of indices to assess wetland condition in coastal Louisiana. Two indices, the floristic quality index (FQI) and a productivity index, are described for herbaceous and forested vegetation. The FQI for herbaceous vegetation is tested with a long-term dataset from a CWPPRA marsh creation project. Example graphics for this index are provided and discussed. The other indices, an FQI for forest vegetation (that is, trees and shrubs) and productivity indices for herbaceous and forest vegetation, are proposed but not tested. New response variables may be added or current response variables removed as data become available and as our understanding of restoration success indicators develops. Once indices are fully developed, each will be used by the vegetation analytical team to assess and evaluate CRMS/CWPPRA project and program effectiveness. The vegetation analytical teams plan to summarize their results in the form of written reports and/or graphics and present these items to CRMS Federal and State sponsors, restoration project managers, landowners, and other data users for their input.

  17. Development of an analytical method for estimating the composition of NOx gas using ion chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The choice of solvent for reprocessing the spent nuclear fuel by aqueous route is nitric acid. Hence the presence of NOx gas in all the off-gas streams is inevitable. Estimation of the composition of these gases is very important to evaluate the reaction mechanism of the dissolution step. This article briefly explains an analytical method developed for estimating the composition of NOx gas by ion chromatography during the reaction between sodium nitrate and nitric acid which can be extended for reprocessing applications in the PUREX dissolver system with necessary changes. (author)

  18. Bayesian meta-analytical methods to incorporate multiple surrogate endpoints in drug development process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bujkiewicz, Sylwia; Thompson, John R; Riley, Richard D; Abrams, Keith R

    2016-03-30

    A number of meta-analytical methods have been proposed that aim to evaluate surrogate endpoints. Bivariate meta-analytical methods can be used to predict the treatment effect for the final outcome from the treatment effect estimate measured on the surrogate endpoint while taking into account the uncertainty around the effect estimate for the surrogate endpoint. In this paper, extensions to multivariate models are developed aiming to include multiple surrogate endpoints with the potential benefit of reducing the uncertainty when making predictions. In this Bayesian multivariate meta-analytic framework, the between-study variability is modelled in a formulation of a product of normal univariate distributions. This formulation is particularly convenient for including multiple surrogate endpoints and flexible for modelling the outcomes which can be surrogate endpoints to the final outcome and potentially to one another. Two models are proposed, first, using an unstructured between-study covariance matrix by assuming the treatment effects on all outcomes are correlated and second, using a structured between-study covariance matrix by assuming treatment effects on some of the outcomes are conditionally independent. While the two models are developed for the summary data on a study level, the individual-level association is taken into account by the use of the Prentice's criteria (obtained from individual patient data) to inform the within study correlations in the models. The modelling techniques are investigated using an example in relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis where the disability worsening is the final outcome, while relapse rate and MRI lesions are potential surrogates to the disability progression. PMID:26530518

  19. Analytic method development to quantify by in-situ gamma spectrometry radionuclides in the ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research thesis reports the development of an analytic method based on a Monte Carlo simulation to quantify radionuclides present in soils by means of in-situ gamma spectrometry, to understand physical phenomena involved before and after detection, and to improve and complement results after spectrum analysis. The first part describes the evolution of in-situ gamma spectrometry: sensor development, in-situ measurement principle, evolution of the analysis principle. The second part introduces the Monte Carlo simulation and describes the used models (sensor model using the stripping method, development of a new simulation model for the incident flow). The third part discusses the understanding of an in-situ spectrum with the localization of the origin of incident photons and the identification of measurement parameters. Modelling results are then presented, as well as the development of spectrum de-convolution method, and the calculation of dose factors. Finally, the use of the 'Peak-to-Valley' method completed by the Monte Carlo simulation results is explained and used to localize a source depth and to define the exponential distribution of Cs-137 in Orsay

  20. Development of a Framework for Sustainable Outsourcing: Analytic Balanced Scorecard Method (A-BSC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio De Felice

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, many enterprises choose to outsource its non-core business to other enterprises to reduce cost and increase the efficiency. Many enterprises choose to outsource their supply chain management (SCM and leave it to a third-party organization in order to improve their services. The paper proposes an integrated and multicriteria tool useful to monitor and to improve performance in an outsourced supply chain. The Analytic Balanced Scorecard method (A-BSC is proposed as an effective method useful to analyze strategic performance within an outsourced supply chain. The aim of the paper is to present the integration of two methodologies: Balanced Scorecard, a multiple perspective framework for performance assessment, and Analytic Hierarchy Process, a decision-making tool used to prioritize multiple performance perspectives and to generate a unified metric. The development of the framework is aimed to provide a performance analysis to achieve better sustainability performance of supply chain. A real case study concerning a typical value chain is presented.

  1. Advanced organic analysis and analytical methods development: FY 1995 progress report. Waste Tank Organic Safety Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahl, K.L.; Campbell, J.A.; Clauss, S.A. [and others

    1995-09-01

    This report describes the work performed during FY 1995 by Pacific Northwest Laboratory in developing and optimizing analysis techniques for identifying organics present in Hanford waste tanks. The main focus was to provide a means for rapidly obtaining the most useful information concerning the organics present in tank waste, with minimal sample handling and with minimal waste generation. One major focus has been to optimize analytical methods for organic speciation. Select methods, such as atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry, were developed to increase the speciation capabilities, while minimizing sample handling. A capillary electrophoresis method was developed to improve separation capabilities while minimizing additional waste generation. In addition, considerable emphasis has been placed on developing a rapid screening tool, based on Raman and infrared spectroscopy, for determining organic functional group content when complete organic speciation is not required. This capability would allow for a cost-effective means to screen the waste tanks to identify tanks that require more specialized and complete organic speciation to determine tank safety.

  2. Selection of reference standard during method development using the analytical hierarchy process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wan-yang; Tong, Ling; Li, Dong-xiang; Huang, Jing-yi; Zhou, Shui-ping; Sun, Henry; Bi, Kai-shun

    2015-03-25

    Reference standard is critical for ensuring reliable and accurate method performance. One important issue is how to select the ideal one from the alternatives. Unlike the optimization of parameters, the criteria of the reference standard are always immeasurable. The aim of this paper is to recommend a quantitative approach for the selection of reference standard during method development based on the analytical hierarchy process (AHP) as a decision-making tool. Six alternative single reference standards were assessed in quantitative analysis of six phenolic acids from Salvia Miltiorrhiza and its preparations by using ultra-performance liquid chromatography. The AHP model simultaneously considered six criteria related to reference standard characteristics and method performance, containing feasibility to obtain, abundance in samples, chemical stability, accuracy, precision and robustness. The priority of each alternative was calculated using standard AHP analysis method. The results showed that protocatechuic aldehyde is the ideal reference standard, and rosmarinic acid is about 79.8% ability as the second choice. The determination results successfully verified the evaluation ability of this model. The AHP allowed us comprehensive considering the benefits and risks of the alternatives. It was an effective and practical tool for optimization of reference standards during method development. PMID:25636165

  3. Selection of reference standard during method development using the analytical hierarchy process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wan-yang; Tong, Ling; Li, Dong-xiang; Huang, Jing-yi; Zhou, Shui-ping; Sun, Henry; Bi, Kai-shun

    2015-03-25

    Reference standard is critical for ensuring reliable and accurate method performance. One important issue is how to select the ideal one from the alternatives. Unlike the optimization of parameters, the criteria of the reference standard are always immeasurable. The aim of this paper is to recommend a quantitative approach for the selection of reference standard during method development based on the analytical hierarchy process (AHP) as a decision-making tool. Six alternative single reference standards were assessed in quantitative analysis of six phenolic acids from Salvia Miltiorrhiza and its preparations by using ultra-performance liquid chromatography. The AHP model simultaneously considered six criteria related to reference standard characteristics and method performance, containing feasibility to obtain, abundance in samples, chemical stability, accuracy, precision and robustness. The priority of each alternative was calculated using standard AHP analysis method. The results showed that protocatechuic aldehyde is the ideal reference standard, and rosmarinic acid is about 79.8% ability as the second choice. The determination results successfully verified the evaluation ability of this model. The AHP allowed us comprehensive considering the benefits and risks of the alternatives. It was an effective and practical tool for optimization of reference standards during method development.

  4. Developing and Stabilizing Analytical Method for the Determination of Uranium in Water Systems using Voltammeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranium is a precious metal found in all over the world in trace amounts. The water flowing over the surface dissolves the uranium from surface and rocks coming in contact with it. To determine the uranium concentration in water we emphasized for the development of an analytical method. The development of technique for the uranium determination in water is based on Chloranilic acid (CAA) and Hanging Mercury Drop Electrode (HMDE). CAA is a water soluble compound forms a complex with uranium, which was collected by the physical adsorption of the complex on the electrode. The standard uranium solution was used for calibration. Below pH 2 and above pH 3, the standard deviation exceeded 1 micro g/L. So, the pH for the samples was maintained between 2.3 and 3. The accuracy of the method was established by recovery studies in control samples. Then the developed technique was applied for uranium determination in sea water. Different surfactants were used to minimize the effects of interfering radicals. The effects of potential variation were also examined. The best results were obtained for Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate (SDS). Some problems still existing can be eliminated by the use of inert anti foaming agent. (author)

  5. Development of Process Analytical Technology (PAT) methods for controlled release pellet coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avalle, P; Pollitt, M J; Bradley, K; Cooper, B; Pearce, G; Djemai, A; Fitzpatrick, S

    2014-07-01

    This work focused on the control of the manufacturing process for a controlled release (CR) pellet product, within a Quality by Design (QbD) framework. The manufacturing process was Wurster coating: firstly layering active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) onto sugar pellet cores and secondly a controlled release (CR) coating. For each of these two steps, development of a Process Analytical Technology (PAT) method is discussed and also a novel application of automated microscopy as the reference method. Ultimately, PAT methods should link to product performance and the two key Critical Quality Attributes (CQAs) for this CR product are assay and release rate, linked to the API and CR coating steps respectively. In this work, the link between near infra-red (NIR) spectra and those attributes was explored by chemometrics over the course of the coating process in a pilot scale industrial environment. Correlations were built between the NIR spectra and coating weight (for API amount), CR coating thickness and dissolution performance. These correlations allow the coating process to be monitored at-line and so better control of the product performance in line with QbD requirements.

  6. Development of an analytical method for pump-induced pulsating pressure in a pressurized water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analysis of the pressure pulsation load induced by the reactor coolant pump is essential in reactor design to ensure the integrity of the reactor internals. In the present thesis, an analytical method has been developed for the prediction of the pump induced-pressure distribution in the inlet pipe and downcomer annulus of a pressurized water reactor vessel. For the coupled two systems of the inlet pipe and the annulus, impedance concept is adopted by imposing the intermediate boundary conditions at both the interface and the bottom of annulus to describe a condition which is somewhere between two extremes of closed and open. While the existing methods assumed the pump-induced pressure at the annulus inlet, the present work generates the pressure at the inlet by expanding the wave equation considering the forcing at the pump discharge. When the wave equations for two one-dimensional systems coupled to each other are solved using the impedance concept, a resonance condition is found at the interface; it implies that separate analyses on each system do not produce any physically meaningful results for the pressure distribution. For the pipe-annulus-coupled system, the pressure distributions in the inlet pipe and annulus are obtained from the wave equation, and a boundary condition involving impedance is found at the interface. From the orthogonality found for the axial mode of the impedance expression for the boundary condition, it is found that the impedance expression is applicable to not only open or closed boundary but also intermediate boundary such as the bottom of annulus. The present method has been verified for its applicability using the pump discharge pressure data measured at Palo Verde Nuclear Power Generating Station Unit 1 in the United States. There are two unknowns in the expression for the pressure distribution, which are pump forcing and the boundary condition at the annulus bottom. After some trials, it is found that the boundary condition at the

  7. Development and validation of analytical methods for monomeric and oligomeric migrants from nylon 12 packaging materials.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoffers, N.H.; Brandl, F.; Linssen, J.P.H.; Franz, R.

    2003-01-01

    Analytical methods for the determination of laurolactam-the monomer of nylon 12-as well as the cyclic dimer and trimer were established. High performance liquid chromatography using ultraviolet (HPLC-UV) and mass spectrometric detection (HPLC-MS) were both found suitable to identify and quantify mon

  8. Stereospecific analytical method development and preliminary in vivo pharmacokinetic characterization of pinostrobin in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayre, Casey L; Zhang, Yangmiao; Martinez, Stephanie E; Takemoto, Jody K; Davies, Neal M

    2013-05-01

    The complete pharmacokinetic disposition of the chiral flavonoid (±) pinostrobin remains unknown without the development of an analytical method of detection and quantitation of its individual enantiomers. Resolution of the enantiomers of pinostrobin was achieved using as simple high-performance liquid chromatographic method. A Chiralpak(®) AD-RH column was employed to perform baseline separation with UV detection at 287 nm. The standard curves were linear ranging from 0.5 to 100 µg/mL for each enantiomer. The limit of quantification was 0.5 µg/mL. Precision and accuracy of the assay was pinostrobin enantiomers in rats. Both enantiomers had a serum half-life of ~7 h. They also shared similar values of volume of distribution (V(d) S-pinostrobin, 8.2 L/kg; V(d) R-pinostrobin, 8.9 L/kg), total clearance (S-pinostrobin CL(total), 0.959 L//h/kg; R-pinostrobin CL(total), 1.055 L//h/kg), and area under the curve (S-pinostrobin AUC(inf), 23.16 µg h/mL; R-pinostrobin AUC(inf), 21.296 µg h/mL). The large volume of distribution suggests extensive distribution of pinostrobin into tissues. PMID:23070926

  9. Development of analytical method for microstructure observation of oxide film on stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemoto, Yoshiyuki; Miwa, Yukio; Tsukada, Takashi; Kikuchi, Masahiko; Tsuji, Hirokazu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2001-12-01

    Development and research about analytical method for the study of oxide film on austenitic stainless steel had been conducted from the point of view for basic study of IASCC (Irradiation Assisted Stress Corrosion Cracking). Nickel plating and copper plating had been compared as the oxide film protection while the fabrication for cross sectional observation. And thin film specimens for microstructural observation were fabricated using FIB (Focused Ion Beam) technique. Microstructure of oxide film on stainless steel had been observed with FE-TEM (Field Emission gun - Transmission Electron Microscope), and the chemical composition was analyzed with EDS (Energy dispersed X-ray Spectrometer). The oxide film had been formed in high pressure (8 MPa) and high temperature (288degC) water, contains saturated oxygen. The thickness of oxide film was about 1 {mu}m as maximum. Micro grains of Fe oxide with 100 nm in diameter were formed in the oxide film. On the boundary with alloy, there was about 10 nm thickness of passive film formed with Cr oxide. (author)

  10. Analytical Method Development and Validation of Related Substance Method for Bortezomib for Injection 3.5 mg/Vial by RP-HPLC Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utage M

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available An accurate, precise, simple and economical High Performance Liquid Chromatographic method for therelated substance determination of Bortezomib in its lyophilized dosage form has been developed. Themethod developed is Reverse Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatographic method using HypersilBDS C18 column (Length: 150mm, Diameter: 4.6mm, Particle size: 5μ with Gradient programmed anda simple Acetonitrile, Water and Formic acid in the ratio of 30:70:0.1 (v/v/v respectively as mobilephase A and Acetonitrile, Water and Formic acid in the ratio of 80:20:0.1 (v/v/v respectively. Themethod so developed was validated in compliance with the regulatory guidelines by using welldeveloped analytical method validation tool which comprises with the analytical method validationparameters like Linearity, Accuracy, Method precision, Specificity with forced degradation, Systemsuitability, Robustness, LOD, LOQ and Ruggedness. The results obtained were well within theacceptance criteria.

  11. Development of a Framework for Sustainable Outsourcing: Analytic Balanced Scorecard Method (A-BSC)

    OpenAIRE

    Fabio De Felice; Antonella Petrillo; Claudio Autorino

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, many enterprises choose to outsource its non-core business to other enterprises to reduce cost and increase the efficiency. Many enterprises choose to outsource their supply chain management (SCM) and leave it to a third-party organization in order to improve their services. The paper proposes an integrated and multicriteria tool useful to monitor and to improve performance in an outsourced supply chain. The Analytic Balanced Scorecard method (A-BSC) is proposed as an effective meth...

  12. Development of speciation analytical methods for lanthanides and actinides in lake water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analytical methods for physicochemical speciation of lanthanides and actinides in fresh water samples were developed to explain their behavior in the environment. An inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) was coupled with a size exclusion high performance liquid chromatograph system (SEC). Water samples were collected from various depths by using GO-FLO type water samplers at Lakes Biwa and Towada. Seven water quality parameters such as temperature and pH were measured with a multi water profiler. After filtration by a 0.45 μm pore size membrane filter, target substances in the water samples were pre-concentrated with an ultra-filtration filter, which had cut-off size of 10 kDa. The >10 kDa molecule fraction was concentrated to 1000 times that in the original water sample. The total concentrations of the target materials in the fraction and the original samples were measured separately by ICP-MS. The fraction was introduced to a SEC-ICP-MS, consisting of a GL-540 (Hitachi) for the SEC column, and a HP-4500 (Yokogawa) for the ICP-MS instrument. The buffer solution of 0.01M Tris-HNO3 (pH 7.3) was selected as a mobile phase. Six UV absorption peaks were found in the area under molecular weights of 700 kDa. A single or double peak of each lanthanide or actinide was observed at approximately 160 and 30 kDa, however, the peak positions of the metals did not match the main UV absorption peak. These results demonstrated the applicability of the present method to the environmental fresh water sample, and suggested that most of the lanthanides in the >10 kDa fraction existed as the 160 or 30 kDa organic molecules-metal complexes. (author)

  13. Quantitative bioanalytical and analytical method development of dibenzazepine derivative, carbamazepine: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasanna A. Datar

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Bioanalytical methods are widely used for quantitative estimation of drugs and their metabolites in physiological matrices. These methods could be applied to studies in areas of human clinical pharmacology and toxicology. The major bioanalytical services are method development, method validation and sample analysis (method application. Various methods such as GC, LC–MS/MS, HPLC, HPTLC, micellar electrokinetic chromatography, and UFLC have been used in laboratories for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of carbamazepine in biological samples throughout all phases of clinical research and quality control. The article incorporates various reported methods developed to help analysts in choosing crucial parameters for new method development of carbamazepine and its derivatives and also enumerates metabolites, and impurities reported so far.

  14. Quantitative bioanalytical and analytical method development of dibenzazepine derivative, carbamazepine: A review☆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Prasanna A. Datar

    2015-01-01

    Bioanalytical methods are widely used for quantitative estimation of drugs and their metabolites in physiological matrices. These methods could be applied to studies in areas of human clinical pharma-cology and toxicology. The major bioanalytical services are method development, method validation and sample analysis (method application). Various methods such as GC, LC-MS/MS, HPLC, HPTLC, micellar electrokinetic chromatography, and UFLC have been used in laboratories for the qualitative and quan-titative analysis of carbamazepine in biological samples throughout all phases of clinical research and quality control. The article incorporates various reported methods developed to help analysts in choosing crucial parameters for new method development of carbamazepine and its derivatives and also enu-merates metabolites, and impurities reported so far.

  15. DEVELOPMENT OF ANALYTICAL METHODS FOR DETERMINING SUPPRESSOR CONCENTRATION IN THE MCU NEXT GENERATION SOLVENT (NGS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor-Pashow, K.; Fondeur, F.; White, T.; Diprete, D.; Milliken, C.

    2013-07-31

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was tasked with identifying and developing at least one, but preferably two methods for quantifying the suppressor in the Next Generation Solvent (NGS) system. The suppressor is a guanidine derivative, N,N',N"-tris(3,7-dimethyloctyl)guanidine (TiDG). A list of 10 possible methods was generated, and screening experiments were performed for 8 of the 10 methods. After completion of the screening experiments, the non-aqueous acid-base titration was determined to be the most promising, and was selected for further development as the primary method. {sup 1}H NMR also showed promising results from the screening experiments, and this method was selected for further development as the secondary method. Other methods, including {sup 36}Cl radiocounting and ion chromatography, also showed promise; however, due to the similarity to the primary method (titration) and the inability to differentiate between TiDG and TOA (tri-n-ocytlamine) in the blended solvent, {sup 1}H NMR was selected over these methods. Analysis of radioactive samples obtained from real waste ESS (extraction, scrub, strip) testing using the titration method showed good results. Based on these results, the titration method was selected as the method of choice for TiDG measurement. {sup 1}H NMR has been selected as the secondary (back-up) method, and additional work is planned to further develop this method and to verify the method using radioactive samples. Procedures for analyzing radioactive samples of both pure NGS and blended solvent were developed and issued for the both methods.

  16. Development Rapid Analytical Methods for Inositol as a Trace Component by HPLC and LC-MS/MS in Infant Formula

    OpenAIRE

    Shin, Jin-Ho; Park, Jung-Min; Kim, Ha-Jung; Ahn, Jang-Hyuk; Kwak, Byung-Man; Kim, Jin-Man

    2015-01-01

    A rapid and simple analytical method, using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), was developed to detect myo-inositol (MI) in infant formulas. For protein removal: acid hydrolysis and lipid removal through organic solvent extraction. The operating conditions for instrumental analysis were determined based on previously reported analogous methods that used LC-MS/MS. Quantitative analysis was used for the detection limit test, infant formula recovery test, and standard ref...

  17. Development of an analytical method to quantify total isoflavones in phytotherapic capsules using high-performance liquid chromatography

    OpenAIRE

    Liliane C. C. Auwerter; Ana E. Wanczinski; Roberto S. Chiandotti

    2012-01-01

    Isoflavones can be found in grains and leaves of soybean. Currently, these are sold in pharmacies as phytotherapic capsules. Isoflavones have been recommended by doctors, especially for women, due to their ability to relieve menopause symptoms, among other benefits. However, no method exists for the official control of isoflavone content in capsules sold in the Brazilian market. This study aims to develop an appropriate analytical method to determine the total isoflavone content (daidzin, gly...

  18. Analytical Quality by Design Approach in RP-HPLC Method Development for the Assay of Etofenamate in Dosage Forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peraman, R; Bhadraya, K; Reddy, Y Padmanabha; Reddy, C Surayaprakash; Lokesh, T

    2015-01-01

    By considering the current regulatory requirement for an analytical method development, a reversed phase high performance liquid chromatographic method for routine analysis of etofenamate in dosage form has been optimized using analytical quality by design approach. Unlike routine approach, the present study was initiated with understanding of quality target product profile, analytical target profile and risk assessment for method variables that affect the method response. A liquid chromatography system equipped with a C18 column (250×4.6 mm, 5 μ), a binary pump and photodiode array detector were used in this work. The experiments were conducted based on plan by central composite design, which could save time, reagents and other resources. Sigma Tech software was used to plan and analyses the experimental observations and obtain quadratic process model. The process model was used for predictive solution for retention time. The predicted data from contour diagram for retention time were verified actually and it satisfied with actual experimental data. The optimized method was achieved at 1.2 ml/min flow rate of using mobile phase composition of methanol and 0.2% triethylamine in water at 85:15, % v/v, pH adjusted to 6.5. The method was validated and verified for targeted method performances, robustness and system suitability during method transfer. PMID:26997704

  19. The influence of the sample matrix on LC-MS/MS method development and analytical performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, Remco Arjan

    2015-01-01

    In order to provide personalized patient treatment, a large number of analytical procedures is needed to measure a large variety of drugs in various human matrices. The analytical technique used for this research is Liquid Chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). E

  20. Development of an analytical method for determination of sulfonamide residues in eggs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the determination of sulfonamide residues in eggs, Premitest is selected for screening, providing a qualitative biological approach, it is inexpensive, fast, multi-elements and easy to implement. The H. P.L.C. / UV is the quantitative method of choice for confirmation and determination of these contaminants. During my internship, I had the opportunity to participate in the development of this method. It is recognized slower and more expensive but more specific and more sensitive. In this report, I present this optimized method and some criteria checked during my internship. Other criteria are to be completed to validate the method that will be subsequently used for routine analysis.

  1. Development and Validation of Analytical method for Lopinavir and Ritonavir by HPLC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Arun

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the development and validation of the HPLC method (254nm for the quantitation of lopinavir and ritonavir in pure form and pharmaceutical formulations. The method showed to be linear (r2 > 0.999, precise (R.S.D. < 0.21%, accurate (recovery of 100.11% for lopinavir and 99.96% for ritonavir, specific and robust. Three batches of lopinavir and ritonavir tablets were assayed by the validated method. The lopinavir contents in the tablets varied from 99.87 to 100.52%, while ritonavir contents showed 99.61 to 100.57%.

  2. DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF ANALYTICAL METHOD FOR ESTIMATION OF DICLOFENAC SODIUM IN SWAB SAMPLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.P. Goti, J.J. Savsani and P.B. Patel

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the current study was to develop and validate simple and precise UV Spectrophotometric method for estimation of Diclofenac Sodium in the swab samples to validate cleaning procedure. The swabbing procedure was optimized in order to obtain a suitable recovery from stainless steel surface using Tex wipe polyurethane swab stick. Detection wavelength selected was 267 nm. The proposed method was validated in terms of Linearity, precision, accuracy, limit of detection and limit of quantitation. Linearity was studied over concentration range of 0.5 -3 μg / ml and correlation coefficient was found to be 0.999 for regression line. A recovery obtained was 94.58 %. LOD and LOQ for developed method were found to be 0.014715 µg/ml and 0.044592 µg/ml respectively.

  3. Development Rapid Analytical Methods for Inositol as a Trace Component by HPLC and LC-MS/MS in Infant Formula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jin-Ho; Park, Jung-Min; Kim, Ha-Jung; Ahn, Jang-Hyuk; Kwak, Byung-Man; Kim, Jin-Man

    2015-01-01

    A rapid and simple analytical method, using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), was developed to detect myo-inositol (MI) in infant formulas. For protein removal: acid hydrolysis and lipid removal through organic solvent extraction. The operating conditions for instrumental analysis were determined based on previously reported analogous methods that used LC-MS/MS. Quantitative analysis was used for the detection limit test, infant formula recovery test, and standard reference material (SRM) 1849a to verify the validity of our LC-MS/MS analytical method, which was developed to quantify MI. For validation, the results of our method were compared with the results of quantitative analyses of certified values. The test results showed that the limit of detection was 0.05 mg/L, the limit of quantitation was 0.17 mg/L, and the method detection limit was 17 mg/kg. The recovery test exhibited a recovery between 98.07-98.43% and a relative standard deviation between 1.93-2.74%. Therefore, the result values were good. Additionally, SRM 1849a was measured to have an MI content of 401.84 mg/kg and recovery of 98.25%, which is comparable to the median certified value of 409 mg/kg. From the aforementioned results, we judged that the instrumental analysis conditions and preparation method used in this study were valid. The rapid analytical method developed herein could be implemented in many laboratories that seek to save time and labor. PMID:26761867

  4. Development of inelastic constitutive equation to improve analytical prediction method for thermal ratchetting deformation behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is important to evaluate the progressive deformation as well as the creep-fatigue damage in the design of components because FBR components are operated under high temperature. It is necessary not only to estimate the creep-fatigue damage more accurately but also to improve the method to predict the progressive deformation (ratchetting behavior). This study focused on the evaluation method for the ratchetting behavior by using inelastic analysis. A new constitutive equation was developed to improve predictability of the ratchetting deformation due to a thermal load. As for the kinematic hardening rule, the Ohno-Wang Model was modified to take into account temperature variation and cyclic hardening. The two-dimensional and axis-symmetric FEM program with the new model was applied to the thermal ratchetting experiment using a cylinder model simulating for a reactor vessel. Compared with two-surface model developed earlier, the new model predicted the ratchetting deformation more accurately. (author)

  5. ANALYTICAL METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF AMLODIPINE AND ATORVASTATIN BY RP-UPLC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waghmare A. N

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To develop and validate simple, sensitive, robust, rapid and specific isocratic RP-UPLC method for simultaneous estimation of Amlodipine and Atorvastatin in tablet dosage form. Methods: The developed method consisting the mobile phase of acetonitrile and 0.02 M Potassium dihydrogen phosphate (55:45 with isocratic programming, BEH C18 (100mm×2.1mm, 1.7μm column as stationary phase with a flow rate of 0.3 mL/minute. Results and discussion: Proposed method was found to be linear for Amlodipine and Atorvastatin in the concentration range of 0.5 to 40.0 μg/mL with r2 of 0.9999 for Amlodipine and 0.9997 for Atorvastatin respectively. Precision study showed that the percentage relative standard deviation was within the range of acceptable limits, and the mean recovery was found to be 100.79 % for assay of Amlodipine and 99.87% for Atorvastatin in tablet dosage form .The LOD and LOQ of Amlodipine and Atorvastatin were found to be 0.062 and 0.078μg/ml and 0.020 and 0.026 μg/mL.

  6. DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF ANALYTICAL METHOD FOR PALM OIL DETERMINATION IN MICROCAPSULES PRODUCED BY COMPLEX COACERVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo H. M. Marfil

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The microencapsulation of palm oil may be a mechanism for protecting and promoting the controlled release of its bioactive compounds. To optimize the microencapsulation process, it is necessary to accurately quantify the palm oil present both external and internal to the microcapsules. In this study, we developed and validated a spectrophotometric method to determine the microencapsulation efficiency of palm oil by complex coacervation. We used gelatin and gum arabic (1:1 as wall material in a 5% concentration (w/v and palm oil in the same concentration. The coacervates were obtained at pH 4.0 ± 0.01, decanted for 24 h, frozen (−40 ºC, and lyophilized for 72 h. Morphological analyzes were then performed. We standardized the extraction of the external palm oil through five successive washes with an organic solvent. We then explored the best method for rupturing the microcapsules. After successive extractions with hexane, we determined the amount of palm oil contained in the microcapsules using a spectrophotometer. The proposed method was shown to be of low cost, fast, and easy to implement. In addition, in the validation step, we confirmed the method to be safe and reliable, as it proved to be specific, accurate, precise, and robust.

  7. The development of novel analytical methods for the determination of germanium in foodstuffs

    OpenAIRE

    McMahon, Michael

    2006-01-01

    This work represents the development of novel methods of analysis for a wide range of metals, in particular germanium. This research has identified a range of foodstuffs and supplements containing low level concentrations o f germanium. In total germanium was quantified in 28 samples including vegetables such as beetroot (3 23/g)> garlic (2 78^ig/g) and potato (1 85|ng/g) and tablet formulations such as aloe vera tablet (20 83 jug/g), ginger tablet (9 96^g/g) and ginseng tablet (5 48|j.g/g). ...

  8. Development and validation of a rapid analytical method to quantify naled residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, H; Latham, M

    2001-12-01

    A rapid gas chromatographic method for detecting residues of the thio-organophosphate naled was developed and subsequently validated in laboratory and field studies. More than 90% of naled was recovered by a gas chromatograph when equipped with a DB-5 capillary column and a thermionic specific detector. The limit of detection was 0.01 microg/ml with direct injection. Stabilization of naled under a variety of storage conditions also was examined. Analysis of field data showed that naled broke down rapidly in the environment but was stable when stored in hexane solvent at 4 degrees C and 23 degrees C for at least 7 days. Range of percentage matrix spike recovery was 31-49% for filter paper samples exposed under field conditions for 14 h. A field study was also initiated that collected naled droplets trapped on 6.7-m acrylic mohair-look yarn strands in addition to residue on filter paper after aerial ultra-low-volume mosquito adulticide application. Spike recovery was 79% for filter paper samples and 93% for yarn samples. Average naled residue concentrations with these methods were 373 microg/m2 and 11.28-73.77 microg/yarn, respectively. PMID:11804458

  9. Development and Validation of a Terbium-Sensitized LuminescenceAnalytical Method for Deferiprone

    OpenAIRE

    Manzoori Lashkar, Jamshid; Amjadi, Mohammad; Soleymani, Jafar; Tamizi, Elnaz; Panahi-Azar, Vahid; Jouyban, Abolghasem

    2012-01-01

    A sensitive fluorometric method for the determination of deferiprone (DFP) based on the formation of a luminescent complex with Tb3+ ions in aqueous solutions is reported. The maximum excitation and emission wavelengths were 295 and 545 nm, respectively. The effects of various factors on the luminescence intensity of the system were investigated and optimized, then under the optimum conditions, the method was validated. The method validation results indicated that the relative intensity at 54...

  10. An overview of the environmental applicability of vermicompost: from wastewater treatment to the development of sensitive analytical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Madson de Godoi; Neta, Lourdes Cardoso de Souza; Fontes, Maurício Paulo Ferreira; Souza, Adriana Nascimento; Matos, Thaionara Carvalho; Sachdev, Raquel de Lima; dos Santos, Arnaud Victor; da Guarda Souza, Marluce Oliveira; de Andrade, Marta Valéria Almeida Santana; Paulo, Gabriela Marinho Maciel; Ribeiro, Joselito Nardy; Ribeiro, Araceli Verónica Flores Nardy

    2014-01-01

    The use of vermicompost (humified material) for treating wastewaters, remediating polluted soils, improving agricultural productivity, protecting crop production, and developing sensitive analytical methods is reviewed here, covering the past 17 years. The main advantages of vermicompost, considering all applications covered in this paper, comprise (i) easy acquisition, (ii) low costs, (iii) structural, chemical, and biological characteristics responsible for exceptional adsorptive capacities as well as pollutant degradation, and (iv) the promotion of biocontrol. Specifically, for wastewater decontamination, a considerable number of works have verified the adsorption of toxic metals, but the application of vermicompost is still scarce for the retention of organic compounds. Problems related to the final disposal of enriched vermicompost (after treatment steps) are often found, in spite of some successful destinations such as organic fertilizer. For decontaminating soils, the use of vermicompost is quite scarce, mainly for inorganic pollutants. In agricultural productivity and biocontrol, vermicompost imparts remarkable benefits regarding soil aggregation, plant nutrition, and the development of beneficial microorganisms against phytopathogens. Finally, the use of vermicompost in sensitive analytical methods for quantifying toxic metals is the newest application of this adsorbent. PMID:24578668

  11. An Overview of the Environmental Applicability of Vermicompost: From Wastewater Treatment to the Development of Sensitive Analytical Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madson de Godoi Pereira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of vermicompost (humified material for treating wastewaters, remediating polluted soils, improving agricultural productivity, protecting crop production, and developing sensitive analytical methods is reviewed here, covering the past 17 years. The main advantages of vermicompost, considering all applications covered in this paper, comprise (i easy acquisition, (ii low costs, (iii structural, chemical, and biological characteristics responsible for exceptional adsorptive capacities as well as pollutant degradation, and (iv the promotion of biocontrol. Specifically, for wastewater decontamination, a considerable number of works have verified the adsorption of toxic metals, but the application of vermicompost is still scarce for the retention of organic compounds. Problems related to the final disposal of enriched vermicompost (after treatment steps are often found, in spite of some successful destinations such as organic fertilizer. For decontaminating soils, the use of vermicompost is quite scarce, mainly for inorganic pollutants. In agricultural productivity and biocontrol, vermicompost imparts remarkable benefits regarding soil aggregation, plant nutrition, and the development of beneficial microorganisms against phytopathogens. Finally, the use of vermicompost in sensitive analytical methods for quantifying toxic metals is the newest application of this adsorbent.

  12. Analytical methods under emergency conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This lecture discusses methods for the radiochemical determination of internal contamination of the body under emergency conditions, here defined as a situation in which results on internal radioactive contamination are needed quickly. The purpose of speed is to determine the necessity for medical treatment to increase the natural elimination rate. Analytical methods discussed include whole-body counting, organ counting, wound monitoring, and excreta analysis. 12 references

  13. DEVELOPMENT OF AN ANALYTICAL METHOD FOR SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC ESTIMATION OF KETOPROFEN USING MIXED CO SOLVENCY APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Deveswaran et al.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study demonstrates the use of mixed co solvency in the enhancement of solubility and estimation of ketoprofen, practically water insoluble dug and thus precludes the use of organic solvents. The selected solubilizers were sodium citrate (15%, PEG 400 (8% and polyvinyl pyrolidine (7%. Beer’s law was obeyed in the concentration range of 2-20µg/ml at wavelength of 256nm. The solubility of ketoprofen was increased by 30 folds in the mixed cos-solvents as compared to distilled water. The recovery study revealed that any small change in the drug concentration in the solution could be accurately determined by the proposed method. The low values of LOD and LOQ indicated good sensitivity of proposed method. The study proved that mixed co-solvency phenomenon is an effective technique in enhancement of aqueous solubility of poorly water soluble drugs and can be successfully employed for estimation of drugs in routine analysis of tablets.

  14. Examination of fast reactor fuels, FBR analytical quality assurance standards and methods, and analytical methods development: irradiation tests. Progress report, January 1--March 31, 1977. [UO/sub 2/; PuO/sub 2/

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, R.D. (comp.)

    1977-05-01

    This project is directed toward the examination and comparison of the effects of neutron irradiation on LMFBR Program fuel materials. Characterization of unirradiated and irradiated fuels by analytical chemistry methods will continue, and additional methods will be modified and mechanized for hot cell application. Macro- and microexaminations will be made on fuel and cladding, using the shielded electron microprobe, emission spectrograph, radiochemistry, gamma scanner, mass spectrometers, and other analytical facilities. New capabilities will be developed in gamma scanning, analyses to assess spatial distributions of fuel and fission products, mass spectrometric measurements of burnup and fission gas constituents and other chemical analyses. Microstructural analyses of unirradiated and irradiated materials will continue, using optical and electron microscopy and autoradiographic and x-ray techniques. Special emphasis will be placed on numerical representation of microstructures and its relationship to fabrication and irradiation parameters. New etching and mounting techniques will be developed for high burnup materials.

  15. Development of preparative and analytical methods of the hop bitter acid oxide fraction and chemical properties of its components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Yoshimasa; Matsukura, Yasuko; Taniguchi, Harumi; Koizumi, Hideki; Katayama, Mikio

    2015-01-01

    The bitter acids in hops (Humulus lupulus L.) and beer, such as α-, β-, and iso-α-acids, are known to affect beer quality and display various physiological effects. However, these compounds readily oxidize, and the effect of the oxides on the properties of beer or their potential health benefits are not well understood. In this study, we developed a simple preparative method for the bitter acid oxide fraction derived from hops and designated the constituents as matured hop bitter acids (MHBA). HPLC-PDA-ESI/HRMS and MS(2) revealed that MHBA are primarily composed of α-acid-derived oxides, which possess a common β-tricarbonyl moiety in their structures similar to α-, β-, and iso-α-acids. We also developed a quantitative analytical method of whole MHBA by HPLC, which showed high precision and reproducibility. Using our newly developed method, the concentration of whole MHBA in several commercial beers was evaluated. Our results will promote the study of bitter acid oxides. PMID:25996959

  16. Development of analytical methods relating to aerosol and fission product release from hot and boiling sodium pools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analytical methods are described for (a) sodium; (b) the following anions of sodium aerosols: OH-, CO2- and HCO3-; (c) fission products Cs and Sr. For sodium, the ion selective electrode was used. The anions were determined by a titration method using phenolphthalein and methyl orange as indicators. Atomic absorption spectroscopy was used for Cs and Sr. (U.K.)

  17. 7 CFR 98.4 - Analytical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Analytical methods. 98.4 Section 98.4 Agriculture....4 Analytical methods. (a) The majority of analytical methods used by the USDA laboratories to.... Army Individual Protection Directorate's Military Specifications, approved analytical test...

  18. Development of a solvent-free analytical method for paracetamol quantitative determination in Blood Brain Barrier in vitro model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlois, Marie-Hélène; Vekris, Antonios; Bousses, Christine; Mordelet, Elodie; Buhannic, Nathalie; Séguard, Céline; Couraud, Pierre-Olivier; Weksler, Babette B; Petry, Klaus G; Gaudin, Karen

    2015-04-15

    A Reversed Phase-High Performance Liquid Chromatography/Diode Array Detection method was developed and validated for paracetamol quantification in cell culture fluid from an in vitro Blood Brain Barrier model. The chromatographic method and sample preparation were developed using only aqueous solvents. The column was a XTerra RP18 150 × 4.6mm, 3.5 μm with a guard column XTerra RP18 20 × 4.6 mm, 3.5 μm at 35 °C and the mobile phase was composed by 100% formate buffer 20 mM at pH 4 and flow rate was set at 1 mL/min. The detection was at 242 nm. The sample was injected at 10 μL. Validation was performed using the accuracy profile approach. The analytical procedure was validated with the acceptance limits at ± 10% over a range of concentration from 1 to 58 mg L(-1). The procedure was then used in routine to determine paracetamol concentration in a brain blood barrier in vitro model. Application of the Unither paracetamol formulation in Blood Brain Barrier model allowed the determination and comparison of the transcellular passage of paracetamol at 37 °C and 4 °C, that excludes paracellular or non specific leakage.

  19. Development of an analytical method to quantify total isoflavones in phytotherapic capsules using high-performance liquid chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliane C. C. Auwerter

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Isoflavones can be found in grains and leaves of soybean. Currently, these are sold in pharmacies as phytotherapic capsules. Isoflavones have been recommended by doctors, especially for women, due to their ability to relieve menopause symptoms, among other benefits. However, no method exists for the official control of isoflavone content in capsules sold in the Brazilian market. This study aims to develop an appropriate analytical method to determine the total isoflavone content (daidzin, glycitin, and genistin, and their respective aglycone forms in phytotherapic capsules purchased in pharmacies in Curitiba, Parana State, Brazil, using the technique of high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection (UV-HPLC. The HPLC system consisted of a quaternary pump, an autosampler, and Waters reversed-phase C18 column (5 μm × 300 mm. Analyses were carried out at 40 °C, using a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min (acetonitrile and acetic acid 0.1%, and detection was performed at 254 nm. The method was validated as required by ANVISA and showed to be reliable for the following parameters: linearity (r² >0.99, selectivity (correlation between 0.99 and 1.00, precision (relative standard derivation <1.59%, accuracy (from 80% to 111.63% intraday and from 80% to 117.88% interday recovery, and robustness.

  20. A platform analytical quality by design (AQbD) approach for multiple UHPLC-UV and UHPLC-MS methods development for protein analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochling, Jianmei; Wu, Wei; Hua, Yimin; Guan, Qian; Castaneda-Merced, Juan

    2016-06-01

    A platform analytical quality by design approach for methods development is presented in this paper. This approach is not limited just to method development following the same logical Analytical quality by design (AQbD) process, it is also exploited across a range of applications in methods development with commonality in equipment and procedures. As demonstrated by the development process of 3 methods, the systematic approach strategy offers a thorough understanding of the method scientific strength. The knowledge gained from the UHPLC-UV peptide mapping method can be easily transferred to the UHPLC-MS oxidation method and the UHPLC-UV C-terminal heterogeneity methods of the same protein. In addition, the platform AQbD method development strategy ensures method robustness is built in during development. In early phases, a good method can generate reliable data for product development allowing confident decision making. Methods generated following the AQbD approach have great potential for avoiding extensive post-approval analytical method change. While in the commercial phase, high quality data ensures timely data release, reduced regulatory risk, and lowered lab operational cost. Moreover, large, reliable database and knowledge gained during AQbD method development provide strong justifications during regulatory filling for the selection of important parameters or parameter change needs for method validation, and help to justify for removal of unnecessary tests used for product specifications.

  1. A platform analytical quality by design (AQbD) approach for multiple UHPLC-UV and UHPLC-MS methods development for protein analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochling, Jianmei; Wu, Wei; Hua, Yimin; Guan, Qian; Castaneda-Merced, Juan

    2016-06-01

    A platform analytical quality by design approach for methods development is presented in this paper. This approach is not limited just to method development following the same logical Analytical quality by design (AQbD) process, it is also exploited across a range of applications in methods development with commonality in equipment and procedures. As demonstrated by the development process of 3 methods, the systematic approach strategy offers a thorough understanding of the method scientific strength. The knowledge gained from the UHPLC-UV peptide mapping method can be easily transferred to the UHPLC-MS oxidation method and the UHPLC-UV C-terminal heterogeneity methods of the same protein. In addition, the platform AQbD method development strategy ensures method robustness is built in during development. In early phases, a good method can generate reliable data for product development allowing confident decision making. Methods generated following the AQbD approach have great potential for avoiding extensive post-approval analytical method change. While in the commercial phase, high quality data ensures timely data release, reduced regulatory risk, and lowered lab operational cost. Moreover, large, reliable database and knowledge gained during AQbD method development provide strong justifications during regulatory filling for the selection of important parameters or parameter change needs for method validation, and help to justify for removal of unnecessary tests used for product specifications. PMID:27017571

  2. Development and validation of the analytical method by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC for Lamotrigine raw material Development and validation of the analytical method by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC for Lamotrigine raw material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisao Nishijo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Currently when all roads lead to the pursuit of total quality in production of drugs, it is essential to fully understand each phase of a production process. In this case, validation is the appropriate tool to ensure reliability of a production process involving new equipment and the analytical methodology, either in the pharmaceutical, food, computer, microelectronics area or any other area where the quality of the manufactured product is one of the main reasons for the existence of a given company. This study aimed to analyze the main aspects of the validation of analytical methods for Lamotrigine, new drug for bipolar disorder with wide use today. In conclusion, the proposed analytical method for determination of the lamotrigine content in raw materials is adequate, effective and capable of reproducing reliable results during analysis. This method is fast (running time of 10 minutes, selective, accurate, precise and robust for the determination of the drug, with no observed interfering substances in the optimum wavelength. It could be concluded that this may be a routine method for quality control laboratories to certify the quality of Lamotrigine.Currently when all roads lead to the pursuit of total quality in production of drugs, it is essential to fully understand each phase of a production process. In this case, validation is the appropriate tool to ensure reliability of a production process involving new equipment and the analytical methodology, either in the pharmaceutical, food, computer, microelectronics area or any other area where the quality of the manufactured product is one of the main reasons for the existence of a given company. This study aimed to analyze the main aspects of the validation of analytical methods for Lamotrigine, new drug for bipolar disorder with wide use today. In conclusion, the proposed analytical method for determination of the lamotrigine content in raw materials is adequate, effective and capable of

  3. Analytical method development and validation for quantification of uranium by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) for routine quality control analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work presents a low cost, simple and new methodology for direct determination uranium in different matrices uranium: organic phase (UO2(NO3)2.2TBP - uranyl nitrate complex) and aqueous phase (UO2(NO3)2 - NTU - uranyl nitrate), based on Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) using KBr pellets technique. The analytical validation is essential to define if a developed methodology is completely adjusted to the objectives that it is destined and is considered one of the main instruments of quality control. The parameters used in the validation process were: selectivity, linearity, limits of detection (LD) and quantitation (LQ), precision (repeatability and intermediate precision), accuracy and robustness. The method for uranium in organic phase (UO2(NO3)2.2TBP in hexane/embedded in KBr) was linear (r=0.9989) over the range of 1.0 g L-1a 14.3 g L-1, LD were 92.1 mg L-1 and LQ 113.1 mg L-1, precision (RSD < 1.6% and p-value < 0.05), accurate (recovery of 100.1% - 102.9%). The method for uranium aqueous phase (UO2(NO3)2/embedded in KBr) was linear (r=0.9964) over the range of 5.4 g L-1 a 51.2 g L-1, LD were 835 mg L-1 and LQ 958 mg L-1, precision (RSD < 1.0% and p-value < 0.05), accurate (recovery of 99.1% - 102.0%). The FTIR method is robust regarding most of the variables analyzed, as the difference between results obtained under nominal and modified conditions were lower than the critical value for all analytical parameters studied. Some process samples were analyzed in FTIR and compared with gravimetric and x ray fluorescence (XRF) analyses showing similar results in all three methods. The statistical tests (Student-t and Fischer) showed that the techniques are equivalent. (author)

  4. Development of an analytical method for antimony speciation in vegetables by HPLC-hydride generation-atomic fluorescence spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares, David; Bravo, Manuel; Feldmann, Jorg; Raab, Andrea; Neaman, Alexander; Quiroz, Waldo

    2012-01-01

    A new method for antimony speciation in terrestrial edible vegetables (spinach, onions, and carrots) was developed using HPLC with hydride generation-atomic fluorescence spectrometry. Mechanical agitation and ultrasound were tested as extraction techniques. Different extraction reagents were evaluated and optimal conditions were determined using experimental design methodology, where EDTA (10 mmol/L, pH 2.5) was selected because this chelate solution produced the highest extraction yield and exhibited the best compatibility with the mobile phase. The results demonstrated that EDTA prevents oxidation of Sb(III) to Sb(V) and maintains the stability of antimony species during the entire analytical process. The LOD and precision (RSD values obtained) for Sb(V), Sb(III), and trimethyl Sb(V) were 0.08, 0.07, and 0.9 microg/L and 5.0, 5.2, and 4.7%, respectively, for a 100 microL sample volume. The application of this method to real samples allowed extraction of 50% of total antimony content from spinach, while antimony extracted from carrots and onion samples ranged between 50 and 60 and 54 and 70%, respectively. Only Sb(V) was detected in three roots (onion and spinach) that represented 60-70% of the total antimony in the extracts. PMID:22970588

  5. Development of an Analytical Method Based on Temperature Controlled Solid-Liquid Extraction Using an Ionic Liquid as Solid Solvent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongwei Pan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available At the present paper, an analytical method based on temperature controlled solid-liquid extraction (TC-SLE utilizing a synthesized ionic liquid, (N-butylpyridinium hexafluorophosphate, [BPy]PF6, as solid solvent and phenanthroline (PT as an extractant was developed to determine micro levels of Fe2+ in tea by PT spectrophotometry. TC-SLE was carried out in two continuous steps: Fe2+ can be completely extracted by PT-[BPy]PF6 or back-extracted at 80 °C and the two phases were separated automatically by cooling to room temperature. Fe2+, after back-extraction, needs 2 mol/L HNO3 as stripping agent and the whole process was determined by PT spectrophotometry at room temperature. The extracted species was neutral Fe(PTmCl2 (m = 1 according to slope analysis in the Fe2+-[BPy]PF6-PT TC-SLE system. The calibration curve was Y = 0.20856X − 0.000775 (correlation coefficient = 0.99991. The linear calibration range was 0.10–4.50 μg/mL and the limit of detection for Fe2+ is 7.0 × 10−2 μg/mL. In this method, the contents of Fe2+ in Tieguanyin tea were determined with RSDs (n = 5 3.05% and recoveries in range of 90.6%–108.6%.

  6. Development of an analytical method for antimony speciation in vegetables by HPLC-hydride generation-atomic fluorescence spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares, David; Bravo, Manuel; Feldmann, Jorg; Raab, Andrea; Neaman, Alexander; Quiroz, Waldo

    2012-01-01

    A new method for antimony speciation in terrestrial edible vegetables (spinach, onions, and carrots) was developed using HPLC with hydride generation-atomic fluorescence spectrometry. Mechanical agitation and ultrasound were tested as extraction techniques. Different extraction reagents were evaluated and optimal conditions were determined using experimental design methodology, where EDTA (10 mmol/L, pH 2.5) was selected because this chelate solution produced the highest extraction yield and exhibited the best compatibility with the mobile phase. The results demonstrated that EDTA prevents oxidation of Sb(III) to Sb(V) and maintains the stability of antimony species during the entire analytical process. The LOD and precision (RSD values obtained) for Sb(V), Sb(III), and trimethyl Sb(V) were 0.08, 0.07, and 0.9 microg/L and 5.0, 5.2, and 4.7%, respectively, for a 100 microL sample volume. The application of this method to real samples allowed extraction of 50% of total antimony content from spinach, while antimony extracted from carrots and onion samples ranged between 50 and 60 and 54 and 70%, respectively. Only Sb(V) was detected in three roots (onion and spinach) that represented 60-70% of the total antimony in the extracts.

  7. Comparison of nuclear analytical methods with competitive methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of nuclear analytical techniques, especially neutron activation analysis, already have a 50 year old history. Today several sensitive and accurate, non-nuclear trace element analytical techniques are available and new methods are continuously developed. The IAEA is supporting the development of nuclear analytical laboratories in its Member States. In order to be able to advise the developing countries which methods to use in different applications, it is important to know the present status and development trends of nuclear analytical methods, what are their benefits, drawbacks and recommended fields of application, compared with other, non-nuclear techniques. In order to get an answer to these questions the IAEA convened this Advisory Group Meeting. This volume is the outcome of the presentations and discussions of the meeting. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 21 papers. Refs, figs, tabs

  8. 7 CFR 93.4 - Analytical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Analytical methods. 93.4 Section 93.4 Agriculture... PROCESSED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES Citrus Juices and Certain Citrus Products § 93.4 Analytical methods. (a) The majority of analytical methods for citrus products are found in the Official Methods of Analysis of...

  9. 7 CFR 93.13 - Analytical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Analytical methods. 93.13 Section 93.13 Agriculture... PROCESSED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES Peanuts, Tree Nuts, Corn and Other Oilseeds § 93.13 Analytical methods... Analytical Methods Manual, American Spice Trade Association (ASTA), 560 Sylvan Avenue, P.O. Box...

  10. 7 CFR 94.4 - Analytical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Analytical methods. 94.4 Section 94.4 Agriculture... POULTRY AND EGG PRODUCTS Mandatory Analyses of Egg Products § 94.4 Analytical methods. The majority of analytical methods used by the USDA laboratories to perform mandatory analyses for egg products are listed...

  11. 7 CFR 94.303 - Analytical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Analytical methods. 94.303 Section 94.303 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... POULTRY AND EGG PRODUCTS Processed Poultry Products § 94.303 Analytical methods. The analytical...

  12. Analytical methods used at model facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A description of analytical methods used at the model LEU Fuel Fabrication Facility is presented. The methods include gravimetric uranium analysis, isotopic analysis, fluorimetric analysis, and emission spectroscopy

  13. Algorithmic and analytical methods in network biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyutürk, Mehmet

    2010-01-01

    During the genomic revolution, algorithmic and analytical methods for organizing, integrating, analyzing, and querying biological sequence data proved invaluable. Today, increasing availability of high-throughput data pertaining to functional states of biomolecules, as well as their interactions, enables genome-scale studies of the cell from a systems perspective. The past decade witnessed significant efforts on the development of computational infrastructure for large-scale modeling and analysis of biological systems, commonly using network models. Such efforts lead to novel insights into the complexity of living systems, through development of sophisticated abstractions, algorithms, and analytical techniques that address a broad range of problems, including the following: (1) inference and reconstruction of complex cellular networks; (2) identification of common and coherent patterns in cellular networks, with a view to understanding the organizing principles and building blocks of cellular signaling, regulation, and metabolism; and (3) characterization of cellular mechanisms that underlie the differences between living systems, in terms of evolutionary diversity, development and differentiation, and complex phenotypes, including human disease. These problems pose significant algorithmic and analytical challenges because of the inherent complexity of the systems being studied; limitations of data in terms of availability, scope, and scale; intractability of resulting computational problems; and limitations of reference models for reliable statistical inference. This article provides a broad overview of existing algorithmic and analytical approaches to these problems, highlights key biological insights provided by these approaches, and outlines emerging opportunities and challenges in computational systems biology.

  14. Analytical crashworthiness methods applied to composite structures

    OpenAIRE

    Lehnhardt, Keith W.

    1999-01-01

    CIVINS Several shell deformation models are developed for use in crashworthiness analysis of rotationally symmetric structures. These models use analytical techniques to predict the crushing force versus axial crush distance characteristics of both a rigid-plastic, hemispherical shell and an elastic, cylindrical shell loaded axially by a rigid flat plate. Additional methods are proposed to determine the effects of cutout sections and internal stiffening members on the crushing force capaci...

  15. Analytical mechanics methods for solving Whittaker equations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to study the solution of the celebrated Whittaker equations by using analytical mechanics methods, including the Lagrange-Noether method, Hamilton-Poisson method and potential integral method.

  16. Reactor Section standard analytical methods. Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sowden, D.

    1954-07-01

    the Standard Analytical Methods manual was prepared for the purpose of consolidating and standardizing all current analytical methods and procedures used in the Reactor Section for routine chemical analyses. All procedures are established in accordance with accepted practice and the general analytical methods specified by the Engineering Department. These procedures are specifically adapted to the requirements of the water treatment process and related operations. The methods included in this manual are organized alphabetically within the following five sections which correspond to the various phases of the analytical control program in which these analyses are to be used: water analyses, essential material analyses, cotton plug analyses boiler water analyses, and miscellaneous control analyses.

  17. Volatile organic silicon compounds in biogases: development of sampling and analytical methods for total silicon quantification by ICP-OES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chottier, Claire; Chatain, Vincent; Julien, Jennifer; Dumont, Nathalie; Lebouil, David; Germain, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Current waste management policies favor biogases (digester gases (DGs) and landfill gases (LFGs)) valorization as it becomes a way for energy politics. However, volatile organic silicon compounds (VOSiCs) contained into DGs/LFGs severely damage combustion engines and endanger the conversion into electricity by power plants, resulting in a high purification level requirement. Assessing treatment efficiency is still difficult. No consensus has been reached to provide a standardized sampling and quantification of VOSiCs into gases because of their diversity, their physicochemical properties, and the omnipresence of silicon in analytical chains. Usually, samplings are done by adsorption or absorption and quantification made by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) or inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). In this objective, this paper presents and discusses the optimization of a patented method consisting in VOSiCs sampling by absorption of 100% ethanol and quantification of total Si by ICP-OES.

  18. Development of an analytical method to measure insoluble and soluble starch in sugarcane and sweet sorghum products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Marsha R; Eggleston, Gillian; Gilbert, Audrey; Chung, Yoo Jin

    2016-01-01

    A rapid research method using microwave-assisted probe ultrasonication was developed to quantify total, insoluble, and soluble starch in various sugar crop products. Several variables affecting starch solubilisation were evaluated, (1) heating method, (2) boiling time, (3) probe ultrasonication time, (4) water loss, (5) concentration, (6) sample colour, and (7) sample. The optimised method solubilises molasses (7%), and raw sugars (12%), 100% satisfactory performance z-scores were also obtained. Total starch values obtained with this method were significantly higher than those measured using other methods presently accepted by the sugar industry. PMID:26212940

  19. Modern methods in analytical acoustics lecture notes

    CERN Document Server

    Crighton, D G; Williams, J E Ffowcs; Heckl, M; Leppington, F G

    1992-01-01

    Modern Methods in Analytical Acoustics considers topics fundamental to the understanding of noise, vibration and fluid mechanisms. The series of lectures on which this material is based began by some twenty five years ago and has been developed and expanded ever since. Acknowledged experts in the field have given this course many times in Europe and the USA. Although the scope of the course has widened considerably, the primary aim of teaching analytical techniques of acoustics alongside specific areas of wave motion and unsteady fluid mechanisms remains. The distinguished authors of this volume are drawn from Departments of Acoustics, Engineering of Applied Mathematics in Berlin, Cambridge and London. Their intention is to reach a wider audience of all those concerned with acoustic analysis than has been able to attend the course.

  20. Development of an analytical method and its quick algorithm to calculate the solar energy collected by a heliostat field in a year

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Analytical equation to calculate the energy collected by a heliostat field over a year. • Numerical method for quick and precise calculation. • Intercept factor of heliostat varies with different incidence angles. • Uniform approximation to separate the shading or blocking from the intercept factor. - Abstract: In this paper, we firstly propose an analytical equation to calculate the energy collected by the heliostat field. A ray tracing method is developed based on the analytical equation. Then we introduce three approximations to reduce computation spending, and estimate the errors caused by these approximations. A fast and accurate algorithm is developed with the three approximations to calculate the energy collected by the heliostat field over a year. It was compared with the ray tracing results, which shows good consistency with them. With the method, the energy collected and efficiency of each heliostat in a year can be computed exactly and rapidly, the difference between the method and ray tracing method is less than 0.1% for the energy collected by a heliostat over a day. It needs only about 0.1% computation time used by ray tracing method to calculate the intercept factor of a heliostat at a moment, and 2.67 h to compute the annual collected energy of PS10 heliostat field by using one CPU of i3 processor when the time span for integration is 5 min and each heliostat is calculated

  1. Development of a new analytical method for determination of acetylsalicylic and salicylic acids in tablets by reversed phase liquid chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luiz Neves de Aguiar

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Acetylsalicylic acid (AAS is a drug utilized as analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic medication, available worldwide and commonly used in Brazil. Salicylic acid (AS is a precursor in AAS synthesis and is also produced during its degradation. The official United States Pharmacopoeia (USP suggests the determination of these drugs by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, with ultraviolet detection, but this method has neither a high sensitivity (S AAS=0.12 mAbs/(μg/mL and S AS=0.48 mAbs/(μg/mL nor resolution (Rs=1.61. The purpose of this study was to develop a new more adequate, accurate method by liquid phase chromatography than the current official methodology, and to use this new method in the determination of the tenors of acetylsalicylic, as of salicylic acids in tablets. The parameters of the chromatographic system for both the AAS and AS were satisfactory. Selectivity was verified by absorption spectra comparison in the ultraviolet (UV range, during and after substance retention time. The linear range for AAS was 0.21 to 0.39 mg/mL, and that for AS was 6.3 to 11.7 μg/mL. The correlation coefficients (r of the analytical curves of AAS and AS were 0.9995 and 0.9988, respectively; and the detection and quantification limits for the AS were 0.23 and 0.69 μg/mL. The sensitivity (S AAS=1.88 mAbs/(μg/mL and S AS=1.84 mAbs/(μg/mL and the resolution (Rs =5.06 show the improvement obtained using this method over that described by the USP.O ácido acetilsalicílico (AAS é um fármaco utilizado como analgésico, antiinflamatório, antipirético, sendo amplamente comercializado e consumido no Brasil e no mundo. Como precursor de sua síntese utiliza-se o ácido salicílico (AS que também é produzido através de sua degradação. A metodologia oficial da Farmacopéia Americana (USP preconiza a determinação destes fármacos por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (CLAE com detecção por ultravioleta, mas este método n

  2. 7 CFR 94.103 - Analytical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Analytical methods. 94.103 Section 94.103 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... POULTRY AND EGG PRODUCTS Voluntary Analyses of Egg Products § 94.103 Analytical methods. The...

  3. 40 CFR 141.704 - Analytical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Federal Register approves this incorporation by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Analytical methods. 141.704 Section... Monitoring Requirements § 141.704 Analytical methods. (a) Cryptosporidium. Systems must analyze...

  4. 40 CFR 141.89 - Analytical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Analytical methods. 141.89 Section 141.89 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Control of Lead and Copper § 141.89 Analytical methods....

  5. The development of an analytical technique for the determination of traces of mercury by substoichiometric isotope dilution method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A procedure has been developed for the quantitative determination of traces of mercury in biological samples. The radiochemical separation method used involves the combustion of samples in an oxygen flask, followed by a substoichiometric isotope dilution method utilizing a solvent extraction technique. The method was primarily tested using radiotracer experiments and then by analyzing two already certified NBS Standard Reference Materials, Orchard Leaves and Bovine Liver, and a Bowen's Standard Kale Sample. The limit of detection is 0.005 ppm. The technique developed is comparatively simple, inexpensive, fast and suitable for routine work. (author)

  6. Development of a new analytical method for the determination of red beetroot betalains using dispersive solid-phase extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawicki, Tomasz; Surma, Magdalena; Zieliński, Henryk; Wiczkowski, Wiesław

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a method for the determination of red beetroot betalains based on the dispersive solid-phase extraction and modified QuEChERS methods followed by micro-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with a mass spectrometer that was equipped with a quadrupole and time-of-flight detector. Currently, new techniques for the extraction of the pigments are necessary and in this study, an extraction of beetroot betalains based on the QuEChERS method was developed for the first time. Twelve variants of the methods with different sorbent combinations were tested. The extraction with 15% methanol and with 0.05% formic acid was performed as a reference method to compare the obtained results. In all of the samples with the addition of sorbents, a lower noise was demonstrated in the obtained results. The betalain concentrations obtained using the tested methods were 0.32-0.54 mg g(-1) , while the value of the reference method was 0.44 mg g(-1) . The method that used the strong ion exchange sorbent (0.44±0.05 mg g(-1) ) was the most adequate in terms of analyzed content, related standard deviation value and interference compared to the reference method. It was concluded that the properly modified QuEChERS method can be successfully applied for the determination of red beetroot betalains. PMID:27273972

  7. Development of a simple analytical method for the simultaneous determination of paracetamol, paracetamol-glucuronide and p-aminophenol in river water

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Lúcia H. M. L. M.; Paíga, Paula; Araújo, Alberto N.; Pena, Angelina; Delerue-Matos, Cristina; Montenegro, M. Conceição B. S. M.

    2013-01-01

    Paracetamol is among the most worldwide consumed pharmaceuticals. Although its occurrence in the environment is well documented, data about the presence of its metabolites and transformation products is very scarce. The present work describes the development of an analytical method for the simultaneous determination of paracetamol, its principal metabolite (paracetamol-glucuronide) and its main transformation product (p-aminophenol) based on solid phase extraction (SPE) and high performance l...

  8. Learning analytics: drivers, developments and challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Ferguson, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    Learning analytics is a significant area of technology-enhanced learning that has emerged during the last decade. This review of the field begins with an examination of the technological, educational and political factors that have driven the development of analytics in educational settings. It goes on to chart the emergence of learning analytics, including their origins in the 20th century, the development of data-driven analytics, the rise of learning-focused perspectives and the influence ...

  9. Development of a multi-residue analytical method for TBBP-A and PBDEs in various biological matrices using unique reduced size sample

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andre, F.; Cariou, R.; Antignac, J.P.; Le Bizec, B. [Ecole Nationale Veterinaire de Nantes (FR). Laboratoire d' Etudes des Residus et Contaminants dans les Aliments (LABERCA); Debrauwer, L.; Zalko, D. [Institut National de Recherches Agronomiques (INRA), 31-Toulouse (France). UMR 1089 Xenobiotiques

    2004-09-15

    The impact of brominated flame retardants on the environment and their potential risk for animal and human health is a present time concern for the scientific community. Numerous studies related to the detection of tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBP-A) and polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs) have been developed over the last few years; they were mainly based on GC-ECD, GC-NCI-MS or GC-EI-HRMS, and recently GC-EI-MS/MS. The sample treatment is usually derived from the analytical methods used for dioxins, but recently some authors proposed the utilisation of solid phase extraction (SPE) cartridges. In this study, a new analytical strategy is presented for the multi-residue analysis of TBBP-A and PBDEs from a unique reduced size sample. The main objective of this analytical development is to be applied for background exposure assessment of French population groups to brominated flame retardants, for which, to our knowledge, no data exist. A second objective is to provide an efficient analytical tool to study the transfer of these contaminants through the environment to living organisms, including degradation reactions and metabolic biotransformations.

  10. Studies on application of neutron activation analysis -Applied research on air pollution monitoring and development of analytical method of environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research report is written for results of applied research on air pollution monitoring using instrumental neutron activation analysis. For identification and standardization of analytical method, 24 environmental samples are analyzed quantitatively, and accuracy and precision of this method are measured. Using airborne particulate matter and biomonitor chosen as environmental indicators, trace elemental concentrations of sample collected at urban and rural site monthly are determined ant then the calculation of statistics and the factor analysis are carried out for investigation of emission source. Facilities for NAA are installed in a new HANARO reactor, functional test is performed for routine operation. In addition, unified software code for NAA is developed to improve accuracy, precision and abilities of analytical processes. (author). 103 refs., 61 tabs., 19 figs

  11. Method development for the redox speciation analysis of iron by ion chromatography-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and carryover assessment using isotopically labeled analyte analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolle, Mesay Mulugeta; Fahrenholz, Timothy; Rahman, G M Mizanur; Pamuku, Matt; Kingston, H M 'Skip'; Browne, Damien

    2014-06-20

    An ion chromatography-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (IC-ICP-MS) method was developed for the redox speciation analysis of iron (Fe) based on in-column complexation of Fe(2+) and Fe(3+) by dipicolinic acid (DPA). The effects of column type, mobile phase composition and molecular ion interference were studied in the method optimization. The carryover of the target species in the IC-ICP-MS method was uniquely and effectively evaluated using isotopically enriched analogues of the analytes ((54)Fe(2+) and (57)Fe(3+)). Standard solutions of the enriched standards were injected into the system following analysis of a sample, and the ratios of the isotopes of iron in the enriched standards were calculated based on the chromatographic peak areas. The concentrations of the analytes carried over from the sample to the enriched standards were determined using the quantitative relationship in isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS). In contrast to the routine way of evaluating carryover effect by injecting a blank solution after sample analysis, the use of isotopically enriched standards identified significant analyte carryover in the present method. Extensive experiments were carried out to systematically identify the source of the carryover and to eliminate the problem; the separation column was found to be the exclusive source. More than 95% of the analyte carryover was eliminated by reducing the length of the column. The detection limit of the IC-ICP-MS method (MDL) for the iron species was 2ngg(-1). The method was used to determine Fe(2+) and Fe(3+) in synthetic aqueous standard solutions and a beverage sample.

  12. Advancing Analytical Methods for Characterization of Anionic Carbohydrate Biopolymers

    OpenAIRE

    Langeslay, Derek Joseph

    2013-01-01

    The focus of this dissertation is on the development of improved analytical methods for the characterization of anionic carbohydrate biopolymers. Our goal is to extract important information from complex mixtures of heterogeneous polysaccharides by characterizing their substituent oligosaccharides in terms of monosaccharide composition and primary and secondary structure. This work focuses on the application of two major analytical platforms: spectroscopy and chromatography. The development ...

  13. A New Method to Study Analytic Inequalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Ming Zhang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a new method to study analytic inequalities involving n variables. Regarding its applications, we proved some well-known inequalities and improved Carleman's inequality.

  14. Analytical Methods for Uranium Concentration Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    uranium in impure material. Development of measurement methods in the fields of coulometry, gamma-ray absorptiometry, and X-ray analysis are discussed, with emphasis placed on the limits and applicability of these techniques. Finally, the subject of standard reference materials is dealt with along with information regarding analytical evaluation programmes conducted in the United States for the purpose of obtaining better analytical data. (author)

  15. Identification of indicator components for the discrimination of Cassia plants in health teas and development of analytical method for the components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Mitsuko; Sakurai, Katsumi; Fujii, Hisashi; Saito, Koichi

    2014-01-01

    Components that could be used as indicators for the discrimination of senna (Cassia angustifolia) from other cassia plants contained in health teas were identified, and an analytical method for the components was developed. Our results revealed two components in senna that were not found in other Cassia spp. widely used in health teas, such as C. alata, C. corymbosa, C. obtusifolia, and C. occidentalis. Structural elucidation of the two components showed that they were isorhamnetin-3-O-gentiobioside and tinnevellin glucoside. We analyzed commercial health teas using the HPLC method developed in this study. The two indicator components were detected at 366 nm using an RP C18 column and gradient elution with a mixture of water and acetonitrile (with formic acid), as the mobile phase. Our analytical method by HPLC enabled the differentiation of senna from other Cassia plants present in health teas in which sennosides A and B were detected. Moreover, this method allowed us to predict the parts of senna in health teas from the amounts of isorhamnetin-3-O-gentiobioside and tinnevellin glucoside contained in the teas.

  16. Development of Nuclear Analytical Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Yong Joon; Kim, J. Y.; Sohn, S. C. (and others)

    2007-06-15

    The pre-treatment and handling techniques for the micro-particles in swipe samples were developed for the safeguards purpose. The development of screening technique for the swipe samples has been established using the nuclear fission track method as well as the alpha track method. The laser ablation system to take a nuclear particle present in swipe was designed and constructed for the determination of the enrichment factors for uranium or plutonium, and its performance was tested in atmosphere as well as in vacuum. The optimum conditions for the synthesis of silica based micro-particles were obtained for mass production. The optimum ion exchange resin was selected and the optimum conditions for the uranium adsorption in resin bead technique were established for the development of the enrichment factor for nuclear particles in swipe. The established technique was applied to the swipe taken directly from the nuclear facility and also to the archive samples of IAEA's environmental swipes. The evaluation of dose rate of neutron and secondary gamma-ray for the radiation shields were carried out to design the NIPS system, as well as the evaluation of the thermal neutron concentration effect by the various reflectors. D-D neutron generator was introduced as a neutron source for the NIPS system to have more advantages such as easier control and moderation capability than the {sup 252}Cf source. Simulated samples for explosive and chemical warfare were prepared to construct a prompt gamma-ray database. Based on the constructed database, a computer program for the detection of illicit chemical and nuclear materials was developed using the MATLAB software.

  17. Analytical methods to assess nanoparticle toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquis, Bryce J; Love, Sara A; Braun, Katherine L; Haynes, Christy L

    2009-03-01

    During the past 20 years, improvements in nanoscale materials synthesis and characterization have given scientists great control over the fabrication of materials with features between 1 and 100 nm, unlocking many unique size-dependent properties and, thus, promising many new and/or improved technologies. Recent years have found the integration of such materials into commercial goods; a current estimate suggests there are over 800 nanoparticle-containing consumer products (The Project on Emerging Nanotechnologies Consumer Products Inventory, , accessed Oct. 2008), accounting for 147 billion USD in products in 2007 (Nanomaterials state of the market Q3 2008: stealth success, broad impact, Lux Research Inc., New York, NY, 2008). Despite this increase in the prevalence of engineered nanomaterials, there is little known about their potential impacts on environmental health and safety. The field of nanotoxicology has formed in response to this lack of information and resulted in a flurry of research studies. Nanotoxicology relies on many analytical methods for the characterization of nanomaterials as well as their impacts on in vitro and in vivo function. This review provides a critical overview of these techniques from the perspective of an analytical chemist, and is intended to be used as a reference for scientists interested in conducting nanotoxicological research as well as those interested in nanotoxicological assay development. PMID:19238274

  18. Using an innovative combination of quality-by-design and green analytical chemistry approaches for the development of a stability indicating UHPLC method in pharmaceutical products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boussès, Christine; Ferey, Ludivine; Vedrines, Elodie; Gaudin, Karen

    2015-11-10

    An innovative combination of green chemistry and quality by design (QbD) approach is presented through the development of an UHPLC method for the analysis of the main degradation products of dextromethorphan hydrobromide. QbD strategy was integrated to the field of green analytical chemistry to improve method understanding while assuring quality and minimizing environmental impacts, and analyst exposure. This analytical method was thoroughly evaluated by applying risk assessment and multivariate analysis tools. After a scouting phase aimed at selecting a suitable stationary phase and an organic solvent in accordance with green chemistry principles, quality risk assessment tools were applied to determine the critical process parameters (CPPs). The effects of the CPPs on critical quality attributes (CQAs), i.e., resolutions, efficiencies, and solvent consumption were further evaluated by means of a screening design. A response surface methodology was then carried out to model CQAs as function of the selected CPPs and the optimal separation conditions were determined through a desirability analysis. Resulting contour plots enabled to establish the design space (DS) (method operable design region) where all CQAs fulfilled the requirements. An experimental validation of the DS proved that quality within the DS was guaranteed; therefore no more robustness study was required before the validation. Finally, this UHPLC method was validated using the concept of total error and was used to analyze a pharmaceutical drug product.

  19. Using an innovative combination of quality-by-design and green analytical chemistry approaches for the development of a stability indicating UHPLC method in pharmaceutical products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boussès, Christine; Ferey, Ludivine; Vedrines, Elodie; Gaudin, Karen

    2015-11-10

    An innovative combination of green chemistry and quality by design (QbD) approach is presented through the development of an UHPLC method for the analysis of the main degradation products of dextromethorphan hydrobromide. QbD strategy was integrated to the field of green analytical chemistry to improve method understanding while assuring quality and minimizing environmental impacts, and analyst exposure. This analytical method was thoroughly evaluated by applying risk assessment and multivariate analysis tools. After a scouting phase aimed at selecting a suitable stationary phase and an organic solvent in accordance with green chemistry principles, quality risk assessment tools were applied to determine the critical process parameters (CPPs). The effects of the CPPs on critical quality attributes (CQAs), i.e., resolutions, efficiencies, and solvent consumption were further evaluated by means of a screening design. A response surface methodology was then carried out to model CQAs as function of the selected CPPs and the optimal separation conditions were determined through a desirability analysis. Resulting contour plots enabled to establish the design space (DS) (method operable design region) where all CQAs fulfilled the requirements. An experimental validation of the DS proved that quality within the DS was guaranteed; therefore no more robustness study was required before the validation. Finally, this UHPLC method was validated using the concept of total error and was used to analyze a pharmaceutical drug product. PMID:26183807

  20. Analytical and computational methods in electromagnetics

    CERN Document Server

    Garg, Ramesh

    2008-01-01

    This authoritative resource offers you clear and complete explanation of this essential electromagnetics knowledge, providing you with the analytical background you need to understand such key approaches as MoM (method of moments), FDTD (Finite Difference Time Domain) and FEM (Finite Element Method), and Green's functions. This comprehensive book includes all math necessary to master the material.

  1. Antioxidant activity, lipophilicity and extractability of polyphenols from pig skin - development of analytical methods for skin permeation studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zillich, Olesya V; Schweiggert-Weisz, Ute; Hasenkopf, Katrin; Eisner, Peter; Kerscher, Martina

    2013-11-01

    Permeation of polyphenols through the stratum corneum barrier is a precondition for the protective action of polyphenols against oxidative skin damage. Prior to in vitro skin permeation experiments, we developed a method for the quantification of polyphenols in pig skin, including organic solvent extraction and HPLC analysis. Catechine hydrate, epigallocatechin gallate, trans-resveratrol, quercetin, rutin and protocatechuic acid were chosen for this study as representatives of phenolics with different lipophilicity and molecular weight. The antioxidative activities of polyphenols as well as their octanol-water partition coefficients at different pH values were determined. Extraction of polyphenols from pig skin was optimized by variation of solvent composition, homogenization intensity and time, as well as partial exclusion of oxygen during extraction. The highest recovery rates could be reached by extraction with the methanol-water mixture (90:10, v/v), containing 0.2 g/L l-ascorbic acid, after the cryo-milling for 4 min. Recoveries of 72% for total phenolics, 96% for quercetin and protocatechuic acid, 90% for rutin and 74% for trans-resveratrol, were achieved. These extraction parameters will be selected for the polyphenol extraction from pig skin for further in vitro drug permeation studies. PMID:23703300

  2. Antioxidant activity, lipophilicity and extractability of polyphenols from pig skin - development of analytical methods for skin permeation studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zillich, Olesya V; Schweiggert-Weisz, Ute; Hasenkopf, Katrin; Eisner, Peter; Kerscher, Martina

    2013-11-01

    Permeation of polyphenols through the stratum corneum barrier is a precondition for the protective action of polyphenols against oxidative skin damage. Prior to in vitro skin permeation experiments, we developed a method for the quantification of polyphenols in pig skin, including organic solvent extraction and HPLC analysis. Catechine hydrate, epigallocatechin gallate, trans-resveratrol, quercetin, rutin and protocatechuic acid were chosen for this study as representatives of phenolics with different lipophilicity and molecular weight. The antioxidative activities of polyphenols as well as their octanol-water partition coefficients at different pH values were determined. Extraction of polyphenols from pig skin was optimized by variation of solvent composition, homogenization intensity and time, as well as partial exclusion of oxygen during extraction. The highest recovery rates could be reached by extraction with the methanol-water mixture (90:10, v/v), containing 0.2 g/L l-ascorbic acid, after the cryo-milling for 4 min. Recoveries of 72% for total phenolics, 96% for quercetin and protocatechuic acid, 90% for rutin and 74% for trans-resveratrol, were achieved. These extraction parameters will be selected for the polyphenol extraction from pig skin for further in vitro drug permeation studies.

  3. Bio-analytical method development and validation of Rasagiline by high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry detection and its application to pharmacokinetic study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ravi Kumar Konda; Babu Rao Chandu; B.R. Challa; Chandrasekhar B. Kothapalli

    2012-01-01

    The most suitable bio-analytical method based on liquid liquid extraction has been developed and validated for quantification of Rasagiline in human plasma. Rasagiline-13C3 mesylate was used as an internal standard for Rasagiline. Zorbax Eclipse Plus C18 (2.1 mm × 50 mm, 3.5 um) column provided chromatographic separation of analyte followed by detection with mass spectrometry. The method involved simple isocratic chromatographic condition and mass spectrometric detection in the positive ionization mode using an API-4000 system. The lotal run time was 3.0 min. The proposed method has been validated with the linear range of 5 12000 pg/mL for Rasagiline. The intra-run and inter-run precision values were within 1.3% 2.9% and 1.6% 2.2% respectively for Rasagiline. The overall recovery for Rasagiline and Rasagiline-13C3 mesylate analog was 96.9% and 96.7% respectively. This validated method was successfully applied to the bioequivalence and pharmacokinetic study of human volunteers under fasting condition.

  4. Mathematical methods for physical and analytical chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Goodson, David Z

    2011-01-01

    Mathematical Methods for Physical and Analytical Chemistry presents mathematical and statistical methods to students of chemistry at the intermediate, post-calculus level. The content includes a review of general calculus; a review of numerical techniques often omitted from calculus courses, such as cubic splines and Newton's method; a detailed treatment of statistical methods for experimental data analysis; complex numbers; extrapolation; linear algebra; and differential equations. With numerous example problems and helpful anecdotes, this text gives chemistry students the mathematical

  5. Chemical synthesis, characterisation, analytical method development and control to promote exposure assessments and toxicological testing. Highlights from COMPARE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergman, Aa.; Malmberg, T.; Weiss, J. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Environmental Chemistry

    2004-09-15

    The issue of endocrine disruptor effects in wildlife and humans grow increasingly important during the 1990s'. As part of the focus on endocrine disruptors new contaminants and their metabolites were put forward for studies with endpoints related to hormone disruption. One such large group of chemicals and/or metabolites of neutral semi-persistent or persistent compounds was the substituted phenols, particularly the halogenated phenolic compounds (HPCs). Polychlorobiphenylols (OHPCBs) were reported to be strongly retained in human blood plasma in 1995 and this article was the first study to point out the general retention of several OH-PCBs in the plasma. The metabolic formation of OH-PCBs was well known and the specific blood retention had been reported for at least one PCB congener, 3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (CB-77) in some previous studies. The identification of OH-PCBs being retained in blood and their specific binding to transthyretin (TTR) has formed much of the basis for two EU R and D programs, first RENCO and now COMPARE. The present report is aimed to highlight some of the results obtained within the COMPARE program mainly dealing with the chemical synthesis, characterisation and analytical aspects of HPCs.

  6. An inverse and analytic lens design method

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Yang; Lakshminarayanan, Vasudevan

    2016-01-01

    Traditional lens design is a numerical and forward process based on ray tracing and aberration theory. This method has limitations because the initial configuration of the lens has to be specified and the aberrations of the lenses have to considered. This paper is an initial attempt to investigate an analytic and inverse lens design method, called Lagrange, to overcome these barriers. Lagrange method tries to build differential equations in terms of the system parameters and the system input ...

  7. Optimization of reversed-phase chromatography methods for peptide analytics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalaf, Rushd; Baur, Daniel; Pfister, David

    2015-12-18

    The analytical description and quantification of peptide solutions is an essential part in the quality control of peptide production processes and in peptide mapping techniques. Traditionally, an important tool is analytical reversed phase liquid chromatography. In this work, we develop a model-based tool to find optimal analytical conditions in a clear, efficient and robust manner. The model, based on the Van't Hoff equation, the linear solvent strength correlation, and an analytical solution of the mass balance on a chromatographic column describing peptide retention in gradient conditions is used to optimize the analytical scale separation between components in a peptide mixture. The proposed tool is then applied in the design of analytical reversed phase liquid chromatography methods of five different peptide mixtures. PMID:26620597

  8. RP-HPLC Analytical Method Development and Validation for Simultaneous Estimation of Three Drugs: Glimepiride, Pioglitazone, and Metformin and Its Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gadapa Nirupa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Developing a single analytical method for estimation of individual drug from a multidrug composition is a very challenging task. A simple, rapid, precise, and reliable reverse phase HPLC method was developed for the separation and estimation of three drugs glimepiride, pioglitazone and metformin in bulk drug mix and pharmaceutical dosage forms. The estimation was carried out using Inertsil ODS-3V (250 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 μm column; mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile, tetrahydrofuran, and buffer at pH 5; the flow rate of 1.7 mL/min and ultraviolet detection at 228 nm. All the three drugs were properly resolved having run time of 5 minutes, 3.9 minutes and 1.3 minutes for glimepiride, pioglitazone, and metformin, respectively. The method was validated as a final verification of method development with respect to precision, linearity, accuracy, ruggedness, and robustness. The validated method was successfully applied to the commercially available pharmaceutical dosage form, yielding very good and reproducible result.

  9. Development of a SPME-GC-MS method for the determination of volatile compounds in Shanxi aged vinegar and its analytical characterization by aroma wheel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hong; Zhu, Jie; Wang, Lili; Li, Zaigui

    2016-01-01

    A solid-phase microextraction followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method was developed to determine the volatile compounds in Shanxi aged vinegar. The optimal extraction conditions were: 50 °C for 20 min with a PDMS/DVB fiber. This analytical method was validated and showed satisfactory repeatability (0.5 %volatile compounds. According to the calculation of odor activity value, 19 volatile compounds were identified as aroma-active compounds. Among them, propanoic acid, acetic acid, trimethyl-oxazole, butanoic acid, acetoin, 3-methylbutanoic acid and furfural were the most powerful odorants. The aroma wheel of Shanxi aged vinegar showed that the classes of sensory descriptors are first fatty and roasty, next woody and nutty and minor fruity and floral. Principal component analysis enabled us to investigate dissimilarity/similarity of Shanxi aged vinegar sample of different raw material and ageing time. PMID:26787940

  10. Development, validation and application of a sensitive analytical method for residue determination and dissipation of imidacloprid in sugarcane under tropical field condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramasubramanian, T; Paramasivam, M; Nirmala, R

    2016-06-01

    A simple and sensitive analytical method has been developed and validated for the determination of trace amounts of imidacloprid in/on sugarcane sett, stalk and leaf. The method optimized in the present study requires less volume of organic solvent and time. Hence, this method is suitable for high-throughput analyses involving large number of samples. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) of the method were 0.003 and 0.01 mg/kg, respectively. The recovery and relative standard deviation were more than 93 % and less than 4 %, respectively. Thus, it is obvious that the analytical method standardized in this study is more precise and accurate enough to determine the residues of imidacloprid in sugarcane sett, stalk and leaf. The dissipation and translocation of imidacloprid residues from treated cane setts to leaf and stalk were studied by adopting this method. In sugarcane setts, the residues of imidacloprid persisted up to 120 days with half-life of 15.4 days at its recommended dose (70 g a.i./ha). The residues of imidacloprid were found to be translocated from setts to stalk and leaf. The imidacloprid residues were detected up to 105 days in both leaf and stalk. Dipping of sugarcane setts in imidacloprid at its recommended dose may result in better protection of cane setts and established crop because of higher initial deposit (>100 mg/kg) and longer persistence (>120 days). PMID:27230427

  11. RP-HPLC analytical method development and optimization for quantification of donepezil hydrochloride in orally disintegrating tablet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, Kai Bin; Peh, Kok Khiang; Fung Tan, Yvonne Tze

    2013-09-01

    An easy, fast and validated RV-HPLC method was invented to quantify donepezil hydrochloride in drug solution and orally disintegrating tablet. The separation was carried out using reversed phase C-18 column (Agilent Eclipse Plus C-18) with UV detection at 268 nm. Method optimization was tested using various composition of organic solvent. The mobile phase comprised of phosphate buffer (0.01M), methanol and acetonitrile (50:30:20, v/v) adjusted to pH 2.7 with phosphoric acid (80%) was found as the optimum mobile phase. The method showed intraday precision and accuracy in the range of 0.24% to -1.83% and -1.83% to 1.99% respectively, while interday precision and accuracy ranged between 1.41% to 1.81% and 0.11% to 1.90% respectively. The standard calibration curve was linear from 0.125 μg/mL to 16 μg/mL, with correlation coefficient of 0.9997±0.00016. The drug solution was stable under room temperature at least for 6 hours. System suitability studies were done. The average plate count was > 2000, tailing factor method was used to assay donepezil hydrochloride in tablet and dissolution study of in-house manufactured donepezil orally disintegrating tablet and original Aricept.

  12. Development and validation of a 48-target analytical method for high-throughput monitoring of genetically modified organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaofei; Wu, Yuhua; Li, Jun; Li, Yunjing; Long, Likun; Li, Feiwu; Wu, Gang

    2015-01-05

    The rapid increase in the number of genetically modified (GM) varieties has led to a demand for high-throughput methods to detect genetically modified organisms (GMOs). We describe a new dynamic array-based high throughput method to simultaneously detect 48 targets in 48 samples on a Fludigm system. The test targets included species-specific genes, common screening elements, most of the Chinese-approved GM events, and several unapproved events. The 48 TaqMan assays successfully amplified products from both single-event samples and complex samples with a GMO DNA amount of 0.05 ng, and displayed high specificity. To improve the sensitivity of detection, a preamplification step for 48 pooled targets was added to enrich the amount of template before performing dynamic chip assays. This dynamic chip-based method allowed the synchronous high-throughput detection of multiple targets in multiple samples. Thus, it represents an efficient, qualitative method for GMO multi-detection.

  13. ‘Slag_Fun’ – A New Tool for Archaeometallurgy: Development of an Analytical (PED-XRF Method for Iron-Rich Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harald Alexander Veldhuijzen

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the development of a new analytical tool for bulk chemical analysis of iron-rich archaeometallurgical remains by Polarising Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence ((PED-XRF. Prompted by the ongoing archaeological and archaeometric analyses of early first millennium BC iron smelting and smithing finds from Tell Hammeh (az-Zarqa, Jordan, the creation of this tool has already benefited several studies on iron-rich slag, of widely varying provenance as well as age (Anguilano 2002; Chirikure 2002; Ige and Rehren 2003; Stanway 2003. Following an explanation of the archaeological background and importance of the Hammeh finds, the paper describes the technical foundations of XRF analysis and the design, development and application of the "slag_fun" calibration method.

  14. Numerical and analytical methods with Matlab

    CERN Document Server

    Bober, William; Masory, Oren

    2013-01-01

    Numerical and Analytical Methods with MATLAB® presents extensive coverage of the MATLAB programming language for engineers. It demonstrates how the built-in functions of MATLAB can be used to solve systems of linear equations, ODEs, roots of transcendental equations, statistical problems, optimization problems, control systems problems, and stress analysis problems. These built-in functions are essentially black boxes to students. By combining MATLAB with basic numerical and analytical techniques, the mystery of what these black boxes might contain is somewhat alleviated. This classroom-tested

  15. Analytical detection methods for irradiated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present publication is a review of scientific literature on the analytical identification of foods treated with ionizing radiation and the quantitative determination of absorbed dose of radiation. Because of the extremely low level of chemical changes resulting from irradiation or because of the lack of specificity to irradiation of any chemical changes, a few methods of quantitative determination of absorbed dose have shown promise until now. On the other hand, the present review has identified several possible methods, which could be used, following further research and testing, for the identification of irradiated foods. An IAEA Co-ordinated Research Programme on Analytical Detection Methods for Irradiation Treatment of Food ('ADMIT'), established in 1990, is currently investigating many of the methods cited in the present document. Refs and tab

  16. Chromatographic development of validated analytical method for the estimation of tapentadol and paracetamol in combined dosage form

    OpenAIRE

    Manoj S. Charde; Ashwini A. Patil; Jitendra Kumar; A. S. Welankiwar; R. D. Chakole

    2014-01-01

    A simple, sensitive an isocratic RP-HPLC method for the estimation of  TAP (Tapentadol) and PARA (Paracetamol) in combined dosage form using Inertsil ODS C-18 column (250×4.6 mm, 5 µ) in an isocratic mode with mobile phase comprising  Buffer (1mL TEA) :  ACN : MeOH in the ratio of (75:20:5 v/v/v). The flow rate was 1.2 mL/ min and effluent was monitored at 220 nm. The retention times were found to be 6.88 min for TAP and 3.78 min for PARA. The assay exhibited a linear dynamic range of 11.89- ...

  17. Chromatographic development of validated analytical method for the estimation of tapentadol and paracetamol in combined dosage form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj S. Charde

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple, sensitive an isocratic RP-HPLC method for the estimation of  TAP (Tapentadol and PARA (Paracetamol in combined dosage form using Inertsil ODS C-18 column (250×4.6 mm, 5 µ in an isocratic mode with mobile phase comprising  Buffer (1mL TEA :  ACN : MeOH in the ratio of (75:20:5 v/v/v. The flow rate was 1.2 mL/ min and effluent was monitored at 220 nm. The retention times were found to be 6.88 min for TAP and 3.78 min for PARA. The assay exhibited a linear dynamic range of 11.89- 28.55 µg/mL for TAP and 64.95- 155.90 µg/mL for PARA.

  18. Development and application of an analytical method for the determination of total atmospheric biogenic non-methane organic carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regnery, J.; Dindorf, T.; Hacker, L.; Andres, S.; Kleist, E.; Wildt, J.; Kesselmeier, J.

    2012-04-01

    Most of the organic carbon which is present in the atmosphere is found as volatile organic compounds (VOCs) dominantly emitted by the biosphere. This biogenic emission has a major impact on the chemical and physical properties of the atmosphere by contributing to the formation of tropospheric ozone and secondary organic aerosol (SOA). One major limitation in advancing the understanding of this ozone and aerosol generation is the technical ability to accurately measure the sum of these volatile organics. Frequently used methods focus on the detection of a defined set of non-methane organic compounds (NMOC). However, adding these single compound concentrations might only represent a lower limit of atmospheric carbon concentrations, since no available method is able to analyze all organic compounds present in the atmosphere. A few studies are known that report on total NMOC concentration measurements in ambient air but measurements of the total NMOC exchange between vegetation and the atmosphere are missing. Therefore, we investigated the analysis of the total NMOC concentration by collecting these compounds on a solid adsorbent material for subsequent total carbon analysis. This first step is necessary to separate the stable gases CO, CO2 and CH4 from the volatile NMOC fraction. NMOC was desorbed and converted to CO2 by passing an oxidation unit. The CO2 is collected on a second preconcentration unit followed by thermal desorption and detection by an infrared gas analyzer. As major difficulties we identified the separation of CO2 from the NMOC compounds on the solid adsorbent unit and the choice of the catalytic material. The measurements were accompanied by GC analysis of single calibrated VOC species from permeation devices and measurements by a PTR-MS. Plant chamber measurements with Quercus ilex showed an expected diurnal course which was confirmed by the NMOC analyzer though with a discrepancy during the day of up to 40 %.

  19. Development and application of analytical methods for the assessment of software-based IC components in German nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report, results and data from examinations concerning software-based I and C components are evaluated. As failure modes of software-based components and failure causes differ fundamentally from non-software-based components, an evaluation of the operating experience of such components was carried out. This evaluation should show whether or not existing approaches for non-software-based components can be directly transferred to software-based components, or if a different approach has to be developed. The state of the art and science was gathered and is described for the national as well as the international situation. To include failures in non-safety systems, events not fulfilling the incident reporting criteria of German authorities were also included in this evaluation. The data provided by licensees of six German NPPs (different Boiling Water Reactors and Pressurized Water Reactors) was recorded for at least 8 years. The software-based components used in the NPPs are identified and their operating experience is analyzed in order to identify relevant failure modes and to establish a knowledge base for future failure rating.

  20. Development of Analytical methods for the evaluation of the impact of phosphate fertilizer industry on marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phosphate industries are considered an important potential source of natural radionuclides and heavy metals contamination in the environment. The objective of this work was to assess the marine environmental metallic and radiological pollution and the toxicological impact caused by a large production plant of phosphate fertilizer located on the eastern coast of the Mediterranean Sea, 40 km north of the capital of Lebanon: Beirut. Since 1957 this industry has been producing a large set of phosphate based fertilizers. Phosphogypsum, by-product resulting in the industrial procedure, is released directly in the marine environment. Natural radionuclides (238U, 235U, 226Ra, 232Th, 210Po, 210Pb, and 40K) and anthropogenic 137Cs were measured by alpha and gamma spectrometry in seawater, sediment, coastal sediment and biota. An alpha spectrometer with a passive ion implanted silicon detector was used for the determination of 238U, 234Uin sea water and 210Poin biota samples. 238U, 235U, 232Th, 226Ra,210Pb,137Cs and 40Kin biota and sediments were analyzed by a gamma spectrometer from Canberra, equipped with an extended range low-level coaxial high purity germanium detector with beryllium window.In addition, the radiation exposure of the population surrounding the industrial plant and the internal exposure and potential risks to human due to 210Poand 210Pbassociated with the consumption of fish have been estimated. The internal exposure due to the consumption of fish is important from the radioecology and radioprotection perspectives, and the data for most species studied, are reported for the first time in Lebanon. A multi-elemental method for simultaneous determination of trace elements in seaweeds based on the use of the new approach of collision reaction interface for the ICP-MS determination was optimized. The performance characteristics including linearity, limits of detection and quantification, repeatability, accuracy and truenesswere evaluated. Investigations on the

  1. DEVELOPMENT OF ANALYTICAL METHODS FOR THE QUANTIFICATION OF THE CHEMICAL FORMS OF MERCURY AND OTHER TARGET POLLUTANTS IN COAL-FIRED BOILER FLUE GAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terence J. McManus, Ph.D.

    1999-06-30

    . (ATS) as a secondary DOE contractor on this project, assessed the sampling and analytical plans and the emission reports of the five primary contractors to determine how successful the contractors were in satisfying their defined objectives. ATS identified difficulties and inconsistencies in a number of sampling and analytical methodologies in these studies. In particular there was uncertainty as to the validity of the sampling and analytical methods used to differentiate the chemical forms of mercury observed in coal flue gas. Considering the differences in the mercury species with regard to human toxicity, the rate of transport through the ecosystem and the design variations in possible emission control schemes, DOE sought an accurate and reliable means to identify and quantify the various mercury compounds emitted by coal-fired utility boilers. ATS, as a contractor for DOE, completed both bench- and pilot-scale studies on various mercury speciation methods. The final validation of the modified Ontario-Hydro Method, its acceptance by DOE and submission of the method for adoption by ASTM was a direct result of these studies carried out in collaboration with the University of North Dakota's Energy and Environmental Research Center (UNDEERC). This report presents the results from studies carried out at ATS in the development of analytical methods to identify and quantify various chemical species, particularly those of mercury, in coal derived flue gas. Laboratory- and pilot-scale studies, not only on mercury species, but also on other inorganics and organics present in coal combustion flue gas are reported.

  2. Nuclear analytical methods for platinum group elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Platinum group elements (PGE) are of special interest for analytical research due to their economic importance like chemical peculiarities as catalysts, medical applications as anticancer drugs, and possible environmental detrimental impact as exhaust from automobile catalyzers. Natural levels of PGE are so low in concentration that most of the current analytical techniques approach their limit of detection capacity. In addition, Ru, Rh, Pd, Re, Os, Ir, and Pt analyses still constitute a challenge in accuracy and precision of quantification in natural matrices. Nuclear analytical techniques, such as neutron activation analysis, X ray fluorescence, or proton-induced X ray emission (PIXE), which are generally considered as reference methods for many analytical problems, are useful as well. However, due to methodological restrictions, they can, in most cases, only be applied after pre-concentration and under special irradiation conditions. This report was prepared following a coordinated research project and a consultants meeting addressing the subject from different viewpoints. The experts involved suggested to discuss the issue according to the (1) application, hence, the concentration levels encountered, and (2) method applied for analysis. Each of the different fields of application needs special consideration for sample preparation, PGE pre-concentration, and determination. Additionally, each analytical method requires special attention regarding the sensitivity and sample type. Quality assurance/quality control aspects are considered towards the end of the report. It is intended to provide the reader of this publication with state-of-the-art information on the various aspects of PGE analysis and to advise which technique might be most suitable for a particular analytical problem related to platinum group elements. In particular, many case studies described in detail from the authors' laboratory experience might help to decide which way to go. As in many cases

  3. Wavelet Analytical Forecasting Method of Water Consumption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘洪波; 张宏伟

    2004-01-01

    A new method of short-term forecasting for water consumption in municipal supply water networks based on wavelet transformation is introduced. By wavelet decomposing commonly used in the signal field, water consumption per hour is decomposed into many series. Trend item, cycle item and random item are separated from the original time series in this way.Then by analyzing, building a model, forecasting every series and composing the results, the forecasting value of the original consumption is received. Simulation results show that this forecasting method is faster and more accurate, of which the error is less than 20%,indicating that the wavelet analytical method is practicable.

  4. On Analytical Methods in Neuroblastoma Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Martínez-Díaz

    2013-01-01

    quantitative and consistent methods of evaluation are needed to assess reponse to patient therapy. Whole-body I123-metaiodobenzylguanidine (mIBG scintigraphy is used as primary medical image modality to detect neuroblastoma tumours due to its high specificity and sensitivity. However, current oncological guidelines are based on qualitative observer-dependent analysis. This fact makes it difficult to compare results of scintigraphies taken at different moments during therapy or at different institutions. In this paper, we review analytical methods used in neuroblastoma detection and propose an observer-independent method to quantitatively analyse a I123-mIBG scintigraphy.

  5. Statistically qualified neuro-analytic failure detection method and system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilim, Richard B.; Garcia, Humberto E.; Chen, Frederick W.

    2002-03-02

    An apparatus and method for monitoring a process involve development and application of a statistically qualified neuro-analytic (SQNA) model to accurately and reliably identify process change. The development of the SQNA model is accomplished in two stages: deterministic model adaption and stochastic model modification of the deterministic model adaptation. Deterministic model adaption involves formulating an analytic model of the process representing known process characteristics, augmenting the analytic model with a neural network that captures unknown process characteristics, and training the resulting neuro-analytic model by adjusting the neural network weights according to a unique scaled equation error minimization technique. Stochastic model modification involves qualifying any remaining uncertainty in the trained neuro-analytic model by formulating a likelihood function, given an error propagation equation, for computing the probability that the neuro-analytic model generates measured process output. Preferably, the developed SQNA model is validated using known sequential probability ratio tests and applied to the process as an on-line monitoring system. Illustrative of the method and apparatus, the method is applied to a peristaltic pump system.

  6. Pioglitazone:A review of analytical methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    N. Satheeshkumar; S. Shantikumar; R. Srinivas

    2014-01-01

    Pioglitazone is an oral anti-hyperglycemic agent. It is used for the treatment of diabetes mellitus type 2. It selectively stimulates nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-gamma). It was the tenth-best-selling drug in the U.S. in 2008. This article examines published analytical methods reported so far in the literature for the determination of pioglitazone in biological samples and pharmaceutical formulations. They include various techniques like electrochemical methods, spectrophotometry, capillary electrophoresis, high-performance liquid chromatography, liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry and high-performance thin layer chromatography.

  7. Directory of Analytical Methods, Department 1820

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whan, R.E. (ed.)

    1986-01-01

    The Materials Characterization Department performs chemical, physical, and thermophysical analyses in support of programs throughout the Laboratories. The department has a wide variety of techniques and instruments staffed by experienced personnel available for these analyses, and we strive to maintain near state-of-the-art technology by continued updates. We have prepared this Directory of Analytical Methods in order to acquaint you with our capabilities and to help you identify personnel who can assist with your analytical needs. The descriptions of the various capabilities are requester-oriented and have been limited in length and detail. Emphasis has been placed on applications and limitations with notations of estimated analysis time and alternative or related techniques. A short, simplified discussion of underlying principles is also presented along with references if more detail is desired. The contents of this document have been organized in the order: bulky analysis, microanalysis, surface analysis, optical and thermal property measurements.

  8. Big data analytics methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, BLS; Rao, SB

    2016-01-01

    This book has a collection of articles written by Big Data experts to describe some of the cutting-edge methods and applications from their respective areas of interest, and provides the reader with a detailed overview of the field of Big Data Analytics as it is practiced today. The chapters cover technical aspects of key areas that generate and use Big Data such as management and finance; medicine and healthcare; genome, cytome and microbiome; graphs and networks; Internet of Things; Big Data standards; bench-marking of systems; and others. In addition to different applications, key algorithmic approaches such as graph partitioning, clustering and finite mixture modelling of high-dimensional data are also covered. The varied collection of themes in this volume introduces the reader to the richness of the emerging field of Big Data Analytics.

  9. Directory of Analytical Methods, Department 1820

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Materials Characterization Department performs chemical, physical, and thermophysical analyses in support of programs throughout the Laboratories. The department has a wide variety of techniques and instruments staffed by experienced personnel available for these analyses, and we strive to maintain near state-of-the-art technology by continued updates. We have prepared this Directory of Analytical Methods in order to acquaint you with our capabilities and to help you identify personnel who can assist with your analytical needs. The descriptions of the various capabilities are requester-oriented and have been limited in length and detail. Emphasis has been placed on applications and limitations with notations of estimated analysis time and alternative or related techniques. A short, simplified discussion of underlying principles is also presented along with references if more detail is desired. The contents of this document have been organized in the order: bulky analysis, microanalysis, surface analysis, optical and thermal property measurements

  10. Development of an LC-MS/MS analytical method for the simultaneous measurement of aldehydes from polyunsaturated fatty acids degradation in animal feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douny, Caroline; Bayram, Pinar; Brose, François; Degand, Guy; Scippo, Marie-Louise

    2016-05-01

    Knowing that polyunsaturated fatty acids can lead to the formation of potentially toxic aldehydes as secondary oxidation products, an analytical method using liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) detection was developed to measure the concentration of eight aldehydes in animal feed: malondialdehyde (MDA), 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE), 4-hydroxy-2-hexenal (4-HHE), crotonaldehyde (CRT), benzaldehyde (BNZ), hexanal (HXL), 2,4-nonadienal, and 2,4-decadienal. The developed method was validated according to the criteria and procedure described in international standards. The evaluated parameters were specificity/selectivity, recovery, precision, accuracy, uncertainty, limits of detection and quantification, using the concept of accuracy profiles. These parameters were determined during experiments conducted over three different days with ground Kellogg's® Corn Flakes® cereals as model matrix for animal feed and spiked at different levels of concentration. Malondialdehyde, 4-HHE, 4-HNE, crotonaldehyde, benzaldehyde, and hexanal can be analyzed in the same run in animal feed with a very good accuracy, with recovery rates ranging from 86 to 109% for a working range going from 0.16 to 12.50 mg/kg. The analysis of 2,4-nonadienal and 2,4-decadienal can also be performed but in a limited range of concentration and with a limited degree of accuracy. Their recovery rates ranged between 54 and 114% and coefficient of variation for the intermediate precision between 11 and 25% for these two compounds. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Analytical Method Development and Validation for Simultaneous Estimation of Artemether and Lumefantrine in Pure And Pharmaceutical Dosage Form Using Rp-Hplc Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple, rapid, precise and cost effective reversed phase-high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method was developed for the simultaneous estimation of Artemether (AT) and Lumefantrine (LU) in pure drug and pharmaceutical dosage forms. The separation was carried out using BDS Hypersil C18 (150 x 4.6 mm i.d. 3 μm particle size) column, with mobile phase comprising of 0.01M tetra butyl ammonium hydrogen sulphate and acetonitrile in the ratio of 20 : 80 (v/ v). The flow rate was 1.0 ml/ min and the detection was carried out using UV-visible detector at 222 nm. The method was validated by evaluation of different parameters such as accuracy, precision, linearity, ruggedness, and robustness, limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ). The retention time were found to be 4.19 and 5.22 min for AT and LU, respectively. Correlation coefficient (r2) of 0.999 for both over concentration range of 3.2-19.2 μg/ ml and 16-96 μg/ ml for AT and LU, respectively. Parameters like mobile phase ratio, wavelength, flow rate and others were deliberately varied. It was observed that there were no marked changes in chromatograms, which demonstrated that the developed RP-HPLC method is robust. Intra and inter day precision reproducibility study was carried out and it was checked by determining precision on the same instrument, but by a different analyst. The percentage recovery for AT and LU were ranged between 99.18-100.19 and 99.96-100.07, respectively. The LOD for AT and LU were found to be 0.201 and 2.99 μg/ ml and the LOQ were 0.609 and 9.086 μg/ml respectively. Method was found to be reproducible with relative standard deviation (RSD) for intra and inter day precision less than 2 %. (author)

  12. An inverse and analytic lens design method

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Traditional lens design is a numerical and forward process based on ray tracing and aberration theory. This method has limitations because the initial configuration of the lens has to be specified and the aberrations of the lenses have to considered. This paper is an initial attempt to investigate an analytic and inverse lens design method, called Lagrange, to overcome these barriers. Lagrange method tries to build differential equations in terms of the system parameters and the system input and output (object and image). The generalized Snell's law in three dimensional space and the normal of a surface in fundamental differential geometry are applied. Based on the Lagrange method equations for a single surface system are derived which can perfectly image a point object.

  13. New concept of analytical method for two-phase flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors are developing a new analytical method for vertical upward two-phase flow based on a concept that two-phase flow with minimum pressure energy consumption rate is the most stable and easily flowable two-phase flow for the given boundary conditions and, thus, such two-phase flow should be realized actually. Although this concept is applied basically one-dimensionally in the analytical method, gravity convection effect due to density difference between liquid film on the channel wall and two-phase flow core in the central region of the channel is taken into account through a two-dimensional turbulent flow analysis. An air-water two-phase flow experiment was performed to verify the proposed analytical method. In the present paper, results of the experimental analysis with the proposed method are reported. (author)

  14. Analytical Eco-Scale for Assessing the Greenness of a Developed RP-HPLC Method Used for Simultaneous Analysis of Combined Antihypertensive Medications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Heba M; Lamie, Nesrine T

    2016-09-01

    In the past few decades the analytical community has been focused on eliminating or reducing the usage of hazardous chemicals and solvents, in different analytical methodologies, that have been ascertained to be extremely dangerous to human health and environment. In this context, environmentally friendly, green, or clean practices have been implemented in different research areas. This study presents a greener alternative of conventional RP-HPLC methods for the simultaneous determination and quantitative analysis of a pharmaceutical ternary mixture composed of telmisartan, hydrochlorothiazide, and amlodipine besylate, using an ecofriendly mobile phase and short run time with the least amount of waste production. This solvent-replacement approach was feasible without compromising method performance criteria, such as separation efficiency, peak symmetry, and chromatographic retention. The greenness profile of the proposed method was assessed and compared with reported conventional methods using the analytical Eco-Scale as an assessment tool. The proposed method was found to be greener in terms of usage of hazardous chemicals and solvents, energy consumption, and production of waste. The proposed method can be safely used for the routine analysis of the studied pharmaceutical ternary mixture with a minimal detrimental impact on human health and the environment. PMID:27492952

  15. Oxcarbazepine: validation and application of an analytical method

    OpenAIRE

    Paula Cristina Rezende Enéas; Renata Barbosa de Oliveira; Gerson Antônio Pianetti

    2010-01-01

    Oxcarbazepine (OXC) is an important anticonvulsant and mood stabilizing drug. A pharmacopoeial monograph for OXC is not yet available and therefore the development and validation of a new analytical method for quantification of this drug is essential. In the present study, a UV spectrophotometric method for the determination of OXC was developed. The various parameters, such as linearity, precision, accuracy and specificity, were studied according to International Conference on Harmonization ...

  16. Development of an LC-MS/MS analytical method for the simultaneous measurement of aldehydes from polyunsaturated fatty acids degradation in animal feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douny, Caroline; Bayram, Pinar; Brose, François; Degand, Guy; Scippo, Marie-Louise

    2016-05-01

    Knowing that polyunsaturated fatty acids can lead to the formation of potentially toxic aldehydes as secondary oxidation products, an analytical method using liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) detection was developed to measure the concentration of eight aldehydes in animal feed: malondialdehyde (MDA), 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE), 4-hydroxy-2-hexenal (4-HHE), crotonaldehyde (CRT), benzaldehyde (BNZ), hexanal (HXL), 2,4-nonadienal, and 2,4-decadienal. The developed method was validated according to the criteria and procedure described in international standards. The evaluated parameters were specificity/selectivity, recovery, precision, accuracy, uncertainty, limits of detection and quantification, using the concept of accuracy profiles. These parameters were determined during experiments conducted over three different days with ground Kellogg's® Corn Flakes® cereals as model matrix for animal feed and spiked at different levels of concentration. Malondialdehyde, 4-HHE, 4-HNE, crotonaldehyde, benzaldehyde, and hexanal can be analyzed in the same run in animal feed with a very good accuracy, with recovery rates ranging from 86 to 109% for a working range going from 0.16 to 12.50 mg/kg. The analysis of 2,4-nonadienal and 2,4-decadienal can also be performed but in a limited range of concentration and with a limited degree of accuracy. Their recovery rates ranged between 54 and 114% and coefficient of variation for the intermediate precision between 11 and 25% for these two compounds. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27443200

  17. Aspects of recent developments in analytical chemometrics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG; Yizeng; WU; Hailong; SHEN; Guoli; JIANG; Jianhui; LIANG; Sheng

    2006-01-01

    Some aspects of recent developments in analytical chemometrics are discussed, in particular the developments viewed from the angle of the research efforts undertaken in authors' laboratories. The topics concerned include resolution of high-order chemical data, morphological theory and methodology for chemical signal processing, multivariate calibration and chemical pattern recognition for solving complex chemical problems, and resolution of two-way chemical data from hyphenated chromatographic instruments.

  18. Some analytical methods for explosives: Part 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selig, W.

    1965-12-08

    This report is the second compilation of methods for analyzing explosives. All the methods were developed for routine performance by techniques, and an attempt has therefore been made to keep them as simple as possible. Methods are presented for analyzing plastic-bonded explosives based on sym-cyclomethylenetetra-nitramine (HMX), based on viton in addition to HMX, and based on pentraerythritol tetranitrate (PETN).

  19. 77 FR 41336 - Analytical Methods Used in Periodic Reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-13

    ... 39 CFR Part 3050 Analytical Methods Used in Periodic Reporting AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission... initiate an informal rulemaking proceeding to consider changes in analytical methods used in periodic... the Commission initiate an informal rulemaking proceeding to consider changes in the...

  20. Development and validation of an HPLC-MS/MS analytical method for quantitative analysis of TCBA-TPQ, a novel anticancer makaluvamine analog, and application in a pharmacokinetic study in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Jun-Xian, YU; Voruganti, Sukesh; Dan-Dan, LI; Qin, Jiang-Jiang; Nag, Subhasree; Xu, Su; Velu, Sadanandan E.; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Ruiwen

    2015-01-01

    We have recently designed and synthesized several novel iminoquinone anticancer agents that have entered preclinical development for the treatment of human cancers. Herein we developed and validated a quantitative HPLC-MS/MS analytical method for one of the lead novel anticancer makaluvamine analog, TCBA-TPQ, and conducted a pharmacokinetic study in laboratory rats. Our results indicated that the HPLC-MS/MS method was precise, accurate, and specific. Using this method, we carried out in vitro...

  1. 40 CFR 158.355 - Enforcement analytical method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Enforcement analytical method. 158.355... DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Product Chemistry § 158.355 Enforcement analytical method. An analytical method suitable for enforcement purposes must be provided for each active ingredient in...

  2. 40 CFR 161.180 - Enforcement analytical method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Enforcement analytical method. 161.180 Section 161.180 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS... § 161.180 Enforcement analytical method. An analytical method suitable for enforcement purposes must...

  3. Desenvolvimento de método analítico por CLAE em comprimidos de Benznidazol para a Doença de Chagas Development of an hplc analytical method for benznidazol tablets for the treatment of chagas disease

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Luiza Maurer da Silva; José Lamartine Soares Sobrinho; Pedro José Rolim Neto; Rosali Maria Ferreira da Silva; Flávia Patrícia Morais de Medeiros; Leduar Guedes de Lima

    2007-01-01

    The analytical method of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for the assay of benznidazole in tablets was developed and validated following the requirements of regulatory agencies. The method used as mobile phase acetonitrile:wather 1:1, a C18 column of 12.5 cm length x 4 mm id, 5 mm particles and lambda=316 nm. The statistical analysis of the results demonstrated that the method satisfies all parameters so as to be considered a safe and efficient analytical alternative of low cost ...

  4. Developing variations: : An analytical and historical perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Sirman, Berk

    2006-01-01

    ABSTRACT Berk Sirman: Developing Variations – An Analytical and Historical Perspective. Uppsala Universitet: Institutionen för musikvetenskap, uppsats för 60 p., 2006. Developing variations is a term by Arnold Schönberg that is coined to describe constant modification of motives and ideas in a theme, or possibly throughout the whole work. This is thought to be superior to exact repetitions. Developing variations was used by Schönberg to analyze the music of Brahms, whose compositions represen...

  5. Catalyst Kinetics Analytical Method Study of Ruthenium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kou ming-ze; Zhan hui-ying; Kou zong-yan

    2004-01-01

    Color reactions are used to determine ruthenium utilizing spectrophotometer, but the process need high temperature, long time pyrogenation and miscellaneous extraction and it contaminates the enviroment. As the sensitive degree and simple apparatus of catalyst kinetics analytical method, it was extensively attentcd. The fundmental principle means to determinn a certain chemistry reaction rate accelerated by homogeneous catalyst and determine substantial content using the function of the numerical value of of its and the catalyst concentration. Color acid double azo-reagents (chloro-phosphor group, arsenic group and carboxylic acid group) are sensitive color reagent determining uranium and thorium of lanthanon, but the report is few that it is used to determine ruthenium. Since 1990s, the author studied that the ruthenium was possessed evident catalysis to the fade reaction of oxidant (KIO4, KBrO3) oxidating color acid double azo-reagent in acitidy medium and provided the catalyst kinetics analytical method to determine trace ruthenium.sensitive degree was increased 1 ~2 amount than color reaction. The reaction as:The original concentration of color acid double azo-reagents is A. The instantaneous absorbency after t reaction time is At. In homogeneous catalyst reaction: log(A0/At) = KCRu3+t. Reaction time t is invarible, so log(A0/At) = K' CRu3+t.Color acid double azo-reagents, such as: chlor-azochlorphosphor(CPA-TC),bromic-azochlorphosphor (CPA-TB), DBS-azochlorphosphor(DBS-CPA), DBC-azochlorphosphor (DBC-CPA), DBOK-azochlorpho sphor (DBOK-CPA), p-iodineazochlorphosphor(CPA-PI),p-acetylazochlorphosphor (CPA-PA), azochlorpho sphorⅢ(CPAⅢ), chlor-azoarsenic (TC-AsA),bromic-azoarsenic (TB-AsA), DBS-azoarsenic(DCS-AsA), DCS-azoarsenic(DCS-AsA),azoarsenicⅢ(AsAⅢ), bromicnityrlazoarsenic (DBN-AsA), P-acetylcarboxy lazo-p,P-acetylcarboxylazo, were utilized in catalyst kinetics system. The author obtains the satisfactory results that color acid double azo-rea gents

  6. Development and validation of an HPLC-MS/MS method to quantify clopidogrel acyl glucuronide, clopidogrel acid metabolite, and clopidogrel in plasma samples avoiding analyte back-conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestro, Luigi; Gheorghe, Mihaela; Iordachescu, Adriana; Ciuca, Valentin; Tudoroniu, Ariana; Rizea Savu, Simona; Tarcomnicu, Isabela

    2011-08-01

    A new sensitive and fast quantitative analytical method for the simultaneous determination of clopidogrel, its main metabolite clopidogrel carboxylic acid, and the newly described acyl glucuronide metabolite, in human plasma samples, is presented. The analytical procedures (plasma storage, handling, and extract storage in the autosampler) were optimized in order to avoid back-conversion; a known drawback in measurements of clopidogrel. Clopidogrel acyl glucuronide was confirmed as a major source of back-conversion to the parent drug in the presence of methanol, and thorough stability experiments were carried out to find the most appropriate conditions for an accurate analysis of clopidogrel and the two metabolites. The method was validated by assessing selectivity, sensitivity, linearity, accuracy, and precision for all three analytes, in accordance to Food and Drug Administration guidelines. Spiked quality controls in plasma as well as incurred samples were used to verify back-conversion in the selected conditions, with results meeting European Medicines Agency acceptance criteria (concentrations within 80-120% of the first reading). The method was then applied to a pharmacokinetic study, and for the first time, a pharmacokinetic curve of clopidogrel acyl glucuronide in human plasma is presented. The concentrations ranged up to 1,048.684 ng/mL, with a mean of 470.268 ng/mL, while clopidogrel had a mean C(max) of 1.348 ng/mL; these orders of magnitude show how much the back-conversion of this metabolite may influence clopidogrel quantification if it is not properly controlled.

  7. Hanford environmental analytical methods: Methods as of March 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper from the analytical laboratories at Hanford describes the method used to measure pH of single-shell tank core samples. Sludge or solid samples are mixed with deionized water. The pH electrode used combines both a sensor and reference electrode in one unit. The meter amplifies the input signal from the electrode and displays the pH visually

  8. Analytical bootstrap methods for censored data

    OpenAIRE

    Alan D. Hutson

    2002-01-01

    Analytic bootstrap estimators for the moments of survival quantities are derived. By using these expressions recommendations can be made as to the appropriateness of bootstrap estimation under censored data conditions.

  9. Developing an analytical model to increase urban security from the Secured perspective by Designing (SBD Approach using fuzzy AHP method (case study: region 17 of Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Zabihi

    2013-01-01

    DiscussionThis study follows two targets: First, determining the relative importance of criteria and sub-criteria of SBD approach and second, evaluating urban security in four areas of the case study using the results of the previous step. The proposed fuzzy AHP model to achieve mentioned targets is composed of the following steps:Step 1: Identify the criteria and sub-criteria of each principle of SBD approach. Step 2: Structure the AHP model hierarchically based on the criteria and sub-criteria identified at Step 1Step 3: Determine the priorities of the main principles with respect to the goal by using pairwise comparison matrices (w1. This scale is proposed by Kahraman et al. (Kahraman, 2008 and used for solving fuzzy decision making problems (Dagdeviren & Yüksel, 2008; Kahraman, Ertay, & Buyukozkan, 2006; Tolga, Demircan, & Kahraman, 2005 in the literature. Pairwise comparison matrices of the components imported in Microsoft Excel workspace developed for solving FAHP matrices. Step 4: Determine the local weights of the criteria (w2 and sub-criteria (w3 (Local and alternatives. Step 5: Calculate the global weights for the sub-criteria (w3 (Global. Step 6: Compute the overall weight of each alternative (area and choose the best area. 4– ConclusionThis study has been proposed a hierarchical model to evaluate the rate of environmental security which decomposes the 5 principles of SBD into 12 criteria and 29 sub-criteria. To our best knowledge, this is the first time that factors affecting main principles of SBD are determined and prioritized. This may help urban designers to consider the most important factors affecting crime reduction in their designs and decision makings.This model is based on determining the most important factors affecting 5 principles of SBD which can lead to urban security in the case study. For this purpose, fuzzy AHP method is adopted in order to assess the relative importance of the factors and sub factors of the model. This method has the ability

  10. Cryogenic Propellant Feed System Analytical Tool Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusby, Brian S.; Miranda, Bruno M.; Collins, Jacob A.

    2011-01-01

    The Propulsion Systems Branch at NASA s Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center (JSC) has developed a parametric analytical tool to address the need to rapidly predict heat leak into propellant distribution lines based on insulation type, installation technique, line supports, penetrations, and instrumentation. The Propellant Feed System Analytical Tool (PFSAT) will also determine the optimum orifice diameter for an optional thermodynamic vent system (TVS) to counteract heat leak into the feed line and ensure temperature constraints at the end of the feed line are met. PFSAT was developed primarily using Fortran 90 code because of its number crunching power and the capability to directly access real fluid property subroutines in the Reference Fluid Thermodynamic and Transport Properties (REFPROP) Database developed by NIST. A Microsoft Excel front end user interface was implemented to provide convenient portability of PFSAT among a wide variety of potential users and its ability to utilize a user-friendly graphical user interface (GUI) developed in Visual Basic for Applications (VBA). The focus of PFSAT is on-orbit reaction control systems and orbital maneuvering systems, but it may be used to predict heat leak into ground-based transfer lines as well. PFSAT is expected to be used for rapid initial design of cryogenic propellant distribution lines and thermodynamic vent systems. Once validated, PFSAT will support concept trades for a variety of cryogenic fluid transfer systems on spacecraft, including planetary landers, transfer vehicles, and propellant depots, as well as surface-based transfer systems. The details of the development of PFSAT, its user interface, and the program structure will be presented.

  11. Development of an analytical method for the determination of histamine in fish by liquid chromatography of high performance in reverse phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The histamine is a biogenic amine able to promote allergic intoxications in sensitive persons. For this reason is necessary to have a method of analysis with sensitivity, precision and accuracy able to quantify lower amounts than actual FDA Normative sets. A reverse phase chromatographic method was developed. To identify and quantify histamine through automatic generation of histamine derivative of OPA, using an ultraviolet detector, performance parameters of developed method were adequate to quantification of histamine amount lower than FDA Normative. (Author)

  12. A new approach for the estimation of expanded uncertainty of results of an analytical method developed for determining antibiotics in seawater using solid-phase extraction disks and liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borecka, Marta; Białk-Bielińska, Anna; Siedlewicz, Grzegorz; Kornowska, Kinga; Kumirska, Jolanta; Stepnowski, Piotr; Pazdro, Ksenia

    2013-08-23

    Although the uncertainty estimate should be a necessary component of an analytical result, the presentation of measurements together with their uncertainties is still a serious problem, especially in the monitoring of the presence of pharmaceuticals in the environment. Here we discuss the estimation of expanded uncertainty in analytical procedures for determining residues of twelve pharmaceuticals in seawaters using solid-phase extraction (SPE) with H2O-Philic BAKERBOND speed disks and liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Matrix effects, extraction efficiency and absolute recovery of the developed analytical method were determined. A validation was performed to obtain the method's linearity, precision, accuracy, limits of detection (LODs) and quantification (LOQs). The expanded uncertainty of the data obtained was estimated according to the Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement and ISO 17025:2005 standard. We applied our method to the analysis of drugs in seawaters samples from the coastal area of the southern Baltic Sea. As a result, a new approach (concerning the uncertainty estimation as well as the development of analytical method) to the analysis of pharmaceutical residues in environmental samples is presented. The information given here should facilitate the introduction of uncertainty estimation in chromatographic measurements on a much greater scale than is currently the case. PMID:23885670

  13. Development of a non-destructive micro-analytical method for stable carbon isotope analysis of transmission electron microscope (TEM) samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hode, Tomas; Kristiansson, Per; Elfman, Mikael; Hugo, Richard C.; Cady, Sherry L.

    2009-10-01

    The biogenicity of ancient morphological microfossil-like objects can be established by linking morphological (e.g. cell remnants and extracellular polymeric matrix) and chemical (e.g. isotopes, biomarkers and biominerals) evidence indicative of microorganisms or microbial activity. We have developed a non-destructive micro-analytical ion beam system capable of measuring with high spatial resolution the stable carbon isotope ratios of thin samples used for transmission electron microscopy. The technique is based on elastic scattering of alpha particles with an energy of 2.751 MeV. At this energy the 13C cross section is enhanced relative to the pure Rutherford cross section for 13C, whereas the 12C cross section is reduced relative to its pure Rutherford cross section. Here we report the initial results of this experimental approach used to characterize ultramicrotomed sections of sulfur-embedded graphite and microbial cells.

  14. 100-B/C Target Analyte List Development for Soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.W. Ovink

    2010-03-18

    This report documents the process used to identify source area target analytes in support of the 100-B/C remedial investigation/feasibility study addendum to DOE/RL-2008-46. This report also establishes the analyte exclusion criteria applicable for 100-B/C use and the analytical methods needed to analyze the target analytes.

  15. Substantive provisions of Numeral-analytical boundary elements method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.F. Orobey

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Substantive propositions of the new method of design calculation, that got the name "Numeral-analytical of boundary elements method", offered by authors, are brought. A method consists of development of the fundamental system of decisions (analytically and Green functions (also analytically for every examined task.For the account of certain border terms, or terms of contact between the separate modules (the separate element of the system is so named the small system of linear algebraic equalizations, that must be decided numeral, is made.Discretisation only of border of the area occupied by an object, sharply diminishes the order of the system of resolvent equalizations; there is possibility of decline of regularity of the decided task. A method is strictly reasonable mathematically, as uses the fundamental decisions of differential equalizations, and, means, within the framework of the accepted hypotheses allows to get the exact meaning of parameters of task (efforts, moving, tensions, currents, frequencies of eigentones, critical forces of loss of stability et cetera into an area.Simplicity of logic of algorithm, good convergence of decision, high stability and small accumulation of errors at numeral operations, are marked also.

  16. Nonlinear ordinary differential equations analytical approximation and numerical methods

    CERN Document Server

    Hermann, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The book discusses the solutions to nonlinear ordinary differential equations (ODEs) using analytical and numerical approximation methods. Recently, analytical approximation methods have been largely used in solving linear and nonlinear lower-order ODEs. It also discusses using these methods to solve some strong nonlinear ODEs. There are two chapters devoted to solving nonlinear ODEs using numerical methods, as in practice high-dimensional systems of nonlinear ODEs that cannot be solved by analytical approximate methods are common. Moreover, it studies analytical and numerical techniques for the treatment of parameter-depending ODEs. The book explains various methods for solving nonlinear-oscillator and structural-system problems, including the energy balance method, harmonic balance method, amplitude frequency formulation, variational iteration method, homotopy perturbation method, iteration perturbation method, homotopy analysis method, simple and multiple shooting method, and the nonlinear stabilized march...

  17. Analytical solution methods for geodesic motion

    CERN Document Server

    Hackmann, Eva

    2015-01-01

    The observation of the motion of particles and light near a gravitating object is until now the only way to explore and to measure the gravitational field. In the case of exact black hole solutions of the Einstein equations the gravitational field is characterized by a small number of parameters which can be read off from the observables related to the orbits of test particles and light rays. Here we review the state of the art of analytical solutions of geodesic equations in various space--times. In particular we consider the four dimensional black hole space--times of Pleba\\'nski--Demia\\'nski type as far as the geodesic equation separates, as well as solutions in higher dimensions, and also solutions with cosmic strings. The mathematical tools used are elliptic and hyperelliptic functions. We present a list of analytic solutions which can be found in the literature.

  18. SRXRF Experiments and Analytical Methods of Mineral Individual Fluid Inclusions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Chunxue; Huang Yuying; Li Hongkui; Chen Chuanren; He Wei; Li Kuifa

    2007-01-01

    This paper focuses on the micro-beam and trace element non-destructive experiment and analytical method of mineral fluid inclusions by synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence (SRXRF) microprobe at Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility (BSRF). The experimental instrument, measurement process and calculating method are introduced. A set of oil- and gas-containing typical mineral fluid inclusions taken from the Tazhong and Lunnan oilfields in the Tarim Basin were analyzed non-destructively. The trace element contents in the fluid inclusions may provide guidance for oil and gas exploration and development.

  19. Information and Analytic Maintenance of Nanoindustry Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glushchenko Aleksandra Vasilyevna

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The successful course of nanotechnological development in many respects depends on the volume and quality of information provided to external and internal users. The objective of the present research is to reveal the information requirements of various groups of users for effective management of nanotech industry and to define ways of their most effective satisfaction. The authors also aim at developing the system of the indicators characterizing the current state and the dynamic parameters of nanotech industry development. On the basis of the conducted research the need of information system of nanotech industry development is proved. The information interrelations of subjects of nanotech industry for development of communicative function of the account which becomes dominating in comparison with control function are revealed. The information needs of users of financial and non-financial information are defined. The stages of its introduction, since determination of character, volume, the list and degree of efficiency of information before creation of system of the administrative reporting, the analysis and control are in detail registered. The information and analytical system is focused on the general assessment of efficiency and the major economic indicators, the general tendencies of development of nanotech industry, possible reserves of increasing the efficiency of their functioning. The authors develop pthe system of the indicators characterizing the advancement of nanotech industry and allowing to estimate innovative activity in the sphere of nanotech industry, to calculate intensity of nano-innovations costs, to define the productivity and efficiency of nanotech industry in branch, the region, national economy in general.

  20. Relativistic mirrors in laser plasmas (analytical methods)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulanov, S. V.; Esirkepov, T. Zh; Kando, M.; Koga, J.

    2016-10-01

    Relativistic flying mirrors in plasmas are realized as thin dense electron (or electron-ion) layers accelerated by high-intensity electromagnetic waves to velocities close to the speed of light in vacuum. The reflection of an electromagnetic wave from the relativistic mirror results in its energy and frequency changing. In a counter-propagation configuration, the frequency of the reflected wave is multiplied by the factor proportional to the Lorentz factor squared. This scientific area promises the development of sources of ultrashort x-ray pulses in the attosecond range. The expected intensity will reach the level at which the effects predicted by nonlinear quantum electrodynamics start to play a key role. We present an overview of theoretical methods used to describe relativistic flying, accelerating, oscillating mirrors emerging in intense laser-plasma interactions.

  1. ANALYTICAL METHODS FOR CALCULATING FAN AERODYNAMICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Dostal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents results obtained between 2010 and 2014 in the field of fan aerodynamics at the Department of Composite Technology at the VZLÚ aerospace research and experimental institute in Prague – Letnany. The need for rapid and accurate methods for the preliminary design of blade machinery led to the creation of a mathematical model based on the basic laws of turbomachine aerodynamics. The mathematical model, the derivation of which is briefly described below, has been encoded in a computer programme, which enables the theoretical characteristics of a fan of the designed geometry to be determined rapidly. The validity of the mathematical model is assessed continuously by measuring model fans in the measuring unit, which was developed and manufactured specifically for this purpose. The paper also presents a comparison between measured characteristics and characteristics determined by the mathematical model as the basis for a discussion on possible causes of measured deviations and calculation deviations.

  2. Analytical methods for heat transfer and fluid flow problems

    CERN Document Server

    Weigand, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    This book describes useful analytical methods by applying them to real-world problems rather than solving the usual over-simplified classroom problems. The book demonstrates the applicability of analytical methods even for complex problems and guides the reader to a more intuitive understanding of approaches and solutions. Although the solution of Partial Differential Equations by numerical methods is the standard practice in industries, analytical methods are still important for the critical assessment of results derived from advanced computer simulations and the improvement of the underlying numerical techniques. Literature devoted to analytical methods, however, often focuses on theoretical and mathematical aspects and is therefore useless to most engineers. Analytical Methods for Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow Problems addresses engineers and engineering students. The second edition has been updated, the chapters on non-linear problems and on axial heat conduction problems were extended. And worked out exam...

  3. 40 CFR 425.03 - Sulfide analytical methods and applicability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sulfide analytical methods and applicability. 425.03 Section 425.03 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... § 425.03 Sulfide analytical methods and applicability. (a) The potassium ferricyanide titration...

  4. Develop of analytic method for the determination of vitamin D3 in multivitaminics and minerals using chromatography it liquidates of high efficiency in normal phase with ultraviolet detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The good chromatography conditions settled down for the determination vitamin D3 in multivitaminic samples by means of the analytic technique of chromatography it liquidates of high efficiency (HPLC) in normal phase, with ultraviolet detection to 265 nm. The best conditions in the proposed methodology settled down and the variables of analytic acting were validated, for the analytic quantification of vitamin D3 in International units. The applicability of the methodology was demonstrated in the vitamin determination D3 in multivitaminis samples in pill form

  5. Development of Some Molecular Spectral Analytical Methods for the Determination of Proteins%某些分子光谱分析法测定蛋白质的进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨睿; 刘绍璞

    2001-01-01

    A recent development of the determination of proteins by some molecular spectral analytical methods such as spectrophotometric method, fluorospectrophotometric mehtod, and resonance Rayleigh scattering methods was reviewed. The important reaction systems and their analytical characteristics are listed in the tables. 97 references are quoted.%评述包括吸光光度法、荧光光度法及新近发展起来的共振光散射法等分子光谱分析方法定量测定蛋白质的某些进展。表列了重要的反应体系及分析特征。引用文献97种。

  6. Analytic Methods of Sound Field Synthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Ahrens, Jens

    2012-01-01

    This book treats the topic of sound field synthesis with a focus on serving human listeners though the approach can be also exploited in other areas such as underwater acoustics or ultrasonics. The author derives a fundamental formulation based on standard integral equations and the single-layer potential approach is identified as a useful tool in order to derive a general solution. He also proposes extensions to the single-layer potential approach which allow for a derivation of solutions for non-enclosing distributions of secondary sources such as circular, planar, and linear ones. Based on above described formulation it is shown that the two established analytic approaches of Wave Field Synthesis and Near-field Compensated Higher Order Ambisonics constitute specific solutions to the general problem which are covered by the single-layer potential solution and its extensions. The consequences spatial discretization are analyzed in detail for all elementary geometries of secondary source distributions and app...

  7. Analytical methods for predicting contaminant transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper summarizes some of the previous and recent work at the University of California on analytical solutions for predicting contaminate transport in porous and fractured geologic media. Emphasis is given here to the theories for predicting near-field transport, needed to derive the time-dependent source term for predicting far-field transport and overall repository performance. New theories summarized include solubility-limited release rate with flow backfill in rock, near-field transport of radioactive decay chains, interactive transport of colloid and solute, transport of carbon-14 as carbon dioxide in unsaturated rock, and flow of gases out of and a waste container through cracks and penetrations. 28 refs., 4 figs

  8. Analytical method development for powder characterization: Visualization of the critical drug loading affecting the processability of a formulation for direct compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschberg, Cosima; Sun, Changquan Calvin; Rantanen, Jukka

    2016-09-01

    Characterization of particulate systems (powders) is one of the remaining scientific challenges. Evaluation of powder behaviour is often empirical and the decision-making processes are experience-based. There is a need for development of analytical instrumentation enabling more fundamental understanding of powder behaviour. Flowability and tabletability, two key factors in commercial scale manufacturing of tablets with direct compression (DC) approach, were analysed for formulations containing increasing amounts of several model active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs). Flowability was investigated using a ring shear tester and tablets were prepared at four different compression pressures using a single punch tablet press. Thereby, a material sparing screening approach was developed to estimate the influence of APIs on behaviour of a given DC formulation. Additionally, this approach is useful for estimating the low threshold amount of API (wt%), at which the properties of an API start affecting the powder behaviour of a given formulation (API-excipient mixture). This threshold will be referred to as critical drug loading. The flowability of microcrystalline cellulose (reference grade pH 102) was used as a threshold for adequate flowability of model formulations. The threshold for tablet tensile strength was set to 2MPa. Simultaneous visual presentation of both- flowability and tabletability were used for a fast evaluation of manufacturability of a given formulation. The results confirmed that flowability is more sensitive to drug loading than tabletability, and that the critical drug loading for a DC formulation is strongly affected by particulate properties of API. For example, decreasing the particle size of paracetamol led to rapid decrease in flowability index, whereas the tabletability was not affected. PMID:27368089

  9. Higher geometry an introduction to advanced methods in analytic geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Woods, Frederick S

    2005-01-01

    For students of mathematics with a sound background in analytic geometry and some knowledge of determinants, this volume has long been among the best available expositions of advanced work on projective and algebraic geometry. Developed from Professor Woods' lectures at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, it bridges the gap between intermediate studies in the field and highly specialized works.With exceptional thoroughness, it presents the most important general concepts and methods of advanced algebraic geometry (as distinguished from differential geometry). It offers a thorough study

  10. Evolution of microbiological analytical methods for dairy industry needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele eSohier

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, culture-based methods have been used to enumerate microbial populations in dairy products. Recent developments in molecular methods now enable faster and more sensitive analyses than classical microbiology procedures. These molecular tools allow a detailed characterization of cell physiological states and bacterial fitness and thus, offer new perspectives to integration of microbial physiology monitoring to improve industrial processes. This review summarizes the methods described to enumerate and characterize physiological states of technological microbiota in dairy products, and discusses the current deficiencies in relation to the industry’s needs. Recent studies show that PCR-based methods can successfully be applied to quantify fermenting microbes and probiotics in dairy products. Flow cytometry and omics technologies also show interesting analytical potentialities. However, they still suffer from a lack of validation and standardization for quality control analyses, as reflected by the absence of performance studies and official international standards.

  11. Performance of analytical methods for tomographic gamma scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of gamma-ray computerized tomography for nondestructive assay of radioactive materials has led to the development of specialized analytical methods. Over the past few years, Los Alamos has developed and implemented a computer code, called ARC-TGS, for the analysis of data obtained by tomographic gamma scanning (TGS). ARC-TGS reduces TGS transmission and emission tomographic data, providing the user with images of the sample contents, the activity or mass of selected radionuclides, and an estimate of the uncertainty in the measured quantities. The results provided by ARC-TGS can be corrected for self-attenuation when the isotope of interest emits more than one gamma-ray. In addition, ARC-TGS provides information needed to estimate TGS quantification limits and to estimate the scan time needed to screen for small amounts of radioactivity. In this report, an overview of the analytical methods used by ARC-TGS is presented along with an assessment of the performance of these methods for TGS

  12. Development of an analytical method for the determination of arsenic in gasoline samples by hydride generation-graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, Emilene M. [Universidade Federal do Pampa, Bage, RS (Brazil); Universidade Federal de Pelotas, Pelotas, RS (Brazil); Dessuy, Morgana B.; Boschetti, Wiliam [Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Goncalves, 9500, 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Vale, Maria Goreti R., E-mail: mgrvale@ufrgs.br [Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Goncalves, 9500, 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Instituto Nacional de Ciencia e Tecnologia do CNPq, INCT de Energia e Ambiente, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Salvador, BA (Brazil); Ferreira, Sergio L.C. [Instituto Nacional de Ciencia e Tecnologia do CNPq, INCT de Energia e Ambiente, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Salvador, BA (Brazil); Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Salvador, BA (Brazil); Welz, Bernhard [Instituto Nacional de Ciencia e Tecnologia do CNPq, INCT de Energia e Ambiente, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Salvador, BA (Brazil); Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 88040-900 Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)

    2012-05-15

    The purpose of the present work was to optimize the conditions for the determination of arsenic in gasoline with hydride generation-graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry after acid digestion using a full two-level factorial design with center point. The arsine was generated in a batch system and collected in a graphite tube coated with 150 {mu}g Ir as a permanent modifier. The sample volume, the pre-reduction conditions, the temperature program and modifier mass were kept fixed for all experiments. The estimated main effects were: reducing agent concentration (negative effect), acid concentration (negative effect) and trapping temperature (positive effect). It was observed that there were interactions between the variables. Moreover, the curvature was significant, indicating that the best conditions were at the center point. The optimized parameters for arsine generation were 2.7 mol L{sup -1} hydrochloric acid and 1.6% (w/v) sodium tetrahydroborate. The optimized conditions to collect arsine in the graphite furnace were a trapping temperature of 250 Degree-Sign C and a collection time of 30 s. The limit of detection was 6.4 ng L{sup -1} and the characteristic mass was 24 pg. Two different systems for acid digestion were used: a digester block with cold finger and a microwave oven. The concentration of arsenic found with the proposed method was compared with that obtained using a detergentless microemulsion and direct graphite furnace determination. The results showed that the factorial design is a simple tool that allowed establishing the appropriate conditions for sample preparation and also helped in evaluating the interaction between the factors investigated. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We determined As in gasoline using hydride generation-graphite furnace AAS. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We compared three sample preparation procedures. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A multivariate approach was used to optimize the conditions. Black

  13. The evolution of analytical chemistry methods in foodomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Monica; Ferranti, Pasquale

    2016-01-01

    The methodologies of food analysis have greatly evolved over the past 100 years, from basic assays based on solution chemistry to those relying on the modern instrumental platforms. Today, the development and optimization of integrated analytical approaches based on different techniques to study at molecular level the chemical composition of a food may allow to define a 'food fingerprint', valuable to assess nutritional value, safety and quality, authenticity and security of foods. This comprehensive strategy, defined foodomics, includes emerging work areas such as food chemistry, phytochemistry, advanced analytical techniques, biosensors and bioinformatics. Integrated approaches can help to elucidate some critical issues in food analysis, but also to face the new challenges of a globalized world: security, sustainability and food productions in response to environmental world-wide changes. They include the development of powerful analytical methods to ensure the origin and quality of food, as well as the discovery of biomarkers to identify potential food safety problems. In the area of nutrition, the future challenge is to identify, through specific biomarkers, individual peculiarities that allow early diagnosis and then a personalized prognosis and diet for patients with food-related disorders. Far from the aim of an exhaustive review of the abundant literature dedicated to the applications of omic sciences in food analysis, we will explore how classical approaches, such as those used in chemistry and biochemistry, have evolved to intersect with the new omics technologies to produce a progress in our understanding of the complexity of foods. Perhaps most importantly, a key objective of the review will be to explore the development of simple and robust methods for a fully applied use of omics data in food science. PMID:26363946

  14. The evolution of analytical chemistry methods in foodomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Monica; Ferranti, Pasquale

    2016-01-01

    The methodologies of food analysis have greatly evolved over the past 100 years, from basic assays based on solution chemistry to those relying on the modern instrumental platforms. Today, the development and optimization of integrated analytical approaches based on different techniques to study at molecular level the chemical composition of a food may allow to define a 'food fingerprint', valuable to assess nutritional value, safety and quality, authenticity and security of foods. This comprehensive strategy, defined foodomics, includes emerging work areas such as food chemistry, phytochemistry, advanced analytical techniques, biosensors and bioinformatics. Integrated approaches can help to elucidate some critical issues in food analysis, but also to face the new challenges of a globalized world: security, sustainability and food productions in response to environmental world-wide changes. They include the development of powerful analytical methods to ensure the origin and quality of food, as well as the discovery of biomarkers to identify potential food safety problems. In the area of nutrition, the future challenge is to identify, through specific biomarkers, individual peculiarities that allow early diagnosis and then a personalized prognosis and diet for patients with food-related disorders. Far from the aim of an exhaustive review of the abundant literature dedicated to the applications of omic sciences in food analysis, we will explore how classical approaches, such as those used in chemistry and biochemistry, have evolved to intersect with the new omics technologies to produce a progress in our understanding of the complexity of foods. Perhaps most importantly, a key objective of the review will be to explore the development of simple and robust methods for a fully applied use of omics data in food science.

  15. Effective method for calculation of the analytic QCD coupling constant

    CERN Document Server

    Alekseev, A Yu

    2002-01-01

    The analytic running coupling of strong interaction alpha sub a sub n for initial standard perturbative approximations up to three-loop order is studied. The nonperturbative contributions to alpha sub a sub n are obtained in an explicit form. They are shown to be represented in the form of the expansion in the inverse powers of Euclidean momentum squared. It is shown that two-loop and three-loop-order corrections result in partial compensation of one-loop-order leading in the ultraviolet region nonperturbative contribution of the form 1/q sup 2. On basis of the stated expansion the effective method for calculation of the analytic running coupling is developed for all q > LAMBDA. The comparative analysis of the perturbative and nonperturbative contributions is carried out in the momentum dependence of alpha sub a sub n and its perturbative component for one - three-loop cases leads to a conclusion on higher loop stability of the analytic running coupling and its low dependence on the n sub f -threshold matchin...

  16. An Approximate Analytical Method of the Nonlinear Vibroacoustic Coupling System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qizheng Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An approximate analytical method of the nonlinear vibroacoustic coupling system is proposed for the first time. Taking the Duffing oscillator-plate-medium system as an example, the nonlinear vibroacoustic coupling equations are developed using variational principle. The two major difficulties which lie in solving the coupling equations are the uncertain motion of the oscillator and the surface acoustic pressure on the plate, a system for which the fluid-structure coupling cannot be neglected. Based on the incremental harmonic balance (IHB method, the motion of the oscillator is expressed in the form of the Fourier series, and then the modal expression method and the incoherent assumption are employed to discretize the displacement and the surface pressure of the plate. Then the approximate analytical solution is given by the IHB method. The characteristics of acoustic radiation and surface quadratic velocity of the plate, the nonlinear characteristics of oscillator, and the influence of the excitation frequency and the nonlinear stiffness on the results are investigated by the numerical simulation. The results show that the excitation at the frequency close to the natural frequency of the oscillator can produce a significant response of the third-harmonic generation which determines the vibroacoustic characteristics of the plate.

  17. 7 CFR 91.23 - Analytical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... are used. The manuals of standard methods most often used by the Science and Technology laboratories... Identification of Enterobacteriaceae, Elsevier Science, Inc., Regional Sales Office, 655 Avenue of the Americas... Methods for the Examination of Dairy Products, American Public Health Association, 1015 Fifteenth...

  18. Learner Language Analytic Methods and Pedagogical Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyson, Bronwen

    2010-01-01

    Methods for analysing interlanguage have long aimed to capture learner language in its own right. By surveying the cognitive methods of Error Analysis, Obligatory Occasion Analysis and Frequency Analysis, this paper traces reformulations to attain this goal. The paper then focuses on Emergence Analysis, which fine-tunes learner language analysis…

  19. Method of Analytic Evolution of Flat Distribution Amplitudes in QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Tandogan, Asli

    2011-01-01

    A new analytical method of performing ERBL evolution is described. The main goal is to develop an approach that works for distribution amplitudes that do not vanish at the end points, for which the standard method of expansion in Gegenbauer polynomials is inefficient. Two cases of the initial DA are considered: a purely flat DA, given by the same constant for all x, and an antisymmetric DA given by opposite constants for x 1/2. For a purely flat DA, the evolution is governed by an overall (x (1-x))^t dependence on the evolution parameter t times a factor that was calculated as an expansion in t. For an antisymmetric flat DA, an extra overall factor |1-2x|^{2t} appears due to a jump at x=1/2. A good convergence was observed in the t < 1/2 region. For larger t, one can use the standard method of the Gegenbauer expansion.

  20. Development of an analytical method for the simultaneous determination of 15 carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and polycyclic aromatic nitrogen heterocyclic compounds. application to diesel particulates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauvain, J J; Vu Duc, T; Huynh, C K

    2001-12-01

    A new method enabling the determination of 15 priority carcinogenic polyaromatic compounds (PAC) proposed by the US National Toxicology Program (NTP) has been developed and applied to diesel exhaust particulates (DEP). The clean-up procedure consists of solid-phase extraction (SPE) and HPLC fractionation on silica phases followed by liquid-liquid extraction and chromatography on a polyvinylbenzene copolymer column. The method gives good recoveries for all PAC studied except dibenzo[a,j]acridine and dibenzo[a,h]pyrene, for which recovery values are below 80%. The use of GC-MS ion trap and its capacity to achieve single-ion storage enhanced the sensitivity of the method, enabling the detection of high-molecular-weight PAH in the low ng g(-1) concentration range. Intermediate polarity GC columns, e.g. BPX-50 or equivalent, enabled better separation, when applied to DEP analysis, than the generally used DB-5 apolar phase. This is observed mainly for separation of isomeric compounds belonging to the benzofluoranthene and dibenzopyrene families. The application of this method to DEP sampled from the exhaust of a diesel engine and in confined locations such as a tunnel has shown that all PAH of the NTP list could be detected, except dibenzo[a,h]pyrene. No dibenzacridine or dibenzocarbazole could be detected in such matrices. The method is sufficiently sensitive to be applicable to environmental exposure measurements in occupational health surveys.

  1. Implementation of QbD Approach to the Analytical Method Development and Validation for the Estimation of Propafenone Hydrochloride in Tablet Dosage Form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika L. Jadhav

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Chromatographic and spectrophotometric methods were developed according to Quality by Design (QbD approach as per ICH Q8(R2 guidelines for estimation of propafenone hydrochloride in tablet dosage form. QbD approach was carried out by varying various parameters and these variable parameters were designed into Ishikawa diagram. The critical parameters were determined by using principal component analysis as well as by observation. Estimated critical parameters in HPTLC method include solvent methanol, mode of detection absorbance, precoated aluminium backed TLC plate (10 cm 10 cm, wavelength: 250 nm, saturation time: 20 min, band length: 8 mm, solvent front: 70 mm, volume of mobile phase: 5 mL, type of chamber: 10 cm 10 cm, scanning time: 10 min, and mobile phase methanol : ethyl acetate : triethylamine (1.5 : 3.5 : 0.4 v/v/v. Estimated critical parameters in zero order spectrophotometric method were solvent methanol, sample preparation tablet, wavelength: 247.4 nm, slit width: 1.0, scan speed medium, and sampling interval: 0.2, and for first order derivative spectrophotometric method it was scaling factor: 5 and delta lambda 4. The above methods were validated according to ICH Q2(R1 guidelines. Proposed methods can be used for routine analysis of propafenone hydrochloride in tablet dosage form as they were found to be robust and specific.

  2. Development and validation of an HPLC-MS/MS analytical method for quantitative analysis of TCBA-TPQ, a novel anticancer makaluvamine analog, and application in a pharmacokinetic study in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jun-Xian; Voruganti, Sukesh; Li, Dan-Dan; Qin, Jiang-Jiang; Nag, Subhasree; Xu, Su; Velu, Sadanandan E; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Ruiwen

    2015-07-01

    We have recently designed and synthesized several novel iminoquinone anticancer agents that have entered preclinical development for the treatment of human cancers. Herein we developed and validated a quantitative HPLC-MS/MS analytical method for one of the lead novel anticancer makaluvamine analog, TCBA-TPQ, and conducted a pharmacokinetic study in laboratory rats. Our results indicated that the HPLC-MS/MS method was precise, accurate, and specific. Using this method, we carried out in vitro and in vivo evaluations of the pharmacological properties of TCBA-TPQ and plasma pharmacokinetics in rats. Our results provide a basis for future preclinical and clinical development of this promising anticancer marine analog. PMID:26233847

  3. Contribution to the development of new analytical methods by the coupling between capillary electrophoresis and mass spectrometry (ICP-MS and ESI-MS): applications to the nuclear and biological fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The coupling between chromatographic and electrophoretic separation techniques and mass spectrometry is used to combine the efficiency of the separation technique to the selectivity and sensitivity of the detectors. In this work, the number of applications of the CE-MS couplings has been increased. New analytical methods have been set up in the nuclear and biological fields. New analytical methods for the determination of fission products (cesium and lanthanides) have been developed by CE-ICP-MS. They enable to determine both concentration and isotopic composition of the fission products for very low detection limits (ng/mL by CE-Q-ICPMS, pg/mL by CE-HR-ICP-MS), since all the isobaric interferences are resolved. Moreover, only some nano-liters of sample are necessary to perform the analysis. These method have been applied with success to a simulated sample of spent fuel, to a nuclear sample from PUREX process and to a leaching of MOX fuel. Then, lanthanides have been analysed by CE-ESI-MS and the capability of ESI-MS to provide structural information has been studied. Elementary information has been obtained for strong potentials. Structural information has been obtained for low potentials. Finally, a new analytical method by CE-ESI-MS for the determination of 10B-boronophenylalanine (10B-BPA) has been developed for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT). It has been applied to the cellular lines F98 and HUVEC. This CE-ESI-MS method has been validated by HR-ICP-MS. It enables a direct quantification of the chemical form 10B-BPA in samples of limited size (some nano-liters) and for low concentrations (ng/mL). As a consequence, this CE-ESI-MS method has enabled the study of the kinetics of 10B-BPA release and uptake for the F98 cells. (author)

  4. Analytical chemistry methods for boron carbide absorber material. [Standard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DELVIN WL

    1977-07-01

    This standard provides analytical chemistry methods for the analysis of boron carbide powder and pellets for the following: total C and B, B isotopic composition, soluble C and B, fluoride, chloride, metallic impurities, gas content, water, nitrogen, and oxygen. (DLC)

  5. Development and validation of an ESI-LC-MS/MS method for simultaneous identification and quantification of 24 analytes of forensic relevance in vitreous humour, whole blood and plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Beauty; Velpandian, Thirumurthy; Saxena, Rohit; Lalwani, Sanjeev; Dogra, T D; Ghose, Supriyo

    2016-01-01

    Detection and quantification of drugs from various biological matrices are of immense importance in forensic toxicological analysis. Despite the various reported methods, development of a new method for the detection and quantification of drugs is still an active area of research. However, every method and biological matrix has its own limitation, which further encourage forensic toxicologists to develop new methods and to explore new matrices for the analysis of drugs. In this study, an electrospray ionization-liquid chromatograph-tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-LC-MS/MS) method is developed and validated for simultaneous identification and quantification of 24 drugs of forensic relevance in various body fluids, namely, whole blood, plasma and vitreous humour. The newly developed method has been validated for intra-day and inter-day accuracy, precision, selectivity and sensitivity. Absolute recovery shows a mean of 84.5, 86.2, and 103% in the vitreous humour, whole blood and plasma respectively, which is suitable for the screening procedure. Further, the absolute matrix effect (AME) shows a mean of 105, 96.5, and 109% in the vitreous humour, whole blood and plasma, respectively. In addition, to examine the practical utility of this method, it has been applied for screening of drugs in post-mortem samples of the vitreous humour, whole blood and plasma collected at autopsy from ten cadavers. Experimental results show that the newly developed method is well applicable for screening of analytes in all the three matrices.

  6. Analytical methods to identify irradiated food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the last years, three promising techniques for the identification of irradiated food were developed: - Studies of luminescence, mainly thermoluminescence measurements, of food containing mineral impurities like spices, dried vegetables: and fresh fuit and vegetables. This technique can probably be applied also to food with crystalline components like shells or bones. - Gaschromatographic/mass-spectrometric investigation of radiation-induced lipid changes. - Electron-spin-resonance measurements of dried products or of products containing dry components like bones, fish bones, shells or seeds. The thermoluminescence technique has been routinely applied for more than one year by several German Food Inspection Laboratories. The results suggest that there are scarcely any irradiated spices and dried vegetables in the German market. Gaschromatography/mass spectrometry of lipid components and electron-spin-resonance spectroscopy will be established in routine food inspections in Germany in the next two years. Further possibilities to identify irradiated food are the analysis of specific changes in amino acids, DNA and carbohydrates. Radiation-induced viscosity changes, and changes in electric properties (impedance) may be helpful in identifiying at least some irradiated products. Also microbiological and biological techniques as e.g. microbial flora shift or embryo development tests in citrus fruit have been considered. All activities concerning the development of identification techniques are now coordinated by the European Communities and by IAEA. (orig.)

  7. Using analytic network process for evaluating mobile text entry methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocampo, Lanndon A; Seva, Rosemary R

    2016-01-01

    This paper highlights a preference evaluation methodology for text entry methods in a touch keyboard smartphone using analytic network process (ANP). Evaluation of text entry methods in literature mainly considers speed and accuracy. This study presents an alternative means for selecting text entry method that considers user preference. A case study was carried out with a group of experts who were asked to develop a selection decision model of five text entry methods. The decision problem is flexible enough to reflect interdependencies of decision elements that are necessary in describing real-life conditions. Results showed that QWERTY method is more preferred than other text entry methods while arrangement of keys is the most preferred criterion in characterizing a sound method. Sensitivity analysis using simulation of normally distributed random numbers under fairly large perturbation reported the foregoing results reliable enough to reflect robust judgment. The main contribution of this paper is the introduction of a multi-criteria decision approach in the preference evaluation of text entry methods. PMID:26360215

  8. Analytical techniques for instrument design - matrix methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We take the traditional Cooper-Nathans approach, as has been applied for many years for steady-state triple-axis spectrometers, and consider its generalisation to other inelastic scattering spectrometers. This involves a number of simple manipulations of exponentials of quadratic forms. In particular, we discuss a toolbox of matrix manipulations that can be performed on the 6- dimensional Cooper-Nathans matrix: diagonalisation (Moller-Nielsen method), coordinate changes e.g. from (ΔkI,ΔkF to ΔE, ΔQ ampersand 2 dummy variables), integration of one or more variables (e.g. over such dummy variables), integration subject to linear constraints (e.g. Bragg's Law for analysers), inversion to give the variance-covariance matrix, and so on. We show how these tools can be combined to solve a number of important problems, within the narrow-band limit and the gaussian approximation. We will argue that a generalised program that can handle multiple different spectrometers could (and should) be written in parallel to the Monte-Carlo packages that are becoming available. We will also discuss the complementarity between detailed Monte-Carlo calculations and the approach presented here. In particular, Monte-Carlo methods traditionally simulate the real experiment as performed in practice, given a model scattering law, while the Cooper-Nathans method asks the inverse question: given that a neutron turns up in a particular spectrometer configuration (e.g. angle and time of flight), what is the probability distribution of possible scattering events at the sample? The Monte-Carlo approach could be applied in the same spirit to this question

  9. Analytical techniques for instrument design - matrix methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, R.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1997-09-01

    We take the traditional Cooper-Nathans approach, as has been applied for many years for steady-state triple-axis spectrometers, and consider its generalisation to other inelastic scattering spectrometers. This involves a number of simple manipulations of exponentials of quadratic forms. In particular, we discuss a toolbox of matrix manipulations that can be performed on the 6- dimensional Cooper-Nathans matrix: diagonalisation (Moller-Nielsen method), coordinate changes e.g. from ({Delta}k{sub I},{Delta}k{sub F} to {Delta}E, {Delta}Q & 2 dummy variables), integration of one or more variables (e.g. over such dummy variables), integration subject to linear constraints (e.g. Bragg`s Law for analysers), inversion to give the variance-covariance matrix, and so on. We show how these tools can be combined to solve a number of important problems, within the narrow-band limit and the gaussian approximation. We will argue that a generalised program that can handle multiple different spectrometers could (and should) be written in parallel to the Monte-Carlo packages that are becoming available. We will also discuss the complementarity between detailed Monte-Carlo calculations and the approach presented here. In particular, Monte-Carlo methods traditionally simulate the real experiment as performed in practice, given a model scattering law, while the Cooper-Nathans method asks the inverse question: given that a neutron turns up in a particular spectrometer configuration (e.g. angle and time of flight), what is the probability distribution of possible scattering events at the sample? The Monte-Carlo approach could be applied in the same spirit to this question.

  10. NUMERICAL AND ANALYTIC METHODS OF ESTIMATION BRIDGES’ CONSTRUCTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Y. Luchko

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article the numerical and analytical methods of calculation of the stressed-and-strained state of bridge constructions are considered. The task on increasing of reliability and accuracy of the numerical method and its solution by means of calculations in two bases are formulated. The analytical solution of the differential equation of deformation of a ferro-concrete plate under the action of local loads is also obtained.

  11. Relativistic Mirrors in Laser Plasmas (Analytical Methods)

    CERN Document Server

    Bulanov, Sergei V; Kando, Masaki; Koga, James K

    2016-01-01

    Relativistic flying mirrors in plasmas are realized as thin dense electron (or electron-ion) layers accelerated by high-intensity electromagnetic waves to velocities close to the speed of light in vacuum. The reflection of an electromagnetic wave from the relativistic mirror results in its energy and frequency changing. In a counter-propagation configuration, the frequency of the reflected wave is multiplied by the factor proportional to the Lorentz factor squared. This scientific area promises the development of sources of ultrashort X-ray pulses in the attosecond range. The expected intensity will reach the level at which the effects predicted by nonlinear quantum electrodynamics start to play a key role.

  12. Polymeric vehicles for topical delivery and related analytical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Heui Kyoung; Cho, Jin Hun; Jeong, Seong Hoon; Cho, Dong Chul; Yeum, Jeong Hyun; Cheong, In Woo

    2014-04-01

    Recently a variety of polymeric vehicles, such as micelles, nanoparticles, and polymersomes, have been explored and some of them are clinically used to deliver therapeutic drugs through skin. In topical delivery, the polymeric vehicles as drug carrier should guarantee non-toxicity, long-term stability, and permeation efficacy for drugs, etc. For the development of the successful topical delivery system, it is of importance to develop the polymeric vehicles of well-defined intrinsic properties, such as molecular weights, HLB, chemical composition, topology, specific ligand conjugation and to investigate the effects of the properties on drug permeation behavior. In addition, the role of polymeric vehicles must be elucidated in in vitro and in vivo analyses. This article describes some important features of polymeric vehicles and corresponding analytical methods in topical delivery even though the application span of polymers has been truly broad in the pharmaceutical fields.

  13. Fracture mechanics life analytical methods verification testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favenesi, J. A.; Clemons, T. G.; Riddell, W. T.; Ingraffea, A. R.; Wawrzynek, P. A.

    1994-09-01

    The objective was to evaluate NASCRAC (trademark) version 2.0, a second generation fracture analysis code, for verification and validity. NASCRAC was evaluated using a combination of comparisons to the literature, closed-form solutions, numerical analyses, and tests. Several limitations and minor errors were detected. Additionally, a number of major flaws were discovered. These major flaws were generally due to application of a specific method or theory, not due to programming logic. Results are presented for the following program capabilities: K versus a, J versus a, crack opening area, life calculation due to fatigue crack growth, tolerable crack size, proof test logic, tearing instability, creep crack growth, crack transitioning, crack retardation due to overloads, and elastic-plastic stress redistribution. It is concluded that the code is an acceptable fracture tool for K solutions of simplified geometries, for a limited number of J and crack opening area solutions, and for fatigue crack propagation with the Paris equation and constant amplitude loads when the Paris equation is applicable.

  14. Analysis of selected prioritization methods in the analytic hierarchy process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jablonsky, J.

    2015-06-01

    A crucial problem in the analytic hierarchy process (or its extension analytic network process) deriving priorities form pairwise comparison matrices. The most popular methods for deriving priorities are eigenvector method, which is originally proposed by Saaty[5], logarithmic least square method, and least square method. The paper deals with other alternative approaches using goal programming methodology - one of them is based on minimization of sum of absolute or relative deviations and the other one on minimization of maximum deviation. The results of methods are compared on a set of randomly generated matrices of different sizes and consistency levels.

  15. Development of health-related analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Related to the programme based on Nuclear Methods for Health-Related Monitoring of Trace Element Pollutants in Man initiated by I.A.E.A. in 1978, our laboratory (L.A.R.N.) has developed and optimized samples preparation techniques for hair analysis without dissolution and preconcentration or chemical separation, and PIXE non vacuum technique for measurement of biological samples such as liquids. The results obtained at L.A.R.N. have been compared with results obtained by the other techniques, and it is found that PIXE can be used with reliability to analyse in a short time a lot of biological samples. (author)

  16. Traveling wave analysis of partial differential equations numerical and analytical methods with Matlab and Maple

    CERN Document Server

    Griffiths, Graham

    2010-01-01

    Although the Partial Differential Equations (PDE) models that are now studied are usually beyond traditional mathematical analysis, the numerical methods that are being developed and used require testing and validation. This is often done with PDEs that have known, exact, analytical solutions. The development of analytical solutions is also an active area of research, with many advances being reported recently, particularly traveling wave solutions for nonlinear evolutionary PDEs. Thus, the current development of analytical solutions directly supports the development of numerical methods by p

  17. Development of an absolute x-ray fluorescence technique and high accuracy analytical methods for the determination of metals in catalytic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A technique to produce characteristic x-rays by direct beta excitation for x-ray fluorescence analysis is presented. This is carried out by the introduction of 100 uCi of Pm-147 or Ni-63 to a small sample, which is placed directly in the window of a modified Si(Li) semiconductor. Corrected intensities are only given at 300 seconds for synthetic standards oscillating within the range 22 3 was used, to which the radioisotope was directly added. Preliminary results of the determination of eleven different radionuclides by means of an elementary x-ray analysis by using a new analytical technique, are discussed. In this technique the radioisotope and the sample are directly mixed, then this source-sample in the detector window and is protected from contamination with a thin plastic film. Future and possible applications of this technique are presented

  18. Application of analytical methods in authentication and adulteration of honey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Amna Jabbar; Musharraf, Syed Ghulam; Choudhary, M Iqbal; Rahman, Atta-Ur-

    2017-02-15

    Honey is synthesized from flower nectar and it is famous for its tremendous therapeutic potential since ancient times. Many factors influence the basic properties of honey including the nectar-providing plant species, bee species, geographic area, and harvesting conditions. Quality and composition of honey is also affected by many other factors, such as overfeeding of bees with sucrose, harvesting prior to maturity, and adulteration with sugar syrups. Due to the complex nature of honey, it is often challenging to authenticate the purity and quality by using common methods such as physicochemical parameters and more specialized procedures need to be developed. This article reviews the literature (between 2000 and 2016) on the use of analytical techniques, mainly NMR spectroscopy, for authentication of honey, its botanical and geographical origin, and adulteration by sugar syrups. NMR is a powerful technique and can be used as a fingerprinting technique to compare various samples. PMID:27664687

  19. Analytical Method Development, Validation and Simultaneous Estimation of Guaifenesin, Levocetirizine Hydrochloride, and Ambroxol Hydrochloride in Syrup Dosage form by RP-HPLC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konagala Sravanthi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present study a validated stability indicating RP-HPLC method for quantification of GFS, LCZ and ABX was established. Compared with the reported methods, this method represents the first report about a stability indicating method for the determination of GFS, LCZ and ABX. With the proposed method a satisfactory separation of three drugs from the degradation products and impurities, extended linear range and rapid analysis time were carried out. A high recovery of GFS, LCZ and ABX in formulation was achieved. The proposed method ensured a precise and accurate determination of GFS, LCZ and ABX in formulation. No interference from the excipients was noticed.

  20. Analytical methods for quantitation of prenylated flavonoids from hops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolić, Dejan; van Breemen, Richard B

    2013-01-01

    The female flowers of hops (Humulus lupulus L.) are used as a flavoring agent in the brewing industry. There is growing interest in possible health benefits of hops, particularly as estrogenic and chemopreventive agents. Among the possible active constituents, most of the attention has focused on prenylated flavonoids, which can chemically be classified as prenylated chalcones and prenylated flavanones. Among chalcones, xanthohumol (XN) and desmethylxanthohumol (DMX) have been the most studied, while among flavanones, 8-prenylnaringenin (8-PN) and 6-prenylnaringenin (6-PN) have received the most attention. Because of the interest in medicinal properties of prenylated flavonoids, there is demand for accurate, reproducible and sensitive analytical methods to quantify these compounds in various matrices. Such methods are needed, for example, for quality control and standardization of hop extracts, measurement of the content of prenylated flavonoids in beer, and to determine pharmacokinetic properties of prenylated flavonoids in animals and humans. This review summarizes currently available analytical methods for quantitative analysis of the major prenylated flavonoids, with an emphasis on the LC-MS and LC-MS-MS methods and their recent applications to biomedical research on hops. This review covers all methods in which prenylated flavonoids have been measured, either as the primary analytes or as a part of a larger group of analytes. The review also discusses methodological issues relating to the quantitative analysis of these compounds regardless of the chosen analytical approach. PMID:24077106

  1. Validation of analytical methods involved in dissolution assays: acceptance limits and decision methodologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozet, E; Ziemons, E; Marini, R D; Boulanger, B; Hubert, Ph

    2012-11-01

    Dissolution tests are key elements to ensure continuing product quality and performance. The ultimate goal of these tests is to assure consistent product quality within a defined set of specification criteria. Validation of an analytical method aimed at assessing the dissolution profile of products or at verifying pharmacopoeias compliance should demonstrate that this analytical method is able to correctly declare two dissolution profiles as similar or drug products as compliant with respect to their specifications. It is essential to ensure that these analytical methods are fit for their purpose. Method validation is aimed at providing this guarantee. However, even in the ICHQ2 guideline there is no information explaining how to decide whether the method under validation is valid for its final purpose or not. Are the entire validation criterion needed to ensure that a Quality Control (QC) analytical method for dissolution test is valid? What acceptance limits should be set on these criteria? How to decide about method's validity? These are the questions that this work aims at answering. Focus is made to comply with the current implementation of the Quality by Design (QbD) principles in the pharmaceutical industry in order to allow to correctly defining the Analytical Target Profile (ATP) of analytical methods involved in dissolution tests. Analytical method validation is then the natural demonstration that the developed methods are fit for their intended purpose and is not any more the inconsiderate checklist validation approach still generally performed to complete the filing required to obtain product marketing authorization. PMID:23084050

  2. Development of a reliable analytical method for the precise extractive spectrophotometric determination of osmium(VIII) with 2-nitrobenzaldehydethiocarbohydrazone: Analysis of alloys and real sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanje, Sunil B; Kokare, Arjun N; Suryavanshi, Vishal J; Waghmode, Duryodhan P; Joshi, Sunil S; Anuse, Mansing A

    2016-12-01

    The proposed method demonstrates that the osmium(VIII) forms complex with 2-NBATCH from 0.8molL(-1) HCl at room temperature. The complex formed was extracted in 10mL of chloroform with a 5min equilibration time. The absorbance of the red colored complex was measured at 440nm against the reagent blank. The Beer's law was obeyed in the range of 5-25μgmL(-1), the optimum concentration range was 10-20μgmL(-1) of osmium(VIII) as evaluated by Ringbom's plot. Molar absorptivity and Sandell's sensitivity of osmium(VIII)-2NBATCH complex in chloroform is 8.94×10(3)Lmol(-1)cm(-1) and 0.021μgcm(-2), respectively. The composition of osmium(VIII)-2NBATCH complex was 1:2 investigated from Job's method of continuous variation, Mole ratio method and slope ratio method. The interference of diverse ions was studied and masking agents were used wherever necessary. The present method was successfully applied for determination of osmium(VIII) from binary, ternary and synthetic mixtures corresponding to alloys and real samples. The validity of the method was confirmed by finding the relative standard deviation for five determinations which was 0.29%. PMID:27380306

  3. New development on materials and techniques used in the heraldic designs of illuminated Manueline foral charters by multi-analytical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the illuminated foral charters commissioned by D. Manuel I, King of Portugal (1495–1521), heraldry played a prominent role. In this work, royal emblems corresponding to the third heraldic design, applied to the Charter of Couto de Teixedo, are studied by means of EDXRF, SEM–EDS, micro-Raman, micro-FTIR and HPLC–DAD to characterize the materials and techniques used to produce this masterpiece of Portuguese Renaissance. By comparing this data with the results previously obtained in other three charters, this research allows for the first time an accurate insight into the reformed manuscripts production, especially since the illuminated charters under consideration were all investigated on the basis of similar micro-spectroscopic techniques. Inks, metal coatings, pigments, organic dyes, fillers or extenders, and binding media are discussed, and their use enlightened by the politic and legal messages the foral charters had to convey. Parchment analysis allowed us to identify the animal species, and all undertaken processes along its preparation. HPLC–DAD allowed us to differentiate the gums used. CaSO4 was observed in the parchment as a degradation product of CaCO3 used in parchment production in the presence of metal sulfates coming from the ink. Pigments used in the different colors as well as some specific phases for some colors were identified. Silvering and gilding processes, metal caratage and silver oxidation compounds were also objects of the present study. - Highlights: • Complementary analytical techniques using portable XRF and molecular techniques were used for the complete characterization of Portuguese illuminated manuscripts. • A comparison between four Manueline foral charters was undertaken, providing an accurate insight into their heraldic designs and production. • Inks, pigments and some of their specific phases, organic dyes, fillers or extenders, and binding media are discussed. • Silvering and gilding processes, metal caratage

  4. Analytical performance of radiochemical method for americium determination in urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents an analytical method developed and adapted for separation and analysis of Plutonium (Pu) isotopes and Americium (Am) in urine samples. The proposed method will attend the demand of internal exposure monitoring program for workers involved mainly with dismantling rods and radioactive smoke detectors. In this experimental procedure four steps are involved as preparation of samples, sequential radiochemical separation, preparation of the source for electroplating and quantification by alpha spectrometry. In the first stage of radiochemical separation, plutonium is conventionally isolated employing the anion exchange technique. Americium isolation is achieved sequentially by chromatographic extraction (Tru.spec column) from the load and rinse solutions coming from the anion exchange column. The 243Am tracer is added into the sample as chemical yield monitors and to correct the results improving the precision and accuracy. The mean recovery obtained is 60%, and the detection limit for 24h urine sample is 1.0 mBq L-1 in accordance with the literature. Based in the preliminary results, the method is appropriate to be used in monitoring programme of workers with a potential risk of internal contamination. (author)

  5. Application of an analytical method for solution of thermal hydraulic conservation equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fakory, M.R. [Simulation, Systems & Services Technologies Company (S3 Technologies), Columbia, MD (United States)

    1995-09-01

    An analytical method has been developed and applied for solution of two-phase flow conservation equations. The test results for application of the model for simulation of BWR transients are presented and compared with the results obtained from application of the explicit method for integration of conservation equations. The test results show that with application of the analytical method for integration of conservation equations, the Courant limitation associated with explicit Euler method of integration was eliminated. The results obtained from application of the analytical method (with large time steps) agreed well with the results obtained from application of explicit method of integration (with time steps smaller than the size imposed by Courant limitation). The results demonstrate that application of the analytical approach significantly improves the numerical stability and computational efficiency.

  6. A New Analytic Alignment Method for a SINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caiming Tan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Analytic alignment is a type of self-alignment for a Strapdown inertial navigation system (SINS that is based solely on two non-collinear vectors, which are the gravity and rotational velocity vectors of the Earth at a stationary base on the ground. The attitude of the SINS with respect to the Earth can be obtained directly using the TRIAD algorithm given two vector measurements. For a traditional analytic coarse alignment, all six outputs from the inertial measurement unit (IMU are used to compute the attitude. In this study, a novel analytic alignment method called selective alignment is presented. This method uses only three outputs of the IMU and a few properties from the remaining outputs such as the sign and the approximate value to calculate the attitude. Simulations and experimental results demonstrate the validity of this method, and the precision of yaw is improved using the selective alignment method compared to the traditional analytic coarse alignment method in the vehicle experiment. The selective alignment principle provides an accurate relationship between the outputs and the attitude of the SINS relative to the Earth for a stationary base, and it is an extension of the TRIAD algorithm. The selective alignment approach has potential uses in applications such as self-alignment, fault detection, and self-calibration.

  7. Software Development Management: Empirical and Analytical Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Keumseok

    2011-01-01

    Managing software development is a very complex activity because it must deal with people, organizations, technologies, and business processes. My dissertation consists of three studies that examine software development management from various perspectives. The first study empirically investigates the impacts of prior experience with similar…

  8. DEVELOPMENT OF AN ANALYTICAL METHOD TO DETERMINE EUGENOL CONCENTRATIONS IN ALCOHOLIC EXTRACTS OF DIFFERENT SPECIES OF OCIMUM’S

    OpenAIRE

    Vinit Sharma

    2012-01-01

    Eugenol is used as a flavor in the food industry, has a variety of biological activity, and can serve as a biomarker. Because eugenol is present in the leaves of Ocimum, which are used as a herbal medicines, a sensitive and reliable quantitative Ultra-violet spectroscopy and high-performance liquid chromatographic method has been established for quantification of the compound in the leaves of the plant. A methanol extract of  the powder of dried leaves of  Ocimum, was spotted on the Merck ...

  9. Analytical chemistry methods for metallic core components: Revision March 1985

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-03-01

    This standard provides analytical chemistry methods for the analysis of alloys used to fabricate core components. These alloys are 302, 308, 316, 316-Ti, and 321 stainless steels and 600 and 718 Inconels and they may include other 300-series stainless steels.

  10. Frontier in nanoscale flows fractional calculus and analytical methods

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, Roland; Liu, Hong-yan

    2014-01-01

    This ebook covers the basic properties of nanoscale flows, and various analytical and numerical methods for nanoscale flows and environmental flows. This ebook is a good reference not only for audience of the journal, but also for various communities in mathematics, nanotechnology and environmental science.

  11. Information and Analytic Maintenance of Nanoindustry Development

    OpenAIRE

    Glushchenko Aleksandra Vasilyevna; Bukhantsev Yuriy Alekseevich; Khudyakova Anna Sergeevna

    2015-01-01

    The successful course of nanotechnological development in many respects depends on the volume and quality of information provided to external and internal users. The objective of the present research is to reveal the information requirements of various groups of users for effective management of nanotech industry and to define ways of their most effective satisfaction. The authors also aim at developing the system of the indicators characterizing the current state and the dynamic parameters o...

  12. DEVELOPMENT OF AN ANALYTICAL METHOD TO DETERMINE EUGENOL CONCENTRATIONS IN ALCOHOLIC EXTRACTS OF DIFFERENT SPECIES OF OCIMUM’S

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinit Sharma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Eugenol is used as a flavor in the food industry, has a variety of biological activity, and can serve as a biomarker. Because eugenol is present in the leaves of Ocimum, which are used as a herbal medicines, a sensitive and reliable quantitative Ultra-violet spectroscopy and high-performance liquid chromatographic method has been established for quantification of the compound in the leaves of the plant. A methanol extract of  the powder of dried leaves of  Ocimum, was spotted on the Merck aluminium plate precoated silica gel F254 with 0.2 mm thickness. Meoh:Chloroform ( 95:5 and  MeOH: H2O: ACN (50:25:75 used as mobile phase to isolate the eugenol and to prepare the sample for UV and HPLC analysis respectively.The UV and HPLC method proposed for the quantitative monitoring of eugenol in Ocimum leaf powder is rapid, simple, and precise. Hence from that UV and HPLC analysis it was conclude that the sanctum linn contains higher amount of Eugenol.

  13. How to assess the quality of your analytical method?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topic, Elizabeta; Nikolac, Nora; Panteghini, Mauro; Theodorsson, Elvar; Salvagno, Gian Luca; Miler, Marijana; Simundic, Ana-Maria; Infusino, Ilenia; Nordin, Gunnar; Westgard, Sten

    2015-10-01

    Laboratory medicine is amongst the fastest growing fields in medicine, crucial in diagnosis, support of prevention and in the monitoring of disease for individual patients and for the evaluation of treatment for populations of patients. Therefore, high quality and safety in laboratory testing has a prominent role in high-quality healthcare. Applied knowledge and competencies of professionals in laboratory medicine increases the clinical value of laboratory results by decreasing laboratory errors, increasing appropriate utilization of tests, and increasing cost effectiveness. This collective paper provides insights into how to validate the laboratory assays and assess the quality of methods. It is a synopsis of the lectures at the 15th European Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (EFLM) Continuing Postgraduate Course in Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine entitled "How to assess the quality of your method?" (Zagreb, Croatia, 24-25 October 2015). The leading topics to be discussed include who, what and when to do in validation/verification of methods, verification of imprecision and bias, verification of reference intervals, verification of qualitative test procedures, verification of blood collection systems, comparability of results among methods and analytical systems, limit of detection, limit of quantification and limit of decision, how to assess the measurement uncertainty, the optimal use of Internal Quality Control and External Quality Assessment data, Six Sigma metrics, performance specifications, as well as biological variation. This article, which continues the annual tradition of collective papers from the EFLM continuing postgraduate courses in clinical chemistry and laboratory medicine, aims to provide further contributions by discussing the quality of laboratory methods and measurements and, at the same time, to offer continuing professional development to the attendees.

  14. SEMI-ANALYTICAL FINITE ELEMENT METHOD FOR FICTITIOUS CRACK MODEL IN FRACTURE MECHANICS OF CONCRETE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王承强; 郑长良

    2004-01-01

    Based on the Hamiltonian governing equations of plane elasticity for sectorial domain, the variable separation and eigenfunction expansion techniques were employed to develop a novel analytical finite element for the fictitious crack model in fracture mechanics of concrete. The new analytical element can be implemented into FEM program systems to solve fictitious crack propagation problems for concrete cracked plates with arbitrary shapes and loads. Numerical results indicate that the method is more efficient and accurate than ordinary finite element method.

  15. Modern analytic methods applied to the art and archaeology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The interaction of diverse areas as the analytic chemistry, the history of the art and the archaeology has allowed the development of a variety of techniques used in archaeology, in conservation and restoration. These methods have been used to date objects, to determine the origin of the old materials and to reconstruct their use and to identify the degradation processes that affect the integrity of the art works. The objective of this chapter is to offer a general vision on the researches that have been realized in the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ) in the field of cultural goods. A series of researches carried out in collaboration with national investigators and of the foreigner is described shortly, as well as with the great support of degree students and master in archaeology of the National School of Anthropology and History, since one of the goals that have is to diffuse the knowledge of the existence of these techniques among the young archaeologists, so that they have a wider vision of what they could use in an in mediate future and they can check hypothesis with scientific methods. (Author)

  16. Pesticides in honey: A review on chromatographic analytical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tette, Patrícia Amaral Souza; Rocha Guidi, Letícia; Glória, Maria Beatriz de Abreu; Fernandes, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Honey is a product of high consumption due to its nutritional and antimicrobial properties. However, residues of pesticides, used in plagues' treatment in the hive or in crop fields in the neighborhoods, can compromise its quality. Therefore, determination of these contaminants in honey is essential, since the use of pesticides has increased significantly in recent decades because of the growing demand for food production. Furthermore, pesticides in honey can be an indicator of environmental contamination. As the concentration of these compounds in honey is usually at trace levels and several pesticides can be found simultaneously, the use of highly sensitive and selective techniques is required. In this context, miniaturized sample preparation approaches and liquid or gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry became the most important analytical techniques. In this review we present and discuss recent studies dealing with pesticide determination in honey, focusing on sample preparation and separation/detection methods as well as application of the developed methods worldwide. Furthermore, trends and future perspectives are presented.

  17. Oxcarbazepine: validation and application of an analytical method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Cristina Rezende Enéas

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Oxcarbazepine (OXC is an important anticonvulsant and mood stabilizing drug. A pharmacopoeial monograph for OXC is not yet available and therefore the development and validation of a new analytical method for quantification of this drug is essential. In the present study, a UV spectrophotometric method for the determination of OXC was developed. The various parameters, such as linearity, precision, accuracy and specificity, were studied according to International Conference on Harmonization Guidelines. Batches of 150 mg OXC capsules were prepared and analyzed using the validated UV method. The formulations were also evaluated for parameters including drug-excipient compatibility, flowability, uniformity of weight, disintegration time, assay, uniformity of content and the amount of drug dissolved during the first hour.Oxcarbazepina (OXC é um fármaco anticonvulsivante e estabilizante do humor. O desenvolvimento e validação de método analítico para quantificação da OXC são de fundamental importância devido à ausência de monografias farmacopéicas oficiais para esse fármaco. Nesse trabalho, um método espectrofotométrico UV para determinação da OXC foi desenvolvido. O método proposto foi validado seguindo os parâmetros de linearidade, precisão, exatidão e especificidade de acordo com as normas da Conferência Internacional de Harmonização. Cápsulas de OXC 150 mg foram preparadas e analisadas utilizando-se o método analítico validado. As formulações foram avaliadas com relação à compatibilidade fármaco-excipientes, fluidez, determinação de peso, tempo de desintegração, doseamento, uniformidade de conteúdo e quantidade do fármaco dissolvido após 60 minutos.

  18. Use of scientometrics to assess nuclear and other analytical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scientometrics involves the use of quantitative methods to investigate science viewed as an information process. Scientometric studies can be useful in ascertaining which methods have been most employed for various analytical determinations as well as for predicting which methods will continue to be used in the immediate future and which appear to be losing favor with the analytical community. Published papers in the technical literature are the primary source materials for scientometric studies; statistical methods and computer techniques are the tools. Recent studies have included growth and trends in prompt nuclear analysis impact of research published in a technical journal, and institutional and national representation, speakers and topics at several IAEA conferences, at modern trends in activation analysis conferences, and at other non-nuclear oriented conferences. Attempts have also been made to predict future growth of various topics and techniques. 13 refs., 4 figs., 17 tabs

  19. Use of scientometrics to assess nuclear and other analytical methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyon, W.S.

    1986-01-01

    Scientometrics involves the use of quantitative methods to investigate science viewed as an information process. Scientometric studies can be useful in ascertaining which methods have been most employed for various analytical determinations as well as for predicting which methods will continue to be used in the immediate future and which appear to be losing favor with the analytical community. Published papers in the technical literature are the primary source materials for scientometric studies; statistical methods and computer techniques are the tools. Recent studies have included growth and trends in prompt nuclear analysis impact of research published in a technical journal, and institutional and national representation, speakers and topics at several IAEA conferences, at modern trends in activation analysis conferences, and at other non-nuclear oriented conferences. Attempts have also been made to predict future growth of various topics and techniques. 13 refs., 4 figs., 17 tabs.

  20. Development of an analytic method for arsenic's determination in lime and tortilla; Desarrollo de un metodo analitico para determinacion de arsenico en cal y tortilla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huato Soberanis, Julio; Ogura, Tetsuya [Universidad Autonoma de Guadalajara, Guadalajara, Jalisco (Mexico)

    1995-02-01

    A spectrophotometric method to determine As in tortilla and lime has been optimized, modifying the AsH{sub 3} generator. The reaction between arsin (AsH{sub 3}){sub 4} and diethyldithiocarbamate of Ag (AgDDC); was followed spectrophotometrically. The conditions under which the As remains in the ash during the calcination of the tortillas were studied. It was found that when they were heated in a quartz tube with a careful control of the air flow and oxygen, as well as the heating temperature, the arsenic loss in minimized. [Spanish] Se ha optimizado el metodo para determinar As en la tortilla y cal mediante espectrometria en el visible del color producido en la reaccion entre Arsina (AsH{sub 3}){sub 4} y dietilditiocarbamato de plata (AgDDC); modificando el generador de AsH{sub 3}. Se han buscado las condiciones en las que el arsenico permanece en las cenizas de la calcinacion de las tortillas; encontrandose que las tortillas deben calentarse en un tubo de cuarzo con control del flujo de aire y oxigeno asi como de la temperatura de calentamiento.

  1. An analytical method for predicting postwildfire peak discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, John A.

    2012-01-01

    An analytical method presented here that predicts postwildfire peak discharge was developed from analysis of paired rainfall and runoff measurements collected from selected burned basins. Data were collected from 19 mountainous basins burned by eight wildfires in different hydroclimatic regimes in the western United States (California, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, and South Dakota). Most of the data were collected for the year of the wildfire and for 3 to 4 years after the wildfire. These data provide some estimate of the changes with time of postwildfire peak discharges, which are known to be transient but have received little documentation. The only required inputs for the analytical method are the burned area and a quantitative measure of soil burn severity (change in the normalized burn ratio), which is derived from Landsat reflectance data and is available from either the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service or the U.S. Geological Survey. The method predicts the postwildfire peak discharge per unit burned area for the year of a wildfire, the first year after a wildfire, and the second year after a wildfire. It can be used at three levels of information depending on the data available to the user; each subsequent level requires either more data or more processing of the data. Level 1 requires only the burned area. Level 2 requires the burned area and the basin average value of the change in the normalized burn ratio. Level 3 requires the burned area and the calculation of the hydraulic functional connectivity, which is a variable that incorporates the sequence of soil burn severity along hillslope flow paths within the burned basin. Measurements indicate that the unit peak discharge response increases abruptly when the 30-minute maximum rainfall intensity is greater than about 5 millimeters per hour (0.2 inches per hour). This threshold may relate to a change in runoff generation from saturated-excess to infiltration-excess overland flow. The

  2. ANALYTICAL METHODS IN ARCHAEOMETRY: STUDY OF SUPPORT MATERIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica Mariana Ion

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The application of some analytical techniques developed initially in materials science (techniques based on physical-chemical phenomena in the study of art and archaeological objects offers the historian and archaeologist quantitative information that can prove useful in order to better understanding of ancient society. The preservation of material culture for future generations with the best possible fidelity requires in-depth knowledge, to aid the most suitable restoration, conservation, storage, and eventual museum display. The use of analytical techniques often proves useful for the specialists in conservation and/or restoration due to the valuable information given (composition, state of degradation, and so on. This paper describes the use of some analytical techniques (X-ray fluorescence - XRF, inductively coupled plasma - atomic emission spectrometry - ICP-AES, Fourier transformed - infrared spectroscopy - FTIR for analyzing compositions of artifacts.

  3. AIR: fused Analytical and Iterative Reconstruction method for computed tomography

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Liu; Qi, Sharon X; Gao, Hao

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: CT image reconstruction techniques have two major categories: analytical reconstruction (AR) method and iterative reconstruction (IR) method. AR reconstructs images through analytical formulas, such as filtered backprojection (FBP) in 2D and Feldkamp-Davis-Kress (FDK) method in 3D, which can be either mathematically exact or approximate. On the other hand, IR is often based on the discrete forward model of X-ray transform and formulated as a minimization problem with some appropriate image regularization method, so that the reconstructed image corresponds to the minimizer of the optimization problem. This work is to investigate the fused analytical and iterative reconstruction (AIR) method. Methods: Based on IR with L1-type image regularization, AIR is formulated with a AR-specific preconditioner in the data fidelity term, which results in the minimal change of the solution algorithm that replaces the adjoint X-ray transform by the filtered X-ray transform. As a proof-of-concept 2D example of AIR, FB...

  4. Hanford environmental analytical methods (methods as of March 1990)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Information is provided on the techniques employed towards the chemical analysis of volatile, semi-volatile matter, pesticides and PCB's at the Hanford Reservation. Sample preparation methods are included

  5. A simple analytical method for deflation prediction of inflatable structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李庆松; 卿强; 龚景海

    2015-01-01

    The static performance of inflatable structures has been well studied and the dynamic deployment simulation has received much attention. However, very few studies focus on its deflation behavior. Although there are several dynamic finite element algorithms that can be applied to the deflation simulation, their computation costs are expensive, especially for large scale structures. In this work, a simple method based on classic thermodynamics and the analytical relationship between air and membrane was proposed to efficiently analyze the air state variables under the condition of ventilation. Combined with failure analysis of static bearing capacity, a fast incremental analytical method was presented to predict both elastic and post wrinkling deflation process of inflatable structures. Comparisons between simplified analysis, dynamic finite element simulation, and a full-scale experimental test are presented and the suitability of this simple method for solving the air state and predicting the deflation behavior of inflatable structures is proved.

  6. Recent analytical developments for powder characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brackx, E.; Pages, S.; Dugne, O.; Podor, R.

    2015-07-01

    Powders and divided solid materials are widely represented as finished or intermediary products in industries as widely varied as foodstuffs, cosmetics, construction, pharmaceuticals, electronic transmission, and energy. Their optimal use requires a mastery of the transformation process based on knowledge of the different phenomena concerned (sintering, chemical reactivity, purity, etc.). Their modelling and understanding need a prior acquisition of sets of data and characteristics which are more or less challenging to obtain. The goal of this study is to present the use of different physico-chemical characterization techniques adapted to uranium-containing powders analyzed either in a raw state or after a specific preparation (ionic polishing). The new developments touched on concern dimensional characterization techniques for grains and pores by image analysis, chemical surface characterization and powder chemical reactivity characterization. The examples discussed are from fabrication process materials used in the nuclear fuel cycle.

  7. FORECASTING PILE SETTLEMENT ON CLAYSTONE USING NUMERICAL AND ANALYTICAL METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ponomarev Andrey Budimirovich

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the article the problem of designing pile foundations on claystones is reviewed. The purpose of this paper is comparative analysis of the analytical and numerical methods for forecasting the settlement of piles on claystones. The following tasks were solved during the study: 1 The existing researches of pile settlement are analyzed; 2 The characteristics of experimental studies and the parameters for numerical modeling are presented, methods of field research of single piles’ operation are described; 3 Calculation of single pile settlement is performed using numerical methods in the software package Plaxis 2D and analytical method according to the requirements SP 24.13330.2011; 4 Experimental data is compared with the results of analytical and numerical calculations; 5 Basing on these results recommendations for forecasting pile settlement on claystone are presented. Much attention is paid to the calculation of pile settlement considering the impacted areas in ground space beside pile and the comparison with the results of field experiments. Basing on the obtained results, for the prediction of settlement of single pile on claystone the authors recommend using the analytical method considered in SP 24.13330.2011 with account for the impacted areas in ground space beside driven pile. In the case of forecasting the settlement of single pile on claystone by numerical methods in Plaxis 2D the authors recommend using the Hardening Soil model considering the impacted areas in ground space beside the driven pile. The analyses of the results and calculations are presented for examination and verification; therefore it is necessary to continue the research work of deep foundation at another experimental sites to improve the reliability of the calculation of pile foundation settlement. The work is of great interest for geotechnical engineers engaged in research, design and construction of pile foundations.

  8. Development and Verification of Behavior of Tritium Analytic Code (BOTANIC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Min Young; Kim, Eung Soo [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    VHTR, one of the Generation IV reactor concepts, has a relatively high operation temperature and is usually suggested as a heat source for many industrial processes, including hydrogen production process. Thus, it is vital to trace tritium behavior in the VHTR system and the potential permeation rate to the industrial process. In other words, tritium is a crucial issue in terms of safety in the fission reactor system. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the behavior of tritium and the development of the tool to enable this is vital.. In this study, a Behavior of Tritium Analytic Code (BOTANIC) an analytic tool which is capable of analyzing tritium behavior is developed using a chemical process code called gPROMS. BOTANIC was then further verified using the analytic solutions and benchmark codes such as Tritium Permeation Analysis Code (TPAC) and COMSOL. In this study, the Behavior of Tritium Analytic Code, BOTANIC, has been developed using a chemical process code called gPROMS. The code has several distinctive features including non-diluted assumption, flexible applications and adoption of distributed permeation model. Due to these features, BOTANIC has the capability to analyze a wide range of tritium level systems and has a higher accuracy as it has the capacity to solve distributed models. BOTANIC was successfully developed and verified using analytical solution and the benchmark code calculation result. The results showed very good agreement with the analytical solutions and the calculation results of TPAC and COMSOL. Future work will be focused on the total system verification.

  9. Customizing computational methods for visual analytics with big data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, Jaegul; Park, Haesun

    2013-01-01

    The volume of available data has been growing exponentially, increasing data problem's complexity and obscurity. In response, visual analytics (VA) has gained attention, yet its solutions haven't scaled well for big data. Computational methods can improve VA's scalability by giving users compact, meaningful information about the input data. However, the significant computation time these methods require hinders real-time interactive visualization of big data. By addressing crucial discrepancies between these methods and VA regarding precision and convergence, researchers have proposed ways to customize them for VA. These approaches, which include low-precision computation and iteration-level interactive visualization, ensure real-time interactive VA for big data.

  10. Analytical method for optimization of maintenance policy based on available system failure data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An analytical optimization method for preventive maintenance (PM) policy with minimal repair at failure, periodic maintenance, and replacement is proposed for systems with historical failure time data influenced by a current PM policy. The method includes a new imperfect PM model based on Weibull distribution and incorporates the current maintenance interval T0 and the optimal maintenance interval T to be found. The Weibull parameters are analytically estimated using maximum likelihood estimation. Based on this model, the optimal number of PM and the optimal maintenance interval for minimizing the expected cost over an infinite time horizon are also analytically determined. A number of examples are presented involving different failure time data and current maintenance intervals to analyze how the proposed analytical optimization method for periodic PM policy performances in response to changes in the distribution of the failure data and the current maintenance interval. - Highlights: • An analytical optimization method for preventive maintenance (PM) policy is proposed. • A new imperfect PM model is developed. • The Weibull parameters are analytically estimated using maximum likelihood. • The optimal maintenance interval and number of PM are also analytically determined. • The model is validated by several numerical examples

  11. Development of an analytical method for simultaneous detection of psychotropic phenylalkylamines in hair by LC-MS/MS with a multi-mode reversed-phase column using pH gradient elution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyeyoung; Kim, Suncheun; Ahn, Suyoun; Chang, Hyejin; Lee, Sangki; Lee, Yongmoon

    2016-02-01

    Phenylalkylamine derivatives, such as methamphetamine (MA), 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), phentermine, fenfluramine, phendimetrazine, amfepramone, and ketamine, are widely abused recreational or anorectic drugs in Korea, and their abuse has become a serious social problem. Hair is a useful specimen to prove chronic use and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) has recently become a more popular tool for hair analysis due to sensitivity and simplicity in sample preparation. In order to overcome limitations of standard reversed-phase column to separate low molecular weight amines, we adopted a multi-mode reversed-phase column, Scherzo SS-C18, which was composed of strong ionic ligands and C18 ligands, and used pH gradient elution to separate seven psychotropic phenylalkylamines and their metabolites. The essential validation parameters including selectivity, LOD, LLOQ, linearity, intra- and inter-assay precision and accuracy, recovery, and the matrix effect were satisfactory. The LODs ranged from 0.1ng/5mg hair (diethylnorephedrine, fenfluramine, ketamine, and MA) to 0.5ng/5mg hair (amfepramone, MDA, phendimetrazine, and phentermine). The LLOQs were 1ng/5mg hair for all analytes. The developed method was successfully applied to determination of phenylalkylamines in authentic hair samples analyzed previously by a routine gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method. A good correlation was observed between the two methods, with a slope near one. PMID:26760907

  12. The Information Needs of the Developing Countries: Analytical Case Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salman, Lamia

    1981-01-01

    Presents the generalized conclusions from analytical case studies undertaken by UNESCO and the United Nations Interim Fund for Science and Technology for Development (IFSTD) on the needs and options for access to scientific and technical information in eight developing countries. (Author/JL)

  13. Approximate Analytic and Numerical Solutions to Lane-Emden Equation via Fuzzy Modeling Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De-Gang Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel algorithm, called variable weight fuzzy marginal linearization (VWFML method, is proposed. This method can supply approximate analytic and numerical solutions to Lane-Emden equations. And it is easy to be implemented and extended for solving other nonlinear differential equations. Numerical examples are included to demonstrate the validity and applicability of the developed technique.

  14. A brief introduction to analytical methods in nuclear forensics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear forensic (NF) techniques are critical in responding to both environmental releases of nuclear materials and illicit trafficking activities involving both nuclear and counterfeit materials. Despite rising need, however, significant barriers exist to the future success of such research. This subset of analytical chemistry contains unique concerns (e.g. chronometry and impurity signatures), a wide variety of preparatory/instrumental approaches, and is in need of innovative solutions to current problems both in and out of the lab. The present work introduces existing NF research, development challenges and notes potential areas for advancement by highlighting several key analytical approaches. Examples of concerns and techniques discussed in this review include: chronometry, reference materials, separations, counting spectrometry, mass spectrometry and more. (author)

  15. An Analytical Method for Positioning Drag Anchors in Seabed Soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张炜; 刘海笑; 李新仲; 李清平; 曹静

    2015-01-01

    Positioning drag anchors in seabed soils are strongly influenced not only by the properties of the anchor and soil, but also by the characteristics of the installation line. The investigation on the previous prediction methods related to anchor positioning demonstrates that the prediction of the anchor position during dragging has inevitably introduced some key and unsubstantiated hypotheses and the applicability of these methods is limited. In the present study, the interactional system between the drag anchor and installation line is firstly introduced for the analysis of anchor positioning. Based on the two mechanical models for embedded lines and drag anchors, the positioning equations for drag anchors have been derived both for cohesive and noncohesive soils. Since the drag angle at the shackle is the most important parameter in the positioning equations, a novel analytical method that can predict both the variation and the exact value of the drag angle at the shackle is proposed. The analytical method for positioning drag anchors which combines the interactional system between the drag anchor and the installation line has provided a reasonable theoretic approach to investigate the anchor behaviors in soils. By comparing with the model flume experiments, the sensitivity, effectiveness and veracity of the positioning method are well verified.

  16. Comparison of analytical methods for calculation of wind loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minderman, Donald J.; Schultz, Larry L.

    1989-01-01

    The following analysis is a comparison of analytical methods for calculation of wind load pressures. The analytical methods specified in ASCE Paper No. 3269, ANSI A58.1-1982, the Standard Building Code, and the Uniform Building Code were analyzed using various hurricane speeds to determine the differences in the calculated results. The winds used for the analysis ranged from 100 mph to 125 mph and applied inland from the shoreline of a large open body of water (i.e., an enormous lake or the ocean) a distance of 1500 feet or ten times the height of the building or structure considered. For a building or structure less than or equal to 250 feet in height acted upon by a wind greater than or equal to 115 mph, it was determined that the method specified in ANSI A58.1-1982 calculates a larger wind load pressure than the other methods. For a building or structure between 250 feet and 500 feet tall acted upon by a wind rangind from 100 mph to 110 mph, there is no clear choice of which method to use; for these cases, factors that must be considered are the steady-state or peak wind velocity, the geographic location, the distance from a large open body of water, and the expected design life and its risk factor.

  17. An Analytic Method for Measuring Accurate Fundamental Frequency Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, Soon Ryul; Park Jong Keun [Seoul National University, Seoul(Korea); Kang, Sang Hee [Myongji University, Seoul (Korea)

    2002-04-01

    This paper proposes an analytic method for measuring the accurate fundamental frequency component of a fault current signal distorted with a DC-offset, a characteristic frequency component, and harmonics. The proposed algorithm is composed of four stages: sine filer, linear filter, Prony's method, and measurement. The sine filter and the linear filter eliminate harmonics and the fundamental frequency component, respectively. Then Prony's method is used to estimate the parameters of the DC-offset and the characteristic frequency component. Finally, the fundamental frequency component is measured by compensating the sine-filtered signal with the estimated parameters. The performance evaluation of the proposed method is presented for a-phase to ground faults on a 345 kV 200 km overhead transmission line. The EMTP is used to generate fault current signals under different fault locations and fault inception angles. It is shown that the analytic method accurately measures the fundamental frequency component regardless of the characteristic frequency component as well as the DC-offset.(author). 19 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  18. Selectivity in analytical chemistry: two interpretations for univariate methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorkó, Zsanett; Verbić, Tatjana; Horvai, George

    2015-01-01

    Selectivity is extremely important in analytical chemistry but its definition is elusive despite continued efforts by professional organizations and individual scientists. This paper shows that the existing selectivity concepts for univariate analytical methods broadly fall in two classes: selectivity concepts based on measurement error and concepts based on response surfaces (the response surface being the 3D plot of the univariate signal as a function of analyte and interferent concentration, respectively). The strengths and weaknesses of the different definitions are analyzed and contradictions between them unveiled. The error based selectivity is very general and very safe but its application to a range of samples (as opposed to a single sample) requires the knowledge of some constraint about the possible sample compositions. The selectivity concepts based on the response surface are easily applied to linear response surfaces but may lead to difficulties and counterintuitive results when applied to nonlinear response surfaces. A particular advantage of this class of selectivity is that with linear response surfaces it can provide a concentration independent measure of selectivity. In contrast, the error based selectivity concept allows only yes/no type decision about selectivity.

  19. Comparison of analytical methods for HULIS measurements in atmospheric particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Baduel

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Humic-Like Substances (HULIS are a major contributor to the organic carbon in atmospheric aerosol. It would be necessary to standardise an analytical method that could be easily and routinely used for HULIS measurements. We present one of the first comparisons of two of the main methods in use to extract HULIS, using i a weak anion exchanger (DEAE and ii the combination of two separation steps, one according to polarity (on C18 and the second according to acidity (with a strong anion exchanger SAX. The quantification is performed with a DOC analyzer, complemented by an investigation of the chemical structure of the extracted fractions by UV-Visible spectroscopy. The analytical performances of each method are determined and compared for humic substances standards. These methods are further applied to determine the water extractable HULIS (HULISWS and the 0.1M NaOH alkaline extractable HULIS (HULIST in atmospheric aerosol collected in an Alpine Valley during winter time. This comparison shows that the simpler DEAE isolation procedure leads to higher recoveries and better reproducibility and should therefore be recommended.

  20. Gaussian Analytic Centroiding method of star image of star tracker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haiyong; Xu, Ershuai; Li, Zhifeng; Li, Jingjin; Qin, Tianmu

    2015-11-01

    The energy distribution of an actual star image coincides with the Gaussian law statistically in most cases, so the optimized processing algorithm about star image centroiding should be constructed also by following Gaussian law. For a star image spot covering a certain number of pixels, the marginal distribution of the gray accumulation on rows and columns are shown and analyzed, based on which the formulas of Gaussian Analytic Centroiding method (GAC) are deduced, and the robustness is also promoted due to the inherited filtering effect of gray accumulation. Ideal reference star images are simulated by the PSF (point spread function) with integral form. Precision and speed tests for the Gaussian Analytic formulas are conducted under three scenarios of Gaussian radius (0.5, 0.671, 0.8 pixel), The simulation results show that the precision of GAC method is better than that of the other given algorithms when the Gaussian radius is not bigger than 5 × 5 pixel window, a widely used parameter. Above all, the algorithm which consumes the least time is still the novel GAC method. GAC method helps to promote the comprehensive performance in the attitude determination of a star tracker.

  1. Analytical methods for toxic gases from thermal degradation of polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, M.-T. S.

    1977-01-01

    Toxic gases evolved from the thermal oxidative degradation of synthetic or natural polymers in small laboratory chambers or in large scale fire tests are measured by several different analytical methods. Gas detector tubes are used for fast on-site detection of suspect toxic gases. The infrared spectroscopic method is an excellent qualitative and quantitative analysis for some toxic gases. Permanent gases such as carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, methane and ethylene, can be quantitatively determined by gas chromatography. Highly toxic and corrosive gases such as nitrogen oxides, hydrogen cyanide, hydrogen fluoride, hydrogen chloride and sulfur dioxide should be passed into a scrubbing solution for subsequent analysis by either specific ion electrodes or spectrophotometric methods. Low-concentration toxic organic vapors can be concentrated in a cold trap and then analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. The limitations of different methods are discussed.

  2. A nonlinear analytic function expansion nodal method for transient calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joo, Han Gyn; Park, Sang Yoon; Cho, Byung Oh; Zee, Sung Quun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-12-31

    The nonlinear analytic function expansion nodal (AFEN) method is applied to the solution of the time-dependent neutron diffusion equation. Since the AFEN method requires both the particular solution and the homogeneous solution to the transient fixed source problem, the derivation of the solution method is focused on finding the particular solution efficiently. To avoid complicated particular solutions, the source distribution is approximated by quadratic polynomials and the transient source is constructed such that the error due to the quadratic approximation is minimized, In addition, this paper presents a new two-node solution scheme that is derived by imposing the constraint of current continuity at the interface corner points. The method is verified through a series of application to the NEACRP PWR rod ejection benchmark problems. 6 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab. (Author)

  3. Implementation of the Maximum Entropy Method for Analytic Continuation

    CERN Document Server

    Levy, Ryan; Gull, Emanuel

    2016-01-01

    We present $\\texttt{Maxent}$, a tool for performing analytic continuation of spectral functions using the maximum entropy method. The code operates on discrete imaginary axis datasets (values with uncertainties) and transforms this input to the real axis. The code works for imaginary time and Matsubara frequency data and implements the 'Legendre' representation of finite temperature Green's functions. It implements a variety of kernels, default models, and grids for continuing bosonic, fermionic, anomalous, and other data. Our implementation is licensed under GPLv2 and extensively documented. This paper shows the use of the programs in detail.

  4. Recent developments in analytical toxicology : for better or for worse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Zeeuw, RA

    1998-01-01

    When considering the state of the art in toxicology from an analytical perspective, the key developments relate to three major areas. (1) Forensic horizon: Today forensic analysis has broadened its scope dramatically, to include workplace toxicology, drug abuse testing, drugs and driving, doping, en

  5. The use of graphic-analytical method in investment design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musatova Tatiana

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the possibility of using the network planning method for the goals and objectives of the investment project. The author suggests a network model of implementing the investment project related to the manufacture of aluminum structures. Insufficient study of adaptation of methodological issues of organization of technological processes to the investment project of socio-economic activities has led to the relevance and identified the purpose of the present study. The presented network model allows project participants to optimize the time and costs of various types of project resources. It includes the calculation of the parameters of the network schedule and the actual model of interrelated events and activities. Scientific and practical significance of the results of research is related to the possibility of practical application of graphic-analytical method for the preparation of technical and economic documentation for the investment project.

  6. Introduction to Analytical Methods for Internal Combustion Engine Cam Mechanisms

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, J J

    2013-01-01

    Modern design methods of Automotive Cam Design require the computation of a range of parameters. This book provides a logical sequence of steps for the derivation of the relevant equations from first principles, for the more widely used cam mechanisms. Although originally derived for use in high performance engines, this work is equally applicable to the design of mass produced automotive and other internal combustion engines.   Introduction to Analytical Methods for Internal Combustion Engine Cam Mechanisms provides the equations necessary for the design of cam lift curves with an associated smooth acceleration curve. The equations are derived for the kinematics and kinetics of all the mechanisms considered, together with those for cam curvature and oil entrainment velocity. This permits the cam shape, all loads, and contact stresses to be evaluated, and the relevant tribology to be assessed. The effects of asymmetry on the manufacture of cams for finger follower and offset translating curved followers is ...

  7. Heat-mechanics interaction behavior of lead rubber bearings for seismic base isolation under large and cyclic lateral deformation. Part 1. Dynamic loading test of LRB and development of analytical method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When base-isolated buildings are subjected to long-period strong earthquakes emanating from oceanic trenches, base-isolation devices such as Lead Rubber Bearings (LRB) can be subjected to larger and more cyclic deformations than anticipated in structural design. In an LRB, seismic input energy is absorbed as hysteresis energy of a lead plug, and finally transformed into thermal energy. The resulting large and multiple cyclic deformations of the LRB generate a large amount of heat, causing high temperatures of the lead plug. The resulting deterioration of damping characteristics which encompasses a complex thermal and mechanical phenomenon provides a serious concern for the base-isolated building responses. However, there is insufficient experimental data on this phenomenon, and no analytical method for evaluation of heat-mechanics interaction behavior has been derived. The paper describes experimental results and derivation of analytical methods for determining the heat-mechanics interaction of the LRB under a large and cyclic lateral deformation

  8. GenoSets: visual analytic methods for comparative genomics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurora A Cain

    Full Text Available Many important questions in biology are, fundamentally, comparative, and this extends to our analysis of a growing number of sequenced genomes. Existing genomic analysis tools are often organized around literal views of genomes as linear strings. Even when information is highly condensed, these views grow cumbersome as larger numbers of genomes are added. Data aggregation and summarization methods from the field of visual analytics can provide abstracted comparative views, suitable for sifting large multi-genome datasets to identify critical similarities and differences. We introduce a software system for visual analysis of comparative genomics data. The system automates the process of data integration, and provides the analysis platform to identify and explore features of interest within these large datasets. GenoSets borrows techniques from business intelligence and visual analytics to provide a rich interface of interactive visualizations supported by a multi-dimensional data warehouse. In GenoSets, visual analytic approaches are used to enable querying based on orthology, functional assignment, and taxonomic or user-defined groupings of genomes. GenoSets links this information together with coordinated, interactive visualizations for both detailed and high-level categorical analysis of summarized data. GenoSets has been designed to simplify the exploration of multiple genome datasets and to facilitate reasoning about genomic comparisons. Case examples are included showing the use of this system in the analysis of 12 Brucella genomes. GenoSets software and the case study dataset are freely available at http://genosets.uncc.edu. We demonstrate that the integration of genomic data using a coordinated multiple view approach can simplify the exploration of large comparative genomic data sets, and facilitate reasoning about comparisons and features of interest.

  9. Analysis profile of the fully grouted rock bolt in jointed rock using analytical and numerical methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ghadimi Mostafa; Shahriar Kourosh; Jalalifar Hossein

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of bolt profile on load transfer mechanism of fully grouted bolts in jointed rocks using analytical and numerical methods. Based on the analytical method with development of methods, a new model is presented. To validate the analytical model, five different profiles modeled by ANSYS software. The profile of rock bolts T3 and T4 with load transfer capacity, respectively 180 and 195 kN in the jointed rocks was selected as the optimum profiles. Finally, the selected profiles were examined in Tabas Coal Mine. FLAC analysis indicates that patterns 6+7 with 2NO flexi bolt 4 m better than other patterns within the faulted zone.

  10. Review of Properties and Analytical Methods for the Determination of Norfloxacin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chierentin, Lucas; Salgado, Hérida Regina Nunes

    2016-01-01

    The first-generation quinolones have their greatest potency against Gram-negative bacteria, but newly developed molecules have exhibited increased potency against Gram-positive bacteria, and existing agents are available with additional activity against anaerobic microorganisms. Norfloxacin is a broad-spectrum antimicrobial fluoroquinolone used against Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms (aerobic organisms). There are different analytical methods available to determine norfloxacin applied in quality control of this medicine in order to ensure its effectiveness and safety. The authors present an overview of the fourth generation of quinolones, followed by the properties, applications, and analytical methods of norfloxacin. These results show several existing analytical techniques that are flexible and broad-based methods of analysis in different matrices. This article focuses on bionalytical and pharmaceutical quality-control applications, such as thin-layer chromatography, microbiological assay, spectrophotometry, capillary electrophoresis (CE), and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC).

  11. Knowledge, Skills, and Abilities for Entry-Level Business Analytics Positions: A Multi-Method Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cegielski, Casey G.; Jones-Farmer, L. Allison

    2016-01-01

    It is impossible to deny the significant impact from the emergence of big data and business analytics on the fields of Information Technology, Quantitative Methods, and the Decision Sciences. Both industry and academia seek to hire talent in these areas with the hope of developing organizational competencies. This article describes a multi-method…

  12. Development of sequential analytical method for the determination of U-238, U-234, Th-232, Th-230, Th-228, Ra-226 and Ra-228 and its application in mineral waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A sequential analytical method for the determination of U-238, U-234, Th-232, Th-230, Th-228, Ra-226 and Ra-228 in environmental samples and applied to the analysis of mineral waters is studied. Thorium isotopes are coprecipitated with lanthanium fluoride before counting in alpha spectrometer, the uranium isotopes are determined by alpha spectrometry following extraction with TOPO onto a polymenic membrane. Radium-226 is determined with the radom emanation technique. (M.J.C.)

  13. An analytic method to compute star cluster luminosity statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Robert L.; Krumholz, Mark R.; Fumagalli, Michele; Fall, S. Michael

    2014-03-01

    The luminosity distribution of the brightest star clusters in a population of galaxies encodes critical pieces of information about how clusters form, evolve and disperse, and whether and how these processes depend on the large-scale galactic environment. However, extracting constraints on models from these data is challenging, in part because comparisons between theory and observation have traditionally required computationally intensive Monte Carlo methods to generate mock data that can be compared to observations. We introduce a new method that circumvents this limitation by allowing analytic computation of cluster order statistics, i.e. the luminosity distribution of the Nth most luminous cluster in a population. Our method is flexible and requires few assumptions, allowing for parametrized variations in the initial cluster mass function and its upper and lower cutoffs, variations in the cluster age distribution, stellar evolution and dust extinction, as well as observational uncertainties in both the properties of star clusters and their underlying host galaxies. The method is fast enough to make it feasible for the first time to use Markov chain Monte Carlo methods to search parameter space to find best-fitting values for the parameters describing cluster formation and disruption, and to obtain rigorous confidence intervals on the inferred values. We implement our method in a software package called the Cluster Luminosity Order-Statistic Code, which we have made publicly available.

  14. Evaluation method of developers in Github based on fuzzy analytic hierarchy process%基于模糊层次分析法的社交编程网站开发者评估方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李家豪; 刘婧; 吴泽群; 何璐璐

    2016-01-01

    Social coding site Github is a popular online distributed version control system and has rapidly developed in recent years.As Github has no measurement model of the developers’ability,how to choose appropriate developers to join the col-laborators become a problem to be solved.By constructing measurement model of the developers’ability to quantify the ability of developers,this paper used fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (FAHP)to evaluate the specific measurement model of devel-opers,and accorded to the quantitative evaluation value to choose appropriate developers to join the collaborators.Through a case study shows that how to evaluate developers and how to choose appropriate developers by using the method,and to provide support for the recruitment of collaborators of Github projects.%社交编程网站(Github)是一种较为流行的分布式版本控制系统,近年来得到了快速的发展,而 Github中没有对开发者能力构建度量模型,使得如何从众多开发者中选择合适的开发者加入到核心开发者之中成为一个有待解决的问题。为处理此问题,通过构建开发者度量模型,对开发者能力具体量化,同时使用模糊层次分析法对开发者度量模型进行评估,从而根据量化评估值选择合适的开发者加入到核心开发者之中。通过实例分析说明该方法如何评估开发者并选择合适的开发者,从而为 Github 项目社区招募核心开发者提供支持。

  15. Analytical method for analyzing c-channel stiffener made of laminate composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumton, Tattchapong

    Composite materials play the important role in the aviation industry. Conventional materials such as aluminum were replaced by composite material on the main structures. The objective of this study focuses on development of analytical method to analyze the laminated composite structure with C-channel cross-section. A lamination theory base closed-form solution was developed to analysis ply stresses on the C-channel cross-section. The developed method contains the effects of coupling due to unsymmetrical of both laminate and structural configuration levels. The present method also included the expression of the sectional properties such as centroid, axial and bending stiffnesses of cross-section. The results obtain from analytical method showed an excellent agreement with finite element results.

  16. Modelling of packet traffic with matrix analytic methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Allan T.

    1995-01-01

    Network (B-ISDN). As a case study of packet switched networks Common Channel Signalling System No. 7(SS7) has been used. SS7 is the packet switched network currently employed to command/control the public switched telephone network i.e. the setup and teardown of trunks and the basis for intelligent......The dissertation is concerned with modelling various performance aspects pertaining to packet switched telecommunication networks. The emphsis has been put on versatile modelling of the packet arrival process which is a very relevant issue in cotext with the future Broadband Integrated Service Data...... network services i.e. 800 and 900 calls and advanced mobile communication services. The Markovian Arrival Process (MAP) has been used as a versatile tool to model the packet arrival process. Applying the MAP facilitates the use of Matrix Analytic methods to obtain performance measures associated...

  17. Development of Methods for Determination of Aflatoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Lijuan; Chen, Min; Ying, Yibin

    2016-12-01

    Aflatoxins can cause damage to the health of humans and animals. Several institutions around the world have established regulations to limit the levels of aflatoxins in food, and numerous analytical methods have been extensively developed for aflatoxin determination. This review covers the currently used analytical methods for the determination of aflatoxins in different food matrices, which includes sampling and sample preparation, sample pretreatment methods including extraction methods and purification methods of aflatoxin extracts, separation and determination methods. Validation for analysis of aflatoxins and safety considerations and precautions when doing the experiments are also discussed. PMID:25840003

  18. Constructing Subjects, Producing Subjectivities: Developing Analytic Needs in Discursive Psychology

    OpenAIRE

    McAvoy, Jean

    2007-01-01

    The publication of Potter and Wetherell’s (1987) blueprint for a discursive social psychology was a pivotal moment in the discursive turn in psychology. That transformational text went on to underpin much contemporary discursive psychology; paving the way for what has become an enriching range of analytic approaches, and epistemological and ontological arguments (Wetherell, Taylor and Yates, 2001a; 2001b). Twenty years on, and as discursive psychology continues to develop, t...

  19. Analytical method to accurately predict LMFBR core flow distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An accurate and detailed representation of the flow distribution in LMFBR cores is very important as the starting point and basis of the thermal and structural core design. Previous experience indicated that the steady state and transient core design is as good as the core orificing; thus, a new orificing philosophy satisfying a priori all design constraints was developd. However, optimized orificing is a necessary, but not sufficient condition for achieving the optimum core flow distribution, which is affected by the hydraulic characteristics of the remainder of the primary system. Consequently, an analytical model of the overall primary system was developed, resulting in the CATFISH computer code, which, even though specifically written for LMFBRs, can be used for any reactor employing ducted assemblies

  20. Analytical methods for thorium determination: A journey from conventional methods to novel applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, K.; Ottmar, H.; Tamborini, G.; Ray, I.; Thiele, H

    2001-07-01

    Thorium may be determined using a variety of analytical methods. These may be based on chemical or physical principles or may make use of the radioactive decay of the individual thorium isotopes. The method to be used for a certain analytical purpose is selected as a function of the matrix of the sample and of the concentration of thorium. The present paper describes different methodologies, their range of application and discusses selected results. The methods described cover a concentration range of more than twelve orders of magnitude, i.e. from concentrated solutions to micrometre-sized particles. Emphasis is given to active radiometric techniques, chemical and instrumental analysis. (author)

  1. CT hepatic perfusion measurement: Comparison of three analytic methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanda, Tomonori [Department of Radiology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, 7-5-2 Kusunokicho, Chuoku, Kobe 650-0017 (Japan); Yoshikawa, Takeshi, E-mail: yoshikawa0816@aol.com [Department of Radiology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, 7-5-2 Kusunokicho, Chuoku, Kobe 650-0017 (Japan); Ohno, Yoshiharu; Kanata, Naoki; Koyama, Hisanobu; Takenaka, Daisuke; Sugimura, Kazuro [Department of Radiology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, 7-5-2 Kusunokicho, Chuoku, Kobe 650-0017 (Japan)

    2012-09-15

    Objectives: To compare the efficacy of three analytic methods, maximum slope (MS), dual-input single-compartment model (CM) and deconvolution (DC), for CT measurements of hepatic perfusion and assess the effects of extra-hepatic systemic factors. Materials and methods: Eighty-eight patients who were suspected of having metastatic liver tumors underwent hepatic CT perfusion. The scans were performed at the hepatic hilum 7–77 s after administration of contrast material. Hepatic arterial and portal perfusions (HAP and HPP, ml/min/100 ml) and arterial perfusion fraction (APF, %) were calculated with the three methods, followed by correlation assessment. Partial correlation analysis was used to assess the effects on hepatic perfusion values by various factors such as age, sex, risk of cardiovascular diseases, arrival time of contrast material at abdominal aorta, transit time from abdominal aorta to hepatic parenchyma, and liver dysfunction. Results: Mean HAP of MS was significantly higher than DC. HPP of CM was significantly higher than MS and CM, and HPP of MS was significantly higher than DC. There was no significant difference in APF. HAP and APF showed significant and moderate correlations among the methods. HPP showed significant and moderate correlations between CM and DC, and poor correlation between MS and CM or DC. All methods showed weak correlations between HAP or APF and age or sex. Finally, MS showed weak correlations between HAP or HPP and arrival time or cardiovascular risks. Conclusions: Hepatic perfusion values arrived at with the three methods are not interchangeable. CM and DC are less susceptible to extra-hepatic systemic factors.

  2. CT hepatic perfusion measurement: Comparison of three analytic methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objectives: To compare the efficacy of three analytic methods, maximum slope (MS), dual-input single-compartment model (CM) and deconvolution (DC), for CT measurements of hepatic perfusion and assess the effects of extra-hepatic systemic factors. Materials and methods: Eighty-eight patients who were suspected of having metastatic liver tumors underwent hepatic CT perfusion. The scans were performed at the hepatic hilum 7–77 s after administration of contrast material. Hepatic arterial and portal perfusions (HAP and HPP, ml/min/100 ml) and arterial perfusion fraction (APF, %) were calculated with the three methods, followed by correlation assessment. Partial correlation analysis was used to assess the effects on hepatic perfusion values by various factors such as age, sex, risk of cardiovascular diseases, arrival time of contrast material at abdominal aorta, transit time from abdominal aorta to hepatic parenchyma, and liver dysfunction. Results: Mean HAP of MS was significantly higher than DC. HPP of CM was significantly higher than MS and CM, and HPP of MS was significantly higher than DC. There was no significant difference in APF. HAP and APF showed significant and moderate correlations among the methods. HPP showed significant and moderate correlations between CM and DC, and poor correlation between MS and CM or DC. All methods showed weak correlations between HAP or APF and age or sex. Finally, MS showed weak correlations between HAP or HPP and arrival time or cardiovascular risks. Conclusions: Hepatic perfusion values arrived at with the three methods are not interchangeable. CM and DC are less susceptible to extra-hepatic systemic factors

  3. Cooperative method development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dittrich, Yvonne; Rönkkö, Kari; Eriksson, Jeanette;

    2008-01-01

    The development of methods tools and process improvements is best to be based on the understanding of the development practice to be supported. Qualitative research has been proposed as a method for understanding the social and cooperative aspects of software development. However, qualitative...... research is not easily combined with the improvement orientation of an engineering discipline. During the last 6 years, we have applied an approach we call `cooperative method development', which combines qualitative social science fieldwork, with problem-oriented method, technique and process improvement....... The action research based approach focusing on shop floor software development practices allows an understanding of how contextual contingencies influence the deployment and applicability of methods, processes and techniques. This article summarizes the experiences and discusses the further development...

  4. 40 CFR 260.21 - Petitions for equivalent testing or analytical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... analytical methods. 260.21 Section 260.21 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Petitions for equivalent testing or analytical methods. (a) Any person seeking to add a testing or analytical method to part 261, 264, or 265 of this chapter may petition for a regulatory amendment under...

  5. 21 CFR 320.29 - Analytical methods for an in vivo bioavailability or bioequivalence study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Analytical methods for an in vivo bioavailability... Analytical methods for an in vivo bioavailability or bioequivalence study. (a) The analytical method used in... ingredient or therapeutic moiety, or its active metabolite(s), achieved in the body. (b) When the...

  6. 21 CFR 530.40 - Safe levels and availability of analytical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Safe levels and availability of analytical methods... Safe levels and availability of analytical methods. (a) In accordance with § 530.22, the following safe... accordance with § 530.22, the following analytical methods have been accepted by FDA:...

  7. Team mental models: techniques, methods, and analytic approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langan-Fox, J; Code, S; Langfield-Smith, K

    2000-01-01

    Effective team functioning requires the existence of a shared or team mental model among members of a team. However, the best method for measuring team mental models is unclear. Methods reported vary in terms of how mental model content is elicited and analyzed or represented. We review the strengths and weaknesses of vatrious methods that have been used to elicit, represent, and analyze individual and team mental models and provide recommendations for method selection and development. We describe the nature of mental models and review techniques that have been used to elicit and represent them. We focus on a case study on selecting a method to examine team mental models in industry. The processes involved in the selection and development of an appropriate method for eliciting, representing, and analyzing team mental models are described. The criteria for method selection were (a) applicability to the problem under investigation; (b) practical considerations - suitability for collecting data from the targeted research sample; and (c) theoretical rationale - the assumption that associative networks in memory are a basis for the development of mental models. We provide an evaluation of the method matched to the research problem and make recommendations for future research. The practical applications of this research include the provision of a technique for analyzing team mental models in organizations, the development of methods and processes for eliciting a mental model from research participants in their normal work environment, and a survey of available methodologies for mental model research.

  8. Validation of the analytical method for sodium dichloroisocyanurate aimed at drinking water disinfection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuba has developed the first effervescent 3.5 mg sodium dichloroisocyanurate tablets as a non-therapeutic active principle. This ingredient releases certain amount of chlorine when dissolved into a litre of water and it can cause adequate disinfection of drinking water ready to be taken after 30 min. Developing and validating an analytical iodometric method applicable to the quality control of effervescent 3.5 mg sodium dichloroisocyanurate tablets

  9. Analytic-numerical method of determining the freezing front location

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Grzymkowski

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Mathematical modeling of thermal processes combined with the reversible phase transitions of type: solid phase – liquid phase leads to formulation of the parabolic boundary problems with the moving boundary. Solution of such defined problem requires, most often, to use sophisticated numerical techniques and far advanced mathematical tools. Excellent illustration of the complexity of considered problems, as well as of the variety of approaches used for finding their solutions, gives the papers [1-4]. In the current paper, the authors present the, especially attractive from the engineer point of view, analytic-numerical method for finding the approximate solution of selected class of problems which can be reduced to the one-phase solidification problem of a plate with the unknown a priori, varying in time boundary of the region in which the solution is sought. Proposed method is based on the known formalism of initial expansion of the sought function describing the temperature field into the power series, some coefficients of which are determined with the aid of boundary conditions, and on the approximation of the function defining the location of freezing front with the broken line, parameters of which are numerically determined.

  10. Analytics to Literacies: The Development of a Learning Analytics Framework for Multiliteracies Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shane Dawson

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The rapid advances in information and communication technologies, coupled with increased access to information and the formation of global communities, have resulted in interest among researchers and academics to revise educational practice to move beyond traditional ‘literacy’ skills towards an enhanced set of “multiliteracies” or “new media literacies”. Measuring the literacy of a population, in the light of its linkage to individual and community wealth and wellbeing, is essential to determining the impact of compulsory education. The opportunity now is to develop tools to assess individual and societal attainment of these new literacies. Drawing on the work of Jenkins and colleagues (2006 and notions of a participatory culture, this paper proposes a conceptual framework for how learning analytics can assist in measuring individual achievement of multiliteracies and how this evaluative process can be scaled to provide an institutional perspective of the educational progress in fostering these fundamental skills.

  11. Analytical method for promoting process capability of shock absorption steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Mechanical properties and low cycle fatigue are two factors that must be considered in developing new type steel for shock absorption. Process capability and process control are significant factors in achieving the purpose of research and development programs. Often-used evaluation methods failed to measure process yield and process centering; so this paper uses Taguchi loss function as basis to establish an evaluation method and the steps for assessing the quality of mechanical properties and process control of an iron and steel manufacturer. The establishment of this method can serve the research and development and manufacturing industry and lay a foundation in enhancing its process control ability to select better manufacturing processes that are more reliable than decision making by using the other commonly used methods.

  12. Identification of hardly biodegradable residuals (sulfur- and nitrogen-containing substances) during waste water treatment, including the development of analytical methods; Identifizierung von schwer abbaubaren Reststoffen (stickstoff- und schwefelhaltigen Verbindungen) bei der Abwasserbehandlung, einschliesslich analytischer Methodenentwicklung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moehle, E.; Huber, A.; Metzger, J.W.

    1999-07-01

    Organic residuals in sewage, which are not removed completely by waste water treatment may be relevant in environmental toxicology and may disturb drinking water treatment processes. The organic residuals must be identified before new techniques to eliminate these substances from waste water can be developed and steps can be taken to prevent them from polluting waste waters. In the research project sum parameters of sulfur- and nitrogen-containing substances in municipal waste water were determined. A new method was developed to determine the organic sulfur in compounds absorbed on activated carbon (AOS). The determination of dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) was calculated as the difference between total nitrogen and the sum of NH{sub 4}{sup +}-N, NO{sub 3}{sup -}-N and NO{sub 2}{sup -}N. The removal of organic substances from the inorganic matrix was only possible for standard solutions, but not for real samples. More than 60 substances contributing to the sum parameters could be identified with GC-MS and GC-AED, an most of them could be quantified. 30-70% of the sulfur-containing substances detected with GC-AED could be identified. With the GC-MS screening method 21 drugs or drug metabolites could be identified and partly quantified. Hydrophilic organic residuals were identified and quantified with high performance liquid chromatography coupled with UV- and fluorescence detectors and also with a mass detector (ESI-MS-MS). With the methods described only a small percentage of the sum of AOS and DON could be detected, although new materials for the solid phase enrichment and new analytical methods, such as HPLC-MS-MS were used. In order to get information about the degree of elimination (absorption or degradation) of different drugs in a municipal sewage plant, laboratory-scale tests under aerobic conditions were performed. A batch reactor containing drugs in environmentally relevant concentrations and a suspension of activated sludge was coupled online with HPLC

  13. Identification of hardly biodegradable residuals (sulfur- and nitrogen-containing substances) during waste water treatment, including the development of analytical methods; Identifizierung von schwer abbaubaren Reststoffen (stickstoff- und schwefelhaltigen Verbindungen) bei der Abwasserbehandlung, einschliesslich analytischer Methodenentwicklung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moehle, E.; Huber, A.; Metzger, J.W.

    1999-07-01

    Organic residuals in sewage, which are not removed completely by waste water treatment may be relevant in environmental toxicology and may disturb drinking water treatment processes. The organic residuals must be identified before new techniques to eliminate these substances from waste water can be developed and steps can be taken to prevent them from polluting waste waters. In the research project sum parameters of sulfur- and nitrogen-containing substances in municipal waste water were determined. A new method was developed to determine the organic sulfur in compounds absorbed on activated carbon (AOS). The determination of dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) was calculated as the difference between total nitrogen and the sum of NH{sub 4}{sup +}-N, NO{sub 3}{sup -}-N and NO{sub 2}{sup -}N. The removal of organic substances from the inorganic matrix was only possible for standard solutions, but not for real samples. More than 60 substances contributing to the sum parameters could be identified with GC-MS and GC-AED, an most of them could be quantified. 30-70% of the sulfur-containing substances detected with GC-AED could be identified. With the GC-MS screening method 21 drugs or drug metabolites could be identified and partly quantified. Hydrophilic organic residuals were identified and quantified with high performance liquid chromatography coupled with UV- and fluorescence detectors and also with a mass detector (ESI-MS-MS). With the methods described only a small percentage of the sum of AOS and DON could be detected, although new materials for the solid phase enrichment and new analytical methods, such as HPLC-MS-MS were used. In order to get information about the degree of elimination (absorption or degradation) of different drugs in a municipal sewage plant, laboratory-scale tests under aerobic conditions were performed. A batch reactor containing drugs in environmentally relevant concentrations and a suspension of activated sludge was coupled online with HPLC

  14. NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods (third edition). Fourth supplement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-08-15

    The NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods, 3rd edition, was updated for the following chemicals: allyl-glycidyl-ether, 2-aminopyridine, aspartame, bromine, chlorine, n-butylamine, n-butyl-glycidyl-ether, carbon-dioxide, carbon-monoxide, chlorinated-camphene, chloroacetaldehyde, p-chlorophenol, crotonaldehyde, 1,1-dimethylhydrazine, dinitro-o-cresol, ethyl-acetate, ethyl-formate, ethylenimine, sodium-fluoride, hydrogen-fluoride, cryolite, sodium-hexafluoroaluminate, formic-acid, hexachlorobutadiene, hydrogen-cyanide, hydrogen-sulfide, isopropyl-acetate, isopropyl-ether, isopropyl-glycidyl-ether, lead, lead-oxide, maleic-anhydride, methyl-acetate, methyl-acrylate, methyl-tert-butyl ether, methyl-cellosolve-acetate, methylcyclohexanol, 4,4'-methylenedianiline, monomethylaniline, monomethylhydrazine, nitric-oxide, p-nitroaniline, phenyl-ether, phenyl-ether-biphenyl mixture, phenyl-glycidyl-ether, phenylhydrazine, phosphine, ronnel, sulfuryl-fluoride, talc, tributyl-phosphate, 1,1,2-trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoroethane, trimellitic-anhydride, triorthocresyl-phosphate, triphenyl-phosphate, and vinyl-acetate.

  15. Analytical method to estimate resin cement diffusion into dentin

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Ferraz, Larissa Cristina; Ubaldini, Adriana Lemos Mori; de Oliveira, Bruna Medeiros Bertol; Neto, Antonio Medina; Sato, Fracielle; Baesso, Mauro Luciano; Pascotto, Renata Corrêa

    2016-05-01

    This study analyzed the diffusion of two resin luting agents (resin cements) into dentin, with the aim of presenting an analytical method for estimating the thickness of the diffusion zone. Class V cavities were prepared in the buccal and lingual surfaces of molars (n=9). Indirect composite inlays were luted into the cavities with either a self-adhesive or a self-etch resin cement. The teeth were sectioned bucco-lingually and the cement-dentin interface was analyzed by using micro-Raman spectroscopy (MRS) and scanning electron microscopy. Evolution of peak intensities of the Raman bands, collected from the functional groups corresponding to the resin monomer (C–O–C, 1113 cm-1) present in the cements, and the mineral content (P–O, 961 cm-1) in dentin were sigmoid shaped functions. A Boltzmann function (BF) was then fitted to the peaks encountered at 1113 cm-1 to estimate the resin cement diffusion into dentin. The BF identified a resin cement-dentin diffusion zone of 1.8±0.4 μm for the self-adhesive cement and 2.5±0.3 μm for the self-etch cement. This analysis allowed the authors to estimate the diffusion of the resin cements into the dentin. Fitting the MRS data to the BF contributed to and is relevant for future studies of the adhesive interface.

  16. 75 FR 49930 - Stakeholder Meeting Regarding Re-Evaluation of Currently Approved Total Coliform Analytical Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Stakeholder Meeting Regarding Re-Evaluation of Currently Approved Total Coliform Analytical...) analytical methods. At these meetings, stakeholders will be given an opportunity to discuss...

  17. Combining Multiple Measures of Students' Opportunities to Develop Analytic, Text-Based Writing Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correnti, Richard; Matsumura, Lindsay Clare; Hamilton, Laura S.; Wang, Elaine

    2012-01-01

    Guided by evidence that teachers contribute to student achievement outcomes, researchers have been reexamining how to study instruction and the classroom opportunities teachers create for students. We describe our experience measuring students' opportunities to develop analytic, text-based writing skills. Utilizing multiple methods of data…

  18. Synthetic cathinone pharmacokinetics, analytical methods, and toxicological findings from human performance and postmortem cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellefsen, Kayla N; Concheiro, Marta; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2016-05-01

    Synthetic cathinones are commonly abused novel psychoactive substances (NPS). We present a comprehensive systematic review addressing in vitro and in vivo synthetic cathinone pharmacokinetics, analytical methods for detection and quantification in biological matrices, and toxicological findings from human performance and postmortem toxicology cases. Few preclinical administration studies examined synthetic cathinone pharmacokinetic profiles (absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion), and only one investigated metabolite pharmacokinetics. Synthetic cathinone metabolic profiling studies, primarily with human liver microsomes, elucidated metabolite structures and identified suitable biomarkers to extend detection windows beyond those provided by parent compounds. Generally, cathinone derivatives underwent ketone reduction, carbonylation of the pyrrolidine ring, and oxidative reactions, with phase II metabolites also detected. Reliable analytical methods are necessary for cathinone identification in biological matrices to document intake and link adverse events to specific compounds and concentrations. NPS analytical methods are constrained in their ability to detect new emerging synthetic cathinones due to limited commercially available reference standards and continuous development of new analogs. Immunoassay screening methods are especially affected, but also gas-chromatography and liquid-chromatography mass spectrometry confirmation methods. Non-targeted high-resolution-mass spectrometry screening methods are advantageous, as they allow for retrospective data analysis and easier addition of new synthetic cathinones to existing methods. Lack of controlled administration studies in humans complicate interpretation of synthetic cathinones in biological matrices, as dosing information is typically unknown. Furthermore, antemortem and postmortem concentrations often overlap and the presence of other psychoactive substances are typically found in combination

  19. Manual of analytical methods for the Industrial Hygiene Chemistry Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Manual is compiled from techniques used in the Industrial Hygiene Chemistry Laboratory of Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The procedures are similar to those used in other laboratories devoted to industrial hygiene practices. Some of the methods are standard; some, modified to suit our needs; and still others, developed at Sandia. The authors have attempted to present all methods in a simple and concise manner but in sufficient detail to make them readily usable. It is not to be inferred that these methods are universal for any type of sample, but they have been found very reliable for the types of samples mentioned

  20. Manual of analytical methods for the Industrial Hygiene Chemistry Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greulich, K.A.; Gray, C.E. (comp.)

    1991-08-01

    This Manual is compiled from techniques used in the Industrial Hygiene Chemistry Laboratory of Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The procedures are similar to those used in other laboratories devoted to industrial hygiene practices. Some of the methods are standard; some, modified to suit our needs; and still others, developed at Sandia. The authors have attempted to present all methods in a simple and concise manner but in sufficient detail to make them readily usable. It is not to be inferred that these methods are universal for any type of sample, but they have been found very reliable for the types of samples mentioned.

  1. Multiple Forces Driving China's Economic Development: A New Analytic Framework

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yahua Wang; Angang Hu

    2007-01-01

    Based on economic growth theory and the World Bank's analytical framework relating to the quality of growth, the present paper constructs a framework that encompasses physical, international, human, natural and knowledge capital to synthetically interpret economic development. After defining the five types of capital and total capital, we analyze the dynamic changes of these types of capital in China and in other countries. The results show that since China's reform and opening up, knowledge, international, human and physical capital have grown rapidly, with speeds of growth higher than that of economic growth. As the five types of capital have all increased at varying paces, the savings level of total capital in China has quadrupled in 25 years and overtook that of the USA in the 1990s. The changes in the five types of capital and total capital reveal that there are progressively multiple driving forces behind China's rapid economic development. Implications for China's long-term economic development are thereby raised.

  2. Fuel Cycle Externalities: Analytical Methods and Issues, Report 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    that also have not been fully addressed. This document contains two types of papers that seek to fill part of this void. Some of the papers describe analytical methods that can be applied to one of the five steps of the damage function approach. The other papers discuss some of the complex issues that arise in trying to estimate externalities. This report, the second in a series of eight reports, is part of a joint study by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Commission of the European Communities (EC)* on the externalities of fuel cycles. Most of the papers in this report were originally written as working papers during the initial phases of this study. The papers provide descriptions of the (non-radiological) atmospheric dispersion modeling that the study uses; reviews much of the relevant literature on ecological and health effects, and on the economic valuation of those impacts; contains several papers on some of the more complex and contentious issues in estimating externalities; and describes a method for depicting the quality of scientific information that a study uses. The analytical methods and issues that this report discusses generally pertain to more than one of the fuel cycles, though not necessarily to all of them. The report is divided into six parts, each one focusing on a different subject area

  3. Estimating Fuel Cycle Externalities: Analytical Methods and Issues, Report 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnthouse, L.W.; Cada, G.F.; Cheng, M.-D.; Easterly, C.E.; Kroodsma, R.L.; Lee, R.; Shriner, D.S.; Tolbert, V.R.; Turner, R.S.

    1994-07-01

    of complex issues that also have not been fully addressed. This document contains two types of papers that seek to fill part of this void. Some of the papers describe analytical methods that can be applied to one of the five steps of the damage function approach. The other papers discuss some of the complex issues that arise in trying to estimate externalities. This report, the second in a series of eight reports, is part of a joint study by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Commission of the European Communities (EC)* on the externalities of fuel cycles. Most of the papers in this report were originally written as working papers during the initial phases of this study. The papers provide descriptions of the (non-radiological) atmospheric dispersion modeling that the study uses; reviews much of the relevant literature on ecological and health effects, and on the economic valuation of those impacts; contains several papers on some of the more complex and contentious issues in estimating externalities; and describes a method for depicting the quality of scientific information that a study uses. The analytical methods and issues that this report discusses generally pertain to more than one of the fuel cycles, though not necessarily to all of them. The report is divided into six parts, each one focusing on a different subject area.

  4. Study on Fluorescence Analytical Method of Micro Th in Pu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAN; Hong-juan; ZHANG; Li-hua; LIU; Huan-liang; FAN; De-jun

    2013-01-01

    As one of impurities,Th is needed to be determined for control quality of Pu product.Due to the high radioactivity and fatal toxicity of Pu,it is very difficult to measure the micro Th in Pu product.It is necessary to develop a sensitive method for determining the micro Th in Pu under the described harsh condition.

  5. Analytical method validation for quality control and the study of the 50 mg Propylthiouracil stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A high-performance liquid chromatography analytical method was developed and validated for the quality control and stability studies of 50 mg Propylthiouracil tablets. Method is based in active principle separation through a 100 RP-18 RP-18 (5 μm) (250 x 4 mm) Lichrospher chromatography with UV detection to 272 nm, using a mobile phase composed by a ungaseous mixture of a 0.025 M buffer solution-monobasic potassium phosphate to pH= 4,6 ad acetonitrile in a 80:20 ratio with a flux speed of 0,5 mL/min. Analytical method was linear, precise, specific and exact in the study concentrations interval

  6. NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF STRESS-INDUCED SECONDARY FLOWS WITH HYBRID FINITE ANALYTIC METHOD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The algorithm of the Hybrid Finite Analytic Method (HFAM) was used to simulate fully developed trubulent flows in non-circular ducts and open channels. And the turbulent flow fields in a square duct and a rectangular open channels were calculated by Naot and Rodi's model, and that in a compound channel was calculated by Speaizle's non-linear eddy-viscosity model with this algorithm. The results show that the HFAM is suitable for calculating these complicated turbulent flows.

  7. Evaluation and selection of energy technologies using an integrated graph theory and analytic hierarchy process methods

    OpenAIRE

    P. B. Lanjewar; R. V. Rao; A. V. Kale,; J. Taler; P. Ocłoń

    2016-01-01

    The evaluation and selection of energy technologies involve a large number of attributes whose selection and weighting is decided in accordance with the social, environmental, technical and economic framework. In the present work an integrated multiple attribute decision making methodology is developed by combining graph theory and analytic hierarchy process methods to deal with the evaluation and selection of energy technologies. The energy technology selection attributes digraph enables a q...

  8. NEW ANALYTICAL METHODS AND THEIR VALIDATION FOR THE ESTIMATION OF CARVEDILOL IN BULK AND MARKETED FORMULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viral Bechara

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Carvedilol is cardiovascular agent. Mainly used for the treatment of hypertension, heart failure, and cardiovascular diseases. Purpose: Analytical methods are required to characterize drug substances and drug products composition during all phases of pharmaceutical development. Development of methods to achieve the final goal of ensuring the quality of drug substances and drug products must be implemented in conjunction with an understanding of the chemical behavior and physicochemical properties of the drug substance. This determination requires highly sophisticated instruments and methods like HPLC, HPTLC and Spectrophotometer. Hence there was a need for the development of newer, simple, sensitive, rapid, accurate and reproducible analytical methods for the routine estimation of metoprolol succinate in bulk and pharmaceutical dosage form. Methods: The present work describes two new spectrophotometric methods for the determination of carvedilol in bulk and marketed formulations. Method A is based on oxidation of Carvedilol with ferric ammonium sulphate followed by complex formation of resulting ferrous ion (Fe2+ with potassium ferricyanide to form bluish green coloured chromogen which showed λmax at 582 nm. In Method B is based on the oxidation of 2, 4- Dinitrophenylhydrazine and coupling of the oxidized product with drugs to give brown coloured chromogen which showed λmax at 500.8 nm. Results: The linearity was found in concentration range of 5-30 μg/ml for both Method A and Method B. The correlation coefficient was found 0.997 and 0.9997 for both Method A and Method B respectively. The methods were validated as per ICH guidelines. The LOD and LOQ for estimation of Carvedilol were found as 0.0840, 0.2545 for method A and 0.0667, 0.2021 for method B respectively. Conclusion: Proposed methods were successfully applied for the quantitative estimation of Carvedilol in marketed formulations.

  9. Desenvolvimento de métodos analíticos para determinação de agrotóxicos em sedimentos por cromatografia gasosa monodimensional e bidimensional abrangente com micro detector de captura de elétrons Development of analytical methods for pesticides in sediments by monodimensional and comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with micro electron-capture detection

    OpenAIRE

    Juliana Macedo da Silva; Cláudia Alcaraz Zini; Elina Bastos Caramão; Ewelin Monica Paturi Navarro Canizares; Karen Alam Leal

    2010-01-01

    The development of analytical methods for determination of eight pesticides of different chemical classes (trichlorfon, propanil, fipronil, propiconazole, trifloxystrobin, permethrin, difenoconazole and azoxystrobin) in sediments with gas chromatography-micro-electron capture detector (GC/µECD) and comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with micro-electron capture detector (GCxGC/µECD) is described. These methods were applied to real sediment samples, and the best results were obtai...

  10. Analytical methods for determination of terbinafine hydrochloride in pharmaceuticals and biological materials$

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Basavaiah Kanakapura n; Vamsi Krishna Penmatsa

    2016-01-01

    Terbinafine is a new powerful antifungal agent indicated for both oral and topical treatment of myco-sessince. It is highly effective in the treatment of determatomycoses. The chemical and pharmaceutical analysis of the drug requires effective analytical methods for quality control and pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic studies. Ever since it was introduced as an effective antifungal agent, many methods have been developed and validated for its assay in pharmaceuticals and biological materials. This article reviews the various methods reported during the last 25 years.

  11. Improvements of Analytic Method of Th4+ in Dissolution Experiment of ThO2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO; Wei; ZHANG; Qian; GUO; Jian-hua; CHANG; Li

    2012-01-01

    <正>To develop related technical researches of thorium/uranium cycle, precise analysis of thorium amount should be perfectly set up. For dissolving in the uranium-thorium cycle, establish appropriate analytical methods, provide sufficient technical preparation for follow-up work. This article discusses in the system of pH=1.6-2.0 of nitric acid, EDTA complexometric titration analysis method for Th4+, and when F-, Al3+ and U ions are interference for analysis of Th4+ method is also discussed.

  12. Preparation of standard hair material and development of analytical methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1976 Indian Researchers suggested the possible use of hair as an indicator of environmental exposure and established through a study of country wide student population and general population of the metropolitan city of Bombay that human scalp hair could indeed be an effective first level monitor in a scheme of multilevel monitoring of environmental exposure to inorganic pollutants. It was in this context and in view of the ready availability of large quantities of scalp hair subjected to minimum treatment by chemicals that they proposed to participate in the preparation of a standard material of hair. It was also recognized that measurements of trace element concentrations at very low levels require cross-validation by different analytical techniques, even within the same laboratory. The programme of work that has been carried out since the first meeting of the CRP had been aimed at these two objectives. These objectives include the preparation of standard material of hair and the development of analytical methodologies for determination of elements and species of interest. 1 refs., 3 tabs

  13. Development of analytical methodologies to assess recalcitrant pesticide bioremediation in biobeds at laboratory scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivero, Anisleidy; Niell, Silvina; Cerdeiras, M Pía; Heinzen, Horacio; Cesio, María Verónica

    2016-06-01

    To assess recalcitrant pesticide bioremediation it is necessary to gradually increase the complexity of the biological system used in order to design an effective biobed assembly. Each step towards this effective biobed design needs a suitable, validated analytical methodology that allows a correct evaluation of the dissipation and bioconvertion. Low recovery yielding methods could give a false idea of a successful biodegradation process. To address this situation, different methods were developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of endosulfan, its main three metabolites, and chlorpyrifos in increasingly complex matrices where the bioconvertor basidiomycete Abortiporus biennis could grow. The matrices were culture media, bran, and finally a laboratory biomix composed of bran, peat and soil. The methodology for the analysis of the first evaluated matrix has already been reported. The methodologies developed for the other two systems are presented in this work. The targeted analytes were extracted from fungi growing over bran in semisolid media YNB (Yeast Nitrogen Based) with acetonitrile using shaker assisted extraction, The salting-out step was performed with MgSO4 and NaCl, and the extracts analyzed by GC-ECD. The best methodology was fully validated for all the evaluated analytes at 1 and 25mgkg(-1) yielding recoveries between 72% and 109% and RSDs pesticides, the next step faced was the development and validation of an analytical procedure to evaluate the analytes in a laboratory scale biobed composed of 50% of bran, 25% of peat and 25% of soil together with fungal micelium. From the different procedures assayed, only ultrasound assisted extraction with ethyl acetate allowed recoveries between 80% and 110% with RSDs <18%. Linearity, recovery, precision, matrix effect and LODs/LOQs of each method were studied for all the analytes: endosulfan isomers (α & β) and its metabolites (endosulfan sulfate, ether and diol) as well as for chlorpyrifos. In

  14. A Vocal-Based Analytical Method for Goose Behaviour Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Henrik Karstoft; Ole Green; Kim Arild Steen; Ole Roland Therkildsen

    2012-01-01

    Since human-wildlife conflicts are increasing, the development of cost-effective methods for reducing damage or conflict levels is important in wildlife management. A wide range of devices to detect and deter animals causing conflict are used for this purpose, although their effectiveness is often highly variable, due to habituation to disruptive or disturbing stimuli. Automated recognition of behaviours could form a critical component of a system capable of altering the disruptive stimuli to...

  15. Laser: a Tool for Optimization and Enhancement of Analytical Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preisler, Jan

    1997-01-01

    In this work, we use lasers to enhance possibilities of laser desorption methods and to optimize coating procedure for capillary electrophoresis (CE). We use several different instrumental arrangements to characterize matrix-assisted laser desorption (MALD) at atmospheric pressure and in vacuum. In imaging mode, 488-nm argon-ion laser beam is deflected by two acousto-optic deflectors to scan plumes desorbed at atmospheric pressure via absorption. All absorbing species, including neutral molecules, are monitored. Interesting features, e.g. differences between the initial plume and subsequent plumes desorbed from the same spot, or the formation of two plumes from one laser shot are observed. Total plume absorbance can be correlated with the acoustic signal generated by the desorption event. A model equation for the plume velocity as a function of time is proposed. Alternatively, the use of a static laser beam for observation enables reliable determination of plume velocities even when they are very high. Static scattering detection reveals negative influence of particle spallation on MS signal. Ion formation during MALD was monitored using 193-nm light to photodissociate a portion of insulin ion plume. These results define the optimal conditions for desorbing analytes from matrices, as opposed to achieving a compromise between efficient desorption and efficient ionization as is practiced in mass spectrometry. In CE experiment, we examined changes in a poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) coating by continuously monitoring the electroosmotic flow (EOF) in a fused-silica capillary during electrophoresis. An imaging CCD camera was used to follow the motion of a fluorescent neutral marker zone along the length of the capillary excited by 488-nm Ar-ion laser. The PEO coating was shown to reduce the velocity of EOF by more than an order of magnitude compared to a bare capillary at pH 7.0. The coating protocol was important, especially at an intermediate pH of 7.7. The increase of p

  16. A new and consistent parameter for measuring the quality of multivariate analytical methods: Generalized analytical sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragoso, Wallace; Allegrini, Franco; Olivieri, Alejandro C

    2016-08-24

    Generalized analytical sensitivity (γ) is proposed as a new figure of merit, which can be estimated from a multivariate calibration data set. It can be confidently applied to compare different calibration methodologies, and helps to solve literature inconsistencies on the relationship between classical sensitivity and prediction error. In contrast to the classical plain sensitivity, γ incorporates the noise properties in its definition, and its inverse is well correlated with root mean square errors of prediction in the presence of general noise structures. The proposal is supported by studying simulated and experimental first-order multivariate calibration systems with various models, namely multiple linear regression, principal component regression (PCR) and maximum likelihood PCR (MLPCR). The simulations included instrumental noise of different types: independently and identically distributed (iid), correlated (pink) and proportional noise, while the experimental data carried noise which is clearly non-iid. PMID:27496995

  17. A new and consistent parameter for measuring the quality of multivariate analytical methods: Generalized analytical sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragoso, Wallace; Allegrini, Franco; Olivieri, Alejandro C

    2016-08-24

    Generalized analytical sensitivity (γ) is proposed as a new figure of merit, which can be estimated from a multivariate calibration data set. It can be confidently applied to compare different calibration methodologies, and helps to solve literature inconsistencies on the relationship between classical sensitivity and prediction error. In contrast to the classical plain sensitivity, γ incorporates the noise properties in its definition, and its inverse is well correlated with root mean square errors of prediction in the presence of general noise structures. The proposal is supported by studying simulated and experimental first-order multivariate calibration systems with various models, namely multiple linear regression, principal component regression (PCR) and maximum likelihood PCR (MLPCR). The simulations included instrumental noise of different types: independently and identically distributed (iid), correlated (pink) and proportional noise, while the experimental data carried noise which is clearly non-iid.

  18. Development of analytical cell support for vitrification at the West Valley Demonstration Project. Topical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barber, F.H.; Borek, T.T.; Christopher, J.Z. [and others

    1997-12-01

    Analytical and Process Chemistry (A&PC) support is essential to the high-level waste vitrification campaign at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP). A&PC characterizes the waste, providing information necessary to formulate the recipe for the target radioactive glass product. High-level waste (HLW) samples are prepared and analyzed in the analytical cells (ACs) and Sample Storage Cell (SSC) on the third floor of the main plant. The high levels of radioactivity in the samples require handling them in the shielded cells with remote manipulators. The analytical hot cells and third floor laboratories were refurbished to ensure optimal uninterrupted operation during the vitrification campaign. New and modified instrumentation, tools, sample preparation and analysis techniques, and equipment and training were required for A&PC to support vitrification. Analytical Cell Mockup Units (ACMUs) were designed to facilitate method development, scientist and technician training, and planning for analytical process flow. The ACMUs were fabricated and installed to simulate the analytical cell environment and dimensions. New techniques, equipment, and tools could be evaluated m in the ACMUs without the consequences of generating or handling radioactive waste. Tools were fabricated, handling and disposal of wastes was addressed, and spatial arrangements for equipment were refined. As a result of the work at the ACMUs the remote preparation and analysis methods and the equipment and tools were ready for installation into the ACs and SSC m in July 1995. Before use m in the hot cells, all remote methods had been validated and four to eight technicians were trained on each. Fine tuning of the procedures has been ongoing at the ACs based on input from A&PC technicians. Working at the ACs presents greater challenges than had development at the ACMUs. The ACMU work and further refinements m in the ACs have resulted m in a reduction m in analysis turnaround time (TAT).

  19. Development of analytical cell support for vitrification at the West Valley Demonstration Project. Topical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analytical and Process Chemistry (A ampersand PC) support is essential to the high-level waste vitrification campaign at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP). A ampersand PC characterizes the waste, providing information necessary to formulate the recipe for the target radioactive glass product. High-level waste (HLW) samples are prepared and analyzed in the analytical cells (ACs) and Sample Storage Cell (SSC) on the third floor of the main plant. The high levels of radioactivity in the samples require handling them in the shielded cells with remote manipulators. The analytical hot cells and third floor laboratories were refurbished to ensure optimal uninterrupted operation during the vitrification campaign. New and modified instrumentation, tools, sample preparation and analysis techniques, and equipment and training were required for A ampersand PC to support vitrification. Analytical Cell Mockup Units (ACMUs) were designed to facilitate method development, scientist and technician training, and planning for analytical process flow. The ACMUs were fabricated and installed to simulate the analytical cell environment and dimensions. New techniques, equipment, and tools could be evaluated m in the ACMUs without the consequences of generating or handling radioactive waste. Tools were fabricated, handling and disposal of wastes was addressed, and spatial arrangements for equipment were refined. As a result of the work at the ACMUs the remote preparation and analysis methods and the equipment and tools were ready for installation into the ACs and SSC m in July 1995. Before use m in the hot cells, all remote methods had been validated and four to eight technicians were trained on each. Fine tuning of the procedures has been ongoing at the ACs based on input from A ampersand PC technicians. Working at the ACs presents greater challenges than had development at the ACMUs. The ACMU work and further refinements m in the ACs have resulted m in a reduction m in

  20. Applicability of bioanalysis of multiple analytes in drug discovery and development: review of select case studies including assay development considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivas, Nuggehally R

    2006-05-01

    The development of sound bioanalytical method(s) is of paramount importance during the process of drug discovery and development culminating in a marketing approval. Although the bioanalytical procedure(s) originally developed during the discovery stage may not necessarily be fit to support the drug development scenario, they may be suitably modified and validated, as deemed necessary. Several reviews have appeared over the years describing analytical approaches including various techniques, detection systems, automation tools that are available for an effective separation, enhanced selectivity and sensitivity for quantitation of many analytes. The intention of this review is to cover various key areas where analytical method development becomes necessary during different stages of drug discovery research and development process. The key areas covered in this article with relevant case studies include: (a) simultaneous assay for parent compound and metabolites that are purported to display pharmacological activity; (b) bioanalytical procedures for determination of multiple drugs in combating a disease; (c) analytical measurement of chirality aspects in the pharmacokinetics, metabolism and biotransformation investigations; (d) drug monitoring for therapeutic benefits and/or occupational hazard; (e) analysis of drugs from complex and/or less frequently used matrices; (f) analytical determination during in vitro experiments (metabolism and permeability related) and in situ intestinal perfusion experiments; (g) determination of a major metabolite as a surrogate for the parent molecule; (h) analytical approaches for universal determination of CYP450 probe substrates and metabolites; (i) analytical applicability to prodrug evaluations-simultaneous determination of prodrug, parent and metabolites; (j) quantitative determination of parent compound and/or phase II metabolite(s) via direct or indirect approaches; (k) applicability in analysis of multiple compounds in select

  1. Hanford environmental analytical methods: Methods as of March 1990. Volume 3, Appendix A2-I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goheen, S.C.; McCulloch, M.; Daniel, J.L.

    1993-05-01

    This paper from the analytical laboratories at Hanford describes the method used to measure pH of single-shell tank core samples. Sludge or solid samples are mixed with deionized water. The pH electrode used combines both a sensor and reference electrode in one unit. The meter amplifies the input signal from the electrode and displays the pH visually.

  2. Implementing analytics a blueprint for design, development, and adoption

    CERN Document Server

    Sheikh, Nauman

    2013-01-01

    Implementing Analytics demystifies the concept, technology and application of analytics and breaks its implementation down to repeatable and manageable steps, making it possible for widespread adoption across all functions of an organization. Implementing Analytics simplifies and helps democratize a very specialized discipline to foster business efficiency and innovation without investing in multi-million dollar technology and manpower. A technology agnostic methodology that breaks down complex tasks like model design and tuning and emphasizes business decisions

  3. Developments in Surrogating Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans van Dormolen

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I would like to talk about the developments in surrogating methods for preservation. My main focus will be on the technical aspects of preservation surrogates. This means that I will tell you something about my job as Quality Manager Microfilming for the Netherlands’ national preservation program, Metamorfoze, which is coordinated by the National Library. I am responsible for the quality of the preservation microfilms, which are produced for Metamorfoze. Firstly, I will elaborate on developments in preservation methods in relation to the following subjects: · Preservation microfilms · Scanning of preservation microfilms · Preservation scanning · Computer Output Microfilm. In the closing paragraphs of this paper, I would like to tell you something about the methylene blue test. This is an important test for long-term storage of preservation microfilms. Also, I will give you a brief report on the Cellulose Acetate Microfilm Conference that was held in the British Library in London, May 2005.

  4. Testing of analytical and purification methods for HTR helium coolant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes a method of determination of gaseous impurities (H2, O2, N2, CO, CH4, CO2) in high purity helium as well as the methods of gaseous impurities removal. A device used for the determination was the Master GC type gas chromatograph with a helium detection unit and a ShinCarbon ST column. A temperature program was used to improve the conditions of separation and to reach maximum response of the detector. The obtained limits of detection defined as three times the standard deviation of the background value of tested components are H2 0.3 vppm, O2 0.4 vppm, N2 0.2 vppm, CO 2 vppm, CH4 3 vppm, CO2 2 vppm. Analysis time is less than 20 min. The developed method will be used for checking the purity of helium environment in the experimental loop to model experimental conditions in the high temperature gas cooled reactor (HTGR). Within the scope of the proposal of the helium purification system, the efficiency of removing selected impurities (CO, CO2, CH4) on adsorbents (based on zeolites and active carbon) was tested. A laboratory scale apparatus and an FTIR spectrometer were used for experiments.

  5. Simulation of an Electromagnetic Acoustic Transducer Array by Using Analytical Method and FDTD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuedong Xie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Previously, we developed a method based on FEM and FDTD for the study of an Electromagnetic Acoustic Transducer Array (EMAT. This paper presents a new analytical solution to the eddy current problem for the meander coil used in an EMAT, which is adapted from the classic Deeds and Dodd solution originally intended for circular coils. The analytical solution resulting from this novel adaptation exploits the large radius extrapolation and shows several advantages over the finite element method (FEM, especially in the higher frequency regime. The calculated Lorentz force density from the analytical EM solver is then coupled to the ultrasonic simulations, which exploit the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD method to describe the propagation of ultrasound waves, in particular for Rayleigh waves. Radiation pattern obtained with Hilbert transform on time-domain waveforms is proposed to characterise the sensor in terms of its beam directivity and field distribution along the steering angle, which can produce performance parameters for an EMAT array, facilitating the optimum design of such sensors.

  6. Analytical methods in bioassay-directed investigations of mutagenicity of air particulate material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marvin, Christopher H; Hewitt, L Mark

    2007-01-01

    The combination of short-term bioassays and analytical chemical techniques has been successfully used in the identification of a variety of mutagenic compounds in complex mixtures. Much of the early work in the field of bioassay-directed fractionation resulted from the development of a short-term bacterial assay employing Salmonella typhimurium; this assay is commonly known as the Ames assay. Ideally, analytical methods for assessment of mutagenicity of any environmental matrix should exhibit characteristics including high capacity, good selectivity, good analytical resolution, non-destructiveness, and reproducibility. A variety of extraction solvents have been employed in investigations of mutagenicity of air particulate; sequential combination of dichloromethane followed by methanol is most popular. Soxhlet extraction has been the most common extraction method, followed by sonication. Attempts at initial fractionation using different extraction solvents have met with limited success and highlight the need for fractionation schemes applicable to moderately polar and polar mutagenic compounds. Fractionation methods reported in the literature are reviewed according to three general schemas: (i) acid/base/neutral partitioning followed by fractionation using open-column chromatography and/or HPLC; (ii) fractionation based on normal-phase (NP) HPLC using a cyanopropyl or chemically similar stationary phase; and (iii) fractionation by open-column chromatography followed by NP-HPLC. The HPLC methods may be preparative, semi-preparative, or analytical scale. Variations based on acid/base/neutral partitioning followed by a chromatographic separation have also been employed. Other lesser-used approaches involve fractionation based on ion-exchange and thin-layer chromatographies. Although some of the methodologies used in contemporary studies of mutagenicity of air particulate do not represent significant advances in technology over the past 30 years, their simplicity, low

  7. New research directions in the development of analytical chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Rema Matakova

    2016-01-01

    The article shows that discovering nanoscale elements made it possible to synthesize new chemical compounds without chemical reaction and defined the basis of effective development of nanoanalytical chemistry in the past two decades. The article focuses on the prospective development of bioanalytical chemistry, based on reagentless sensory methods of analysis of biochemical processes to cure fast dangerous infections of the century. Unusual opportunity of development of «green» chemistr...

  8. Simplex and duplex event-specific analytical methods for functional biotech maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seong-Hun; Kim, Su-Jeong; Yi, Bu-Young

    2009-08-26

    Analytical methods are very important in the control of genetically modified organism (GMO) labeling systems or living modified organism (LMO) management for biotech crops. Event-specific primers and probes were developed for qualitative and quantitative analysis for biotech maize event 3272 and LY 038 on the basis of the 3' flanking regions, respectively. The qualitative primers confirmed the specificity by a single PCR product and sensitivity to 0.05% as a limit of detection (LOD). Simplex and duplex quantitative methods were also developed using TaqMan real-time PCR. One synthetic plasmid was constructed from two taxon-specific DNA sequences of maize and two event-specific 3' flanking DNA sequences of event 3272 and LY 038 as reference molecules. In-house validation of the quantitative methods was performed using six levels of mixing samples, from 0.1 to 10.0%. As a result, the biases from the true value and the relative deviations were all within the range of +/-30%. Limits of quantitation (LOQs) of the quantitative methods were all 0.1% for simplex real-time PCRs of event 3272 and LY 038 and 0.5% for duplex real-time PCR of LY 038. This study reports that event-specific analytical methods were applicable for qualitative and quantitative analysis for biotech maize event 3272 and LY 038.

  9. Analytical approaches for assaying metallodrugs in biological samples: recent methodological developments and future trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timerbaev, Andrei; Sturup, Stefan

    2012-03-01

    Contemporary medicine increasingly relies on metal-based drugs and correspondingly growing in importance is the monitoring of the drugs and their metabolites in biological samples. Over the last decade, a range of analytical techniques have been developed in order to improve administration strategies for clinically approved compounds and understand pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and metabolism of new drugs so as ultimately to make their clinical development more effective. This paper gives an overview of various separation and detection methods, as well as common sample preparation strategies, currently in use to achieve the intended goals. The critical discussion of existing analytical technologies encompasses notably their detection capability, ability to handle biological matrices with minimum pretreatment, sample throughput, and cost efficiency. The main attention is devoted to those applications that are progressed to real-world biosamples and selected examples are given to illustrate the overall performance and applicability of advanced analytical systems. Also emphasized is the emerging role of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), both as a standalone instrument (for determination of metals originating from drug compounds) and as an element-specific detector in combinations with liquid chromatography or capillary electrophoresis (for drug metabolism studies). An increasing number of academic laboratories are using ICP-MS technology today, and this review will focus on the analytical possibilities of ICP-MS which would before long provide the method with the greatest impact on the clinical laboratory. PMID:21838702

  10. A Vocal-Based Analytical Method for Goose Behaviour Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Karstoft

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Since human-wildlife conflicts are increasing, the development of cost-effective methods for reducing damage or conflict levels is important in wildlife management. A wide range of devices to detect and deter animals causing conflict are used for this purpose, although their effectiveness is often highly variable, due to habituation to disruptive or disturbing stimuli. Automated recognition of behaviours could form a critical component of a system capable of altering the disruptive stimuli to avoid this. In this paper we present a novel method to automatically recognise goose behaviour based on vocalisations from flocks of free-living barnacle geese (Branta leucopsis. The geese were observed and recorded in a natural environment, using a shielded shotgun microphone. The classification used Support Vector Machines (SVMs, which had been trained with labeled data. Greenwood Function Cepstral Coefficients (GFCC were used as features for the pattern recognition algorithm, as they can be adjusted to the hearing capabilities of different species. Three behaviours are classified based in this approach, and the method achieves a good recognition of foraging behaviour (86–97% sensitivity, 89–98% precision and a reasonable recognition of flushing (79–86%, 66–80% and landing behaviour(73–91%, 79–92%. The Support Vector Machine has proven to be a robust classifier for this kind of classification, as generality and non-linearcapabilities are important. We conclude that vocalisations can be used to automatically detect behaviour of conflict wildlife species, and as such, may be used as an integrated part of awildlife management system.

  11. A vocal-based analytical method for goose behaviour recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steen, Kim Arild; Therkildsen, Ole Roland; Karstoft, Henrik; Green, Ole

    2012-01-01

    Since human-wildlife conflicts are increasing, the development of cost-effective methods for reducing damage or conflict levels is important in wildlife management. A wide range of devices to detect and deter animals causing conflict are used for this purpose, although their effectiveness is often highly variable, due to habituation to disruptive or disturbing stimuli. Automated recognition of behaviours could form a critical component of a system capable of altering the disruptive stimuli to avoid this. In this paper we present a novel method to automatically recognise goose behaviour based on vocalisations from flocks of free-living barnacle geese (Branta leucopsis). The geese were observed and recorded in a natural environment, using a shielded shotgun microphone. The classification used Support Vector Machines (SVMs), which had been trained with labeled data. Greenwood Function Cepstral Coefficients (GFCC) were used as features for the pattern recognition algorithm, as they can be adjusted to the hearing capabilities of different species. Three behaviours are classified based in this approach, and the method achieves a good recognition of foraging behaviour (86-97% sensitivity, 89-98% precision) and a reasonable recognition of flushing (79-86%, 66-80%) and landing behaviour(73-91%, 79-92%). The Support Vector Machine has proven to be a robust classifier for this kind of classification, as generality and non-linear capabilities are important. We conclude that vocalisations can be used to automatically detect behaviour of conflict wildlife species, and as such, may be used as an integrated part of a wildlife management system. PMID:22737037

  12. Multi criteria decision making to select the suitable method for the preparation of nanoparticles using an analytical hierarchy process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velmurugan, R; Selvamuthukumar, S; Manavalan, R

    2011-11-01

    Selecting the right method for the preparation of nanoparticles is a crucial decision. A wrong decision can result in the product having to be formulated and developed again. One tool that can be useful in determining the most appropriate method is the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP). AHP has been employed in almost all areas related to decision-making problems. In this paper, the results of a case study illustrate that the AHP concept can assist designers in the effective evaluation of various methods available for the preparation of nanoparticles. This paper presents the methodology of selecting the most suitable method for preparing nanoparticles using the analytical hierarchy process.

  13. 40 CFR 141.402 - Ground water source microbial monitoring and analytical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... by reference of the documents listed in footnotes 2-11 in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR... monitoring and analytical methods. 141.402 Section 141.402 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Rule § 141.402 Ground water source microbial monitoring and analytical methods. (a) Triggered...

  14. The role of big data and advanced analytics in drug discovery, development, and commercialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szlezák, N; Evers, M; Wang, J; Pérez, L

    2014-05-01

    In recent years, few ideas have captured the imagination of health-care practitioners as much as the advent of "big data" and the advanced analytical methods and technologies used to interpret it-it is a trend seen as having the potential to revolutionize biology, medicine, and health care.(1,2,3) As new types of data and tools become available, a unique opportunity is emerging for smarter and more effective discovery, development, and commercialization of innovative biopharmaceutical drugs.

  15. On the Development of Parameterized Linear Analytical Longitudinal Airship Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulczycki, Eric A.; Johnson, Joseph R.; Bayard, David S.; Elfes, Alberto; Quadrelli, Marco B.

    2008-01-01

    In order to explore Titan, a moon of Saturn, airships must be able to traverse the atmosphere autonomously. To achieve this, an accurate model and accurate control of the vehicle must be developed so that it is understood how the airship will react to specific sets of control inputs. This paper explains how longitudinal aircraft stability derivatives can be used with airship parameters to create a linear model of the airship solely by combining geometric and aerodynamic airship data. This method does not require system identification of the vehicle. All of the required data can be derived from computational fluid dynamics and wind tunnel testing. This alternate method of developing dynamic airship models will reduce time and cost. Results are compared to other stable airship dynamic models to validate the methods. Future work will address a lateral airship model using the same methods.

  16. A manual of analytical methods used at MINTEK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The manual deals with various methods for a wide range of elemental analysis. Some of the methods that are used, include atomic absorption spectroscopy, optical emission spectroscopy and x-ray fluoresence spectroscopy. The basic charateristics of the method are given and the procedures are recorded step by step. One of the sections deals with methods associated with the recovery of uranium

  17. Analytical developments for definition and prediction of USB noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, N. N.; Tam, C. K. W.

    1976-01-01

    A systematic acoustic data base and associated flow data are used in identifying the noise generating mechanisms of upper surface blown flap configurations of short takeoff and landing aircraft. Theory is developed for the radiated sound field of the highly sheared flow of the trailing edge wake. An empirical method is also developed using extensive experimental data and physical reasonings to predict the noise levels.

  18. Intercalibration of analytical methods on marine environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The analytical results reported by the 55 laboratories from 29 countries participating in this intercomparison have enabled to certify the concentration of 16 elements (As, Br, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb, Se, Sr, Zn) in the mussel homogenate MA-M-2/TM. Information values could be established for 6 additional elements (Ag, Au, Cl, Pb, Sb, Sc). The atomic absorption spectroscopy was predominantly used in this intercomparison (45% of all determinations). It was followed by neutron activation analysis (28%), atomic emission spectroscopy (15%) and X-ray fluorescence (5%). The total number of outliers was moderate: 11.7% of all results. The number of outlying results by participating laboratories varied between 0 and 6

  19. An analytic method for sensitivity analysis of complex systems

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Yueying; Li, Wei; Cai, Xu

    2016-01-01

    Sensitivity analysis is concerned with understanding how the model output depends on uncertainties (variances) in inputs and then identifies which inputs are important in contributing to the prediction imprecision. Uncertainty determination in output is the most crucial step in sensitivity analysis. In the present paper, an analytic expression, which can exactly evaluate the uncertainty in output as a function of the output's derivatives and inputs' central moments, is firstly deduced for general multivariate models with given relationship between output and inputs in terms of Taylor series expansion. A $\\gamma$-order relative uncertainty for output, denoted by $\\mathrm{R^{\\gamma}_v}$, is introduced to quantify the contributions of input uncertainty of different orders. On this basis, it is shown that the widely used approximation considering the first order contribution from the variance of input variable can satisfactorily express the output uncertainty only when the input variance is very small or the inpu...

  20. Analytical methods for 2,4-D (Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid) determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 2,4-D herbicide is one of the main pesticides for controlling the bad grass in crops such as the water undergrowth. In Mexico the allowed bound of this pesticide is 0.05 mg/l in water of 2,4-D so it is required to have methods trusts and exacts, which can used in order to detected low concentration of it. In this work we show some for the conventional techniques and for establishing the 2,4-D concentrations. The UV-Vis spectrometer and liquids chromatography due that they are the most common used nowadays. Beside, we introduce a now developed technique, which is based on the neutronic activation analysis. Though use of the UV-Vis spectrometer technique it was possible target the concentrations interval between 1 and 200 mg/l. In the liquids chromatography interval was between 0.1 and 0.9, and by the neutronic activation analysis the interval was between 0.01 and 200 mg/l. (Author)

  1. Analytic Matrix Method for the Study of Propagation Characteristics of a Bent Planar Waveguide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Qing; CAO Zhuang-Qi; SHEN Qi-Shun; DOU Xiao-Ming; CHEN Ying-Li

    2000-01-01

    An analytic matrix method is used to analyze and accurately calculate the propagation constant and bendinglosses of a bent planar waveguide. This method gives not only a dispersion equation with explicit physical insight,but also accurate complex propagation constants.

  2. Analytical Method for Designing Grating Compensated Dispersion-Managed Soliton Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Y. H. C. Kwan; K. Nakkeeran; P. K. A. Wai

    2003-01-01

    We show a useful analytical method to design grating compensated dispersion-managed systems. Our method is in good agreement with the numerical results even in the presence of group delay ripples in the chirped fiber gratings.

  3. Analytical method of PBDES and PCBS from small volume human blood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujimine, Y.; Koizumi, A. [Kyoto Univ. (Japan); Mochizuki, A.; Hirai, T. [Otsuka Pharmaceutical, Tokushima (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    In order to conduct the epidemiological survey for children and old peoples, it is necessary to develop/improve the analytical method with which to conduct the analysis in smaller volume of blood samples because the blood volume from these subjects are normally allowed to take less than 5mL. For these purposes, we developed the Small Volume method (SV-method) using HRGC/HRMS for the PCBs and PBDEs analysis. The SV method for PCB can start the analysis only with 1.0 mL of whole blood and that for PBDE with 1.5 mL of whole blood, respectively; these methods showed the ultra high sensitivity. However the SV-method can not determine all isomer of PCBs and PBDEs but only predominant isomers of those chemicals. In the Healthy volunteers examination, the SV-PCB determined 13 isomers and the SV-PBDE method determined 4 isomers, respectively. By the way, SV-PCB and SV-PBDE method determined almost all levels in the sample; SV-PCB is 75% as compared with sum of all PCB isomers level, SV-PBDE is 82% as compared with sum of all PBDE isomers level. In summary, SV-method using HRGC/HRMS can determine approximate and predominant isomers levels of PCBs and PBDEs, making it possible to evaluate the human exposure to these chemicals. In this paper, the method of SV-PCB and SV-PBDE were described with precision date.

  4. Desenvolvimento de métodos analíticos para determinação de agrotóxicos em sedimentos por cromatografia gasosa monodimensional e bidimensional abrangente com micro detector de captura de elétrons Development of analytical methods for pesticides in sediments by monodimensional and comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with micro electron-capture detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Macedo da Silva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of analytical methods for determination of eight pesticides of different chemical classes (trichlorfon, propanil, fipronil, propiconazole, trifloxystrobin, permethrin, difenoconazole and azoxystrobin in sediments with gas chromatography-micro-electron capture detector (GC/µECD and comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with micro-electron capture detector (GCxGC/µECD is described. These methods were applied to real sediment samples, and the best results were obtained using a 5% diphenyl-methylpolysiloxane column for 1D-GC. For GCxGC the same column was employed in the first dimension and a 50%-phenyl-methylpolysiloxane stationary phase was placed in the second dimension. Due to the superior peak capacity and selectivity of GCxGC, interfering matrix peaks were separated from analytes, showing a better performance of GCxGC.

  5. Heavy-metal air pollution study using biological indicators and nuclear analytical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of industry and the increase in vehicle road traffic are responsible for the ever-growing environmental pollution by toxic elements. Some biological organisms strongly accumulate certain heavy toxic elements and thus can be considered as indicators of the environmental pollution. In this work different types of biological indicators were collected in almost all main cities and industrial zones of Vietnam. They were subsequently analysed by different modern analytical methods. The concentration of different elements and their correlation matrices may provide valuable information on the nature and sources of pollution (author)

  6. A critical review of analytical methods in pretreatment of lignocelluloses: Composition, imaging, and crystallinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Keikhosro; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J

    2016-01-01

    Lignocelluloses are widely investigated as renewable substrates to produce biofuels, e.g., ethanol, methane, hydrogen, and butanol, as well as chemicals such as citric acid, lactic acid, and xanthan gum. However, lignocelluloses have a recalcitrance structure to resist microbial and enzymatic attacks; therefore, many physical, thermal, chemical, and biological pretreatment methods have been developed to open up their structure. The efficiency of these pretreatments was studied using a variety of analytical methods that address their image, composition, crystallinity, degree of polymerization, enzyme adsorption/desorption, and accessibility. This paper presents a critical review of the first three categories of these methods as well as their constraints in various applications. The advantages, drawbacks, approaches, practical details, and some points that should be considered in the experimental methods to reach reliable and promising conclusions are also discussed. PMID:26614225

  7. Improved Tissue-Based Analytical Test Methods for Orellanine, a Biomarker of Cortinarius Mushroom Intoxication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anantharam, Poojya; Shao, Dahai; Imerman, Paula M.; Burrough, Eric; Schrunk, Dwayne; Sedkhuu, Tsevelmaa; Tang, Shusheng; Rumbeiha, Wilson

    2016-01-01

    Orellanine (OR) toxin is produced by mushrooms of the genus Cortinarius which grow in North America and in Europe. OR poisoning is characterized by severe oliguric acute renal failure, with a mortality rate of 10%–30%. Diagnosis of OR poisoning currently hinges on a history of ingestion of Cortinarius mushrooms and histopathology of renal biopsies. A key step in the diagnostic approach is analysis of tissues for OR. Currently, tissue-based analytical methods for OR are nonspecific and lack sensitivity. The objectives of this study were: (1) to develop definitive HPLC and LC-MS/MS tissue-based analytical methods for OR; and (2) to investigate toxicological effects of OR in mice. The HPLC limit of quantitation was 10 µg/g. For fortification levels of 15 µg/g to 50 µg/g OR in kidney, the relative standard deviation was between 1.3% and 9.8%, and accuracy was within 1.5% to 7.1%. A matrix-matched calibration curve was reproduced in this range with a correlation coefficient (r) of 0.97–0.99. The limit of detection was 20 ng/g for LC-MS/MS. In OR-injected mice, kidney OR concentrations were 97 ± 51 µg/g on Day 0 and 17 ± 1 µg/g on termination Day 3. Splenic and liver injuries were novel findings in this mouse model. The new tissue-based analytical tests will improve diagnosis of OR poisoning, while the mouse model has yielded new data advancing knowledge on OR-induced pathology. The new tissue-based analytical tests will improve diagnosis of OR poisoning, while the mouse model has yielded new data advancing knowledge on OR-induced pathology. PMID:27213453

  8. Improved Tissue-Based Analytical Test Methods for Orellanine, a Biomarker of Cortinarius Mushroom Intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anantharam, Poojya; Shao, Dahai; Imerman, Paula M; Burrough, Eric; Schrunk, Dwayne; Sedkhuu, Tsevelmaa; Tang, Shusheng; Rumbeiha, Wilson

    2016-05-21

    Orellanine (OR) toxin is produced by mushrooms of the genus Cortinarius which grow in North America and in Europe. OR poisoning is characterized by severe oliguric acute renal failure, with a mortality rate of 10%-30%. Diagnosis of OR poisoning currently hinges on a history of ingestion of Cortinarius mushrooms and histopathology of renal biopsies. A key step in the diagnostic approach is analysis of tissues for OR. Currently, tissue-based analytical methods for OR are nonspecific and lack sensitivity. The objectives of this study were: (1) to develop definitive HPLC and LC-MS/MS tissue-based analytical methods for OR; and (2) to investigate toxicological effects of OR in mice. The HPLC limit of quantitation was 10 µg/g. For fortification levels of 15 µg/g to 50 µg/g OR in kidney, the relative standard deviation was between 1.3% and 9.8%, and accuracy was within 1.5% to 7.1%. A matrix-matched calibration curve was reproduced in this range with a correlation coefficient (r) of 0.97-0.99. The limit of detection was 20 ng/g for LC-MS/MS. In OR-injected mice, kidney OR concentrations were 97 ± 51 µg/g on Day 0 and 17 ± 1 µg/g on termination Day 3. Splenic and liver injuries were novel findings in this mouse model. The new tissue-based analytical tests will improve diagnosis of OR poisoning, while the mouse model has yielded new data advancing knowledge on OR-induced pathology. The new tissue-based analytical tests will improve diagnosis of OR poisoning, while the mouse model has yielded new data advancing knowledge on OR-induced pathology.

  9. Five-point Element Scheme of Finite Analytic Method for Unsteady Groundwater Flow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiang Bo; Mi Xiao; Ji Changming; Luo Qingsong

    2007-01-01

    In order to improve the finite analytic method's adaptability for irregular unit, by using coordinates rotation technique this paper establishes a five-point element scheme of finite analytic method. It not only solves unsteady groundwater flow equation but also gives the boundary condition. This method can be used to calculate the three typical questions of groundwater. By compared with predecessor's computed result, the result of this method is more satisfactory.

  10. Programming of development of commune with utilization of analytic hierarchic process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Łuczak

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is a trial of application of analytical hierarchy process to work out scenarios of development of rural commune of Wielkopolska province. In the proposed method consists in building a hierarchical scheme. The scheme covers the general goal which is ensure best by the multi-functional development in administrative district, specific (basic goals and within each goal, a package of a activities can be distinguished which were the basis to work out scenarios of the development of commune. It allowed to choose the best scenario for the administrative district.

  11. An introduction to clinical microeconomic analysis: purposes and analytic methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weintraub, W S; Mauldin, P D; Becker, E R

    1994-06-01

    The recent concern with health care economics has fostered the development of a new discipline that is generally called clinical microeconomics. This is a discipline in which microeconomic methods are used to study the economics of specific medical therapies. It is possible to perform stand alone cost analyses, but more profound insight into the medical decision making process may be accomplished by combining cost studies with measures of outcome. This is most often accomplished with cost-effectiveness or cost-utility studies. In cost-effectiveness studies there is one measure of outcome, often death. In cost-utility studies there are multiple measures of outcome, which must be grouped together to give an overall picture of outcome or utility. There are theoretical limitations to the determination of utility that must be accepted to perform this type of analysis. A summary statement of outcome is quality adjusted life years (QALYs), which is utility time socially discounted survival. Discounting is used because people value a year of future life less than a year of present life. Costs are made up of in-hospital direct, professional, follow-up direct, and follow-up indirect costs. Direct costs are for medical services. Indirect costs reflect opportunity costs such as lost time at work. Cost estimates are often based on marginal costs, or the cost for one additional procedure of the same type. Finally an overall statistic may be generated as cost per unit increase in effectiveness, such as dollars per QALY.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:10151059

  12. Analytical method for the identification and assay of 12 phthalates in cosmetic products: application of the ISO 12787 international standard "Cosmetics-Analytical methods-Validation criteria for analytical results using chromatographic techniques".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimeno, Pascal; Maggio, Annie-Françoise; Bousquet, Claudine; Quoirez, Audrey; Civade, Corinne; Bonnet, Pierre-Antoine

    2012-08-31

    Esters of phthalic acid, more commonly named phthalates, may be present in cosmetic products as ingredients or contaminants. Their presence as contaminant can be due to the manufacturing process, to raw materials used or to the migration of phthalates from packaging when plastic (polyvinyl chloride--PVC) is used. 8 phthalates (DBP, DEHP, BBP, DMEP, DnPP, DiPP, DPP, and DiBP), classified H360 or H361, are forbidden in cosmetics according to the European regulation on cosmetics 1223/2009. A GC/MS method was developed for the assay of 12 phthalates in cosmetics, including the 8 phthalates regulated. Analyses are carried out on a GC/MS system with electron impact ionization mode (EI). The separation of phthalates is obtained on a cross-linked 5%-phenyl/95%-dimethylpolysiloxane capillary column 30 m × 0.25 mm (i.d.) × 0.25 mm film thickness using a temperature gradient. Phthalate quantification is performed by external calibration using an internal standard. Validation elements obtained on standard solutions, highlight a satisfactory system conformity (resolution>1.5), a common quantification limit at 0.25 ng injected, an acceptable linearity between 0.5 μg mL⁻¹ and 5.0 μg mL⁻¹ as well as a precision and an accuracy in agreement with in-house specifications. Cosmetic samples ready for analytical injection are analyzed after a dilution in ethanol whereas more complex cosmetic matrices, like milks and creams, are assayed after a liquid/liquid extraction using ter-butyl methyl ether (TBME). Depending on the type of cosmetics analyzed, the common limits of quantification for the 12 phthalates were set at 0.5 or 2.5 μg g⁻¹. All samples were assayed using the analytical approach described in the ISO 12787 international standard "Cosmetics-Analytical methods-Validation criteria for analytical results using chromatographic techniques". This analytical protocol is particularly adapted when it is not possible to make reconstituted sample matrices.

  13. Numerical-Analytical Method for Magnetic Field Computation in Rotational Electric Machines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章跃进; 江建中; 屠关镇

    2003-01-01

    A numerical-analytical method is applied for the two-dimensional magnetic field computation in rotational electric machines in this paper. The analytical expressions for air gap magnetic field axe derived. The pole pairs in the expressions are taken into account so that the solution region can be reduced within one periodic range. The numerical and analytical magnetic field equations are linked with equal vector magnetic potential boundary conditions. The magnetic field of a brushless permanent magnet machine is computed by the proposed method. The result is compared to that obtained by finite element method so as to validate the correction of th method.

  14. Analytical Evaluation of Beam Deformation Problem Using Approximate Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barari, Amin; Kimiaeifar, A.; Domairry, G.

    2010-01-01

    The beam deformation equation has very wide applications in structural engineering. As a differential equation, it has its own problem concerning existence, uniqueness and methods of solutions. Often, original forms of governing differential equations used in engineering problems are simplified, ...... Iteration Method (VIM). The comparisons of the results reveal that these methods are very effective, convenient and quite accurate for systems of non-linear differential equation....

  15. A Review of Mg Isotope Analytical Methods by MC-ICP-MS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yajun An; Fang Huang

    2014-01-01

    Application of multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS) has led to big breakthrough of analytical methods for metal stable isotopes, resulting in rapid progresses in non-traditional stable isotope geochemistry. As a new geological tracer, Mg isotopes have been widely applied in studies of almost all important disciplines of geochemistry. High precision Mg isotope data measured by MC-ICP-MS are now available with precision about 0.05‰ amu-1 (2SD) or better. Because mass bias caused by chemical procedure and instrument can easily cause significant analytical error, it is still a challenge to obtain accurate Mg isotope data for natural samples. In this paper, we systematically review the development of analytical technique of Mg isotopes, with a detailed description of a series of important techniques used in the measurement process, including calibration of instrumental mass-bias, chemical purification process, matrix effect, and pitfalls for high precision isotope analyses. We compare standard data from different labs and establish a guideline for Mg iso-tope analysis procedure. Additionally, we briefly discuss the behaviors of Mg isotopes during geological processes including equilibrium and kinetic Mg isotope fractionations, such as magma differentiation, chemical and thermal diffusion, and continental weathering. Finally, we propose some future prospects for Mg isotope geochemistry in both high and low temperature geological processes.

  16. Adaptive correction method for an OCXO and investigation of analytical cumulative time error upper bound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hui; Kunz, Thomas; Schwartz, Howard

    2011-01-01

    Traditional oscillators used in timing modules of CDMA and WiMAX base stations are large and expensive. Applying cheaper and smaller, albeit more inaccurate, oscillators in timing modules is an interesting research challenge. An adaptive control algorithm is presented to enhance the oscillators to meet the requirements of base stations during holdover mode. An oscillator frequency stability model is developed for the adaptive control algorithm. This model takes into account the control loop which creates the correction signal when the timing module is in locked mode. A recursive prediction error method is used to identify the system model parameters. Simulation results show that an oscillator enhanced by our adaptive control algorithm improves the oscillator performance significantly, compared with uncorrected oscillators. Our results also show the benefit of explicitly modeling the control loop. Finally, the cumulative time error upper bound of such enhanced oscillators is investigated analytically and comparison results between the analytical and simulated upper bound are provided. The results show that the analytical upper bound can serve as a practical guide for system designers. PMID:21244973

  17. Adaptive correction method for an OCXO and investigation of analytical cumulative time error upper bound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hui; Kunz, Thomas; Schwartz, Howard

    2011-01-01

    Traditional oscillators used in timing modules of CDMA and WiMAX base stations are large and expensive. Applying cheaper and smaller, albeit more inaccurate, oscillators in timing modules is an interesting research challenge. An adaptive control algorithm is presented to enhance the oscillators to meet the requirements of base stations during holdover mode. An oscillator frequency stability model is developed for the adaptive control algorithm. This model takes into account the control loop which creates the correction signal when the timing module is in locked mode. A recursive prediction error method is used to identify the system model parameters. Simulation results show that an oscillator enhanced by our adaptive control algorithm improves the oscillator performance significantly, compared with uncorrected oscillators. Our results also show the benefit of explicitly modeling the control loop. Finally, the cumulative time error upper bound of such enhanced oscillators is investigated analytically and comparison results between the analytical and simulated upper bound are provided. The results show that the analytical upper bound can serve as a practical guide for system designers.

  18. Semi-analytic treatment of the three-dimensional Poisson equation via a Galerkin BIE method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nintcheu Fata, Sylvain [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    A systematic treatment of the three-dimensional Poisson equation via singular and hypersingular boundary integral equation techniques is investigated in the context of a Galerkin approximation. Developed to conveniently deal with domain integrals without a volume-fitted mesh, the proposed method initially converts domain integrals featuring the Newton potential and its gradient into equivalent surface integrals. Then, the resulting boundary integrals are evaluated by means of well-established cubature methods. In this transformation, weakly-singular domain integrals, defined over simply- or multiply-connected domains with Lipschitz boundaries, are rigorously converted into weakly-singular surface integrals. Combined with the semi-analytic integration approach developed for potential problems to accurately calculate singular and hypersingular Galerkin surface integrals, this technique can be employed to effectively deal with mixed boundary-value problems without the need to partition the underlying domain into volume cells. Sample problems are included to validate the proposed approach.

  19. Tank 48H Waste Composition and Results of Investigation of Analytical Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker , D.D. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)

    1997-04-02

    This report serves two purposes. First, it documents the analytical results of Tank 48H samples taken between April and August 1996. Second, it describes investigations of the precision of the sampling and analytical methods used on the Tank 48H samples.

  20. Hybrid analytic-numeric calculation method for light through a bounded planar dielectric

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nicolau, J.B.; Groesen, van E.

    2005-01-01

    We present a hybrid analytic-numeric method to calculate the transmission and reflection of light that is fluxed into a bounded complicated optical structure surrounded by air. The solution is obtained by numerical calculations inside a square containing the structure and by analytical calculations

  1. Development and validation of an analytical method for the separation and determination of major bioactive curcuminoids in Curcuma longa rhizomes and herbal products using non-aqueous capillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anubala, S; Sekar, R; Nagaiah, K

    2014-06-01

    A simple, fast and efficient non-aqueous capillary electrophoresis method (NACE) was developed for the simultaneous determination of three major bioactive curcuminoids (CMNs) in Curcuma longa rhizomes and its herbal products. Good separation, resolution and reproducibility were achieved with the background electrolyte (BGE) consisting a mixture of 15.0 mM sodium tetraborate and 7.4 mM sodium hydroxide (NaOH) in 2:10:15 (v/v/v) of water, 1-propanol, and methanol. The influences of background electrolyte, sodium hydroxide, water, sodium dodecyl sulfate and hydroxylpropyl-β-cyclodextrin on separations were investigated. The separation was carried out in a fused-silica capillary tube with reverse polarity. Hydrodynamic injection of 25mbar for 12s was used for injecting samples and a voltage of 28 kV was applied for separation. The ultrasonication method was used for the extraction of CMNs from the turmeric herbal products and the extract was filtered and directly injected without any further treatments. The limits of detection and quantification were less than 5.0 and 14.6 µg/ml respectively for all CMNs. The percentage recoveries for CMNs were >97.2% (%RSD, <2.62). The results obtained by the method were compared with existing spectrophotometric and HPLC methods. The related compounds in the extract did not interfere in the determination of CMNs. The proposed NACE method is better than existing chromatographic and electrophoretic methods in terms of simple electrophoretic medium, fast analysis and good resolution.

  2. Development of analytical methodologies to assess recalcitrant pesticide bioremediation in biobeds at laboratory scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivero, Anisleidy; Niell, Silvina; Cerdeiras, M Pía; Heinzen, Horacio; Cesio, María Verónica

    2016-06-01

    To assess recalcitrant pesticide bioremediation it is necessary to gradually increase the complexity of the biological system used in order to design an effective biobed assembly. Each step towards this effective biobed design needs a suitable, validated analytical methodology that allows a correct evaluation of the dissipation and bioconvertion. Low recovery yielding methods could give a false idea of a successful biodegradation process. To address this situation, different methods were developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of endosulfan, its main three metabolites, and chlorpyrifos in increasingly complex matrices where the bioconvertor basidiomycete Abortiporus biennis could grow. The matrices were culture media, bran, and finally a laboratory biomix composed of bran, peat and soil. The methodology for the analysis of the first evaluated matrix has already been reported. The methodologies developed for the other two systems are presented in this work. The targeted analytes were extracted from fungi growing over bran in semisolid media YNB (Yeast Nitrogen Based) with acetonitrile using shaker assisted extraction, The salting-out step was performed with MgSO4 and NaCl, and the extracts analyzed by GC-ECD. The best methodology was fully validated for all the evaluated analytes at 1 and 25mgkg(-1) yielding recoveries between 72% and 109% and RSDs methodology proved that A. biennis is able to dissipate 94% of endosulfan and 87% of chlorpyrifos after 90 days. Having assessed that A. biennis growing over bran can metabolize the studied pesticides, the next step faced was the development and validation of an analytical procedure to evaluate the analytes in a laboratory scale biobed composed of 50% of bran, 25% of peat and 25% of soil together with fungal micelium. From the different procedures assayed, only ultrasound assisted extraction with ethyl acetate allowed recoveries between 80% and 110% with RSDs <18%. Linearity, recovery, precision, matrix

  3. Base flow separation: A comparison of analytical and mass balance methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lott, Darline A.; Stewart, Mark T.

    2016-04-01

    Base flow is the ground water contribution to stream flow. Many activities, such as water resource management, calibrating hydrological and climate models, and studies of basin hydrology, require good estimates of base flow. The base flow component of stream flow is usually determined by separating a stream hydrograph into two components, base flow and runoff. Analytical methods, mathematical functions or algorithms used to calculate base flow directly from discharge, are the most widely used base flow separation methods and are often used without calibration to basin or gage-specific parameters other than basin area. In this study, six analytical methods are compared to a mass balance method, the conductivity mass-balance (CMB) method. The base flow index (BFI) values for 35 stream gages are obtained from each of the seven methods with each gage having at least two consecutive years of specific conductance data and 30 years of continuous discharge data. BFI is cumulative base flow divided by cumulative total discharge over the period of record of analysis. The BFI value is dimensionless, and always varies from 0 to 1. Areas of basins used in this study range from 27 km2 to 68,117 km2. BFI was first determined for the uncalibrated analytical methods. The parameters of each analytical method were then calibrated to produce BFI values as close to the CMB derived BFI values as possible. One of the methods, the power function (aQb + cQ) method, is inherently calibrated and was not recalibrated. The uncalibrated analytical methods have an average correlation coefficient of 0.43 when compared to CMB-derived values, and an average correlation coefficient of 0.93 when calibrated with the CMB method. Once calibrated, the analytical methods can closely reproduce the base flow values of a mass balance method. Therefore, it is recommended that analytical methods be calibrated against tracer or mass balance methods.

  4. 40 CFR 136.6 - Method modifications and analytical requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., oil and grease, total suspended solids, total phenolics, turbidity, chemical oxygen demand, and..., an analyst may not modify an approved method if the modification would result in measurement of...

  5. Development of partitioning method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A partitioning method has been developed under the concepts of separating radioactive nuclides from a high-level waste according to their half lives and radioactive toxicity, and of disposing the waste safely. The partitioning test using about 18 liters (--220Ci) of the fuel reprocessing waste prepared at PNC has been started in October of 1982. In this test the behavior of radioactive nuclides was made clear. The present paper describes chemical behavior of non-radioactive elements contained in the high-level liquid waste in the extraction with di-isodecyl phosphoric acid (DIDPA). Distribution ratios of most of metal ions for DIDPA were less than 0.05, except that those of Mo, Zr and Fe were higher than 7. Ferric ion could not be back-extracted with 4 M HNO3, but with 0.5 M (COOH)2. In the extractiion with DIDPA, the third phase, which causes closing the settling banks or the flow paths in a mixer settler, was formed when the ferric ion concentration was over 0.02 M. This unfavorable phenomenon, however, was found to be suppressed by diluting the ferric ion concentration to lower than 0.01 M or by reducing ferric ion to ferrous ion. (author)

  6. Application of the invariant embedding method to analytically solvable transport problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahlberg, Malin

    2005-05-01

    The applicability and performance of the invariant embedding method for calculating various transport quantities is investigated in this thesis. The invariant embedding method is a technique to calculate the reflected or transmitted fluxes in homogeneous half-spaces and slabs, without the need for solving for the flux inside the medium. In return, the embedding equations become non-linear, and in practical cases they need to be solved by numerical methods. There are, however, fast and effective iterative methods available for this purpose. The objective of this thesis is to investigate the performance of these iterative methods in model problems, in which also an exact analytical solution can be obtained. Some of these analytical solutions are also new, hence their derivation constitutes a part of the thesis work. The cases investigated in the thesis all concern the calculation of reflected fluxes from half-spaces. The first problem treated was the calculation of the energy spectrum of reflected (sputtered) particles from a multiplying medium, where the multiplication arises from recoil production (i.e. like binary fission), when bombarded by o flux of monoenergetic particles of the same type. Both constant cross sections and energy dependent cross sections with a power law dependence were used in the calculations. The second class of problems concerned the calculation of the path length distribution of reflected particles from a medium without multiplication. It is an interesting new observation that the distribution of the path length travelled in the medium before reflection can be calculated with invariant embedding methods, which actually do not solve the flux distribution in the medium. We have tested the accuracy and the convergence properties of the embedding method also for this case. Finally, very recently a theory of connecting the infinite and half-space medium solutions by embedding-like integral equations was developed and reported in the literature

  7. 100-F Target Analyte List Development for Soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ovink, R.

    2012-09-18

    This report documents the process used to identify source area target analytes in support of the 100-F Area remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) addendum to the Integrated 100 Area Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study Work Plan (DOE/RL-2008-46, Rev. 0).

  8. 100-K Target Analyte List Development for Soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ovink, R.

    2012-09-18

    This report documents the process used to identify source area target analytes in support of the 100-K Area remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) addendum to the Integrated 100 Area Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study Work Plan (DOE/RL-2008-46, Rev. 0).

  9. Analytical methods applied to the study of lattice gauge and spin theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study of interactions between quarks and gluons is presented. Certain difficulties of the quantum chromodynamics to explain the behaviour of quarks has given origin to the technique of lattice gauge theories. First the phase diagrams of the discrete space-time theories are studied. The analysis of the phase diagrams is made by numerical and analytical methods. The following items were investigated and studied: a) A variational technique was proposed to obtain very accurated values for the ground and first excited state energy of the analyzed theory; b) A mean-field-like approximation for lattice spin models in the link formulation which is a generalization of the mean-plaquette technique was developed; c) A new method to study lattice gauge theories at finite temperature was proposed. For the first time, a non-abelian model was studied with analytical methods; d) An abelian lattice gauge theory with fermionic matter at the strong coupling limit was analyzed. Interesting results applicable to non-abelian gauge theories were obtained. (M.E.L.)

  10. Solving Burger's equation by semi-analytical and implicit method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalil Manafian Heris

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the modified Laplace Adomian decomposition method (LADM is applied to solve the Burgers’ equation. In addition, example that illustrate the pertinent features of this method is presented, and the results of the study is discussed. We prove the convergence of LADM applied to the Burgers’ equation. Also, Burgers’ equation has some discontinuous solutions because of effects of viscosity term. These discontinuities raise phenomenon of shock waves. Some explicit and implicit numerical methods have been experimented on Burgers’ equation but these schemes have not been seen proper in this case because of their conditional stability and existence of viscosity term. We consider two types of box schemes and implement on Burgers’ equation to get better results with no artificial wiggles.

  11. Analytical Model Analysis Of Distributed Cooperative Spectrum Sensing Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Prakash Shukla

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Spectrum sensing is a key function of cognitive radio to prevent the harmful interference with licensed users and identify the available spectrum for improving the spectrum’s utilization. Various methods for spectrum sensing control, such as deciding which sensors should perform sensing simultaneously and finding the appropriate trade-off between probability of misdetection and false alarm rate, are described. However, detection performance in practice is often compromised with multipath fading, shadowing and receiver uncertainty issues. To mitigate the impact of these issues, cooperative spectrum sensing has been shown to be an effective method to improve the detection performance by exploiting spatial diversity.

  12. Evaluating water management strategies in watersheds by new hybrid Fuzzy Analytical Network Process (FANP) methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    RazaviToosi, S. L.; Samani, J. M. V.

    2016-03-01

    Watersheds are considered as hydrological units. Their other important aspects such as economic, social and environmental functions play crucial roles in sustainable development. The objective of this work is to develop methodologies to prioritize watersheds by considering different development strategies in environmental, social and economic sectors. This ranking could play a significant role in management to assign the most critical watersheds where by employing water management strategies, best condition changes are expected to be accomplished. Due to complex relations among different criteria, two new hybrid fuzzy ANP (Analytical Network Process) algorithms, fuzzy TOPSIS (Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution) and fuzzy max-min set methods are used to provide more flexible and accurate decision model. Five watersheds in Iran named Oroomeyeh, Atrak, Sefidrood, Namak and Zayandehrood are considered as alternatives. Based on long term development goals, 38 water management strategies are defined as subcriteria in 10 clusters. The main advantage of the proposed methods is its ability to overcome uncertainty. This task is accomplished by using fuzzy numbers in all steps of the algorithms. To validate the proposed method, the final results were compared with those obtained from the ANP algorithm and the Spearman rank correlation coefficient is applied to find the similarity in the different ranking methods. Finally, the sensitivity analysis was conducted to investigate the influence of cluster weights on the final ranking.

  13. A new method for deriving analytical solutions of partial differential equations--Algebraically explicit analytical solutions of two-buoyancy natural convection in porous media

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI RuiXian; LIU QiBin

    2008-01-01

    Analytical solutions of governing equations of various phenomena have their irre-placeable theoretical meanings. In addition, they can also be the benchmark solu-tions to verify the outcomes and codes of numerical solutions, and even to develop various numerical methods such as their differencing schemes and grid generation skills as well. A hybrid method of separating variables for simultaneous partial differential equation sets is presented. It is proposed that different methods of separating variables for different independent variables in the simultaneous equa-tion set may be used to improve the solution derivation procedure, for example, using the ordinary separating method for some variables and using extraordinary methods of separating variables, such as the separating variables with addition promoted by the first author, for some other variables. In order to prove the ability of the above-mentioned hybrid method, a lot of analytical exact solutions of two-buoyancy convection in porous media are successfully derived with such a method. The physical features of these solutions are given.

  14. A new method for deriving analytical solutions of partial differential equations-Algebraically explicit analytical solutions of two-buoyancy natural convection in porous media

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Analytical solutions of governing equations of various phenomena have their irre-placeable theoretical meanings. In addition, they can also be the benchmark solu-tions to verify the outcomes and codes of numerical solutions, and even to develop various numerical methods such as their differencing schemes and grid generation skills as well. A hybrid method of separating variables for simultaneous partial differential equation sets is presented. It is proposed that different methods of separating variables for different independent variables in the simultaneous equa-tion set may be used to improve the solution derivation procedure, for example, using the ordinary separating method for some variables and using extraordinary methods of separating variables, such as the separating variables with addition promoted by the first author, for some other variables. In order to prove the ability of the above-mentioned hybrid method, a lot of analytical exact solutions of two-buoyancy convection in porous media are successfully derived with such a method. The physical features of these solutions are given.

  15. Analytical Methods for Determination of the Oxidative Status in Oils

    OpenAIRE

    Semb, Thea Norveel

    2012-01-01

    In industry today standard oxidative quality parameters are based on measurements of primary and secondary oxidation products, measured by PV and AV respectively. These methods are all prone to limitations and weaknesses, and their suitability for application on marine oils is not well documented. An increase in fish oil products with added flavor, color compounds, antioxidants and vitamins has entered the market in recent years. However, no documentation on the effect of these additives on t...

  16. The analytic method for calculating the control rod worth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We calculated the control rod worth in this paper. To avoid complexity, we did not consider burnable poisons and soluble boron. The system was localized within one assembly. The control rod was treated as not an absorber but an another boundary. Thus all of the group constants were unchanged before and after control rod insertion. And we discussed the method for calculation of the reactivity of the whole core

  17. Optimized Analytical Method to Determine Gallic and Picric Acids in Pyrotechnic Samples by Using HPLC/UV (Reverse Phase)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study on the optimization and development of a chromatographic method for the determination of gallic and picric acids in pyrotechnic samples is presented. In order to achieve this, both analytical conditions by HPLC with diode detection and extraction step of a selected sample were studied. (Author)

  18. Approximate Analytic Solutions for the Two-Phase Stefan Problem Using the Adomian Decomposition Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Ying Qin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An Adomian decomposition method (ADM is applied to solve a two-phase Stefan problem that describes the pure metal solidification process. In contrast to traditional analytical methods, ADM avoids complex mathematical derivations and does not require coordinate transformation for elimination of the unknown moving boundary. Based on polynomial approximations for some known and unknown boundary functions, approximate analytic solutions for the model with undetermined coefficients are obtained using ADM. Substitution of these expressions into other equations and boundary conditions of the model generates some function identities with the undetermined coefficients. By determining these coefficients, approximate analytic solutions for the model are obtained. A concrete example of the solution shows that this method can easily be implemented in MATLAB and has a fast convergence rate. This is an efficient method for finding approximate analytic solutions for the Stefan and the inverse Stefan problems.

  19. Approximation analytical solutions for a unified plasma sheath model by double decomposition method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FangJin-Qing

    1998-01-01

    A unified plasma sheath model and its potential equation are proposed.Any higher-order approximation analytical solutions for the unified plasma sheath potential equation are derived by double decomposition method.

  20. parallelMCMCcombine: an R package for bayesian methods for big data and analytics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Miroshnikov

    Full Text Available Recent advances in big data and analytics research have provided a wealth of large data sets that are too big to be analyzed in their entirety, due to restrictions on computer memory or storage size. New Bayesian methods have been developed for data sets that are large only due to large sample sizes. These methods partition big data sets into subsets and perform independent Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo analyses on the subsets. The methods then combine the independent subset posterior samples to estimate a posterior density given the full data set. These approaches were shown to be effective for Bayesian models including logistic regression models, Gaussian mixture models and hierarchical models. Here, we introduce the R package parallelMCMCcombine which carries out four of these techniques for combining independent subset posterior samples. We illustrate each of the methods using a Bayesian logistic regression model for simulation data and a Bayesian Gamma model for real data; we also demonstrate features and capabilities of the R package. The package assumes the user has carried out the Bayesian analysis and has produced the independent subposterior samples outside of the package. The methods are primarily suited to models with unknown parameters of fixed dimension that exist in continuous parameter spaces. We envision this tool will allow researchers to explore the various methods for their specific applications and will assist future progress in this rapidly developing field.

  1. parallelMCMCcombine: an R package for bayesian methods for big data and analytics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miroshnikov, Alexey; Conlon, Erin M

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in big data and analytics research have provided a wealth of large data sets that are too big to be analyzed in their entirety, due to restrictions on computer memory or storage size. New Bayesian methods have been developed for data sets that are large only due to large sample sizes. These methods partition big data sets into subsets and perform independent Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo analyses on the subsets. The methods then combine the independent subset posterior samples to estimate a posterior density given the full data set. These approaches were shown to be effective for Bayesian models including logistic regression models, Gaussian mixture models and hierarchical models. Here, we introduce the R package parallelMCMCcombine which carries out four of these techniques for combining independent subset posterior samples. We illustrate each of the methods using a Bayesian logistic regression model for simulation data and a Bayesian Gamma model for real data; we also demonstrate features and capabilities of the R package. The package assumes the user has carried out the Bayesian analysis and has produced the independent subposterior samples outside of the package. The methods are primarily suited to models with unknown parameters of fixed dimension that exist in continuous parameter spaces. We envision this tool will allow researchers to explore the various methods for their specific applications and will assist future progress in this rapidly developing field.

  2. Analytical Methods for Environmental Risk Assessment of Acid Sulfate Soils: A Review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Assessment of acid sulfate soil risk is an important step for acid sulfate soil management and its reliability depends very much on the suitability and accuracy of various analytical methods for estimating sulfide-derived potential acidity, actual acidity and acid-neutralizing capacity in acid sulfate soils. This paper critically reviews various analytical methods that are currently used for determination of the above parameters, as well as their implications for environmental risk assessment of acid sulfate soils.

  3. Critical node treatment in the analytic function expansion method for Pin Power Reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Z. [Rice University, MS 318, 6100 Main Street, Houston, TX 77005 (United States); Xu, Y. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Case Ave., Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Downar, T. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of Michigan, 2355 Bonisteel blvd., Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Pin Power Reconstruction (PPR) was implemented in PARCS using the eight term analytic function expansion method (AFEN). This method has been demonstrated to be both accurate and efficient. However, similar to all the methods involving analytic functions, such as the analytic node method (ANM) and AFEN for nodal solution, the use of AFEN for PPR also has potential numerical issue with critical nodes. The conventional analytic functions are trigonometric or hyperbolic sine or cosine functions with an angular frequency proportional to buckling. For a critic al node the buckling is zero and the sine functions becomes zero, and the cosine function become unity. In this case, the eight terms of the analytic functions are no longer distinguishable from ea ch other which makes their corresponding coefficients can no longer be determined uniquely. The mode flux distribution of critical node can be linear while the conventional analytic functions can only express a uniform distribution. If there is critical or near critical node in a plane, the reconstructed pin power distribution is often be shown negative or very large values using the conventional method. In this paper, we propose a new method to avoid the numerical problem wit h critical nodes which uses modified trigonometric or hyperbolic sine functions which are the ratio of trigonometric or hyperbolic sine and its angular frequency. If there are no critical or near critical nodes present, the new pin power reconstruction method with modified analytic functions are equivalent to the conventional analytic functions. The new method is demonstrated using the L336C5 benchmark problem. (authors)

  4. Critical node treatment in the analytic function expansion method for Pin Power Reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pin Power Reconstruction (PPR) was implemented in PARCS using the eight term analytic function expansion method (AFEN). This method has been demonstrated to be both accurate and efficient. However, similar to all the methods involving analytic functions, such as the analytic node method (ANM) and AFEN for nodal solution, the use of AFEN for PPR also has potential numerical issue with critical nodes. The conventional analytic functions are trigonometric or hyperbolic sine or cosine functions with an angular frequency proportional to buckling. For a critic al node the buckling is zero and the sine functions becomes zero, and the cosine function become unity. In this case, the eight terms of the analytic functions are no longer distinguishable from ea ch other which makes their corresponding coefficients can no longer be determined uniquely. The mode flux distribution of critical node can be linear while the conventional analytic functions can only express a uniform distribution. If there is critical or near critical node in a plane, the reconstructed pin power distribution is often be shown negative or very large values using the conventional method. In this paper, we propose a new method to avoid the numerical problem wit h critical nodes which uses modified trigonometric or hyperbolic sine functions which are the ratio of trigonometric or hyperbolic sine and its angular frequency. If there are no critical or near critical nodes present, the new pin power reconstruction method with modified analytic functions are equivalent to the conventional analytic functions. The new method is demonstrated using the L336C5 benchmark problem. (authors)

  5. Joint Monitoring Programme (JMP). Overview of analytical methods employed by JMP in Norway 1981-1987

    OpenAIRE

    Green, N.

    1988-01-01

    Brief descriptions are given of the analytical methods employed by Norway under the Joint Monitoring Programme (JMP) and in cooperation with the International Council for the exploration of the Sea (ICES). Methods concern determination of trace metals and chlorinated hydrocarbons in sea water, sea bed sediment and marine organisms. Included are the detection limits, analytical laborator- ies, and references to the intercalibration exercises that applied to samples collected 1981-86.

  6. Communication: An efficient analytic gradient theory for approximate spin projection methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hratchian, Hrant P.

    2013-03-01

    Spin polarized and broken symmetry density functional theory are popular approaches for treating the electronic structure of open shell systems. However, spin contamination can significantly affect the quality of predicted geometries and properties. One scheme for addressing this concern in studies involving broken-symmetry states is the approximate projection method developed by Yamaguchi and co-workers. Critical to the exploration of potential energy surfaces and the study of properties using this method will be an efficient analytic gradient theory. This communication introduces such a theory formulated, for the first time, within the framework of general post-self consistent field (SCF) derivative theory. Importantly, the approach taken here avoids the need to explicitly solve for molecular orbital derivatives of each nuclear displacement perturbation, as has been used in a recent implementation. Instead, the well-known z-vector scheme is employed and only one SCF response equation is required.

  7. Methods used by Elsam for monitoring precision and accuracy of analytical results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinnerskov Jensen, J. [Soenderjyllands Hoejspaendingsvaerk, Faelleskemikerne, Aabenraa (Denmark)

    1996-12-01

    Performing round robins at regular intervals is the primary method used by ELsam for monitoring precision and accuracy of analytical results. The firs round robin was started in 1974, and today 5 round robins are running. These are focused on: boiler water and steam, lubricating oils, coal, ion chromatography and dissolved gases in transformer oils. Besides the power plant laboratories in Elsam, the participants are power plant laboratories from the rest of Denmark, industrial and commercial laboratories in Denmark, and finally foreign laboratories. The calculated standard deviations or reproducibilities are compared with acceptable values. These values originate from ISO, ASTM and the like, or from own experiences. Besides providing the laboratories with a tool to check their momentary performance, the round robins are vary suitable for evaluating systematic developments on a long term basis. By splitting up the uncertainty according to methods, sample preparation/analysis, etc., knowledge can be extracted from the round robins for use in many other situations. (au)

  8. Analytical methods in untargeted metabolomics: state of the art in 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnald eAlonso

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Metabolomics comprises the methods and techniques that are used to measure the small molecule composition of biofluids and tissues, and is actually one of the most rapidly evolving research fields. The determination of the metabolomic profile –the metabolome- has multiple applications in many biological sciences, including the developing of new diagnostic tools in medicine. Recent technological advances in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR and mass spectrometry (MS are significantly improving our capacity to obtain more data from each biological sample. Consequently, there is a need for fast and accurate statistical and bioinformatic tools that can deal with the complexity and volume of the data generated in metabolomic studies. In this review we provide an update of the most commonly used analytical methods in metabolomics, starting from raw data processing and ending with pathway analysis and biomarker identification. Finally, the integration of metabolomic profiles with molecular data from other high throughput biotechnologies is also reviewed.

  9. Determination of Teaching Methods in Chemistry Education by the Analytic Hierarchy Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet YÜKSE

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the relative importance of the topics of the chemistry course for the 9th grade of the secondary education and their teaching methods for an effective chemistry course have been determined by the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP technique. The AHP model of the research have been composed based on the topics in the chemistry course for the 9th grade and pair wise comparison matrix have been determined according to teachers’ view. As a result of the study, relative importance of the topics of the chemistry course as per percentage are compounds (47.8 %, chemical changes (26.5 %, chemical mixture (13.6 %, the development of chemistry (6.3 %, chemistry in our lives (5.8 %. The relative percentages of the teaching methods are narrative (32 %, demonstration (24.9 %, laboratory (18.9 %, question and answer (15.2 %, project work (9 %.

  10. Development of an analytical method for the determination of U-238, U-234, Th-232, Th-230, Th-228, Ra-228, Ra-226, Pb-210 and Po-210 and its application on environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comparison between the environmental impact by nuclear facilities with the burden suffered from natural radioactivity calls for studying the long-lived radionuclides of the U-238 and Th-232 decay series U-238, U-234, Th-232, Th-230, Th-228, Ra-228, Ra-226, Pb-210 and Po-210. This work describes the development of a fast isotope dilution analysis method allowing to separate with one sample solution U, Th, Ra, Pb and Po both from each other and, at the same time, from the matrix. To test its applicability, the method was used with samples consisting of soil, sediments, plants, water, carbon and air dust filter. The detection limit for the chemical yield attained of approx. 70% was 0.27 mBq per sample for Th-232, Th-230, Th-228, U-238, U-234 and Po-210. The detection limit for Pb-210 was 10 mBq per sample. On account of the influence by Ra-226 in the Ra-228 measurement and vice versa the detection limit is a function of the Ra-226 and Ra-228 concentrations, respectively, in the sample. The detection limits for the pure nuclides are 0.9 mBq per sample and 10 mBq per sample, respectively, for Ra-226 and Ra-228. (orig./HP)

  11. Development of a multiple-class analytical method based on the use of synthetic matrices for the simultaneous determination of commonly used commercial surfactants in wastewater by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandre, Bergé; Barbara, Giroud; Laure, Wiest; Bruno, Domenjoud; Adriana, Gonzalez-Ospina; Emmanuelle, Vulliet

    2016-06-10

    Discharges of surfactants from wastewater treatment plants are often considered as the principal vector of pollution into the environment. The analysis of complex matrices, such as urban wastewater, suspended solids and biological sludge requires careful preparation of the sample to obtain a sensitive, selective and reproducible analysis. A simple, fast, effective and multi-residue method based on the SPE (water) and QuEChERS (solid matrices) approaches using synthetic matrices for validation and quantification, has been developed for the determination of 16 surfactants in wastewater, suspended solids and biological sludge. This work resulted in an innovative method that was validated to detect and assess several classes of surfactants such as quaternary ammonium compounds, betaïns, alkylphenols and their ethoxylated or sulfated derivatives in urban wastewater and solid matrices. The optimised extraction method exhibited recoveries comprised between 83% and 120% for all the tested compounds in the dissolved matrix and between 50% and 109% for particulate matrix. The limits of quantification of all compounds were comprised between 0.1 and 1.0μg/L for dissolved matrix and between 2 and 1000ng/g (dry weight) in particulate matrix. Linearity was assessed for all compounds within the [LOQ-250LOQ] range. Confidence intervals were also computed in real matrices with less than 15% margin of error for all studied surfactants. This work has confirmed, first and foremost, that surfactants are indeed highly concentrated in urban wastewater. As expected, linear alkylbenzene sulfonates were present at significant concentrations (up to 1-2mg/L). In addition, although biological processing results in significant removal of the total pollution, the residual concentrations at output of WWTP remain significant (up to 100μg/L). PMID:27156752

  12. Analytical and numerical methods in the theory of random wave processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper deals with the evaluation of a two-parameter, two-index, imaginary integral function Csub(n)sup(m)(x,y). The motivation for this analysis arose from the application of stochastic process theory to random ocean wave properties. Physically Csub(n)sup(m)(x,y) represents the normalized cross spectrum between any two components of a random state vector whose components are defined by wave amplitude, vector particle velocity, vector particle acceleration and linearized vector hydrodynamic force on a submerged object. The function Csub(n)sup(m)(x,y), however, is developed in a general fashion so as to be applicable to any two-dimensional random wave process. Numerical and analytical methods are employed to develop thechniques for the evaluation of Csub(n)sup(m)(x,y) and sample graphs are presented

  13. Analytic method for geometrical parameter correction of planar HPGe detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A numerical integration formula was introduced to calculate the response of planar HPGe detector to photons emitted from point source. Then the formula was used to correct the geometrical parameter of planar HPGe detector. 241Am and 137Cs point sources were placed at a certain distance (1-20 cm) away from entrance window to get the corresponding detection efficiency. The detection parameters were calculated in weighted least square fitting using the formula with the experimental efficiencies as formula results. This correction method was accurate and timesaving. The simulation result from MCNP using the corrected parameters shows that the relative deviations between simulation and experimental efficiencies are less than 1% for 59.5 and 661.6 keV photons with the distance of 1-20 cm. (authors)

  14. Analytical Chemistry Laboratory (ACL) procedure compendium. Volume 4, Organic methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-01

    This interim notice covers the following: extractable organic halides in solids, total organic halides, analysis by gas chromatography/Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy, hexadecane extracts for volatile organic compounds, GC/MS analysis of VOCs, GC/MS analysis of methanol extracts of cryogenic vapor samples, screening of semivolatile organic extracts, GPC cleanup for semivolatiles, sample preparation for GC/MS for semi-VOCs, analysis for pesticides/PCBs by GC with electron capture detection, sample preparation for pesticides/PCBs in water and soil sediment, report preparation, Florisil column cleanup for pesticide/PCBs, silica gel and acid-base partition cleanup of samples for semi-VOCs, concentrate acid wash cleanup, carbon determination in solids using Coulometrics` CO{sub 2} coulometer, determination of total carbon/total organic carbon/total inorganic carbon in radioactive liquids/soils/sludges by hot persulfate method, analysis of solids for carbonates using Coulometrics` Model 5011 coulometer, and soxhlet extraction.

  15. Allomtric Scaling Analysis for City Development: Model, Method, and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Yanguang

    2011-01-01

    An allometric scaling analysis method based on the idea from fractal theory, general system theory, and analytical hierarchy process are proposed to make a comprehensive evaluation for the relative level of city development.

  16. An iterative computation method for interpreting and extending an analytical battery model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Battery models are of great importance to develop portable computing systems, for whether the design of low power hardware architecture or the design of battery-aware scheduling policies. In this paper, we present a physically justified iterative computing method to illustrate the discharge, recovery and charge process of Li/Li-ion batteries. The discharge and recovery processes correspond well to an existing accurate analytical battery model: R-V-W's analytical model, and thus interpret this model algorithmically. Our method can also extend R-V-W's model easily to accommodate the charge process. The work will help the system designers to grasp the characteristics of R-V-W's battery model and also, enable to predict the battery behavior in the charge process in a uniform way as the discharge process and the recovery process. Experiments are performed to show the accuracy of the extended model by comparing the predicted charge times with those derived from the DUALFOIL simulations.Various profiles with different combinations of battery modes were tested. The experimental results show that the extended battery model preserves high accuracy in predicting the charge behavior.

  17. Finite analytic method based on mixed-form Richards' equation for simulating water flow in vadose zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zaiyong; Wang, Wenke; Yeh, Tian-chyi Jim; Chen, Li; Wang, Zhoufeng; Duan, Lei; An, Kedong; Gong, Chengcheng

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we develop a finite analytic method (FAMM), which combines flexibility of numerical methods and advantages of analytical solutions, to solve the mixed-form Richards' equation. This new approach minimizes mass balance errors and truncation errors associated with most numerical approaches. We use numerical experiments to demonstrate that FAMM can obtain more accurate numerical solutions and control the global mass balance better than modified Picard finite difference method (MPFD) as compared with analytical solutions. In addition, FAMM is superior to the finite analytic method based on head-based Richards' equation (FAMH). Besides, FAMM solutions are compared to analytical solutions for wetting and drying processes in Brindabella Silty Clay Loam and Yolo Light Clay soils. Finally, we demonstrate that FAMM yields comparable results with those from MPFD and Hydrus-1D for simulating infiltration into other different soils under wet and dry conditions. These numerical experiments further confirm the fact that as long as a hydraulic constitutive model captures general behaviors of other models, it can be used to yield flow fields comparable to those based on other models.

  18. Early test facilities and analytic methods for radiation shielding: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ingersoll, D.T. (comp.) (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Ingersoll, J.K. (comp.) (Tec-Com, Knoxville, TN (United States))

    1992-11-01

    This report represents a compilation of eight papers presented at the 1992 American Nuclear Society/European Nuclear Society International Meeting. The meeting is of special significance since it commemorates the fiftieth anniversary of the first controlled nuclear chain reaction. The papers contained in this report were presented in a special session organized by the Radiation Protection and Shielding Division in keeping with the historical theme of the meeting. The paper titles are good indicators of their content and are: (1) The origin of radiation shielding research: The Oak Ridge experience, (2) Shielding research at the hanford site, (3) Aircraft shielding experiments at General Dynamics Fort Worth, 1950-1962, (4) Where have the neutrons gone , a history of the tower shielding facility, (5) History and evolution of buildup factors, (6) Early shielding research at Bettis atomic power laboratory, (7) UK reactor shielding: then and now, (8) A very personal view of the development of radiation shielding theory.

  19. Acoustic spectroscopy: A powerful analytical method for the pharmaceutical field?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonacucina, Giulia; Perinelli, Diego R; Cespi, Marco; Casettari, Luca; Cossi, Riccardo; Blasi, Paolo; Palmieri, Giovanni F

    2016-04-30

    Acoustics is one of the emerging technologies developed to minimize processing, maximize quality and ensure the safety of pharmaceutical, food and chemical products. The operating principle of acoustic spectroscopy is the measurement of the ultrasound pulse intensity and phase after its propagation through a sample. The main goal of this technique is to characterise concentrated colloidal dispersions without dilution, in such a way as to be able to analyse non-transparent and even highly structured systems. This review presents the state of the art of ultrasound-based techniques in pharmaceutical pre-formulation and formulation steps, showing their potential, applicability and limits. It reports in a simplified version the theory behind acoustic spectroscopy, describes the most common equipment on the market, and finally overviews different studies performed on systems and materials used in the pharmaceutical or related fields. PMID:26976503

  20. Early test facilities and analytic methods for radiation shielding: Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report represents a compilation of eight papers presented at the 1992 American Nuclear Society/European Nuclear Society International Meeting. The meeting is of special significance since it commemorates the fiftieth anniversary of the first controlled nuclear chain reaction. The papers contained in this report were presented in a special session organized by the Radiation Protection and Shielding Division in keeping with the historical theme of the meeting. The paper titles are good indicators of their content and are: (1) The origin of radiation shielding research: The Oak Ridge experience, (2) Shielding research at the hanford site, (3) Aircraft shielding experiments at General Dynamics Fort Worth, 1950-1962, (4) Where have the neutrons gone?, a history of the tower shielding facility, (5) History and evolution of buildup factors, (6) Early shielding research at Bettis atomic power laboratory, (7) UK reactor shielding: then and now, (8) A very personal view of the development of radiation shielding theory

  1. Method development in automated mineralogy

    OpenAIRE

    Sandmann, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    The underlying research that resulted in this doctoral dissertation was performed at the Division of Economic Geology and Petrology of the Department of Mineralogy, TU Bergakademie Freiberg between 2011 and 2014. It was the primary aim of this thesis to develop and test novel applications for the technology of ‘Automated Mineralogy’ in the field of economic geology and geometallurgy. A “Mineral Liberation Analyser” (MLA) instrument of FEI Company was used to conduct most analytical studies. T...

  2. An analytical method of estimating Value-at-Risk on the Belgrade Stock Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obadović Milica D.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents market risk evaluation for a portfolio consisting of shares that are continuously traded on the Belgrade Stock Exchange, by applying the Value-at-Risk model - the analytical method. It describes the manner of analytical method application and compares the results obtained by implementing this method at different confidence levels. Method verification was carried out on the basis of the failure rate that demonstrated the confidence level for which this method was acceptable in view of the given conditions.

  3. Analytical recovery of protozoan enumeration methods: have drinking water QMRA models corrected or created bias?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, P J; Emelko, M B; Thompson, M E

    2013-05-01

    Quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) is a tool to evaluate the potential implications of pathogens in a water supply or other media and is of increasing interest to regulators. In the case of potentially pathogenic protozoa (e.g. Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts), it is well known that the methods used to enumerate (oo)cysts in samples of water and other media can have low and highly variable analytical recovery. In these applications, QMRA has evolved from ignoring analytical recovery to addressing it in point-estimates of risk, and then to addressing variation of analytical recovery in Monte Carlo risk assessments. Often, variation of analytical recovery is addressed in exposure assessment by dividing concentration values that were obtained without consideration of analytical recovery by random beta-distributed recovery values. A simple mathematical proof is provided to demonstrate that this conventional approach to address non-constant analytical recovery in drinking water QMRA will lead to overestimation of mean pathogen concentrations. The bias, which can exceed an order of magnitude, is greatest when low analytical recovery values are common. A simulated dataset is analyzed using a diverse set of approaches to obtain distributions representing temporal variation in the oocyst concentration, and mean annual risk is then computed from each concentration distribution using a simple risk model. This illustrative example demonstrates that the bias associated with mishandling non-constant analytical recovery and non-detect samples can cause drinking water systems to be erroneously classified as surpassing risk thresholds.

  4. Assessment of Two Analytical Methods in Solving the Linear and Nonlinear Elastic Beam Deformation Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barari, Amin; Ganjavi, B.; Jeloudar, M. Ghanbari;

    2010-01-01

    boundary value problems, but also are used as mathematical models in viscoelastic and inelastic flows. The purpose of this paper is to present the application of the homotopy-perturbation method (HPM) and variational iteration method (VIM) to solve some boundary value problems in structural engineering...... and fluid mechanics. Design/methodology/approach – Two new but powerful analytical methods, namely, He's VIM and HPM, are introduced to solve some boundary value problems in structural engineering and fluid mechanics. Findings – Analytical solutions often fit under classical perturbation methods. However....... Furthermore, the approximate solutions solved by the perturbation methods are valid, in most cases, only for the small values of the parameters. In the present study, two powerful analytical methods HPM and VIM have been employed to solve the linear and nonlinear elastic beam deformation problems. The results...

  5. An Analytic Hierarchy Process for School Quality and Inspection: Model Development and Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Qubaisi, Amal; Badri, Masood; Mohaidat, Jihad; Al Dhaheri, Hamad; Yang, Guang; Al Rashedi, Asma; Greer, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to develop an analytic hierarchy planning-based framework to establish criteria weights and to develop a school performance system commonly called school inspections. Design/methodology/approach: The analytic hierarchy process (AHP) model uses pairwise comparisons and a measurement scale to generate the…

  6. Development of a Test to Evaluate Students' Analytical Thinking Based on Fact versus Opinion Differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaneerananon, Taveep; Triampo, Wannapong; Nokkaew, Artorn

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, one of the biggest challenges of education in Thailand is the development and promotion of the students' thinking skills. The main purposes of this research were to develop an analytical thinking test for 6th grade students and evaluate the students' analytical thinking. The sample was composed of 3,567 6th grade students in 2014…

  7. Newspaper Reading among College Students in Development of Their Analytical Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Dinesh

    2009-01-01

    The study investigated the newspaper reading among college students in development of their analytical ability. Newspapers are one of the few sources of information that are comprehensive, interconnected and offered in one format. The main objective of the study was to find out the development of the analytical ability among college students by…

  8. Development and verification of an analytical algorithm to predict absorbed dose distributions in ocular proton therapy using Monte Carlo simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Nicholas C; Newhauser, Wayne D

    2010-02-01

    Proton beam radiotherapy is an effective and non-invasive treatment for uveal melanoma. Recent research efforts have focused on improving the dosimetric accuracy of treatment planning and overcoming the present limitation of relative analytical dose calculations. Monte Carlo algorithms have been shown to accurately predict dose per monitor unit (D/MU) values, but this has yet to be shown for analytical algorithms dedicated to ocular proton therapy, which are typically less computationally expensive than Monte Carlo algorithms. The objective of this study was to determine if an analytical method could predict absolute dose distributions and D/MU values for a variety of treatment fields like those used in ocular proton therapy. To accomplish this objective, we used a previously validated Monte Carlo model of an ocular nozzle to develop an analytical algorithm to predict three-dimensional distributions of D/MU values from pristine Bragg peaks and therapeutically useful spread-out Bragg peaks (SOBPs). Results demonstrated generally good agreement between the analytical and Monte Carlo absolute dose calculations. While agreement in the proximal region decreased for beams with less penetrating Bragg peaks compared with the open-beam condition, the difference was shown to be largely attributable to edge-scattered protons. A method for including this effect in any future analytical algorithm was proposed. Comparisons of D/MU values showed typical agreement to within 0.5%. We conclude that analytical algorithms can be employed to accurately predict absolute proton dose distributions delivered by an ocular nozzle.

  9. Development and verification of an analytical algorithm to predict absorbed dose distributions in ocular proton therapy using Monte Carlo simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proton beam radiotherapy is an effective and non-invasive treatment for uveal melanoma. Recent research efforts have focused on improving the dosimetric accuracy of treatment planning and overcoming the present limitation of relative analytical dose calculations. Monte Carlo algorithms have been shown to accurately predict dose per monitor unit (D/MU) values, but this has yet to be shown for analytical algorithms dedicated to ocular proton therapy, which are typically less computationally expensive than Monte Carlo algorithms. The objective of this study was to determine if an analytical method could predict absolute dose distributions and D/MU values for a variety of treatment fields like those used in ocular proton therapy. To accomplish this objective, we used a previously validated Monte Carlo model of an ocular nozzle to develop an analytical algorithm to predict three-dimensional distributions of D/MU values from pristine Bragg peaks and therapeutically useful spread-out Bragg peaks (SOBPs). Results demonstrated generally good agreement between the analytical and Monte Carlo absolute dose calculations. While agreement in the proximal region decreased for beams with less penetrating Bragg peaks compared with the open-beam condition, the difference was shown to be largely attributable to edge-scattered protons. A method for including this effect in any future analytical algorithm was proposed. Comparisons of D/MU values showed typical agreement to within 0.5%. We conclude that analytical algorithms can be employed to accurately predict absolute proton dose distributions delivered by an ocular nozzle.

  10. Development of analytical techniques of vanadium isotope in seawater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, T.; Owens, J. D.; Sarafian, A.; Sen, I. S.; Huang, K. F.; Blusztajn, J.; Nielsen, S.

    2015-12-01

    Vanadium (V) is a transition metal with isotopes of 50V and 51V, and oxidation states of +2, +3, +4 and +5. The average concentration in seawater is 1.9 ppb, which results in a marine residence time of ~50 kyrs. Its various oxidation states make it a potential tool for investigating redox conditions in the ocean and sediments due to redox related changes in the valance state of vanadium. In turn, chemical equilibrium between different oxidation states of V will likely cause isotopic fractionation that can potentially be utilized to quantify past ocean redox states. In order to apply V isotopes as a paleo-redox tracer, it is required that we know the isotopic composition of seawater and the relation to marine sources and sinks of V. We developed a novel method for pre-concentrating V and measuring the isotope ratio in seawater samples. In our method, we used four ion exchange chromatography columns to separate vanadium from seawater matrix elements, in particular titanium and chromium, which both have an isobaric interference on 50V. The first column uses the NOBIAS resin, which effectively separates V and other transition metals from the majority of seawater matrix. Subsequent columns are identical to those utilized when separating V from silicate samples (Nielsen et al, Geostand. Geoanal. Res., 2011). The isotopic composition of the purified V is measured using a Thermo Scientific Neptune multiple collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (MC-ICP-MS) in medium resolution mode. This setup resolves all molecular interferences from masses 49, 50, 51, 52 and 53 including S-O species on mass 50. To test the new method, we spiked an open ocean seawater sample from the Bermuda Atlantic Time Series (BATS) station with 10-25 μg of Alfa Aesar vanadium solution, which has an isotopic composition of δ51V = 0 [where δ51V = 1000 × [(51V/50Vsample - 51V/50VAA)/51V/50VAA]. The average of six spiked samples is -0.03±0.19‰, which is within error of the true

  11. Analytical chemistry in semiconductor manufacturing: Techniques, role of nuclear methods and need for quality control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is the result of a consultants meeting held in Gaithersburg, USA, 2-3 October 1987. The meeting was hosted by the National Bureau of Standards and Technology, and it was attended by 18 participants from Denmark, Finland, India, Japan, Norway, People's Republic of China and the USA. The purpose of the meeting was to assess the present status of analytical chemistry in semiconductor manufacturing, the role of nuclear analytical methods and the need for internationally organized quality control of the chemical analysis. The report contains the three presentations in full and a summary report of the discussions. Thus, it gives an overview of the need of analytical chemistry in manufacturing of silicon based devices, the use of nuclear analytical methods, and discusses the need for quality control. Refs, figs and tabs

  12. Analytical Investigation for In Situ Stress Measurement with Rheological Stress Recovery Method and Its Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quansheng Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In situ stress is one of the most important parameters in underground engineering. Due to the difficulty and weakness of current stress measurement methods in deep soft rock, a new one, rheological stress recovery (RSR method, to determine three-dimensional stress tensor is developed. It is supposed that rock stresses will recover gradually with time and can be measured by embedding transducers into the borehole. In order to explore the relationship between the measured recovery stress and the initial stress, analytical solutions are developed for the stress measurement process with RSR method in a viscoelastic surrounding rock. The results showed that the measured recovery stress would be more close to the initial stress if the rock mass has a better rheological property, and the property of grouting material should be close to that of rock mass. Then, the RSR method, as well as overcoring technique, was carried out to measure the in situ stresses in Pingdingshan Number 1 coal mines in Henan Province, China. The stress measurement results are basically in the same order, and the major principal stresses are approximately in the direction of NW-SE, which correlates well with the stress regime of Pingdingshan zone known from the tectonic movement history.

  13. Development of analytical strategies using U-HPLC-MS/MS and LC-ToF-MS for the quantification of micropollutants in marine organisms

    OpenAIRE

    Wille, K.; Kiebooms, J.A.L.; Claessens, M.; Rappé, K.; Vanden Bussche, J.; Noppe, H.; Praet, N.; Wulf, E.; Van Caeter, P.; Janssen, C.R.; De Brabander, H.F.; Vanhaecke, L.

    2011-01-01

    Organic micropollutants such as pharmaceuticals, perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), and pesticides, are important environmental contaminants. To obtain more information regarding their presence in marine organisms, an increasing demand exists for reliable analytical methods for quantification of these micropollutants in biotic matrices. Therefore, we developed extraction procedures and new analytical methods for the quantification of 14 pesticides, 10 PFCs, and 11 pharmaceuticals in tissue of m...

  14. Using fuzzy analytical hierarchy process (AHP to evaluate web development platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Sarfaraz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Web development is plays an important role on business plans and people's lives. One of the key decisions in which both short-term and long-term success of the project depends is choosing the right development platform. Its criticality can be judged by the fact that once a platform is chosen, one has to live with it throughout the software development life cycle. The entire shape of the project depends on the language, operating system, tools, frameworks etc., in short the web development platform chosen. In addition, choosing the right platform is a multi criteria decision making (MCDM problem. We propose a fuzzy analytical hierarchy process model to solve the MCDM problem. We try to tap the real-life modeling potential of fuzzy logic and conjugate it with the commonly used powerful AHP modeling method.

  15. LC-MS/MS multi-analyte method for mycotoxin determination in food supplements

    OpenAIRE

    Diana Di Mavungu, José; Monbaliu, Sofie; Scippo, Marie-Louise; Maghuin-Rogister, Guy; Schneider, Yves-Jacques; Larondelle, Yvan; Callebaut, Alfons; Robbens, Johan; Van Peteghem, Carlos; De Saeger, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    Abstract A multi-analyte method for the liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric determination of mycotoxins in food supplements is presented. The analytes included A and B trichothecenes (nivalenol, deoxynivalenol, 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol, 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol, neosolaniol, fusarenon-X, diacetoxyscirpenol, HT-2 toxin and T-2 toxin), aflatoxins (aflatoxin-B1, aflatoxin-B2, aflatoxin-G1 and aflatoxin-G2), Alternaria toxins (alternariol, alternariol methyl ether and altenuen...

  16. Application of Statistical Methods to Activation Analytical Results near the Limit of Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heydorn, Kaj; Wanscher, B.

    1978-01-01

    Reporting actual numbers instead of upper limits for analytical results at or below the detection limit may produce reliable data when these numbers are subjected to appropriate statistical processing. Particularly in radiometric methods, such as activation analysis, where individual standard...... deviations of analytical results may be estimated, improved discrimination may be based on the Analysis of Precision. Actual experimental results from a study of the concentrations of arsenic in human skin demonstrate the power of this principle....

  17. Analytic Continuation in the Coupling Constant Method for the Dirac Equation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张时声; 郭建友; 张双全; 孟杰

    2004-01-01

    On the basis of the Dirac equation, the analytic continuation in the coupling constant method is employed to investigate the energies and widths of single-particle resonant in square-well, harmonic-oscillator, and Woodsconvergent energies and widths of single-particle resonant states can be obtained, which makes the application of the analytic continuation in the coupling constant for the relativistic mean field theory possible.

  18. Simplified Analytical Method for Estimating the Resistance of Lock Gates to Ship Impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loïc Buldgen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper is concerned with the design of lock gates submitted to ship impacts. In this paper, a simplified analytical method is presented to evaluate the resistance of such structures under collision. The basic idea is to assume that the resistance is first provided through a local deforming mode, corresponding to a localized crushing of some impacted structural elements. For consecutive larger deformations, the resistance is then mostly provided through a global deforming mode, corresponding to an overall movement of the entire gate. For assessing the resistance in the case of the local deforming mode, the structure is divided into a given number of large structural entities called “superelements.” For each of them, a relation between the resistance of the gate and the penetration of the striking ship is established. However, as some results are already available in the literature, this subject is not treated extensively in this paper. On the contrary, the calculation of the resistance of the gate provided through the global mode is detailed and the strategy to switch from local to global deformation is highlighted. Finally, we propose to validate our developments by making a comparison between results obtained numerically and those predicted by the present analytical approach.

  19. Contribution to the development of new analytical methods by the coupling between capillary electrophoresis and mass spectrometry (ICP-MS and ESI-MS): applications to the nuclear and biological fields; Contribution au developpement de nouvelles methodes analytiques par le couplage entre l'electrophorese capillaire et la spectrometrie de masse (ICP-MS et ESI-MS): applications dans les domaines nucleaires et biologiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitois, A

    2006-04-15

    The coupling between chromatographic and electrophoretic separation techniques and mass spectrometry is used to combine the efficiency of the separation technique to the selectivity and sensitivity of the detectors. In this work, the number of applications of the CE-MS couplings has been increased. New analytical methods have been set up in the nuclear and biological fields. New analytical methods for the determination of fission products (cesium and lanthanides) have been developed by CE-ICP-MS. They enable to determine both concentration and isotopic composition of the fission products for very low detection limits (ng/mL by CE-Q-ICPMS, pg/mL by CE-HR-ICP-MS), since all the isobaric interferences are resolved. Moreover, only some nano-liters of sample are necessary to perform the analysis. These method have been applied with success to a simulated sample of spent fuel, to a nuclear sample from PUREX process and to a leaching of MOX fuel. Then, lanthanides have been analysed by CE-ESI-MS and the capability of ESI-MS to provide structural information has been studied. Elementary information has been obtained for strong potentials. Structural information has been obtained for low potentials. Finally, a new analytical method by CE-ESI-MS for the determination of 10B-boronophenylalanine (10B-BPA) has been developed for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT). It has been applied to the cellular lines F98 and HUVEC. This CE-ESI-MS method has been validated by HR-ICP-MS. It enables a direct quantification of the chemical form 10B-BPA in samples of limited size (some nano-liters) and for low concentrations (ng/mL). As a consequence, this CE-ESI-MS method has enabled the study of the kinetics of 10B-BPA release and uptake for the F98 cells. (author)

  20. Challenges in the development of analytical soil compaction models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Thomas; Lamandé, Mathieu

    2010-01-01

    data and model simulations. The upper model boundary condition (i.e. contact area and stresses at the tyre-soil interface) is highly influential in stress propagation, but knowledge on the effects of loading and soil conditions on the upper model boundary condition is inadequate. The accuracy of stress...... transducers and therefore of stress measurements is not well known, despite numerous studies on stress in the soil profile below agricultural tyres. Although arable soils are characterised by distinct soil layers with different mechanical properties, analytical models rely on a one-layer approach with regard......Soil compaction can cause a number of environmental and agronomic problems (e.g. flooding, erosion, leaching of agrochemicals to recipient waters, emission of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere, crop yield losses), resulting in significant economic damage to society and agriculture. Strategies...

  1. Pure-rotational spectrometry: a vintage analytical method applied to modern breath analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrubesh, Lawrence W; Droege, Michael W

    2013-09-01

    Pure-rotational spectrometry (PRS) is an established method, typically used to study structures and properties of polar gas-phase molecules, including isotopic and isomeric varieties. PRS has also been used as an analytical tool where it is particularly well suited for detecting or monitoring low-molecular-weight species that are found in exhaled breath. PRS is principally notable for its ultra-high spectral resolution which leads to exceptional specificity to identify molecular compounds in complex mixtures. Recent developments using carbon aerogel for pre-concentrating polar molecules from air samples have extended the sensitivity of PRS into the part-per-billion range. In this paper we describe the principles of PRS and show how it may be configured in several different modes for breath analysis. We discuss the pre-concentration concept and demonstrate its use with the PRS analyzer for alcohols and ammonia sampled directly from the breath.

  2. MULTIPLE CRITERA METHODS WITH FOCUS ON ANALYTIC HIERARCHY PROCESS AND GROUP DECISION MAKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidija Zadnik-Stirn

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Managing natural resources is a group multiple criteria decision making problem. In this paper the analytic hierarchy process is the chosen method for handling the natural resource problems. The one decision maker problem is discussed and, three methods: the eigenvector method, data envelopment analysis method, and logarithmic least squares method are presented for the derivation of the priority vector. Further, the group analytic hierarchy process is discussed and six methods for the aggregation of individual judgments or priorities: weighted arithmetic mean method, weighted geometric mean method, and four methods based on data envelopment analysis are compared. The case study on land use in Slovenia is applied. The conclusions review consistency, sensitivity analyses, and some future directions of research.

  3. The contribution of analytical detection methods to the enforcement of good irradiation practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) is a generally accepted principle combining several features in order to achieve the optimal quality. In other words, GMP is observed if every possible measure is taken to contribute to the best possible quality of the end product. In this sense, Good Irradiation Practice (GIP) may be understood as one of the many elements of GMP dealing especially with aspects of processing food using ionising radiation. On the contrary the operator of an irradiation facility may consider GIP as the central idea including that GMP - in this case excluding the radiation aspects - is observed in addition to GIP standards. Regardless of this theoretical dispute, it is obvious that food irradiation requires classical GMP to be applied without exception and that good practice is also applied in radiation processing. The main interest in analytical methods for the identification of radiation processed food arose from the need to enforce the ban on this process, to verify correct labelling, or to ensure that it is used only for the very limited number of application which are permitted. In this field, identification methods already introduced into the official food inspection systems have contributed considerably towards making evident several cases of the fraudulent application of radiation processing. At present, as radiation processing of food is becoming more and more accepted, the number of national clearances is increasing and the European Community is preparing for a Directive to harmonise the food laws of the member states with regard to food irradiation. Therefore, it should be considered how the analytical detection methods which have been developed could contribute to enforcing good manufacturing practices, once the main goal ceases to be the suppression of this process. (author)

  4. Scientific methods for developing ultrastable structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scientific methods used by the Los Alamos National Laboratory for developing an ultrastable structure for study of silicon-based elementary particle tracking systems are addressed. In particular, the design, analysis, and monitoring of this system are explored. The development methodology was based on a triad of analytical, computational, and experimental techniques. These were used to achieve a significant degree of mechanical stability (alignment accuracy >1 μrad) and yet allow dynamic manipulation of the system. Estimates of system thermal and vibratory stability and component performance are compared with experimental data collected using laser interferometry and accelerometers. 8 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs

  5. OPTIMAL METHOD FOR PREPARATION OF SILICATE ROCK SAMPLES FOR ANALYTICAL PURPOSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Vrkljan

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine an optimal dissolution method for silicate rock samples for further analytical purposes. Analytical FAAS method of determining cobalt, chromium, copper, nickel, lead and zinc content in gabbro sample and geochemical standard AGV-1 has been applied for verification. Dissolution in mixtures of various inorganic acids has been tested, as well as Na2CO3 fusion technique. The results obtained by different methods have been compared and dissolution in the mixture of HNO3 + HF has been recommended as optimal.

  6. Analytical methods for vancomycin determination in biological fluids and in pharmaceuticals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Maria Duarte Carvalho Vila

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Vancomycin is a glycopeptide antibiotic employed in the treatment of infections caused by certain methicillin-resistant staphylococci. It is indicated also for patients allergic to penicillin or when there is no response to penicillins or cephalosporins. The adequate vancomycin concentration levels in blood serum lies between 5 and 10 mg/L. Higher values are toxic, causing mainly nephrotoxicity and ototoxicity. Various analytical methods are described in the literature: spectrophotometric, immunologic, biologic and chromatographic methods. This paper reviews the main analytical methods for vancomycin determination in biological fluids and in pharmaceutical preparations.

  7. A method based on stochastic resonance for the detection of weak analytical signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaojing; Guo, Weiming; Cai, Wensheng; Shao, Xueguang; Pan, Zhongxiao

    2003-12-23

    An effective method for detection of weak analytical signals with strong noise background is proposed based on the theory of stochastic resonance (SR). Compared with the conventional SR-based algorithms, the proposed algorithm is simplified by changing only one parameter to realize the weak signal detection. Simulation studies revealed that the method performs well in detection of analytical signals in very high level of noise background and is suitable for detecting signals with the different noise level by changing the parameter. Applications of the method to experimental weak signals of X-ray diffraction and Raman spectrum are also investigated. It is found that reliable results can be obtained.

  8. New Method for Analytical Photovoltaic Parameters Identification: Meeting Manufacturer’s Datasheet for Different Ambient Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubas, Javier; Pindado, Santiago; de Manuel, Carlos

    At present, photovoltaic energy is one of the most important renewable energy sources. The demand for solar panels has been continuously growing, both in the industrial electric sector and in the private sector. In both cases the analysis of the solar panel efficiency is extremely important in order to maximize the energy production. In order to have a more efficient photovoltaic system, the most accurate understanding of this system is required. However, in most of the cases the only information available in this matter is reduced, the experimental testing of the photovoltaic device being out of consideration, normally for budget reasons. Several methods, normally based on an equivalent circuit model, have been developed to extract the I-V curve of a photovoltaic device from the small amount of data provided by the manufacturer. The aim of this paper is to present a fast, easy, and accurate analytical method, developed to calculate the equivalent circuit parameters of a solar panel from the only data that manufacturers usually provide. The calculated circuit accurately reproduces the solar panel behavior, that is, the I-V curve. This fact being extremely important for practical reasons such as selecting the best solar panel in the market for a particular purpose, or maximize the energy extraction with MPPT (Maximum Peak Power Tracking) methods.

  9. Incremental visual text analytics of news story development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krstajic, Milos; Najm-Araghi, Mohammad; Mansmann, Florian; Keim, Daniel A.

    2012-01-01

    Online news sources produce thousands of news articles every day, reporting on local and global real-world events. New information quickly replaces the old, making it difficult for readers to put current events in the context of the past. Additionally, the stories have very complex relationships and characteristics that are difficult to model: they can be weakly or strongly connected, or they can merge or split over time. In this paper, we present a visual analytics system for exploration of news topics in dynamic information streams, which combines interactive visualization and text mining techniques to facilitate the analysis of similar topics that split and merge over time. We employ text clustering techniques to automatically extract stories from online news streams and present a visualization that: 1) shows temporal characteristics of stories in different time frames with different level of detail; 2) allows incremental updates of the display without recalculating the visual features of the past data; 3) sorts the stories by minimizing clutter and overlap from edge crossings. By using interaction, stories can be filtered based on their duration and characteristics in order to be explored in full detail with details on demand. To demonstrate the usefulness of our system, case studies with real news data are presented and show the capabilities for detailed dynamic text stream exploration.

  10. Development and Validation of a Learning Analytics Framework: Two Case Studies Using Support Vector Machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ifenthaler, Dirk; Widanapathirana, Chathuranga

    2014-01-01

    Interest in collecting and mining large sets of educational data on student background and performance to conduct research on learning and instruction has developed as an area generally referred to as learning analytics. Higher education leaders are recognizing the value of learning analytics for improving not only learning and teaching but also…

  11. Contextual and Analytic Qualities of Research Methods Exemplified in Research on Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Lennart; Doumas, Kyriaki

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present article is to discuss contextual and analytic qualities of research methods. The arguments are specified in relation to research on teaching. A specific investigation is used as an example to illustrate the general methodological approach. It is argued that research methods should be carefully grounded in an understanding of…

  12. Application of the analytic hierarchy process method in the selection of optimal tactical radio communication systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saša M. Devetak

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the analytic hierarchy process method in selecting an optimal tactic radio communication system. The problem has been defined, followed by the description of the AHP method procedure as well as the criteria and alternatives for radio communication systems. The problem was solved using the mathematical model and the presented software.

  13. Application of the analytic hierarchy process method in the selection of optimal tactical radio communication systems

    OpenAIRE

    Saša M. Devetak; Miroslav R. Terzić

    2011-01-01

    This article deals with the analytic hierarchy process method in selecting an optimal tactic radio communication system. The problem has been defined, followed by the description of the AHP method procedure as well as the criteria and alternatives for radio communication systems. The problem was solved using the mathematical model and the presented software.

  14. System and Method for Providing a Climate Data Analytic Services Application Programming Interface Distribution Package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnase, John L. (Inventor); Duffy, Daniel Q. (Inventor); Tamkin, Glenn S. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A system, method and computer-readable storage devices for providing a climate data analytic services application programming interface distribution package. The example system can provide various components. The system provides a climate data analytic services application programming interface library that enables software applications running on a client device to invoke the capabilities of a climate data analytic service. The system provides a command-line interface that provides a means of interacting with a climate data analytic service by issuing commands directly to the system's server interface. The system provides sample programs that call on the capabilities of the application programming interface library and can be used as templates for the construction of new client applications. The system can also provide test utilities, build utilities, service integration utilities, and documentation.

  15. Analytical solution of population balance equation involving aggregation and breakage in terms of auxiliary equation method

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Zehra Pinar; Abhishek Dutta; Guido Bény; Turgut Öziş

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an effective analytical simulation to solve population balance equation (PBE), involving particulate aggregation and breakage, by making use of appropriate solution(s) of associated complementary equation via auxiliary equation method (AEM). Travelling wave solutions of the complementary equation of a nonlinear PBE with appropriately chosen parameters is taken to be analogous to the description of the dynamic behaviour of the particulate processes. For an initial proof-of-concept, a general case when the number of particles varies with respect to time is chosen. Three cases, i.e. (1) balanced aggregation and breakage, (2) when aggregation can dominate and (3) breakage can dominate, are selected and solved for their corresponding analytical solutions. The results are then compared with the available analytical solution, based on Laplace transform obtained from literature. In this communication, it is shown that the solution approach proposed via AEM is flexible and therefore more efficient than the analytical approach used in the literature.

  16. Empirical-analytical method for evaluating the pressure distribution in the hard coal seams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KABIESZ Józef; MAKóWKA Janusz

    2009-01-01

    At present, numerical modelling of distributions of many rock mass characteristics plays more and more important role in many geomechanical questions. In the issues related to seismic and rockburst hazards, the analyses of distributions of stress component values in the rock strata are performed, similarly as those of deformation parameters of the strata. To do this, commercial computer programs are used which function on the basis of the finite element-, separate element-, finite difference-, boundary element methods, or individually designed computer programs. They enable to obtain information, unattainable with other methods, being of importance for further concluding on those hazards. The programs based on applying those methods have contributed to important progress and development of science in the domain of analyzing and predicting the hazards. To this end, the commercial computer programs are used that are based on the methods of: finite elements, separate elements, finite differences, boundary elements, etc., or on individually developed computer programs. They enable to obtain information, unavailable using other methods, being of vital importance for further concluding on these hazards. The programs based on these methods have contributed to essential progress and development of science in the field of analysing and predicting the hazards. Apart from their obvious advantages, they have many drawbacks that hinder their practical, routine application. To allow making these type of analyses, without the necessity of constructing complicated models and knowing the detailed geomechanical parameters of rocks, together with laborious computation using a high-rank computer hardware, an analytical-empirical method has been developed at Central Mining Institute, Poland, to make prediction (modelling) of the distribution of pressure values (vertical component of stress) in SIGMAZ coal seams. It is based on geophysical measurements, generalized for the conditions of

  17. An Analytical Investigation of Three General Methods of Calculating Chemical-Equilibrium Compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeleznik, Frank J.; Gordon, Sanford

    1960-01-01

    The Brinkley, Huff, and White methods for chemical-equilibrium calculations were modified and extended in order to permit an analytical comparison. The extended forms of these methods permit condensed species as reaction products, include temperature as a variable in the iteration, and permit arbitrary estimates for the variables. It is analytically shown that the three extended methods can be placed in a form that is independent of components. In this form the Brinkley iteration is identical computationally to the White method, while the modified Huff method differs only'slightly from these two. The convergence rates of the modified Brinkley and White methods are identical; and, further, all three methods are guaranteed to converge and will ultimately converge quadratically. It is concluded that no one of the three methods offers any significant computational advantages over the other two.

  18. Progress in electrical impedance imaging of binary media: 1: Analytical and numerical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the first of two papers summarizing the use of electrical impedance excitation/measurement for producing cross sectional images of the distribution of insulating media imbedded in conducting media. This computed tomographic approach finds the distribution of electrical properties of an electric field which minimizes in the least squares sense the difference between measured and computed boundary response to excitation. In this paper we briefly review the basic analytical methods developed for this system. We then extend these methods to three dimensions, add a method for preconditioning voltages for error correction, describe methods for optimizing the resolution of a target by providing optimal excitation patterns and then describe the overall numerical sensitivity. The second paper then demonstrates the ability of this system to image multiple, separate, differently-sized two-dimensional or three-dimensional targets with demonstrated linear sensitivity of over 30:1 with maximum possible linear sensitivity of one part in 1300 based on our ability to distinguish variations from a homogeneous background. (author)

  19. Comparison of Maximum Gear-Tooth Operating Bending Stresses Derived from Niemann's Analytical Procedure and the Finite Element Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ándonios D. Tsolakis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Main purpose of this study was to investigation toothed gear loading problems using the Finite Element Method. Approach: We used Niemann's equations to compare maximum bending stress which was developed at critical gear-tooth flank point during gear meshing, applied for three distinct spur-gear sizes, each having different teeth number, module and power rating. Results: The results emerging after the application of Niemann's equations were compared to the results derived by application of the Finite Element Method (FEM for the same gear-loading input data. Results are quite satisfactory, since von Mises' equivalent stresses calculated with FEM are of the same order with the results of classical analytical method. Conclusion: Judging from the emerging results, deviation of the two methods, analytical (Niemann's equations and computational (FEM, referring to maximum bending stress is fairly slight, independently of the applied geometrical and loading data of each gear.

  20. Analytical Method in Solving Flow of Viscoelastic Fluid in a Porous Converging Channel

    OpenAIRE

    M. Esmaeilpour; Naeem Roshan; Negar Roshan; D.D. Ganji

    2011-01-01

    An analytical method, called homotopy perturbation method (HPM), is used to compute an approximation to the solution of the nonlinear differential equation governing the problem of two-dimensional and steady flow of a second-grade fluid in a converging channel. The table and figures are presented for influencing various parameters on the velocity field. The results compare well with those obtained by the numerical method. The method is straightforward and concise, and it can also be applied t...

  1. Simplified Analytical Methods to Analyze Lock Gates Submitted to Ship Collisions and Earthquakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buldgen Loic

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents two simplified analytical methods to analyze lock gates submitted to two different accidental loads. The case of an impact involving a vessel is first investigated. In this situation, the resistance of the struck gate is evaluated by assuming a local and a global deforming mode. The super-element method is used in the first case, while an equivalent beam model is simultaneously introduced to capture the overall bending motion of the structure. The second accidental load considered in this paper is the seismic action, for which an analytical method is presented to evaluate the total hydrodynamic pressure applied on a lock gate during an earthquake, due account being taken of the fluid-structure interaction. For each of these two actions, numerical validations are presented and the analytical results are compared to finite-element solutions.

  2. Development of a standard data base for FBR core nuclear design. 8. Compilation of JUPITER analytical results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishikawa, Makoto; Sugino, Kazuteru; Yokoyama, Kenji [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center; Sato, Wakaei; Numata, Kazuyuki; Iwai, Takehiko

    1997-11-01

    A standard data base for LMFBR core nuclear design has been developed to improve analytical methods and prediction accuracy of nuclear design for large fast breeder cores such as demonstration or commercial FBRs. To develop the data base, extensive work has been performed to accumulate and evaluate many kinds of results from fast reactor physics experiments and their analyses. The present report summarizes the analytical results of the JUPITER experiments, using the most recent nuclear data library (JENDL-3.2) and the latest analytical methods in a consistent manner. The total number of JUPITER C/E values obtained here exceeds 2,300, which cover most of the JUPITER data in the nuclear design data base. The analytical results will be combined with the sensitivity coefficients and experimental and analytical error values as a whole, and are expected to contribute the improvement of large FBR core design methods by means of a unified cross-section set for the demonstration FBR and various physical information. (J.P.N.). 236 refs.

  3. Developing an Analytical Framework for Argumentation on Energy Consumption Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Hui; Mehl, Cathy E.; Lan, Deborah H.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to develop a framework for analyzing the argumentation practice of high school students and high school graduates. We developed the framework in a specific context--how energy consumption activities such as changing diet, converting forests into farmlands, and choosing transportation modes affect the carbon cycle. The…

  4. Possibilities of Utilizing the Method of Analytical Hierarchy Process Within the Strategy of Corporate Social Business

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drieniková, Katarína; Hrdinová, Gabriela; Naňo, Tomáš; Sakál, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The paper deals with the analysis of the theory of corporate social responsibility, risk management and the exact method of analytic hierarchic process that is used in the decision-making processes. The Chapters 2 and 3 focus on presentation of the experience with the application of the method in formulating the stakeholders' strategic goals within the Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) and simultaneously its utilization in minimizing the environmental risks. The major benefit of this paper is the application of Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP).

  5. Advantages of Analytical Transformations in Monte Carlo Methods for Radiation Transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monte Carlo methods for radiation transport typically attempt to solve an integral by directly sampling analog or weighted particles, which are treated as physical entities. Improvements to the methods involve better sampling, probability games or physical intuition about the problem. We show that significant improvements can be achieved by recasting the equations with an analytical transform to solve for new, non-physical entities or fields. This paper looks at one such transform, the difference formulation for thermal photon transport, showing a significant advantage for Monte Carlo solution of the equations for time dependent transport. Other related areas are discussed that may also realize significant benefits from similar analytical transformations

  6. [Behavioral therapy, cognitive behavioral therapy and cognitive-analytic methods in treatment of anorexia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, U

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes the current state of behavioural, cognitive-behavioural and cognitive-analytical treatments of anorexia nervosa and the underlying theoretical models. Purely behavioural treatment methods have been evaluated in a number of single case studies. Although effective in terms of increasing body weight, these methods are obsolete in view of their unpleasant side-effects. Cognitive-behavioural and cognitive-analytical therapies are much more appropriate for these patients given their complex symptomatology and frequently ambivalent attitude to treatment. However, so far evaluations of these treatments are rare. The reasons for this are discussed. PMID:9411461

  7. 2D Stabilised analytic signal method in DC pole-pole potential data interpretation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Paras R Pujari; Rambhatla G Sastry

    2003-03-01

    Using analytic signal method, interpretation of pole-pole secondary electric potentials due to 2D conductive/resistive prisms is presented. The estimated parameters are the location, lateral extent or width and depth to top surface of the prism. Forward modelling is attempted by 2D-Finite Difference method. The proposed stabilised analytic signal algorithm (RES2AS) uses Tikhonov's regularization scheme and FFT routines. The algorithm is tested on three theoretical examples and field data from the campus of Roorkee University. The stability of RES2AS is also tested on synthetic error prone secondary pole-pole potential data.

  8. Analytical Method to Calculate the DC Link Current Stress in Voltage Source Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gohil, Ghanshyamsinh Vijaysinh; Bede, Lorand; Teodorescu, Remus;

    2014-01-01

    for the applications with high line current ripple. The effect of the pulsewidth modulation (PWM) scheme on the rms value of the dc-link current is also studied and the analysis for continuous PWM and discontinuous PWM (DPWM) schemes is presented. The proposed analytical method is also verified experimentally....... of the current flowing through the dc-link capacitor. A simple analytical method to calculate the rms value of the dc-link capacitor current is presented in this paper. The effect of the line current ripple on the rms value of the dc-link capacitor current is considered. This yields accurate results, especially...

  9. Elasto-plastic strain analysis by a semi-analytical method

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Debabrata Das; Prasanta Sahoo; Kashinath Saha

    2008-08-01

    The aim of this paper is to develop a simulation model of large deformation problems following a semi-analytical method, incorporating the complications of geometric and material non-linearity in the formulation. The solution algorithm is based on the method of energy principle in structural mechanics, as applicable for conservative systems. A one-dimensional solid circular bar problem has been solved in post-elastic range assuming linear elastic, linear strain hardening material behaviour. Type of loading includes uniform uniaxial loading and gravity loading due to body force, whereas the geometry of the bar is considered to be non-uniformly taper. Results are validated successfully with benchmark solution and some new results have also been reported. The location of initiation of elasto-plastic front and its growth are found to be functions of geometry of the bar and loading conditions. Some indicative results have been presented for static and dynamic problems and the solution methodology developed for one-dimension has been extended to the elasto-plastic analysis of two-dimensional strain field problems of a rotating disk.

  10. A Critical Review of Analytical Methods for Determination of Ertapenem Sodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedroso, Tahisa Marcela; Salgado, Hérida Regina Nunes

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobials have unquestionable importance in the control of many diseases; however the constant concern with evolution of resistant microorganisms is increasing. Ertapenem sodium is a β-lactam antibiotic of the carbapenem class that has a broader activity spectrum than most other β-lactam antimicrobials and is more resistant to the enzyme β-lactamase, which is the main mechanism of resistance of many bacteria. The progress of microbial resistance to existing antibiotics is alarming. Thus we need to preserve antimicrobials that still have activity against these pathogens. In this context, quality control has a key role to ensure the correct dosage, by contributing preventively to minimize the development of resistant microorganisms. Study of the physico-chemical characteristics of the drug and quantification of the content of the active substance are of fundamental importance for the pharmaceutical industry to ensure the quality of the product sold. This work presents the results of a literature survey of existing methods for ertapenem sodium quantification. Ertapenem sodium can be analyzed by many types of assays; however, HPLC is the most used method. This review will examine the published analytical methods reported for determination of ertapenem sodium in biological fluids and formulations. PMID:26857445

  11. Research on the simultaneous multi-components analytical method for polluted soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Kang Sup; Song, Duk Young; Choi, Byung In; Kim, Kun Han; Eum, Chul Hun; Jeon, Chi Wan; Lee, Jung Hwa [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    Dissolution properties for the several inorganic pollutants in soils have been studied and simultaneous multi-components analytical method has been established with using ICP/MS for 13 monitoring elements in order to protect water and soil environments. And addition, more effective new analytical methods have been studied for TPH(total petroleum hydrocarbon) and organophosphorus compounds in soils. Several inorganic pollutants were spiked to 3 kinds of fresh soils which were sand, clay, loam. The dissolution properties of the prepared samples were investigated under the various extracting conditions such as extracting time, acid concentration, particle size, etc. in order to take basic information about the process of extraction test and improvement of related analytical methods. As the results, dissolution properties were affected mainly by acid concentration in extraction procedure and mineral composition of soils. On the other hand, extracting time, sort of acids and particle size of soils has a little influence on the dissolution properties. Cd revealed very high dissolving efficiency and As was very low in whole extracting test. Current analytical methods for the determination of soils are based on the purge and trap for volatiles such as gasoline and solvent extraction for semivolatiles such as kerosene and diesel oils. These methods are not proper in cost and time. In addition to, there are potential for analyte contamination and some problems in pretreatment procedure. In this study , we have discussed simultaneous determination of TPH containing gasoline, kerosene, diesel oils and etc. And determination of Organophosphorus compounds in soils has studied. In this procedure, the application of ultrasonication methods and several extraction methods were compared. In the results of this study, we could take very low practical detection limit and good precision. Approved methods were suitable for the determination of oils and pesticides in soil at high and low

  12. Analytical calculation of spectral phase of grism pairs by the geometrical ray tracing method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, L.; Askari, A. A.; Saghafifar, H.

    2016-07-01

    The most optimum operation of a grism pair is practically approachable when an analytical expression of its spectral phase is in hand. In this paper, we have employed the accurate geometrical ray tracing method to calculate the analytical phase shift of a grism pair, at transmission and reflection configurations. As shown by the results, for a great variety of complicated configurations, the spectral phase of a grism pair is in the same form of that of a prism pair. The only exception is when the light enters into and exits from different facets of a reflection grism. The analytical result has been used to calculate the second-order dispersions of several examples of grism pairs in various possible configurations. All results are in complete agreement with those from ray tracing method. The result of this work can be very helpful in the optimal design and application of grism pairs at various configurations.

  13. Comparative analysis of methods for real-time analytical control of chemotherapies preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazin, Christophe; Cassard, Bruno; Caudron, Eric; Prognon, Patrice; Havard, Laurent

    2015-10-15

    Control of chemotherapies preparations are now an obligation in France, though analytical control is compulsory. Several methods are available and none of them is presumed as ideal. We wanted to compare them so as to determine which one could be the best choice. We compared non analytical (visual and video-assisted, gravimetric) and analytical (HPLC/FIA, UV/FT-IR, UV/Raman, Raman) methods thanks to our experience and a SWOT analysis. The results of the analysis show great differences between the techniques, but as expected none us them is without defects. However they can probably be used in synergy. Overall for the pharmacist willing to get involved, the implementation of the control for chemotherapies preparations must be widely anticipated, with the listing of every parameter, and remains according to us an analyst's job. PMID:26299761

  14. Comparative analysis of methods for real-time analytical control of chemotherapies preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazin, Christophe; Cassard, Bruno; Caudron, Eric; Prognon, Patrice; Havard, Laurent

    2015-10-15

    Control of chemotherapies preparations are now an obligation in France, though analytical control is compulsory. Several methods are available and none of them is presumed as ideal. We wanted to compare them so as to determine which one could be the best choice. We compared non analytical (visual and video-assisted, gravimetric) and analytical (HPLC/FIA, UV/FT-IR, UV/Raman, Raman) methods thanks to our experience and a SWOT analysis. The results of the analysis show great differences between the techniques, but as expected none us them is without defects. However they can probably be used in synergy. Overall for the pharmacist willing to get involved, the implementation of the control for chemotherapies preparations must be widely anticipated, with the listing of every parameter, and remains according to us an analyst's job.

  15. Use of the analytical tree technique to develop a radiological protection program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results obtained by the Cuban Center for Radiological Protection and Hygiene by using an analytical tree technique to develop its general operational radiation protection program are presented. By the application of this method, some factors such as the organization of the radiation protection services, the provision of administrative requirements, the existing general laboratories requirements, the viability of resources and the current documentation was evaluated. Main components were considered such as: complete normative and regulatory documentation; automatic radiological protection data management; scope of 'on the-job'and radiological protection training for the personnel; previous radiological appraisal for the safety performance of the works and application of dose constrains for the personnel and the public. The detailed development of the program allowed to identify the basic aims to be achieved in its maintenance and improvement. (authors). 3 refs

  16. Model Analytical Development for Physical, Chemical, and Biological Characterization of Momordica charantia Vegetable Drug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandão, Deysiane Oliveira; Guimarães, Geovani Pereira; Santos, Ravely Lucena; Júnior, Fernando José de Lima Ramos; da Silva, Karla Monik Alves; de Souza, Fabio Santos; Macêdo, Rui Oliveira

    2016-01-01

    Momordica charantia is a species cultivated throughout the world and widely used in folk medicine, and its medicinal benefits are well documented, especially its pharmacological properties, including antimicrobial activities. Analytical methods have been used to aid in the characterization of compounds derived from plant drug extracts and their products. This paper developed a methodological model to evaluate the integrity of the vegetable drug M. charantia in different particle sizes, using different analytical methods. M. charantia was collected in the semiarid region of Paraíba, Brazil. The herbal medicine raw material derived from the leaves and fruits in different particle sizes was analyzed using thermoanalytical techniques as thermogravimetry (TG) and differential thermal analysis (DTA), pyrolysis coupled to gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (PYR-GC/MS), and nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR), in addition to the determination of antimicrobial activity. The different particle surface area among the samples was differentiated by the techniques. DTA and TG were used for assessing thermal and kinetic parameters and PYR-GC/MS was used for degradation products chromatographic identification through the pyrograms. The infusions obtained from the fruit and leaves of Momordica charantia presented antimicrobial activity. PMID:27579215

  17. Model Analytical Development for Physical, Chemical, and Biological Characterization of Momordica charantia Vegetable Drug

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Geovani Pereira; Santos, Ravely Lucena; Júnior, Fernando José de Lima Ramos; da Silva, Karla Monik Alves; de Souza, Fabio Santos

    2016-01-01

    Momordica charantia is a species cultivated throughout the world and widely used in folk medicine, and its medicinal benefits are well documented, especially its pharmacological properties, including antimicrobial activities. Analytical methods have been used to aid in the characterization of compounds derived from plant drug extracts and their products. This paper developed a methodological model to evaluate the integrity of the vegetable drug M. charantia in different particle sizes, using different analytical methods. M. charantia was collected in the semiarid region of Paraíba, Brazil. The herbal medicine raw material derived from the leaves and fruits in different particle sizes was analyzed using thermoanalytical techniques as thermogravimetry (TG) and differential thermal analysis (DTA), pyrolysis coupled to gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (PYR-GC/MS), and nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR), in addition to the determination of antimicrobial activity. The different particle surface area among the samples was differentiated by the techniques. DTA and TG were used for assessing thermal and kinetic parameters and PYR-GC/MS was used for degradation products chromatographic identification through the pyrograms. The infusions obtained from the fruit and leaves of Momordica charantia presented antimicrobial activity.

  18. Integration of Environmental Analytical Chemistry with Environmental Law: The Development of a Problem-Based Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancilla, Devon A.

    2001-01-01

    Introduces an undergraduate level problem-based analytical chemistry laboratory course integrated with an environmental law course. Aims to develop an understanding among students on the use of environmental indicators for environmental evaluation. (Contains 30 references.) (YDS)

  19. Modifications of spectrophotometric methods for antioxidative vitamins determination convenient in analytic practice

    OpenAIRE

    Maciej Rutkowski; Krzysztof Grzegorczyk

    2007-01-01

    Although there are numerous methods for quantitative determination of antioxidative vitamins: C, E, and A, there are no methods favourable for the broadly understood analytic practice – they have various faults and limitations or require expensive apparatus. Therefore, we have elaborated modifications of valuable spectrophotometric methods for determination each of those vitamins, which originally could not be applied for laboratory practice from various regards. They are based on: ...

  20. Analytical methods used at IPR (Instituto de Pesquisas Radioativas - Minas Gerais, Brazil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The analytical methods available at IPR (MG-Brazil) for the routine determination of uranium are described. These methods are: gravimetric analysis; fluorescence spectroscopy, voltametry, polarography, absorption spectroscopy, beta-and gamma-radiometric analysis, gamma spectroscopy, activation analysis, X-rays fluorescence analysis and delayed neutron analysis. Some additional methods for the study of mineral ores, such as X-rays diffractometry, emmission spectroscopy, thermal analysis, etc, are also discussed

  1. Comparison and validation of two analytical methods for measurement of urinary sucrose and fructose excretion

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Xiaoling; Navarro, Sandi L.; Diep, Pho; Thomas, Wendy K.; Razmpoosh, Elena C.; Schwarz, Yvonne; Wang, Ching-Yun; Kratz, Mario; Neuhouser, Marian L; Lampe, Johanna W.

    2013-01-01

    Urinary sugars excretion has been proposed as a potential biomarker for intake of sugars. In this study we compared two analytical methods [gas chromatography (GC) and enzymatic reactions – UV absorption] for quantifying urinary fructose and sucrose using 24-hour urine samples from a randomized cross-over controlled feeding study. All samples were successfully quantified by the GC method; however 21% and 1.9% of samples were below the detection limit of the enzymatic method for sucrose and fr...

  2. Stabilization Columns for Embankment Support - Investigation, Verification and Further Development of Analytical Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankrath, H.; Kaya, H.; Thiele, R.

    2015-09-01

    As a technical and economical alternative to foundations on piles, but also to shallow foundations on improved soil, in recent decades a high number of soil improvement methods have been developed and established. Many of these methods use non-reinforced, cylindrical load bearing elements. A very common application of stabilizing columns is the improvement of a few meters thick soft soils below dams and embankments. But especially for this application, many failure cases are documented worldwide. In the contribution the substantial content and results are presented for investigation, testing and further development of methods for evaluating the slope stability. After a description of the problem and consequential tasks the contribution contains main results of the investigations of international sources with the stepwise development of analytical solutions. Next to the in practice well- known approaches for gravel columns, less common approaches from Scandinavia are explained. The contribution is completed with a presentation and discussion of an illustrative example, taking into account a number of different failure modes of the columns and the surrounding soil. The example was compared and validated with a 3D Model using the Finite Element Method.

  3. Work and Learner Identity -Developing an analytical framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kondrup, Sissel

    The paper address the need to develop a theoretical framework able to grasp how engagement in work form certain conditions for workers to meet the obligation to form a pro-active learner identity, position themselves as educable subjects and engage in lifelong learning. An obligation that has bec...

  4. The simple analytics of oligopoly banking in developing economies

    OpenAIRE

    Khemraj, Tarron

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies have documented the tendency for the commercial banking sector of many developing economies to be highly liquid and be characterised by a persistently high interest rate spread. This paper embeds these stylised facts in an oligopoly model of the banking firm. The paper derives both the loan and deposit rates as a mark up rate over a relatively safe foreign interest rate. Then, using a diagrammatic framework, the paper provides an analysis of: (i) the distribution of financ...

  5. Applying Sequential Analytic Methods to Self-Reported Information to Anticipate Care Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayliss, Elizabeth A.; Powers, J. David; Ellis, Jennifer L.; Barrow, Jennifer C.; Strobel, MaryJo; Beck, Arne

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Identifying care needs for newly enrolled or newly insured individuals is important under the Affordable Care Act. Systematically collected patient-reported information can potentially identify subgroups with specific care needs prior to service use. Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort investigation of 6,047 individuals who completed a 10-question needs assessment upon initial enrollment in Kaiser Permanente Colorado (KPCO), a not-for-profit integrated delivery system, through the Colorado State Individual Exchange. We used responses from the Brief Health Questionnaire (BHQ), to develop a predictive model for cost for receiving care in the top 25 percent, then applied cluster analytic techniques to identify different high-cost subpopulations. Per-member, per-month cost was measured from 6 to 12 months following BHQ response. Results: BHQ responses significantly predictive of high-cost care included self-reported health status, functional limitations, medication use, presence of 0–4 chronic conditions, self-reported emergency department (ED) use during the prior year, and lack of prior insurance. Age, gender, and deductible-based insurance product were also predictive. The largest possible range of predicted probabilities of being in the top 25 percent of cost was 3.5 percent to 96.4 percent. Within the top cost quartile, examples of potentially actionable clusters of patients included those with high morbidity, prior utilization, depression risk and financial constraints; those with high morbidity, previously uninsured individuals with few financial constraints; and relatively healthy, previously insured individuals with medication needs. Conclusions: Applying sequential predictive modeling and cluster analytic techniques to patient-reported information can identify subgroups of individuals within heterogeneous populations who may benefit from specific interventions to optimize initial care delivery.

  6. Development and application of analytical methods for the assessment of software-based IC components in German nuclear power plants; Entwicklung und Einsatz von Analysemethoden zur Beurteilung softwarebasierter leittechnischer Einrichtungen in deutschen Kernkraftwerken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arians, Robert; Arnold, Simone; Blum, Stefanie; Buchholz, Marcel; Lochthofen, Andre; Quester, Claudia; Sommer, Dagmar

    2015-03-15

    In this report, results and data from examinations concerning software-based I and C components are evaluated. As failure modes of software-based components and failure causes differ fundamentally from non-software-based components, an evaluation of the operating experience of such components was carried out. This evaluation should show whether or not existing approaches for non-software-based components can be directly transferred to software-based components, or if a different approach has to be developed. The state of the art and science was gathered and is described for the national as well as the international situation. To include failures in non-safety systems, events not fulfilling the incident reporting criteria of German authorities were also included in this evaluation. The data provided by licensees of six German NPPs (different Boiling Water Reactors and Pressurized Water Reactors) was recorded for at least 8 years. The software-based components used in the NPPs are identified and their operating experience is analyzed in order to identify relevant failure modes and to establish a knowledge base for future failure rating.

  7. Rapid and alternative fabrication method for microfluidic paper based analytical devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malekghasemi, Soheil; Kahveci, Enver; Duman, Memed

    2016-10-01

    A major application of microfluidic paper-based analytical devices (µPADs) includes the field of point-of-care (POC) diagnostics. It is important for POC diagnostics to possess properties such as ease-of-use and low cost. However, µPADs need multiple instruments and fabrication steps. In this study, two different chemicals (Hexamethyldisilazane and Tetra-ethylorthosilicate) were used, and three different methods (heating, plasma treatment, and microwave irradiation) were compared to develop µPADs. Additionally, an inkjet-printing technique was used for generating a hydrophilic channel and printing certain chemical agents on different regions of a modified filter paper. A rapid and effective fabrication method to develop µPADs within 10min was introduced using an inkjet-printing technique in conjunction with a microwave irradiation method. Environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used for morphology characterization and determining the surface chemical compositions of the modified filter paper, respectively. Contact angle measurements were used to fulfill the hydrophobicity of the treated filter paper. The highest contact angle value (141°±1) was obtained using the microwave irradiation method over a period of 7min, when the filter paper was modified by TEOS. Furthermore, by using this method, the XPS results of TEOS-modified filter paper revealed Si2p (23%) and Si-O bounds (81.55%) indicating the presence of Si-O-Si bridges and Si(OEt) groups, respectively. The ESEM results revealed changes in the porous structures of the papers and decreases in the pore sizes. Washburn assay measurements tested the efficiency of the generated hydrophilic channels in which similar water penetration rates were observed in the TEOS-modified filter paper and unmodified (plain) filter paper. The validation of the developed µPADs was performed by utilizing the rapid urease test as a model test system. The detection limit of

  8. T-2 toxin, a trichothecene mycotoxin: Review of toxicity, metabolism, and analytical methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    This review focuses on the toxicity and metabolism of T-2 toxin and the analytical methods used for the determination of T-2 toxin. Among the naturally occurring trichothecenes in food and feed, T-2 toxin is a cytotoxic fungal secondary metabolite produced by various species of Fusarium. Following...

  9. A conjugate direction method for approximating the analytic center of a polytope

    OpenAIRE

    Megiddo Nimrod; Mizuno Shinji; Kojima Masakazu

    1998-01-01

    The analytic center of an -dimensional polytope with a nonempty interior is defined as the unique minimizer of the logarithmic potential function over . It is shown that one cycle of a conjugate direction method, applied to the potential function at any such that , generates a point such that .

  10. Calibration coefficient of reference brachytherapy ionization chamber using analytical and Monte Carlo methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sudhir; Srinivasan, P; Sharma, S D

    2010-06-01

    A cylindrical graphite ionization chamber of sensitive volume 1002.4 cm(3) was designed and fabricated at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) for use as a reference dosimeter to measure the strength of high dose rate (HDR) (192)Ir brachytherapy sources. The air kerma calibration coefficient (N(K)) of this ionization chamber was estimated analytically using Burlin general cavity theory and by the Monte Carlo method. In the analytical method, calibration coefficients were calculated for each spectral line of an HDR (192)Ir source and the weighted mean was taken as N(K). In the Monte Carlo method, the geometry of the measurement setup and physics related input data of the HDR (192)Ir source and the surrounding material were simulated using the Monte Carlo N-particle code. The total photon energy fluence was used to arrive at the reference air kerma rate (RAKR) using mass energy absorption coefficients. The energy deposition rates were used to simulate the value of charge rate in the ionization chamber and N(K) was determined. The Monte Carlo calculated N(K) agreed within 1.77 % of that obtained using the analytical method. The experimentally determined RAKR of HDR (192)Ir sources, using this reference ionization chamber by applying the analytically estimated N(K), was found to be in agreement with the vendor quoted RAKR within 1.43%.

  11. Analytical methods for an elliptic singular perturbation problem In a circle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Temme, N.M.

    2007-01-01

    We consider an elliptic perturbation problem in a circle by using the analytical solution that is given by a Fourier series with coefficients in terms of modified Bessel functions. By using saddle point methods we construct asymptotic approximations with respect to a small parameter. In particular

  12. Semi-Analytical Weight Estimation Method for Fuselages with Oval Cross-Section

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, R.; Hoogreef, M.F.M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a semi-analytical method for the weight estimation of fuselages with an oval cross-section, applied to blended wing body aircraft. The weight estimation of the fuselage primary structure is based on a structural analysis of two-dimensional crosssections and it is completed by a s

  13. An exact analytical solution of pool swell dynamics during depressurization by the method of characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An exact analytical solution, based on the method of characteristics, has been obtained for the spatial and temporal variation of vapor volumetric (void) fraction in a depressurizing pool. Numerical evaluations have shown that the axial void profile is strongly dependent on the drift velocity formulation, and that wall heat flux plays only a minor role in the pool swell transient. (Auth.)

  14. Materials of the Second Sumy-Cracow-Muenster Symposium on Nuclear Analytical Methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The applications of nuclear analytical methods in physico-chemical, biological and medical studies have been presented in large number of applications. Environmental, geological and biological materials have been analysed by means of neutron activation analysis, proton microprobe, x-ray diffraction, synchrotron radiation X-ray spectrum analysis, ESR and others

  15. Aspects of investigating scrambling in the synthesis of porphyrins Different analytical methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, C.B.; Krebs, Frederik C

    2005-01-01

    Herein, we discuss the analyses and quantification of the different components in porphyrin mixtures, prepared from p-anisaidehyde, p-tolualdehyde, and 5-(4-bromophenyl)-dipyrromethane with acid catalysis, using NMR and HPLC. The advantages and disadvantages of these analytical methods are emphas...

  16. En introduktion til CARM: The Conversation Analytic Role-Play Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Simon Bierring

    2014-01-01

    Dette working paper er en introduktion til og kort diskussion af workshopmetoden Conversation Analytic Role-Play Method (CARM), som er en metode udviklet til at afholde workshops på baggrund af resultater fra interaktionsanalyser. Artiklen er den første introduktion til CARM-metoden på dansk, og...

  17. Vertical equilibrium with sub-scale analytical methods for geological CO2 sequestration

    KAUST Repository

    Gasda, S. E.

    2009-04-23

    Large-scale implementation of geological CO2 sequestration requires quantification of risk and leakage potential. One potentially important leakage pathway for the injected CO2 involves existing oil and gas wells. Wells are particularly important in North America, where more than a century of drilling has created millions of oil and gas wells. Models of CO 2 injection and leakage will involve large uncertainties in parameters associated with wells, and therefore a probabilistic framework is required. These models must be able to capture both the large-scale CO 2 plume associated with the injection and the small-scale leakage problem associated with localized flow along wells. Within a typical simulation domain, many hundreds of wells may exist. One effective modeling strategy combines both numerical and analytical models with a specific set of simplifying assumptions to produce an efficient numerical-analytical hybrid model. The model solves a set of governing equations derived by vertical averaging with assumptions of a macroscopic sharp interface and vertical equilibrium. These equations are solved numerically on a relatively coarse grid, with an analytical model embedded to solve for wellbore flow occurring at the sub-gridblock scale. This vertical equilibrium with sub-scale analytical method (VESA) combines the flexibility of a numerical method, allowing for heterogeneous and geologically complex systems, with the efficiency and accuracy of an analytical method, thereby eliminating expensive grid refinement for sub-scale features. Through a series of benchmark problems, we show that VESA compares well with traditional numerical simulations and to a semi-analytical model which applies to appropriately simple systems. We believe that the VESA model provides the necessary accuracy and efficiency for applications of risk analysis in many CO2 sequestration problems. © 2009 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  18. A Screening Method for the Identification of Glycosylated Flavonoids and Other Phenolic Compounds Using a Standard Analytical Approach for All Plant Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Long-Ze; Harnly, James M.

    2007-01-01

    A screening method was developed for the systematic identification of glycosylated flavonoids and other phenolic compounds in plant food materials based on an initial, standard analytical method. This approach applies the same analytical scheme (aqueous methanol extraction, reverse phase liquid chromatographic separation, and diode array and mass spectrometric detection) to every sample and standard. This standard approach allows the cross-comparison of compounds in samples, standards, and pl...

  19. Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation. Topical report: Analytical methods for application to coal-derived resids, A literature survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandes, S.D.

    1993-06-01

    This literature survey was conducted to address an important question: What are the methods available in the realm of analytical chemistry that may have potential usefulness to the development of coal liquefaction technology? In an attempt to answer to that question, the emphasis of this survey was directed at analytical techniques which would be applicable to the high molecular weight, non-distillable residue of coal-derived liquids. It is this material which is most problematic to the analytical investigator and the developer of direct coal liquefaction processes. A number of comprehensive analytical reviews of literature dealing with coal and other fossil fuels are available. This literature survey will (1) be limited to articles published between 1980--1991, with some exceptions; (2) be limited to the use of analytical methods for high molecular weight, primarily nondistillable, fossil fuel-derived materials, except where the application of an analytical method to coals or distillates may show promise for application to non-distillable coal-derived materials; and (3) demonstrate the potential usefulness of an analytical method by showing how the method has been applied to high molecular weight, non-distillable materials, if not specifically to coal liquids. The text is divided by type of methodology, i.e. spectroscopy, microscopy, etc. Each section will be essentially free-standing. An historical background is provided.

  20. Validation of analytical methods for ethyl carbamate in nine food matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Dayeon; Choi, Bogyoung; Kim, Nayoung; Koh, Eunmi

    2016-11-15

    Ethyl carbamate (EC) is formed through a reaction between ethanol and either cyanate or N-carbamyl compounds. This study aimed to develop and validate analytical methods for EC determination in nine food matrices: apple juice, soju, milk, corn oil, rice porridge, peanut butter, beef, flat fish, and sea mustard. Differences from AOAC procedure were use of d5-EC as internal standard, dilution of alcohol content, removal of lipophilic compounds by hexane, and removal of hydrophilic polysaccharides by gel-forming. Standard curves had a good linearity (R(2)>0.997) in all matrices tested. LOD and LOQ were in the range of 0.69-6.08μg/kg and 2.10-18.43μg/kg, respectively. Recovery rates ranged from 80.75 to 121.82% for intra-day and ranged from 78.84 to 116.98% for inter-day. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) were below 14%. These results indicate that the established methods can be applied to determine EC in a variety of foods. PMID:27283695

  1. Analytic Solutions of Some Self-Adjoint Equations by Using Variable Change Method and Its Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Delkhosh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Many applications of various self-adjoint differential equations, whose solutions are complex, are produced (Arfken, 1985; Gandarias, 2011; and Delkhosh, 2011. In this work we propose a method for the solving some self-adjoint equations with variable change in problem, and then we obtain a analytical solutions. Because this solution, an exact analytical solution can be provided to us, we benefited from the solution of numerical Self-adjoint equations (Mohynl-Din, 2009; Allame and Azal, 2011; Borhanifar et al. 2011; Sweilam and Nagy, 2011; Gülsu et al. 2011; Mohyud-Din et al. 2010; and Li et al. 1996.

  2. Analytical developments for screening of lanthanides/ligands interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work investigates the potential of hyphenated capillary electrophoresis and inductively coupled mass spectrometry to classify different ligands according to their europium binding affinity in a hydro-organic medium. On the one hand, this method enables to evaluate the affinity of phosphorus-containing ligands in less than two hours and using less than 15 ng of ligand. On the other hand, complexation constants could be determined. The results are in excellent agreement with the values obtained by spectrophotometric titrations.Moreover, a library of copolymers for solid/liquid extraction of europium is investigated. The extraction protocol enables to classify copolymers according to their europium affinity in a hydro-organic medium. This screening requires 60 mg of copolymers. For the most promising recognition properties and selectivity La3+/Eu3+/Lu3+ are evaluated. (author)

  3. Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process-based Chinese Resident Best Fitness Behavior Method Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dapeng; Zhang, Lan

    2015-01-01

    With explosive development in Chinese economy and science and technology, people's pursuit of health becomes more and more intense, therefore Chinese resident sports fitness activities have been rapidly developed. However, different fitness events popularity degrees and effects on body energy consumption are different, so bases on this, the paper researches on fitness behaviors and gets Chinese residents sports fitness behaviors exercise guide, which provides guidance for propelling to national fitness plan's implementation and improving Chinese resident fitness scientization. The paper starts from the perspective of energy consumption, it mainly adopts experience method, determines Chinese resident favorite sports fitness event energy consumption through observing all kinds of fitness behaviors energy consumption, and applies fuzzy analytic hierarchy process to make evaluation on bicycle riding, shadowboxing practicing, swimming, rope skipping, jogging, running, aerobics these seven fitness events. By calculating fuzzy rate model's membership and comparing their sizes, it gets fitness behaviors that are more helpful for resident health, more effective and popular. Finally, it gets conclusions that swimming is a best exercise mode and its membership is the highest. Besides, the memberships of running, rope skipping and shadowboxing practicing are also relative higher. It should go in for bodybuilding by synthesizing above several kinds of fitness events according to different physical conditions; different living conditions so that can better achieve the purpose of fitness exercises. PMID:26981163

  4. Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process-based Chinese Resident Best Fitness Behavior Method Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dapeng; Zhang, Lan

    2015-01-01

    With explosive development in Chinese economy and science and technology, people's pursuit of health becomes more and more intense, therefore Chinese resident sports fitness activities have been rapidly developed. However, different fitness events popularity degrees and effects on body energy consumption are different, so bases on this, the paper researches on fitness behaviors and gets Chinese residents sports fitness behaviors exercise guide, which provides guidance for propelling to national fitness plan's implementation and improving Chinese resident fitness scientization. The paper starts from the perspective of energy consumption, it mainly adopts experience method, determines Chinese resident favorite sports fitness event energy consumption through observing all kinds of fitness behaviors energy consumption, and applies fuzzy analytic hierarchy process to make evaluation on bicycle riding, shadowboxing practicing, swimming, rope skipping, jogging, running, aerobics these seven fitness events. By calculating fuzzy rate model's membership and comparing their sizes, it gets fitness behaviors that are more helpful for resident health, more effective and popular. Finally, it gets conclusions that swimming is a best exercise mode and its membership is the highest. Besides, the memberships of running, rope skipping and shadowboxing practicing are also relative higher. It should go in for bodybuilding by synthesizing above several kinds of fitness events according to different physical conditions; different living conditions so that can better achieve the purpose of fitness exercises.

  5. Validation of analytical methods for food control. Report of a Joint FAO/IAEA expert consultation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is a continuing need for reliable analytical methods for use in determining compliance with national regulations as well as international requirements in all areas of food quality and safety. The reliability of a method is determined by some form of a validation procedure. The Codex Alimentarius Commission (CAC), for example, requires that in order for a method of analysis to be included in a Codex commodity standard, certain method performance information should be available. This includes specificity, accuracy, precision (repeatability, reproducibility), limit of detection, sensitivity, applicability and practicability, as appropriate. This very often requires an extensive collaborative study be undertaken to obtain the necessary data. Methods which have successfully undergone this performance review testing have been considered to be validated for purposes of analyses under Codex commodity standards. Within this environment, the entire area of validation of analytical methods used in food control for Codex purposes has been discussed at length by the CCMAS, as well as the CCRVDF and the Codex Committee on Pesticide Residues (CCPR). All three Committees supported the holding of a consultation to provide expert advice and guidance in this area. The present Joint FAO/lAEA Consultation on Validation of Analytical Methods for Food Control was convened for that purpose

  6. A simple analytical method to estimate all exit parameters of a cross-flow air dehumidifier using liquid desiccant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassuoni, M.M.

    2013-01-01

    The dehumidifier is a key component in liquid desiccant air-conditioning systems. Analytical solutions have more advantages than numerical solutions in studying the dehumidifier performance parameters. This paper presents the performance results of exit parameters from an analytical model of an adiabatic cross-flow liquid desiccant air dehumidifier. Calcium chloride is used as desiccant material in this investigation. A program performing the analytical solution is developed using the engineering equation solver software. Good accuracy has been found between analytical solution and reliable experimental results with a maximum deviation of +6.63% and −5.65% in the moisture removal rate. The method developed here can be used in the quick prediction of the dehumidifier performance. The exit parameters from the dehumidifier are evaluated under the effects of variables such as air temperature and humidity, desiccant temperature and concentration, and air to desiccant flow rates. The results show that hot humid air and desiccant concentration have the greatest impact on the performance of the dehumidifier. The moisture removal rate is decreased with increasing both air inlet temperature and desiccant temperature while increases with increasing air to solution mass ratio, inlet desiccant concentration, and inlet air humidity ratio. PMID:25685485

  7. A simple analytical method to estimate all exit parameters of a cross-flow air dehumidifier using liquid desiccant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassuoni, M M

    2014-03-01

    The dehumidifier is a key component in liquid desiccant air-conditioning systems. Analytical solutions have more advantages than numerical solutions in studying the dehumidifier performance parameters. This paper presents the performance results of exit parameters from an analytical model of an adiabatic cross-flow liquid desiccant air dehumidifier. Calcium chloride is used as desiccant material in this investigation. A program performing the analytical solution is developed using the engineering equation solver software. Good accuracy has been found between analytical solution and reliable experimental results with a maximum deviation of +6.63% and -5.65% in the moisture removal rate. The method developed here can be used in the quick prediction of the dehumidifier performance. The exit parameters from the dehumidifier are evaluated under the effects of variables such as air temperature and humidity, desiccant temperature and concentration, and air to desiccant flow rates. The results show that hot humid air and desiccant concentration have the greatest impact on the performance of the dehumidifier. The moisture removal rate is decreased with increasing both air inlet temperature and desiccant temperature while increases with increasing air to solution mass ratio, inlet desiccant concentration, and inlet air humidity ratio.

  8. Analytical Method for Reduction of Residual Stress Using Low Frequency and Ultrasonic Vibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Shigeru; Kurita, Katsumi; Koshimizu, Shigeomi; Nishimura, Tadashi; Hiroi, Tetsumaro; Hirai, Seiji

    Welding is widely used for construction of many structures. It is well known that residual stress is generated near the bead because of locally given heat. Tensile residual stress on the surface degrades fatigue strength. On the other hand, welding is used for repair of mold and die. In this case, reduction of residual stress is required because of protection from crack of welded part in mold and die. In this paper, a new method for reduction of residual stress of welded joint is proposed for repair welding of mold and die. In this method, low frequency and ultrasonic vibrations are used during welding. Thick plates are used as specimens of mold and die. Residual stresses are reduced when low frequency and ultrasonic vibrations are used during welding. Experimental results are examined by simulation method using an analytical model. One mass model considering plastic deformation is used as an analytical model. Experimental results are demonstrated by simulation method.

  9. Dynamic buckling analysis of delaminated composite plates using semi-analytical finite strip method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovesy, H. R.; Totounferoush, A.; Ghannadpour, S. A. M.

    2015-05-01

    The delamination phenomena can become of paramount importance when the design of the composite plates is concerned. In the current study, the effect of through-the-width delamination on dynamic buckling behavior of a composite plate is studied by implementing semi-analytical finite strip method. In this method, the energy and work integrations are computed analytically due to the implementation of trigonometric functions. Moreover, the method can lead to converged results with comparatively small number of degrees of freedom. These features have made the method quite efficient. To account for delamination effects, displacement field is enriched by adding appropriate terms. Also, the penetration of the delamination surfaces is prevented by incorporating an appropriate contact scheme into the time response analysis. Some selected results are validated against those available in the literature.

  10. Development of analytically capable time-of-flight mass spectrometer with continuous ion introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hárs, György; Dobos, Gábor

    2010-03-01

    The present article describes the results and findings explored in the course of the development of the analytically capable prototype of continuous time-of-flight (CTOF) mass spectrometer. Currently marketed pulsed TOF (PTOF) instruments use ion introduction with a 10 ns or so pulse width, followed by a waiting period roughly 100 micros. Accordingly, the sample is under excitation in 10(-4) part of the total measuring time. This very low duty cycle severely limits the sensitivity of the PTOF method. A possible approach to deal with this problem is to use linear sinusoidal dual modulation technique (CTOF) as described in this article. This way the sensitivity of the method is increased, due to the 50% duty cycle of the excitation. All other types of TOF spectrometer use secondary electron multiplier (SEM) for detection, which unfortunately discriminates in amplification in favor of the lighter ions. This discrimination effect is especially undesirable in a mass spectrometric method, which targets high mass range. In CTOF method, SEM is replaced with Faraday cup detector, thus eliminating the mass discrimination effect. Omitting SEM is made possible by the high ion intensity and the very slow ion detection with some hundred hertz detection bandwidth. The electrometer electronics of the Faraday cup detector operates with amplification 10(10) V/A. The primary ion beam is highly monoenergetic due to the construction of the ion gun, which made possible to omit any electrostatic mirror configuration for bunching the ions. The measurement is controlled by a personal computer and the intelligent signal generator Type Tabor WW 2571, which uses the direct digital synthesis technique for making arbitrary wave forms. The data are collected by a Labjack interface board, and the fast Fourier transformation is performed by the software. Noble gas mixture has been used to test the analytical capabilities of the prototype setup. Measurement presented proves the results of the

  11. A comparison of analytical methods with experimental data for earthquake ductility assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adelson, B.L.; Steinmetz, R.L.

    1983-05-01

    A two-part study was conducted to help evaluate analytical methods used to assess the ductile behavior of offshore structures subjected to severe earthquake ground motion. Part I of the study consisted of a comparison between analytical time-history responses predicted using the Inelastic Tower Response Analysis (INTRA) program and experimental data gathered during a shake-table experiment performed by the University of California at Berkeley in March 1981. The experiment involved a series of tests on a scaled, two-dimensional model of a prototype offshore platform subjected to various levels of simulated ground motion. Part II of the study consisted of a comparison between the ductile behavior predicted using simplified analysis methods (static pushover and impulse velocity) and the ductile behavior demonstrated by the experimental and analytical time-history results. Results of Part I indicated that the analytical time-history analyses predicted within reasonable accuracy the response of the test structure as measured during the experiment. The results of Part II demonstrated that the simplified methods produce conservative estimates of the test structure's energy absorption capacity and ductile behavior during intense ground motion.

  12. VALIDATION OF ANALYTICAL METHODS AND INSTRUMENTATION FOR BERYLLIUM MEASUREMENT: REVIEW AND SUMMARY OF AVAILABLE GUIDES, PROCEDURES, AND PROTOCOLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekechukwu, A

    2009-05-27

    Method validation is the process of evaluating whether an analytical method is acceptable for its intended purpose. For pharmaceutical methods, guidelines from the United States Pharmacopeia (USP), International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH), and the United States Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) provide a framework for performing such valications. In general, methods for regulatory compliance must include studies on specificity, linearity, accuracy, precision, range, detection limit, quantitation limit, and robustness. Elements of these guidelines are readily adapted to the issue of validation for beryllium sampling and analysis. This document provides a listing of available sources which can be used to validate analytical methods and/or instrumentation for beryllium determination. A literature review was conducted of available standard methods and publications used for method validation and/or quality control. A comprehensive listing of the articles, papers and books reviewed is given in the Appendix. Available validation documents and guides are listed therein; each has a brief description of application and use. In the referenced sources, there are varying approches to validation and varying descriptions of the valication process at different stages in method development. This discussion focuses on valication and verification of fully developed methods and instrumentation that have been offered up for use or approval by other laboratories or official consensus bodies such as ASTM International, the International Standards Organization (ISO) and the Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC). This review was conducted as part of a collaborative effort to investigate and improve the state of validation for measuring beryllium in the workplace and the environment. Documents and publications from the United States and Europe are included. Unless otherwise specified, all referenced documents were published in English.

  13. International symposium on quality assurance for analytical methods in isotope hydrology. Book of extended synopses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A large variety of isotopic techniques is available and commonly used in water resources investigations as well as in a wide range of other scientific fields. These techniques include the stable isotope analysis of light elements (H, C, N, O, S), activity measurements of radioactive isotopes at environmental level (3H, 14C, 3H/3He, 85Kr) as well as measurements of CFCs, SF6 and other chemical and isotopic tracers. They provide valuable tools for the assessment of scientific questions and the solution of practical problems. During the last decade, new analytical tools have significantly fostered the application of isotopic techniques in many new fields and caused a steep increase in the number of laboratories applying these methods. International trends in improved analytical quality and requirements for laboratory certification and accreditation have pushed issues of quality control and quality assurance to a high level of importance for the operation of isotope laboratories worldwide. The objectives of the symposium are to promote a wide exchange of information on key issues for high quality isotopic measurements. The main focus is on the analytical techniques and on all means to ensure high quality standards for isotopic measurements. Recent advances in analytical quality assurance and laboratory quality systems will be presented and discussed together with state-of-the-art techniques. The scope of the conference is to demonstrate the use of best laboratory practices in the following fields: calibration of measurements and traceability; interlaboratory comparisons; best laboratory practices for daily analyses of samples; quality control and statistical evaluation of results; calculation of uncertainty budgets; new analytical techniques; improvements in precision and accuracy of analytical methods; laboratory information management, databases and sample handling; laboratory quality systems and international guides. The 42 papers are indexed individually

  14. Derivation of Exact Eigenvalues and Eigenfunctions Based on the Analytical Transfer Matrix Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Ying; CAO Zhuang-Qi; SHEN Qi-Shun

    2004-01-01

    @@ We extend the analytical transfer matrix method (ATMM) to calculate both the energy eigenvalues and wavefunctions for the Morse potential and the regulated Coulomb potential. Derivations of the exact eigenenergies and eigenfunctions are presented in detail by the ATMM. We compare our results with that obtained by relaxational approach and the eigenvalue moment method, and it is shown that the ATMM can produce accurate eigenvalues.The eigenfunctions by the ATMM are also proven to be correct and meaningful.

  15. Analytical methods for drinking water; Metodi di analisi per le acque destinate al consumo umano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ottaviani, Massimo; Bonadonna, Lucia [Istituto Superiore di Sanita`, Rome (Italy). Lab. di Igiene Ambientale

    1997-03-01

    These analytical methods for drinking water were elaborated by the second Sub-commission of the Permanent study committee ex-article 9 of Italian Ministerial Decree (DM) of March 26, 1991, established at the Ministry of Health. The methods concern the chemical and microbiological parameters included in the C1, C2 and C3 controls of the Annex II of the Decree of the President of the Republic (DPR) 236/88.

  16. Low-Cost Method for Quantifying Sodium in Coconut Water and Seawater for the Undergraduate Analytical Chemistry Laboratory: Flame Test, a Mobile Phone Camera, and Image Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, Edgar P.; da Silva, Nilbert S. A.; de Morais, Camilo de L. M.; das Neves, Luiz S.; de Lima, Kassio M. G.

    2014-01-01

    The flame test is a classical analytical method that is often used to teach students how to identify specific metals. However, some universities in developing countries have difficulties acquiring the sophisticated instrumentation needed to demonstrate how to identify and quantify metals. In this context, a method was developed based on the flame…

  17. Review of the Development of Learning Analytics Applied in College-Level Institutes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken-Zen Chen

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the recent development of Learning Analytics using higher education institutional big-data. It addresses current state of Learning Analytics, creates a shared understanding, and clarifies misconceptions about the field. This article also reviews prominent examples from peer institutions that are conducting analytics, identifies their data and methodological framework, and comments on market vendors and non-for-profit initiatives. Finally, it suggests an implementation agenda for potential institutions and their stakeholders by drafting necessary preparations and creating iterative implementation flows.

  18. Descriptors of Modular Formation of Accounting and Analytical Cluster in Innovation Development of Agricultural Holdings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanna Degaltseva

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In the context of the division of accounting into financial accounting, taxation accounting, management accounting and statistical accounting a problem of improving their relationship arises. The accounting and analytical cluster plays the role of the correlating factor of the relationship between the subdivisions of the agricultural holding property. To improve its work a modular principle of its building based on information technology was introduced. Practical implementation of modular accounting and analytical cluster revealed its shortcomings. They were as follows: each type of account and each production unit used its own natural and cost parameters. The number and nature of these parameters were different. To eliminate the shortcomings in the information security of managers and specialists of the agricultural holding, we attempt to develop a methodology for establishing a rational number of descriptors (binding parameters for each module. The proposed descriptors are designed on the basis of validity of the methodological approach to their calculations and legal support. The proposed method allowed to limit the asymmetric information in all kinds of records, to improve its quality and to bring a synergistic effect from the scale and structure of the use of the agricultural holdings property complex.

  19. Review of Analytes of Concern and Sample Methods for Closure of DOE High Level Waste Storage Tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Thomas Russell

    2002-08-01

    Sampling residual waste after tank cleaning and analysis for analytes of concern to support closure and cleaning targets of large underground tanks used for storage of legacy high level radioactive waste (HLW) at Department of Energy (DOE) sites has been underway since about 1995. The DOE Tanks Focus Area (TFA) has been working with DOE tank sites to develop new sampling plans, and sampling methods for assessment of residual waste inventories. This paper discusses regulatory analytes of concern, sampling plans, and sampling methods that support closure and cleaning target activities for large storage tanks at the Hanford Site, the Savannah River Site (SRS), the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), and the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP).

  20. Review of Analytes of Concern and Sample Methods for Closure of DOE High Level Waste Storage Tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, T.R.

    2002-05-06

    Sampling residual waste after tank cleaning and analysis for analytes of concern to support closure and cleaning targets of large underground tanks used for storage of legacy high level radioactive waste (HLW) at Department of Energy (DOE) sites has been underway since about 1995. The DOE Tanks Focus Area (TFA) has been working with DOE tank sites to develop new sampling plans, and sampling methods for assessment of residual waste inventories. This paper discusses regulatory analytes of concern, sampling plans, and sampling methods that support closure and cleaning target activities for large storage tanks at the Hanford Site, the Savannah River Site (SRS), the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), and the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP).

  1. An experimental and analytical method for approximate determination of the tilt rotor research aircraft rotor/wing download

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordon, D. E.; Patterson, W.; Sandlin, D. R.

    1985-01-01

    The XV-15 Tilt Rotor Research Aircraft download phenomenon was analyzed. This phenomenon is a direct result of the two rotor wakes impinging on the wing upper surface when the aircraft is in the hover configuration. For this study the analysis proceeded along tow lines. First was a method whereby results from actual hover tests of the XV-15 aircraft were combined with drag coefficient results from wind tunnel tests of a wing that was representative of the aircraft wing. Second, an analytical method was used that modeled that airflow caused gy the two rotors. Formulas were developed in such a way that acomputer program could be used to calculate the axial velocities were then used in conjunction with the aforementioned wind tunnel drag coefficinet results to produce download values. An attempt was made to validate the analytical results by modeling a model rotor system for which direct download values were determinrd..

  2. Analytical method for assessing potential dermal exposure to captan, using whole body dosimetry, in small vegetable production units in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Enrique A; Zalts, Anita; Ojeda, Javier J; Flores, Andrea P; Glass, Richard C; Montserrat, Javier M

    2006-09-01

    An analytical method has been developed that can be used to determine the potential dermal exposure (PDE) of workers to the pesticide captan in small-scale horticultural production units. The methodology is based on the whole body dosimetry technique, using a cotton coverall and cotton gloves as sampling media, with protective clothing worn beneath the cotton media to protect the operator. The quantitative determination of captan was done by gas chromatography-electron capture detector (GC-ECD), with the analytical method validated by measuring limits of detection and quantification, linear ranges, sample recovery and precision. Special emphasis is placed on factors that affected the stability of captan during chromatographic determination. The data generated for potential dermal exposure are presented separately for mixing/loading and application activities. These data are compared with values obtained with visible tracers using a similar field technique. Margin of safety (MOS) values are also calculated for the agricultural procedures studied.

  3. Computational Methods Development at Ames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Dochan; Smith, Charles A. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation outlines the development at Ames Research Center of advanced computational methods to provide appropriate fidelity computational analysis/design capabilities. Current thrusts of the Ames research include: 1) methods to enhance/accelerate viscous flow simulation procedures, and the development of hybrid/polyhedral-grid procedures for viscous flow; 2) the development of real time transonic flow simulation procedures for a production wind tunnel, and intelligent data management technology; and 3) the validation of methods and the flow physics study gives historical precedents to above research, and speculates on its future course.

  4. An Accelerated Analytical Process for the Development of STR Profiles for Casework Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurin, Nancy; Frégeau, Chantal J

    2015-07-01

    Significant efforts are being devoted to the development of methods enabling rapid generation of short tandem repeat (STR) profiles in order to reduce turnaround times for the delivery of human identification results from biological evidence. Some of the proposed solutions are still costly and low throughput. This study describes the optimization of an analytical process enabling the generation of complete STR profiles (single-source or mixed profiles) for human identification in approximately 5 h. This accelerated process uses currently available reagents and standard laboratory equipment. It includes a 30-min lysis step, a 27-min DNA extraction using the Promega Maxwell(®) 16 System, DNA quantification in profiles on the 3500-series Genetic Analyzer. This combination of fast individual steps produces high-quality profiling results and offers a cost-effective alternative approach to rapid DNA analysis. PMID:25782346

  5. Analytical developments in thermal ionization mass spectrometry for the isotopic analysis of very small amounts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the framework of the French transmutation project of nuclear wastes, experiments consisted in the irradiation in a fast neutron reactor of few milligrams of isotopically enriched powders. Hence, the isotopic analysis of very small amount of irradiation products is one of the main issues. The aim of this study was to achieve analytical developments in thermal ionization mass spectrometry in order to accurately analyze these samples. Several axes were studied including the new total evaporation method, deposition techniques, electron multiplier potentialities and comparison between different isotope measurement techniques. Results showed that it was possible to drastically decrease the amounts needed for analysis, especially with Eu and Nd, while maintaining an uncertainty level in agreement with the project requirements. (author)

  6. Analytical developments in ICP-MS for arsenic and selenium speciation. Application to granitic waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear waste storage in geological areas needs the understanding of the physico-chemistry of groundwaters interactions with surrounding rocks. Redox potential measurements and speciation, calculated from geochemical modelling are not significant for the determination of water reactivity. We have thus chosen to carry out experimental speciation by developing sensitive analytical tools with respect of specie chemical identity. We have studied two redox indicators from reference sites (thermal waters from Pyrenees, France): arsenic and selenium. At first, we have determined the concentrations in major ions (sulphide, sulphate, chloride, fluoride, carbonate, Na, K, Ca). Speciation was conducted by HPLC hyphenated to quadrupole ICP-MS and high resolution ICP-MS. These analyses have shown the presence of two new arsenic species in solution, in addition of a great reactivity of these waters during stability studies. A sampling, storage and analysis method is described. (author)

  7. Solid-phase development of a L-hydroxybenzotriazole linker for heterocycle synthesis using analytical constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scicinski, J J; Congreve, M S; Jamieson, C; Ley, S V; Newman, E S; Vinader, V M; Carr, R A

    2001-01-01

    The development of a 1-hydroxybenzotriazole linker for the synthesis of heterocyclic derivatives is described, utilizing analytical construct methodology to facilitate the analysis of resin samples. A UV-chromophore-containing analytical construct enabled the accurate determination of resin loading and the automated monitoring of key reactions using only small quantities of resin. The syntheses of an array of isoxazole derivatives are reported. PMID:11442396

  8. Principles of Single-Laboratory Validation of Analytical Methods for Testing the Chemical Composition of Pesticides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Underlying theoretical and practical approaches towards pesticide formulation analysis are discussed, i.e. general principles, performance characteristics, applicability of validation data, verification of method performance, and adaptation of validated methods by other laboratories. The principles of single laboratory validation of analytical methods for testing the chemical composition of pesticides are outlined. Also the theoretical background is described for performing pesticide formulation analysis as outlined in ISO, CIPAC/AOAC and IUPAC guidelines, including methodological characteristics such as specificity, selectivity, linearity, accuracy, trueness, precision and bias. Appendices I–III hereof give practical and elaborated examples on how to use the Horwitz approach and formulae for estimating the target standard deviation towards acceptable analytical repeatability. The estimation of trueness and the establishment of typical within-laboratory reproducibility are treated in greater detail by means of worked-out examples. (author)

  9. Mathematical model of complex technical asymmetric system based on numerical-analytical boundary elements method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina V. Lazareva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A new mathematical model of asymmetric support structure frame type is built on the basis of numerical-analytical boundary elements method (BEM. To describe the design scheme used is the graph theory. Building the model taken into account is the effect of frame members restrained torsion, which presence is due to the fact that these elements are thin-walled. The built model represents a real object as a two-axle semi-trailer platform. To implement the BEM algorithm obtained are analytical expressions of the fundamental functions and vector load components. The effected calculations are based on the semi-trailer two different models, using finite elements and boundary elements methods. The analysis showed that the error between the results obtained on the basis of two numerical methods and experimental data is about 4%, that indicates the adequacy of the proposed mathematical model.

  10. A new analytic method with a convergence-control parameter for solving nonlinear problems

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Xiaolong

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a new analytic method with a convergence-control parameter $c$ is first proposed. The parameter $c$ is used to adjust and control the convergence region and rate of the resulting series solution. It turns out that the convergence region and rate can be greatly enlarged by choosing a proper value of $c$. Furthermore, a numerical approach for finding the optimal value of the convergence-control parameter is given. At the same time, it is found that the traditional Adomian decomposition method is only a special case of the new method. The effectiveness and applicability of the new technique are demonstrated by several physical models including nonlinear heat transfer problems, nano-electromechanical systems, diffusion and dissipation phenomena, and dispersive waves. Moreover, the ideas proposed in this paper may offer us possibilities to greatly improve current analytic and numerical techniques.

  11. Semi analytical solution of second order fuzzy Riccati equation by homotopy perturbation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jameel, A. F.; Ismail, Ahmad Izani Md

    2014-07-01

    In this work, the Homotopy Perturbation Method (HPM) is formulated to find a semi-analytical solution of the Fuzzy Initial Value Problem (FIVP) involving nonlinear second order Riccati equation. This method is based upon homotopy perturbation theory. This method allows for the solution of the differential equation to be calculated in the form of an infinite series in which the components can be easily calculated. The effectiveness of the algorithm is demonstrated by solving nonlinear second order fuzzy Riccati equation. The results indicate that the method is very effective and simple to apply.

  12. Analytical Method in Solving Flow of Viscoelastic Fluid in a Porous Converging Channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Esmaeilpour

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An analytical method, called homotopy perturbation method (HPM, is used to compute an approximation to the solution of the nonlinear differential equation governing the problem of two-dimensional and steady flow of a second-grade fluid in a converging channel. The table and figures are presented for influencing various parameters on the velocity field. The results compare well with those obtained by the numerical method. The method is straightforward and concise, and it can also be applied to other nonlinear evolution equations in mathematical physics.

  13. Trigonometric and hyperbolic functions method for constructing analytic solutions to nonlinear plane magnetohydrodynamics equilibrium equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we present a solution method for constructing exact analytic solutions to magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) equations. The method is constructed via all the trigonometric and hyperbolic functions. The method is applied to MHD equilibria with mass flow. Applications to a solar system concerned with the properties of coronal mass ejections that affect the heliosphere are presented. Some examples of the constructed solutions which describe magnetic structures of solar eruptions are investigated. Moreover, the constructed method can be applied to a variety classes of elliptic partial differential equations which arise in plasma physics

  14. Two Approaches in the Lunar Libration Theory: Analytical vs. Numerical Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrova, Natalia; Zagidullin, Arthur; Nefediev, Yurii; Kosulin, Valerii

    2016-10-01

    Observation of the physical libration of the Moon and the celestial bodies is one of the astronomical methods to remotely evaluate the internal structure of a celestial body without using expensive space experiments. Review of the results obtained due to the physical libration study, is presented in the report.The main emphasis is placed on the description of successful lunar laser ranging for libration determination and on the methods of simulating the physical libration. As a result, estimation of the viscoelastic and dissipative properties of the lunar body, of the lunar core parameters were done. The core's existence was confirmed by the recent reprocessing of seismic data Apollo missions. Attention is paid to the physical interpretation of the phenomenon of free libration and methods of its determination.A significant part of the report is devoted to describing the practical application of the most accurate to date the analytical tables of lunar libration built by comprehensive analytical processing of residual differences obtained when comparing the long-term series of laser observations with numerical ephemeris DE421 [1].In general, the basic outline of the report reflects the effectiveness of two approaches in the libration theory - numerical and analytical solution. It is shown that the two approaches complement each other for the study of the Moon in different aspects: numerical approach provides high accuracy of the theory necessary for adequate treatment of modern high-accurate observations and the analytic approach allows you to see the essence of the various kind manifestations in the lunar rotation, predict and interpret the new effects in observations of physical libration [2].[1] Rambaux, N., J. G. Williams, 2011, The Moon's physical librations and determination of their free modes, Celest. Mech. Dyn. Astron., 109, 85–100.[2] Petrova N., A. Zagidullin, Yu. Nefediev. Analysis of long-periodic variations of lunar libration parameters on the basis

  15. Towards in-vivo K-edge imaging using a new semi-analytical calibration method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirra, Carsten; Thran, Axel; Daerr, Heiner; Roessl, Ewald; Proksa, Roland

    2014-03-01

    Flat field calibration methods are commonly used in computed tomography (CT) to correct for system imperfections. Unfortunately, they cannot be applied in energy-resolving CT when using bow-tie filters owing to spectral distortions imprinted by the filter. This work presents a novel semi-analytical calibration method for photon-counting spectral CT systems, which is applicable with a bow-tie filter in place and efficiently compensates pile-up effects at fourfold increased photon flux compared to a previously published method without degradation of image quality. The achieved reduction of the scan time enabled the first K-edge imaging in-vivo. The method employs a calibration measurement with a set of flat sheets of only a single absorber material and utilizes an analytical model to predict the expected photon counts, taking into account factors such as x-ray spectrum and detector response. From the ratios of the measured x-ray intensities and the corresponding simulated photon counts, a look-up table is generated. By use of this look-up table, measured photon-counts can be corrected yielding data in line with the analytical model. The corrected data show low pixel-to-pixel variations and pile-up effects are mitigated. Consequently, operations like material decomposition based on the same analytical model yield accurate results. The method was validated on a experimental spectral CT system equipped with a bow-tie filter in a phantom experiment and an in-vivo animal study. The level of artifacts in the resulting images is considerably lower than in images generated with a previously published method. First in-vivo K-edge images of a rabbit selectively depict vessel occlusion by an ytterbium-based thermoresponsive polymer.

  16. Evaluation of the effect of coal cleaning of fugitive elements. Part II. Analytical methods. Final report, Phase II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosshart, R.E.; Price, A.A.; Ford, C.T.

    1980-03-01

    This report contains the analytical and test methods which were used routinely at Bituminous Coal Research, Inc. during the project. The procedures contained herein should aid coal industry laboratories and others, including commercial laboratories, who might be required to determine trace elements in coal. Some of the procedures have been presented in previous BCR reports; however, this report includes additional procedures which are described in greater detail. Also presented are many as the more basic coal methods which have been in use at BCR for many years, or which have been adapted or refined from other standard reference sources for coal and water. The basis for choosing specific analytical procedures for trace elements in coal is somewhat complex. At BCR, atomic absorption was selected as the basic method in the development of these procedures. The choice was based on sensitivity, selectivity, accuracy, precision, practicability, and economy. Whenever possible, the methods developed had to be both adequate and amenable for use by coal industry laboratories by virtue of relative simplicity and cost. This is not to imply that the methods described are simple or inexpensive; however, atomic abosrption techniques do meet these criteria in relation to more complex and costly methods such as neutron activation, mass spectrometry, and x-ray fluorescence, some of which require highly specialized personnel as well as access to sophisticated nuclear and computational facilities. Many of the analytical procedures for trace elements in coal have been developed or adapted specifically for the BCR studies. Their presentation is the principal purpose of this report.

  17. An overview of the analytical methods for the determination of organic ultraviolet filters in biological fluids and tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Papers describing the determination of UV filters in fluids and tissues are reviewed. ► Matrix complexity and low amounts of analytes require effective sample treatments. ► The published papers do not cover the study of all the substances allowed as UV filters. ► New analytical methods for UV filters determination in these matrices are encouraged. - Abstract: Organic UV filters are chemical compounds added to cosmetic sunscreen products in order to protect users from UV solar radiation. The need of broad-spectrum protection to avoid the deleterious effects of solar radiation has triggered a trend in the cosmetic market of including these compounds not only in those exclusively designed for sun protection but also in all types of cosmetic products. Different studies have shown that organic UV filters can be absorbed through the skin after topical application, further metabolized in the body and eventually excreted or bioaccumulated. These percutaneous absorption processes may result in various adverse health effects, such as genotoxicity caused by the generation of free radicals, which can even lead to mutagenic or carcinogenic effects, and estrogenicity, which is associated with the endocrine disruption activity caused by some of these compounds. Due to the absence of official monitoring protocols, there is a demand for analytical methods that enable the determination of UV filters in biological fluids and tissues in order to retrieve more information regarding their behavior in the human body and thus encourage the development of safer cosmetic formulations. In view of this demand, there has recently been a noticeable increase in the development of sensitive and selective analytical methods for the determination of UV filters and their metabolites in biological fluids (i.e., urine, plasma, breast milk and semen) and tissues. The complexity of the biological matrix and the low concentration levels of these compounds inevitably impose sample

  18. An overview of the analytical methods for the determination of organic ultraviolet filters in biological fluids and tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chisvert, Alberto, E-mail: alberto.chisvert@uv.es [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Facultad de Quimica, Universitat de Valencia, Doctor Moliner St. 50, 46100 Burjassot, Valencia (Spain); Leon-Gonzalez, Zacarias [Unidad Analitica, Instituto de Investigacion Sanitaria Fundacion Hospital La Fe, 46009 Valencia (Spain); Tarazona, Isuha; Salvador, Amparo [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Facultad de Quimica, Universitat de Valencia, Doctor Moliner St. 50, 46100 Burjassot, Valencia (Spain); Giokas, Dimosthenis [Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, University of Ioannina, 45110 Ioannina (Greece)

    2012-11-08

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Papers describing the determination of UV filters in fluids and tissues are reviewed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Matrix complexity and low amounts of analytes require effective sample treatments. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The published papers do not cover the study of all the substances allowed as UV filters. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer New analytical methods for UV filters determination in these matrices are encouraged. - Abstract: Organic UV filters are chemical compounds added to cosmetic sunscreen products in order to protect users from UV solar radiation. The need of broad-spectrum protection to avoid the deleterious effects of solar radiation has triggered a trend in the cosmetic market of including these compounds not only in those exclusively designed for sun protection but also in all types of cosmetic products. Different studies have shown that organic UV filters can be absorbed through the skin after topical application, further metabolized in the body and eventually excreted or bioaccumulated. These percutaneous absorption processes may result in various adverse health effects, such as genotoxicity caused by the generation of free radicals, which can even lead to mutagenic or carcinogenic effects, and estrogenicity, which is associated with the endocrine disruption activity caused by some of these compounds. Due to the absence of official monitoring protocols, there is a demand for analytical methods that enable the determination of UV filters in biological fluids and tissues in order to retrieve more information regarding their behavior in the human body and thus encourage the development of safer cosmetic formulations. In view of this demand, there has recently been a noticeable increase in the development of sensitive and selective analytical methods for the determination of UV filters and their metabolites in biological fluids (i.e., urine, plasma, breast milk and semen) and tissues. The complexity of

  19. Negotiating a Systems Development Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Fredrik; Hedström, Karin

    Systems development methods (or methods) are often applied in tailored version to fit the actual situation. Method tailoring is in most the existing literature viewed as either (a) a highly rational process with the method engineer as the driver where the project members are passive information providers or (b) an unstructured process where the systems developer makes individual choices, a selection process without any driver. The purpose of this chapter is to illustrate that important design decisions during method tailoring are made by project members through negotiation. The study has been carried out using the perspective of actor-network theory. Our narratives depict method tailoring as more complex than (a) and (b) show the driver role rotates between the project members, and design decisions are based on influences from several project members. However, these design decisions are not consensus decisions.

  20. Investigation of thermal stratification in cisterns using analytical and Artificial Neural Networks methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ameri Siahoui, H.R. [Department of Architectural Engineering, Payam-e-Noor University, Bandar Abbas (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Dehghani, A.R.; Razavi, M. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch, 1486953781 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khani, M.R. [Department of Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Islamic Azad University, Medical Sciences Branch, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-01-15

    The thermal characteristics of an underground cold-water reservoir are investigated analytically and using Artificial Neural Networks (ANN). An analytical solution is developed for the temperature distribution in the reservoir by assuming a linearized boundary condition at the water surface. For the general non-linear boundary condition, the temperature distribution is modeled using ANN. Very good agreements between the analytical and ANN results at various times during the withdrawal cycle are observed, ensuring the accuracy of the analytical and ANN procedures. The results show that a stable thermal stratification is preserved in the reservoir throughout the entire course of withdrawal cycle. As one important outcome of this research, two different regions are observed inside the thermally stratified tank during discharge cycle. The bottom region with a linear temperature distribution and the upper one in which a nearly exponential thermal stratification are developed. During withdrawal cycle, the outside temperature reaches as high as 42 C, while cool water with the temperature varying from 12 to 13 C is easily available from the underground water reservoir under investigation. (author)