WorldWideScience

Sample records for analytical hot cells

  1. Decontamination of an Analytical Laboratory Hot Cell Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An Analytical Laboratory Hot Cell Facility at Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-W) had been in service for nearly thirty years. In order to comply with current DOE regulations governing such facilities and meet programmatic requirements, a major refurbishment effort was mandated. Due to the high levels of radiation and contamination within the cells, a decontamination effort was necessary to provide an environment that permitted workers to enter the cells to perform refurbishment activities without receiving high doses of radiation and to minimize the potential for the spread of contamination. State-of-the-art decontamination methods, as well as time-proven methods were utilized to minimize personnel exposure as well as maximize results

  2. Mechanical shielded hot cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A plan to erect a mechanical shielded hot cell in the process hall of the Radiochemical Laboratory at Inchas is described. The hot cell is designed for safe handling of spent fuel bundles, from the Inchas reactor, and for dismantling and cutting the fuel rods in preparation for subsequent treatment. The biological shielding allows for the safe handling of a total radioactivity level up to 10,000 MeV-Ci. The hot cell consists of an α-tight stainless-steel box, connected to a γ-shielded SAS, through an air-lock containing a movable carriage. The α-box is tightly connected with six dry-storage cavities for adequate storage of the spent fuel bundles. Both the α-box, with the dry-storage cavities, and the SAS are surrounded by 200-mm thick biological lead shielding. The α-box is equipped with two master-slave manipulators, a lead-glass window, a monorail crane and Padirac and Minirag systems. The SAS is equipped with a lead-glass window, tong manipulator, a shielded pit and a mechanism for the entry of the spent fuel bundle. The hot cell is served by adequate ventilation and monitoring systems. (author)

  3. Design elements of hot cell facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, D. K.; Lee, K. S.; Baek, S. Y.; Ahn, Y. S.; Choo, Y. S

    1997-06-01

    Hot cell facility is necessary for the post-irradiation examinations of nuclear fuels and materials. Therefore many hot cell facilities have been constructed and operating to support the research and development on the nuclear technology. In this report, the design elements of the hot cell facility is reviewed and discussed. (author). 3 tabs., 12 figs

  4. Ohmic Inflation of Hot Jupiters: an Analytical Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginzburg, Sivan; Sari, Re'em

    2015-12-01

    Many giant exoplanets in close orbits have observed radii which exceed theoretical predictions.One suggested explanation for this discrepancy is heat deposited deep inside the atmospheres of these hot Jupiters.We present an analytical model for the evolution of such irradiated, and internally heated gas giants, and derive scaling laws for their cooling rates and radii.We estimate the Ohmic dissipation resulting from the interaction between the atmospheric winds and the planet's magnetic field, and apply our model to Ohmically heated planets.Our model can account for the observed radii of many inflated planets, but not the most extreme ones.We show that Ohmically heated planets have already reached their equilibrium phase and they no longer contract.We show that it is possible to re-inflate planets, but we confirm that re-heating timescales are longer by about a factor of 30 than cooling times.

  5. Sealed source dismantling hot cell - startup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dellamano, Jose Claudio; Ferreira, Robson de Jesus, E-mail: jcdellam@ipen.br, E-mail: rojefer@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Gerencia de Rejeitos radioativos

    2013-07-01

    Sealed radioactive sources are widely used in many applications of nuclear technology and at the end of the useful life, most sources become radioactive waste. In Brazil, this waste is received by the Institutes of the National Nuclear Energy Commission and kept under centralized storage. The Waste Management Department at the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute is the main storage center, having received around 20,000 disused sources. A hot cell was designed and constructed to manage Co-60 spent sealed sources with activity up to 3.7 10{sup 1}0 Bq and other sources with equivalent activities. In the hot cell the sources are withdraw from their original shielding and transferred to a standard shielding for further disposal off. The original shielding disassembling is made outside the hot cell and after opening, it is transferred inside the hot cell and the sealed source is removed remotely. The source is checked in relation to external contamination and its activity is checked. After this, the source is positioned in the standard shielding located inside an overpack at the bottom of the hot cell. This paper describes some pre-operational tests carried out in it, that include: opening and closing doors and locks, checking of all electrical and pneumatic controls, the original shielding movement inside the hot-cell, dose rate measurements outside the hot-cell, insertion of the sealed sources inside the activity meter chamber, transferring the sealed source to the standard shielding, movement of the overpack with the standard shielding to outside of the hot-cell and plugging of the standard shielding. (author)

  6. Hot electron plasmon-protected solar cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, J; Rose, A H; Yang, C; Wu, X; Merlo, J M; Burns, M J; Naughton, M J; Kempa, K

    2015-09-21

    A solar cell based on a hot electron plasmon protection effect is proposed and made plausible by simulations, non-local modeling of the response, and quantum mechanical calculations. In this cell, a thin-film, plasmonic metamaterial structure acts as both an efficient photon absorber in the visible frequency range and a plasmonic resonator in the IR range, the latter of which absorbs and protects against phonon emission the free energy of the hot electrons in an adjacent semiconductor junction. We show that in this structure, electron-plasmon scattering is much more efficient than electron-phonon scattering in cooling-off hot electrons, and the plasmon-stored energy is recoverable as an additional cell voltage. The proposed structure could become a prototype of a new generation of high efficiency solar cells. PMID:26406739

  7. WESF hot cells waste minimization criteria hot cells window seals evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walterskirchen, K.M.

    1997-03-31

    WESF will decouple from B Plant in the near future. WESF is attempting to minimize the contaminated solid waste in their hot cells and utilize B Plant to receive the waste before decoupling. WESF wishes to determine the minimum amount of contaminated waste that must be removed in order to allow minimum maintenance of the hot cells when they are placed in ''laid-up'' configuration. The remaining waste should not cause unacceptable window seal deterioration for the remaining life of the hot cells. This report investigates and analyzes the seal conditions and hot cell history and concludes that WESF should remove existing point sources, replace cerium window seals in F-Cell and refurbish all leaded windows (except for A-Cell). Work should be accomplished as soon as possible and at least within the next three years.

  8. Moving hot cell for LMFBR type reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanbe, Mitsuru

    1994-09-16

    A moving hot cell for an LMFBR type reactor is made movable on a reactor operation floor between a position just above the reactor container and a position retreated therefrom. Further, it comprises an overhung portion which can incorporate a spent fuel just thereunder, and a crane for moving a fuel assembly between a spent fuel cask and a reactor container. Further, an opening/closing means having a shielding structure is disposed to the bottom portion and the overhung portion thereof, to provide a sealing structure, in which only the receiving port for the spent fuel cask faces to the inner side, and the cask itself is disposed at the outside. Upon exchange of fuels, the movable hot cell is placed just above the reactor to take out the spent fuels, so that a region contaminated with primary sodium is limited within the hot cell. On the other hand, upon maintenance and repair for equipments, the hot cell is moved, thereby enabling to provide a not contaminated reactor operation floor. (N.H.).

  9. An analytical model of pipelined circuit switching in hypercubes in the presence of hot spot traffic

    OpenAIRE

    Safaei, F.; Khonsari, A.; Fathy, M.; Ould-Khaoua, M.

    2005-01-01

    Several recent studies have revealed that PCS can provide superior performance characteristics over wormhole switching under uniform traffic. Analytical model of PCS for common networks (e.g., hypercube) under uniform traffic pattern have recently been reported in the literature. In this paper we propose an analytical model of PCS in the hypercube network augmented with virtual channel in the presence of hot spot traffic. The model has a good agreement with simulation experiments.

  10. Hot Cell Facility (HCF) Safety Analysis Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MITCHELL,GERRY W.; LONGLEY,SUSAN W.; PHILBIN,JEFFREY S.; MAHN,JEFFREY A.; BERRY,DONALD T.; SCHWERS,NORMAN F.; VANDERBEEK,THOMAS E.; NAEGELI,ROBERT E.

    2000-11-01

    This Safety Analysis Report (SAR) is prepared in compliance with the requirements of DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports, and has been written to the format and content guide of DOE-STD-3009-94 Preparation Guide for U. S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports. The Hot Cell Facility is a Hazard Category 2 nonreactor nuclear facility, and is operated by Sandia National Laboratories for the Department of Energy. This SAR provides a description of the HCF and its operations, an assessment of the hazards and potential accidents which may occur in the facility. The potential consequences and likelihood of these accidents are analyzed and described. Using the process and criteria described in DOE-STD-3009-94, safety-related structures, systems and components are identified, and the important safety functions of each SSC are described. Additionally, information which describes the safety management programs at SNL are described in ancillary chapters of the SAR.

  11. Hot Cell Facility (HCF) Safety Analysis Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Safety Analysis Report (SAR) is prepared in compliance with the requirements of DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports, and has been written to the format and content guide of DOE-STD-3009-94 Preparation Guide for U. S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports. The Hot Cell Facility is a Hazard Category 2 nonreactor nuclear facility, and is operated by Sandia National Laboratories for the Department of Energy. This SAR provides a description of the HCF and its operations, an assessment of the hazards and potential accidents which may occur in the facility. The potential consequences and likelihood of these accidents are analyzed and described. Using the process and criteria described in DOE-STD-3009-94, safety-related structures, systems and components are identified, and the important safety functions of each SSC are described. Additionally, information which describes the safety management programs at SNL are described in ancillary chapters of the SAR

  12. Introduction of hot cell facility in research center Rez

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the paper is to present the hot cell facility which is being constructed as part of the project SUSEN at the Rez research center (Czech Republic). The Sustainable Energy Project (SUSEN) is implemented as a regional Research/Development center in Priority Axis 2 and its objective is to act as a relevant research partner for cooperation with other European research centers. The project is fully funded by the European Union. Within this project a new complex of 10 hot cells and one semi-hot cell will be built. There will be 8 gamma hot cells and 2 alpha hot cells. In each hot cell a hermetic, removable box made of stainless steel will home different type of devices. The hot cells and semi hot cell will be equipped with devices for processing samples (cutting, welding, drilling, machining) as well as equipment for testing (sample preparation area, stress testing machine, fatigue machine, electromechanical creep machine, high frequency resonance pulsator...) and equipment for studying material microstructure (micro-hardness and nano-hardness probes, scanning electron microscope). An autoclave with water loop, installed in a cell will allow mechanical testing in control environment of water, pressure and temperature. The transportation system for samples and materials is based on a mobile cask with an airtight connection and vertical access. The installation is designed to work with an activity level up to 300 TBq and to receive materials from decommissioned power reactors as well as highly irradiated materials for fusion applications

  13. Linear power spectra in cold+hot dark matter models analytical approximations and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Ma Chung Pei

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents simple analytic approximations to the linear power spectra, linear growth rates, and rms mass fluctuations for both components in a family of cold+hot dark matter (CDM+HDM) models that are of current cosmological interest. The formulas are valid for a wide range of wavenumber, neutrino fraction, redshift, and Hubble constant: k\\lo 10\\,h Mpc^{-1}, 0.05\\lo \\onu\\lo 0.3, 0\\le z\\lo 15, and 0.5\\lo h \\lo 0.8. A new, redshift-dependent shape parameter \\Gamma_\

  14. Hybrid Hot Strip Rolling Force Prediction using a Bayesian Trained Artificial Neural Network and Analytical Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelkrim Moussaoui

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors discuss the combination of an Artificial Neural Network (ANN with analytical models to improve the performance of the prediction model of finishing rolling force in hot strip rolling mill process. The suggested model was implemented using Bayesian Evidence based training algorithm. It was found that the Bayesian Evidence based approach provided a superior and smoother fit to the real rolling mill data. Completely independent set of real rolling data were used to evaluate the capacity of the fitted ANN model to predict the unseen regions of data. As a result, test rolls obtained by the suggested hybrid model have shown high prediction quality comparatively to the usual empirical prediction models.

  15. Development and experimental validation of an analytical model to predict the demoulding force in hot embossing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the demoulding stage of the hot embossing process, the force required to separate a polymer part from the mould should be minimized to avoid the generation of structural defects for the produced micro structures. However, the demoulding force is dependent on a number of process factors, which include the material properties, the demoulding temperature, the polymer pressure history and the design of the mould structures. In particular, these factors affect the chemical, physical and mechanical interactions between a polymer and the replication master during demoulding. The focus of the reported research is on the development and validation of an analytical model that takes into account the adhesion, friction and deformation phenomena to predict the required demoulding force in hot embossing under different processing conditions. The results indicate that the model predictions agree well with the experimental data obtained and confirm that the design of the mould affects the resulting demoulding force. In addition, the applied embossing load was observed to have a significant effect on demoulding. More specifically, the increase in pressure within the polymer raises the adhesion force while it also reduces the friction force due to the decrease in the thermal stress. (paper)

  16. Design Report for ACP Hot Cell Rear Door

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ku, J. H.; Kwon, K. C.; Choung, W. M.; Cho, I. J.; Kook, D. H.; Lee, W. K.; You, G. S.; Lee, E. P.; Park, S. W

    2005-12-15

    A hot-cell facility was constructed at the IMEF building for the demonstrate ACP process. ACP hot-cell consists of process cell and maintenance cell, and each cell has rear door. Since this facility was constructed at basement floor, all process materials, equipment and radioactive materials are take in and out through the rear door. Also, this door can be an access route of workers for the maintenance works. Therefore ACP hot-cell rear doors must maintain the radiation shielding, sealing, mechanical and structural safety. This report presents design criteria, design contents of each part and driving part. It was confirmed that the rear doors sufficiently maintain the safety through the structural analysis and shielding analysis. Also, it was confirmed that the rear doors were constructed as designed by the gamma scanning test after the installation.

  17. Hot Cells Post-Irradiation Examination at JRC-ITU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This contribution provides some highlights on the main post-irradiation examination capabilities and on recent and ongoing effort aimed at developing advanced tools for the study of relevant properties of irradiated nuclear fuels at ITU. The scope of application covers conventional, evolutionary and advanced fuel concepts for today's commercial reactors and for future generations of nuclear power plant. It is a big technical challenge for a hot cell facility to be able to cover effectively a broad variety of fuel concepts, characterized by different compositions, physico-chemical properties, geometries and configurations. In addition to basic techniques for non-destructive and destructive examination of nuclear fuel rods (covering both fuel and cladding) and other configurations, ''in-depth'' investigation tools are applied for the measurement and analysis of specific physical, thermomechanical and micro-analytical properties of irradiated fuel. In many cases additional information can be gained by combining different techniques. As an example, the quantitative information obtained using electron probe microanalysis (EPMA), e.g. on the chemical behaviour of fission products in the fuel matrix, is effectively complemented by the capabilities of the secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), e.g. for detection of low yield fission products, or for the analysis of the fission gas contained in bubbles and pores, independent of their size. Some indications concerning the main lines of development for upgrading the scientific equipment and the infrastructure will be provided. (author)

  18. Fundamental Limitations to Plasmonic Hot-Carrier Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Yam, ChiYung; Schatz, George C

    2016-05-19

    Detailed balance between photon-absorption and energy loss constrains the efficiency of conventional solar cells to the Shockley-Queisser limit. However, if solar illumination can be absorbed over a wide spectrum by plasmonic structures, and the generated hot-carriers can be collected before relaxation, the efficiency of solar cells may be greatly improved. In this work, we explore the opportunities and limitations for making plasmonic solar cells, here considering a design for hot-carrier solar cells in which a conventional semiconductor heterojunction is attached to a plasmonic medium such as arrays of gold nanoparticles. The underlying mechanisms and fundamental limitations of this cell are studied using a nonequilibrium Green's function method, and the numerical results indicate that this cell can significantly improve the absorption of solar radiation without reducing open-circuit voltage, as photons can be absorbed to produce mobile carriers in the semiconductor as long as they have energy larger than the Schottky barrier rather than above the bandgap. However, a significant fraction of the hot-carriers have energies below the Schottky barrier, which makes the cell suffer low internal quantum efficiency. Moreover, quantum efficiency is also limited by hot-carrier relaxation and metal-semiconductor coupling. The connection of these results to recent experiments is described, showing why plasmonic solar cells can have less than 1% efficiency. PMID:27136049

  19. Hot-cell for dismantling of nuclear gauges

    CERN Document Server

    Reis, L C A

    2000-01-01

    This work objectives the design of a hot-cell that will be used for dismantling of nuclear gauges. In the hot-cell, nuclear gauges received as radioactive waste at the Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear - CDTN will be dismantled, in order to decrease the volume of radioactive waste to be stored at the Center. Sources originally conditioned as special form radioactive material will be tested and in case do not present leakage, the respective gauges will be disposable for reusing by radioisotope users. The remaining sources will be taken off the original shielding and conditioned in special packages adequate for storage and disposal. All steps of work, the hot-cell design and methodology for conditioning are also described.

  20. Stress analysis for wall structure in mobile hot cell design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahrin, Muhammad Hannan, E-mail: hannan@nuclearmalaysia.gov.my; Rahman, Anwar Abdul, E-mail: anwar@nuclearmalaysia.gov.my; Hamzah, Mohd Arif, E-mail: arif@nuclearmalaysia.gov.my; Mamat, Mohd Rizal; Azman, Azraf; Hasan, Hasni [Prototype and Plant Development Centre, Technical Services Division, Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Malaysia)

    2016-01-22

    Malaysian Nuclear Agency is developing a Mobile Hot Cell (MHC) in order to handle and manage Spent High Activity Radioactive Sources (SHARS) such as teletherapy heads and irradiators. At present, there are only two units of MHC in the world, in South Africa and China. Malaysian Mobile Hot cell is developed by Malaysian Nuclear Agency with the assistance of IAEA expert, based on the design of South Africa and China, but with improved features. Stress analysis has been performed on the design in order to fulfil the safety requirement in operation of MHC. This paper discusses the loading analysis effect from the sand to the MHC wall structure.

  1. Development of analytical cell support for vitrification at the West Valley Demonstration Project. Topical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barber, F.H.; Borek, T.T.; Christopher, J.Z. [and others

    1997-12-01

    Analytical and Process Chemistry (A&PC) support is essential to the high-level waste vitrification campaign at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP). A&PC characterizes the waste, providing information necessary to formulate the recipe for the target radioactive glass product. High-level waste (HLW) samples are prepared and analyzed in the analytical cells (ACs) and Sample Storage Cell (SSC) on the third floor of the main plant. The high levels of radioactivity in the samples require handling them in the shielded cells with remote manipulators. The analytical hot cells and third floor laboratories were refurbished to ensure optimal uninterrupted operation during the vitrification campaign. New and modified instrumentation, tools, sample preparation and analysis techniques, and equipment and training were required for A&PC to support vitrification. Analytical Cell Mockup Units (ACMUs) were designed to facilitate method development, scientist and technician training, and planning for analytical process flow. The ACMUs were fabricated and installed to simulate the analytical cell environment and dimensions. New techniques, equipment, and tools could be evaluated m in the ACMUs without the consequences of generating or handling radioactive waste. Tools were fabricated, handling and disposal of wastes was addressed, and spatial arrangements for equipment were refined. As a result of the work at the ACMUs the remote preparation and analysis methods and the equipment and tools were ready for installation into the ACs and SSC m in July 1995. Before use m in the hot cells, all remote methods had been validated and four to eight technicians were trained on each. Fine tuning of the procedures has been ongoing at the ACs based on input from A&PC technicians. Working at the ACs presents greater challenges than had development at the ACMUs. The ACMU work and further refinements m in the ACs have resulted m in a reduction m in analysis turnaround time (TAT).

  2. Development of analytical cell support for vitrification at the West Valley Demonstration Project. Topical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analytical and Process Chemistry (A ampersand PC) support is essential to the high-level waste vitrification campaign at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP). A ampersand PC characterizes the waste, providing information necessary to formulate the recipe for the target radioactive glass product. High-level waste (HLW) samples are prepared and analyzed in the analytical cells (ACs) and Sample Storage Cell (SSC) on the third floor of the main plant. The high levels of radioactivity in the samples require handling them in the shielded cells with remote manipulators. The analytical hot cells and third floor laboratories were refurbished to ensure optimal uninterrupted operation during the vitrification campaign. New and modified instrumentation, tools, sample preparation and analysis techniques, and equipment and training were required for A ampersand PC to support vitrification. Analytical Cell Mockup Units (ACMUs) were designed to facilitate method development, scientist and technician training, and planning for analytical process flow. The ACMUs were fabricated and installed to simulate the analytical cell environment and dimensions. New techniques, equipment, and tools could be evaluated m in the ACMUs without the consequences of generating or handling radioactive waste. Tools were fabricated, handling and disposal of wastes was addressed, and spatial arrangements for equipment were refined. As a result of the work at the ACMUs the remote preparation and analysis methods and the equipment and tools were ready for installation into the ACs and SSC m in July 1995. Before use m in the hot cells, all remote methods had been validated and four to eight technicians were trained on each. Fine tuning of the procedures has been ongoing at the ACs based on input from A ampersand PC technicians. Working at the ACs presents greater challenges than had development at the ACMUs. The ACMU work and further refinements m in the ACs have resulted m in a reduction m in

  3. Implementation of a cabin X-rays in hot cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berduola, F.; Caral, L.

    2001-07-01

    The Fabrice process for the reconstituated short length irradiated rods in a hot cell was developed by the CEA especially for power ramp testing. This technique requires intricate operations in a hot cell with specially adapted equipment and great skill people. And end plug is inserted under pressure and fitted to the opening end of a cladding tube. The meeting surfaces of the end plug and the opening end are welded by a TIG (tunsten inert gas) process. Nevertheless, some predominate defects may occur in the end plug weld joints, such as lack of penetration and cavity. So, particular attention must be paid to non-destructive examination in particular X-ray control of welding areas. A radioscopy technique has been applied to the control of TIG welds of the end plugs to rod assemblies in a hot cell mock-up to be tested under realistic geometric conditions. This X-ray method enables immediate monitoring of any welding defaults on a TV screen. A remote positioning system for the Fabrice rod is being developed to position fuel rods below a X-ray source. Radioscopy pictures will be recorded during remote positioning of the rod movement. This document presents the modifications achieved by the constructor in cooperation with our laboratory staff, concerning the nuclearization of the apparatus as well as its implementation in the shielded hot cell no 2 of the CEA-DEC/SLS/LECA Laboratory in Cadarache. Hot operation of the rod positioner is planned for september 2022 because of recent refurbishing works in the plant. (Author)

  4. Analytical Model of Nano-Electromechanical (NEM) Nonvolatile Memory Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Boram; Choi, Woo Young

    The fringe field effects of nano-electromechanical (NEM) nonvolatile memory cells have been investigated analytically for the accurate evaluation of NEM memory cells. As the beam width is scaled down, fringe field effect becomes more severe. It has been observed that pull-in, release and hysteresis voltage decrease more than our prediction. Also, the fringe field on cell characteristics has been discussed.

  5. DEMO hot cell and ex-vessel remote handling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Justin, E-mail: justin.thomas@ccfe.ac.uk [Euratom/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Loving, Antony [Euratom/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Bachmann, Christian; Harman, Jon [EFDA, PPP and T, Boltzmannstraße 2, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ► Overview of current DEMO maintenance concepts. ► Comparison of current dextrous remote handling technologies and their rebalance to DEMO. ► Presentation of some ideas to improve the productivity and reliability of the DEMO ex-vessel transport system. ► A description of the size and type facilities that might be required in the DEMO hot cell. ► Identification of some areas that need to be developed further to meet the requirements of DEMO. -- Abstract: In Europe the work on the specification and design of a demonstration power plant (DEMO) is being carried out by EFDA in the power plant physics and technology (PPP and T) programme. DEMO will take fusion from experimental research into showing the potential for commercial power generation. During the fusion reaction, components in the tokamak become highly activated. The estimated dose rate levels after shutdown (zero decay time) due to 60 dpa accumulation in steel (blanket) and 30 dpa (divertor) are 13.1–17.4 kGy/h (blanket); 8.8–11.6 kGy/h (divertor) [1], much higher than those to be encountered at ITER. Upon removal from the tokamak, components would be transported to the hot cell facility with attention to minimizing the spread of activated dust and tritium contamination. It is proposed to use a sealed cask of ∼20 tonnes, running on air castors with 50% lifting capability redundancy. Due to the number and complexity of the routes taken by this transporter it would have to be an un-tethered semi-autonomous system. This poses some technical challenges, including providing sufficient battery capacity, reliable guidance and a fail safe un-tethered control system. The mass of the components being moved is assumed here to range from a few tonnes to in excess of one hundred tonnes. Before the removed in-vessel components can be processed in the hot cell, they would require a period of cooling, approximately 2.5 years, to allow dose rate and decay heating to reduce. This reduces the decay

  6. A Physics-based Analytical Model for Perovskite Solar Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Xingshu; Asadpour, Reza; Nie, Wanyi; Mohite, Aditya D.; Alam, Muhammad A.

    2015-01-01

    Perovskites are promising next-generation absorber materials for low-cost and high-efficiency solar cells. Although perovskite cells are configured similar to the classical solar cells, their operation is unique and requires development of a new physical model for characterization, optimization of the cells, and prediction of the panel performance. In this paper, we develop such a physics-based analytical model to describe the operation of different types of perovskite solar cells, explicitly...

  7. An Analytical Model for Torus Networks in the Presence of Batch Message Arrivals with Hot-spot Destinations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yulei Wu; Geyong Min; Mohamed Ould-Khaoua; Hao Yin

    2009-01-01

    Interconnection networks are hardware fabrics supporting communications between individual processors in multicomputers.The low-dimensional k-ary n-cubes (or torus) with adaptive wormhole switching have attracted significant research efforts to construct high-performance interconnection networks in contemporary multi-computers.The arrival process and destination distribution of messages have great effects on network performance.With the aim of capturing the characteristics of the realistic traffic pattern and obtaining a deep understanding of the performance behaviour of interconnection networks,this paper presents an analytical model to investigate the message latency in adaptive-routed wormhole-switched torus networks where there exists hot-spot nodes and the message arrivals follow a batch arrival process.Each generated message has a given probability to be directed to the hot-spot node.The average degree of virtual channel multiplexing is computed by the GE/G/1/V queueing system with finite buffer capacity.We compare analytical results of message latency with those obtained through the simulation experiments in order to validate the accuracy of the derived model.

  8. On the road toward a hot carrier solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, P. C.; Fields, J. D.; Collins, R. T.

    2015-09-01

    We suggest a new paradigm for solar cells that uses a nanostructured crystalline collector (silicon) in an amorphous absorber matrix (hydrogenated amorphous silicon). Previously amorphous absorbers have received no serious consideration because of their low carrier mobilities. Specifically, we demonstrate that carriers generated in the amorphous region are transported out of this region before losing their energy to heat. This result establishes the possibility of using a wide range of nanostructured amorphous matrices to dramatically increase the efficiencies of solar cells. The use of an amorphous absorber provides a highly desirable and flexible approach to producing low-cost, hot carrier solar cells. Since amorphous materials can be grown over a much wider composition space than crystalline materials, this surprising result greatly broadens the absorbing materials that can be used to dramatically increase the efficiencies of solar cells.

  9. Analytical strategies for studying stem cell metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Arnold, James M.; Choi, William T.; Sreekumar, Arun; Maletić-Savatić, Mirjana

    2015-01-01

    Owing to their capacity for self-renewal and pluripotency, stem cells possess untold potential for revolutionizing the field of regenerative medicine through the development of novel therapeutic strategies for treating cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. Central to developing these strategies is improving our understanding of biological mechanisms responsible for governing stem cell fate and self-renewal. Increasing attention is being given to the significance of ...

  10. Upgrades of Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory hot cell facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory operates the 327 Postirradiation Testing Laboratory (PITL) and the 324 Shielded Materials Facility (SMF). These hot cell facilities provide diverse capabilities for the postirradiation examination and testing of irradiated reactor fuels and materials. The primary function of these facilities is to determine failure mechanisms and effects of irradiation on physical and mechanical properties of reactor components. The purpose of this paper is to review major equipment and facility upgrades that enhance customer satisfaction and broaden the engineering capabilities for more diversified programs. These facility and system upgrades are providing higher quality remote nondestructive and destructive examination services with increased productivity, operator comfort, and customer satisfaction

  11. Computer control of ET-RR-1 hot cell manipulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The hot cell designed for remote handling of radioactive materials are, in effect, integral systems of safety devices for attaining adequate radiological protection for the operating personnel. Their operation involve potential hazards that are sometimes of great magnitude. The effect of an incident or accident could thus be fatal. some of these incident are due to the collision of the manipulator slave side with the radioactive objectives. Therefore in order to minimize the probability of such type of incidents, the movement of the manipulators is suggested (in the present investigation) to be kept under computer control. A model have been developed to control the movement of the hot cell manipulators in the slave side for Egypt first research reactor ET-RR-1, specially in the hidden sectors. The model is based on the use of a microprocessor and some accessories fixed to the manipulators slave side in a special manner such that it prevents the manipulator from colliding with radioactive objects. This is achieved by a signal transmitted to a specially designed brake which controls the movement of the upper arm of the manipulator master side. The hardware design of the model as well as the software are presented in details

  12. Surveillance and radiological protection in the Hot Cell laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Hot Cells Laboratory (LCC) located in the National Institute of Nuclear Research are an installation that was designed for the management at distance of 10,000 Curies of Co-60 or other radioactive materials with different values in activity. The management of such materials in the installation, implies to analyze and to determine the doses that the POE will receive as well as the implementation of protection measures and appropriate radiological safety so that is completed the specified by the ALARA concept. In this work it is carried out an evaluation of the doses to receive for the POE when managing radionuclides with maximum activities that can be allowed in function of the current conditions of the cells and an evaluation of results is made with the program of surveillance and radiological protection implemented for the development of the works that carried out in the installation. (Author)

  13. Training the next generation analyst using red cell analytics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Meghan N.; Graham, Jacob L.

    2016-05-01

    We have seen significant change in the study and practice of human reasoning in recent years from both a theoretical and methodological perspective. Ubiquitous communication coupled with advances in computing and a plethora of analytic support tools have created a push for instantaneous reporting and analysis. This notion is particularly prevalent in law enforcement, emergency services and the intelligence community (IC), where commanders (and their civilian leadership) expect not only a birds' eye view of operations as they occur, but a play-by-play analysis of operational effectiveness. This paper explores the use of Red Cell Analytics (RCA) as pedagogy to train the next-gen analyst. A group of Penn State students in the College of Information Sciences and Technology at the University Park campus of The Pennsylvania State University have been practicing Red Team Analysis since 2008. RCA draws heavily from the military application of the same concept, except student RCA problems are typically on non-military in nature. RCA students utilize a suite of analytic tools and methods to explore and develop red-cell tactics, techniques and procedures (TTPs), and apply their tradecraft across a broad threat spectrum, from student-life issues to threats to national security. The strength of RCA is not always realized by the solution but by the exploration of the analytic pathway. This paper describes the concept and use of red cell analytics to teach and promote the use of structured analytic techniques, analytic writing and critical thinking in the area of security and risk and intelligence training.

  14. The Present Status of Hot Cell Designs at NECSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radioisotope production group of the South African Nuclear Energy Corporation has manufactured a range of radioisotopes since 1967. A 20 MW nuclear reactor is used for radioisotope production. It has modern hot cells and an efficient waste handling facility. There are two sections dealing with radioisotope and radiopharmaceutical production and quality control. The Radiochemical Section produces radioactive bulk products such as 99Mo, 32P, 35S and 131I, whereas another section manufactures final products such as 131I diagnostic and therapeutic capsules, 192Ir radiography sources, 137Cs and 60Co sealed sources, 85Kr glass tubes for smoke detectors. The 99Mo-99Tc generators produced from 99Mo and the complimentary kits are largely used as radiopharmaceuticals for nuclear medicine. (author)

  15. Hot wire deposited hydrogenated amorphous silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahan, A.H.; Iwaniczko, E.; Nelson, B.P.; Reedy, R.C. Jr.; Crandall, R.S. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1996-05-01

    This paper details the results of a study in which low H content, high deposition rate hot wire (HW) deposited amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) has been incorporated into a substrate solar cell. The authors find that the treatment of the top surface of the HW i layer while it is being cooled from its high deposition temperature is crucial to device performance. They present data concerning these surface treatments, and correlate these treatments with Schottky device performance. The authors also present first generation HW n-i-p solar cell efficiency data, where a glow discharge (GD) {mu}c-Si(p) layer was added to complete the partial devices. No light trapping layer was used to increase the device Jsc. Their preliminary investigations have yielded efficiencies of up to 6.8% for a cell with a 4000 {Angstrom} thick HW i-layer, which degrade less than 10% after a 900 hour light soak. The authors suggest avenues for further improvement of their devices.

  16. Detecting Secreted Analytes from Immune Cells: An Overview of Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, Kelly A; Hui, Caitlyn; Krawczyk, Connie M

    2016-01-01

    The tumor microenvironment is largely shaped by secreted factors and infiltrating immune cells and the nature of this environment can profoundly influence tumor growth and progression. As such, there is an increasing need to identify and quantify secreted factors by tumor cells, tumor-associated cells, and infiltrating immune cells. To meet this need, the dynamic range of immunoassays such as ELISAs and ELISpots have been improved and the scope of reagents commercially available has been expanded. In addition, new bead-based and membrane-based screening arrays have been developed to allow for the simultaneous detection of multiple analytes in one sample. Similarly, the optimization of intracellular staining for flow cytometry now allows for the quantitation of multiple cytokines from either a purified cell population or a complex mixed cell suspension. Herein, we review the rapidly evolving technologies that are currently available to detect secreted analytes. Emphasis is placed on discussing the advantages and disadvantages of these assays and their applications. PMID:27581018

  17. Characterization report for Building 301 Hot Cell Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    During the period from October, 1997, through March, 1998, ANL-E Health Physics conducted a pre-D and D characterization of Building 301, referred to as the Hot Cell Facility. While primary emphasis was placed on radiological evaluation, the presence of non-nuclear hazardous and toxic material was also included in the scope of the characterization. This is one of the early buildings on the ANL-E site, and was heavily used in the 1950`s and 1960`s for various nuclear reaction and reactor design studies. Some degree of cleanup and contamination fixation was done in the 1970`s, so that the building could be used with a minimum of risk of personnel contamination. Work records are largely nonexistent for the early history of the building, so that any assumptions about extent and type of contamination had to be kept very open in the survey planning process. The primary contaminant was found to be painted-over Cs-137 embedded in the concrete floors, although a variety of other nuclides consistent with the work said to have been performed were found in smaller quantities. Due to leaks and drips through the floor, a relatively modest amount of soil contamination was found in the service trench under the building, not penetrating deeply. Two contaminated, disconnected drain lines leaving the building could not be traced by site records, and remain a problem for remediation. The D and D Characterization Plan was fulfilled.

  18. Solid oxide fuel cell systems with hot zones having improved reactant distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poshusta, Joseph C.; Booten, Charles W.; Martin, Jerry L.

    2016-05-17

    A Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) system having a hot zone with a center cathode air feed tube for improved reactant distribution, a CPOX reactor attached at the anode feed end of the hot zone with a tail gas combustor at the opposing end for more uniform heat distribution, and a counter-flow heat exchanger for efficient heat retention.

  19. Consideration on the analytical method for heat anomalies based on distribution of heat discharge by hot springs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Distribution of heat discharge by hot spring is a valuable feature for evaluating geologic repository site because it reflects both underground temperature and underground hydrologic conditions. Considering preparatory procedure of updating the manner of heat discharge calculation, several points have been noted. The following two points are particularly significant. For the time being naturally discharging hot springs occupy about 30 percent of the total amount of hot spring water in Japan. Therefore (1) we must evaluate natural discharge and pumped hot water separately. Recently developed hot springs, especially those by deep wells, are likely to be suffered from changes in their condition such as decrease in water temperature and/or production rate in a shot period after development. Therefore (2) hot spring data should be carefully treated for evaluating heat discharge by them. (author)

  20. Robot Work Platform for Large Hot Cell Deactivation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BITTEN, E.J.

    2000-05-01

    The 324 Building, located at the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington, is being deactivated to meet state and federal cleanup commitments. The facility is currently in its third year of a nine-year project to complete deactivation and closure for long-term surveillance and maintenance. The 324 building contains large hot cells that were used for high-radiation, high-contamination chemical process development and demonstrations. A major obstacle for the 324 deactivation project is the inability to effectively perform deactivation tasks within highly radioactive, contaminated environments. Current strategies use inefficient, resource intensive technologies that significantly impact the cost and schedule for deactivation. To meet mandated cleanup commitments, there is a need to deploy rapid, more efficient remote/robot technologies to minimize worker exposure, accelerate work tasks, and eliminate the need for multiple specialized tool design and procurement efforts. This paper describes the functions and performance requirements for a crane-deployed remote/robot Work Platform possessing full access capabilities. The remote/robot Work Platform will deploy commercially available off-the-shelf tools and end effectors to support Project cleanup goals and reduce overall project risk and cost. The intent of this system is to maximize the use of off-the-shelf technologies that minimize additional new, unproven, or novel designs. This paper further describes procurement strategy, the selection process, the selected technology, and the current status of the procurement and lessons learned. Funding, in part, has been provided by the US Department of Energy, Office of Science and Technology, Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus Area.

  1. Robot Work Platform for Large Hot Cell Deactivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 324 Building, located at the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington, is being deactivated to meet state and federal cleanup commitments. The facility is currently in its third year of a nine-year project to complete deactivation and closure for long-term surveillance and maintenance. The 324 building contains large hot cells that were used for high-radiation, high-contamination chemical process development and demonstrations. A major obstacle for the 324 deactivation project is the inability to effectively perform deactivation tasks within highly radioactive, contaminated environments. Current strategies use inefficient, resource intensive technologies that significantly impact the cost and schedule for deactivation. To meet mandated cleanup commitments, there is a need to deploy rapid, more efficient remote/robot technologies to minimize worker exposure, accelerate work tasks, and eliminate the need for multiple specialized tool design and procurement efforts. This paper describes the functions and performance requirements for a crane-deployed remote/robot Work Platform possessing full access capabilities. The remote/robot Work Platform will deploy commercially available off-the-shelf tools and end effectors to support Project cleanup goals and reduce overall project risk and cost. The intent of this system is to maximize the use of off-the-shelf technologies that minimize additional new, unproven, or novel designs. This paper further describes procurement strategy, the selection process, the selected technology, and the current status of the procurement and lessons learned. Funding, in part, has been provided by the US Department of Energy, Office of Science and Technology, Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus Area

  2. Conceptual design report of hot cell modification and process for fission Mo-99 production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jin Ho; Choung, W. M.; Lee, K. I.; Hwang, D. S.; Kim, Y. K.; Park, K. B.; Jung, Y. J.; Kim, D. S.; Park, Y. C

    2001-05-01

    In this conceptual design report, the basic data and design guides for detail design of fission Mo-99 production process and hot cell modification are included.The basic data and design guides for detail design of fission Mo-99 production process contains following contents. -design capacity, the basic process, process flow diagram, process material balance, process data. The basic data and design guides for modification of existing hot cell contains following contents. - plot plan of hot cell facility, the plan for shield reinforcement of hot cell, the plan for management and storage of high level liquid wastes, the plan of ventilation system, the plan for modification of auxiliary facilities. And also, the results of preliminary safety analysis(normal operation and accidents) and criticality analysis are included in this conceptual design report.

  3. Shielding calculation of a hot cell for the processing of fission products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A dose rate estimation is made for an operator of a lead wall, fission products processing hot cell, in a distance of 50 cm from the emission source, at Brazilian Institute of Nuclear Engineering (IEN). (L.C.J.A.)

  4. DQO Summary Report for 324 and 327 Building Hot Cells D4 Project Waste Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T.A. Lee

    2006-02-06

    This data quality objective (DQO) summary report provides the results of the DQO process conducted for waste characterization activities for the 324 and 327 Building hot cells decommission, deactivate, decontaminate, and demolish activities. This DQO summary report addresses the systems and processes related to the hot cells, air locks, vaults, tanks, piping, basins, air plenums, air ducts, filters, an adjacent elements that have high dose rates, high contamination levels, and/or suspect transuranic waste, which will require nonstandard D4 techniques.

  5. Analytical study plan: Shielded Cells batch 1 campaign; Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive operations in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) will require that the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) perform analyses and special studies with actual Savannah River Site (SRS) high-level waste sludge. SRS Tank 42 and Tank 51 will comprise the first batch of sludge to be processed in the DWPF. Approximately 25 liters of sludge from each of these tanks will be characterized and processed in the Shielded Cells of SRTC. During the campaign, processes will include sludge characterization, sludge washing, rheology determination, mixing, hydrogen evolution, feed preparation, and vitrification of the waste. To complete the campaign, the glass will be characterized to determine its durability and crystallinity. This document describes the types of samples that will be produced, the sampling schedule and analyses required, and the methods for sample and analytical control

  6. A semi-analytical model for semiconductor solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, D.; Johnson, S. R.; Yu, S.-Q.; Wu, S.-N.; Zhang, Y.-H.

    2011-12-01

    A semi-analytical model is constructed for single- and multi-junction solar cells. This model incorporates the key performance aspects of practical devices, including nonradiative recombination, photon recycling within a given junction, spontaneous emission coupling between junctions, and non-step-like absorptance and emittance with below-bandgap tail absorption. Four typical planar structures with the combinations of a smooth/textured top surface and an absorbing/reflecting substrate (or backside surface) are investigated, through which the extracted power and four types of fundamental loss mechanisms, transmission, thermalization, spatial-relaxation, and recombination loss are analyzed for both single- and multi-junction solar cells. The below-bandgap tail absorption increases the short-circuit current but decreases the output and open-circuit voltage. Using a straightforward formulism this model provides the initial design parameters and the achievable efficiencies for both single- and multiple-junction solar cells over a wide range of material quality. The achievable efficiency limits calculated using the best reported materials and AM1.5 G one sun for GaAs and Si single-junction solar cells are, respectively, 27.4 and 21.1% for semiconductor slabs with a flat surface and a non-reflecting index-matched absorbing substrate, and 30.8 and 26.4% for semiconductor slabs with a textured surface and an ideal 100% reflecting backside surface. Two important design rules for both single- and multi-junction solar cells are established: i) the optimal junction thickness decreases and the optimal bandgap energy increases when nonradiative recombination increases; and ii) the optimal junction thickness increases and the optimal bandgap energy decreases for higher solar concentrations.

  7. Advanced Manufacturing Technologies (AMT): Additive Manufactured Hot Fire Planning and Testing in GRC Cell 32 Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fikes, John C.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this project is to hot fire test an additively manufactured thrust chamber assembly TCA (injector and thrust chamber). GRC will install the additively manufactured Inconel 625 injector, two additively manufactured (SLM) water cooled Cu-Cr thrust chamber barrels and one additively manufactured (SLM) water cooled Cu-Cr thrust chamber nozzle on the test stand in Cell 32 and perform hot fire testing of the integrated TCA.

  8. Preliminary safety analysis report for the Auxiliary Hot Cell Facility, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    OSCAR,DEBBY S.; WALKER,SHARON ANN; HUNTER,REGINA LEE; WALKER,CHERYL A.

    1999-12-01

    The Auxiliary Hot Cell Facility (AHCF) at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM) will be a Hazard Category 3 nuclear facility used to characterize, treat, and repackage radioactive and mixed material and waste for reuse, recycling, or ultimate disposal. A significant upgrade to a previous facility, the Temporary Hot Cell, will be implemented to perform this mission. The following major features will be added: a permanent shield wall; eight floor silos; new roof portals in the hot-cell roof; an upgraded ventilation system; and upgraded hot-cell jib crane; and video cameras to record operations and facilitate remote-handled operations. No safety-class systems, structures, and components will be present in the AHCF. There will be five safety-significant SSCs: hot cell structure, permanent shield wall, shield plugs, ventilation system, and HEPA filters. The type and quantity of radionuclides that could be located in the AHCF are defined primarily by SNL/NM's legacy materials, which include radioactive, transuranic, and mixed waste. The risk to the public or the environment presented by the AHCF is minor due to the inventory limitations of the Hazard Category 3 classification. Potential doses at the exclusion boundary are well below the evaluation guidelines of 25 rem. Potential for worker exposure is limited by the passive design features incorporated in the AHCF and by SNL's radiation protection program. There is no potential for exposure of the public to chemical hazards above the Emergency Response Protection Guidelines Level 2.

  9. Preliminary safety analysis report for the Auxiliary Hot Cell Facility, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Auxiliary Hot Cell Facility (AHCF) at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM) will be a Hazard Category 3 nuclear facility used to characterize, treat, and repackage radioactive and mixed material and waste for reuse, recycling, or ultimate disposal. A significant upgrade to a previous facility, the Temporary Hot Cell, will be implemented to perform this mission. The following major features will be added: a permanent shield wall; eight floor silos; new roof portals in the hot-cell roof; an upgraded ventilation system; and upgraded hot-cell jib crane; and video cameras to record operations and facilitate remote-handled operations. No safety-class systems, structures, and components will be present in the AHCF. There will be five safety-significant SSCs: hot cell structure, permanent shield wall, shield plugs, ventilation system, and HEPA filters. The type and quantity of radionuclides that could be located in the AHCF are defined primarily by SNL/NM's legacy materials, which include radioactive, transuranic, and mixed waste. The risk to the public or the environment presented by the AHCF is minor due to the inventory limitations of the Hazard Category 3 classification. Potential doses at the exclusion boundary are well below the evaluation guidelines of 25 rem. Potential for worker exposure is limited by the passive design features incorporated in the AHCF and by SNL's radiation protection program. There is no potential for exposure of the public to chemical hazards above the Emergency Response Protection Guidelines Level 2

  10. Characterization of organic photovoltaic cells in comparison with analytic simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koerner, Christian [Universitaet Wuerzburg (Germany). Experimentelle Physik VI; Universitaet Wuerzburg (Germany). Experimentelle Physik II; Holch, Florian; Schoell, Achim; Reinert, Friedrich [Universitaet Wuerzburg (Germany). Experimentelle Physik II; Deibel, Carsten; Dyakonov, Vladimir [Universitaet Wuerzburg (Germany). Experimentelle Physik VI

    2008-07-01

    Electronic devices based on organic semiconductors receive a growing interest in fundamental and application related research. One reason is that organic thin film photovoltaic cells promise to offer a cost- and resource-efficient fabrication. In order to achieve higher efficiencies it is indispensable to better understand the fundamental processes within the solar cell and at the interfaces, such as charge-carrier generation, separation and transport. The samples, composed of copper-phthalocyanine (CuPc) and C{sub 60} layers and sandwiched between an ITO-coated glass substrate and metal electrodes, are prepared via organic molecular beam deposition under clean and well defined conditions in ultra high vacuum. By in-situ measurements of the current-voltage characteristics, the influence of incident light power, temperature, and cathode material can be investigated in detail. The experimental results are discussed in comparison to an analytical simulation of the open-circuit voltage, in view of different models for the charge carrier injection at the electrodes.

  11. 324 and 325 Building hot cell cleanout program: Decontamination of C-Cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During FY 1989 the decontamination of C-Cell of Hanford's 324 Building was completed as part of the 324 and 325 Building Hot Cell Cleanout Program sponsored by the DOE Nuclear Energy's Surplus Facilities Management Program. The decontamination effort was completed using a series of remote and contact decontamination techniques. Initial radiation readings in C-Cell averaged 50 rad/hr and were reduced remotely to less than 200 mrad/hr using an alkaline foam cleaner followed by a 5000-psi water flush. Contact decontamination was then permissible using ultra high-pressure water, at 36,000 psi, further reducing the average radiation level in the cell to less than 86 mrem/hr. The approach used in decontaminating C-Cell resulted in a savings in radiation exposure of 87% and a cost savings of 39% compared to a hands-on procedure used in A-Cell, 324 Building in 1987. The radiation dose and the costs to achieve a 244-fold reduction in radiation contamination were 1.65 mrem per ft2 and $96 per ft2 of cell surface area. 14 figs., 4 tabs

  12. 324 and 325 Building hot cell cleanout program: Decontamination of C-Cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katayama, Y.B.; Holton, L.K. Jr.

    1989-10-01

    During FY 1989 the decontamination of C-Cell of Hanford's 324 Building was completed as part of the 324 and 325 Building Hot Cell Cleanout Program sponsored by the DOE Nuclear Energy's Surplus Facilities Management Program. The decontamination effort was completed using a series of remote and contact decontamination techniques. Initial radiation readings in C-Cell averaged 50 rad/hr and were reduced remotely to less than 200 mrad/hr using an alkaline foam cleaner followed by a 5000-psi water flush. Contact decontamination was then permissible using ultra high-pressure water, at 36,000 psi, further reducing the average radiation level in the cell to less than 86 mrem/hr. The approach used in decontaminating C-Cell resulted in a savings in radiation exposure of 87% and a cost savings of 39% compared to a hands-on procedure used in A-Cell, 324 Building in 1987. The radiation dose and the costs to achieve a 244-fold reduction in radiation contamination were 1.65 mrem per ft{sup 2} and $96 per ft{sup 2} of cell surface area. 14 figs., 4 tabs.

  13. Cell wall and lipid composition of Isosphaera pallida, a budding eubacterium from hot springs.

    OpenAIRE

    Giovannoni, S J; Godchaux, W; Schabtach, E; Castenholz, R W

    1987-01-01

    Isosphaera pallida is an unusual gliding, budding eubacterium recently isolated from North American hot springs. Electron micrographs of ultrathin sections revealed a cell wall atypical of eubacteria: two electrondense layers separated by an electron-transparent layer, with no evident peptidoglycan layer. Growth was not inhibited by penicillin. Cell walls were isolated from sheared cells by velocity sedimentation. The rigid-layer fraction, prepared from cell walls by treatment with boiling 10...

  14. Reversible electron-hole separation in a hot carrier solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linke, Heiner

    Hot-carrier solar cells are envisioned to utilize energy filtering to extract power from photogenerated electron-hole pairs before they thermalize with the lattice, and thus potentially offer higher power conversion efficiency compared to conventional, single absorber solar cells. The efficiency of hot-carrier solar cells can be expected to strongly depend on the details of the energy filtering process, a relationship which to date has not been satisfactorily explored. Here, we establish the conditions under which electron-hole separation in hot-carrier solar cells can occur reversibly, that is, at maximum energy conversion efficiency. We find that, under specific conditions, the energy conversion efficiency of a hot-carrier solar cell can exceed the Carnot limit set by the intra-device temperature gradient alone, due to the additional contribution of the quasi-Fermi level splitting in the absorber. To achieve this, we consider a highly selective energy filter such as a quantum dot embedded into a one-dimensional conductor. We also establish that the open-circuit voltage of a hot-carrier solar cell is not limited by the band gap of the absorber, due to the additional thermoelectric contribution to the voltage. Additionally, we find that a hot-carrier solar cell can be operated in reverse as a thermally driven solid-state light emitter. In addition this theoretical analysis, I will also report on first experimental results in a nanowire-based energy filter device. Ref: S Limpert, S Bremner, and H Linke, New J. Phys 17, 095004 (2015)

  15. ITER diagnostics: Maintenance and commissioning in the hot cell test bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, C.I. [ITER International Team, Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstrasse 2, 85748 Garching (Germany)]. E-mail: walkerc@itereu.de; Barnsley, R. [ITER International Team, Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstrasse 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Costley, A.E. [ITER International Team, Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstrasse 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Gottfried, R. [Framatome ANP, Paris (France); Haist, B. [Oxford Technologies, 7 Nuffield Way, Abingdon, Oxon (United Kingdom); Itami, K. [ITER Naka Joint Work Site, 801-1 Mukouyama, Naka-shi, Ibaraki-ken 311-0193 (Japan); Kondoh, T. [ITER Naka Joint Work Site, 801-1 Mukouyama, Naka-shi, Ibaraki-ken 311-0193 (Japan); Loesser, G.D. [PPPL, Princeton, NJ (United States); Palmer, J. [EFDA, Boltzmannstrasse 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Sugie, T. [ITER International Team, Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstrasse 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Tesini, A. [ITER International Team, Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstrasse 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Vayakis, G. [ITER International Team, Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstrasse 2, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2005-11-15

    In-vessel diagnostic equipment in ITER integrated in six equatorial and 12 upper ports, 16 divertor cassettes and five lower ports is designed to be removed in modules and then repaired, tested and commissioned in the same location at the ITER hot cell. The repair requirements and tests on these components are described along with design features that facilitate repair. The testing establishes the repair strategy, qualifies the refurbishment work and finally checks the mechanical and diagnostic function before the return of the modules. At the hot cell, a dummy port is provided for tests of mechanical and vacuum integrity as well as commissioning of the diagnostic equipment. The scope of the hot cell maintenance and commissioning activities is summarised and an overview of the integration of the diagnostic equipment is given.

  16. Remote maintenance for a new generation of hot cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For several years the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program (CFRP) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been developing facility concepts, designing specialized equipment, and testing prototypical hardware for reprocessing spent fuel from fast breeder reactors. The major facility conceptual design, the Hot Experimental Facility, was based on total remote maintenance to increase plant availability and to reduce radiation exposure. This thrust included designing modular equipment to facilitate maintenance and the manipulation necessary to accomplish maintenance. Included in the design repetoire was the development effort in advanced servomanipulator systems, a remote sampling system, television viewing, and a transporter for manipulator positioning. Demonstration of these developed items is currently ongoing, and the technology is available for applications where production operations in highly radioactive environments are required

  17. Installation of a Scanning Electron Microscope in the Hot Cell Laboratory of NRG Petten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2010 a new scanning electron microscope (SEM), equipped with several detectors (EDS, WDS and EBSD) is installed in a new hot cell. The SEM is modified for use in a radioactive environment. Therefore the irradiation sensitive parts are removed or protected. In addition changes have been made to the SEM to allow remote handling and to allow maintenance of the important parts. This paper describes the new facility at the NRG Hot Cell Laboratories and gives some examples of the first microscopy results. (author)

  18. Spin-polarized lithium diffusion in a glass hot-vapor cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Kiyoshi

    2016-08-01

    We report diffusion coefficients of optically pumped lithium atoms in helium buffer gas. The free-induction decay and the spin-echo signals of ground-state atoms were optically detected in an external magnetic field with the addition of field gradient. Lithium hot vapor was produced in a borosilicate-glass cell at a temperature between 290 and 360°C. The simple setup using the glass cells enabled lithium atomic spectroscopy in a similar way to other alkali-metal atoms and study of the collisional properties of lithium atoms in a hot-vapor phase.

  19. A microelectrochemical scanning flow cell with downstream analytics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: → A flow type scanning droplet cell with in situ detection via UV-vis to investigate corrosion was constructed. → Dependency of OCP of Zn on pH between 6.6 and 9.0 was studied with passive active transition between pH 7.1 and 7.4. → Zinc concentration profiles revealed a steady etching process that is diffusion controlled at all pH values → Sulfate ions interfere with the passivity of zinc and increase the etching rate, they also influence the pitting potential. - Abstract: The combination of a capillary based microelectrochemical flow cell system and downstream UV-vis analytics allows obtaining synchronized electrochemical and spectroscopic data in a fully automated mode. This method combination can be generally applied to microelectrochemical studies in which an electrochemical species is released or consumed during the electrochemical reaction. For the example of pure zinc surfaces, the characterization of the integrated spectroscopic system is presented with a Zn2+ detection limit below 0.1 μmol l-1 using Zincon as complexing agent. A parameter screening of the effect of pH in the range of 6.6-9.0 in borate buffer reveals a linear increase in zinc dissolution with proton concentration but a distinct step in the open circuit potential from the active state (around -700 mV SHE, pH 6.6-7.1) to the passive state (around -300 mV SHE, pH 7.4-9.0) indicating the formation of a closed passive layer. This mechanism is strongly influenced by sulfate anions which increase the dissolution rate of the passive film and promote the active state as monitored by the dissolution profile and OCP (open circuit potential) values. Within the scope of this parameter variation, the congruency between OCP transients, potentiodynamic sweeps and time resolved dissolution profiles is discussed.

  20. Development of analytical methods relating to aerosol and fission product release from hot and boiling sodium pools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analytical methods are described for (a) sodium; (b) the following anions of sodium aerosols: OH-, CO2- and HCO3-; (c) fission products Cs and Sr. For sodium, the ion selective electrode was used. The anions were determined by a titration method using phenolphthalein and methyl orange as indicators. Atomic absorption spectroscopy was used for Cs and Sr. (U.K.)

  1. The PLUTO reactor at Harwell, U.K. and ancillary hot cell facilities. Information sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Technical information is given on the PLUTO reactor and associated hot cell facilities, with the main emphasis on experimental irradiation facilities and specialized irradiation devices (loops and capsules). The information is presented in the form of five information sheets under the headings; main characteristics of the reactor; utilization and specialization of the reactor; experimental facilities; neutron spectra; main characteristics of specialized irradiation devices

  2. Mechanical characterisation of irradiated RPV materials by hot cell investigations to ensure RPV integrity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The contribution gives an exemplary illustration of how to assess material characteristics after irradiation for the PWR power station GKN I and the BWR power station KKP1. This necessitates detailed mechanical technological investigations of test samples in so-called hot cells, which are evaluated according to current concepts according to KTA 3202. (orig.)

  3. The hot cell laboratories for material investigations of the Institute for Safety Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viehrig, H.W.

    1998-10-01

    Special facilities for handling and testing of irradiated specimens are necessary, to perform the investigation of activated material. The Institute for Safety Research has two hot cell laboratories: - the preparation laboratory and - the materials testing laboratory. This report is intended to give an overview of the available facilities and developed techniques in the laboratories. (orig.)

  4. Plant cell nucleolus as a hot spot for iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roschzttardtz, Hannetz; Grillet, Louis; Isaure, Marie-Pierre; Conéjéro, Geneviève; Ortega, Richard; Curie, Catherine; Mari, Stéphane

    2011-08-12

    Many central metabolic processes require iron as a cofactor and take place in specific subcellular compartments such as the mitochondrion or the chloroplast. Proper iron allocation in the different organelles is thus critical to maintain cell function and integrity. To study the dynamics of iron distribution in plant cells, we have sought to identify the different intracellular iron pools by combining three complementary imaging approaches, histochemistry, micro particle-induced x-ray emission, and synchrotron radiation micro X-ray fluorescence. Pea (Pisum sativum) embryo was used as a model in this study because of its large cell size and high iron content. Histochemical staining with ferrocyanide and diaminobenzidine (Perls/diaminobenzidine) strongly labeled a unique structure in each cell, which co-labeled with the DNA fluorescent stain DAPI, thus corresponding to the nucleus. The unexpected presence of iron in the nucleus was confirmed by elemental imaging using micro particle-induced x-ray emission. X-ray fluorescence on cryo-sectioned embryos further established that, quantitatively, the iron concentration found in the nucleus was higher than in the expected iron-rich organelles such as plastids or vacuoles. Moreover, within the nucleus, iron was particularly accumulated in a subcompartment that was identified as the nucleolus as it was shown to transiently disassemble during cell division. Taken together, our data uncover an as yet unidentified although abundant iron pool in the cell, which is located in the nuclei of healthy, actively dividing plant tissues. This result paves the way for the discovery of a novel cellular function for iron related to nucleus/nucleolus-associated processes.

  5. Optoelectronic characterization of carrier extraction in a hot carrier photovoltaic cell structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimmock, James A. R.; Kauer, Matthias; Smith, Katherine; Liu, Huiyun; Stavrinou, Paul N.; Ekins-Daukes, Nicholas J.

    2016-07-01

    A hot carrier photovoltaic cell requires extraction of electrons on a timescale faster than they can lose energy to the lattice. We optically and optoelectronically characterize two resonant tunneling structures, showing their compatability with hot carrier photovoltaic operation, demonstrating structural and carrier extraction properties necessary for such a device. In particular we use time resolved and temperature dependent photoluminescence to determine extraction timescales and energy levels in the structures and demonstrate fast carrier extraction by tunneling. We also show that such devices are capable of extracting photo-generated electrons at high carrier densities, with an open circuit voltage in excess of 1 V.

  6. Incorporating photon recycling into the analytical drift-diffusion model of high efficiency solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The analytical drift-diffusion formalism is able to accurately simulate a wide range of solar cell architectures and was recently extended to include those with back surface reflectors. However, as solar cells approach the limits of material quality, photon recycling effects become increasingly important in predicting the behavior of these cells. In particular, the minority carrier diffusion length is significantly affected by the photon recycling, with consequences for the solar cell performance. In this paper, we outline an approach to account for photon recycling in the analytical Hovel model and compare analytical model predictions to GaAs-based experimental devices operating close to the fundamental efficiency limit

  7. Electron-phonon energy transfer in hot-carrier solar cells

    OpenAIRE

    Luque López, Antonio; Martí Vega, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    Hot-carrier solar cells may yield very high efficiency if the heat transfer from electrons to phonons is low enough. In this paper we calculate this heat transfer for the two inelastic mechanisms known to limit the electric conductivity: the multi-valley scattering in non-polar semiconductors and the coupling of electrons to longitudinal optical phonons in polar semiconductors. Heat transfer is ruled by matrix elements deduced from electric conductivity measurements. The cell power extracted ...

  8. Analytical cell adhesion chromatography reveals impaired persistence of metastatic cell rolling adhesion to P-selectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jaeho; Edwards, Erin E; McClatchey, P Mason; Thomas, Susan N

    2015-10-15

    Selectins facilitate the recruitment of circulating cells from the bloodstream by mediating rolling adhesion, which initiates the cell-cell signaling that directs extravasation into surrounding tissues. To measure the relative efficiency of cell adhesion in shear flow for in vitro drug screening, we designed and implemented a microfluidic-based analytical cell adhesion chromatography system. The juxtaposition of instantaneous rolling velocities with elution times revealed that human metastatic cancer cells, but not human leukocytes, had a reduced capacity to sustain rolling adhesion with P-selectin. We define a new parameter, termed adhesion persistence, which is conceptually similar to migration persistence in the context of chemotaxis, but instead describes the capacity of cells to resist the influence of shear flow and sustain rolling interactions with an adhesive substrate that might modulate the probability of extravasation. Among cell types assayed, adhesion persistence to P-selectin was specifically reduced in metastatic but not leukocyte-like cells in response to a low dose of heparin. In conclusion, we demonstrate this as an effective methodology to identify selectin adhesion antagonist doses that modulate homing cell adhesion and engraftment in a cell-subtype-selective manner.

  9. New electron beam facility for irradiated plasma facing materials testing in hot cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakamoto, N.; Kawamura, H. [Oarai Research Establishment, Ibaraki-ken (Japan); Akiba, M. [Naka Research Establishment, Ibaraki-ken (Japan)

    1995-09-01

    Since plasma facing components such as the first wall and the divertor for the next step fusion reactors are exposed to high heat loads and high energy neutron flux generated by the plasma, it is urgent to develop of plasma facing components which can resist these. Then, we have established electron beam heat facility ({open_quotes}OHBIS{close_quotes}, Oarai Hot-cell electron Beam Irradiating System) at a hot cell in JMTR (Japan Materials Testing Reactor) hot laboratory in order to estimate thermal shock resistivity of plasma facing materials and heat removal capabilities of divertor elements under steady state heating. In this facility, irradiated plasma facing materials (beryllium, carbon based materials and so on) and divertor elements can be treated. This facility consists of an electron beam unit with the maximum beam power of 50kW and the vacuum vessel. The acceleration voltage and the maximum beam current are 30kV (constant) and 1.7A, respectively. The loading time of electron beam is more than 0.1ms. The shape of vacuum vessel is cylindrical, and the mainly dimensions are 500mm in inner diameter, 1000mm in height. The ultimate vacuum of this vessel is 1 x 10{sup -4}Pa. At present, the facility for thermal shock test has been established in a hot cell. And performance estimation on the electron beam is being conducted. Presently, the devices for heat loading tests under steady state will be added to this facility.

  10. Experimental verification of tailor welded joining partners for hot stamping and analytical modeling of TWBs rheological constitutive in austenitic state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Bingtao, E-mail: tbtsh@hotmail.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shandong Jianzhu University, Shandong, Jinan 250101 (China); State Key Laboratory of Advanced Design and Manufacturing for Vehicle Body, Hunan University, Hunan, Changsha 410082 (China); Yuan, Zhengjun; Cheng, Gang [School of Mechanical and Electronic Engineering, Shandong Jianzhu University, Jinan 250101 (China); Huang, Lili; Zheng, Wei [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shandong Jianzhu University, Shandong, Jinan 250101 (China); Xie, Hui [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Design and Manufacturing for Vehicle Body, Hunan University, Hunan, Changsha 410082 (China)

    2013-11-15

    Hot stamping of quenchable ultra high strength steels currently represents a standard forming technology in the automotive industry for the manufacture of safety and crash relevant components. Recently, hot stamping of Tailor-Welded Blanks (TWBs) is proposed to meet the environmental and safety requirements by supplying car structural body components with functionally optimized and tailored mechanical properties. In this paper, an appropriate partner material for the quenchenable boron steel B1500HS based on the phase transformation and deformation behavior under process relevant conditions is determined. It is generally accepted that the mechanical properties for joint partner after quenching process should meet the following requirements. The value of yield strength (YS) should be between 350 and 500 MPa. The ultimate tensile strength (UTS) should be within the limits of 500–650 MPa, and the total elongation (TEL) until rupture should be higher than 13%. Two kinds of High Strength Low Alloy (HSLA) cold rolled steels B340LA and B410LA are chosen for verification of which one is appropriate as joint partner. Microhardness is measured and metallographic is investigated on different base materials and corresponding weld seams. It is pointed out that the B340LA steel is an appropriate joint partner with ideal thermal and mechanical properties. An optimized Arrhenius constitutive law is implemented to improve the characterization and description of the mechanical properties of the base and joint partner, as well as the weld seam in austenitic state. The comparisons with simplified Hensel–Spittel constitutive model show the optimized Arrhenius constitutive law describes the experimental data fairly well.

  11. 324 and 325 Building Hot Cell Cleanout Program: Air lock cover block refurbishment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The high-density concrete cover blocks shielding the pipe trench in the hot-cell air lock of the 324 Building Radiochemical Engineering Cells had accumulated fixed radioactivity ranging from 1100 to 22, 000 mrad/hr. A corresponding increase in the radiation exposure to personnel entering the air lock, together with ALARA concerns, led to the removal of the contaminated concrete surface with a hydraulic spaller and the emplacement of a stainless steel covering over a layer of grout. The resultant saving in radiation exposure is estimated to be 7200 mrad for personnel completing burial box runs for the 324 and 325 Building Hot Cell Cleanout Program. Radiation exposure to all staff members entering the air lock is now at least 50% lower. 3 refs., 22 figs., 1 tab

  12. Analyticity of Transverse Polarization Tensor in the Normal Phase of hot QED and Gauge/Gravity Duality

    CERN Document Server

    Yin, Lei; Lee, Ting Kou; Hou, Defu

    2016-01-01

    We explore the momentum analyticity of the static transverse polarization tensor of a 2+1 dimensional holographic superconductor in its normal phase with a nonzero chemical potential, aiming at finding the holographic counterpart of the singularities underlying the Friedel-like oscillations of an ordinary field theory. We prove that the polarization tensor is a meromorphic function with an infinite number of poles located on the complex momentum plane off real axis. With the aid of the WKB approximation these poles are found to lies asymptotically along two straight lines parallel to the imaginary axis for a large momentum magnitude. The similarity between the holographic Green's function and that of an weakly coupled ordinary field theory (e.g., 2+1 dimensional QED) regarding the location of the momentum singularities offers further support to the validity of the gauge/gravity duality.

  13. Development of nondestructive techniques for fuel cladding evaluation in hot cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaeppinen, T.; Sandlin, S. (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland))

    2010-05-15

    In nuclear light water reactors (LWR), an effective heat transfer from the fuel through the fuel cladding to the water in the reactor is essential. Furthermore, the cladding should prevent the radionuclides in the fuel from contaminating the reactor circuit. During service the cladding suffers from damage by corrosion, microstructural changes, hydrogen pick-up, creep etc. Regular nondestructive evaluation in a hot cell is a relatively new complement to laborious destructive evaluation of in-service degradation of irradiated material. In this work the possibilities of laser ultrasonics and eddy current techniques in hot cells are presented. The main emphasis is on oxide thickness measurements and on detection of cracks and delaminations for oxide layers of tubular or planar fuel cladding materials. The detectability of hydrogen concentration in the cladding wall is also discussed. (orig.)

  14. Reliable Wireless Data Acquisition and Control Techniques within Nuclear Hot Cell Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtz, J.L.; Tulenko, J.

    2000-09-20

    On this NEER project the University of Florida has investigated and applied advanced communications techniques to address data acquisition and control problems within the Fuel Conditioning Facility (FCF) of Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-W) in Idaho Falls. The goals of this project have been to investigate and apply wireless communications techniques to solve the problem of communicating with and controlling equipment and systems within a nuclear hot cell facility with its attendant high radiation levels. Different wireless techniques, including radio frequency, infrared and power line communications were reviewed. For each technique, the challenges of radiation-hardened implementation were addressed. In addition, it has been a project goal to achieve the highest level of system reliability to ensure safe nuclear operations. Achievement of these goals would allow the eventual elimination of through-the-wall, hardwired cabling that is currently employed in the hot cell, along wit h all of the attendant problems that limit measurement mobility and flexibility.

  15. Radiological assessment in case of an incident at the hot cells clean-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragolici Cristian A.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The clean-up and decontamination of the hot cells will be performed in the second phase of the WWR-S research reactor decommissioning. Identification of possible incidents or accidents is the key element in radiological assessment and prevention. As major incident it was considered a fire burst that occurred during the progress of the clean-up operations. The postulated incident has, as a consequence, thick smoke generation from the burned radioactive material and the dispersion of this material in the environment through the technological ventilation system and the evacuation chimney. From the performed analysis it can be seen that in the case of an incident to the reactor hot cells, an operator engaged in intervention operations could take an effective dose of 5.29 Sv per event, coming from both external and internal exposure. Such an incident, if it happens, would be classified of level 3 on the INES scale.

  16. Materials testing at the hot cell laboratory of the Institute for Safety Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The hot cell laboratories for handling and testing of irradiated specimens were firstly introduced in the annual report 1997. The following equipments are installed in the 'Shielded Containment' of the materials testing laboratory. Irradiated specimens must be tested and handled remotely, i.e. automatically by manipulators. Any direct action by hand is impossible as routine and only very restricted in case of uncommon events. Therefore, the handling, testing and measuring systems must work practicably, correctly and reliably. To prove this, a comprehensive test programme was accomplished before starting testing of irradiated specimens. In detail, the programme had to show that: - All systems work satisfactorily under the hot cell conditions, - the testing procedures fulfill the recommendations of the test specifications according to the standards, and - the results measured are accurate. (orig.)

  17. A study on decontamination and decommissioning of experimental DUPIC equipment at PIEF 9405 hot cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The characterization experiment for powder and sintered fuel had been performed using about 1 kg-U spent PWR fuel at No. 9405 hot-cell in PIEF(Post Irradiated Experiment Facility) since early in 1999. Currently, The experiments in PIEF have been completed. It is supposed to dismantle and decontaminate the installed equipment by the end of year 2000. Since all of DUPIC equipment in hot-cell are contaminated by high radioactive material, the decontamination and dismantlement must br performed remotely by M/S manipulator. During the radioactive waste packing and transportation, the reduction method of radiation exposure has to be considered. Firstly, This report describes the basic plan for dismantlement/decontamination of the characterization equipment(power and sintered fuel). And methods of measurement/packing/ transportation, method of dismantlement/decontamination of the experimental apparatus and the reduction method of radiation dose exposure, etc. are explained in order

  18. AECL hot-cell facilities and post-irradiation examination services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents an overview of the post-irradiation examination (PIE) services available at AECL's hot-cell facilities (HCF). The HCFs are used primarily to provide PIE support for operating CANDU power reactors in Canada and abroad, and for the examination of experimental fuel bundles and core components irradiated in research reactors at the Chalk River Laboratories (CRL) and off-shore. A variety of examinations and analyses are performed ranging from non-destructive visual and dimensional inspections to detailed optical and scanning electron microscopic examinations. Several hot cells are dedicated to mechanical property testing of structural materials and to determine the fitness-for-service of reactor core components. Facility upgrades and the development of innovative examination techniques continue to improve AECL's PIE capabilities. (author)

  19. A Preliminary Study on the Radiation dose Distribution in the Pyroprocess Hot Cell Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chankyu; Kim, Myung Soo; Kim, Giyoon; Lee, Eunjoong; Lee, Jeong Tae; Cho, Gyuseong [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Seongkyu; Park, Sehwan [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Pyroprocessing is the promising technology for treatment of spent fuels. Because it is based on the collective recovery of TRU, it has an advantage in proliferation resistance compared to conventional aqueous processes. Development of pyroprocessing has positive effects to the public through reduction of the high-level radioactive waste and the effective use of energy resources. In Korea, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) has researched pyroprocessing since 1997. The engineering scale integrated inactive pyroprocess facility (PRIDE) was constructed and test operation has been performed. A study on the preliminary conceptual design and cost estimation for a larger-scale model facility is in progress. The safeguards are essential in the pyroprocessing facility for proliferation resistance. To establish the reliable safeguards, the preliminary studies on radiation resistance requirements, assessment of the safeguards system applicability, and shielding of the safeguards equipment are required. Therefore, first of all, the radiation flux and dose distribution in hot cell environment have to be studied. The previous studies focused on the neutron flux at the pyroprocessing however they are limited to the individual unit process. In this study, the flux and dose distribution of neutron and gamma-ray in the hot cell environment of the pilot pyroprocessing facility are investigated. Based on the simplified material flow of pyroprocess, the material distribution model is established. In this study, the radiation flux and dose distribution in the hot cell environment of the pilot-scale pyroprocessing facility model is investigated preliminarily by the MCNP6 simulation. Based on the established material flow model, the material composition at each stage is calculated and used for the simulation. The simple hot cell structure and process batch size were assumed based on the previous studies.

  20. Evaluation of modular robot system for maintenance tasks in hot cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pagala, Prithvi Sekhar, E-mail: ps.pagala@upm.es [Centre for Automation and Robotics UPM-CSIC (Spain); Ferre, Manuel, E-mail: m.ferre@upm.es [Centre for Automation and Robotics UPM-CSIC (Spain); Orona, Luis, E-mail: l.orona@gsi.de [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung (Germany)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: •Modular robot deployment inside hot cell for remote manipulation evaluated. •Flexible and adaptable system for variety of tasks presented. •Uses in large workspaces and evolving requirements shown. -- Abstract: This work assesses the use of a modular robot system to perform maintenance and inspection tasks such as, remote flexible inspection, manipulation and cooperation with deployed systems inside the hot cell. A flexible modular solution for the inclusion in maintenance operations is presented. The proposed heterogeneous modular robotic system is evaluated using simulations of the prototype across selected robot configuration to perform tasks. Results obtained show the advantages and ability of the modular robot to perform the necessary tasks as well as its ability to adapt and evolve depending on the need. The simulation test case inside hot cell shows modular robot configuration, a two modular arm to perform tele-operation tasks in the workspace and a wheeled platform for inspection collaborating to perform tasks. The advantage of using re-configurable modular robot over conventional robot platforms is shown.

  1. Evaluation of modular robot system for maintenance tasks in hot cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: •Modular robot deployment inside hot cell for remote manipulation evaluated. •Flexible and adaptable system for variety of tasks presented. •Uses in large workspaces and evolving requirements shown. -- Abstract: This work assesses the use of a modular robot system to perform maintenance and inspection tasks such as, remote flexible inspection, manipulation and cooperation with deployed systems inside the hot cell. A flexible modular solution for the inclusion in maintenance operations is presented. The proposed heterogeneous modular robotic system is evaluated using simulations of the prototype across selected robot configuration to perform tasks. Results obtained show the advantages and ability of the modular robot to perform the necessary tasks as well as its ability to adapt and evolve depending on the need. The simulation test case inside hot cell shows modular robot configuration, a two modular arm to perform tele-operation tasks in the workspace and a wheeled platform for inspection collaborating to perform tasks. The advantage of using re-configurable modular robot over conventional robot platforms is shown

  2. Conceptual design of the hot cell facility universal docking station at ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dammann, A., E-mail: alexis.dammann@iter.org [ITER Organization, CS 90 046, 13067 St Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Benchikhoune, M.; Friconneau, J.P.; Ivanov, V. [ITER Organization, CS 90 046, 13067 St Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Lemee, A. [SOGETI High Tech, 180 Rue Rene Descartes, 13851 Aix en Provence (France); Martins, J.P. [ITER Organization, CS 90 046, 13067 St Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Tamassy, G. [SOGETI High Tech, 180 Rue Rene Descartes, 13851 Aix en Provence (France)

    2011-10-15

    Between main shutdowns of the ITER machine, in-vessel components and Iter Remote Maintenance System (IRMS) are transferred between the Tokamak complex and the Hot Cell Facility using different types of sealed casks. Transfer Casks have different physical interfaces with the Vacuum Vessel, which need to be the same at the docking stations of the HCF. It means that in-vessel components and IRMS are cleaned in the same cells, which is in fact not convenient. Furthermore, logistic studies showed that the use rate of the cells is very inhomogeneous. In order to have dedicated cell for decontamination of Remote Handling tools, in order to increase the operability efficiency and to removes the hot cell docking operation from the critical path, the concept of a universal docking station has been investigated. Based on an existing design, the work was focused on a review of requirements, the re-design and the integration within the HCF layout. The universal docking station has been proposed and is now integrated in HCF design.

  3. Image analytic study of nuclear area in mantle cell lymphoma

    OpenAIRE

    Baek, Taehwa; Huh, Jooryung; Kwak, Hyoungjong; Park, Meeja; Lee, Hyekyung

    2010-01-01

    Background Malignant lymphomas are classified on the basis of morphology, immunohistochemistry, and genetic and molecular biological features. Morphology is considered the most important and basic feature. Lymphomas can be classified as small, medium, or large depending on the cell size, but this criterion tends to be rather subjective. The aim of this study was to investigate the usefulness of an objective approach based on quantitative measurements. Methods Twenty specimens of mantle cell l...

  4. Improved analytical current voltage characteristics of a solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yli-Koski, M.; Tuominen, E.; Acerbis, M.; Sinkkonen, J.

    1997-12-31

    Application of the Green`s function method to the calculation of the current voltage characteristics of a pn-junction solar cell makes possible to extract more reliable and exact information about the behavior of the cell. With this method not only the minority carrier diffusion currents but also the drift currents in quasi- neutral regions of the solar cell can be taken into consideration. Furthermore, this approach is not limited to an exponentially decaying minority carrier generation function but is valid for any type of optical generation. In addition, the injection boundary condition is exploited with the result that not only the pn-diode current but also the current resulting from the optical generation depends on the voltage of the solar cell. Applying the method also gives the so called position dependent collection efficiency function which is defined as the probability that an electron-hole pair created at a certain point inside the solar cell will contribute to the current leaving the cell. (orig.) 15 refs.

  5. Phonon lifetime in SiSn and its suitability for hot-carrier solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levard, Hugo; Laribi, Sana; Guillemoles, Jean-François [Institute for Research and Development on Photovoltaic Energy (IRDEP), UMR 7174, EDF R and D/CNRS/Chimie ParisTech, 6 quai Watier, 78401 Chatou (France)

    2014-06-02

    We present a phononic and electronic study of SiSn in the zinc-blende phase. A detailed description of the longitudinal optical (LO) phonon decay in a three-phonon process is presented together with the corresponding lifetime. The necessity to go beyond the zone center phonon approximation in this case is highlighted as it reveals a steep dependence of the lifetime on the initial phonon wavenumber, which differs from usual semiconductors. The electronic band structure is calculated within the GW formalism and shows a small direct band gap. It is shown that the LO-phonon resulting from electron cooling has a lifetime four to eight orders of magnitude above all the known value in semiconductors for this process. We finally show the suitability of SiSn for hot-carrier solar cells, as it is endowed with ultra-slow cooling of hot carriers.

  6. Exposure management in a hot-cell decontamination and refurbishment campaign

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We developed a minicomputer-based system to provide rapid access to personnel dosimetry data during a campaign to decontaminate and refurbish a hot-cell at the Hot Fuel Examination Facility (HFEF) Complex. This system allows project management to estimate doses for future tasks, assess the effectiveness of decontamination and personnel protection techniques, and balance exposures among members of various skill groups. As the campaign progresses, projected total exposures can be minimized by tradeoffs between estimated doses during decontamination and estimated dose savings during the refurbishment phase. The effectiveness of various dose-reduction procedures can be compared on the basis of data from a few cell entries before more extensive routine operations are scheduled. Because the radiation fields vary significantly with location in the cell, we find that measurements of whole-body, skin, and extremity doses are more valuable than dose-rate information. Penetrating and skin radiation doses to personnel can be compared to administrative guidelines. This helps us to select the most effective combination of protective clothing. For example, leaded gauntlets reduce the dose rate to the workers' hands, but their use can increase the time required for some in-cell tasks. Hence, use of gauntlets can lead to higher whole-body and skin doses. The program is written for the HFEF Complex Harris/6 minimainframe computer with a disk-monitor operating system

  7. Process analytical technology tools for perfusion cell culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mercier, S.M.; Rouel, P.M.; Lebrun, P.M.; Diepenbroek, B.; Wijffels, R.H.; Streefland, M.

    2016-01-01

    During cell cultivation processes for the production of biopharmaceuticals, good process performance and good product quality can be ensured by online monitoring of critical process parameters (e.g. temperature, pH, or dissolved oxygen). These data can be used in real-time for process control, as su

  8. Analytical modelling and experimental studies of SIS tunnel solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheknane, Ali [Laboratoire de Valorisation des Energies Renouvelables et Environnements Agressifs, Universite Amar Telidji de Laghouat, BP 37G route de Ghardaia, Laghouat (03000) Algerie (Algeria)], E-mail: cheknanali@yahoo.com

    2009-06-07

    This paper presents an experimental and computational study of semiconductor-insulator-semiconductor (SIS) tunnel solar cells. A transparent and conductive film of thallium trioxide Tl{sub 2}O{sub 3} has been deposited by anodic oxidation onto an n-Si(1 0 0) face to realize the SIS tunnel solar cells based on Si/SiO{sub x}/Tl{sub 2}O{sub 3}. An efficiency of 8.77% has been obtained under an incident power density of 33 mW cm{sup -2} illumination condition. A PSPICE model is implemented. The calculated results show that the theoretical values are in good agreement with experimental data. Moreover, the simulation clearly demonstrates that the performance of the tested device can be significantly improved.

  9. Environmental Assessment for decontaminating and decommissioning the General Atomics Hot Cell Facility. Final [report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    This EA evaluates the proposed action to decontaminate and decommission GA`s hot cell facility in northern San Diego, CA. This facility has been used for DOE and commercial nuclear R&D for > 30 years. About 30,000 cubic feet of decontamination debris and up to 50,000 cubic feet of contaminated soil are to be removed. Low-level radioactive waste would be shipped for disposal. It was determined that the proposal does not constitute a major federal action significantly affecting the human environment according to NEPA; therefore, a finding of no significant impact is made, and an environmental impact statement is not required.

  10. Environmental Assessment for decontaminating and decommissioning the General Atomics Hot Cell Facility. Final [report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This EA evaluates the proposed action to decontaminate and decommission GA's hot cell facility in northern San Diego, CA. This facility has been used for DOE and commercial nuclear R ampersand D for > 30 years. About 30,000 cubic feet of decontamination debris and up to 50,000 cubic feet of contaminated soil are to be removed. Low-level radioactive waste would be shipped for disposal. It was determined that the proposal does not constitute a major federal action significantly affecting the human environment according to NEPA; therefore, a finding of no significant impact is made, and an environmental impact statement is not required

  11. Exposure management in a hot-cell decontamination and refurbishment campaign

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors developed a minicomputer-based system to provide rapid access to personnel dosemetry data during a campaign to decontaminate and refurbish a hot-cell at the Hot Fuel Examination Facility (HFEF) Complex. This system allows project management to estimate doses for future tasks, assess the effectiveness of decontamination and personnel protection techniques, and balance exposures among members of various skill groups. As the campaign progresses, projected total exposures can be minimized by tradeoffs between estimated doses during decontamination and estimated dose savings during the refurbishment phase. The effectiveness of various dose-reduction procedures can be compared on the basis of data from a few cell entries before more extensive routine operations are scheduled. Because the radiation fields vary significantly with location in the cell, they find that measurements of whole-body, skin, and extremity doses are more valuable than dose rate information. Penetrating and skin radiation doses to personnel can be compared to administrative guidelines. This helps select the most effective combination of protective clothing. The program is written for the HFEF Complex Harris/6 minimainframe computer with a disk-monitor operating system

  12. Hot-Wire Chemical Vapor Deposition Of Polycrystalline Silicon : From Gas Molecule To Solar Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Veenendaal, P. A. T. T.

    2002-10-01

    Although the effort to investigate the use of renewable energy sources, such as wind and solar energy, has increased, their contribution to the total energy consumption remains insignificant. The conversion of solar energy into electricity through solar cells is one of the most promising techniques, but the use of these cells is limited by the high cost of electricity. The major contributions to these costs are the material and manufacturing costs. Over the past decades, the development of silicon based thin film solar cells has received much attention, because the fabrication costs are low. A promising material for use in thin film solar cells is polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si:H). A relatively new technique to deposit poly-Si:H is Hot-Wire Chemical Vapor Deposition (Hot-Wire CVD), in which the reactant gases are catalytically decomposed at the surface of a hot filament, mainly tungsten and tantalum. The main advantages of Hot-Wire CVD over PE-CVD are absence of ion bombardment, high deposition rate, low equipment cost and high gas utilization. This thesis deals with the full spectrum of deposition, characterization and application of poly-Si:H thin films, i.e. from gas molecule to solar cell. Studies on the decomposition of silane on the filament showed that the process is catalytic of nature and that silane is decomposed into Si and 4H. The dominant gas phase reaction is the reaction of Si and H with silane, resulting in SiH3, Si2H6, Si3H6 and H2SiSiH2. The film growth precursors are Si, SiH3 and Si2H4. Also, XPS results on used tantalum and tungsten filaments are discussed. The position dependent measurements show larger silicon contents at the ends of the tungsten filament, as compared to the middle, due to a lower filament temperature. This effect is insignificant for a tantalum filament. Deposition time dependent measurements show an increase in silicon content of the tungsten filament with time, while the silicon content on the tantalum filament saturates

  13. Final cleansing of the PIVER prototype vitrification facility -Decontamination of the hot-cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dismantling of the PIVER pilot vitrification facility began in 1984. Under a first contract FI 1D - 0057 with the European Community, all the process equipment was removed from the cell and decontamination was undertaken. The residual in-cell irradiation level was less than 10 mGy.h-1 by the beginning of 1990, allowing brief access of operators to the cell for specific tasks. The cell cleanup work was completed in 1990; the telemanipulators were dismantled, and biological shielding was set up around a few remaining localized hot spots. By the end of the year, the in-cell dose rate had dropped to below 0.2 mGy.h-1. Research and development work on final decontamination processes was conducted from January to July 1991. Four already developed processes (electrolytic, shotpeening, cryogenic and gel) were tested under hostile radioactive conditions on a representative facility to assess their advantages and drawbacks, their effectiveness, and any points requiring special attention for large-scale application. The final decontamination operations were carried out on only a portion of the cell wall ; they did not significantly reduce the overall ambient irradiation level in the cell. (author). 1 ref., 6 figs., 2 tabs., 5 appendices

  14. Modeling of the anode side of a direct methanol fuel cell with analytical solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Mosquera, Martín A

    2010-01-01

    In this work, analytical solutions were derived (for any methanol oxidation reaction order) for the profiles of methanol concentration and proton current density by assuming diffusion mass transport mechanism, Tafel kinetics, and fast proton transport in the anodic catalyst layer of a direct methanol fuel cell. An expression for the Thiele modulus that allows to express the anodic overpotential as a function of the cell current, and kinetic and mass transfer parameters was obtained. For high cell current densities, it was found that the Thiele modulus ($\\phi^2$) varies quadratically with cell current density; yielding a simple correlation between anodic overpotential and cell current density. Analytical solutions were derived for the profiles of both local methanol concentration in the catalyst layer and local anodic current density in the catalyst layer. Under the assumptions of the model presented here, in general, the local methanol concentration in the catalyst layer cannot be expressed as an explicit fun...

  15. Fire safety assessment for a typical hot cell handling failed fuel sub-assembly. Contributed Paper MS-03

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a systematic study of fire hazard potential within a typical hot cell that handles Failed Fuel SubAssemblies (FSA) for cleaning purposes. A hot cell configuration is considered wherein ethyl alcohol is used as the cleaning agent. The potential for generation of ethyl alcohol vapors due to heat load of FSA, hydrogen generation during the cleaning process, possibility of vapour ignition and sustainability of fire within the cell are discussed. Detailed heat transfer and CFD studies were performed using computational tools developed in-house at SRI to address these issues. Based on this, several recommendations and suggestions are provided for safe operating conditions that could preclude the occurrence of fire within the hot cell. (author)

  16. Cell wall and lipid composition of Isosphaera pallida, a budding eubacterium from hot springs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovannoni, S J; Godchaux, W; Schabtach, E; Castenholz, R W

    1987-06-01

    Isosphaera pallida is an unusual gliding, budding eubacterium recently isolated from North American hot springs. Electron micrographs of ultrathin sections revealed a cell wall atypical of eubacteria: two electrondense layers separated by an electron-transparent layer, with no evident peptidoglycan layer. Growth was not inhibited by penicillin. Cell walls were isolated from sheared cells by velocity sedimentation. The rigid-layer fraction, prepared from cell walls by treatment with boiling 10% sodium dodecyl sulfate, was hydrolyzed and chemically analyzed for muramic acid. This essential component of peptidoglycan was absent. Amino acid analysis demonstrated a proteinaceous wall structure. Pitlike surface structures seen in negatively stained whole cells and thin sections were correlated with periodically spaced perforations of the rigid sacculus. An analysis of the lipid composition of I. pallida revealed typical ester-linked lipids with unbranched fatty acids, in contrast to the isoprenyl ether-linked lipids of archaebacteria, which also have proteinaceous cell walls. Capnoids, unusual sulfonolipids which are present in gliding bacteria of the Cytophaga-Flexibacter group, were absent. PMID:3584067

  17. Transcription-factor occupancy at HOT regions quantitatively predicts RNA polymerase recruitment in five human cell lines.

    KAUST Repository

    Foley, Joseph W

    2013-10-20

    BACKGROUND: High-occupancy target (HOT) regions are compact genome loci occupied by many different transcription factors (TFs). HOT regions were initially defined in invertebrate model organisms, and we here show that they are a ubiquitous feature of the human gene-regulation landscape. RESULTS: We identified HOT regions by a comprehensive analysis of ChIP-seq data from 96 DNA-associated proteins in 5 human cell lines. Most HOT regions co-localize with RNA polymerase II binding sites, but many are not near the promoters of annotated genes. At HOT promoters, TF occupancy is strongly predictive of transcription preinitiation complex recruitment and moderately predictive of initiating Pol II recruitment, but only weakly predictive of elongating Pol II and RNA transcript abundance. TF occupancy varies quantitatively within human HOT regions; we used this variation to discover novel associations between TFs. The sequence motif associated with any given TF\\'s direct DNA binding is somewhat predictive of its empirical occupancy, but a great deal of occupancy occurs at sites without the TF\\'s motif, implying indirect recruitment by another TF whose motif is present. CONCLUSIONS: Mammalian HOT regions are regulatory hubs that integrate the signals from diverse regulatory pathways to quantitatively tune the promoter for RNA polymerase II recruitment.

  18. Development of a pattern hot cell for production of injectable radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A controlled ambient should be established to the production/processing of materials susceptible to contamination, like injectable pharmaceuticals, in order to agree with normative and regulatory requirements. Considering medical but also toxic, radioactive and dangerous products, the ambient should work in special conditions to assure that the materials, which in same cases can be also volatile, do not escape to the external ambient, working in a selective, secure and controlled way. The conditions recommended by local and international rules in use, report an negative pressured ambient in relation to the adjacent areas. The technology related with the sizing of project to this kind of system is fully described in the literature, taking in account the rules that clearly describe the essential requirements. However, it is necessary to develop a controlled ambient for radiopharmaceutical production, in a way compatible with the concept of clean rooms and with the safety related to the manipulation of open radioactive wastes. In this work, some devices were created, methods and procedures were established making possible the classification of the ambient inside the hot cell, without physical barriers in the area, using ergonomic, flexible and practical conditions of work, that can results in the improvement of the productivity. The project resulted in the creation of a controlled ambient, in agreement with the normative requirements, using a pass through for entrance and exit of the materials, without compromise the internal air condition. The tight of the hot cell was obtained using doors with efficient sealing system and active joints. Tong manipulators were used to produce ergonomic and secure conditions, without compromise the internal conditions related to tight and classification in A and B grade, according to local and international rules. An efficient ventilation/exhaustion system was adopted to produce these results, composed by filters and special devices

  19. Analytical Cell Potentials for Clathrate-Hydrates from Inversion of Langmuir Constant Versus Temperature Curves

    CERN Document Server

    Bazant, M Z; Bazant, Martin Z.; Trout, Bernhardt L.

    2000-01-01

    Experimental Langmuir constants for clathrate-hydrates, which are inferred from phase equilibrium data using an equation of state and the statistical thermodynamical model of van der Waals and Platteeuw (vdWP), contain a wealth of information about intermolecular forces. In the simplest (Lennard-Jones and Devonshire) approximation of a spherical cell, the Langmuir constant is related to a configurational integral involving a spherically averaged cell potential. All previous attempts to interpret experimental data based on this formalism have involved numerical fitting with ad hoc functional forms, such as the popular Kihara potential. In addition to lacking analytical insight, however, such empirical fits often produce parameters contradicting those obtained by other means. As a more appealing alternative, the spherical-cell vdWP formula for the Langmuir constant versus temperature can be viewed as a nonlinear integral equation for the cell potential. In this article, a variety of exact analytical solutions a...

  20. MonetDB/DataCell: online analytics in a streaming column-store

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Liarou; S. Idreos; S. Manegold; M. Kersten

    2012-01-01

    In DataCell, we design streaming functionalities in a modern relational database kernel which targets big data analytics. This includes exploitation of both its storage/execution engine and its optimizer infrastructure. We investigate the opportunities and challenges that arise with such a direction

  1. MonetDB/DataCell: Online Analytics in a Streaming Column-Store

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liarou, E.; Idreos, S.; Manegold, S.; Kersten, M.L.

    2012-01-01

    In DataCell, we design streaming functionalities in a mod- ern relational database kernel which targets big data analyt- ics. This includes exploitation of both its storage/execution engine and its optimizer infrastructure. We investigate the opportunities and challenges that arise with such a direc

  2. Probing charge transfer and hot carrier dynamics in organic solar cells with terahertz spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Paul D.; Lane, Paul A.; Melinger, Joseph S.; Esenturk, Okan; Heilweil, Edwin J.

    2016-04-01

    Time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy (TRTS) was used to explore charge generation, transfer, and the role of hot carriers in organic solar cell materials. Two model molecular photovoltaic systems were investigated: with zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc) or alpha-sexathiophene (α-6T) as the electron donors and buckminsterfullerene (C60) as the electron acceptor. TRTS provides charge carrier conductivity dynamics comprised of changes in both population and mobility. By using time-resolved optical spectroscopy in conjunction with TRTS, these two contributions can be disentangled. The sub-picosecond photo-induced conductivity decay dynamics of C60 were revealed to be caused by auto-ionization: the intrinsic process by which charge is generated in molecular solids. In donor-acceptor blends, the long-lived photo-induced conductivity is used for weight fraction optimization of the constituents. In nanoscale multilayer films, the photo-induced conductivity identifies optimal layer thicknesses. In films of ZnPc/C60, electron transfer from ZnPc yields hot charges that localize and become less mobile as they thermalize. Excitation of high-lying Franck Condon states in C60 followed by hole-transfer to ZnPc similarly produces hot charge carriers that self-localize; charge transfer clearly precedes carrier cooling. This picture is contrasted to charge transfer in α-6T/C60, where hole transfer takes place from a thermalized state and produces equilibrium carriers that do not show characteristic signs of cooling and self-localization. These results illustrate the value of terahertz spectroscopic methods for probing charge transfer reactions.

  3. Hot cell renovation in the spent fuel conditioning process facility at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Seung Nam; Lee, Jong Kwang; Park, Byung Suk; Cho, Il Je; Kim, Ki Ho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The advanced spent fuel conditioning process facility (ACPF) of the irradiated materials examination facility (IMEF) at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) has been renovated to implement a lab scale electrolytic reduction process for pyroprocessing. The interior and exterior structures of the ACPF hot cell have been modified under the current renovation project for the experimentation of the electrolytic reduction process using spent nuclear fuel. The most important aspect of this renovation was the installation of the argon compartment within the hot cell. For the design and system implementation of the argon compartment system, a full-scale mock-up test and a three-dimensional (3D) simulation test were conducted in advance. The remodeling and repairing of the process cell (M8a), the maintenance cell (M8b), the isolation room, and their utilities were also planned through this simulation to accommodate the designed argon compartment system. Based on the considered refurbishment workflow, previous equipment in the M8 cell, including vessels and pipes, were removed and disposed of successfully after a zoning smear survey and decontamination, and new equipment with advanced functions and specifications were installed in the hot cell. Finally, the operating area and isolation room were also refurbished to meet the requirements of the improved hot cell facility.

  4. Molecular motion in cell membranes: Analytic study of fence-hindered random walks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenkre, V. M.; Giuggioli, L.; Kalay, Z.

    2008-05-01

    A theoretical calculation is presented to describe the confined motion of transmembrane molecules in cell membranes. The study is analytic, based on Master equations for the probability of the molecules moving as random walkers, and leads to explicit usable solutions including expressions for the molecular mean square displacement and effective diffusion constants. One outcome is a detailed understanding of the dependence of the time variation of the mean square displacement on the initial placement of the molecule within the confined region. How to use the calculations is illustrated by extracting (confinement) compartment sizes from experimentally reported published observations from single particle tracking experiments on the diffusion of gold-tagged G -protein coupled μ -opioid receptors in the normal rat kidney cell membrane, and by further comparing the analytical results to observations on the diffusion of phospholipids, also in normal rat kidney cells.

  5. Molecular motion in cell membranes: analytic study of fence-hindered random walks

    CERN Document Server

    Kenkre, V M; Kalay, Z

    2008-01-01

    A theoretical calculation is presented to describe the confined motion of transmembrane molecules in cell membranes. The study is analytic, based on Master equations for the probability of the molecules moving as random walkers, and leads to explicit usable solutions including expressions for the molecular mean square displacement and effective diffusion constants. One outcome is a detailed understanding of the dependence of the time variation of the mean square displacement on the initial placement of the molecule within the confined region. How to use the calculations is illustrated by extracting (confinement) compartment sizes from experimentally reported published observations from single particle tracking experiments on the diffusion of gold-tagged G-protein coupled mu-opioid receptors in the normal rat kidney cell membrane, and by further comparing the analytical results to observations on the diffusion of phospholipids, also in normal rat kidney cells.

  6. Hot-carrier solar cells using low-dimensional quantum structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Daiki; Kasamatsu, Naofumi; Harada, Yukihiro; Kita, Takashi [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Kobe University, 1-1 Rokkodai, Nada, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan)

    2014-10-27

    We propose a high-conversion-efficiency solar cell (SC) utilizing the hot carrier (HC) population in an intermediate-band (IB) of a quantum dot superlattice (QDSL) structure. The bandgap of the host semiconductor in this device plays an important role as an energy-selective barrier for HCs in the QDSLs. According to theoretical calculation using the detailed balance model with an air mass 1.5 spectrum, the optimum IB energy is determined by a trade-off relation between the number of HCs with energy exceeding the conduction-band edge and the number of photons absorbed by the valence band−IB transition. Utilizing experimental data of HC temperature in InAs/GaAs QDSLs, the maximum conversion efficiency under maximum concentration (45 900 suns) has been demonstrated to increase by 12.6% as compared with that for a single-junction GaAs SC.

  7. Development of oxide layer thickness measuring device for irradiated nuclear fuel rods in hot cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been known that water side corrosion of fuel rods in nuclear reactor is accompanied with the loss of metallic wall thickness and pickup of hydrogen. This corrosion is one of the important limiting factors in the operating life of fuel rods. In connection with the fuel cladding corrosion, a device to measure the water side oxide layer thickness by means of the eddy current method without destructing the fuel rod was developed by KAERI. The device was installed on the multi function testing bench in the nondestructive test hot cell and its calibration was carried out successfully for the standard rod attached with plastic thin films whose thicknesses are predetermined. It shows good precision within 10% error

  8. Process Faults Analysis and Design Considerations for Pyroprocess Hot Cell Safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    You, G. S.; Choung, W. M.; Ku, J. H.; Moon, S. I.; Kim, H. D. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) has been studied the pyroprocess since 1997. For demonstration of pyroprocess, KAERI developed two facilities, the ACPF (Advanced spent fuel Conditioning Process Facility) and the PRIDE (PyRoprocess-Integrated inactive DEmonstration facility). From 2013 KAERI performs a pre-conceptual design of the ESPF (Engineering-Scale Pyroprocess Facility). In this paper, the process faults analysis and design considerations for pyroprocess hot cell safety are described. KAERI has been developing a pyroprocess for conditioning and reutilization of PWR spent nuclear fuels. The safety evaluations of the pyroprocess facilities were performed to confirm the safe design. The process safety as one of the safety evaluations was analyzed by the faults tree method. The corresponding safe design considerations for each fault type were also considered.

  9. Evaluation of a Mobile Hot Cell Technology for Processing Idaho National Laboratory Remote-Handled Wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B.J. Orchard; L.A. Harvego; R.P. Miklos; F. Yapuncich; L. Care

    2009-03-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) currently does not have the necessary capabilities to process all remote-handled wastes resulting from the Laboratory’s nuclear-related missions. Over the years, various U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-sponsored programs undertaken at the INL have produced radioactive wastes and other materials that are categorized as remote-handled (contact radiological dose rate > 200 mR/hr). These materials include Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF), transuranic (TRU) waste, waste requiring geological disposal, low-level waste (LLW), mixed waste (both radioactive and hazardous per the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act [RCRA]), and activated and/or radioactively-contaminated reactor components. The waste consists primarily of uranium, plutonium, other TRU isotopes, and shorter-lived isotopes such as cesium and cobalt with radiological dose rates up to 20,000 R/hr. The hazardous constituents in the waste consist primarily of reactive metals (i.e., sodium and sodium-potassium alloy [NaK]), which are reactive and ignitable per RCRA, making the waste difficult to handle and treat. A smaller portion of the waste is contaminated with other hazardous components (i.e., RCRA toxicity characteristic metals). Several analyses of alternatives to provide the required remote-handling and treatment capability to manage INL’s remote-handled waste have been conducted over the years and have included various options ranging from modification of existing hot cells to construction of new hot cells. Previous analyses have identified a mobile processing unit as an alternative for providing the required remote-handled waste processing capability; however, it was summarily dismissed as being a potentially viable alternative based on limitations of a specific design considered. In 2008 INL solicited expressions of interest from Vendors who could provide existing, demonstrated technology that could be applied to the retrieval, sorting, treatment (as required), and

  10. Blood analyte sensing using fluorescent dye-loaded red blood cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Sarah C.; Shao, Xiaole; Cooley, Nicholas; Milanick, Mark A.; Glass, Timothy E.; Meissner, Kenith E.

    2014-02-01

    Measurement of blood analytes provides crucial information about a patient's health. Some such analytes, such as glucose in the case of diabetes, require long-term or near-continuous monitoring for proper disease management. However, current monitoring techniques are far from ideal: multiple-per-day finger stick tests are inconvenient and painful for the patient; implantable sensors have short functional life spans (i.e., 3-7 days). Due to analyte transporters on red blood cell (RBC) membranes that equilibrate intracellular and extracellular analyte levels, RBCs serve as an attractive alternative for encapsulating analyte sensors. Once reintroduced to the blood stream, the functionalized RBCs may continue to live for the remainder of their life span (120 days for humans). They are biodegradable and biocompatible, thereby eliminating the immune system response common for many implanted devices. The proposed sensing system utilizes the ability of the RBCs to swell in response to a decrease in the osmolarity of the extracellular solution. Just before lysis, they develop small pores on the scale of tens of nanometers. While at low temperature, analyte-sensitive dyes in the extracellular solution diffuse into the perforated RBCs and become entrapped upon restoration of temperature and osmolarity. Since the fluorescent signal from the entrapped dye reports on changes in the analyte level of the extracellular solution via the RBC transporters, interactions between the RBCs and the dye are critical to the efficacy of this technique. In this work, we study the use of a near infrared pH sensitive dye encapsulated within RBCs and assess the ability to measure dye fluorescence in vivo.

  11. Preparation of microcrystalline single junction and amorphous-microcrystalline tandem silicon solar cells entirely by hot-wire CVD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kupich, M.; Grunsky, D.; Kumar, P.; Schroeder, B. [University of Kaiserslautern (Germany). Department of Physics

    2004-01-25

    The hot-wire chemical vapour deposition (HWCVD) has been used to prepare highly conducting p- and n-doped microcrystalline silicon thin layers as well as highly photoconducting, low defect density intrinsic microcrystalline silicon films. These films were incorporated in all-HWCVD, all-microcrystalline nip and pin solar cells, achieving conversion efficiencies of {eta}=5.4% and 4.5%, respectively. At present, only the nip-structures are found to be stable against light-induced degradation. Furthermore, microcrystalline nip and pin structures have been successfully incorporated as bottom cells in all-hot-wire amorphous-microcrystalline nipnip- and pinpin-tandem solar cells for the first time. So far, the highest conversion efficiencies of the 'micromorph' tandem structures are {eta}=5.7% for pinpin-solar cells and 7.0% for nipnip solar cells. (author)

  12. Hot sample archiving. Revision 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Engineering Study revision evaluated the alternatives to provide tank waste characterization analytical samples for a time period as recommended by the Tank Waste Remediation Systems Program. The recommendation of storing 40 ml segment samples for a period of approximately 18 months (6 months past the approval date of the Tank Characterization Report) and then composite the core segment material in 125 ml containers for a period of five years. The study considers storage at 222-S facility. It was determined that the critical storage problem was in the hot cell area. The 40 ml sample container has enough material for approximately 3 times the required amount for a complete laboratory re-analysis. The final result is that 222-S can meet the sample archive storage requirements. During the 100% capture rate the capacity is exceeded in the hot cell area, but quick, inexpensive options are available to meet the requirements

  13. Mean encounter times for cell adhesion in hydrodynamic flow: analytical progress by dimensional reduction

    CERN Document Server

    Korn, C B

    2008-01-01

    For a cell moving in hydrodynamic flow above a wall, translational and rotational degrees of freedom are coupled by the Stokes equation. In addition, there is a close coupling of convection and diffusion due to the position-dependent mobility. These couplings render calculation of the mean encounter time between cell surface receptors and ligands on the substrate very difficult. Here we show for a two-dimensional model system how analytical progress can be achieved by treating motion in the vertical direction by an effective reaction term in the mean first passage time equation for the rotational degree of freedom. The strength of this reaction term can either be estimated from equilibrium considerations or used as a fit parameter. Our analytical results are confirmed by computer simulations and allow to assess the relative roles of convection and diffusion for different scaling regimes of interest.

  14. Applying hot-wire anemometry to directly measure the water balance in a proton exchange membrane fuel cell - Part 2: Experimental

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al Shakhshir, Saher; Andreasen, Søren Juhl; Berning, Torsten

    2016-01-01

    In order to better understand and more accurately measure the water balance in a proton exchange membrane fuel cell, our group has recently proposed to apply hot wire anemometry in the fuel cell's anode outlet. It was theoretically shown that the electrical signal obtained from the hot wire sensor...

  15. A new stack effluent monitoring system at the Risoe Hot Cell plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes a new stack effluent monitoring system that has been installed at the Hot Cell facility. It is an integrating iodine/particulate system consisting of a γ-shielded flow house in which a continous air sample from the ventilation channel ia sucked through coal and glass filter papers. Activity is accumulated on the filter papers and a thin plastic scintillator detects the β-radiation from the trapped iodine or particulate activity. The stack effluent monitoring system has a two-step regulating function as applied to the ventilation system, first switching it to a recirculating mode, and finally to building-seal after given releases of 131I. The collection efficiency for iodine in form of elementary iodine (I2) and methyliodide (CH3I) has been determined experimentally. The unwanted response from a noble gas release has also been determined from experiments. The noble gas response was determined from puff releases of the nuclide 41Ar in the concrete cells. It is concluded that the iodine/particulate system is extremely sensitive and that it can easily detect iodine or particulate releases as low as a few MBq. A gamma monitor placed in connection with the iodine/particulate system detects Xe/Kr-releases as low as a few tens of MBq per second. (author)

  16. Analytical applications of microbial fuel cells. Part I: Biochemical oxygen demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrevaya, Ximena C; Sacco, Natalia J; Bonetto, Maria C; Hilding-Ohlsson, Astrid; Cortón, Eduardo

    2015-01-15

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are bio-electrochemical devices, where usually the anode (but sometimes the cathode, or both) contains microorganisms able to generate and sustain an electrochemical gradient which is used typically to generate electrical power. In the more studied set-up, the anode contains heterotrophic bacteria in anaerobic conditions, capable to oxidize organic molecules releasing protons and electrons, as well as other by-products. Released protons could reach the cathode (through a membrane or not) whereas electrons travel across an external circuit originating an easily measurable direct current flow. MFCs have been proposed fundamentally as electric power producing devices or more recently as hydrogen producing devices. Here we will review the still incipient development of analytical uses of MFCs or related devices or set-ups, in the light of a non-restrictive MFC definition, as promising tools to asset water quality or other measurable parameters. An introduction to biological based analytical methods, including bioassays and biosensors, as well as MFCs design and operating principles, will also be included. Besides, the use of MFCs as biochemical oxygen demand sensors (perhaps the main analytical application of MFCs) is discussed. In a companion review (Part 2), other new analytical applications are reviewed used for toxicity sensors, metabolic sensors, life detectors, and other proposed applications. PMID:24856922

  17. Employing Hot Wire Anemometry to Directly Measure the Water Balance of a Commercial Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Stack

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shakhshir, Saher Al; Berning, Torsten

    2016-01-01

    is currently developing a novel technique to obtain an ad-hoc and real time electrical signal of the fuel cell water balance by employing hot wire anemometry. In this work, the hot wire sensor is placed in the anode outlet of a commercial air-cooled fuel cell stack by Ballard Power Systems, and the voltage......Proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC’s) are currently being commercialized for various applications ranging from automotive (e.g. the Toyota Mirai) to stationary such as powering telecom backup units. In PEMFC’s, oxygen from air is internally combined with hydrogen to form water and produce...... signal received gives valuable insight into heat and mass transfer phenomena in a PEMFC....

  18. Hot Money, Hot Potato

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    International hot money flowing into Chinese capital markets has caught the attention of Chinese watchdogs The Chinese are not the only ones feasting on the thriving property and stock markets. Apparently, these markets are the targets of international h

  19. Remote-welding technique for assembling in-pile IASCC capsule in hot cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to investigate behavior of the irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) caused by the simultaneous effects of neutron irradiation and high temperature water environment in such a light water reactor (LWR), it is necessary to perform crack growth tests in an in-pile IASCC capsule irradiated in the Japan Materials Testing Reactor (JMTR). The development of the remote-welding technique is essential for remotely assembling the in-pile IASCC capsule installing the pre-irradiated CT specimens. This report describes a new remote-welding machine developed for assembling the in-pile IASCC capsule. The remote-welding technique that the capsule tube is rotated light under the fixed torch was applied to the machine for the welding of thick and large-diameter tubes. The assembly work of four in-pile IASCC capsules having pre-irradiated CT specimens in the hot cell was succeeded for performing the crack growth test under the neutron irradiation in JMTR. The irradiation test of two capsules has been already finished in JMTR without problems. (author)

  20. Test Technique Development on the Irradiated Reconstituted PCVN Specimen in Hot Cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Sangbok; Oh, Wanho; Choo, Yongsun; Kim, Minchul; Lee, Bongsang [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-07-01

    The degradation of fracture toughness is the important factor to restrict the life of nuclear pressure vessel in PWR reactors. A pressure vessel is operated in conformity with the fracture analysis based on ASME codes to ensure safety margins from the unstable fracture. A fracture analysis is performed based on the result from the Charpy impact tests in PWR reactor, but it has the questions to be exact solutions because the test results give indirect and excessively conservative values. Therefore the research to find an exact toughness parameter is undergoing to use the pre-cracked Charpy v-notch (PCVN). As results the master curve method is proposed in ASTM E1921 to be supposed an appropriate tool to evaluate the fracture toughness for the irradiated, or the operated pressure vessel materials. The surveillance test program to evaluate toughness degradation on existing commercial PWR reactor is performed through the impact test on Charpy specimens. It gives the lack of the specimen to evaluate the safety in toughness for on-going operation beyond design life. To overcome the shortage of specimen, the test method to use a reconstituted PCVN specimen fabricated from the broken half of Charpy specimen is proposed and adopted in foreign reactors. In this paper techniques developed for the reconstituted specimen from the domestic commercial PWR reactor in hot cell are described.

  1. Resonant tunneling diodes as energy-selective contacts used in hot-carrier solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, Yasuhiko, E-mail: takeda@mosk.tytlabs.co.jp; Sugimoto, Noriaki [Toyota Central Research and Development Laboratories, Inc., 41-1, Yokomichi, Nagakute, Aichi 480-1192 (Japan); Ichiki, Akihisa [Green Mobility Collaborative Research Center, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8601 (Japan); Kusano, Yuya [Green Mobility Collaborative Research Center, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8601 (Japan); Toyota Motor Corp., 1200 Mishuku, Susono, Shizuoka 410-1193 (Japan); Motohiro, Tomoyoshi [Toyota Central Research and Development Laboratories, Inc., 41-1, Yokomichi, Nagakute, Aichi 480-1192 (Japan); Green Mobility Collaborative Research Center, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8601 (Japan); Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8601 (Japan)

    2015-09-28

    Among the four features unique to hot-carrier solar cells (HC-SCs): (i) carrier thermalization time and (ii) carrier equilibration time in the absorber, (iii) energy-selection width and (iv) conductance of the energy-selective contacts (ESCs), requisites of (i)-(iii) for high conversion efficiency have been clarified. We have tackled the remaining issues related to (iv) in the present study. The detailed balance model of HC-SC operation has been improved to involve a finite value of the ESC conductance to find the required values, which in turn has been revealed to be feasible using resonant tunneling diodes (RTDs) consisting of semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) and quantum wells (QWs) by means of a formulation to calculate the conductance of the QD- and QW-RTDs derived using the rigorous solutions of the effective-mass Hamiltonians. Thus, all of the four requisites unique to HC-SCs to achieve high conversion efficiency have been elucidated, and the two requisites related to the ESCs can be fulfilled using the QD- and QW-RTDs.

  2. Post irradiation examination of thoria-plutonia mixed oxide fuel in Indian hot cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mixed oxide (MOX) fuel clusters containing ThO2+4%PuO2, and ThO2+6.75%PuO2 fuel pins were irradiated in the pressurized water loop of the Indian research reactor CIRUS, to burn up in the range of 20 GWd/T(HM). The ThO2+4%PuO2 fuel elements had free standing cladding made of Zircaloy-2 and the ThO2+6.75%PuO2 had collapsible Zircaloy-2 cladding. The fuel clusters had performed well during irradiation with no apparent indications of failure. The techniques used for the post irradiation examination (PIE) of these fuels in the hot cells included visual examination, fuel pin diameter measurements, leak testing, gamma scanning, gamma spectrometry, ultrasonic testing, eddy current testing, ceramography, metallography, beta gamma autoradiography and measurement of released fission gases. Micro hardness measurement of cladding and evaluation of mechanical properties using ring tension test were also carried out. This paper elaborates on the techniques and the results of the PIE carried out on ThO2+4%PuO2 fuel. (author)

  3. Resonant tunneling diodes as energy-selective contacts used in hot-carrier solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Yasuhiko; Ichiki, Akihisa; Kusano, Yuya; Sugimoto, Noriaki; Motohiro, Tomoyoshi

    2015-09-01

    Among the four features unique to hot-carrier solar cells (HC-SCs): (i) carrier thermalization time and (ii) carrier equilibration time in the absorber, (iii) energy-selection width and (iv) conductance of the energy-selective contacts (ESCs), requisites of (i)-(iii) for high conversion efficiency have been clarified. We have tackled the remaining issues related to (iv) in the present study. The detailed balance model of HC-SC operation has been improved to involve a finite value of the ESC conductance to find the required values, which in turn has been revealed to be feasible using resonant tunneling diodes (RTDs) consisting of semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) and quantum wells (QWs) by means of a formulation to calculate the conductance of the QD- and QW-RTDs derived using the rigorous solutions of the effective-mass Hamiltonians. Thus, all of the four requisites unique to HC-SCs to achieve high conversion efficiency have been elucidated, and the two requisites related to the ESCs can be fulfilled using the QD- and QW-RTDs.

  4. Resonant tunneling diodes as energy-selective contacts used in hot-carrier solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among the four features unique to hot-carrier solar cells (HC-SCs): (i) carrier thermalization time and (ii) carrier equilibration time in the absorber, (iii) energy-selection width and (iv) conductance of the energy-selective contacts (ESCs), requisites of (i)-(iii) for high conversion efficiency have been clarified. We have tackled the remaining issues related to (iv) in the present study. The detailed balance model of HC-SC operation has been improved to involve a finite value of the ESC conductance to find the required values, which in turn has been revealed to be feasible using resonant tunneling diodes (RTDs) consisting of semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) and quantum wells (QWs) by means of a formulation to calculate the conductance of the QD- and QW-RTDs derived using the rigorous solutions of the effective-mass Hamiltonians. Thus, all of the four requisites unique to HC-SCs to achieve high conversion efficiency have been elucidated, and the two requisites related to the ESCs can be fulfilled using the QD- and QW-RTDs

  5. Hot Cell Liners Category of Transuranic Waste Stored Below Ground within Area G

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Robert Wesley [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hargis, Kenneth Marshall [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-09-01

    A large wildfire called the Las Conchas Fire burned large areas near Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in 2011 and heightened public concern and news media attention over transuranic (TRU) waste stored at LANL’s Technical Area 54 (TA-54) Area G waste management facility. The removal of TRU waste from Area G had been placed at a lower priority in budget decisions for environmental cleanup at LANL because TRU waste removal is not included in the March 2005 Compliance Order on Consent (Reference 1) that is the primary regulatory driver for environmental cleanup at LANL. The Consent Order is an agreement between LANL and the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) that contains specific requirements and schedules for cleaning up historical contamination at the LANL site. After the Las Conchas Fire, discussions were held by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) with the NMED on accelerating TRU waste removal from LANL and disposing it at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This report summarizes available information on the origin, configuration, and composition of the waste containers within the Hot Cell Liners category; their physical and radiological characteristics; the results of the radioassays; and the justification to reclassify the five containers as LLW rather than TRU waste.

  6. Standard guide for mechanical drive systems for remote operation in hot cell facilities

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 Intent: 1.1.1 The intent of this standard is to provide general guidelines for the design, selection, quality assurance, installation, operation, and maintenance of mechanical drive systems used in remote hot cell environments. The term mechanical drive systems used herein, encompasses all individual components used for imparting motion to equipment systems, subsystems, assemblies, and other components. It also includes complete positioning systems and individual units that provide motive power and any position indicators necessary to monitor the motion. 1.2 Applicability: 1.2.1 This standard is intended to be applicable to equipment used under one or more of the following conditions: 1.2.1.1 The materials handled or processed constitute a significant radiation hazard to man or to the environment. 1.2.1.2 The equipment will generally be used over a long-term life cycle (for example, in excess of two years), but equipment intended for use over a shorter life cycle is not excluded. 1.2.1.3 The ...

  7. An analytical model and parametric study of electrical contact resistance in proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Zhiliang; Wang, Shuxin; Zhang, Lianhong [School of Mechanical Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Hu, S. Jack [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2125 (United States)

    2009-04-15

    This paper presents an analytical model of the electrical contact resistance between the carbon paper gas diffusion layers (GDLs) and the graphite bipolar plates (BPPs) in a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell. The model is developed based on the classical statistical contact theory for a PEM fuel cell, using the same probability distributions of the GDL structure and BPP surface profile as previously described in Wu et al. [Z. Wu, Y. Zhou, G. Lin, S. Wang, S.J. Hu, J. Power Sources 182 (2008) 265-269] and Zhou et al. [Y. Zhou, G. Lin, A.J. Shih, S.J. Hu, J. Power Sources 163 (2007) 777-783]. Results show that estimates of the contact resistance compare favorably with experimental data by Zhou et al. [Y. Zhou, G. Lin, A.J. Shih, S.J. Hu, J. Power Sources 163 (2007) 777-783]. Factors affecting the contact behavior are systematically studied using the analytical model, including the material properties of the two contact bodies and factors arising from the manufacturing processes. The transverse Young's modulus of chopped carbon fibers in the GDL and the surface profile of the BPP are found to be significant to the contact resistance. The factor study also sheds light on the manufacturing requirements of carbon fiber GDLs for a better contact performance in PEM fuel cells. (author)

  8. An analytical model and parametric study of electrical contact resistance in proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhiliang; Wang, Shuxin; Zhang, Lianhong; Hu, S. Jack

    This paper presents an analytical model of the electrical contact resistance between the carbon paper gas diffusion layers (GDLs) and the graphite bipolar plates (BPPs) in a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell. The model is developed based on the classical statistical contact theory for a PEM fuel cell, using the same probability distributions of the GDL structure and BPP surface profile as previously described in Wu et al. [Z. Wu, Y. Zhou, G. Lin, S. Wang, S.J. Hu, J. Power Sources 182 (2008) 265-269] and Zhou et al. [Y. Zhou, G. Lin, A.J. Shih, S.J. Hu, J. Power Sources 163 (2007) 777-783]. Results show that estimates of the contact resistance compare favorably with experimental data by Zhou et al. [Y. Zhou, G. Lin, A.J. Shih, S.J. Hu, J. Power Sources 163 (2007) 777-783]. Factors affecting the contact behavior are systematically studied using the analytical model, including the material properties of the two contact bodies and factors arising from the manufacturing processes. The transverse Young's modulus of chopped carbon fibers in the GDL and the surface profile of the BPP are found to be significant to the contact resistance. The factor study also sheds light on the manufacturing requirements of carbon fiber GDLs for a better contact performance in PEM fuel cells.

  9. Advanced Manufacturing Technologies (AMT): Additive Manufactured Hot Fire Planning and Testing in GRC Cell 32 Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — GRC and AR have identified the following roles and responsibilities necessary to accomplish the hot fire objective of this task.  AR will be responsible for...

  10. Internet accessible hot cell with gamma spectroscopy at the Missouri S and T nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → A dual-chambered internet-accessible heavily shielded facility has been built. → The facility allows distance users to analyze neutron irradiated samples remotely. → The Missouri S and T system uses computer automation with user feedback. → The system can analyze multiple samples and assist several researchers concurrently. - Abstract: A dual-chambered internet-accessible heavily shielded facility with pneumatic access to the University of Missouri Science and Technology (Missouri S and T) 200 kW Research Nuclear Reactor (MSTR) core has been built and is currently available for irradiation and analysis of samples. The facility allows authorized distance users engaged in collaborative activities with Missouri S and T to remotely manipulate and analyze neutron irradiated samples. The system consists of two shielded compartments, one for multiple sample storage, and the other dedicated exclusively for radiation measurements and spectroscopy. The second chamber has multiple detector ports, with graded shielding, and has the capability to support gamma spectroscopy using radiation detectors such as an HPGe detector. Both these chambers are connected though a rapid pneumatic system with access to the MSTR nuclear reactor core. This new internet-based system complements the MSTR's current bare pneumatic tube (BPT) and cadmium lined pneumatic tube (CPT) facilities. The total transportation time between the core and the hot cell, for samples weighing 10 g, irradiated in the MSTR core, is roughly 3.0 s. This work was funded by the DOE grant number DE-FG07-07ID14852 and expands the capabilities of teaching and research at the MSTR. It allows individuals who do not have on-site access to a nuclear reactor facility to remotely participate in research and educational activities.

  11. Analytical Model for Voltage-Dependent Photo and Dark Currents in Bulk Heterojunction Organic Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mesbahus Saleheen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A physics-based explicit mathematical model for the external voltage-dependent forward dark current in bulk heterojunction (BHJ organic solar cells is developed by considering Shockley-Read-Hall (SRH recombination and solving the continuity equations for both electrons and holes. An analytical model for the external voltage-dependent photocurrent in BHJ organic solar cells is also proposed by incorporating exponential photon absorption, dissociation efficiency of bound electron-hole pairs (EHPs, carrier trapping, and carrier drift and diffusion in the photon absorption layer. Modified Braun’s model is used to compute the electric field-dependent dissociation efficiency of the bound EHPs. The overall net current is calculated considering the actual solar spectrum. The mathematical models are verified by comparing the model calculations with various published experimental results. We analyze the effects of the contact properties, blend compositions, charge carrier transport properties (carrier mobility and lifetime, and cell design on the current-voltage characteristics. The power conversion efficiency of BHJ organic solar cells mostly depends on electron transport properties of the acceptor layer. The results of this paper indicate that improvement of charge carrier transport (both mobility and lifetime and dissociation of bound EHPs in organic blend are critically important to increase the power conversion efficiency of the BHJ solar cells.

  12. An analytical model for analyzing the current-voltage characteristics of bulk heterojunction organic solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnab, Salman M.; Kabir, M. Z., E-mail: kabir@encs.concordia.ca [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Concordia University, 1455 Blvd. de Maisonneuve West, Montreal, Quebec H3G 1M8 (Canada)

    2014-01-21

    An analytical model for analyzing the current-voltage (J-V) characteristics of bulk heterojunction (BHJ) organic solar cells is developed by incorporating exponential photon absorption, dissociation efficiency of bound electron-hole pairs (EHPs), carrier trapping, and carrier drift and diffusion in the photon absorption layer. Modified Braun's model is used to compute the electric field-dependent dissociation efficiency of the bound EHPs. The charge carrier concentrations and hence the photocurrent are calculated by solving the carrier continuity equation for both holes and electrons in the organic layer. The overall load current is calculated considering the actual solar spectrum and voltage dependent forward dark current. The model is verified by published experimental results. The efficiency of the P3HT:PCBM based solar cells critically depends on the dissociation of bound EHPs. On the other hand, cells made of a blend of the conjugated polymer (PCDTBT) with the soluble fullerene derivative (PCBM) show nearly unity dissociation efficiency, and their cell efficiency strongly depends on the charge collection efficiency. The effects of carrier lifetimes on the performance of PCDTBT solar cells have also been studied. The model is also used to investigate the effect of titanium oxide (TiO{sub x}) layer (at the back contact) on the J-V characteristics of PCDTBT solar cells. The results of this paper indicate that improvement of charge carrier transport in PCDTBT:PCBM blend and dissociation of bound EHPs in P3HT:PCBM blend are extremely important to increase the power conversion efficiency of the respective BHJ solar cells.

  13. Ceramide-Enriched Membrane Domains in Red Blood Cells and the Mechanism ofSphingomyelinase-Induced Hot-Cold Hemolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montes, Ruth; Lopez, David; Sot, Jesus;

    2008-01-01

    Hot-cold hemolysis is the phenomenon whereby red blood cells, preincubated at 37 °C in the presence of certain agents, undergo rapid hemolysis when transferred to 4 °C. The mechanism of this phenomenon is not understood. PlcHR2, a phospholipase C/sphingomyelinase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa......) but also in goat erythrocytes, which lack PC. However, in horse erythrocytes, with a large proportion of PC and almost no SM, hot-cold hemolysis induced by PlcHR2 is not observed. Fluorescence microscopy observations confirm the formation of ceramide-enriched domains as a result of PlcHR2 activity. After......-cold hemolysis. Differential scanning calorimetry of erytrocyte membranes treated with PlcHR2 demonstrates the presence of ceramide-rich domains that are rigid at 4 °C but fluid at 37 °C. Ceramidase treatment causes the disapperance of the calorimetric signal assigned to ceramide-rich domains. Finally...

  14. Experience of Integrated Safeguards Approach for Large-scale Hot Cell Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has been operating a large-scale hot cell laboratory, the Fuels Monitoring Facility (FMF), located near the experimental fast reactor Joyo at the Oarai Research and Development Center (JNC-2 site). The FMF conducts post irradiation examinations (PIE) of fuel assemblies irradiated in Joyo. The assemblies are disassembled and non-destructive examinations, such as X-ray computed tomography tests, are carried out. Some of the fuel pins are cut into specimens and destructive examinations, such as ceramography and X-ray micro analyses, are performed. Following PIE, the tested material, in the form of a pin or segments, is shipped back to a Joyo spent fuel pond. In some cases, after reassembly of the examined irradiated fuel pins is completed, the fuel assemblies are shipped back to Joyo for further irradiation. For the IAEA to apply the integrated safeguards approach (ISA) to the FMF, a new verification system on material shipping and receiving process between Joyo and the FMF has been established by the IAEA under technical collaboration among the Japan Safeguard Office (JSGO) of MEXT, the Nuclear Material Control Center (NMCC) and the JAEA. The main concept of receipt/shipment verification under the ISA for JNC-2 site is as follows: under the IS, the FMF is treated as a Joyo-associated facility in terms of its safeguards system because it deals with the same spent fuels. Verification of the material shipping and receiving process between Joyo and the FMF can only be applied to the declared transport routes and transport casks. The verification of the nuclear material contained in the cask is performed with the method of gross defect at the time of short notice random interim inspections (RIIs) by measuring the surface neutron dose rate of the cask, filled with water to reduce radiation. The JAEA performed a series of preliminary tests with the IAEA, the JSGO and the NMCC, and confirmed from the standpoint of the operator that this

  15. Analytical estimation of effective charges at saturation in Poisson-Boltzmann cell models

    CERN Document Server

    Trizac, E; Bocquet, L

    2003-01-01

    We propose a simple approximation scheme for computing the effective charges of highly charged colloids (spherical or cylindrical with infinite length). Within non-linear Poisson-Boltzmann theory, we start from an expression for the effective charge in the infinite-dilution limit which is asymptotically valid for large salt concentrations; this result is then extended to finite colloidal concentration, approximating the salt partitioning effect which relates the salt content in the suspension to that of a dialysing reservoir. This leads to an analytical expression for the effective charge as a function of colloid volume fraction and salt concentration. These results compare favourably with the effective charges at saturation (i.e. in the limit of large bare charge) computed numerically following the standard prescription proposed by Alexander et al within the cell model.

  16. Analytical, 1-Dimensional Impedance Model of a Composite Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Cathode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Jakob Egeberg; Søgaard, Martin; Jacobsen, Torben

    2014-01-01

    An analytical, 1-dimensional impedance model for a composite solid oxide fuel cell cathode is derived. It includes geometrical parameters of the cathode, e.g., the internal surface area and the electrode thickness, and also material parameters, e.g., the surface reaction rate and the vacancy...... diffusion coefficient. The model is successfully applied to a total of 42 impedance spectra, obtained in the temperature range 555°C–852°C and in the oxygen partial pressure range 0.028 atm–1.00 atm for a cathode consisting of a 50/50 wt% mixture of (La0.6Sr0.4)0.99CoO3 − δ and Ce0.9Gd0.1O1.95 − δ...... and providing both qualitative and quantitative information on the evolution of the impedance spectra of cathodes with changing parameters....

  17. Analytical and Experimental Studies of the Degradation in Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon Solar Cells and Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Ping Fai

    1995-01-01

    An improved understanding of a-Si:H pin solar cells stability was obtained by studying light induced degradation in a-Si:H films and in devices. The current -voltage characteristics and the quantum efficiencies of a-Si:H pin solar cells were measured as a function of intrinsic layer thickness, bias light intensity and degradation condition. Photoconductivity measurements on device quality intrinsic a-Si:H thin film materials showed that the majority carrier (electron) mutau product degraded from 3times 10^{-7}rm cm ^2/V to 2times 10^{ -7}rm cm^2/V after 6 minutes of 50-Suns light illumination. Using a dual beam technique with steady white light and modulated monochromatic light, a degradation profile was detected in the degraded materials. These results suggest that inhomogeneous degradation may be important to understanding the stability of a-Si:H pin solar cells. An analytical model was developed for degradation in a-Si:H pin solar cells based on inhomogeneous degradation, which was used to explain the 'blue-dip' effect observed in the quantum efficiencies of degraded cells. A new method was developed to investigate the minority carrier (hole) diffusion length in device quality a-Si:H films as a function of degradation. This method uses the Schottky barrier structure to establish a depletion region, which can be controlled by the applied voltage and the bias light intensity. Modulated blue light is used to generate electron hole pairs near the ohmic contacts, and the holes diffuse across the neutral region to be collected. The modulated current is related to the diffusion length of the holes due to this current limiting hole transport. Comparing the results of this new technique to that of the Photocarrier Grating method, the electron drift mobility was found to degrade from rm 2.5cm^2/Vs to rm 0.15cm^2/Vs after 6 minutes of 50-Suns degradation.

  18. Resolution-independent modeling of environmental effects in semi-analytic models of galaxy formation that include ram-pressure stripping of both hot and cold gas

    CERN Document Server

    Luo, Yu; Kauffmann, Guinevere; Fu, Jian

    2016-01-01

    The quenching of star formation in satellite galaxies is observed over a wide range of dark matter halo masses and galaxy environments. In the recent Guo et al (2011) and Fu et al (2013) semi-analytic + N-body models, the gaseous environment of the satellite galaxy is governed by the properties of the dark matter subhalo in which it resides. This quantity depends of the resolution of the N-body simulation, leading to a divergent fraction of quenched satellites in high- and low-resolution simulations. Here, we incorporate an analytic model to trace the subhaloes below the resolution limit. We demonstrate that we then obtain better converged results between the Millennium I and II simulations, especially for the satellites in the massive haloes ($\\rm log M_{halo}=[14,15]$). We also include a new physical model for the ram-pressure stripping of cold gas in satellite galaxies. However, we find very clear discrepancies with observed trends in quenched satellite galaxy fractions as a function of stellar mass at fix...

  19. Applying hot-wire anemometry to directly measure the water balance in a proton exchange membrane fuel cell - Part 2: Experimental

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al Shakhshir, Saher; Andreasen, Søren Juhl; Berning, Torsten

    2016-01-01

    In order to better understand and more accurately measure the water balance in a proton exchange membrane fuel cell, our group has recently proposed to apply hot wire anemometry in the fuel cell's anode outlet. It was theoretically shown that the electrical signal obtained from the hot wire sensor...... can be directly converted into the fuel cell water balance. In this work an ex-situ experimental investigation is performed to examine the effect of the wire diameter and the outlet pipe diameter on the voltage signal. For a laboratory fuel cell where the mass flow rate the anode outlet is small...

  20. Changes in plant cell-wall structure of corn stover due to hot compressed water pretreatment and enhanced enzymatic hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wei; Yang, Maohua; Wang, Caixia; Liu, Jianfei; Xing, Jianmin

    2014-08-01

    Corn stover is a potential feedstock for biofuel production. This work investigated physical and chemical changes in plant cell-wall structure of corn stover due to hot compressed water (HCW) pretreatment at 170-190 °C in a tube reactor. Chemical composition analysis showed the soluble hemicellulose content increased with pretreatment temperature, whereas the hemicellulose content decreased from 29 to 7 % in pretreated solids. Scanning electron microscopy revealed the parenchyma-type second cell-wall structure of the plant was almost completely removed at 185 °C, and the sclerenchyma-type second cell wall was greatly damaged upon addition of 5 mmol/L ammonium sulfate during HCW pretreatment. These changes favored accessibility for enzymatic action. Enzyme saccharification of solids by optimized pretreatment with HCW at 185 °C resulted in an enzymatic hydrolysis yield of 87 %, an enhancement of 77 % compared to the yield from untreated corn stover.

  1. Resolution-independent modelling of environmental effects in semi-analytic models of galaxy formation that include ram-pressure stripping of both hot and cold gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yu; Kang, Xi; Kauffmann, Guinevere; Fu, Jian

    2016-05-01

    The quenching of star formation in satellite galaxies is observed over a wide range of dark matter halo masses and galaxy environments. In the recent Guo et al. and Fu et al. semi-analytic + N-body models, the gaseous environment of the satellite galaxy is governed by the properties of the dark matter subhalo in which it resides. This quantity depends of the resolution of the N-body simulation, leading to a divergent fraction of quenched satellites in high- and low-resolution simulations. Here, we incorporate an analytic model to trace the subhaloes below the resolution limit. We demonstrate that we then obtain better converged results between the Millennium I and II simulations, especially for the satellites in the massive haloes (log Mhalo = [14, 15]). We also include a new physical model for the ram-pressure stripping of cold gas in satellite galaxies. However, we find very clear discrepancies with observed trends in quenched satellite galaxy fractions as a function of stellar mass at fixed halo mass. At fixed halo mass, the quenched fraction of satellites does not depend on stellar mass in the models, but increases strongly with mass in the data. In addition to the overprediction of low-mass passive satellites, the models also predict too few quenched central galaxies with low stellar masses, so the problems in reproducing quenched fractions are not purely of environmental origin. Further improvements to the treatment of the gas-physical processes regulating the star formation histories of galaxies are clearly necessary to resolve these problems.

  2. Loading of red blood cells with an analyte-sensitive dye for development of a long-term monitoring technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Sarah C.; Meissner, Kenith E.

    2012-03-01

    Measurement of blood analytes, such as pH and glucose, provide crucial information about a patient's health. Some such analytes, such as glucose in the case of diabetes, require long-term or near-continuous monitoring for proper disease management. However, current monitoring techniques are far from ideal: multiple-per-day finger stick tests are inconvenient and painful for the patient; implantable sensors have short functional life spans (i.e., 3-7 days). Red blood cells serve as an attractive alternative for carriers of analyte sensors. Once reintroduced to the blood stream, these carriers may continue to live for the remainder of their life span (120 days for humans). They are also biodegradable and biocompatible, thereby eliminating the immune system response common for many implanted devices. The proposed carrier system takes advantage of the ability of the red blood cells to swell in response to a decrease in the osmolarity of the extracellular solution. Just before the membranes lyse, they develop small pores on the scale of tens of nanometers. Analyte-sensitive dyes in the extracellular solution may then diffuse into the perforated red blood cells and become entrapped upon restoration of physiological temperature and osmolarity. Because the membranes contain various analyte transporters, intracellular analyte levels rapidly equilibrate to those of the extracellular solution. A fluorescent dye has been loaded inside of red blood cells using a preswelling technique. Alterations in preparation parameters have been shown to affect characteristics of the resulting dye-loaded red blood cells (e.g., intensity of fluorescence).

  3. Studies and research concerning BNFP. Spent fuel disassembly: increasing hot-cell storage capacity at the Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the results of work performed at AGNS in 1979 related to production-rate fuel disassembly in the existing hot cell spaces of the BNFP. The primary advantage of the developed technique is realized at a reprocessing plant facility where suitable hot cells and connecting storage pools are available. The existing spent fuel pools are also candidates for away-from-reactor (AFR) storage space. Storage estimates based on utilization of the BNFP indicate that a major expansion from 1600 MTU up to 3000 MTU is possible. The report presents data on the results of initial process development and prototype equipment testing. Assessments were made of operational safety, licensing, and economic factors. These studies indicate that the techniques are performable and have economic merit when there is a requirement for a large increment of new storage capacity. A development program plan is presented. This plan delineates the future work required to bring the process to a point where implementation is possible

  4. A hot-electron thermophotonic solar cell demonstrated by thermal up-conversion of sub-bandgap photons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Daniel J.; Sodabanlu, Hassanet; Wang, Yunpeng; Sugiyama, Masakazu; Okada, Yoshitaka

    2015-01-01

    The direct conversion of solar energy to electricity can be broadly separated into two main categories: photovoltaics and thermal photovoltaics, where the former utilizes gradients in electrical potential and the latter thermal gradients. Conventional thermal photovoltaics has a high theoretical efficiency limit (84%) but in practice cannot be easily miniaturized and is limited by the engineering challenges of sustaining large (>1,000 K) temperature gradients. Here we show a hot-carrier-based thermophotonic solar cell, which combines the compact nature of photovoltaic devices with the potential to reach the high-efficiency regime of thermal photovoltaics. In the device, a thermal gradient of 500 K is established by hot electrons, under Stokes illumination, rather than by raising the temperature of the material itself. Under anti-Stokes (sub-bandgap) illumination we observe a thermal gradient of ∼20 K, which is maintained by steady-state Auger heating of carriers and corresponds to a internal thermal up-conversion efficiency of 30% between the collector and solar cell. PMID:26541415

  5. Applicability of analytical protocols for the characterisation of carbon-supported platinum group metal fuel cell electrocatalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Linkov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The nanoparticulate size of fuel cell electrocatalysts raises significant challenges in the analytical techniques used in their structural and electrochemical characterisation. For this reason, the applicability of analytical protocols in the qualitative and quantitative characterisation of nanophase fuel cell electrocatalysts was investigated. A set of structural and chemical properties influencing the performance of the electrocatalysts was identified. A large range of analytical tools was employed in characterising the electrocatalysts of interest. High accuracy and precision in the quantitative and qualitative structural and electrochemical characterisation of Pt/C and Pt-Ru/C nanophase electrocatalysts was demonstrated. Certain techniques were deemed to be highly applicable in discriminating between high- and low-performance electrocatalysts based on their structural and electrochemical properties. The goal of this effort is to contribute to the development of South Africa’s capabilities in the emerging hydrogen economy.

  6. Mechanical properties of regular porous biomaterials made from truncated cube repeating unit cells: Analytical solutions and computational models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedayati, R; Sadighi, M; Mohammadi-Aghdam, M; Zadpoor, A A

    2016-03-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) has enabled fabrication of open-cell porous biomaterials based on repeating unit cells. The micro-architecture of the porous biomaterials and, thus, their physical properties could then be precisely controlled. Due to their many favorable properties, porous biomaterials manufactured using AM are considered as promising candidates for bone substitution as well as for several other applications in orthopedic surgery. The mechanical properties of such porous structures including static and fatigue properties are shown to be strongly dependent on the type of the repeating unit cell based on which the porous biomaterial is built. In this paper, we study the mechanical properties of porous biomaterials made from a relatively new unit cell, namely truncated cube. We present analytical solutions that relate the dimensions of the repeating unit cell to the elastic modulus, Poisson's ratio, yield stress, and buckling load of those porous structures. We also performed finite element modeling to predict the mechanical properties of the porous structures. The analytical solution and computational results were found to be in agreement with each other. The mechanical properties estimated using both the analytical and computational techniques were somewhat higher than the experimental data reported in one of our recent studies on selective laser melted Ti-6Al-4V porous biomaterials. In addition to porosity, the elastic modulus and Poisson's ratio of the porous structures were found to be strongly dependent on the ratio of the length of the inclined struts to that of the uninclined (i.e. vertical or horizontal) struts, α, in the truncated cube unit cell. The geometry of the truncated cube unit cell approaches the octahedral and cube unit cells when α respectively approaches zero and infinity. Consistent with those geometrical observations, the analytical solutions presented in this study approached those of the octahedral and cube unit cells when

  7. Surveillance and radiological protection in the Hot Cell laboratory; Vigilancia y proteccion radiologica en el Laboratorio de Celdas Calientes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez, J.M.; Torre, J. De la; Garcia C, M.A. [ININ, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    The Hot Cells Laboratory (LCC) located in the National Institute of Nuclear Research are an installation that was designed for the management at distance of 10,000 Curies of Co-60 or other radioactive materials with different values in activity. The management of such materials in the installation, implies to analyze and to determine the doses that the POE will receive as well as the implementation of protection measures and appropriate radiological safety so that is completed the specified by the ALARA concept. In this work it is carried out an evaluation of the doses to receive for the POE when managing radionuclides with maximum activities that can be allowed in function of the current conditions of the cells and an evaluation of results is made with the program of surveillance and radiological protection implemented for the development of the works that carried out in the installation. (Author)

  8. Low temperature back-surface-field contacts deposited by hot-wire CVD for heterojunction solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munoz, D. [Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Grup de Recerca en Micro i Nanotecnologies, Jordi Girona 1-3, Barcelona 08034 (Spain)], E-mail: delfina@eel.upc.edu; Voz, C.; Martin, I.; Orpella, A.; Alcubilla, R. [Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Grup de Recerca en Micro i Nanotecnologies, Jordi Girona 1-3, Barcelona 08034 (Spain); Villar, F.; Bertomeu, J.; Andreu, J. [CeRMAE-Universitat de Barcelona, Departament de Fisica Aplicada i Optica, Diagonal 647, Barcelona 08028 (Spain); Roca-i-Cabarrocas, P. [LPICM-Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS 91128 Palaiseau (France)

    2008-08-30

    The growing interest in using thinner wafers (< 200 {mu}m) requires the development of low temperature passivation strategies for the back contact of heterojunction solar cells. In this work, we investigate low temperature deposited back contacts based on boron-doped amorphous silicon films obtained by Hot-Wire CVD. The influence of the deposition parameters and the use of an intrinsic buffer layer have been considered. The microstructure of the deposited thin films has been comprehensively studied by Spectroscopic Ellipsometry in the UV-visible range. The effective recombination velocity at the back surface has been measured by the Quasi-Steady-State Photoconductance technique. Complete double-side heterojunction solar cells (1 cm{sup 2}) have been fabricated and characterized by External Quantum Efficiency and current-voltage measurements. Total-area conversion efficiencies up to 14.5% were achieved in a fully low temperature process (< 200 deg. C)

  9. Paper-Based Analytical Devices Relying on Visible-Light-Enhanced Glucose/Air Biofuel Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kaiqing; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Yanhu; Ge, Shenguang; Yan, Mei; Yu, Jinghua; Song, Xianrang

    2015-11-01

    A strategy that combines visible-light-enhanced biofuel cells (BFCs) and electrochemical immunosensor into paper-based analytical devices was proposed for sensitive detection of the carbohydrate antigen 15-3 (CA15-3). The gold nanoparticle modified paper electrode with large surface area and good conductibility was applied as an effective matrix for primary antibodies. The glucose dehydrogenase (GDH) modified gold-silver bimetallic nanoparticles were used as bioanodic biocatalyst and signal magnification label. Poly(terthiophene) (pTTh), a photoresponsive conducting polymer, served as catalyst in cathode for the reduction of oxygen upon illumination by visible light. In the bioanode, electrons were generated through the oxidation of glucose catalyzed by GDH. The amount of electrons is determined by the amount of GDH, which finally depended on the amount of CA15-3. In the cathode, electrons from the bioanode could combine with the generated holes in the HOMO energy level of cathode catalysts pTTh. Meanwhile, the high energy level photoexcited electrons were generated in the LUMO energy level and involved in the oxygen reduction reaction, finally resulting in an increasing current and a decreasing overpotential. According to the current signal, simple and efficient detection of CA15-3 was achieved.

  10. Maintenance experiences at analytical laboratory at the Tokai reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Tokai Reprocessing Plant (TRP) is developing the technology to recover uranium and plutonium from spent nuclear fuel. There is an analytical laboratory which was built in 1977, as one of the most important facilities for process and material control analyses at the TRP. Samples taken from each process are analyzed by various analytical methods using hot cells, glove boxes and hume-hoods. A large number of maintenance work have been so far carried out and different types of experience have been accumulated. This paper describes our achievements in the maintenance activities at the analytical laboratory at the TRP. (author)

  11. Use of a CO2 pellet non-destructive cleaning system to decontaminate radiological waste and equipment in shielded hot cells at the Bettis Atomic Power Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper details how the Bettis Atomic Power Laboratory modified and utilized a commercially available, solid carbon dioxide (CO2) pellet, non-destructive cleaning system to support the disposition and disposal of radioactive waste from shielded hot cells. Some waste materials and equipment accumulated in the shielded hot cells cannot be disposed directly because they are contaminated with transuranic materials (elements with atomic numbers greater than that of uranium) above waste disposal site regulatory limits. A commercially available CO2 pellet non-destructive cleaning system was extensively modified for remote operation inside a shielded hot cell to remove the transuranic contaminants from the waste and equipment without generating any secondary waste in the process. The removed transuranic contaminants are simultaneously captured, consolidated, and retained for later disposal at a transuranic waste facility

  12. HOT 2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henriette Romme

    Undersøgelse af, hvad der er hot - og hvad der burde være hot på læseområdet med 21 læsekyndige. Undersøgelsen er gennemført siden 2010. HOT-undersøgelsen er foretaget af Nationalt Videncenter for Læsning - Professionshøjskolerne i samarb. med Dansklærerforeningen...

  13. Importance of Electrode Hot-Pressing Conditions for the Catalyst Performance of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Shuang Ma; Dhiman, Rajnish; Larsen, Mikkel Juul;

    2015-01-01

    The catalyst performance in a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) depends on not only the choice of materials, but also on the electrode structure and in particular on the interface between the components. In this work, we demonstrate that the hot-pressing conditions used during electrode...... lamination have a great influence on the catalyst properties of a low-temperature PEMFC, especially on its durability. Lamination pressure, temperature and duration were systematically studied in relation to the electrochemical surface area, platinum dissolution, platinum particle size and electrode surface...... composition. The degradation of the platinum catalyst and polymer was analyzed in relation to the preparation conditions. An optimal electrode interface structure can improve Pt performance by (1) providing high platinum utilization; (2) decreasing platinum migration and coalescence; (3) reducing carbon...

  14. Laser dismantling of PHWR spent fuel bundles and decladding of fuel pins in the highly radioactive hot cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: For reprocessing of PHWR fuel, fuel bundles are at present chopped mechanically into small pieces of pins using high tonnage mechanical press before dissolution. The existing method of bundle dismantling is purely mechanical using very high force for chopping. A laser based automated bundle dismantling system is developed. In the system, end-plates of bundle, which holds the fuel pins together, are cut using Nd-YAG laser to separate the bundles into pins. In addition to pin separation, the pins are to be chopped into small pieces using a small mechanical chopper. Since the spent fuel is highly radioactive, all these operations are performed remotely in hot cells. Post irradiation examination also requires dismantling of bundles into pins so that they can select the pins for the further examinations. In both these applications laser dismantling remains the most. important step and this system has been developed and tested. This paper describes the experience gained during the development efforts

  15. Scope and dissolution studies and characterization of irradiated nuclear fuel in Atalante Hot Cell Facilities (abstract and presentation slides)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dancausse, Jean-Philippe; Reynier Tronche, Nathalie; Ferlay, Gilles; Herlet, Nathalie; Eysseric, Cathrine; Esbelin, Eric

    2005-01-01

    Since 1999, several studies on nuclear fuels were realised in C11/C12 Atalante Hot Cell. This paper presents firstly an overview of the apparatus used for fuel dissolution and characterisation like reactor design, gas trapping flask and solid/liquid separation. Then, the general methodology is described as a function of fuel, temperature, reagents, showing for each step, the reachable experimental data: Dissolution rate, chemical and radiochemical fuel composition including volatile LLRN, insoluble mass, composition, morphology, cladding chemical, radiochemical and physical characterisation using SIMS (made in Cadarache/LECA facilities), MEB. To conclude, some of the obtained results on 129I and 14C composition of oxide fuels, rate of dissolution and first results on dissolution studies of RERTR UMo fuel will be detailed. (Author)

  16. Silicon quantum dots in SiO{sub x} dielectrics as energy selective contacts in hot carrier solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kar, Debjit; Das, Debajyoti, E-mail: erdd@iacs.res.in [Nano-Science Group, Energy Research Unit, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Jadavpur, Kolkata – 700032 (India)

    2015-06-24

    Thin films of c-Si QDs embedded in a-SiO{sub x} dielectric matrix was achieved at a low temperature ∼400°C, from one step process by reactive rf magnetron co-sputtering of c-Si wafer and pure SiO{sub 2} targets, in the (H{sub 2}+Ar)- plasma. Formation of a double-barrier structure has been primarily identified from the SAX data and exclusively confirmed from the resonant tunneling current appearing in the J-E characteristic curve peaks, determined by the discrete energy levels of c-Si QDs, at which it could be used as energy selective contacts in hot carrier solar cells.

  17. Microcrystalline silicon from very high frequency plasma deposition and hot-wire CVD for ``micromorph`` tandem solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brummack, H.; Brueggemann, R.; Wanka, H.N.; Hierzenberger, A.; Schubert, M.B. [Univ. Stuttgart (Germany). Inst. fuer Physikalische Elektronik

    1997-12-31

    The authors have grown microcrystalline silicon from a glow discharge at very high frequencies of 55 MHz and 170 MHz with high hydrogen dilution, and also, at more than 10 times higher growth rates, similar films by hot-wire chemical vapor deposition. Both kinds of materials have extensively been characterized and compared in terms of structural, optical and electronic properties, which greatly improve by deposition in a multi- instead of a single-chamber system. Incorporation of these different materials into pin solar cells results in open circuit voltages of about 400 mV as long as the doped layers are microcrystalline and rise to more than 870 mV if amorphous p- and n-layers are used. Quantum efficiencies and fill factors are still poor but leave room for further improvement, as clearly demonstrated by a remarkable reverse bias quantum efficiency gain.

  18. Autologous bone marrow stem cell transplantation in patients with liver failure: a meta-analytic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kewei; Chen, Xiaopan; Ren, Jinma

    2015-01-15

    Autologous bone marrow stem cell (ABMSC) transplantation has been utilized in clinical practice to treat patients with liver failure, but the therapeutic effect remains to be defined. A meta-analysis is essential to assess clinical advantages of ABMSC transplantation in patients with liver failure. A systematic search of published works [eg, PubMed, Medline, Embase, Chin J Clinicians (Electronic edition), and Science Citation Index] was conducted to compare clinical outcomes of ABMSC transplantation in patients with liver failure. Meta-analytic results were tested by fixed-effects model or random-effects model, dependent on the characteristics of variables. A total of 534 patients from seven studies were included in final meta-analysis. Subsequent to ABMSC transplantation, there was no significant improvement in general symptom and signs such as loss of appetite, fatigue, and ascites. Activities of serum ALT were not significantly decreased with weighted mean difference (WMD) of -19.36 and 95% confidence interval (CI) -57.53 to 18.80 (P=0.32). Postoperative level of albumin (ALB) was expectedly enhanced by stem cell transplantation (WMD 2.97, 95% CI 0.52 to 5.43, P<0.05, I(2)=84%). Coagulation function was improved as demonstrated by a short prothrombin time (PT) (WMD -1.18, 95% CI -2.32 to -0.03, P<0.05, I(2)=6%), but was not reflected by prothrombin activity (PTA) (P=0.39). Total bilirubin (TBIL) was drastically diminished after ABMSC therapy (WMD -14.85, 95% CI -20.39 to -9.32, P<0.01, I(2)=73%). Model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) scores were dramatically reduced (WMD -2.27, 95% CI -3.53 to -1.02, P<0.01, I(2)=0%). The advantage of ABMSC transplantation could be maintained more than 24 weeks as displayed by time-courses of ALB, TBIL, and MELD score. ABMSC transplantation does provide beneficial effects for patients with liver failure. Therapeutic effects can last for 6 months. However, long-term effects need to be determined. PMID:25356526

  19. An Innovative Hybrid 3D Analytic-Numerical Approach for System Level Modelling of PEM Fuel Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregor Tavčar

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The PEM fuel cell model presented in this paper is based on modelling species transport and coupling electrochemical reactions to species transport in an innovative way. Species transport is modelled by obtaining a 2D analytic solution for species concentration distribution in the plane perpendicular to the gas-flow and coupling consecutive 2D solutions by means of a 1D numerical gas-flow model. The 2D solution is devised on a jigsaw puzzle of multiple coupled domains which enables the modelling of parallel straight channel fuel cells with realistic geometries. Electrochemical and other nonlinear phenomena are coupled to the species transport by a routine that uses derivative approximation with prediction-iteration. A hybrid 3D analytic-numerical fuel cell model of a laboratory test fuel cell is presented and evaluated against a professional 3D computational fluid dynamic (CFD simulation tool. This comparative evaluation shows very good agreement between results of the presented model and those of the CFD simulation. Furthermore, high accuracy results are achieved at computational times short enough to be suitable for system level simulations. This computational efficiency is owed to the semi-analytic nature of its species transport modelling and to the efficient computational coupling of electrochemical kinetics and species transport.

  20. 粮食热风干燥含水率在线模型解析%Analytical study on on-line model of moisture in hot air drying process of grain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李长友; 马兴灶; 麦智炜

    2014-01-01

    drying methods of concurrent flow and counter flow, cross flow and standing drying were obtained. The result showed that the drying rate experienced the continuously decreasing process inside the concurrent flow deep bed drying, and the maximum point occurred at the beginning of the drying, that said the moisture content decreased quickly, and the late changed extremely smooth in the hot air inlet position. In counter flow deep bed drying, the drying rate had an extreme value point, and the maximum drying rate did not necessarily in the position of hot air inlet and outlet of drying layer. Indeed, the drying rate of counter flow was significantly higher than concurrent flow drying under the same drying conditions of ventilating temperature, humidity and air volume. And in cross flow and standing drying, the drying rate in the position of hot air inlet and outlet had a big difference. When the layer thickness was 0.5 m, and the grain moisture content was more than 20%, the drying rate was nearly zero in the air outlet. This paper pointed out that the change process of grain drying was from initial state point(wet grain)to the final state point (dry grain), the uniformity of cross flow and standing drying was poor, and the counter flow drying technology was more energy-saving than concurrent flow. The experiment was studied in 5HP-3.5 type circulating and tempering dryer, and the results showed that the analytical values and measured values of paddy moisture content in dryer export presented high fitting degree after experiencing the drying and tempering every time. And the maximum deviation between analytical values and measured values was 0.69%, the range of drying process was 0.27%-0.69%. Grain drying was a typical larger inertia and nonlinear process, which pointed out the reason for deviation should be detection error caused by instrument, and confirmed the reliability of the analytical results. The given analytical method avoided the problem of the poor reliability

  1. Hot Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vail, Kathleen

    1996-01-01

    Collaborators sparked by creative ideas and obsessed by a common task may not realize they're part of a "hot group"--a term coined by business professors Harold J. Leavitt and Jean Lipman-Blumen. Spawned by group decision making and employee empowerment, hot groups can flourish in education settings. They're typically small, short lived, and goal…

  2. Mechanical characterisation of irradiated RPV materials by hot cell investigations to ensure RPV integrity; Werkstoffmechanische Charakterisierung bestrahlter RDB-Werkstoffe durch Heisszellenuntersuchungen zur Absicherung der RDB-Integritaet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilg, U. [EnBW Kernkraft GmbH, Philippsburg (Germany); Koenig, G. [EnBW Kernkraft GmbH, Neckarwestheim (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    The contribution gives an exemplary illustration of how to assess material characteristics after irradiation for the PWR power station GKN I and the BWR power station KKP1. This necessitates detailed mechanical technological investigations of test samples in so-called hot cells, which are evaluated according to current concepts according to KTA 3202. (orig.)

  3. Dose levels in the hot cells area ININ; Niveles de dosis en el area de celdas calientes-ININ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torre, J. De la; Ramirez, J.M. [ININ, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Solis, M.L. [UAEM, Toluca, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. E-mail: jto@nuclear.inin.mx

    2004-07-01

    The Laboratory of Hot Cells (LCC) located in the National Institute of Nuclear Research (ININ) is an institution, it is an area where radioactive material is managed with different activity values, in function of its original design for 10,000 curies of Co-60. Managing this materials in the installation, it implies to measure and to analyze the dose levels that the POE will receive as well as the implementation of appropriate measures of radiological protection and radiological safety, so that that is completed settled down by the concept ALARA. In this work they are carried out mensurations of the levels of the dose to receive for the POE when managing radionuclides with maximum activities that can be allowed in function of the current conditions of the cells and an evaluation of the obtained results is made comparing them with the effective international norms as well as the application of the program of surveillance and radiological protection implemented for the development of the works that are carry out in the installation. (Author)

  4. [Photonic crystals for analytical chemistry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi; Li, Jincheng

    2009-09-01

    Photonic crystals, originally created to control the transmission of light, have found their increasing value in the field of analytical chemistry and are probable to become a hot research area soon. This review is hence composed, focusing on their analytical chemistry-oriented applications, including especially their use in chromatography, capillary- and chip-based electrophoresis.

  5. Photovoltaic network connection portraits (XIV): The issue of hot cells; Retraso de la conexion fotovoltaica a la red (XIV): El asunto de las celulas calientes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenzo, E.; Martinez, F.; Moreton, R.

    2009-07-01

    In some cases due to plants performance is not as correct as hoped, and in some other, simply because the nice colors of the thermographs resulted very attractive to plenty of people; many photovoltaic generators have been profusely thermography within the current year. It has caused a special interest on hot cells phenomenon, that is to say those cells which operate at a significantly higher temperature than other placed in the same panel. (Author) 4 refs.

  6. Preliminary report for the license of a hot cell that will be use in the technology development for the obtention of Mo-99

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A preliminary report for the license of a hot cell that will be used in the development of the technology for the obtaining of Mo-99 is presented. The following topics are also included: objective of the project, technical description, description of the prototype cell, handling of radioactive wastes, lists of equipment that will be used, risk analysis, curricula, quality assurance plan and an annex with the report on handling of radioactive wastes presented to the PAGD-IAEA. (Author)

  7. Analytical considerations for linear and nonlinear optimization of the TME cells. Application to the CLIC pre-damping rings

    CERN Document Server

    Fanouria, Antoniou

    2014-01-01

    The theoretical minimum emittance cells are the optimal configurations for achieving the absolute minimum emittance, if specific optics constraints are satisfied at the middle of the cell's dipole. Linear lattice design options based on an analytical approach for the theoretical minimum emittance cells are presented in this paper. In particular the parametrization of the quadrupole strengths and optics functions with respect to the emittance and drift lengths is derived. A multi-parametric space can be then created with all the cell parameters, from which one can chose any of them to be optimized. An application of this approach are finally presented for the linear and non-linear optimization of the CLIC Pre-damping rings.

  8. Online flow cytometry for monitoring apoptosis in mammalian cell cultures as an application for process analytical technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuystermans, Darrin; Avesh, Mohd; Al-Rubeai, Mohamed

    2016-05-01

    Apoptosis is the main driver of cell death in bioreactor suspension cell cultures during the production of biopharmaceuticals from animal cell lines. It is known that apoptosis also has an effect on the quality and quantity of the expressed recombinant protein. This has raised the importance of studying apoptosis for implementing culture optimization strategies. The work here describes a novel approach to obtain near real time data on proportion of viable, early apoptotic, late apoptotic and necrotic cell populations in a suspension CHO culture using automated sample preparation in conjunction with flow cytometry. The resultant online flow cytometry data can track the progression of apoptotic events in culture, aligning with analogous manual methodologies and giving similar results. The obtained near-real time apoptosis data are a significant improvement in monitoring capabilities and can lead to improved control strategies and research data on complex biological systems in bioreactor cultures in both academic and industrial settings focused on process analytical technology applications.

  9. An innovative hybrid 3D analytic-numerical model for air breathing parallel channel counter-flow PEM fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavčar, Gregor; Katrašnik, Tomaž

    2014-01-01

    The parallel straight channel PEM fuel cell model presented in this paper extends the innovative hybrid 3D analytic-numerical (HAN) approach previously published by the authors with capabilities to address ternary diffusion systems and counter-flow configurations. The model's core principle is modelling species transport by obtaining a 2D analytic solution for species concentration distribution in the plane perpendicular to the cannel gas-flow and coupling consecutive 2D solutions by means of a 1D numerical pipe-flow model. Electrochemical and other nonlinear phenomena are coupled to the species transport by a routine that uses derivative approximation with prediction-iteration. The latter is also the core of the counter-flow computation algorithm. A HAN model of a laboratory test fuel cell is presented and evaluated against a professional 3D CFD simulation tool showing very good agreement between results of the presented model and those of the CFD simulation. Furthermore, high accuracy results are achieved at moderate computational times, which is owed to the semi-analytic nature and to the efficient computational coupling of electrochemical kinetics and species transport. PMID:25125112

  10. Atomic force microscopy as analytical tool to study physico-mechanical properties of intestinal cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christa Schimpel

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The small intestine is a complex system that carries out various functions. The main function of enterocytes is absorption of nutrients, whereas membranous cells (M cells are responsible for delivering antigens/foreign substances to the mucosal lymphoid tissues. However, to get a fundamental understanding of how cellular structures contribute to physiological processes, precise knowledge about surface morphologies, cytoskeleton organizations and biomechanical properties is necessary. Atomic force microscopy (AFM was used here as a powerful tool to study surface topographies of Caco-2 cells and M cells. Furthermore, cell elasticity (i.e., the mechanical response of a cell on a tip indentation, was elucidated by force curve measurements. Besides elasticity, adhesion was evaluated by recording the attraction and repulsion forces between the tip and the cell surface. Organization of F-actin networks were investigated via phalloidin labeling and visualization was performed with confocal laser scanning fluorescence microscopy (CLSM and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The results of these various experimental techniques revealed significant differences in the cytoskeleton/microvilli arrangements and F-actin organization. Caco-2 cells displayed densely packed F-actin bundles covering the entire cell surface, indicating the formation of a well-differentiated brush border. In contrast, in M cells actins were arranged as short and/or truncated thin villi, only available at the cell edge. The elasticity of M cells was 1.7-fold higher compared to Caco-2 cells and increased significantly from the cell periphery to the nuclear region. Since elasticity can be directly linked to cell adhesion, M cells showed higher adhesion forces than Caco-2 cells. The combination of distinct experimental techniques shows that morphological differences between Caco-2 cells and M cells correlate with mechanical cell properties and provide useful information to understand

  11. Analytical and equivalent-circuit models based on numerical solutions for amorphous silicon p/i/n solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misiakos, K.; Lindholm, F. A.

    The authors present contact-to-contact computer solutions of the a-Si:H p/i/n solar cell and uses these to obtain the approximations and insight needed for the development of analytical models. The numerical results allow study of many aspects of internal variables as functions of position, terminal voltage, and phonon flux density. Based on the numerical results, analytical and equivalent-circuit models are proposed which support each other and explain the physical origin of interdependencies among such variables as quantum efficiency, electric field and recombination rate profiles, and their relation to current-voltage characteristics. The concept of the limiting carrier is mathematically treated by separating the current into photocollected and back-injection components. The limiting carrier is the carrier with the least photocollected current.

  12. Large CZTS Nanoparticles Synthesized by Hot-Injection for Thin Film Solar Cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Engberg, Sara Lena Josefin; Lam, Yeng Ming; Schou, Jørgen

    2015-01-01

    The kesterite material, Cu2ZnSn(SxSe1-x)4 (CZTS), shows great promise as the absorber layer for future thin film solar cells. Solution processing allows for comparatively fast and inexpensive fabrication, and holds the record efficiency in the kesterite family. However, for nanoparticle (NP) solution processing to be a feasible fabrication route, the amount of carbon in the film has to be limited. In our work, we try to limit the organic material in the film by synthesizing larger NPs. Larger...

  13. Pre-analytical variables of circulating cell-free nucleosomes containing 5-methylcytosine DNA or histone modification H3K9Me3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Louise; Herzog, Marielle; Aastrup rømer, Eva Christine;

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate pre-analytical variables of circulating cell-free nucleosomes containing 5-methylcytosine DNA (5mC) or histone modification H3K9Me3 (H3K9Me3). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Six studies were designed to assess the possible influence of pre-analytical variables. Study 1: influence of stasis...

  14. Analytic Methods for Benchmarking Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technologies; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melaina, Marc; Saur, Genevieve; Ramsden, Todd; Eichman, Joshua

    2015-05-28

    This presentation summarizes NREL's hydrogen and fuel cell analysis work in three areas: resource potential, greenhouse gas emissions and cost of delivered energy, and influence of auxiliary revenue streams. NREL's hydrogen and fuel cell analysis projects focus on low-­carbon and economic transportation and stationary fuel cell applications. Analysis tools developed by the lab provide insight into the degree to which bridging markets can strengthen the business case for fuel cell applications.

  15. Analytical Investigation and Improvement of Performance of a Proton Exchange Membrane (Pem Fuel Cell in Mobile Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khazaee I.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the performance of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell in mobile applications is investigated analytically. At present the main use and advantages of fuel cells impact particularly strongly on mobile applications such as vehicles, mobile computers and mobile telephones. Some external parameters such as the cell temperature (Tcell , operating pressure of gases (P and air stoichiometry (λair affect the performance and voltage losses in the PEM fuel cell. Because of the existence of many theoretical, empirical and semi-empirical models of the PEM fuel cell, it is necessary to compare the accuracy of these models. But theoretical models that are obtained from thermodynamic and electrochemical approach, are very exact but complex, so it would be easier to use the empirical and smi-empirical models in order to forecast the fuel cell system performance in many applications such as mobile applications. The main purpose of this study is to obtain the semi-empirical relation of a PEM fuel cell with the least voltage losses. Also, the results are compared with the existing experimental results in the literature and a good agreement is seen.

  16. Analysis of loss mechanisms in InGaN solar cells using a semi-analytical model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xuanqi; Fu, Houqiang; Chen, Hong; Lu, Zhijian; Ding, Ding; Zhao, Yuji

    2016-06-01

    InGaN semiconductors are promising candidates for high-efficiency next-generation thin film solar cells. In this work, we study the photovoltaic performance of single-junction and two-junction InGaN solar cells using a semi-analytical model. We analyze the major loss mechanisms in InGaN solar cell including transmission loss, thermalization loss, spatial relaxation loss, and recombination loss. We find that transmission loss plays a major role for InGaN solar cells due to the large bandgaps of III-nitride materials. Among the recombination losses, Shockley-Read-Hall recombination loss is the dominant process. Compared to other III-V photovoltaic materials, we discovered that the emittance of InGaN solar cells is strongly impacted by Urbach tail energy. For two- and multi-junction InGaN solar cells, we discover that the current matching condition results in a limited range of top-junction bandgaps. This theoretical work provides detailed guidance for the design of high-performance InGaN solar cells.

  17. New flow through reactor installed in the ITU Hot Cell laboratory to investigate the dissolution rates of the irradiated fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to study the dissolution rates for the different radionuclides, the effect of water radiolysis and to elucidate the dissolution mechanisms of the different radionuclides contained in the spent fuel matrix, irradiated spent fuel and UO2 was used. This study is performed as a part of the collaboration programme ENRESA-CIEMAT-ITU (EC DG/JRC) to provide a source term for use in a performance assessment calculation. For the determination of the dissolution rates a continuous flow through reactor specially designed for hot cell handling was built. This reactor allows the control in situ of different important parameters for leaching experiments such as, redox potential, pH and temperature. These leaching experiments reported the effects of four important parameters (redox potential, pH, carbonate concentration and temperature) on the dissolution kinetics of the spent fuel matrix phase. The kinetic of dissolution of irradiated UO2 fuel has been studied in synthetic granite groundwater under oxidizing conditions at room temperature. preliminary results indicate that for spent fuel, dissolution rate depends on the burnup, being the dissolution rate calculated for the UO2 LWR fuel with a burnup of 53 MWd/kg U of 2.66 10''-10 mol m''1 and of 6.77 10''11 mol m''2 s''-1 for the spent fuel of 29 MWd/kg U. (Author)

  18. Modelling of a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell CHP System Coupled with a Hot Water Storage Tank for a Single Household

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Liso

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC system for cogeneration of heat and power integrated with a stratified heat storage tank is studied. The use of a storage tank with thermal stratification allows one to increase the annual operating hours of CHP: heat can be produced when the request is low (for instance during the night, taking advantage of thermal stratification to increases the heat recovery performance. A model of the SOFC system is presented to estimate the energy required to meet the average electric energy demand of the residence. Two fuels are considered, namely syngas produced by gasification and natural gas. The tank model considers the temperature gradients over the tank height. The results of the numerical simulation are used to size the SOFC system and storage heat tank to provide energy for a small household using two different fuels. In particular it was shown that in the case of syngas, due to larger system heat output, a larger tank volume was required in order to accumulate unused heat over the night. The detailed description of the tank model will be useful to energy system modelers when sizing hot water tanks. Problem formulation is reported also using a Matlab script.

  19. An Applied Study on the Decontamination and Decommissioning of Hot Cell Facilities in the United States and Comparison with the Studsvik Facility for Solid and Liquid Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varley, Geoff; Rusch, Chris [NAC International, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2006-07-15

    This report presents the plans, processes and results of the decontamination and decommissioning of the Hot Cell Facility in Building 23 at the General Atomics Torrey Pines Mesa Facility (HCF) and compares the program and cost of decommissioning HCF with the Swedish cost estimate for decontamination and decommissioning of the HM hot cell and wastes treatment facility at Studsvik in Sweden. The HCF had three main hot cells and was licensed to: Receive, handle and ship radioactive materials; Remotely handle, examine and store irradiated fuel materials; Extract tritium (engineering scale); Support new reactor production development; Develop, fabricate and inspect UO{sub 2} - BeO fuel materials. The HM facility in Studsvik was constructed to handle and package medium-active solid and liquid wastes, prior to disposal. Central to the facility is a conventional hot cell including three work stations, serviced by master slave manipulators. Other parts of the facility include holding tanks for liquid wastes and slurries, a centrifuge room, as well as an encapsulation station where drummed wastes can be encapsulated in cement, offices, laboratories and workshops and so on, as well as building and cell ventilation systems. Decontamination and decommissioning of the HCF took place during 1993 through 2001. The objective was to obtain regulatory release of the site so that it could be used on an unrestricted basis. Based on data from extensive hazardous and radiological materials characterization, GA evaluated four decommissioning options and selected dismantling as the only option that would satisfy the decommissioning objective. The decontamination and decommissioning scope included the following actions. 1. Remove the legacy waste that consisted of radioactive wastes stored at the HCF consisting of 21,434 kg of irradiated fuel material (IFM) that was owned by the US DoE and store the waste in temporary storage set up at the GA site. 2. Actual Decontamination and

  20. Hot Cell Post-Irradiation Examination and Poolside Inspection of Nuclear Fuel. Proceedings of the IAEA-HOTLAB Technical Meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The growing operational requirements for nuclear fuel, such as longer fuel cycles, higher burnups and wider use of transient regimes, require more robust fuel designs and more radiation resistant materials. Development of such advanced fuels is only possible with testing and analysis of their performance and application of adequate post-irradiation examination (PIE) methods and techniques. In addition, operational feedback data from poolside and PIE facilities are absolutely necessary for verification of fuel modelling codes and analysis of fuel failure mechanisms. For these reasons, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has supported the international exchange of knowledge and sharing of best practices in the application of modern destructive and non-destructive methods of investigation of highly radioactive materials through a series of technical meetings (TMs), the last of which was held in 2006 in Buenos Aires. Since 1963, similar meetings, initially at the European level, have been organized by the Hot Laboratories and Remote Handling Working Group (HOTLAB), a partner in the development of the IAEA's Post Irradiation Examination Facilities Database (PIEDB), part of the IAEA's Integrated Nuclear Fuel Cycle Information System. With this successful partnership in mind, in 2010 the IAEA Technical Working Group on Fuel Performance and Technology recommended that a joint IAEA-HOTLAB TM be held on 'Hot Cell Post-Irradiation Examination and Pool-Side Inspection of Nuclear Fuel', covering questions relevant to the IAEA sub-programmes on 'Nuclear Power Reactor Fuel Engineering' and 'Management of Spent Fuel from Nuclear Power Reactors'. The TM was held on 23-27 May 2011, in Smolenice, Slovakia, with the participation of a large number of interested organizations and comprehensive coverage of major PIE and poolside inspection issues relating to both operation and storage of fuel for nuclear power reactors. The proceedings, summaries and conclusions of that joint

  1. Analytical analysis of slow and fast pressure waves in a two-dimensional cellular solid with fluid-filled cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorodnitsyn, Vladimir; Van Damme, Bart

    2016-06-01

    Wave propagation in cellular and porous media is widely studied due to its abundance in nature and industrial applications. Biot's theory for open-cell media predicts the existence of two simultaneous pressure waves, distinguished by its velocity. A fast wave travels through the solid matrix, whereas a much slower wave is carried by fluid channels. In closed-cell materials, the slow wave disappears due to a lack of a continuous fluid path. However, recent finite element (FE) simulations done by the authors of this paper also predict the presence of slow pressure waves in saturated closed-cell materials. The nature of the slow wave is not clear. In this paper, an equivalent unit cell of a medium with square cells is proposed to permit an analytical description of the dynamics of such a material. A simplified FE model suggests that the fluid-structure interaction can be fully captured using a wavenumber-dependent spring support of the vibrating cell walls. Using this approach, the pressure wave behavior can be calculated with high accuracy, but with less numerical effort. Finally, Rayleigh's energy method is used to investigate the coexistence of two waves with different velocities. PMID:27369159

  2. Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy as a Powerful Analytical Tool for the Study of Microbial Electrochemical Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yoho, R.A.; Popat, S.C.; Fabregat-Santiago, F.; Giménez, S.; Heijne, ter A.; Torres, C.

    2015-01-01

    In microbial electrochemical cells (MXCs), not only classic overpotentials known from other types of fuel cells are encountered, but also overpotentials associated with the metabolic processes and electron-transport pathways in bacteria are encountered. Of the many techniques that can be used to inv

  3. Analytical characterization of cell-asbestos fiber interactions in lung pathogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Seydou; Petibois, Cyril [Universite de Bordeaux, Pessac Cedex (France); DellaVentura, Giancarlo [Universita Roma Tre, Dipartimento Scienze Geologiche, Rome (Italy)

    2010-07-15

    Asbestos is a fiber causing lung diseases such as asbestosis and mesothelioma. Although the process involving these diseases remains to be elucidated for developing drugs and treatments, direct consequences of fiber exposure in humans have been clearly demonstrated. These diseases are first characterized by histological heterogeneity and combine chronic inflammation with fibrosis and cellular alterations. As a consequence, asbestosis is usually diagnosed at advanced stages of the disease and treatments are usually inefficient to cure the patients. Here, we review the links established between asbestos fiber chemistry and morphology with the occurrence of associated lung diseases. Cytological and histological aspects of diseases are described with respect to current analytical capabilities, notably for microscopy techniques. (orig.)

  4. An analytical, control-oriented state space model for a PEM fuel cell system

    OpenAIRE

    Grasser, Félix

    2006-01-01

    If fuel cell technology – with its inherent benefits of high efficiency and low emissions – is to be used in decentralised power sources, in mobile or transportation applications, the systems have to be able to adapt to fast load changes and varying operating conditions. In order to achieve such performance, the balance of plant systems – typically governed by an on-board system controller – need to dynamically supply the fuel cell stack with reactant gases at the right flow rates, pressures ...

  5. Analytical study of PPV-oligomer- and C60-based devices for optimising organic solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geens, Wim; Poortmans, Jef; Jain, Suresh C.; Nijs, Johan; Mertens, Robert; Veenstra, Sjoerd C.; Krasnikov, Viktor V.; Hadziioannou, Georges

    2000-01-01

    A blend of a 5-ring n-octyloxy-substituted oligo(p-phenylene vinylene) and C60, sandwiched between two electrodes, has been used as the active layer for an organic solar cell. It delivered external quantum efficiencies up to 60% in the visible and 70% in the UV part of the spectrum. To unambiguously

  6. Analytical solution and experimental validation of the energy management problem for fuel cell hybrid vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoppenbrouwers, Stijn; Grimminck, M.; Bosch, P.P.J. van den; Veenhuizen, Bram; Tazelaar, Edwin

    2011-01-01

    The objective of an energy management strategy for fuel cell hybrid propulsion systems is to minimize the fuel needed to provide the required power demand. This minimization is defined as an optimization problem. Methods such as dynamic programming numerically solve this optimization problem. Strate

  7. Analytical solution of the energy management for fuel cell hybrid propulsion systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenhuizen, Bram; Tazelaar, E.; Bosch, P.P.J. van den

    2012-01-01

    The objective of an energy management strategy for fuel cell hybrid propulsion systems is to minimize the fuel needed to provide the required power demand. This minimization is defined as an optimization problem. Methods such as dynamic programming numerically solve this optimization problem. Strate

  8. Pre-Analytical Conditions in Non-Invasive Prenatal Testing of Cell-Free Fetal RHD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Frederik Banch; Jakobsen, Tanja Roien; Rieneck, Klaus;

    2013-01-01

    Non-invasive prenatal testing of cell-free fetal DNA (cffDNA) in maternal plasma can predict the fetal RhD type in D negative pregnant women. In Denmark, routine antenatal screening for the fetal RhD gene (RHD) directs the administration of antenatal anti-D prophylaxis only to women who carry an Rh...

  9. A fractal analytical model for the permeabilities of fibrous gas diffusion layer in proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study of water and gas transport through fibrous gas diffusion layer (GDL) is important to the optimization of proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). In this work, analytical models of dimensionless permeability, and water and gas relative permeabilities of fibrous GDL in PEMFCs are derived using fractal theory. In our models, the structure of fibrous GDL is characterized in terms of porosity, tortuosity fractal dimension (DT), pore area fractal dimensions (df), water phase (df,w) and gas phase (df,g) fractal dimensions. The predicted dimensionless permeability, water and gas relative permeabilities based on the proposed models are in good agreement with experimental data and predictions of numerical simulations reported in the literature. The model reveals that, although water phase and gas phase fractal dimensions strongly depend on porosity, the water and gas relative permeabilities are independent of porosity and are a function of water saturation only. It is also shown that the dimensionless permeability decreases significantly with the increase of tortuosity fractal dimension. On the other hand, there is only a small decrease in the water and gas relative permeabilities when tortuosity fractal dimension increases. One advantage of the proposed analytical model is that it contains no empirical constant, which is normally required in past models

  10. Softlithography in Chemical Sensing – Analytes from Molecules to Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Leidl

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Imprinting is a flexible and straightforward technique to generate selective sensormaterials e.g. for mass-sensitive detection. Inherently, the strategy suits both molecularanalytes and entire micro organisms or cells. Imprinted polyurethanes e.g. are capable ofdistinguishing the different xylene isomers with very appreciable selectivity factors.Combining imprinted titanates with surface transverse wave resonators (STW leads to apowerful tool for detecting engine oil degradation, which is an excellent example foroxidative deterioration processes in a highly complex matrix. Surface imprints withgeometrically equal cavities exhibit clear chemical selectivity, as can e.g. be seen throughthe example of different human rhinovirus (HRV serotypes. Another example is a bloodgroup-selective sensor prepared by templating with erythrocyte ghosts. Both the bloodgroupA and B imprinted material selectively distinguish between blood groups A, B and O,whereas no difference in sensor signal has been observed for AB, where both blood groupantigen types are present on the cell surface.

  11. Analytical study of pulsed laser irradiation on some materials used for photovoltaic cells on satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El-Hameed, Afaf M.

    2015-12-01

    The present research concerns on the study of laser-powered solar panels used for space applications. A mathematical model representing the laser effects on semiconductors has been developed. The temperature behavior and heat flow on the surface and through a slab has been studied after exposed to nano-second pulsed laser. The model is applied on two different types of common active semiconductor materials that used for photovoltaic cells fabrication as silicon (Si), and gallium arsenide (GaAs). These materials are used for receivers' manufacture for laser beamed power in space. Various values of time are estimated to clarify the heat flow through the material sample and generated under the effects of pulsed laser irradiation. These effects are theoretically studied in order to determine the performance limits of the solar cells when they are powered by laser radiation during the satellite eclipse. Moreover, the obtained results are carried out to optimize conversion efficiency of photovoltaic cells and may be helpful to give more explanation for layout of the light-electricity space systems.

  12. A hot water extract of Curcuma longa inhibits adhesion molecule protein expression and monocyte adhesion to TNF-α-stimulated human endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, Kengo; Muroyama, Koutarou; Yamamoto, Norio; Murosaki, Shinji

    2015-01-01

    The recruitment of arterial leukocytes to endothelial cells is an important step in the progression of various inflammatory diseases. Therefore, its modulation is thought to be a prospective target for the prevention or treatment of such diseases. Adhesion molecules on endothelial cells are induced by proinflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and contribute to the recruitment of leukocytes. In the present study, we investigated the effect of hot water extract of Curcuma longa (WEC) on the protein expression of adhesion molecules, monocyte adhesion induced by TNF-α in human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs). Treatment of HUVECs with WEC significantly suppressed both TNF-α-induced protein expression of adhesion molecules and monocyte adhesion. WEC also suppressed phosphorylation and degradation of nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells inhibitor, alpha (IκBα) induced by TNF-α in HUVECs, suggesting that WEC inhibits the NF-κB signaling pathway.

  13. Customer Analytics in Iceland: Attitudes and implementation

    OpenAIRE

    Rúrik Karl Björnsson 1987

    2014-01-01

    Analytics are incresingly becoming a hot topic in businesses around the world. More and more companies are implementing analytics to stay ahead of the competition and at the same time increase knowledge of their customer base and market environment. The author was interested in researching how analytics were being implemented in the Icelandic market. Not much is known about how Icelandic companies are using analytics. The author decided to conduct in-depth interviews with twelve companies ...

  14. Employing Hot Wire Anemometry to Directly Measure the Water Balance of a Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shakhshir, Saher Al; Berning, Torsten

    in hot wire anemometry is the description of the Nusselt number as function of the Reynolds number and the Prandtl number, and in the current application it can be shown it is essential to employ a power-law equation instead of the commonly employed Churchill Bernstein equation. It will be shown...

  15. First analysis of remote handling maintenance procedure in the hot cell for the ITER ICH and CD antenna – RVTL replacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper deals with a first analysis of the Remote Handling (RH) maintenance procedure for the replacement of Removable Vacuum Transmission Lines (RVTL) of the ICRH antenna Port Plug (PP). In the framework of the grant F4E-2009-GRT-026, CEA IRFM studied the maintenance in parallel with the design of the antenna provided by CCFE. The RVTL are 8 components of the ICRH antenna which form the interface between the matching system and the four port junction integrating the straps. A folded stub is attached to the principal line to ensure water cooling of the interspace. At the front and the rear of the RVTL are installed double RF windows that provide the first tritium barrier. In case of failure of the first window, all the RVTL have to be replaced. Due to the contamination and activation, the replacement must take place in the hot cell. The complete maintenance sequence is studied. It starts when the PP is in place in the Tokamak equatorial port, it continues with: the preparation in the port cell, transfer to the HC, cleaning, RVTL replacement, returns to the port cell. It finishes with reconnection to the port. The ITER requirements [1] and the hot cell constraints [2] are used to extract specifications for the RH tooling (for handling, cutting, welding, etc.). Each step is studied and suitable tools identified. For specific steps, mechanical concepts for dedicated tools are proposed. Furthermore, the critical steps identified are simulated to check the feasibility

  16. Hot Money,Hot Problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    After emerging from the economic doldrums, developing economies are now confronted with a new danger-a flood of international hot money. But how has the speculative capital circumvented regulatory controls and what are the consequences concerning the stability of the developing world? Zhao Zhongwei, a senior researcher with the Institute of World Politics and Economics at the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, discussed these issues in an article recently published in the China Securities Journal. Edited excerpts follow

  17. Analytical and Numerical Study of Photocurrent Transients in Organic Polymer Solar Cells

    CERN Document Server

    de Falco, Carlo; Verri, Maurizio; 10.1016/j.cma.2010.01.018

    2012-01-01

    This article is an attempt to provide a self consistent picture, including existence analysis and numerical solution algorithms, of the mathematical problems arising from modeling photocurrent transients in Organic-polymer Solar Cells (OSCs). The mathematical model for OSCs consists of a system of nonlinear diffusion-reaction partial differential equations (PDEs) with electrostatic convection, coupled to a kinetic ordinary differential equation (ODE). We propose a suitable reformulation of the model that allows us to prove the existence of a solution in both stationary and transient conditions and to better highlight the role of exciton dynamics in determining the device turn-on time. For the numerical treatment of the problem, we carry out a temporal semi-discretization using an implicit adaptive method, and the resulting sequence of differential subproblems is linearized using the Newton-Raphson method with inexact evaluation of the Jacobian. Then, we use exponentially fitted finite elements for the spatial...

  18. Online state of health estimation on NMC cells based on predictive analytics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berecibar, Maitane; Devriendt, Floris; Dubarry, Matthieu; Villarreal, Igor; Omar, Noshin; Verbeke, Wouter; Van Mierlo, Joeri

    2016-07-01

    Accurate on board state of health estimation is a key battery management system function to provide optimal management of the battery system under control. In this regard, this paper presents an extensive study and comparison of three of commonly used supervised learning methods for state of health estimation in Graphite/Nickel Manganese Cobalt oxide cells. The three methods were based from the study of both incremental capacity and differential voltage curves. According to the ageing evolution of both curves, features were extracted and used as inputs for the estimation techniques. Ordinary Least Squares, Multilayer Perceptron and Support Vector Machine were used as the estimation techniques and accurate results were obtained while requiring a low computational effort. Moreover, this work allows a deep comparison of the different estimation techniques in terms of accuracy, online estimation and BMS applicability. In addition, estimation can be developed by partial charging and/or partial discharging, reducing the required maintenance time.

  19. Analytic studies on satellite detection of severe, two-cell tornadoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrier, G. F.; Dergarabedian, P.; Fendell, F. E.

    1979-01-01

    From funnel-cloud-length interpretation, the severe tornado is characterized by peak swirl speed relative to the axis of rotation of about 90 m/s. Thermohydrodynamic achievement of the pressure deficit from ambient necessary to sustain such swirls requires that a dry, compressionally heated, non-rotating downdraft of initially tropopause-level air lie within an annulus of rapidly swirling, originally low-level air ascending on a near-moist-adiabatic locus of thermodynamic states. The two-cell structure furnishes an observable parameter possibly accessible to a passively instrumented, geosynchronous meteorological satellite with mesoscale resolution, for early detection of a severe tornado. Accordingly, the low-level turnaround region, in which the surface inflow layer separates to become a free ascending layer and for which inviscid modeling suffices, is examined quantitatively. Preliminary results indicate that swirl overshoot, i.e., swirl speeds in the turnaround region in excess of the maximum achieved in the potential vortex, is modest.

  20. An Analytical Solution for Exciton Generation, Reaction, and Diffusion in Nanotube and Nanowire-Based Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellisario, Darin O; Paulson, Joel A; Braatz, Richard D; Strano, Michael S

    2016-07-21

    Excitonic solar cells based on aligned or unaligned networks of nanotubes or nanowires offer advantages with respect of optical absorption, and control of excition and electrical carrier transport; however, there is a lack of predictive models of the optimal orientation and packing density of such devices to maximize efficiency. Here-in, we develop a concise analytical framework that describes the orientation and density trade-off on exciton collection computed from a deterministic model of a carbon nanotube (CNT) photovoltaic device under steady-state operation that incorporates single- and aggregate-nanotube photophysics published earlier (Energy Environ Sci, 2014, 7, 3769). We show that the maximal film efficiency is determined by a parameter grouping, α, representing the product of the network density and the effective exciton diffusion length, reflecting a cooperativity between the rate of exciton generation and the rate of exciton transport. This allows for a simple, master plot of EQE versus film thickness, parametric in α allowing for optimal design. This analysis extends to any excitonic solar cell with anisotropic transport elements, including polymer, nanowire, quantum dot, and nanocarbon photovoltaics. PMID:27357970

  1. Dimensional analysis system for fuel elements experience in hot cells plate format; Sistema de analise dimensional para ensaios de elementos combustiveis em forma de placas em celulas quentes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carneiro, Orozimbo J.; Dutra Neto, Aimore [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Campos, Tarcisio P.R. [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Nuclear; Dias, Ailton F. [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao Geral de Informatica

    2002-07-01

    This paper describes a system for visual and dimensional analysis of compact-core reactors fuel elements in plate format. The system, composed of a co-ordinated x, y, z computerized table, has to be operative inside of a hot cell for the visual inspection and dimensional measurements of the post irradiated fuel elements. The control method of the x, y, z table axes, the data acquisition and the process control technique using computer, are described. Experimental data handling and the expected future of the project are presented and commented. This work expand previous investigations on a dimensional analysis system carried out by Brazilian Navy Technological Center in Sao Paulo (CTMSP). (author)

  2. Rosae Multiflorae Fructus Hot Water Extract Inhibits a Murine Allergic Asthma Via the Suppression of Th2 Cytokine Production and Histamine Release from Mast Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chang Ho; Bui, Thi Tho; Piao, Chun Hua; Shin, Hee Soon; Shon, Dong-Hwa; Han, Eui-Hyeog; Kim, Hyoung Tae; Chai, Ok Hee

    2016-09-01

    Mast cell-mediated anaphylactic reactions are involved in many allergic diseases, including asthma and allergic rhinitis. In Korea, where it has been used as a traditional medicine, Rosae Multiflorae fructus (RMF) is known to have potent antioxidative, analgesic, and anti-inflammatory activities and to have no obvious acute toxicity. However, its specific effect on asthma is still unknown. In this study, we evaluated whether or not RMF hot water extracts (RMFW) could inhibit ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic asthma and evaluated compound 48/80-induced mast cell activation to elucidate the mechanisms of asthma inhibition by RMFW. Oral administration of RMFW decreased the number of eosinophils and lymphocytes in the lungs of mice challenged by OVA and downregulated histological changes such as eosinophil infiltration, mucus accumulation, goblet cell hyperplasia, and collagen fiber deposits. In addition, RMFW significantly reduced T helper 2 cytokines, TNF-α, IL-4, and IL-6 levels in the BAL fluid of mice challenged by OVA. Moreover, RMFW suppressed compound 48/80-induced rat peritoneal mast cell degranulation and inhibited histamine release from mast cells induced by compound 48/80 in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest that RMFW may act as an antiallergic agent by inhibitingTh2 cytokine production from Th2 cells and histamine release from mast cells, and could be used as a therapy for patients with Th2-mediated or mast cell-mediated allergic diseases. PMID:27574849

  3. Analytic Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Milton, Graeme W

    2016-01-01

    The theory of inhomogeneous analytic materials is developed. These are materials where the coefficients entering the equations involve analytic functions. Three types of analytic materials are identified. The first two types involve an integer $p$. If $p$ takes its maximum value then we have a complete analytic material. Otherwise it is incomplete analytic material of rank $p$. For two-dimensional materials further progress can be made in the identification of analytic materials by using the well-known fact that a $90^\\circ$ rotation applied to a divergence free field in a simply connected domain yields a curl-free field, and this can then be expressed as the gradient of a potential. Other exact results for the fields in inhomogeneous media are reviewed. Also reviewed is the subject of metamaterials, as these materials provide a way of realizing desirable coefficients in the equations.

  4. Analytic trigonometry

    CERN Document Server

    Bruce, William J; Maxwell, E A; Sneddon, I N

    1963-01-01

    Analytic Trigonometry details the fundamental concepts and underlying principle of analytic geometry. The title aims to address the shortcomings in the instruction of trigonometry by considering basic theories of learning and pedagogy. The text first covers the essential elements from elementary algebra, plane geometry, and analytic geometry. Next, the selection tackles the trigonometric functions of angles in general, basic identities, and solutions of equations. The text also deals with the trigonometric functions of real numbers. The fifth chapter details the inverse trigonometric functions

  5. Decreased glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor levels in patients with depression: a meta-analytic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Pao-Yen; Tseng, Ping-Tao

    2015-04-01

    Glial cell-line derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) has been shown to promote development, differentiation, and protection of CNS neurons and was thought to play an important role in various neuropsychiatric disorders. Several studies have examined the GDNF levels in patients with depression but shown inconsistent results. In this study, we compared blood GDNF levels between depressive patients and control subjects through meta-analytic method. The effect sizes (ESs) from all eligible studies were synthesized by using a random effect model. In this meta-analysis, we included 526 patients and 502 control subjects from 12 original articles. Compared to control subjects, blood GDNF levels are significantly decreased in patients with depression (ES = -0.62, p = 0.0011). However, significant heterogeneity was found among included studies. Through subgroup analysis, we found that GDNF was still decreased in studies with major depressive disorder (ES = -0.73, p = 0.0001); in studies with non-old-age depression (ES = -1.25, p = 0.0001), but not with old-age depression; and in studies using serum samples (ES = -0.86, p GDNF levels as a biomarker of depression as a whole, but the results were modulated by psychiatric diagnosis, age of included subjects, and sampling sources. With these results, future studies are required to examine whether effective antidepressant treatment is associated with an increase in serum GDNF levels.

  6. Self-powered competitive immunosensor driven by biofuel cell based on hollow-channel paper analytical devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuai; Wang, Yanhu; Ge, Shenguang; Yu, Jinghua; Yan, Mei

    2015-09-15

    A mediator-less and compartment-less glucose/O2 enzymatic biofuel cell (BFC) was introduced into microfluidic paper-based analytical devices (μ-PADs) that relies on flow in hollow channels with silver nanoparticles/graphene modified paper electrode as the anodic and cathodic substrate, to implement self-powered sensitive carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) detection. Glucose dehydrogenase (GDH)-gold nanoparticles bioconjugate modified with CEA acted as a biocatalyst for enhancing glucose oxidation in the bioanode, as well as the transducing enzyme for signaling magnification. Similarly, nanoporous PtNi/bilirubin oxidase (BOD) acted as a biocatalyst for enhancing O2 reduction in the biocathode. With an increase in the concentration of CEA, the amount of CEA-Au-GDH bioconjugate on bioanode decreases, thus leading to the lower output of the as-prepared BFC. This proposed BFC-based self-powered immunosensor for CEA possessed largely increased linear detection range from 1 pg mL(-1) to 0.5 μg mL(-)(1) with a detection limit of 0.7 pg mL(-)(1). The proposed BFC-based self-powered immunosensor shows high sensitivity, stability, and reproducibility and can become a promising platform for other protein detection.

  7. Modelling of a solid oxide fuel cell CHP system coupled with a hot water storage tank for a single household

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liso, Vincenzo; Zhao, Yingru; Yang, Wenyuan;

    2015-01-01

    is low (for instance during the night), taking advantage of thermal stratification to increases the heat recovery performance. A model of the SOFC system is presented to estimate the energy required to meet the average electric energy demand of the residence. Two fuels are considered, namely syngas...... that in the case of syngas, due to larger system heat output, a larger tank volume was required in order to accumulate unused heat over the night. The detailed description of the tank model will be useful to energy system modelers when sizing hot water tanks. Problem formulation is reported also using a Matlab...

  8. Analytical and Numerical Modeling of Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer through Open-Cell Metal Foam Heat Exchangers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taheri, Mehrdad

    In this thesis analytical and numerical investigations of fluid flow and heat transfer through open cell metal foam heat exchangers are presented. Primarily, different representative unit cell approximations, i.e, tetrakaidecahedron, dodecahedron and cubic are discussed. By applying the thermal resistance analogy, a novel formulation for evaluation of the effective thermal conductivity of metal foams is proposed. The model improves previous models based on cubic or hexagonal cells. By using computer tomography images of a nickel foam sample a realistic 3D geometry is created and the foam's geometrical properties (i.e., porosity and surface area to volume ratio) and effective thermal conductivity are obtained. By using the experimentally found values of permeability, Forchheimer coefficient and solid-fluid interfacial convection coefficient, mathematical models for fluid flow and heat transfer in metal foams are developed. Two different assumptions: local thermal equilibrium (LTE) and local thermal non-equilibrium (LTNE), are used. LTNE yields more accurate results. A three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model of metal foam is made and validated against the experimental data for a square cross sectional nickel foam heat exchanger channel heated from the side walls while cooling air passes through the foam. The simulations are carried out for constant temperature or heat flux and different foam materials with pore densities of 10 and 40 pores per inch. The results show that the bonding of the foam to the walls has a considerable impact on the heat transfer rate. Convective heat transfer coefficients in terms of Nusselt number as functions of Reynolds number are also obtained. The design and CFD modeling of metal foam cross flow heat exchangers are also discussed. The results indicate both effectiveness and number of transfer units (NTU) for the metal foam heat exchangers are higher than those of a hollow channel; however, the effectiveness-NTU curves

  9. Employing Hot Wire Anemometry to Directly Measure the Water Balance in a Proton Exchange membrane Fuel Cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shakhshir, Saher Al; Hussain, Nabeel; Berning, Torsten

    2015-01-01

    Water management in proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC’s) remains a critical problem for their durability, cost, and performance. Because the anode side of this fuel cell has the tendency to become dehydrated, measuring the water balance can be an important diagnosis tool during fuel cell...

  10. Analytical Laboratories

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — NETL’s analytical laboratories in Pittsburgh, PA, and Albany, OR, give researchers access to the equipment they need to thoroughly study the properties of materials...

  11. Amorphous-silicon module hot-spot testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, C. C.

    1985-01-01

    Hot spot heating occurs when cell short-circuit current is lower than string operating current. Amorphous cell hot spot are tested to develop the techniques required for performing reverse bias testing of amorphous cells. Also, to quantify the response of amorphous cells to reverse biasing. Guidelines are developed from testing for reducing hot spot susceptibility of amorphous modules and to develop a qualification test for hot spot testing of amorphous modules. It is concluded that amorphous cells undergo hot spot heating similarly to crystalline cells. Comparison of results obtained with submodules versus actual modules indicate heating levels lower in actual modules. Module design must address hot spot testing and hot spot qualification test conducted on modules showed no instabilities and minor cell erosion.

  12. Examination of irradiated PHWR fuel pins subjected to isothermal heating at 700oC-900oC inside the hot cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High temperature deformation behaviour of irradiated zircaloy-2 cladding has been studied by carrying out isothermal heating of irradiated PHWR fuel pins, having burnup up to 15000MWd/tU at 700°C -900°C inside hot-cells. Post-test examination included visual examination, leak testing, dimension measurement on the tested fuel pins and optical and SEM examination of cladding sections taken from the ballooned and failed fuel pins. The specific aspects investigated in these experiments included cladding tube deformation and ballooning-failure as function of cladding temperature, internal gas pressure and burn up of the fuel pin and microstructural aspects of high temperature creep deformation and mode of cladding failure. (author)

  13. Analytical quadrics

    CERN Document Server

    Spain, Barry; Ulam, S; Stark, M

    1960-01-01

    Analytical Quadrics focuses on the analytical geometry of three dimensions. The book first discusses the theory of the plane, sphere, cone, cylinder, straight line, and central quadrics in their standard forms. The idea of the plane at infinity is introduced through the homogenous Cartesian coordinates and applied to the nature of the intersection of three planes and to the circular sections of quadrics. The text also focuses on paraboloid, including polar properties, center of a section, axes of plane section, and generators of hyperbolic paraboloid. The book also touches on homogenous coordi

  14. Surface and volume photoemission of hot electrons from plasmonic nanoantennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uskov, Alexander V.; Protsenko, Igor E.; Ikhsanov, Renat S.;

    2014-01-01

    We theoretically compare surface- and volume-based photoelectron emission from spherical nanoparticles, obtaining analytical expressions for the emission rate in both mechanisms. We show that the surface mechanism prevails, being unaffected by detrimental hot electron collisions....

  15. Generalized Mathematical Model for Hot Rolling Process of Plate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhenshan CUI; Bingye XU

    2003-01-01

    A generalized mathematical model is developed to predict the changes of temperature, rolling pressure, strain,strain rate, and austenite grain size for plate hot rolling and cooling processes. The model is established mainly by incorporating analytical an

  16. Exact analytical solutions for ADAFs

    CERN Document Server

    Habibi, Asiyeh; Shadmehri, Mohsen

    2016-01-01

    We obtain two-dimensional exact analytic solutions for the structure of the hot accretion flows without wind. We assume that the only non-zero component of the stress tensor is $T_{r\\varphi}$. Furthermore we assume that the value of viscosity coefficient $\\alpha$ varies with $\\theta$. We find radially self-similar solutions and compare them with the numerical and the analytical solutions already studied in the literature. The no-wind solution obtained in this paper may be applied to the nuclei of some cool-core clusters.

  17. Recent Results of the Investigation of a Microfluidic Sampling Chip and Sampling System for Hot Cell Aqueous Processing Streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Julia Tripp; Jack Law; Tara Smith

    2013-10-01

    A Fuel Cycle Research and Development project has investigated an innovative sampling method that could evolve into the next generation sampling and analysis system for metallic elements present in aqueous processing streams. Initially sampling technologies were evaluated and microfluidics sampling chip technology was selected and tested. A conceptual design for a fully automated microcapillary-based system was completed and a robotic automated sampling system was fabricated. The mechanical and sampling operation of the completed sampling system was investigated. In addition, the production of a less expensive, mass produced sampling chip was investigated to avoid chip reuse thus increasing sampling reproducibility/accuracy. The microfluidic-based robotic sampling system’s mechanical elements were tested to ensure analytical reproducibility and the optimum robotic handling of microfluidic sampling chips.

  18. Optimized Packing Density of Large CZTS Nanoparticles Synthesized by Hot-injection for Thin Film Solar Cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Engberg, Sara Lena Josefin; Lam, Yeng Ming; Schou, Jørgen

    2015-01-01

    The absorbing kesterite material, Cu2ZnSn(SxSe1-x)4 (CZTS), is very promising for future thin film solar cells. The material is non-toxic, the elements abundant, and it has a high absorption coefficient. These properties make CZTS a potential candidate also for large-scale applications. Here, solution processing allows for comparatively fast and inexpensive fabrication, and also holds the record efficiency in the kesterite family. Unfortunately, the record cell is deposited with a highly toxi...

  19. TRUEX hot demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In FY 1987, a program was initiated to demonstrate technology for recovering transuranic (TRU) elements from defense wastes. This hot demonstration was to be carried out with solution from the dissolution of irradiated fuels. This recovery would be accomplished with both PUREX and TRUEX solvent extraction processes. Work planned for this program included preparation of a shielded-cell facility for the receipt and storage of spent fuel from commercial power reactors, dissolution of this fuel, operation of a PUREX process to produce specific feeds for the TRUEX process, operation of a TRUEX process to remove residual actinide elements from PUREX process raffinates, and processing and disposal of waste and product streams. This report documents the work completed in planning and starting up this program. It is meant to serve as a guide for anyone planning similar demonstrations of TRUEX or other solvent extraction processing in a shielded-cell facility

  20. Analytical Searching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, Marjorie L.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses analytical searching, a process that enables searchers of electronic resources to develop a planned strategy by combining words or phrases with Boolean operators. Defines simple and complex searching, and describes search strategies developed with Boolean logic and truncation. Provides guidelines for teaching students analytical…

  1. On the burn topology of hot-spot-initiated reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, Larry G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Zimmermann, Bjorn [WOLFRAM RESEARCH INC.; Nichols, Albert L [LLNL

    2009-01-01

    We determine the reaction progress function for an ideal hot spot model problem. The considered problem has an exact analytic solution that can derived from a reduction of Nichols statistical hot spot model. We perform numerical calculations to verify the analytic solution and to illustrate the error realized in real, finite systems. We show how the baseline problem, which does not distinguish between the reactant and product densities, can be scaled to handle general cases for which the two densities differ.

  2. Heat Losses Evaluation for Domestic Hot Water Distribution Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodor Mateescu

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In sanitary systems assembly, domestic hot water distribution supply networks represent an important weight for energetically balance.par This paper presents, in an analytical and graphical manner, the computational tools needed for domestic hot water piping system behavior characterization in different functional and structural assumptions.

  3. Heat Losses Evaluation for Domestic Hot Water Distribution Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Theodor Mateescu; Radu Hudişteanu

    2006-01-01

    In sanitary systems assembly, domestic hot water distribution supply networks represent an important weight for energetically balance.par This paper presents, in an analytical and graphical manner, the computational tools needed for domestic hot water piping system behavior characterization in different functional and structural assumptions.

  4. Analytical modeling and simulation of electrochemical charge/discharge behavior of Si thin film negative electrodes in Li-ion cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagannathan, M.; Chandran, K. S. Ravi

    2014-02-01

    Physically-based analytical models that provide insights into the diffusion and/or interface charge transfer effects in bulk (lithiating/delithiating) electrodes are needed to truly assess the performance/limitations of electrode materials for Li-ion batteries. In this context, an analytical modeling framework is constructed here to predict the electrochemical charge-discharge characteristics during lithiation and delithiation of solid amorphous Si (a-Si) thin film electrodes. The framework includes analytical expressions that satisfy Fick's second law for Li transport and the requisite flux boundary conditions of lithiation and delithiation steps. The expressions are derived here by the method of separation of variables. They enable the determination of transient Li concentration profiles in the thin film electrode as a function of state of charge/discharge. The time-dependent electrode surface concentrations (at the electrode-electrolyte interface) obtained from these profiles were used to determine the activation overpotentials and thus, the non-equilibrium cell potentials, as a function of state of charge/discharge using Butler-Volmer kinetics. The simulated charge/discharge characteristics agreed well with the experimental data of a-Si thin film electrodes obtained at different C-rates. The model offers insights into how the charge-discharge behavior is controlled by diffusion limitation within electrode and/or the activation overpotentials at the interface. The analytical framework is also shown to predict successfully the hysteretic behavior of lithiation/delithiation voltage curves.

  5. Applying hot wire anemometry to directly measure the water balance in a proton exchange membrane fuel cell - Part 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berning, Torsten; Al Shakhshir, Saher

    2015-01-01

    In order to accurately determine the water balance of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell it has recently been suggested to employ constant temperature anemometry (CTA), a frequently used method to measure the velocity of a fluid stream. CTA relies on convective heat transfer around a heated wire...... the equations required to calculate the heat transfer coefficient and the resulting voltage signal as function of the fuel cell water balance. The most critical and least understood part is the determination of the Nusselt number to calculate the heat transfer between the wire and the gas stream. Different...

  6. Hot moons and cool stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heller René

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The exquisite photometric precision of the Kepler space telescope now puts the detection of extrasolar moons at the horizon. Here, we firstly review observational and analytical techniques that have recently been proposed to find exomoons. Secondly, we discuss the prospects of characterizing potentially habitable extrasolar satellites. With moons being much more numerous than planets in the solar system and with most exoplanets found in the stellar habitable zone being gas giants, habitable moons could be as abundant as habitable planets. However, satellites orbiting planets in the habitable zones of cool stars will encounter strong tidal heating and likely appear as hot moons.

  7. Characterization of extracellular vesicles in whole blood: Influence of pre-analytical parameters and visualization of vesicle-cell interactions using imaging flow cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fendl, Birgit; Weiss, René; Fischer, Michael B; Spittler, Andreas; Weber, Viktoria

    2016-09-01

    Extracellular vesicles are central players in intercellular communication and are released from the plasma membrane under tightly regulated conditions, depending on the physiological and pathophysiological state of the producing cell. Their heterogeneity requires a spectrum of methods for isolation and characterization, where pre-analytical parameters have profound impact on vesicle analysis, particularly in blood, since sampling, addition of anticoagulants, as well as post-sampling vesicle generation may influence the outcome. Here, we characterized microvesicles directly in whole blood using a combination of flow cytometry and imaging flow cytometry. We assessed the influence of sample agitation, anticoagulation, and temperature on post-sampling vesicle generation, and show that vesicle counts remained stable over time in samples stored without agitation. Storage with gentle rolling mimicking agitation, in contrast, resulted in strong release of platelet-derived vesicles in blood anticoagulated with citrate or heparin, whereas vesicle counts remained stable upon anticoagulation with EDTA. Using imaging flow cytometry, we could visualize microvesicles adhering to blood cells and revealed an anticoagulant-dependent increase in vesicle-cell aggregates over time. We demonstrate that vesicles adhere preferentially to monocytes and granulocytes in whole blood, while no microvesicles could be visualized on lymphocytes. Our data underscore the relevance of pre-analytical parameters in vesicle analysis and demonstrate that imaging flow cytometry is a suitable tool to study the interaction of extracellular vesicles with their target cells. PMID:27444383

  8. Analytical chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book is comprised of nineteen chapters, which describes introduction of analytical chemistry, experimental error and statistics, chemistry equilibrium and solubility, gravimetric analysis with mechanism of precipitation, range and calculation of the result, volume analysis on general principle, sedimentation method on types and titration curve, acid base balance, acid base titration curve, complex and firing reaction, introduction of chemical electro analysis, acid-base titration curve, electrode and potentiometry, electrolysis and conductometry, voltammetry and polarographic spectrophotometry, atomic spectrometry, solvent extraction, chromatograph and experiments.

  9. Optimized Packing Density of Large CZTS Nanoparticles Synthesized by Hot-injection for Thin Film Solar Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Sara Lena Josefin; Lam, Yeng Ming; Schou, Jørgen

    to image the faceted/hexagonal nanoparticles and determine their individual composition. Densification of the film will also improve the film-quality. The optimal packing density will be calculated, and size-selective methods can be carried out in order to try to isolate the desired particle sizes. Films......, but to maintain good control of the nanocrystal formation during the synthesis, it is necessary to have organic ligands on the surface of the particles. These ligands are often long alkyl chains that potentially limit the quality of the film and degrade its electronic properties. For nanocrystal solution...... the organic ligands by an antimony salt; however the efficiency is 1.4% for a cell annealed in Se-atmosphere. In our work, we try to limit the carbon amount in the film by synthesizing larger nanoparticles. The bigger the particles are the smaller surface-to-volume ratio they have, which might decrease...

  10. Bifurcation structure of the special class of nonstationary regimes emerging in the 2D inertially coupled, unit-cell model: Analytical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorotnikov, K.; Starosvetsky, Y.

    2016-09-01

    Present work is devoted to the analytical investigation of the bifurcation structure of special class of nonstationary low-energy regimes emerging in the locally resonant unit-cell model. System under consideration comprises an outer mass with internal rotator and subject to the 2D, nonlinear local potential. These regimes are characterized by the slow, purely rotational motion of the rotator synchronized with the periodic energy beats between the axial and the lateral vibrations of the outer element. Thus the angular speed of the rotator and the beating frequency of the outer element satisfy the 1:2 resonance condition. In the present study these regimes are referred to as regimes of synchronous nonlinear beats (RSNB). Using the regular muti-scale analysis in the limit of low energy excitation we derive the slow-flow model. To showcase the evolution of RSNBs we used the special Poincaré map technique applied on the slow-flow model. Results of the Poincaré sections unveiled some interesting local bifurcations undergone by these regimes. Further analysis of the slow-flow model enabled us to describe the RSNBs analytically as well as exposed their entire bifurcation structure. The bifurcation analysis has shown the coexistence of several branches of RSNBs corresponding to the regimes of weak and strong, two-dimensional, recurrent energy channeling. We substantiate the results of the analytical study with numerical simulations of the full model and find them to be in the very good agreement.

  11. AFC-1 Transmutation Fuels Post-Irradiation Hot Cell Examination 4-8 at.% - Final Report (Irradiation Experiments AFC-1B, -1F and -1Æ)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce Hilton; Douglas Porter; Steven Hayes

    2006-09-01

    The AFC-1B, AFC-1F and AFC-1Æ irradiation tests are part of a series of test irradiations designed to evaluate the feasibility of the use of actinide bearing fuel forms in advanced fuel cycles for the transmutation of transuranic elements from nuclear waste. The tests were irradiated in the Idaho National Laboratory’s (INL) Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) to an intermediate burnup of 4 to 8 at% (2.7 - 6.8 x 1020 fiss/cm3). The tests contain metallic and nitride fuel forms with non-fertile (i.e., no uranium) and low-fertile (i.e., uranium bearing) compositions. Results of postirradiation hot cell examinations of AFC-1 irradiation tests are reported for eleven metallic alloy transmutation fuel rodlets and five nitride transmutation fuel rodlets. Non-destructive examinations included visual examination, dimensional inspection, gamma scan analysis, and neutron radiography. Detailed examinations, including fission gas puncture and analysis, metallography / ceramography and isotopics and burnup analyses, were performed on five metallic alloy and three nitride transmutation fuels. Fuel performance of both metallic alloy and nitride fuel forms was best correlated with fission density as a burnup metric rather than at.% depletion. The actinide bearing transmutation metallic alloy compositions exhibit irradiation performance very similar to U-xPu-10Zr fuel at equivalent fission densities. The irradiation performance of nitride transmutation fuels was comparable to limited data published on mixed nitride systems.

  12. Performance of a multiplexed dual analyte immunoassay for the early detection of non-small cell lung cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Doseeva, Victoria; Colpitts, Tracey; Gao, Grace; Woodcock, Juliana; Knezevic, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Objectives “PAULA’s” test (Protein Assays Utilizing Lung cancer Analytes) is a novel multiplex immunoassay blood test that incorporates both tumor antigens and autoantibodies to determine the risk that lung cancer (LC) is present in individuals from a high-risk population. The test’s performance characteristics were evaluated in a study using 380 retrospective clinical serum samples. Methods PAULA’s test is performed on the Luminex xMAP technology platform, and detects a panel of 3 tumor anti...

  13. Analytical and Clinical Validation of a Digital Sequencing Panel for Quantitative, Highly Accurate Evaluation of Cell-Free Circulating Tumor DNA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard B Lanman

    Full Text Available Next-generation sequencing of cell-free circulating solid tumor DNA addresses two challenges in contemporary cancer care. First this method of massively parallel and deep sequencing enables assessment of a comprehensive panel of genomic targets from a single sample, and second, it obviates the need for repeat invasive tissue biopsies. Digital Sequencing™ is a novel method for high-quality sequencing of circulating tumor DNA simultaneously across a comprehensive panel of over 50 cancer-related genes with a simple blood test. Here we report the analytic and clinical validation of the gene panel. Analytic sensitivity down to 0.1% mutant allele fraction is demonstrated via serial dilution studies of known samples. Near-perfect analytic specificity (> 99.9999% enables complete coverage of many genes without the false positives typically seen with traditional sequencing assays at mutant allele frequencies or fractions below 5%. We compared digital sequencing of plasma-derived cell-free DNA to tissue-based sequencing on 165 consecutive matched samples from five outside centers in patients with stage III-IV solid tumor cancers. Clinical sensitivity of plasma-derived NGS was 85.0%, comparable to 80.7% sensitivity for tissue. The assay success rate on 1,000 consecutive samples in clinical practice was 99.8%. Digital sequencing of plasma-derived DNA is indicated in advanced cancer patients to prevent repeated invasive biopsies when the initial biopsy is inadequate, unobtainable for genomic testing, or uninformative, or when the patient's cancer has progressed despite treatment. Its clinical utility is derived from reduction in the costs, complications and delays associated with invasive tissue biopsies for genomic testing.

  14. Analytical and Clinical Validation of a Digital Sequencing Panel for Quantitative, Highly Accurate Evaluation of Cell-Free Circulating Tumor DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zill, Oliver A.; Sebisanovic, Dragan; Lopez, Rene; Blau, Sibel; Collisson, Eric A.; Divers, Stephen G.; Hoon, Dave S. B.; Kopetz, E. Scott; Lee, Jeeyun; Nikolinakos, Petros G.; Baca, Arthur M.; Kermani, Bahram G.; Eltoukhy, Helmy; Talasaz, AmirAli

    2015-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing of cell-free circulating solid tumor DNA addresses two challenges in contemporary cancer care. First this method of massively parallel and deep sequencing enables assessment of a comprehensive panel of genomic targets from a single sample, and second, it obviates the need for repeat invasive tissue biopsies. Digital SequencingTM is a novel method for high-quality sequencing of circulating tumor DNA simultaneously across a comprehensive panel of over 50 cancer-related genes with a simple blood test. Here we report the analytic and clinical validation of the gene panel. Analytic sensitivity down to 0.1% mutant allele fraction is demonstrated via serial dilution studies of known samples. Near-perfect analytic specificity (> 99.9999%) enables complete coverage of many genes without the false positives typically seen with traditional sequencing assays at mutant allele frequencies or fractions below 5%. We compared digital sequencing of plasma-derived cell-free DNA to tissue-based sequencing on 165 consecutive matched samples from five outside centers in patients with stage III-IV solid tumor cancers. Clinical sensitivity of plasma-derived NGS was 85.0%, comparable to 80.7% sensitivity for tissue. The assay success rate on 1,000 consecutive samples in clinical practice was 99.8%. Digital sequencing of plasma-derived DNA is indicated in advanced cancer patients to prevent repeated invasive biopsies when the initial biopsy is inadequate, unobtainable for genomic testing, or uninformative, or when the patient’s cancer has progressed despite treatment. Its clinical utility is derived from reduction in the costs, complications and delays associated with invasive tissue biopsies for genomic testing. PMID:26474073

  15. Explicit analytical modeling of the low frequency a-Si:H/c-Si heterojunction capacitance: Analysis and application to silicon heterojunction solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We develop a fully analytical model in order to describe the temperature dependence of the low frequency capacitance of heterojunctions between hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) and crystalline silicon (c-Si). We demonstrate that the slope of the capacitance-temperature (C-T) curve is strongly enhanced if the c-Si surface is under strong inversion conditions compared to the usually assumed depletion layer capacitance. We have extended our analytical model to integrate a very thin undoped (i) a-Si:H layer at the interface and the finite thickness of the doped a-Si:H layer that are used in high efficiency solar cells for the passivation of interface defects and to limit short circuit current losses. Finally, using our calculations, we analyze experimental data on high efficiency silicon heterojunction solar cells. The transition from the strong inversion limited behavior to the depletion layer behavior is discussed in terms of band offsets, density of states in a-Si:H, and work function of the indium tin oxide (ITO) front electrode. In particular, it is evidenced that strong inversion conditions prevail at the c-Si surface at high temperatures down to 250 K, which can only be reproduced if the ITO work function is larger than 4.7 eV

  16. Explicit analytical modeling of the low frequency a-Si:H/c-Si heterojunction capacitance: Analysis and application to silicon heterojunction solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslova, O.; Brézard-Oudot, A.; Gueunier-Farret, M.-E.; Alvarez, J.; Kleider, J.-P.

    2015-09-01

    We develop a fully analytical model in order to describe the temperature dependence of the low frequency capacitance of heterojunctions between hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) and crystalline silicon (c-Si). We demonstrate that the slope of the capacitance-temperature (C-T) curve is strongly enhanced if the c-Si surface is under strong inversion conditions compared to the usually assumed depletion layer capacitance. We have extended our analytical model to integrate a very thin undoped (i) a-Si:H layer at the interface and the finite thickness of the doped a-Si:H layer that are used in high efficiency solar cells for the passivation of interface defects and to limit short circuit current losses. Finally, using our calculations, we analyze experimental data on high efficiency silicon heterojunction solar cells. The transition from the strong inversion limited behavior to the depletion layer behavior is discussed in terms of band offsets, density of states in a-Si:H, and work function of the indium tin oxide (ITO) front electrode. In particular, it is evidenced that strong inversion conditions prevail at the c-Si surface at high temperatures down to 250 K, which can only be reproduced if the ITO work function is larger than 4.7 eV.

  17. Explicit analytical modeling of the low frequency a-Si:H/c-Si heterojunction capacitance: Analysis and application to silicon heterojunction solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maslova, O. [Keldysh Institute of Applied Mathematics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Miusskaya sq., 4, Moscow 125047 (Russian Federation); GeePs (Group of electrical engineering of Paris), CNRS UMR 8507, CentraleSupélec, Univ Paris-Sud, Sorbonne Universités-UPMC Univ Paris 06, 11 rue Joliot-Curie, Plateau de Moulon, F-91192 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Brézard-Oudot, A.; Gueunier-Farret, M.-E.; Alvarez, J.; Kleider, J.-P. [GeePs (Group of electrical engineering of Paris), CNRS UMR 8507, CentraleSupélec, Univ Paris-Sud, Sorbonne Universités-UPMC Univ Paris 06, 11 rue Joliot-Curie, Plateau de Moulon, F-91192 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France)

    2015-09-21

    We develop a fully analytical model in order to describe the temperature dependence of the low frequency capacitance of heterojunctions between hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) and crystalline silicon (c-Si). We demonstrate that the slope of the capacitance-temperature (C-T) curve is strongly enhanced if the c-Si surface is under strong inversion conditions compared to the usually assumed depletion layer capacitance. We have extended our analytical model to integrate a very thin undoped (i) a-Si:H layer at the interface and the finite thickness of the doped a-Si:H layer that are used in high efficiency solar cells for the passivation of interface defects and to limit short circuit current losses. Finally, using our calculations, we analyze experimental data on high efficiency silicon heterojunction solar cells. The transition from the strong inversion limited behavior to the depletion layer behavior is discussed in terms of band offsets, density of states in a-Si:H, and work function of the indium tin oxide (ITO) front electrode. In particular, it is evidenced that strong inversion conditions prevail at the c-Si surface at high temperatures down to 250 K, which can only be reproduced if the ITO work function is larger than 4.7 eV.

  18. Documentation associated with the shipping of Hot-Cell Waste from WESF 225-B to the 200W (218-W-3AE) burial grounds under shipment number RSR-37338

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this report is to compile the records generated during the Packaging and Shipping of WESF Hot-Cell Waste from the 225-B Facility to 200W (218-W-3AE) burial grounds. A total of six 55-gallon drums were packaged and shipped using the Chem-Nuc Cask in accordance with WHC-SD-TP-SARP-025, Rev.0 ''Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (Onsite) for Type B Material in the CNS-14-215H Cask''

  19. Monitoring, recording and balance assessment of the release of radioactive substances via the exhaust air and waste water of Siemens' Hot Cell Facility at Seligenstaedter Strasse 100 in Karlstein, Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annual radioactive releases from Siemens' hot cell facility in Karlstein, Germany, via exhaust air and waste water are far lower than the permitted release values of 2 x 106 Bq (via water) and 5 x 104 Bq (via air). The equipment, procedures and methods applied at Karlstein for monitoring releases, recording data and keeping the required activity balance sheet are described in the report. (orig.)

  20. Validation of analytical methods in GMP: the disposable Fast Read 102® device, an alternative practical approach for cell counting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunetti Monica

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The quality and safety of advanced therapy products must be maintained throughout their production and quality control cycle to ensure their final use in patients. We validated the cell count method according to the International Conference on Harmonization of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use and European Pharmacopoeia, considering the tests’ accuracy, precision, repeatability, linearity and range. Methods As the cell count is a potency test, we checked accuracy, precision, and linearity, according to ICH Q2. Briefly our experimental approach was first to evaluate the accuracy of Fast Read 102® compared to the Bürker chamber. Once the accuracy of the alternative method was demonstrated, we checked the precision and linearity test only using Fast Read 102®. The data were statistically analyzed by average, standard deviation and coefficient of variation percentages inter and intra operator. Results All the tests performed met the established acceptance criteria of a coefficient of variation of less than ten percent. For the cell count, the precision reached by each operator had a coefficient of variation of less than ten percent (total cells and under five percent (viable cells. The best range of dilution, to obtain a slope line value very similar to 1, was between 1:8 and 1:128. Conclusions Our data demonstrated that the Fast Read 102® count method is accurate, precise and ensures the linearity of the results obtained in a range of cell dilution. Under our standard method procedures, this assay may thus be considered a good quality control method for the cell count as a batch release quality control test. Moreover, the Fast Read 102® chamber is a plastic, disposable device that allows a number of samples to be counted in the same chamber. Last but not least, it overcomes the problem of chamber washing after use and so allows a cell count in a clean environment such as that in a

  1. Analytical and numerical study on cooling flow field designs performance of PEM fuel cell with variable heat flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afshari, Ebrahim; Ziaei-Rad, Masoud; Jahantigh, Nabi

    2016-06-01

    In PEM fuel cells, during electrochemical generation of electricity more than half of the chemical energy of hydrogen is converted to heat. This heat of reactions, if not exhausted properly, would impair the performance and durability of the cell. In general, large scale PEM fuel cells are cooled by liquid water that circulates through coolant flow channels formed in bipolar plates or in dedicated cooling plates. In this paper, a numerical method has been presented to study cooling and temperature distribution of a polymer membrane fuel cell stack. The heat flux on the cooling plate is variable. A three-dimensional model of fluid flow and heat transfer in cooling plates with 15 cm × 15 cm square area is considered and the performances of four different coolant flow field designs, parallel field and serpentine fields are compared in terms of maximum surface temperature, temperature uniformity and pressure drop characteristics. By comparing the results in two cases, the constant and variable heat flux, it is observed that applying constant heat flux instead of variable heat flux which is actually occurring in the fuel cells is not an accurate assumption. The numerical results indicated that the straight flow field model has temperature uniformity index and almost the same temperature difference with the serpentine models, while its pressure drop is less than all of the serpentine models. Another important advantage of this model is the much easier design and building than the spiral models.

  2. Analytical solutions of actin-retrograde-flow in a circular stationary cell: a mechanical point of view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemi, V A; Firoozabadi, B; Saidi, M S

    2014-03-01

    The network of actin filaments in the lamellipodium (LP) of stationary and migrating cells flows in a retrograde direction, from the membrane periphery toward the cell nucleus. We have theoretically studied this phenomenon in the circular stationary (fully spread) cells. Adopting a continuum view on the LP actin network, new closed-form solutions are provided for the actin-retrograde-flow (ARF) in a polar coordinate system. Due to discrepancy in the mechanical models of the actin network in the ARF regime, solutions are provided for both assumptions of solid and fluid behavior. Other involved phenomena, including polymerizing machine at the membrane periphery, cytosol drag, adhesion friction, and membrane tension, are also discussed to provide an overall quantitative view on this problem.

  3. Analytical methods for the extraction and identification of secondary metabolite production in 'in vitro' plant cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertoli, Alessandra; Ruffoni, Barbara; Pistelli, Laura; Pistelli, Luisa

    2010-01-01

    The production of plant secondary metabolites by in vitro culture is one of the most challenging and thrilling field of recent scientific researches. In the few last years, pharmaceutical and food industry demand in phytochemicals has increased steadily. Therefore, the establishment of in vitro plant protocols has to be monitored by phytochemical investigation of their selected extracts in order to supply standardized raw material. In this chapter, the advantages and disadvantages of some modem techniques have been described for the sampling, extraction and analysis ofthe invitro plants and derivatives. Depending on the volatile or nonvolatile substances produced by in vitro plant raw material, different kinds of laboratory facilities are needed for the extraction and quali-quantitative analysis. Recent extraction technology such as accelerated solvent extraction or microwave assisted extraction in combination with hyphenated techniques such as gas chromathography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) represent a modern approach to perform fast and reproducible analytical methods for the quality control of secondary metabolite production in 'in vitro' plant material. PMID:21520717

  4. Analytical solution for haze values of aluminium-induced texture (AIT) glass superstrates for a-Si:H solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahraei, Nasim; Forberich, Karen; Venkataraj, Selvaraj; Aberle, Armin G; Peters, Marius

    2014-01-13

    Light scattering at randomly textured interfaces is essential to improve the absorption of thin-film silicon solar cells. Aluminium-induced texture (AIT) glass provides suitable scattering for amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) solar cells. The scattering properties of textured surfaces are usually characterised by two properties: the angularly resolved intensity distribution and the haze. However, we find that the commonly used haze equations cannot accurately describe the experimentally observed spectral dependence of the haze of AIT glass. This is particularly the case for surface morphologies with a large rms roughness and small lateral feature sizes. In this paper we present an improved method for haze calculation, based on the power spectral density (PSD) function of the randomly textured surface. To better reproduce the measured haze characteristics, we suggest two improvements: i) inclusion of the average lateral feature size of the textured surface into the haze calculation, and ii) considering the opening angle of the haze measurement. We show that with these two improvements an accurate prediction of the haze of AIT glass is possible. Furthermore, we use the new equation to define optimum morphology parameters for AIT glass to be used for a-Si:H solar cell applications. The autocorrelation length is identified as the critical parameter. For the investigated a-Si:H solar cells, the optimum autocorrelation length is shown to be 320 nm. PMID:24922000

  5. Analytical Estimate of Open-Circuit Voltage of a Schottky-Barrier Solar Cell Under High Level Injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pramila Mahala

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The open-circuit voltage developed across a Schottky-Barrier (SB solar cell was theoretically modeled to estimate it under high level injection conditions. An Open-circuit voltage (Voc of 0.709 V was obtained for specific metal/n-Si SB solar cell. A substantial increase of 42.6 % in Voc was noticed while comparing our result with that previously calculated in low level injection conditions. Four different metals suitable for making Schottky contact with n-Si were investigated and calculated the variation of Voc with different values of doping concentrations in the semiconductor. The effect of surface recombination velocities (SRV of charge carriers on Voc was also estimated at such high level injections.

  6. Histopathological, immunohistochemical, and image analytic parameters characterizing the stromal component in primary and recurrent giant cell tumor of bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Charu Chandra; Safaya, Rajni; Kawatra Madan, Neha; Khan, Shah Alam; Iyer, Venkateswaran K

    2016-01-01

    Giant cell tumor (GCT) of bone is a benign locally aggressive tumor whose biological behavior is unpredictable. Currently, there are no definitive clinical, histological, biochemical, or immunological parameters that can predict its behavior. This study was undertaken to examine whether delineation of reactive and neoplastic stromal component of GCT can help in this regard. 55 cases of GCT (30 primary, 25 recurrent) were subjected to histopathological grading, immunohistochemistry, and image analysis. Spindling of stroma was more frequent in recurrent GCT with 64% cases having more than 50% spindled stroma (p group (24.75% and 7.7%, respectively). A single numerical parameter encompassing stromal cell population and its proliferation was derived as ratio of PCNA/CD68 and PCNA/α1-ACT. Both ratios were higher in recurrent (0.81 ± 0.38; 1.58 ± 1.50) than in primary GCT (0.58 ± 0.62; 0.34 ± 0.29) (p = 0.002; 0.01). On image analysis, parameters significantly different between the two groups were nuclear area and nuclear integrated optical density. It was thus concluded that recurrent GCT shows higher grade, increased mitosis, more spindling, fewer reactive components, and higher proliferation than primary GCT. Delineation of reactive component (α1-ACT positive) and proliferating component (PCNA positive cells) using immunohistochemistry with calculation of the PCNA/ACT ratio delivers more information than image analysis.

  7. Finding out egyptian gods' secret using analytical chemistry: biomedical properties of egyptian black makeup revealed by amperometry at single cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapsoba, Issa; Arbault, Stéphane; Walter, Philippe; Amatore, Christian

    2010-01-15

    Lead-based compounds were used during antiquity as both pigments and medicines in the formulation of makeup materials. Chemical analysis of cosmetics samples found in Egyptians tombs and the reconstitution of ancient recipes as reported by Greco-Roman authors have shown that two non-natural lead chlorides (laurionite Pb(OH)Cl and phosgenite Pb(2)Cl(2)CO(3)) were purposely synthesized and were used as fine powders in makeup and eye lotions. According to ancient Egyptian manuscripts, these were essential remedies for treating eye illness and skin ailments. This conclusion seems amazing because today we focus only on the well-recognized toxicity of lead salts. Here, using ultramicroelectrodes, we obtain new insights into the biochemical interactions between lead(II) ions and cells, which support the ancient medical use of sparingly soluble lead compounds. Submicromolar concentrations of Pb(2+) ions are shown to be sufficient for eliciting specific oxidative stress responses of keratinocytes. These consist essentially of an overproduction of nitrogen monoxide (NO degrees ). Owing to the biological role of NO degrees in stimulating nonspecific immunological defenses, one may argue that these lead compounds were deliberately manufactured and used in ancient Egyptian formulations to prevent and treat eye illnesses by promoting the action of immune cells.

  8. Evaluation of Two Different Analytical Methods for Circulating Tumor Cell Detection in Peripheral Blood of Patients with Primary Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. A. S. Jaeger

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Evidence is accumulating that circulating tumor cells (CTC out of peripheral blood can serve as prognostic marker not only in metastatic but also in early breast cancer (BC. Various methods are available to detect CTC. Comparisons between the different techniques, however, are rare. Material and Methods. We evaluate two different methods for CTC enrichment and detection in primary BC patients: the FDA-approved CellSearch System (CSS; Veridex, Warren, USA and a manual immunocytochemistry (MICC. The cut-off value for positivity was ≥1 CTC. Results. The two different nonoverlapping patient cohorts evaluated with one or the other method were well balanced regarding common clinical parameters. Before adjuvant CHT 21.1% (416 out of 1972 and 20.6% (247 out of 1198 of the patients were CTC-positive, while after CHT 22.5% (359 out of 1598 and 16.6% (177 out of 1066 of the patients were CTC-positive using CSS or MICC, respectively. CTC positivity rate before CHT was thus similar and not significantly different (P=0.749, while CTC positivity rate immediately after CHT was significantly lower using MICC compared to CSS (P<0.001. Conclusion. Using CSS or MICC for CTC detection, we found comparable prevalence of CTC before but not after adjuvant CHT.

  9. Experimental and analytical studies for the validation of HTR-VGD and primary cell passive decay heat removal. Supplement. Calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The alternative concept for a modular HTR-reactor design by Siempelkamp, Krefeld, using a prestressed cast iron vessel (VGD) combined with a cast iron/concrete module for the primary cell with integrated passive decay heat removal system was fully qualified with respect to operational and accidental thermal loads. The main emphasis was to confirm and validate the passive decay heat removal capability. An experimental facility (INWA) was designed, instrumented and operated with an appropriate electrical heating system simulating steady-state operational and transient accidental thermal loads. The experiments were accompanied by extensive computations concerning the combination of conductive, radiative and convective energy transport mechanisms in the different components of the VGD/primary cell structures, as well as elastic-plastic stress analyses of the VGD. In addition, a spectrum of potential alternatives for passive energy removed options have been parametrically examined. The experimental data clearly demonstrate that the proposed Siempelkamp-design is able to passively and safely remove the decay heat for operational and accidental conditions without invalidating technological important thermal limits. This also holds in case of failures of both the natural convection system and ultimate heat sink by outside concrete water film cooling. (orig./HP)

  10. Atmospheric Circulation of Hot Jupiters: Dayside-Nightside Temperature Differences

    CERN Document Server

    Komacek, Thaddeus D

    2016-01-01

    The full-phase infrared light curves of low-eccentricity hot Jupiters show a trend of increasing dayside-to-nightside brightness temperature difference with increasing equilibrium temperature. Here we present a three-dimensional model that explains this relationship, in order to shed insight on the processes that control heat redistribution in tidally-locked planetary atmospheres. This three-dimensional model combines predictive analytic theory for the atmospheric circulation and dayside-nightside temperature differences over a range of equilibrium temperature, atmospheric composition, and potential frictional drag strengths with numerical solutions of the circulation that verify this analytic theory. This analytic theory shows that the longitudinal propagation of waves mediates dayside-nightside temperature differences in hot Jupiter atmospheres, analogous to the wave adjustment mechanism that regulates the thermal structure in Earth's tropics. These waves can be damped in hot Jupiter atmospheres by either r...

  11. Ablation driven by hot electrons in shock ignition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piriz, A. R.; Rodriguez Prieto, G.; Tahir, N. A.; Zhao, Y. T.

    2016-03-01

    An analytical model for the ablation driven by hot electrons is developed. The hot electrons are assumed to carry on the totality of the absorbed laser energy. Efficient energy coupling requires to keep the critical surface sufficiently close to the ablation front. To achieve this goal for high laser intensities a short enough laser wavelength is required. Scaling laws for the ablation pressure and the other relevant magnitudes of the ablation cloud are found in terms of the laser and target parameters.

  12. Test methods for evaluating hot cracking: Review and perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The phenomenon of hot cracking is described and discussed, and criteria for tests to assess hot cracking are elucidated. The historical development of hot cracking tests is traced from the 1930s to present, with categorization of tests into several types. It is noted that the number of tests developed continues to increase dramatically. The number of literature citations also increases with time, with few popular tests receiving a major share of interest. Predominant countries of origin of both tests and citations shift with time, and a few journals account for most of the published information. Reviews of hot cracking are reviewed, and it is predicted that modeling and other developing analytical techniques will contribute greatly to an increase in our understanding of hot cracking. 30 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab

  13. Analytical modelling and experimental verification of the three-dimensional current distribution on the top surface of silicon solar cells operating under concentrated sunlight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costagliola, Maurizio; Riccio, Michele; Irace, Andrea; Breglio, Gianluca; Daliento, Santolo [Department of Biomedical, Electronics and Telecommunications Engineering, University of Naples ' ' Federico II' ' , via Claudio 21, 80125 Naples (Italy)

    2011-03-15

    The approximation that the current is constant in any point of the emitter is not true for solar cells operating under concentrated sunlight. The transverse paths followed by photogenerated carriers to reach metal grid electrodes causes voltage drops leading to non-uniform distributed surface potential and a consequent reduction of the conversion efficiency. Moreover, concentrating lens often provide non-uniform light intensity thus worsening non-uniform current distribution. The correct design of surface geometry of the cell (metal grid, emitter depth, sheet resistance) should always take into account the above effects. Unfortunately a lack of reliable models still exists. In this paper we analytically solve the three-dimensional semiconductor equations with proper boundary conditions and taking into account, as source term, a distributed generation contribute. The reliability of the model has been tested by numerical simulations and experimentally verified with a lock-in thermography technique (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  14. Recombination kinetics in a silicon solar cell at low concentration: electro-analytical characterization of space-charge and quasi-neutral regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Pankaj; Tripathi, Brijesh; Pandey, Kavita; Kumar, Manoj

    2014-08-01

    The present work reports a detailed electro-analytical framework for studying commercially available mono-crystalline silicon solar cells under varying illumination conditions to explore their application in the up-and-coming field of low concentration photovoltaics (LCPVs). The effect of low concentration illumination (>1-12 suns) on performance indicating parameters, i.e., short circuit current, open circuit voltage, fill factor, efficiency and ideality factor, was investigated using DC characterization. The same framework can be used for AC characterization in order to explore diffusion capacitance, transition capacitance, diffusion resistance and recombination kinetics under varying illumination. Recent developments in the impedance spectroscopy technique have broadened its horizon and have allowed its use in addressing unexplored material and performance aspects of mono-crystalline Si solar cells under non-equilibrium conditions. The obtained DC and AC experimental results are coupled with theoretical treatment to demonstrate the characteristic features of charge recombination in the space-charge region and the quasi-neutral region.

  15. In hot water, again

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basden, Alastair; Watkins, Sheila

    2009-10-01

    Regarding Norman Willcox's letter about the problems of using solar panels for domestic heating (August p21), I also have thermal solar panels installed. However, contrary to his disappointing experience, I have found that they provide my family with a useful amount of hot water. In our system, the solar energy is used to heat a store of water, which has no other source of heat. Mains-pressure cold water passes through this store via a heat exchanger, removing heat from it and warming up. If the water becomes warm enough, an unpowered thermostatic valve allows it to go straight to the hot taps (mixing it with cold if it is too hot). However, if it is not hot enough, then the water is directed first through our previously installed gaspowered combination boiler and then to the taps.

  16. Hot Air Engines

    OpenAIRE

    P. Stouffs

    2011-01-01

    Invented in 1816, the hot-air engines have known significant commercial success in the nineteenth century, before falling into disuse. Nowadays they enjoy a renewed interest for some specific applications. The "hot-air engines" family is made up of two groups: Stirling engines and Ericsson engines. The operating principle of Stirling and Ericsson engines, their troubled history, their advantages and their niche applications are briefly presented, especially in the field of...

  17. HOTLAB: European hot laboratories research and capacities and needs. Plenary meeting 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oberlaender, B.C.; Jenssen, H.K. (ed.)

    2005-01-01

    The report presents proceedings from the 2004 annual HOTLAB plenary meeting at Halden and Kjeller, Norway. The goal of the yearly plenary meeting was to: Exchange experience on analytical methods, their implementation in hot cells, the methodologies used and their application in nuclear research. Share experience on common infrastructure exploitation matters such as remote handling techniques, safety features, QA-certification, waste handling, etc. Promote normalisation and co-operation, e.g. by looking at mutual complementarities. Prospect present and future demands from the nuclear industry and to draw strategic conclusions regarding further needs. The main themes of the five topical oral sessions of the Halden plenary meeting cover: Work package leaders report and specific papers, presentation of PIE facility databases, i.e. one worldwide (IAEA) and one inside the European communities. Reports from present and future needs and on nuclear transports. Refabrication and instrumentation: Available equipment, technical characteristics such as fabrication procedures, hot-cell compatibility, and practical experiences. Post irradiation examination: Updated and new remote techniques and methodologies, new materials such as inert matrix fuels, spallation sources and neutron absorber materials. Refurbishment and decommissioning: reports on refurbishment and decommissioning of PIE facilities. Waste and transport: Hot laboratory waste characteristics and handling, spent fuel research. Several posters are presented.

  18. HOTLAB: European hot laboratories research capacities and needs. Plenary meeting 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report presents proceedings from the 2004 annual HOTLAB plenary meeting at Halden and Kjeller, Norway. The goal of the yearly plenary meeting was to: Exchange experience on analytical methods, their implementation in hot cells, the methodologies used and their application in nuclear research. Share experience on common infrastructure exploitation matters such as remote handling techniques, safety features, QA-certification, waste handling, etc. Promote normalisation and co-operation, e.g. by looking at mutual complementarities. Prospect present and future demands from the nuclear industry and to draw strategic conclusions regarding further needs. The main themes of the five topical oral sessions of the Halden plenary meeting cover: Work package leaders report and specific papers, presentation of PIE facility databases, i.e. one worldwide (IAEA) and one inside the European communities. Reports from present and future needs and on nuclear transports. Refabrication and instrumentation: Available equipment, technical characteristics such as fabrication procedures, hot-cell compatibility, and practical experiences. Post irradiation examination: Updated and new remote techniques and methodologies, new materials such as inert matrix fuels, spallation sources and neutron absorber materials. Refurbishment and decommissioning: reports on refurbishment and decommissioning of PIE facilities. Waste and transport: Hot laboratory waste characteristics and handling, spent fuel research. Several posters are presented

  19. A decision-analytic approach to define poor prognosis patients: a case study for non-seminomatous germ cell cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steyerberg Ewout W

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Classification systems may be useful to direct more aggressive treatment to cancer patients with a relatively poor prognosis. The definition of 'poor prognosis' often lacks a formal basis. We propose a decision analytic approach to weigh benefits and harms explicitly to define the treatment threshold for more aggressive treatment. This approach is illustrated by a case study in advanced testicular cancer, where patients with a high risk of mortality under standard treatment may be eligible for high-dose chemotherapy with stem cell support, which is currently defined by the IGCC classification. Methods We used published literature to estimate the benefit and harm of high-dose chemotherapy (HD-CT versus standard-dose chemotherapy (SD-CT for patients with advanced non-seminomatous germ cell cancer. Benefit and harm were defined as the reduction and increase in absolute risk of mortality due to HD-CT respectively. Harm included early and late treatment related death, and treatment related morbidity (weighted by 'utility'. Results We considered a conservative and an optimistic benefit of 30 and 40% risk reduction respectively. We estimated the excess treatment related mortality at 2%. When treatment related morbidity was taken into account, the harm of HD-CT increased to 5%. With a relative benefit of 30% and harm of 2 or 5%, HD-CT might be beneficial for patients with over 7 or 17% risk of cancer specific mortality with SD chemotherapy, while with a relative benefit of 40% HD-CT was beneficial over 5 and 12.5% risk respectively. Compared to the IGCC classification 14% of the patients would receive more aggressive treatment, and 2% less intensive treatment. Conclusion Benefit and harm can be used to define 'poor prognosis' explicitly for non-seminomatous germ cell cancer patients who are considered for high-dose chemotherapy. This approach can readily be adapted to new results and extended to other cancers to define candidates for

  20. Evaluating focused ion beam and ultramicrotome sample preparation for analytical microscopies of the cathode layer of a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    de A. Melo, Lis G.; Hitchcock, Adam P.; Berejnov, Viatcheslav; Susac, Darija; Stumper, Juergen; Botton, Gianluigi A.

    2016-04-01

    Optimizing the structure of the porous electrodes of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEM-FC) can improve device power and durability. Analytical microscopy techniques are important tools for measuring the electrode structure, thereby providing guidance for structural optimization. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), with either Energy Dispersive X-Ray (EDX) or Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy (EELS) analysis, and Scanning Transmission X-Ray Microscopy (STXM) are complementary methods which, together, provide a powerful approach for PEM-FC electrode analysis. Both TEM and STXM require thin (50-200 nm) samples, which can be prepared either by Focused Ion Beam (FIB) milling or by embedding and ultramicrotomy. Here we compare TEM and STXM spectromicroscopy analysis of FIB and ultramicrotomy sample preparations of the same PEM-FC sample, with focus on how sample preparation affects the derived chemical composition and spatial distributions of carbon support and ionomer. The FIB lamella method, while avoiding pore-filling by embedding media, had significant problems. In particular, in the FIB sample the carbon support was extensively amorphized and the ionomer component suffered mass loss and structural damage. Although each sample preparation technique has a role to play in PEM-FC optimization studies, it is important to be aware of the limitations of each method.

  1. Solar-powered hot-water system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, E. R.

    1979-01-01

    Hot-water system requires no external power except solar energy. System is completely self-controlling. It includes solar-powered pump, solar-thermally and hydrothermally operated valves, and storage tank filled with open-celled foam, to maintain thermal stratification in stored water.

  2. Extracting hot carriers from photoexcited semiconductor nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Xiaoyang

    2014-12-10

    This research program addresses a fundamental question related to the use of nanomaterials in solar energy -- namely, whether semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) can help surpass the efficiency limits, the so-called “Shockley-Queisser” limit, in conventional solar cells. In these cells, absorption of photons with energies above the semiconductor bandgap generates “hot” charge carriers that quickly “cool” to the band edges before they can be utilized to do work; this sets the solar cell efficiency at a limit of ~31%. If instead, all of the energy of the hot carriers could be captured, solar-to-electric power conversion efficiencies could be increased, theoretically, to as high as 66%. A potential route to capture this energy is to utilize semiconductor nanocrystals. In these materials, the quasi-continuous conduction and valence bands of the bulk semiconductor become discretized due to confinement of the charge carriers. Consequently, the energy spacing between the electronic levels can be much larger than the highest phonon frequency of the lattice, creating a “phonon bottleneck” wherein hot-carrier relaxation is possible via slower multiphonon emission. For example, hot-electron lifetimes as long as ~1 ns have been observed in NCs grown by molecular beam epitaxy. In colloidal NCs, long lifetimes have been demonstrated through careful design of the nanocrystal interfaces. Due to their ability to slow electronic relaxation, semiconductor NCs can in principle enable extraction of hot carriers before they cool to the band edges, leading to more efficient solar cells.

  3. Hot Air Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Stouffs

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Invented in 1816, the hot-air engines have known significant commercial success in the nineteenth century, before falling into disuse. Nowadays they enjoy a renewed interest for some specific applications. The "hot-air engines" family is made up of two groups: Stirling engines and Ericsson engines. The operating principle of Stirling and Ericsson engines, their troubled history, their advantages and their niche applications are briefly presented, especially in the field of micro-combined heat and power, solar energy conversion and biomass energy conversion. The design of an open cycle Ericsson engine for solar application is proposed. A first prototype of the hot part of the engine has been built and tested. Experimental results are presented.

  4. IR Hot Wave

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, T. B.

    2010-04-01

    The IR Hot Wave{trademark} furnace is a breakthrough heat treatment system for manufacturing metal components. Near-infrared (IR) radiant energy combines with IR convective heating for heat treating. Heat treatment is an essential process in the manufacture of most components. The controlled heating and cooling of a metal or metal alloy alters its physical, mechanical, and sometimes chemical properties without changing the object's shape. The IR Hot Wave{trademark} furnace offers the simplest, quickest, most efficient, and cost-effective heat treatment option for metals and metal alloys. Compared with other heat treatment alternatives, the IR Hot Wave{trademark} system: (1) is 3 to 15 times faster; (2) is 2 to 3 times more energy efficient; (3) is 20% to 50% more cost-effective; (4) has a {+-}1 C thermal profile compared to a {+-}10 C thermal profile for conventional gas furnaces; and (5) has a 25% to 50% smaller footprint.

  5. Techniques and devices developed by the CEA for hot cell and in-situ examinations of PWR components and PWR fuel assembliess after irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the framework of the electro-nuclear development of the PWR system, the CEA has provided itself with facilities for developing techniques for analyzing assemblies, pins and fuels. These are examinations and tests on irradiated heads and assemblies with the aid of the Fuel Examination Module (FEM), of machining of assemblies and examinations in the Celimene hot laboratory or detailed examinations and analyses on fuel elements using eddy currents, the electronic microprobe and the Fisher ''permeascope'' which enables the outline of the oxide coat present on the cladding to be followed

  6. Zen Hot Dog Molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Dennis

    2009-01-01

    Substituted cycloalkanes with one branch illustrating each topic in an instructional unit can serve as summaries or reviews in courses of organic chemistry. The hungry Zen master told the hot dog vendor to make him one with everything. You can do the same for your students.

  7. What's Hot? What's Not?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buczynski, Sandy

    2006-01-01

    When Goldilocks finds three bowls of porridge at different temperatures in the three bears' house, she accurately assesses the situation and comes up with one of the most recognizable lines in children's literature," This porridge is too hot; this porridge is too cold; aahh, this porridge is just right!" Goldilocks' famous line is a perfect…

  8. Fending Off Hot Money

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Amid uncertainties about the amount of hot money,the government strives to curb the harmful capital The benchmark Shanghai Composite Index was plagued by dips, climbs and dives as the stock market slumped from 3,186 to 2,838 points

  9. Analytics for Metabolic Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petzold, Christopher J; Chan, Leanne Jade G; Nhan, Melissa; Adams, Paul D

    2015-01-01

    Realizing the promise of metabolic engineering has been slowed by challenges related to moving beyond proof-of-concept examples to robust and economically viable systems. Key to advancing metabolic engineering beyond trial-and-error research is access to parts with well-defined performance metrics that can be readily applied in vastly different contexts with predictable effects. As the field now stands, research depends greatly on analytical tools that assay target molecules, transcripts, proteins, and metabolites across different hosts and pathways. Screening technologies yield specific information for many thousands of strain variants, while deep omics analysis provides a systems-level view of the cell factory. Efforts focused on a combination of these analyses yield quantitative information of dynamic processes between parts and the host chassis that drive the next engineering steps. Overall, the data generated from these types of assays aid better decision-making at the design and strain construction stages to speed progress in metabolic engineering research.

  10. Extended Analytic Device Optimization Employing Asymptotic Expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Jonathan; Sehirlioglu, Alp; Dynsys, Fred

    2013-01-01

    Analytic optimization of a thermoelectric junction often introduces several simplifying assumptionsincluding constant material properties, fixed known hot and cold shoe temperatures, and thermallyinsulated leg sides. In fact all of these simplifications will have an effect on device performance,ranging from negligible to significant depending on conditions. Numerical methods, such as FiniteElement Analysis or iterative techniques, are often used to perform more detailed analysis andaccount for these simplifications. While numerical methods may stand as a suitable solution scheme,they are weak in gaining physical understanding and only serve to optimize through iterativesearching techniques. Analytic and asymptotic expansion techniques can be used to solve thegoverning system of thermoelectric differential equations with fewer or less severe assumptionsthan the classic case. Analytic methods can provide meaningful closed form solutions and generatebetter physical understanding of the conditions for when simplifying assumptions may be valid.In obtaining the analytic solutions a set of dimensionless parameters, which characterize allthermoelectric couples, is formulated and provide the limiting cases for validating assumptions.Presentation includes optimization of both classic rectangular couples as well as practically andtheoretically interesting cylindrical couples using optimization parameters physically meaningful toa cylindrical couple. Solutions incorporate the physical behavior for i) thermal resistance of hot andcold shoes, ii) variable material properties with temperature, and iii) lateral heat transfer through legsides.

  11. Metamaterial perfect absorber based hot electron photodetection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Valentine, Jason

    2014-06-11

    While the nonradiative decay of surface plasmons was once thought to be only a parasitic process that limits the performance of plasmonic devices, it has recently been shown that it can be harnessed in the form of hot electrons for use in photocatalysis, photovoltaics, and photodetectors. Unfortunately, the quantum efficiency of hot electron devices remains low due to poor electron injection and in some cases low optical absorption. Here, we demonstrate how metamaterial perfect absorbers can be used to achieve near-unity optical absorption using ultrathin plasmonic nanostructures with thicknesses of 15 nm, smaller than the hot electron diffusion length. By integrating the metamaterial with a silicon substrate, we experimentally demonstrate a broadband and omnidirectional hot electron photodetector with a photoresponsivity that is among the highest yet reported. We also show how the spectral bandwidth and polarization-sensitivity can be manipulated through engineering the geometry of the metamaterial unit cell. These perfect absorber photodetectors could open a pathway for enhancing hot electron based photovoltaic, sensing, and photocatalysis systems. PMID:24837991

  12. Hot Tub Rash (Pseudomonas Folliculitis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Hot Tub Rash ( Pseudomonas Folliculitis) Information for adults A A A This ... small pus-filled lesions. Overview Hot tub rash ( Pseudomonas folliculitis) is an infection of the hair follicle ...

  13. Do scientists trace hot topics?

    OpenAIRE

    Tian Wei; Menghui Li; Chensheng Wu; Xiao-Yong Yan; Ying Fan; Zengru Di; Jinshan Wu

    2013-01-01

    Do scientists follow hot topics in their scientific investigations? In this paper, by performing analysis to papers published in the American Physical Society (APS) Physical Review journals, it is found that papers are more likely to be attracted by hot fields, where the hotness of a field is measured by the number of papers belonging to the field. This indicates that scientists generally do follow hot topics. However, there are qualitative differences among scientists from various countries,...

  14. Applying hot-wire anemometry to directly measure the water balance in a proton exchange membrane fuel cell for a pre-humidified hydrogen stream

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berning, Torsten; Shakhshir, Saher Al

    2016-01-01

    experiments, E0 is also continuously known. There is a one-to-one correlation between the relative voltage signal E/E0 and the fuel cell water balance, and therefore the fuel cell water balance can be a continuous output signal similar to the fuel cell voltage and the high frequency resistance. This method...... was originally believed to be limited to the fuel cell anode operating on dry hydrogen. In the current work, it is expanded for the case of a pre-humidified hydrogen stream. In addition, useful correlations are derived that link the fuel cell water balance with the anode side inlet and outlet thermodynamic state...

  15. Croatian Analytical Terminology

    OpenAIRE

    Kastelan-Macan; M.

    2008-01-01

    Results of analytical research are necessary in all human activities. They are inevitable in making decisions in the environmental chemistry, agriculture, forestry, veterinary medicine, pharmaceutical industry, and biochemistry. Without analytical measurements the quality of materials and products cannot be assessed, so that analytical chemistry is an essential part of technical sciences and disciplines.The language of Croatian science, and analytical chemistry within it, was one of the goals...

  16. The hot Hagedorn Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Rafelski, Johann

    2016-01-01

    In the context of the half-centenary of Hagedorn temperature and the statistical bootstrap model (SBM) we present a short account of how these insights coincided with the establishment of the hot big-bang model (BBM) and helped resolve some of the early philosophical difficulties. We then turn attention to the present day context and show the dominance of strong interaction quark and gluon degrees of freedom in the early stage, helping to characterize the properties of the hot Universe. We focus attention on the current experimental insights about cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature fluctuation, and develop a much improved understanding of the neutrino freeze-out, in this way paving the path to the opening of a direct connection of quark-gluon plasma (QGP) physics in the early Universe with the QCD-lattice, and the study of the properties of QGP formed in the laboratory.

  17. Hot nuclei and fragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review is made of the present status concerning the production of nuclei above 5 MeV temperature. Considerable progress has been made recently on the understanding of the formation and the fate of such hot nuclei. It appears that the nucleus seems more stable against temperature than predicted by static calculations. However, the occurrence of multifragment production at high excitation energies is now well established. The various experimental features of the fragmentation process are discussed. (author) 59 refs., 12 figs

  18. Peppery Hot Bean Curd

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    Peppery Hot Bean Curd is a famous dish that originated in Chengdu,Sichuan Province.Dating back to the year under the reign of Emperor Tongzhi during the Qing Dynasty(1862-1875),a woman chef named Chen created this dish.In Chinese it is called Mapo Bean Curd. Ingredients:Three pieces of bean curd,100 grams lean pork,25 grams green soy beans or garlic

  19. Hot subluminous stars

    CERN Document Server

    Heber, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Hot subluminous stars of spectral type B and O are core helium-burning stars at the blue end of the horizontal branch or have evolved even beyond that stage. Strikingly, the distribution in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram of He-rich vs. He-poor hot subdwarf stars of the globular clusters omega Cen and NGC~2808 differ from that of their field counterparts. The metal-abundance patterns of hot subdwarfs are typically characterized by strong deficiencies of some lighter elements as well as large enrichments of heavy elements. A large fraction of sdB stars are found in close binaries with white dwarf or very low-mass main sequence companions, which must have gone through a common-envelope phase of evolution.They provide a clean-cut laboratory to study this important but yet purely understood phase of stellar evolution. Substellar companions to sdB stars have also been found. For HW~Vir systems the companion mass distribution extends from the stellar into the brown dwarf regime. A giant planet to the pulsator V391 ...

  20. Hot interstellar medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In view of that the diffuse component of soft X-rays is emitted mainly by extended supernova remnants and the hot interstellar medium produced thereby, the following three points are discussed. (1.) In the early stage of supernova remnants expanding in low density media, neither the equipartition of energy between electrons and ions nor the ionization equilibrium holds. The shock structure is modified by the pressure of hot plasma. X-ray features of the North Polar Spur are interpreted by taking these points into account. (2.) Several compilations of X-ray line emission are compared. Those by Kato and by Raymond and Smith are different in the equilibrium ion abundances and the collisional excitation rates for some important lines. The origins of differences are shown for some examples. It is demonstrated how the difference affects astrophysical interpretations. (3.) The solar system is surrounded by a hot, tenuous interstellar medium extended in the direction of 1 -- 1500 in the northern hemisphere. In other directions X-rays emitted farther than absorbing clouds are appreciable. (author)

  1. Manufacture Domestically Improvement Design of Import Hot Cell Die-casting Machine%进口热室压铸机H-150XZv喷嘴体的国产化设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨兵兵; 屈雪丽

    2011-01-01

    Through analyzing and studying working conditions, the material as well as the structure of the H-150XZv import hot cell die-casting machine spray nozzle body, the article proposed the manufacture domestically improvement design proposal of spray nozzle body, solved the difficult problem which has caused the spray nozzle body burst as a result of the penetrability crack production, radically enhanced the service life of spray nozzle body.%通过对H-150XZv型进口热室压铸机喷嘴体的工作环境、材料以及结构的分析、研究,提出了喷嘴体国产化改进设计方案,解决了由于穿透性裂纹的产生导致喷嘴体破裂的难题,大幅度提高了喷嘴体的使用寿命.

  2. Hot Subluminous Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heber, U.

    2016-08-01

    Hot subluminous stars of spectral type B and O are core helium-burning stars at the blue end of the horizontal branch or have evolved even beyond that stage. Most hot subdwarf stars are chemically highly peculiar and provide a laboratory to study diffusion processes that cause these anomalies. The most obvious anomaly lies with helium, which may be a trace element in the atmosphere of some stars (sdB, sdO) while it may be the dominant species in others (He-sdB, He-sdO). Strikingly, the distribution in the Hertzsprung–Russell diagram of He-rich versus He-poor hot subdwarf stars of the globular clusters ω Cen and NGC 2808 differ from that of their field counterparts. The metal-abundance patterns of hot subdwarfs are typically characterized by strong deficiencies of some lighter elements as well as large enrichments of heavy elements. A large fraction of sdB stars are found in close binaries with white dwarf or very low-mass main sequence companions, which must have gone through a common-envelope (CE) phase of evolution. Because the binaries are detached they provide a clean-cut laboratory to study this important but yet poorly understood phase of stellar evolution. Hot subdwarf binaries with sufficiently massive white dwarf companions are viable candidate progenitors of type Ia supernovae both in the double degenerate as well as in the single degenerate scenario as helium donors for double detonation supernovae. The hyper-velocity He-sdO star US 708 may be the surviving donor of such a double detonation supernova. Substellar companions to sdB stars have also been found. For HW Vir systems the companion mass distribution extends from the stellar into the brown dwarf regime. A giant planet to the acoustic-mode pulsator V391 Peg was the first discovery of a planet that survived the red giant evolution of its host star. Evidence for Earth-size planets to two pulsating sdB stars have been reported and circumbinary giant planets or brown dwarfs have been found around HW

  3. Hot Subluminous Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heber, U.

    2016-08-01

    Hot subluminous stars of spectral type B and O are core helium-burning stars at the blue end of the horizontal branch or have evolved even beyond that stage. Most hot subdwarf stars are chemically highly peculiar and provide a laboratory to study diffusion processes that cause these anomalies. The most obvious anomaly lies with helium, which may be a trace element in the atmosphere of some stars (sdB, sdO) while it may be the dominant species in others (He-sdB, He-sdO). Strikingly, the distribution in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram of He-rich versus He-poor hot subdwarf stars of the globular clusters ω Cen and NGC 2808 differ from that of their field counterparts. The metal-abundance patterns of hot subdwarfs are typically characterized by strong deficiencies of some lighter elements as well as large enrichments of heavy elements. A large fraction of sdB stars are found in close binaries with white dwarf or very low-mass main sequence companions, which must have gone through a common-envelope (CE) phase of evolution. Because the binaries are detached they provide a clean-cut laboratory to study this important but yet poorly understood phase of stellar evolution. Hot subdwarf binaries with sufficiently massive white dwarf companions are viable candidate progenitors of type Ia supernovae both in the double degenerate as well as in the single degenerate scenario as helium donors for double detonation supernovae. The hyper-velocity He-sdO star US 708 may be the surviving donor of such a double detonation supernova. Substellar companions to sdB stars have also been found. For HW Vir systems the companion mass distribution extends from the stellar into the brown dwarf regime. A giant planet to the acoustic-mode pulsator V391 Peg was the first discovery of a planet that survived the red giant evolution of its host star. Evidence for Earth-size planets to two pulsating sdB stars have been reported and circumbinary giant planets or brown dwarfs have been found around HW

  4. News for analytical chemists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov; Karlberg, Bo

    2009-01-01

    The EuCheMS Division of Analytical Chemistry (DAC) maintains a website with informations on groups of analytical chemistry at European universities (www.dac-euchems. org). Everyone may contribute to the database and contributors are responsible for an annual update of the information. The service...... is offered free of charge. The report on activities of DAC during 2008 was published in journals of analytical chemistry where Manfred Grasserbauer contributed with his personal view on analytical chemistry in the assessment of climate changes and sustainable application of the natural resources to human...... directed to various topics of analytical chemistry. Although affected by the global financial crisis, the Euroanalysis Conference will be held on 6 to 10 September in Innsbruck, Austria. For next year, the programme for the analytical section of the 3rd European Chemistry Congress is in preparation...

  5. A decision-analytic approach to define poor prognosis patients: A case study for non-seminomatous germ cell cancer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.R. van Dijk (Merel); E.W. Steyerberg (Ewout); J.D.F. Habbema (Dik)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractBackground. Classification systems may be useful to direct more aggressive treatment to cancer patients with a relatively poor prognosis. The definition of 'poor prognosis' often lacks a formal basis. We propose a decision analytic approach to weigh benefits and harms explicitly to defin

  6. Analytical Chemistry in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolotov, Yuri

    2016-09-01

    Research in Russian analytical chemistry (AC) is carried out on a significant scale, and the analytical service solves practical tasks of geological survey, environmental protection, medicine, industry, agriculture, etc. The education system trains highly skilled professionals in AC. The development and especially manufacturing of analytical instruments should be improved; in spite of this, there are several good domestic instruments and other satisfy some requirements. Russian AC has rather good historical roots.

  7. Science Update: Analytical Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthy, Ward

    1980-01-01

    Briefly discusses new instrumentation in the field of analytical chemistry. Advances in liquid chromatography, photoacoustic spectroscopy, the use of lasers, and mass spectrometry are also discussed. (CS)

  8. 基于文献计量方法的神经干细胞研究现状分析%Bibliometric analysis on research hot and trends on neural stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛菲菲; 安新颖; 黄家学; 池慧

    2012-01-01

    目的 分析国际神经干细胞研究领域的研究现状和研究热点.方法 通过科学引文索引数据库,应用文献计量方法,分别从文献外部特征和文献内容特征对1991-2011年的3389篇关于神经干细胞研究的文献进行统计学分析,主要分析国际神经干细胞研究的时间分布、国家分布、机构分布、基金来源,重点分析目前神经干细胞研究文献中的热点主题词.结果 神经干细胞相关研究在近10年得到了快速发展,从事该研究的主要有美国、中国、日本及欧盟国家等,基础研究内容主要集中在神经干细胞增殖、分化、基因转录、基因表达方面,神经干细胞移植研究热点集中在帕金森病、脊髓损伤、阿尔茨海默病、卒中、亨延顿病等神经系统疾病的治疗方面.结论 当前国际上关于神经干细胞的研究较为热门,也取得了令人鼓舞的进展,然而要实现神经干细胞移植治疗的临床应用,还存在诸多问题有待深入研究探索.%Objective To analyze international research status and research focus of neural stem cells.Methods Using bibliometric analysis,the paper analyzed the international neural stem cells research documents in web of science database by analysis tools such as Thomson Data Analyzer.Research status on neural stem cells was analyzed including the distributions of years,countries,institutions and currently hot topics of international research on neural stem cells were emphatically analyzed.Results Researches on neural stem cells have developed rapidly in the recent 10 years.Main research countries include the America,China,Japan,and European Union etc.The key research topics in the field of international neural stem cells included neural stem cells proliferation,differentiation,gene transcription,gene expression in basic research and research on neural stem cells transplantation therapy including Parkinson' s disease,spinal cord injuries,stroke,Alzheimer disease

  9. Examination of fast reactor fuels, FBR analytical quality assurance standards and methods, and analytical methods development: irradiation tests. Progress report, January 1--March 31, 1977. [UO/sub 2/; PuO/sub 2/

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, R.D. (comp.)

    1977-05-01

    This project is directed toward the examination and comparison of the effects of neutron irradiation on LMFBR Program fuel materials. Characterization of unirradiated and irradiated fuels by analytical chemistry methods will continue, and additional methods will be modified and mechanized for hot cell application. Macro- and microexaminations will be made on fuel and cladding, using the shielded electron microprobe, emission spectrograph, radiochemistry, gamma scanner, mass spectrometers, and other analytical facilities. New capabilities will be developed in gamma scanning, analyses to assess spatial distributions of fuel and fission products, mass spectrometric measurements of burnup and fission gas constituents and other chemical analyses. Microstructural analyses of unirradiated and irradiated materials will continue, using optical and electron microscopy and autoradiographic and x-ray techniques. Special emphasis will be placed on numerical representation of microstructures and its relationship to fabrication and irradiation parameters. New etching and mounting techniques will be developed for high burnup materials.

  10. Analytics for metabolic engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J Petzold

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Realizing the promise of metabolic engineering has been slowed by challenges related to moving beyond proof-of-concept examples to robust and economically viable systems. Key to advancing metabolic engineering beyond trial-and-error research is access to parts with well-defined performance metrics that can be readily applied in vastly different contexts with predictable effects. As the field now stands, research depends greatly on analytical tools that assay target molecules, transcripts, proteins, and metabolites across different hosts and pathways. Screening technologies yield specific information for many thousands of strain variants while deep omics analysis provide a systems-level view of the cell factory. Efforts focused on a combination of these analyses yield quantitative information of dynamic processes between parts and the host chassis that drive the next engineering steps. Overall, the data generated from these types of assays aid better decision-making at the design and strain construction stages to speed progress in metabolic engineering research.

  11. Analytics for Metabolic Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petzold, Christopher J.; Chan, Leanne Jade G.; Nhan, Melissa; Adams, Paul D.

    2015-01-01

    Realizing the promise of metabolic engineering has been slowed by challenges related to moving beyond proof-of-concept examples to robust and economically viable systems. Key to advancing metabolic engineering beyond trial-and-error research is access to parts with well-defined performance metrics that can be readily applied in vastly different contexts with predictable effects. As the field now stands, research depends greatly on analytical tools that assay target molecules, transcripts, proteins, and metabolites across different hosts and pathways. Screening technologies yield specific information for many thousands of strain variants, while deep omics analysis provides a systems-level view of the cell factory. Efforts focused on a combination of these analyses yield quantitative information of dynamic processes between parts and the host chassis that drive the next engineering steps. Overall, the data generated from these types of assays aid better decision-making at the design and strain construction stages to speed progress in metabolic engineering research. PMID:26442249

  12. Hot rolling joining process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the case of incorporating nonferrous metal equipment in fuel reprocessing processes, from the viewpoint of reducing maintenance works for the piping connection to peripheral equipments, it is desirable to adopt the pipe joints of joining the materials of different kinds, which have the high reliability against leakage. In order to meet this demand, the development of the manufacturing technology of the pipe joints by hot rolling process has been carried out. As for the structure of this pipe joint, a small diameter nonferrous metal pipe and a large diameter stainless steel pipe are joined by hot rolling by using an inserted material. The materials are Ti-5% Ta, Ti and Zr for the nonferrous metals, SUS 304L for the stainless steel, and Ta foil for the inserted material. The merits and demerits of this pipe joints are shown. The control of the interface structure in the joining of different materials was carried out by using the inserted material. The method of manufacturing the pipe joints and the proper conditions of the rolling joining are explained. As for the performance of the pipe joints, the evaluations of the defects in the joining interface, the strength of the joining, the corrosion resistance and the susceptibility to stress corrosion cracking are reported. (K.I.)

  13. Preliminary report for the license of a hot cell that will be use in the technology development for the obtention of Mo-99; Informe preliminar para la licencia de una celda caliente que se utilizara en el desarrollo de la tecnologia para la obtencion de Mo-99

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fucugauchi, L.A.; Millan S, S.; Lopez M, A.E.; Lopez C, R; Sanchez M, V.; Reynoso V, R.; Vera, A

    1991-05-15

    A preliminary report for the license of a hot cell that will be used in the development of the technology for the obtaining of Mo-99 is presented. The following topics are also included: objective of the project, technical description, description of the prototype cell, handling of radioactive wastes, lists of equipment that will be used, risk analysis, curricula, quality assurance plan and an annex with the report on handling of radioactive wastes presented to the PAGD-IAEA. (Author)

  14. Analytical mass spectrometry. Abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-31

    This 43rd Annual Summer Symposium on Analytical Chemistry was held July 24--27, 1990 at Oak Ridge, TN and contained sessions on the following topics: Fundamentals of Analytical Mass Spectrometry (MS), MS in the National Laboratories, Lasers and Fourier Transform Methods, Future of MS, New Ionization and LC/MS Methods, and an extra session. (WET)

  15. Analytical mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    This 43rd Annual Summer Symposium on Analytical Chemistry was held July 24--27, 1990 at Oak Ridge, TN and contained sessions on the following topics: Fundamentals of Analytical Mass Spectrometry (MS), MS in the National Laboratories, Lasers and Fourier Transform Methods, Future of MS, New Ionization and LC/MS Methods, and an extra session. (WET)

  16. Some Heterodox Analytic Philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo E. Rosado Haddock

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Analytic philosophy has been the most influential philosophical movement in 20th century philosophy. It has surely contributed like no other movement to the elucidation and demarcation of philosophical problems. Nonetheless, the empiricist and sometimes even nominalist convictions of orthodox analytic philosophers have served them to inadequately render even philosophers they consider their own and to propound very questionable conceptions.

  17. The Analytical Hierarchy Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Michael Bruhn

    2007-01-01

    The technical note gathers the theory behind the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) and present its advantages and disadvantages in practical use.......The technical note gathers the theory behind the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) and present its advantages and disadvantages in practical use....

  18. Teaching the Analytical Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Brian

    2010-01-01

    Using a survey of 138 writing programs, I argue that we must be more explicit about what we think students should get out of analysis to make it more likely that students will transfer their analytical skills to different settings. To ensure our students take analytical skills with them at the end of the semester, we must simplify the task we…

  19. Quo vadis, analytical chemistry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valcárcel, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an open, personal, fresh approach to the future of Analytical Chemistry in the context of the deep changes Science and Technology are anticipated to experience. Its main aim is to challenge young analytical chemists because the future of our scientific discipline is in their hands. A description of not completely accurate overall conceptions of our discipline, both past and present, to be avoided is followed by a flexible, integral definition of Analytical Chemistry and its cornerstones (viz., aims and objectives, quality trade-offs, the third basic analytical reference, the information hierarchy, social responsibility, independent research, transfer of knowledge and technology, interfaces to other scientific-technical disciplines, and well-oriented education). Obsolete paradigms, and more accurate general and specific that can be expected to provide the framework for our discipline in the coming years are described. Finally, the three possible responses of analytical chemists to the proposed changes in our discipline are discussed.

  20. European Analytical Column

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlberg, B.; Grasserbauer, M.; Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov

    2009-01-01

    The European Analytical Column has once more invited a guest columnist to give his views on various matters related to analytical chemistry in Europe. This year, we have invited Professor Manfred Grasserbauer of the Vienna University of Technology to present some of the current challenges...... for European analytical chemistry. During the period 2002–07, Professor Grasserbauer was Director of the Institute for Environment and Sustainability, Joint Research Centre of the European Commission (EC), Ispra, Italy. There is no doubt that many challenges exist at the present time for all of us representing...... a major branch of chemistry, namely analytical chemistry. The global financial crisis is affecting all branches of chemistry, but analytical chemistry, in particular, since our discipline by tradition has many close links to industry. We have already noticed decreased industrial commitment with respect...

  1. Quo vadis, analytical chemistry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valcárcel, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an open, personal, fresh approach to the future of Analytical Chemistry in the context of the deep changes Science and Technology are anticipated to experience. Its main aim is to challenge young analytical chemists because the future of our scientific discipline is in their hands. A description of not completely accurate overall conceptions of our discipline, both past and present, to be avoided is followed by a flexible, integral definition of Analytical Chemistry and its cornerstones (viz., aims and objectives, quality trade-offs, the third basic analytical reference, the information hierarchy, social responsibility, independent research, transfer of knowledge and technology, interfaces to other scientific-technical disciplines, and well-oriented education). Obsolete paradigms, and more accurate general and specific that can be expected to provide the framework for our discipline in the coming years are described. Finally, the three possible responses of analytical chemists to the proposed changes in our discipline are discussed. PMID:26631024

  2. Factors Affecting Higher Order Thinking Skills of Students: A Meta-Analytic Structural Equation Modeling Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budsankom, Prayoonsri; Sawangboon, Tatsirin; Damrongpanit, Suntorapot; Chuensirimongkol, Jariya

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the research is to develop and identify the validity of factors affecting higher order thinking skills (HOTS) of students. The thinking skills can be divided into three types: analytical, critical, and creative thinking. This analysis is done by applying the meta-analytic structural equation modeling (MASEM) based on a database of…

  3. Hot Chili Peppers: Extraction, Cleanup, and Measurement of Capsaicin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jiping; Mabury, Scott A.; Sagebiel, John C.

    2000-12-01

    Capsaicin, the pungent ingredient of the red pepper or Capsicum annuum, is widely used in food preparation. The purpose of this experiment was to acquaint students with the active ingredients of hot chili pepper (capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin), the extraction, cleanup, and analysis of these chemicals, as a fun and informative analytical exercise. Fresh peppers were prepared and extracted with acetonitrile, removing plant co-extractives by addition to a C-18 solid-phase extraction cartridge. Elution of the capsaicinoids was accomplished with a methanol-acetic acid solution. Analysis was completed by reverse-phase HPLC with diode-array or variable wavelength detection and calibration with external standards. Levels of capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin were typically found to correlate with literature values for a specific hot pepper variety. Students particularly enjoyed relating concentrations of capsaicinoids to their perceived valuation of "hotness".

  4. Analytic results for the Tsallis thermodynamic variables

    CERN Document Server

    Bhattacharyya, Trambak; Mogliacci, Sylvain

    2016-01-01

    We analytically investigate the thermodynamic variables of a hot and dense system, in the framework of the Tsallis non-extensive classical statistics. After a brief review, we start by recalling the corresponding massless limits for all the thermodynamic variables. We then present the detail of calculation for the exact massive result regarding the pressure -- valid for all values of the $q$-parameter -- as well as the Tsallis $T$-, $\\mu$- and $m$- parameters, the former characterizing the non-extensivity of the system. The results for other thermodynamic variables, in the massive case, readily follow from appropriate differentiations of the pressure, for which we provide the necessary formulas. For the convenience of the reader, we tabulate all of our results. A special emphasis is put on the method used in order to perform these computations, which happens to reduce cumbersome momentum integrals into simpler ones. Numerical consistency between our analytic results and the corresponding usual numerical integ...

  5. Response of hot nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broglia, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    The dipole giant resonance is reviewed, as it is the only vibration which has been experimentally identified in the decay of hot nuclei. The mechanism of exciting the resonance and the mode of the resonance are described. The methods used to calculate the vibrations from the shell model are discussed, including the Hartree-Fock approximation and random phase approximation. Nuclei formed by compound nuclear reactions, which possess high excitation energy and angular momentum, are considered. It is argued that the stability of the dipole may be used to advantage in the study of other properties of nuclei at high excitation. It is also considered possible that the discussion of the dipole giant resonance may be extended to the gamma decay of the isovector quadrupole vibration. 26 refs., 18 figs. (LEW)

  6. Modelling propagation of deflagration waves out of hot spots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partom, Yehuda

    2015-06-01

    It is widely accepted that shock initiation and detonation of heterogeneous explosives come about by a two-step process known as ignition and growth. In the first step a shock sweeping an explosive cell (control volume) creates hot spots that become ignition sites. In the second step deflagration waves (or burn waves) propagate out of those hot spots and transform the reactant in the cell into reaction products. The macroscopic (or average) reaction rate of the reactant in a cell depends on the speed of those deflagration waves and on the average distance between neighbouring hot spots. Here we simulate the propagation of deflagration waves out of hot spots on the mesoscale in axial symmetry using a 2D hydrocode, to which we add heat conduction and bulk reaction. The propagation speed of the deflagration wave depends on both pressure and temperature, where pressure dependence is dominant at low shock level, and temperature dependence is dominant at a higher shock level. From the simulation we obtain deflagration (or burn) fronts emanating out of the hot spots. For intermediate shock levels the deflagration waves consume the explosive between hot spots. For higher shock levels the deflagration waves strengthen to become detonation waves on the mesoscale. From the simulation results we extract average deflagration wave speeds and show how they depend on reaction rate and on other material parameters.

  7. How hot is the sun

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘超

    2001-01-01

    Do you know how hot thesun is? There are no solidsor liquids on the sun. Why not? The temperature onoutside the sun is more than 10, 000℃, and that at the centre is about 20, 000, 000℃.The sun is so hot that all thesolids and all the liquids havebeen turned into gases.

  8. On the Hot Money Trail

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The huge influx of international hot money is threatening inflation and affecting the country’s monetary policy In the last three months, the country’s financial supervisory departments have conducted frequent but atypical investi-gations of hot money.

  9. Google analytics integrations

    CERN Document Server

    Waisberg, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    A roadmap for turning Google Analytics into a centralized marketing analysis platform With Google Analytics Integrations, expert author Daniel Waisberg shows you how to gain a more meaningful, complete view of customers that can drive growth opportunities. This in-depth guide shows not only how to use Google Analytics, but also how to turn this powerful data collection and analysis tool into a central marketing analysis platform for your company. Taking a hands-on approach, this resource explores the integration and analysis of a host of common data sources, including Google AdWords, AdSens

  10. Criticality safety training at the Hot Fuel Examination Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HFEF comprises four hot cells and out-of-cell support facilities for the US breeder program. The HFEF criticality safety program includes training in the basic theory of criticality and in specific criticality hazard control rules that apply to HFEF. A professional staff-member oversees the implementation of the criticality prevention program

  11. Analytical strategies for phosphoproteomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thingholm, Tine E; Jensen, Ole N; Larsen, Martin R

    2009-01-01

    sensitive and specific strategies. Today, most phosphoproteomic studies are conducted by mass spectrometric strategies in combination with phospho-specific enrichment methods. This review presents an overview of different analytical strategies for the characterization of phosphoproteins. Emphasis...

  12. Repetitious-Hot-Pressing Technique in Hot-Pressing Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shixue SONG; Xing AI; Wei GAO; Jun ZHAO

    2003-01-01

    A new pressing method was proposed for hot-pressing process. Experimental results indicated that the porosity in Al2O3/TiC/Ni/Mo (hereafter called Al2O3/TiC composite) composite compacts decreases by 6% after adopting this new technique,compared to traditional hot-pressing technique under the same sintering temperature. The flexural strength and Vickerhardness increase from 883 MPa to 980 MPa and from 16 GPa to 21.1 GPa, respectively. A theoretical model was given toanalyze the densification mechanism of the composite in the process of repetitious-hot-pressing.

  13. Trends in analytical CRM

    OpenAIRE

    Havelková, Martina

    2014-01-01

    This thesis describes major trends in the field of analytical CRM. The goal is to identify those trends and compare them with current situation on the CRM market. The thesis is devided among several parts. In the opening part is described Customer Relationship Management and architecture of CRM system. The next part discribes analytical CRM and its standard ways of using. The main part of the thesis is identification of trends. Idetificated trends are characterized and compared with situation...

  14. Learning analytics in education

    OpenAIRE

    Štrukelj, Tajda

    2015-01-01

    Learning analytics is a young field in computer supported learning, which could have a great impact on education in the future. It is a set of analytical tools which measure, collect, analyze and report about students' data for the purpose of understanding and optimizing students' learning and environments in which this learning occurs. Today, more and more learning related activities are placed on the web. Teachers are creating virtual learning environments (VLE), in which a great set of...

  15. Realtime Web Analytics

    OpenAIRE

    Cardoso, João

    2011-01-01

    Tracking what is happening on a website in realtime is invaluable. The objective of this thesis was to start and launch the first version of Snowfinch, an open source realtime web analytics application. The thesis report contains up-to-date fundamentals of web analytics; reasoning behind the most important and difficult technical decisions in the project; product development methodologies; and an overview of the resulting application. Understanding visitors is the key to a site’s succ...

  16. Intermediate algebra & analytic geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Gondin, William R

    1967-01-01

    Intermediate Algebra & Analytic Geometry Made Simple focuses on the principles, processes, calculations, and methodologies involved in intermediate algebra and analytic geometry. The publication first offers information on linear equations in two unknowns and variables, functions, and graphs. Discussions focus on graphic interpretations, explicit and implicit functions, first quadrant graphs, variables and functions, determinate and indeterminate systems, independent and dependent equations, and defective and redundant systems. The text then examines quadratic equations in one variable, system

  17. Encyclopedia of analytical surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Krivoshapko, S N

    2015-01-01

    This encyclopedia presents an all-embracing collection of analytical surface classes. It provides concise definitions  and description for more than 500 surfaces and categorizes them in 38 classes of analytical surfaces. All classes are cross references to the original literature in an excellent bibliography. The encyclopedia is of particular interest to structural and civil engineers and serves as valuable reference for mathematicians.

  18. Intelligent Visual Analytics Queries

    OpenAIRE

    Hao, Ming C.; Dayal, Umeshwar; Keim, Daniel A.; Morent, Dominik; Schneidewind, Jörn

    2007-01-01

    Visualizations of large multi-dimensional data sets, occurring in scientific and commercial applications, often reveal interesting local patterns. Analysts want to identify the causes and impacts of these interesting areas, and they also want to search for similar patterns occurring elsewhere in the data set. In this paper we introduce the Intelligent Visual Analytics Query (IVQuery) concept that combines visual interaction with automated analytical methods to support analysts in discovering ...

  19. Charmonium in Hot Medium

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Xingbo

    2012-01-01

    We investigate charmonium production in the hot medium created by heavy-ion collisions by setting up a framework in which in-medium charmonium properties are constrained by thermal lattice QCD (lQCD) and subsequently implemented into kinetic approaches. A Boltzmann transport equation is employed to describe the time evolution of the charmonium phase space distribution with the loss and gain term accounting for charmonium dissociation and regeneration (from charm quarks), respectively. The momentum dependence of the charmonium dissociation rate is worked out. The dominant process for in-medium charmonium regeneration is found to be a 3-to-2 process. Its corresponding regeneration rates from different input charm-quark momentum spectra are evaluated. Experimental data on $J/\\psi$ production at CERN-SPS and BNL-RHIC are compared with our numerical results in terms of both rapidity-dependent inclusive yields and transverse momentum ($p_t$) spectra. Within current uncertainties from (interpreting) lQCD data and fr...

  20. Performance evaluation of the analytical control line for nuclear fuel reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The analytical line was placed in a five-section semi-hot cell of a total length of 35 m, height of fields 1 m and depth of 75 cm, comprising a manual lift, a sample store, equipment for the opening of the probe vessels, a chemical desk and a desk for preparing the chemical samples for radiometric determination. A two member team worked 6.5 hrs a day making an average of 4.4 chemical determinations and preparing two radiometric determinations. On the basis of experiences gained in this work recommendations are given for the construction of similar installations. A diagram is given of the line and the key parts are shown in figures. (M.K.)

  1. Hot Money,National Risk?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chuntao Yu

    2010-01-01

    After the phasal cease of the financial crisis, from the latter half of 2009 and on, the international hot money has been trying to make a comeback and has once again viewed China as its object. Many have chosen Hong Kong as the path into China. In the third quarter of 2009, the hot money which uses Hong Kong as its gateway to flow into mainland China has forced the Hong Kong Monetary Authority to inject capital into the market. Chief Executive of Hong Kong Monetary Authority - Norman Chan evaluated the size of this wave of hot money as "unprecedented and unheard of".

  2. Croatian Analytical Terminology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kastelan-Macan; M.

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Results of analytical research are necessary in all human activities. They are inevitable in making decisions in the environmental chemistry, agriculture, forestry, veterinary medicine, pharmaceutical industry, and biochemistry. Without analytical measurements the quality of materials and products cannot be assessed, so that analytical chemistry is an essential part of technical sciences and disciplines.The language of Croatian science, and analytical chemistry within it, was one of the goals of our predecessors. Due to the political situation, they did not succeed entirely, but for the scientists in independent Croatia this is a duty, because language is one of the most important features of the Croatian identity. The awareness of the need to introduce Croatian terminology was systematically developed in the second half of the 19th century, along with the founding of scientific societies and the wish of scientists to write their scientific works in Croatian, so that the results of their research may be applied in economy. Many authors of textbooks from the 19th and the first half of the 20th century contributed to Croatian analytical terminology (F. Rački, B. Šulek, P. Žulić, G. Pexidr, J. Domac, G. Janeček , F. Bubanović, V. Njegovan and others. M. DeŢelić published the first systematic chemical terminology in 1940, adjusted to the IUPAC recommendations. In the second half of 20th century textbooks in classic analytical chemistry were written by V. Marjanović-Krajovan, M. Gyiketta-Ogrizek, S. Žilić and others. I. Filipović wrote the General and Inorganic Chemistry textbook and the Laboratory Handbook (in collaboration with P. Sabioncello and contributed greatly to establishing the terminology in instrumental analytical methods.The source of Croatian nomenclature in modern analytical chemistry today are translated textbooks by Skoog, West and Holler, as well as by Günnzler i Gremlich, and original textbooks by S. Turina, Z.

  3. Hot scalar electrodynamics as a toy model for hot QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Krämmer, U; Schulz, H; Kraemmer, Ulrike; Rebhan, Anton K; Schulz, Hermann

    1995-01-01

    Hot scalar electrodynamics is adopted as a toy model for a hot gluon plasma to display some aspects of the compulsory resummation of hard thermal loops when next-to-leading order quantities at soft momentum scales are to be calculated. [Talk given by A.K.R. at a one-day meeting dedicated to the memory of Tanguy ALTHERR, held on November 4, 1994 at CERN, Geneva. To appear in a Gedenkschrift published by World Scientific.

  4. Permeabilidade a quente de refratários para revestimento de cubas eletrolíticas Hot permeability of refractories for aluminum electrolytic cells lining at high temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Y. Miyaji

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Na indústria do alumínio primário, um dos principais responsáveis pela deterioração do revestimento refratário nas cubas de redução eletrolítica é o ataque por banho criolítico com alta concentração de NaF, que penetra e reage com o refratário podendo, em condições extremas, causar a parada prematura de operação da cuba e grandes prejuízos econômicos. Baseando-se nos mais recentes estudos de caracterização de refratários para cubas, uma boa correlação tem sido encontrada entre a resistência à corrosão e a permeabilidade, a qual é calculada pela equação de Forchheimer para a obtenção das constantes k1 Darciana (efeito viscoso e k2 não Darciana (efeito inercial. Entretanto, na maioria das situações, as medidas da permeabilidade têm sido efetuadas à temperatura ambiente, embora o refratário em uso esteja a superior temperatura. Este trabalho visa avaliar como esta permeabilidade se altera em temperaturas de até 700 ºC buscando, assim, uma melhor correlação dos resultados com as condições reais de operação. Pretende-se também, investigar essa propriedade em refratários empregados no revestimento de cadinhos para o transporte de alumínio líquido, com o intuito de verificar a aplicabilidade da permeametria como uma ferramenta de caracterização desses materiais cujo interesse de aplicação e desenvolvimento tem sido cada vez maior.In the aluminium primary industry, one of the main causes for electrolytic cells lining deterioration is the chemical attack by high NaF content cryolitic bath, that penetrates and reacts with the refractory, shortening the cell’s service life and resulting great economic losses. Based on the most recent studies on characterization of alumino-silicate refractories for aluminum cell linings, a good correlation has been found between its chemical attack by molten fluorides and the permeability, which is calculated by Forchheimer’s equation in order to obtain the Darcian

  5. Anisotropy effects on curvature-driven flute instabilities in a hot-electron plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of finite parallel temperature are investigated for a hot electron plasma with sufficiently large beta that the magnetic field scale length (Δ/sub B/) is small compared with the vacuum field radius of curvature (R). Numerical and analytical estimates of stability boundaries are obtained for the four possible modes that can be treated in this limit: the conventional hot electron interchange, the high frequency hot electron interchange (ω > ω/sub ci/), the compressional Alfven mode, and the interacting pressure-driven interchange

  6. Doing social media analytics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip Brooker

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In the few years since the advent of ‘Big Data’ research, social media analytics has begun to accumulate studies drawing on social media as a resource and tool for research work. Yet, there has been relatively little attention paid to the development of methodologies for handling this kind of data. The few works that exist in this area often reflect upon the implications of ‘grand’ social science methodological concepts for new social media research (i.e. they focus on general issues such as sampling, data validity, ethics, etc.. By contrast, we advance an abductively oriented methodological suite designed to explore the construction of phenomena played out through social media. To do this, we use a software tool – Chorus – to illustrate a visual analytic approach to data. Informed by visual analytic principles, we posit a two-by-two methodological model of social media analytics, combining two data collection strategies with two analytic modes. We go on to demonstrate each of these four approaches ‘in action’, to help clarify how and why they might be used to address various research questions.

  7. ATMOSPHERIC CIRCULATION OF HOT JUPITERS: DAYSIDE–NIGHTSIDE TEMPERATURE DIFFERENCES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komacek, Thaddeus D.; Showman, Adam P., E-mail: tkomacek@lpl.arizona.edu [Department of Planetary Sciences, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2016-04-10

    The full-phase infrared light curves of low-eccentricity hot Jupiters show a trend of increasing dayside-to-nightside brightness temperature difference with increasing equilibrium temperature. Here, we present a three-dimensional model that explains this relationship, in order to provide insight into the processes that control heat redistribution in tidally locked planetary atmospheres. This three-dimensional model combines predictive analytic theory for the atmospheric circulation and dayside–nightside temperature differences over a range of equilibrium temperatures, atmospheric compositions, and potential frictional drag strengths with numerical solutions of the circulation that verify this analytic theory. The theory shows that the longitudinal propagation of waves mediates dayside–nightside temperature differences in hot Jupiter atmospheres, analogous to the wave adjustment mechanism that regulates the thermal structure in Earth’s tropics. These waves can be damped in hot Jupiter atmospheres by either radiative cooling or potential frictional drag. This frictional drag would likely be caused by Lorentz forces in a partially ionized atmosphere threaded by a background magnetic field, and would increase in strength with increasing temperature. Additionally, the amplitude of radiative heating and cooling increases with increasing temperature, and hence both radiative heating/cooling and frictional drag damp waves more efficiently with increasing equilibrium temperature. Radiative heating and cooling play the largest role in controlling dayside–nightside temperature differences in both our analytic theory and numerical simulations, with frictional drag only being important if it is stronger than the Coriolis force. As a result, dayside–nightside temperature differences in hot Jupiter atmospheres increase with increasing stellar irradiation and decrease with increasing pressure.

  8. Do scientists trace hot topics?

    CERN Document Server

    Wei, Tian; Wu, Chensheng; Yan, XiaoYong; Fan, Ying; Di, Zengru; Wu, Jinshan

    2013-01-01

    Do scientists follow hot topics in their scientific investigations? In this paper, by performing analysis to papers published in the American Physical Society (APS) Physical Review journals, it is found that papers are more likely to be attracted by hot fields, where the hotness of a field is measured by the number of papers belonging to the field. This indicates that scientists generally do follow hot topics. However, there are qualitative differences among scientists from various countries, among research works regarding different number of authors, different number of affiliations and different number of references. These observations could be valuable for policy makers when deciding research funding and also for individual researchers when searching for scientific projects.

  9. Coulomb explosion of "hot spot"

    CERN Document Server

    Oreshkin, V I; Chaikovsky, S A; Artyomov, A P

    2016-01-01

    The study presented in this paper has shown that the generation of hard x rays and high-energy ions, which are detected in pinch implosion experiments, may be associated with the Coulomb explosion of the hot spot that is formed due to the outflow of the material from the pinch cross point. During the process of material outflow, the temperature of the hot spot plasma increases, and conditions arise for the plasma electrons to become continuously accelerated. The runaway of electrons from the hot spot region results in the buildup of positive space charge in this region followed by a Coulomb explosion. The conditions for the hot spot plasma electrons to become continuously accelerated have been revealed and estimates have been obtained for the kinetic energy of the ions generated by the Coulomb explosion.

  10. Combustion Turbine (CT) Hot Section Coating Life Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Cheruvu; K. Krzywosz

    2004-09-30

    The integrity of coatings used in hot section components of combustion turbines is crucial to the reliability of the buckets. This project was initiated in recognition of the need for predicting the life of coatings analytically, and non-destructively; correspondingly, four principal tasks were established. Task 1, with the objective of analytically developing stress, strain and temperature distributions in the bucket and thereby predicting thermal fatigue (TMF) damage for various operating conditions; Task 2 with the objective of developing eddy current techniques to measure both TMF damage and general degradation of coatings and, Task 3 with the objective of developing mechanism based algorithms. Task 4 is aimed at verifying analytical predictions from Task 1 and the NDE predictions from Task 3 against field observations.

  11. COMBUSTION TURBINE (CT) HOT SECTION COATING LIFE MANAGEMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Viswanathan; K. Krzywosz; S. Cheruvu; E. Wan

    2003-04-01

    The integrity of coatings used in hot section components of combustion turbines is crucial to the reliability of the buckets. This project was initiated in recognition of the need for predicting the life of coatings analytically, and non destructively; correspondingly, three principal tasks were established. Task 1, with the objective of analytically developing stress, strain and temperature distributions in the bucket and thereby predicting thermal fatigue (TMF) damage for various operating conditions; Task 2 with the objective of developing eddy current techniques to measure both TMF damage and general degradation of coatings and, Task 3, with the objective of developing mechanism based algorithms. Task 4 would be aimed at verifying analytical predictions from Task 1 and the NDE predictions from Task 3 against field observations. Task 5 would develop a risk-based decision analysis model to make run/repair decisions. This report is a record of the progress to date on these 3 tasks.

  12. Combustion Turbine (CT) Hot Section Coating Life Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Cheruvu; K. Krzywosz

    2005-03-31

    The integrity of coatings used in hot section components of combustion turbines is crucial to the reliability of the buckets. This project was initiated in recognition of the need for predicting the life of coatings analytically, and non-destructively; correspondingly, four principal tasks were established. Task 1, with the objective of analytically developing stress, strain and temperature distributions in the bucket and thereby predicting thermal fatigue (TMF) damage for various operating conditions; Task 2 with the objective of developing eddy current techniques to measure both TMF damage and general degradation of coatings and, Task 3 with the objective of developing mechanism based algorithms. Task 4 is aimed at verifying analytical predictions from Task 1 and the NDE predictions from Task 3 against field observations.

  13. COMBUSTION TURBINE (CT) HOT SECTION COATING LIFE MANAGEMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Gandy; R. Viswanathan; S. Cheruvu; K. Krzywosz

    2006-03-31

    The integrity of coatings used in hot section components of combustion turbines is crucial to the reliability of the buckets. This project was initiated in recognition of the need for predicting the life of coatings analytically, and non-destructively; correspondingly, four principal tasks were established. Task 1, with the objective of analytically developing stress, strain and temperature distributions in the bucket and thereby predicting thermal fatigue (TMF) damage for various operating conditions; Task 2 with the objective of developing eddy current techniques to measure both TMF damage and general degradation of coatings and, Task 3 with the objective of developing mechanism based algorithms. Task 4 is aimed at verifying analytical predictions from Task 1 and the NDE predictions from Task 3 against field observations.

  14. Tools for ultrasonic hot embossing

    OpenAIRE

    Liao, Sijie

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasonic hot embossing is an emerging technology enabling molding of thermo-plastic polymers in seconds. A stack of polymer foils is heated by the friction between the foils and protruding microstructures on a tool when ultrasonic vibrations are generated by a sonotrode. The polymer is molten and adapts to the shape of the microstructures on the tool. Thus, a micro structure is generated in much shorter time than by injection molding or hot embossing. The objective of this work was investig...

  15. Twisted analytic torsion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MATHAI; Varghese

    2010-01-01

    We review the Reidemeister, Ray-Singer’s analytic torsion and the Cheeger-Mller theorem. We describe the analytic torsion of the de Rham complex twisted by a flux form introduced by the current authors and recall its properties. We define a new twisted analytic torsion for the complex of invariant differential forms on the total space of a principal circle bundle twisted by an invariant flux form. We show that when the dimension is even, such a torsion is invariant under certain deformation of the metric and the flux form. Under T-duality which exchanges the topology of the bundle and the flux form and the radius of the circular fiber with its inverse, the twisted torsion of invariant forms are inverse to each other for any dimension.

  16. Analytic QCD Binding Potentials

    CERN Document Server

    Fried, H M; Grandou, T; Sheu, Y -M

    2011-01-01

    This paper applies the analytic forms of a recent non-perturbative, manifestly gauge- and Lorentz-invariant description (of the exchange of all possible virtual gluons between quarks ($Q$) and/or anti-quarks ($\\bar{Q}$) in a quenched, eikonal approximation) to extract analytic forms for the binding potentials generating a model $Q$-$\\bar{Q}$ "pion", and a model $QQQ$ "nucleon". Other, more complicated $Q$, $\\bar{Q}$ contributions to such color-singlet states may also be identified analytically. An elementary minimization technique, relevant to the ground states of such bound systems, is adopted to approximate the solutions to a more proper, but far more complicated Schroedinger/Dirac equation; the existence of possible contributions to the pion and nucleon masses due to spin, angular momentum, and "deformation" degrees of freedom is noted but not pursued. Neglecting electromagnetic and weak interactions, this analysis illustrates how the one new parameter making its appearance in this exact, realistic formali...

  17. Construction of an external electrode for determination of electrochemical corrosion potential in normal operational conditions of an BWR type reactor for hot cells; Construccion de un electrodo externo para determinacion del potencial de corrosion electroquimico en condiciones normales de operacion de un reactor tipo BWR para celdas calientes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilar T, J.A.; Rivera M, H.; Hernandez C, R. [Departamento de Sintesis y Caracterizacion de Materiales, Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2001-07-01

    The behavior of the corrosion processes at high temperature requires of external devices that being capable to resist a temperature of 288 Centigrade and a pressure of 80 Kg/cm{sup 2}, to give stable and reproducible results of some variable and resisting physically and chemically the radiation. The external electrode of Ag/AgCl fulfils all the requirements in the determination of the electrochemical corrosion potential under normal operational conditions of a BWR type reactor in hot cells. (Author)

  18. Flurry Analytics pelikehityksen apuna

    OpenAIRE

    Kuusisto, Rami

    2015-01-01

    Flurry Analytics on Yahoo Mobile Developer Suiten osa, joka keskittyy analytiikkaan. Opinnäytetyössä kerrotaan Flurry Analytics SDK:n implementoimisesta sovellukseen, Flurry Analyticsin tarjoaman web-portaalin käytöstä, sekä siitä, miten näitä ominaisuuksia käytettiin toteutettaessa pelin Cabals: Legends analytiikkatoteutusta. Työssä tarkastellaan myös miten jo kehitettyä analytiikkatoteutusta voitaisiin käyttää pohjana vielä pidemmälle viedylle analytiikkatoteutukselle ja kuinka pystyttäisii...

  19. An analytic thomism?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Alejandro Pérez Chamorro.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available For 50 years the philosophers of the Anglo-Saxon analytic tradition (E. Anscombre, P. Geach, A. Kenny, P. Foot have tried to follow the Thomas Aquinas School which they use as a source to surpass the Cartesian Epistemology and to develop the virtue ethics. Recently, J. Haldane has inaugurated a program of “analytical thomism” which main result until the present has been his “theory of identity mind/world”. Nevertheless, none of Thomás’ admirers has still found the means of assimilating his metaphysics of being.

  20. Strictly convergent analytic structures

    OpenAIRE

    Cluckers, Raf; Lipshitz, Leonard

    2013-01-01

    We give conclusive answers to some questions about definability in analytic languages that arose shortly after the work by Denef and van den Dries, [DD], on $p$-adic subanalytic sets, and we continue the study of non-archimedean fields with analytic structure of [LR3], [CLR1] and [CL1]. We show that the language $L_K$ consisting of the language of valued fields together with all strictly convergent power series over a complete, rank one valued field $K$ can be expanded, in a definitial way, t...

  1. Foundations of predictive analytics

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, James

    2012-01-01

    Drawing on the authors' two decades of experience in applied modeling and data mining, Foundations of Predictive Analytics presents the fundamental background required for analyzing data and building models for many practical applications, such as consumer behavior modeling, risk and marketing analytics, and other areas. It also discusses a variety of practical topics that are frequently missing from similar texts. The book begins with the statistical and linear algebra/matrix foundation of modeling methods, from distributions to cumulant and copula functions to Cornish--Fisher expansion and o

  2. Social network data analytics

    CERN Document Server

    Aggarwal, Charu C

    2011-01-01

    Social network analysis applications have experienced tremendous advances within the last few years due in part to increasing trends towards users interacting with each other on the internet. Social networks are organized as graphs, and the data on social networks takes on the form of massive streams, which are mined for a variety of purposes. Social Network Data Analytics covers an important niche in the social network analytics field. This edited volume, contributed by prominent researchers in this field, presents a wide selection of topics on social network data mining such as Structural Pr

  3. Optimization of process parameters in a large-area hot-wire CVD reactor for the deposition of amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) for solar cell application with highly uniform material quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pflueger, A.; Mukherjee, C.; Schroeder, B. [Department of Physics, Center of Materials Science, University of Kaiserslautern, P.O. Box 3049, D-67653 Kaiserslautern (Germany)

    2002-07-01

    Scale-up of a-Si:H-based thin film applications such as solar cells, entirely or partly prepared by hot-wire chemical vapor deposition (HWCVD), requires research on the deposition process in a large-area HWCVD system. The influence of gas supply and filament geometry on thickness uniformity has already been reported, but their influence on material quality is systematically studied for the first time. The optimization of deposition parameters for obtaining best material quality in our large-area HWCVD system resulted in an optimum filament temperature, T{sub fil}{approx}1600C, pressure, p=8mTorr and silane flow, F(SiH{sub 4})=100sccm, keeping the substrate temperature at T{sub S}=200C. A special gas supply (gas shower with tiny holes of uniform size) and a filament grid, consisting of six filaments with an interfilament distance, d{sub fil}=4cm were used. The optimum filament-to-substrate distance was found to be d{sub fil-S}=8.4cm. While studying the influence of different d{sub fil} and gas supply configurations on the material quality, the above-mentioned setup and parameters yield best results for both uniformity and material quality. With the setup mentioned, we could achieve device quality a-Si:H films with a thickness uniformity of {+-}2.5% on a circular area of 20cm in diameter. The material, grown at a deposition rate of r{sub d}{approx}4A/s, was characterized on nine positions of the 30cmx30cm substrate area, and revealed reasonable uniformity of the opto-electronic properties, e.g photosensitivity, {sigma}{sub Ph}/{sigma}{sub D}=(2.46{+-}0.7)x10{sup 5}, microstructure factor, R=0.17{+-}0.05, defect densities, N{sub d(PDS)}=(2.06{+-}0.6)x10{sup 17}cm{sup -3} and N{sub d(CPM)}=(2.05{+-}0.5)x10{sup 16}cm{sup -3} (film properties are given as mean values and standard deviations). Finally, we fabricated pin solar cells, with the i-layer deposited on small-area p-substrates distributed over an area of 20cmx20cm in this large-area deposition system, and

  4. 29 CFR 1915.14 - Hot work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hot work. 1915.14 Section 1915.14 Labor Regulations... Dangerous Atmospheres in Shipyard Employment § 1915.14 Hot work. (a) Hot work requiring testing by a Marine Chemist or Coast Guard authorized person. (1) The employer shall ensure that hot work is not performed...

  5. High Efficiency Dye-sensitized Solar Cells Constructed with Composites of TiO2 and the Hot-bubbling Synthesized Ultra-Small SnO2 Nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Xiaoli; Zhou, Ru; Zhang, Shouwei; Ding, Liping; Wan, Lei; Qin, Shengxian; Chen, Zhesheng; Xu, Jinzhang; Miao, Shiding

    2016-01-01

    An efficient photo-anode for the dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) should have features of high loading of dye molecules, favorable band alignments and good efficiency in electron transport. Herein, the 3.4 nm-sized SnO2 nanocrystals (NCs) of high crystallinity, synthesized via the hot-bubbling method, were incorporated with the commercial TiO2 (P25) particles to fabricate the photo-anodes. The optimal percentage of the doped SnO2 NCs was found at ~7.5% (SnO2/TiO2, w/w), and the fabricated DSSC delivers a power conversion efficiency up to 6.7%, which is 1.52 times of the P25 based DSSCs. The ultra-small SnO2 NCs offer three benefits, (1) the incorporation of SnO2 NCs enlarges surface areas of the photo-anode films, and higher dye-loading amounts were achieved; (2) the high charge mobility provided by SnO2 was confirmed to accelerate the electron transport, and the photo-electron recombination was suppressed by the highly-crystallized NCs; (3) the conduction band minimum (CBM) of the SnO2 NCs was uplifted due to the quantum size effects, and this was found to alleviate the decrement in the open-circuit voltage. This work highlights great contributions of the SnO2 NCs to the improvement of the photovoltaic performances in the DSSCs. PMID:26758941

  6. The effects of Hot Pepper Extract and Capsaicin on Adipocyte Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching Sheng, Chu

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of hot pepper extract and capsaicin on the adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells, lipolysis in rat epididymal adipocytes and histological changes in porcine adipose tissue. Methods : Inhibiton of preadipocyte differentiation and/or stimulation of lipolysis play important roles in reducing obesity. 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were differentiated with adipogenic reagents by incubating for 3 days in the absence or presence of hot pepper extract or capsaicin ranging from 0.01 to 1㎎/㎖. The effects of hot pepper extract and capsaicin on adipogenesis were examined by measuring GPDH activity and by Oil Red O staining. Mature adipocytes from rat epididymal fat pad was incubated with hot pepper extract or capsaicin ranging from 0.01 to 1㎎/㎖ for 3 hrs. The effects of hot pepper extract and capsaicin on lipolysis were examined by measuring free glycerol released. Fat tissue from pig skin was injected with hot pepper extract or capsaicinCFP ranging from 0.1 to 10㎎/㎖ to examine the effects of hot pepper extract and capsaicin on histological changes under light microscopy. Results : The following results were obtained from present study on adipogenesis of preadipocytes, lipolysis of adipocytes and histological changes in fat tissue. 1. Hot pepper extract and capsaicin inhibited adipogenic differentiation at the concentration of 0.1 and 0.01㎎/㎖, respectively, indicating that capsaicin was more effective in inhibiting adipogenesis than hot pepper extract. 2. Hot pepper extract and capsaicin decreased the activity of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase(GPDH at the concentration of 0.1 and 0.01㎎/㎖, respectively, indicating that capsaicin was more effective in inhibiting adipogenic differentiation than hot pepper extract. 3. Hot pepper extract and capsaicin increased glycerol release at the concentration of 0.1㎎/㎖. There was no difference in lipolytic activity between hot pepper extract and

  7. Analytic number theory

    CERN Document Server

    Matsumoto, Kohji

    2002-01-01

    The book includes several survey articles on prime numbers, divisor problems, and Diophantine equations, as well as research papers on various aspects of analytic number theory such as additive problems, Diophantine approximations and the theory of zeta and L-function Audience Researchers and graduate students interested in recent development of number theory

  8. Social Data Analytics Tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hussain, Abid; Vatrapu, Ravi

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the design, development and demonstrative case studies of the Social Data Analytics Tool, SODATO. Adopting Action Design Framework [1], the objective of SODATO [2] is to collect, store, analyze, and report big social data emanating from the social media engagement of and social...

  9. Analytical Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Mark

    2013-01-01

    The Analytical Chemistry and Material Development Group maintains a capability in chemical analysis, materials R&D failure analysis and contamination control. The uniquely qualified staff and facility support the needs of flight projects, science instrument development and various technical tasks, as well as Cal Tech.

  10. Analytics for Customer Engagement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijmolt, Tammo H. A.; Leeflang, Peter S. H.; Block, Frank; Eisenbeiss, Maik; Hardie, Bruce G. S.; Lemmens, Aurelie; Saffert, Peter

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we discuss the state of the art of models for customer engagement and the problems that are inherent to calibrating and implementing these models. The authors first provide an overview of the data available for customer analytics and discuss recent developments. Next, the authors di

  11. Ada & the Analytical Engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Elisabeth

    1996-01-01

    Presents a brief history of Ada Byron King, Countess of Lovelace, focusing on her primary role in the development of the Analytical Engine--the world's first computer. Describes the Ada Project (TAP), a centralized World Wide Web site that serves as a clearinghouse for information related to women in computing, and provides a Web address for…

  12. Multispectral analytical image fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With new and advanced analytical imaging methods emerging, the limits of physical analysis capabilities and furthermore of data acquisition quantities are constantly pushed, claiming high demands to the field of scientific data processing and visualisation. Physical analysis methods like Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) or Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES) and others are capable of delivering high-resolution multispectral two-dimensional and three-dimensional image data; usually this multispectral data is available in form of n separate image files with each showing one element or other singular aspect of the sample. There is high need for digital image processing methods enabling the analytical scientist, confronted with such amounts of data routinely, to get rapid insight into the composition of the sample examined, to filter the relevant data and to integrate the information of numerous separate multispectral images to get the complete picture. Sophisticated image processing methods like classification and fusion provide possible solution approaches to this challenge. Classification is a treatment by multivariate statistical means in order to extract analytical information. Image fusion on the other hand denotes a process where images obtained from various sensors or at different moments of time are combined together to provide a more complete picture of a scene or object under investigation. Both techniques are important for the task of information extraction and integration and often one technique depends on the other. Therefore overall aim of this thesis is to evaluate the possibilities of both techniques regarding the task of analytical image processing and to find solutions for the integration and condensation of multispectral analytical image data in order to facilitate the interpretation of the enormous amounts of data routinely acquired by modern physical analysis instruments. (author)

  13. Analytical and Clinical Validation of a Digital Sequencing Panel for Quantitative, Highly Accurate Evaluation of Cell-Free Circulating Tumor DNA

    OpenAIRE

    Lanman, Richard B.; Mortimer, Stefanie A.; Zill, Oliver A.; Sebisanovic, Dragan; Lopez, Rene; Blau, Sibel; Collisson, Eric A.; Divers, Stephen G.; Hoon, Dave S.B.; Kopetz, E. Scott; Lee, Jeeyun; Nikolinakos, Petros G.; Baca, Arthur M.; Kermani, Bahram G.; Eltoukhy, Helmy

    2015-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing of cell-free circulating solid tumor DNA addresses two challenges in contemporary cancer care. First this method of massively parallel and deep sequencing enables assessment of a comprehensive panel of genomic targets from a single sample, and second, it obviates the need for repeat invasive tissue biopsies. Digital SequencingTM is a novel method for high-quality sequencing of circulating tumor DNA simultaneously across a comprehensive panel of over 50 cancer-relate...

  14. RADBALL TECHNOLOGY TESTING FOR HOT CELL CHARACTERIZATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farfan, E.; Jannik, T.

    2010-03-25

    Operations at various U.S. Department of Energy sites have resulted in substantial radiological contamination of tools, equipment, and facilities. It is essential to use remote technologies for characterization and decommissioning to keep worker exposures as low as reasonably achievable in these highly contaminated environments. A significant initial step in planning and implementing D&D of contaminated facilities involves the development of an accurate assessment of the radiological, chemical, and structural conditions inside of the facilities. Collected information describing facility conditions using remote technologies could reduce the conservatism associated with planning initial worker entry (and associated cost).

  15. An analytical method for determining the temperature dependent moisture diffusivities of pumpkin seeds during drying process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Can, Ahmet [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Trakya, 22030 Edirne (Turkey)

    2007-02-15

    This paper presents an analytical method, which determines the moisture diffusion coefficients for the natural and forced convection hot air drying of pumpkin seeds and their temperature dependence. In order to obtain scientific data, the pumpkin seed drying process was investigated under both natural and forced hot air convection regimes. This paper presents the experimental results in which the drying air was heated by solar energy. (author)

  16. Phonovoltaic. I. Harvesting hot optical phonons in a nanoscale p -n junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnick, Corey; Kaviany, Massoud

    2016-03-01

    The phonovoltaic (pV) cell is similar to the photovoltaic. It harvests nonequilibrium (hot) optical phonons (Ep ,O) more energetic than the band gap (Δ Ee ,g) to generate power in a p-n junction. We examine the theoretical electron-phonon and phonon-phonon scattering rates, the Boltzmann transport of electrons, and the diode equation and hydrodynamic simulations to describe the operation of a pV cell and develop an analytic model predicting its efficiency. Our findings indicate that a pV material with Ep ,O≃Δ Ee ,g≫kBT , where kBT is the thermal energy, and a strong interband electron-phonon coupling surpasses the thermoelectric limit, provided the optical phonon population is excited in a nanoscale cell, enabling the ensuing local nonequilibrium. Finding and tuning a material with these properties is challenging. In Paper II [C. Melnick and M. Kaviany, Phys. Rev. B 93, 125203 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevB.93.125203], we tune the band gap of graphite within density functional theory through hydrogenation and the application of isotropic strains. The band gap is tuned to resonate with its energetic optical phonon modes and calculate the ab initio electron-phonon and phonon-phonon scattering rates. While hydrogenation degrades the strong electron-phonon coupling in graphene such that the figure of merit vanishes, we outline the methodology for a continued material search.

  17. Femtosecond Cooling of Hot Electrons in CdSe Quantum-Well Platelets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sippel, Philipp; Albrecht, Wiebke; van der Bok, Johanna C.; Moes, Relinde; Hannappel, Thomas; Eichberger, Rainer; Vanmaekelbergh, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Semiconductor quantum wells are ubiquitous in high-performance optoelectronic devices such as solar cells and lasers. Understanding and controlling of the (hot) carrier dynamics is essential to optimize their performance. Here, we study hot electron cooling in colloidal CdSe quantum-well nanoplatele

  18. Development and Validation of a Simple Analytical Model of the Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (Pemfc) in a Fork-Lift Truck Power System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hosseinzadeh, Elham; Rokni, Masoud

    2013-01-01

    overpotentials in the cells. Moreover, it is zero-dimensional and is assumed to be steady state. The system includes a compressor, an air humidifier, a set of heat exchangers, and a stack that together build up the anode circuit, the cathode circuit, and the cooling loop. Several issues are discussed: water...... for the auxilary components depending on the stack power or current. Further, at the higher current densities, heat losses and net power of the system increase, while system efficiency decreases. Furthermore, the system performance was not sensitive to the coolant temperature when water is used as the coolant....

  19. Prometheus Hot Leg Piping Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gribik, Anastasia M.; DiLorenzo, Peter A.

    2007-01-01

    The Naval Reactors Prime Contractor Team (NRPCT) recommended the development of a gas cooled reactor directly coupled to a Brayton energy conversion system as the Space Nuclear Power Plant (SNPP) for NASA's Project Prometheus. The section of piping between the reactor outlet and turbine inlet, designated as the hot leg piping, required unique design features to allow the use of a nickel superalloy rather than a refractory metal as the pressure boundary. The NRPCT evaluated a variety of hot leg piping concepts for performance relative to SNPP system parameters, manufacturability, material considerations, and comparison to past high temperature gas reactor (HTGR) practice. Manufacturability challenges and the impact of pressure drop and turbine entrance temperature reduction on cycle efficiency were discriminators between the piping concepts. This paper summarizes the NRPCT hot leg piping evaluation, presents the concept recommended, and summarizes developmental issues for the recommended concept.

  20. Promethus Hot Leg Piping Concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Naval Reactors Prime Contractor Team (NRPCT) recommended the development of a gas cooled reactor directly coupled to a Brayton energy conversion system as the Space Nuclear Power Plant (SNPP) for NASA's Project Prometheus. The section of piping between the reactor outlet and turbine inlet, designated as the hot leg piping, required unique design features to allow the use of a nickel superalloy rather than a refractory metal as the pressure boundary. The NRPCT evaluated a variety of hot leg piping concepts for performance relative to SNPP system parameters, manufacturability, material considerations, and comparison to past high temperature gas reactor (HTGR) practice. Manufacturability challenges and the impact of pressure drop and turbine entrance temperature reduction on cycle efficiency were discriminators between the piping concepts. This paper summarizes the NRPCT hot leg piping evaluation, presents the concept recommended, and summarizes developmental issues for the recommended concept

  1. Promethus Hot Leg Piping Concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    AM Girbik; PA Dilorenzo

    2006-01-24

    The Naval Reactors Prime Contractor Team (NRPCT) recommended the development of a gas cooled reactor directly coupled to a Brayton energy conversion system as the Space Nuclear Power Plant (SNPP) for NASA's Project Prometheus. The section of piping between the reactor outlet and turbine inlet, designated as the hot leg piping, required unique design features to allow the use of a nickel superalloy rather than a refractory metal as the pressure boundary. The NRPCT evaluated a variety of hot leg piping concepts for performance relative to SNPP system parameters, manufacturability, material considerations, and comparison to past high temperature gas reactor (HTGR) practice. Manufacturability challenges and the impact of pressure drop and turbine entrance temperature reduction on cycle efficiency were discriminators between the piping concepts. This paper summarizes the NRPCT hot leg piping evaluation, presents the concept recommended, and summarizes developmental issues for the recommended concept.

  2. Software Simulation of Hot Tearing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, S.; Hansen, P.N.; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    1999-01-01

    the solidification rate and the strain rate of the hot tear prone areas. But, until recently it was only possible to simulate the solidification rate, so that the criteria could not be used effectively.Today, with new software developments, it is possible to also simulate the strain rate in the hot tear prone areas....... With this additional information, the criteria can, for the first time, be used to their full potential.The purpose of this paper is to first give an introduction to a stress/strain simulation procedure that can be used in any foundry. Then, some results how to predict the hot cracking tendency in a casting are shown......, and the use of simulation to reduce this tendency is illustrated....

  3. The analytic renormalization group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Frank

    2016-08-01

    Finite temperature Euclidean two-point functions in quantum mechanics or quantum field theory are characterized by a discrete set of Fourier coefficients Gk, k ∈ Z, associated with the Matsubara frequencies νk = 2 πk / β. We show that analyticity implies that the coefficients Gk must satisfy an infinite number of model-independent linear equations that we write down explicitly. In particular, we construct "Analytic Renormalization Group" linear maps Aμ which, for any choice of cut-off μ, allow to express the low energy Fourier coefficients for |νk | algorithm, we show that the exact universal linear constraints on Gk can be used to systematically improve any random approximate data set obtained, for example, from Monte-Carlo simulations. Our results are illustrated on several explicit examples.

  4. An Analytical Delay Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MIN Yinghua; LI Zhongcheng

    1999-01-01

    Delay consideration has been a majorissue in design and test of high performance digital circuits. Theassumption of input signal change occurring only when all internal nodesare stable restricts the increase of clock frequency. It is no longertrue for wave pipelining circuits. However, previous logical delaymodels are based on the assumption. In addition, the stable time of arobust delay test generally depends on the longest sensitizable pathdelay. Thus, a new delay model is desirable. This paper explores thenecessity first. Then, Boolean process to analytically describe thelogical and timing behavior of a digital circuit is reviewed. Theconcept of sensitization is redefined precisely in this paper. Based onthe new concept of sensitization, an analytical delay model isintroduced. As a result, many untestable delay faults under thelogical delay model can be tested if the output waveforms can be sampledat more time points. The longest sensitizable path length is computedfor circuit design and delay test.

  5. Encrypting Analytical Web Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Fuhry, Benny; Tighzert, Walter; Kerschbaum. Florian

    2016-01-01

    The software-as-a-service (SaaS) market is growing very fast, but still many clients are concerned about the confidentiality of their data in the cloud. Motivated hackers or malicious insiders could try to steal the clients’ data. Encryption is a potential solution, but supporting the necessary functionality also in existing applications is difficult. In this paper, we examine encrypting analytical web applications that perform extensive number processing operations in the database. Existing ...

  6. Analytical and physical electrochemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Girault, Hubert H

    2004-01-01

    The study of electrochemistry is pertinent to a wide variety of fields, including bioenergetics, environmental sciences, and engineering sciences. In addition, electrochemistry plays a fundamental role in specific applications as diverse as the conversion and storage of energy and the sequencing of DNA.Intended both as a basic course for undergraduate students and as a reference work for graduates and researchers, Analytical and Physical Electrochemistry covers two fundamental aspects of electrochemistry: electrochemistry in solution and interfacial electrochemistry. By bringing these two subj

  7. Competing on analytics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, Thomas H

    2006-01-01

    We all know the power of the killer app. It's not just a support tool; it's a strategic weapon. Companies questing for killer apps generally focus all their firepower on the one area that promises to create the greatest competitive advantage. But a new breed of organization has upped the stakes: Amazon, Harrah's, Capital One, and the Boston Red Sox have all dominated their fields by deploying industrial-strength analytics across a wide variety of activities. At a time when firms in many industries offer similar products and use comparable technologies, business processes are among the few remaining points of differentiation--and analytics competitors wring every last drop of value from those processes. Employees hired for their expertise with numbers or trained to recognize their importance are armed with the best evidence and the best quantitative tools. As a result, they make the best decisions. In companies that compete on analytics, senior executives make it clear--from the top down--that analytics is central to strategy. Such organizations launch multiple initiatives involving complex data and statistical analysis, and quantitative activity is managed atthe enterprise (not departmental) level. In this article, professor Thomas H. Davenport lays out the characteristics and practices of these statistical masters and describes some of the very substantial changes other companies must undergo in order to compete on quantitative turf. As one would expect, the transformation requires a significant investment in technology, the accumulation of massive stores of data, and the formulation of company-wide strategies for managing the data. But, at least as important, it also requires executives' vocal, unswerving commitment and willingness to change the way employees think, work, and are treated. PMID:16447373

  8. Inorganic Analytical Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Rolf W.

    The book is a treatise on inorganic analytical reactions in aqueous solution. It covers about half of the elements in the periodic table, i.e. the most important ones : H, Li, B, C, N, O, Na, Mg, Al, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Br, Sr, Mo, Ag, Cd, Sn, Sb, I, Ba, W,...

  9. Analytic stacks and hyperbolicity

    OpenAIRE

    Borghesi, Simone; Tomassini, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    The classical Brody's theorem asserts the equivalence between two notions of hyperbolicity for compact complex spaces, one named after Kobayashi and one expressed in terms of lack of non constant holomorphic entire functions (compactness is only used to prove the harder implication). We extend this theorem to Deligne-Mumford analytic stacks, by first providing definitions of what we think of Kobayashi and Brody hyperbolicity for such objects and then proving the equivalence of these concepts ...

  10. Archaeal Nitrification in Hot Springs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, A.; Daims, H.; Reigstad, L.; Wanek, W.; Wagner, M.; Schleper, C.

    2006-12-01

    Biological nitrification, i.e. the aerobic conversion of ammonia to nitrate via nitrite, is a major component of the global nitrogen cycle. Until recently, it was thought that the ability to aerobically oxidize ammonia was confined to bacteria of the phylum Proteobacteria. However, it has recently been shown that Archaea of the phylum Crenarchaeota are also capable of ammonia oxidation. As many Crenarchaeota are thermophilic or hyperthermophilic, and at least some of them are capable of ammonia oxidation we speculated on the existence of (hyper)thermophilic ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA). Using PCR primers specifically targeting the archaeal ammonia monooxygenase (amoA) gene, we were indeed able to confirm the presence of such organisms in several hot springs in Reykjadalur, Iceland. These hot springs exhibited temperatures well above 80 °C and pH values ranging from 2.0 to 4.5. To proof that nitrification actually took place under these extreme conditions, we measured gross nitrification rates by the isotope pool dilution method; we added 15N-labelled nitrate to the mud and followed the dilution of the label by nitrate production from ammonium either in situ (incubation in the hot spring) or under controlled conditions in the laboratory (at 80 °C). The nitrification rates in the hot springs ranged from 0.79 to 2.22 mg nitrate-N per L of mud and day. Controls, in which microorganisms were killed before the incubations, demonstrated that the nitrification was of biological origin. Addition of ammonium increased the gross nitrification rate approximately 3-fold, indicating that the nitrification was ammonium limited under the conditions used. Collectively, our study provides evidence that (1) AOA are present in hot springs and (2) that they are actively nitrifying. These findings have major implications for our understanding of nitrogen cycling of hot environments.

  11. Mechanisms affecting the composition of Hot Jupiters atmospheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Showman Adam P.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Opacities and thus local chemical composition play a key role when characterizing exoplanet atmospheres from observations. When the gas is in chemical equilibrium the chemical abundances depend strongly on the temperature profile. Grey models tend to overestimate the temperatures in the upper atmosphere. We present a new analytical model with a more realistic description of the radiative cooling in the infrared. Mechanisms like quenching and cold traps can drive the upper atmosphere far from its chemical equilibrium. The efficiency of these mechanisms depends on the strength of the vertical mixing. Using 3D global circulation models of HD209458b including passive tracers, we show that, although Hot Jupiter atmospheres are stably stratified, they are strongly mixed by planetary scale circulation patterns. We provide a rough estimate of the effective vertical mixing coefficient in Hot Jupiter atmosphere which can be used in 1D models.

  12. Swift, UVOT and Hot Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Siegel, Michael H; Hagen, Lea M Z; Hoversten, Erik A

    2015-01-01

    We present the results of our ongoing investigation into the properties of hot stars and young stellar populations using the Swift/UVOT telescope. We present UVOT photometry of open and globular clusters and show that UVOT is capable of characterizing a variety of rare hot stars, including Post-Asymptotic Giant Branch and Extreme Horizontal Branch Stars. We also present very early reults of our survey of stellar populations in the Small Magellanic Cloud. We find that the SMC has experienced recent bouts of star formation but constraining the exact star formation history will depend on finding an effective model of the reddening within the SMC.

  13. Carbonate ion-enriched hot spring water promotes skin wound healing in nude rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jingyan; Kang, Dedong; Wang, Yingge; Yu, Ying; Fan, Jianglin; Takashi, En

    2015-01-01

    Hot spring or hot spa bathing (Onsen) is a traditional therapy for the treatment of certain ailments. There is a common belief that hot spring bathing has therapeutic effects for wound healing, yet the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. To examine this hypothesis, we investigated the effects of Nagano hot spring water (rich in carbonate ion, 42°C) on the healing process of the skin using a nude rat skin wound model. We found that hot spring bathing led to an enhanced healing speed compared to both the unbathed and hot-water (42°C) control groups. Histologically, the hot spring water group showed increased vessel density and reduced inflammatory cells in the granulation tissue of the wound area. Real-time RT-PCR analysis along with zymography revealed that the wound area of the hot spring water group exhibited a higher expression of matrix metalloproteinases-2 and -9 compared to the two other control groups. Furthermore, we found that the enhanced wound healing process induced by the carbonate ion-enriched hot spring water was mediated by thermal insulation and moisture maintenance. Our results provide the evidence that carbonate ion-enriched hot spring water is beneficial for the treatment of skin wounds. PMID:25671581

  14. Carbonate ion-enriched hot spring water promotes skin wound healing in nude rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingyan Liang

    Full Text Available Hot spring or hot spa bathing (Onsen is a traditional therapy for the treatment of certain ailments. There is a common belief that hot spring bathing has therapeutic effects for wound healing, yet the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. To examine this hypothesis, we investigated the effects of Nagano hot spring water (rich in carbonate ion, 42°C on the healing process of the skin using a nude rat skin wound model. We found that hot spring bathing led to an enhanced healing speed compared to both the unbathed and hot-water (42°C control groups. Histologically, the hot spring water group showed increased vessel density and reduced inflammatory cells in the granulation tissue of the wound area. Real-time RT-PCR analysis along with zymography revealed that the wound area of the hot spring water group exhibited a higher expression of matrix metalloproteinases-2 and -9 compared to the two other control groups. Furthermore, we found that the enhanced wound healing process induced by the carbonate ion-enriched hot spring water was mediated by thermal insulation and moisture maintenance. Our results provide the evidence that carbonate ion-enriched hot spring water is beneficial for the treatment of skin wounds.

  15. Hot conditioning equipment conceptual design report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradshaw, F.W., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-06

    This report documents the conceptual design of the Hot Conditioning System Equipment. The Hot conditioning System will consist of two separate designs: the Hot Conditioning System Equipment; and the Hot Conditioning System Annex. The Hot Conditioning System Equipment Design includes the equipment such as ovens, vacuum pumps, inert gas delivery systems, etc.necessary to condition spent nuclear fuel currently in storage in the K Basins of the Hanford Site. The Hot Conditioning System Annex consists of the facility of house the Hot Conditioning System. The Hot Conditioning System will be housed in an annex to the Canister Storage Building. The Hot Conditioning System will consist of pits in the floor which contain ovens in which the spent nuclear will be conditioned prior to interim storage.

  16. Hot conditioning equipment conceptual design report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report documents the conceptual design of the Hot Conditioning System Equipment. The Hot conditioning System will consist of two separate designs: the Hot Conditioning System Equipment; and the Hot Conditioning System Annex. The Hot Conditioning System Equipment Design includes the equipment such as ovens, vacuum pumps, inert gas delivery systems, etc.necessary to condition spent nuclear fuel currently in storage in the K Basins of the Hanford Site. The Hot Conditioning System Annex consists of the facility of house the Hot Conditioning System. The Hot Conditioning System will be housed in an annex to the Canister Storage Building. The Hot Conditioning System will consist of pits in the floor which contain ovens in which the spent nuclear will be conditioned prior to interim storage

  17. Heat resistance of an outbreak strain of Listeria monocytogenes in hot dog batter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzotta, A S; Gombas, D E

    2001-03-01

    The heat resistance of a strain of Listeria monocytogenes responsible for a listeriosis outbreak in hot dogs was not higher than the heat resistance of other L. monocytogenes strains when tested in tryptic soy broth and in laboratory-prepared hot dog batter. For the thermal death time experiments, the cells were grown to stationary phase or were starved in phosphate-buffered saline, pH 7, for 6 h at 30 degrees C. Starvation increased the heat resistance of L. monocytogenes in broth but not in hot dog batter. D-values in hot dog batter were higher than in broth. For the hot dog formulation used in this study, cooking the hot dog batter for 30 s at 71.1 degrees C (160 degrees F), or its equivalent using a z-value of 6 degrees C (11 degrees F), would inactivate 5 logs of L. monocytogenes.

  18. Business analytics a practitioner's guide

    CERN Document Server

    Saxena, Rahul

    2013-01-01

    This book provides a guide to businesses on how to use analytics to help drive from ideas to execution. Analytics used in this way provides "full lifecycle support" for business and helps during all stages of management decision-making and execution.The framework presented in the book enables the effective interplay of business, analytics, and information technology (business intelligence) both to leverage analytics for competitive advantage and to embed the use of business analytics into the business culture. It lays out an approach for analytics, describes the processes used, and provides gu

  19. ANALYTIC SOLUTIONS OF MATRIX RICCATI EQUATIONS WITH ANALYTIC COEFFICIENTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Curtain, Ruth; Rodman, Leiba

    2010-01-01

    For matrix Riccati equations of platoon-type systems and of systems arising from PDEs, assuming the coefficients are analytic or rational functions in a suitable domain, analyticity of the stabilizing solution is proved under various hypotheses. General results on analytic behavior of stabilizing so

  20. Antimony in drinking water, red blood cells, and serum: development of analytical methodology using transversely heated graphite furnace atomization-atomic absorption spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, K S; Poon, R; Chu, I; Connor, J W

    1997-05-01

    An atomic absorption spectrometric (AAS) method has been developed for determining microg/L levels of Sb in samples of water and blood. The AAS method is based on the concept of stabilized temperature platform furnace atomization (STPF) realized through the use of a transversely heated graphite atomizer (THGA) furnace, longitudinal Zeeman-effect background correction, and matrix modification with palladium nitrate-magnesium nitrate-nitric acid. The method of standard additions is not mandatory. The detection limit (3 standard deviations of the blank) is 2.6 microg Sb/L for the water, red blood cells (RBCs), and serum samples. Data are presented on the degree of accuracy and precision. The THGA-AAS method is simple, fast, and contamination-free because the entire operation from sampling to AAS measurement is carried out in the same tube. The method has been applied to the determination of Sb in some leachate tap water samples derived from a static copper plumbing system containing Sn/Sb solders, and in small samples (0.5 ml) of RBCs and serum derived from rats given Sb-supplemented drinking water. PMID:9175512

  1. Parton energy loss in hot and dense QCD medium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jie; MAO Yaxian; XIANG Wenchang; ZHOU Daicui

    2006-01-01

    Induced gluon radiation and energy loss of heavy quark in hot and dense QCD media are discussed. Using the light-cone path integral approach, an analytical formula of the energy loss of heavy quark is derived. The results show that the quark energy loss obviously depends on the mass of quark, i. e. a remarkable suppression occurs in the case of heavy quark comparing to a light one. The radiative energy loss of energetic quark is proportional to L2, where L is the length of the medium. The dependence of energy loss on L2 turns to L with decreasing quark energy.

  2. Integrating Hot and Cool Intelligences: Thinking Broadly about Broad Abilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Joel Schneider

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Although results from factor-analytic studies of the broad, second-stratum abilities of human intelligence have been fairly consistent for decades, the list of broad abilities is far from complete, much less understood. We propose criteria by which the list of broad abilities could be amended and envision alternatives for how our understanding of the hot intelligences (abilities involving emotionally-salient information and cool intelligences (abilities involving perceptual processing and logical reasoning might be integrated into a coherent theoretical framework.

  3. Analytical chemistry in space

    CERN Document Server

    Wainerdi, Richard E

    1970-01-01

    Analytical Chemistry in Space presents an analysis of the chemical constitution of space, particularly the particles in the solar wind, of the planetary atmospheres, and the surfaces of the moon and planets. Topics range from space engineering considerations to solar system atmospheres and recovered extraterrestrial materials. Mass spectroscopy in space exploration is also discussed, along with lunar and planetary surface analysis using neutron inelastic scattering. This book is comprised of seven chapters and opens with a discussion on the possibilities for exploration of the solar system by

  4. Elements of analytical dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Kurth, Rudolph; Stark, M

    1976-01-01

    Elements of Analytical Dynamics deals with dynamics, which studies the relationship between motion of material bodies and the forces acting on them. This book is a compilation of lectures given by the author at the Georgia and Institute of Technology and formed a part of a course in Topological Dynamics. The book begins by discussing the notions of space and time and their basic properties. It then discusses the Hamilton-Jacobi theory and Hamilton's principle and first integrals. The text concludes with a discussion on Jacobi's geometric interpretation of conservative systems. This book will

  5. Analytical elements of mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Kane, Thomas R

    2013-01-01

    Analytical Elements of Mechanics, Volume 1, is the first of two volumes intended for use in courses in classical mechanics. The books aim to provide students and teachers with a text consistent in content and format with the author's ideas regarding the subject matter and teaching of mechanics, and to disseminate these ideas. The book opens with a detailed exposition of vector algebra, and no prior knowledge of this subject is required. This is followed by a chapter on the topic of mass centers, which is presented as a logical extension of concepts introduced in connection with centroids. A

  6. Advanced analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of several new analytical techniques for use in clinical diagnosis and biomedical research is reported. These include: high-resolution liquid chromatographic systems for the early detection of pathological molecular constituents in physiologic body fluids; gradient elution chromatography for the analysis of protein-bound carbohydrates in blood serum samples, with emphasis on changes in sera from breast cancer patients; electrophoretic separation techniques coupled with staining of specific proteins in cellular isoenzymes for the monitoring of genetic mutations and abnormal molecular constituents in blood samples; and the development of a centrifugal elution chromatographic technique for the assay of specific proteins and immunoglobulins in human blood serum samples

  7. Analytic of China Cyberattack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Lai

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available China cyberattack has become aggressive, disruptive, stealthy, and sophisticated. Apparently, China’s advantage is more on the cognitive domain than technical domain since information systems security is art and science—in some case, it is more art than science. Knowledge is the best weapon for cyber warfare since one of the Sun Tze’s Art of War principles is “know your enemy”. Therefore, an analytic of China cyberattack must scrutinize the national interest, goals and philosophies, culture, worldview, and behavioral phenomena of China.

  8. Analytic of China Cyberattack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Lai and Syed (Shawon Rahman

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available China cyberattack has become aggressive, disruptive, stealthy, and sophisticated. Apparently, China’s advantage is more on the cognitive domain than technical domain since information systems security is art and science—in some case, it is more art than science. Knowledge is the best weapon for cyber warfare since one of the Sun Tze’s Art of War principles is “know your enemy”. Therefore, an analytic of China cyberattack must scrutinize the national interest, goals and philosophies, culture, worldview, and behavioral phenomena of China.

  9. Controlling surface-plasmon-polaritons launching with hot spot cylindrical waves in a metallic slit structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Wenjie; Sun, Chengwei; Gong, Qihuang; Chen, Jianjun

    2016-09-01

    Plasmonic nanostructures, which are used to generate surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs), always involve sharp corners where the charges can accumulate. This can result in strong localized electromagnetic fields at the metallic corners, forming the hot spots. The influence of the hot spots on the propagating SPPs are investigated theoretically and experimentally in a metallic slit structure. It is found that the electromagnetic fields radiated from the hot spots, termed as the hot spot cylindrical wave (HSCW), can greatly manipulate the SPP launching in the slit structure. The physical mechanism behind the manipulation of the SPP launching with the HSCW is explicated by a semi-analytic model. By using the HSCW, unidirectional SPP launching is experimentally realized in an ultra-small metallic step-slit structure. The HSCW bridges the localized surface plasmons and the propagating surface plasmons in an integrated platform and thus may pave a new route to the design of plasmonic devices and circuits.

  10. Affine transformations and analytic capacities

    OpenAIRE

    Dowling, Thomas; O'Farrell, Anthony G.

    1995-01-01

    Analytic capacities are set functions defined on the plane which may be used in the study of removable singularities, boundary smoothness and approximation of analytic functions belonging to some function space. The symmetric concrete Banach spaces form a class of function spaces that include most spaces usually studied. The Beurling transform is a certain singular integral operator that has proved useful in analytic function theory. It is shown that the analytic capacity associated to ...

  11. Division of Analytical Chemistry, 1998

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Elo Harald

    1999-01-01

    The article recounts the 1998 activities of the Division of Analytical Chemistry (DAC- formerly the Working Party on Analytical Chemistry, WPAC), which body is a division of the Federation of European Chemical Societies (FECS). Elo Harald Hansen is the Danish delegate, representing The Danish...... Chemical Society/The Society for Analytical Chemistry....

  12. A meta-analytic review of ERCC1/MDR1 polymorphism and chemosensitivity to platinum in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Hai-bo; HU Jing; SHANG Li-hua; ZHANG Yun-yan; LU Fei-fei; WEI Min; YU Yan

    2012-01-01

    Background Platinum-based regimens are used as standard first-line chemotherapy in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients.To study if pharmacogenetic approach may allow a tailored selection of platinum chemotherapy for advanced NSCLC,we performed a meta-analysis to compare chemosensitivity to platinum with different ERCC1 C118T/MDR1 C3435T single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP).Methods Relevant studies were identified by searching the PubMed,Embase,Cochrane,OVID,Springer,EBSCO and CNKI databases.Inclusion criteria were patients with advanced NSCLC who received platinum-based chemotherapy,an evaluated polymorphism of ERCC/MDR1 and overall response rate.We excluded duplicate publications,letters and review articles.The RevMan 4.2 and STATA 11 package were used to do comprehensive quantitative assessment.Results A total of 11 studies were included in this meta-analysis.For studies evaluating ERCC1 C118T,test for heterogeneity was done (x2=13.41,P=0.1),and the odds ratio (OR) for the wild-type C/C genotype versus the heterozygous C/T and T/T genotypes was 1.50 (95% CI 1.09-2.06,P=-0.01).In four studies evaluating MDR1 polymorphism,test for heterogeneity was also done (x2=3.22,P=0.36),and the OR for the wild-type C/C genotype versus the heterozygous C/T and T/T genotypes was 2.30 (95% CI 1.44-3.68,P=0.0005).Conclusions The results indicated that platinum-based chemotherapy sensitivity was significantly associated with polymorphism of ERCC1 C118T and MDR1 C3435T SNP.In further perspective studies,the ERCC1/MDR1 SNPs might serve as simple and less invasive biomarkers for personalized chemotherapy with platinum-based anticancer drugs.

  13. Extended Heat Deposition in Hot Jupiters: Application to Ohmic Heating

    CERN Document Server

    Ginzburg, Sivan

    2015-01-01

    Many giant exoplanets in close orbits have observed radii which exceed theoretical predictions. One suggested explanation for this discrepancy is heat deposited deep inside the atmospheres of these "hot Jupiters". Here, we study extended power sources which distribute heat from the photosphere to the deep interior of the planet. Our analytical treatment is a generalization of a previous analysis of localized "point sources". We model the deposition profile as a power law in the optical depth and find that planetary cooling and contraction halt when the internal luminosity (i.e. cooling rate) of the planet drops below the heat deposited in the planet's convective region. A slowdown in the evolutionary cooling prior to equilibrium is possible only for sources which do not extend to the planet's center. We estimate the Ohmic dissipation resulting from the interaction between the atmospheric winds and the planet's magnetic field, and apply our analytical model to Ohmically heated planets. Our model can account fo...

  14. Risk of Burns from Eruptions of Hot Water Overheated in Microwave Ovens

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Radiation-Emitting Products and Procedures Home, Business, and Entertainment Products Risk of Burns from Eruptions of Hot Water ... Microwave Oven Safely More in Home, Business, and Entertainment Products Cell Phones Health Issues Reducing Exposure: Hands-free ...

  15. [Hygienic aspects of the hot water supply].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dergacheva, T S

    1991-08-01

    Hygienic significance of hot water-supply was demonstrated. In the case of the sanitary inspection deficiency it may be the complaints appearance. Hygiene of hot water-supply seems as an independent scientific branch of hygiene. PMID:1937089

  16. Magnetohydrodynamic Simulations of Hot Jupiter Upper Atmospheres

    CERN Document Server

    Trammell, George B; Arras, Phil

    2014-01-01

    Two-dimensional simulations of hot Jupiter upper atmospheres including the planet's magnetic field are presented. The goal is to explore magnetic effects on the layer of the atmosphere that is ionized and heated by stellar EUV radiation, and the imprint of these effects on the Ly$\\alpha$ transmission spectrum. The simulations are axisymmetric, isothermal, and include both rotation and azimuth-averaged stellar tides. Mass density is converted to atomic hydrogen density through the assumption of ionization equilibrium. The three-zone structure -- polar dead zone, mid-latitude wind zone, and equatorial dead zone -- found in previous analytic calculations is confirmed. For a magnetic field comparable to that of Jupiter, the equatorial dead zone, which is confined by the magnetic field and corotates with the planet, contributes at least half of the transit signal. For even stronger fields, the gas escaping in the mid-latitude wind zone is found to have a smaller contribution to the transit depth than the equatoria...

  17. OUT Success Stories: Solar Hot Water Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clyne, R.

    2000-08-01

    Solar hot water technology was made great strides in the past two decades. Every home, commercial building, and industrial facility requires hot water. DOE has helped to develop reliable and durable solar hot water systems. For industrial applications, the growth potential lies in large-scale systems, using flat-plate and trough-type collectors. Flat-plate collectors are commonly used in residential hot water systems and can be integrated into the architectural design of the building.

  18. Corrosion and microfluidics in hot water microsystems

    OpenAIRE

    Eriksson, Mimmi

    2013-01-01

    This thesis addresses some important issues when designing microfluidic systems for hot pressurized water. The properties and behavior of water at elevated temperatures and in micro scale is briefly reviewed, and opportunities and possible problems of using hot pressurized water in microfluidic devices are brought up. Experimental work was focused on corrosion resistance for commonly used microsystem materials in hot pressurized water, and the microfluidic behavior for hot pressurized water. ...

  19. Finite volume analysis of temperature effects induced by active MRI implants: 2. Defects on active MRI implants causing hot spots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grönemeyer Dietrich HW

    2006-05-01

    investigations. The finite volume analysis calculates the time developing temperature maps for the model of a broken linear metallic wire embedded in tissue. Half of the total hot spot power loss is assumed to diffuse into both wire parts at the location of a defect. The energy is distributed from there by heat conduction. Additionally the effect of blood perfusion and blood flow is respected in some simulations because the simultaneous appearance of all worst case conditions, especially the absence of blood perfusion and blood flow near the hot spot, is very unlikely for vessel implants. Results The analytical solution as worst case scenario as well as the finite volume analysis for near worst case situations show not negligible volumes with critical temperature increases for part of the modeled hot spot situations. MR investigations with a high rf-pulse density lasting below a minute can establish volumes of several cubic millimeters with temperature increases high enough to start cell destruction. Longer exposure times can involve volumes larger than 100 mm3. Even temperature increases in the range of thermal ablation are reached for substantial volumes. MR sequence exposure time and hot spot power loss are the primary factors influencing the volume with critical temperature increases. Wire radius, wire material as well as the physiological parameters blood perfusion and blood flow inside larger vessels reduce the volume with critical temperature increases, but do not exclude a volume with critical tissue heating for resonators with a large product of resonator volume and quality factor. Conclusion The worst case scenario assumes thermal equilibrium for a hot spot embedded in homogeneous tissue without any cooling due to blood perfusion or flow. The finite volume analysis can calculate the results for near and not close to worst case conditions. For both cases a substantial volume can reach a critical temperature increase in a short time. The analytical solution, as absolute

  20. Analytic device including nanostructures

    KAUST Repository

    Di, Fabrizio, E.

    2015-07-02

    A device for detecting an analyte in a sample comprising: an array including a plurality of pixels, each pixel including a nanochain comprising: a first nanostructure, a second nanostructure, and a third nanostructure, wherein size of the first nanostructure is larger than that of the second nanostructure, and size of the second nanostructure is larger than that of the third nanostructure, and wherein the first nanostructure, the second nanostructure, and the third nanostructure are positioned on a substrate such that when the nanochain is excited by an energy, an optical field between the second nanostructure and the third nanostructure is stronger than an optical field between the first nanostructure and the second nanostructure, wherein the array is configured to receive a sample; and a detector arranged to collect spectral data from a plurality of pixels of the array.

  1. ANALYTICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF PRECIPITATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danut Tiberiu Epure

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The properties of precipitation are mainly determined by solid, liquid and gaseous substances that exist in suspended or dissolved form. These substances come from many complex interactions between the atmosphere – hydrosphere – lithosphere – biota. The analytical characterization of precipitation has been based on the analysis of several chemical parameters: pH, conductivity, chloride, fluoride and ammonium ions, total hardness, alkalinity, H2S and sulphides, COD (Mn, nitrites, phosphorous, metallic ions (total iron, copper and chromium. In this purpose were collected rainwater, ice and snow from different areas (cities Năvodari, Constanţa, Buzău and Mihail Kogălniceanu during November 2007 till February 2008. This study shows that chemical characteristics of the analyzed water samples vary from one region to another depending on the mineralogical composition of zones crossed, the contact time, temperature, weather conditions, the sampling period (day or night and the nature of sample (rain, snow, ice.

  2. Normality in analytical psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Steve

    2013-12-01

    Although C.G. Jung's interest in normality wavered throughout his career, it was one of the areas he identified in later life as worthy of further research. He began his career using a definition of normality which would have been the target of Foucault's criticism, had Foucault chosen to review Jung's work. However, Jung then evolved his thinking to a standpoint that was more aligned to Foucault's own. Thereafter, the post Jungian concept of normality has remained relatively undeveloped by comparison with psychoanalysis and mainstream psychology. Jung's disjecta membra on the subject suggest that, in contemporary analytical psychology, too much focus is placed on the process of individuation to the neglect of applications that consider collective processes. Also, there is potential for useful research and development into the nature of conflict between individuals and societies, and how normal people typically develop in relation to the spectrum between individuation and collectivity.

  3. ANALYTICS OF BIG DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prof. Shubhada Talegaon

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Big Data analytics has started to impact all types of organizations, as it carries the potential power to extract embedded knowledge from big amounts of data and react according to it in real time. The current technology enables us to efficiently store and query large datasets, the focus is now on techniques that make use of the complete data set, instead of sampling. This has tremendous implications in areas like machine learning, pattern recognition and classification, sentiment analysis, social networking analysis to name a few. Therefore, there are a number of requirements for moving beyond standard data mining technique. Purpose of this paper is to understand various techniques to analysis data.

  4. Big Data Analytics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-08-01

    The volume and variety of data being generated using computersis doubling every two years. It is estimated that in 2015,8 Zettabytes (Zetta=1021) were generated which consistedmostly of unstructured data such as emails, blogs, Twitter,Facebook posts, images, and videos. This is called big data. Itis possible to analyse such huge data collections with clustersof thousands of inexpensive computers to discover patterns inthe data that have many applications. But analysing massiveamounts of data available in the Internet has the potential ofimpinging on our privacy. Inappropriate analysis of big datacan lead to misleading conclusions. In this article, we explainwhat is big data, how it is analysed, and give some case studiesillustrating the potentials and pitfalls of big data analytics.

  5. Measurement of Hot Electron Spectrum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIYe-jun; SHANYu-sheng; ZHANGHai-feng; ZHANGJi; WANGLei-jian; TANGXiu-zhang

    2003-01-01

    The hot electron spectrum was measured using 180°electron magnetic spectrometer through the irradiation of solid Cu target by an intense, near infrared(744 nm), P-polarized light, femtosecond (120 fs) laser pulse with free pre-pulse, and the intensity of laser is 1016 W/cm2 with 45° incidence. And the spectrometer was located in the direction of laser right reflection.

  6. Hot context for organizational learning

    OpenAIRE

    Fillol, Charlotte

    2006-01-01

    The organizational learning, studied in resource-based view, is a strategic resource (Wernerfelt 1984, Prahalad et Hamel 1990, Doz 1990, Teece 1998, Weartherly 2003). Thus, “learning to learn” (Argyris et Schön, 1978), being a learning organization (Senge 1990, Edmondson et Moingeon 1998, Moilanen 1999, Heraty 2005), and encouraging organizational learning become major issues in management sciences. This contribution aims at fixing and explaining hot organizational learning context dimensions...

  7. Enriching the hot circumgalactic medium

    CERN Document Server

    Crain, Robert A; Schaye, Joop; Frenk, Carlos S; Theuns, Tom

    2013-01-01

    Models of galaxy formation in a CDM universe predict that massive galaxies are surrounded by a hot, quasi-hydrostatic circumgalactic corona of slowly cooling gas, predominantly accreted from the IGM. This prediction is borne out by the cosmological hydrodynamical simulations of Crain et al., which reproduce scaling relations between the X-ray and optical properties of nearby disc galaxies. Such coronae are metal poor, but observations of the X-ray emitting circumgalactic medium (CGM) of local galaxies typically indicate enrichment to near-solar iron abundance, potentially signalling a shortcoming in galaxy formation models. We show here that, while the hot CGM of galaxies formed in the simulations is metal poor in a mass-weighted sense, its X-ray luminosity-weighted metallicity is often close to solar. This bias arises because the soft X-ray emissivity of a typical 0.1 keV corona is dominated by collisionally-excited metal ions that are synthesised in stars and recycled into the hot CGM. We find that these me...

  8. ADVANCED HOT GAS FILTER DEVELOPMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E.S. Connolly; G.D. Forsythe

    1998-12-22

    Advanced, coal-based power plants will require durable and reliable hot gas filtration systems to remove particulate contaminants from the gas streams to protect downstream components such as turbine blades from erosion damage. It is expected that the filter elements in these systems will have to be made of ceramic materials to withstand goal service temperatures of 1600 F or higher. Recent demonstration projects and pilot plant tests have indicated that the current generation of ceramic hot gas filters (cross-flow and candle configurations) are failing prematurely. Two of the most promising materials that have been extensively evaluated are clay-bonded silicon carbide and alumina-mullite porous monoliths. These candidates, however, have been found to suffer progressive thermal shock fatigue damage, as a result of rapid cooling/heating cycles. Such temperature changes occur when the hot filters are back-pulsed with cooler gas to clean them, or in process upset conditions, where even larger gas temperature changes may occur quickly and unpredictably. In addition, the clay-bonded silicon carbide materials are susceptible to chemical attack of the glassy binder phase that holds the SiC particles together, resulting in softening, strength loss, creep, and eventual failure.

  9. Identification of solar cell model parameters by combining analytical method with Nelder-Mead simplex method%解析法-Nelder Mead单纯形算法确定太阳电池参数

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高献坤; 姚传安; 高向川; 余泳昌

    2014-01-01

    In the simulation and design calculations of photovoltaic (PV) systems, it is very crucial to select an accurate mathematical model to closely represent the nonlinear current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of solar cells. In practice, two main equivalent circuit models are used widely:the single and double diode models. The single diode model contains five unknown parameters, while the double diode model has seven unknown parameters, which are not always available in commercial PV datasheets. Hence, parameter extraction of solar cell models is an essential prerequisite for the precise modeling, performance analysis, and optimal control of PV systems. Unfortunately, since the single and double diode models are inherently implicit and transcendental in nature, it is difficult to quickly and accurately identify their unknown parameters just by analytic methods or traditional numerical optimization methods. By combining an approximate analytic method and the Nelder-Mead simplex method (NM), an comprehensively hybrid algorithm named A-bcNM is proposed in this paper to simultaneously determine the precise values of photo-generated current, diode saturation currents, parasitic series and shunt resistances, and diode ideality factors of solar cell models. In the A-bcNM method, the parameter identification problem of solar cell models is formulated as a bounded, multidimensional, nonlinear optimization problem of minimizing a given objective function. The basic idea of the A-bcNM method can be broken up into three phases. First, we make use of several key points on the nonlinear I-V characteristic curve to roughly estimate the synthetic parameters, i.e., the output current and voltage at the maximum power point, short-circuit current, open-circuit voltage, and slopes of the I-V characteristic at the axis intersections. Secondly, we substitute the synthetic parameters into our proposed approximate analytical formulas of the single diode model so as to quickly pinpoint

  10. Identification of solar cell model parameters by combining analytical method with Nelder-Mead simplex method%解析法-Nelder Mead单纯形算法确定太阳电池参数

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高献坤; 姚传安; 高向川; 余泳昌

    2014-01-01

    In the simulation and design calculations of photovoltaic (PV) systems, it is very crucial to select an accurate mathematical model to closely represent the nonlinear current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of solar cells. In practice, two main equivalent circuit models are used widely:the single and double diode models. The single diode model contains five unknown parameters, while the double diode model has seven unknown parameters, which are not always available in commercial PV datasheets. Hence, parameter extraction of solar cell models is an essential prerequisite for the precise modeling, performance analysis, and optimal control of PV systems. Unfortunately, since the single and double diode models are inherently implicit and transcendental in nature, it is difficult to quickly and accurately identify their unknown parameters just by analytic methods or traditional numerical optimization methods. By combining an approximate analytic method and the Nelder-Mead simplex method (NM), an comprehensively hybrid algorithm named A-bcNM is proposed in this paper to simultaneously determine the precise values of photo-generated current, diode saturation currents, parasitic series and shunt resistances, and diode ideality factors of solar cell models. In the A-bcNM method, the parameter identification problem of solar cell models is formulated as a bounded, multidimensional, nonlinear optimization problem of minimizing a given objective function. The basic idea of the A-bcNM method can be broken up into three phases. First, we make use of several key points on the nonlinear I-V characteristic curve to roughly estimate the synthetic parameters, i.e., the output current and voltage at the maximum power point, short-circuit current, open-circuit voltage, and slopes of the I-V characteristic at the axis intersections. Secondly, we substitute the synthetic parameters into our proposed approximate analytical formulas of the single diode model so as to quickly pinpoint

  11. Hot ductility of austenitic and duplex stainless steels under hot rolling conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Kömi, J. (Jenni)

    2001-01-01

    Abstract The effects of restoration and certain elements, nitrogen, sulphur, calcium and Misch metal, on the hot ductility of austenitic, high-alloyed austenitic and duplex stainless steels have been investigated by means of hot rolling, hot tensile, hot bending and stress relaxation tests. The results of these different testing methods indicated that hot rolling experiments using stepped specimens is the most effective way to investigate the relationship between the s...

  12. Dayside-Nightside Temperature Differences in Hot Jupiter Atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komacek, Thaddeus D.; Showman, Adam P.

    2015-12-01

    The infrared phase curves of low-eccentricity transiting hot Jupiters show a trend of increasing flux amplitude, or increasing day-night temperature difference, with increasing equilibrium temperature. Here we utilize atmospheric circulation modeling and analytic theory to understand this trend, and the more general question: what processes control heat redistribution in tidally-locked giant planet atmospheres? We performed a wide range of 3D numerical simulations of the atmospheric circulation with simplified forcing, and constructed an analytic theory that explains the day-night temperature differences in these simulations over a wide parameter space. Our analytic theory shows that day-night temperature differences in tidally-locked planet atmospheres are mediated by wave propagation. If planetary-scale waves are free to propagate longitudinally, they will efficiently flatten isentropes and lessen day-night temperature differences. If these waves are damped, the day-night temperature differences will necessarily be larger. We expect that wave propagation in hot Jupiter atmospheres can be damped in two ways: by either radiative cooling or frictional drag. Both of these processes increase in efficacy with increasing equilibrium temperature, as radiative cooling is directly related to the cube of temperature and magnetically-induced (Lorentz) drag becomes stronger with increasing partial ionization and hence temperature. We find that radiative cooling plays the largest role in damping wave propagation and hence plays the biggest role in controlling day-night temperature differences. As a result, day-night temperature differences in hot Jupiter atmospheres decrease with increasing pressure and increase with increasing stellar flux. One can apply this result to phase curve observations of individual hot Jupiters in multiple bandpasses, as varying flux amplitudes between wavelengths implies that different photospheric pressure levels are being probed. Namely, a larger

  13. Dayside-Nightside Temperature Differences in Hot Jupiter Atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komacek, T. D.; Showman, A. P.

    2015-12-01

    The full-phase light curves of individual close-in extrasolar giant planets, or "hot Jupiters," show a trend of increasing fractional amplitude with increasing planetary equilibrium temperature. The attached figure shows this trend for 7 transiting low-eccentricity hot Jupiters. For these planets, this trend can be realized as a trend of increasing dayside-to-nightside temperature difference with increasing equilibrium temperature, as these planets are expected to be tidally locked. Here we examine this trend, in order to shed insight on the physical processes that regulate heat redistribution in tidally-locked planet atmospheres. We utilize a combination of analytic theory to predict how heat is redistributed from day to night over a range of equilibrium temperature, atmospheric composition, and potential frictional drag strengths, and confirm the theory using numerical circulation modeling. Our theory identifies that the transition from low to high day-night temperature differences is mediated by wave adjustment, the same process that regulates heat redistribution in the tropics of Earth. Due to their low rotation rate and hence large Rossby deformation radius, tidally locked planets allow for wave propagation to occur over a much larger latitude range than on Earth. Hence, wave adjustment processes play a key role in the the global, not just equatorial, heat redistribution in hot Jupiter atmospheres. Wave propagation can be damped in hot Jupiter atmospheres by either radiative cooling to space or potential frictional drag. This frictional drag, if present, would likely be caused by Lorentz forces in a partially ionized atmosphere threaded by a planetary-scale magnetic field. The radiative cooling timescale is inversely related to the cube of temperature, and any Lorentz drag would increase with temperature due to the increasing ionization fraction of the atmosphere. Hence, both of these processes damp waves more effectively as equilibrium temperature increases

  14. ESA uncovers Geminga's `hot spot'

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-07-01

    16 July 2004 Astronomers using ESA’s X-ray observatory XMM-Newton have detected a small, bright ‘hot spot’ on the surface of the neutron star called Geminga, 500 light-years away. The hot spot is the size of a football field and is caused by the same mechanism producing Geminga’s X-ray tails. This discovery identifies the missing link between the X-ray and gamma-ray emission from Geminga. hi-res Size hi-res: 1284 kb Credits: ESA, P. Caraveo (IASF, Milan) Geminga's hot spot This figure shows the effects of charged particles accelerated in the magnetosphere of Geminga. Panel (a) shows an image taken with the EPIC instrument on board the XMM-Newton observatory. The bright tails, made of particles kicked out by Geminga’s strong magnetic field, trail the neutron star as it moves about in space. Panel (b) shows how electrically charged particles interact with Geminga’s magnetic field. For example, if electrons (blue) are kicked out by the star, positrons (in red) hit the star’s magnetic poles like in an ‘own goal’. Panel (c) illustrates the size of Geminga’s magnetic field (blue) compared to that of the star itself at the centre (purple). The magnetic field is tilted with respect to Geminga’s rotation axis (red). Panel (d) shows the magnetic poles of Geminga, where charged particles hit the surface of the star, creating a two-million degrees hot spot, a region much hotter than the surroundings. As the star spins on its rotation axis, the hot spot comes into view and then disappears, causing the periodic colour change seen by XMM-Newton. An animated version of the entire sequence can be found at: Click here for animated GIF [low resolution, animated GIF, 5536 KB] Click here for AVI [high resolution, AVI with DIVX compression, 19128 KB] hi-res Size hi-res: 371 kb Credits: ESA, P. Caraveo (IASF, Milan) Geminga's hot spot, panel (a) Panel (a) shows an image taken with the EPIC instrument on board the XMM-Newton observatory. The bright tails, made of

  15. Normality in Analytical Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Myers

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Although C.G. Jung’s interest in normality wavered throughout his career, it was one of the areas he identified in later life as worthy of further research. He began his career using a definition of normality which would have been the target of Foucault’s criticism, had Foucault chosen to review Jung’s work. However, Jung then evolved his thinking to a standpoint that was more aligned to Foucault’s own. Thereafter, the post Jungian concept of normality has remained relatively undeveloped by comparison with psychoanalysis and mainstream psychology. Jung’s disjecta membra on the subject suggest that, in contemporary analytical psychology, too much focus is placed on the process of individuation to the neglect of applications that consider collective processes. Also, there is potential for useful research and development into the nature of conflict between individuals and societies, and how normal people typically develop in relation to the spectrum between individuation and collectivity.

  16. Rorty, Pragmatism, and Analytic Philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl Misak

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available One of Richard Rorty's legacies is to have put a Jamesian version of pragmatism on the contemporary philosophical map. Part of his argument has been that pragmatism and analytic philosophy are set against each other, with pragmatism almost having been killed off by the reigning analytic philosophy. The argument of this paper is that there is a better and more interesting reading of both the history of pragmatism and the history of analytic philosophy.

  17. Methodological practicalities in analytical generalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halkier, Bente

    2011-01-01

    In this article, I argue that the existing literature on qualitative methodologies tend to discuss analytical generalization at a relatively abstract and general theoretical level. It is, however, not particularly straightforward to “translate” such abstract epistemological principles into more...... operative methodological strategies for producing analytical generalizations in research practices. Thus, the aim of the article is to contribute to the discussions among qualitatively working researchers about generalizing by way of exemplifying some of the methodological practicalities in analytical...

  18. Improvement of the detection limit for determination of 129I in sediments by quadrupole inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer with collision cell

    OpenAIRE

    Izmer, A. V.; Boulyga, S. F.; Zoriy, M. V.; Becker, J. S.

    2004-01-01

    The previously developed sample introduction device for the hot extraction of iodine from environmental samples (soils or sediments) and on-line introduction of analyte via the gas phase in quadrupole inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry with hexapole collision cell (ICP-CC-QMS) was equipped with a cooling finger, which allowed intermediate iodine enrichment and improved the detection limits for I-129 down to 0.4 pg g(-1) without any additional sample preparation. A mixture of oxygen ...

  19. Analytics for managers with Excel

    CERN Document Server

    Bell, Peter C

    2013-01-01

    Analytics is one of a number of terms which are used to describe a data-driven more scientific approach to management. Ability in analytics is an essential management skill: knowledge of data and analytics helps the manager to analyze decision situations, prevent problem situations from arising, identify new opportunities, and often enables many millions of dollars to be added to the bottom line for the organization.The objective of this book is to introduce analytics from the perspective of the general manager of a corporation. Rather than examine the details or attempt an encyclopaedic revie

  20. Development of scientific and technological basis for the fabrication of thin film solar cells on the basis of a-Si:H and {mu}c-Si:H using the 'hot-wire' deposition technique. Final report; Entwicklung wissenschaftlicher und technischer Grundlagen fuer die Herstellung von Duennschichtsolarzellen auf der Basis des a-Si:H und {mu}c-Si:H mit der 'Hot-Wire'-Depositionstechnik. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, B.

    2002-01-22

    Two new deposition systems were realized enabling the entire and respectively, large area deposition of a-Si:H based solar cells using the so called 'hot-wire' (HW) CVD. The deposition conditions for appropriate n- and p-doped a-Si:H and {mu}c-Si:H layers have been developed. For the first time in the world a-Si:H based pin solar cells were entirely deposited by the HWCVD method. A maximum initial conversion efficiency of {eta}{sub initial}=8.9% was obtained. After the development of a suitable p/n-tunnel/recombination junction pin-pin tandem structures with a-Si:H absorbers could be entirely fabricated by the HWCVD for the first time in the world, too. A conversion efficiency of {eta}=7% was measured for the tandem cell, after some structural degradation took place. In general, the stability of the HWCVD solar cells is not satisfactory, what could be attributed to a structural instability of the HWCVD-p-layers. For the first time we have deposited nip solar cells on stainless steel substrates entirely by HWCVD ({eta}{sub initial}>6%). The incorporation of {mu}c-Si:H absorber layers by HWCVD or ECWR-PECVD into pin solar cells was not successfull until now. Large area deposition of a-Si:H films has been performed in a simple vacuum vessel. Under consideration of appropriate filament and gas supply geometry as well as simulation calculations a good electronic quality and a film thickness uniformity of {delta}d={+-}2.5% of the material was obtained. i-layers for small area solar cells on an area of 20 x 20 cm{sup 2} have been deposited which could be completed to solar cells with very uniform conversion efficiencies of {eta}{sub initial} = 6,1{+-}0.2%. This result represents a proof of concept for the large area deposition of a-Si:H based solar cells using the HWCVD. Also for the first time the HWCVD was used for the deposition of emitter layers on c-Si-wafers to realize hetero solar cells. Hetero solar cells with amorphous, microcrystalline and epitaxial n

  1. Accounting for "hot spots" and "hot moments" in soil carbon models for water-limited ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Frances; Caylor, Kelly

    2010-05-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics in water-limited ecosystems are complicated by the stochastic nature of rainfall and patchy structure of vegetation, which can lead to "hot spots" and "hot moments" of high biological activity. Non-linear models that use spatial and temporal averages of forcing variables are unable to account for these phenomena and are likely to produce biased results. In this study we present a model of SOC abundance that accounts for spatial heterogeneity at the plant scale and temporal variability in soil moisture content at the daily scale. We approximated an existing simulation-based model of SOC dynamics as a stochastic differential equation driven by multiplicative noise that can be solved numerically for steady-state sizes of three SOC pools. We coupled this to a model of water balance and SOC input rate at a point for a given cover type, defined by the number of shrub and perennial grass root systems and canopies overlapping the point. Using a probabilistic description of vegetation structure based on a two dimensional Poisson process, we derived analytical expressions for the distribution of cover types across a landscape and produced weighted averages of SOC stocks. An application of the model to a shortgrass steppe ecosystem in Colorado, USA, replicated empirical data on spatial patterns and average abundance of SOC, whereas a version of the model using spatially averaged forcing variables overestimated SOC stocks by 12%. The model also successfully replicated data from paired desert grassland sites in New Mexico, USA, that had and had not been affected by woody plant encroachment, indicating that the model could be a useful tool for understanding and predicting the effect of woody plant encroachment on regional carbon budgets. We performed a theoretical analysis of a simplified version of the model to estimate the bias introduced by using spatial averages of forcing variables to model SOC stocks across a range of climatic conditions

  2. Algorithmic and analytical methods in network biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyutürk, Mehmet

    2010-01-01

    During the genomic revolution, algorithmic and analytical methods for organizing, integrating, analyzing, and querying biological sequence data proved invaluable. Today, increasing availability of high-throughput data pertaining to functional states of biomolecules, as well as their interactions, enables genome-scale studies of the cell from a systems perspective. The past decade witnessed significant efforts on the development of computational infrastructure for large-scale modeling and analysis of biological systems, commonly using network models. Such efforts lead to novel insights into the complexity of living systems, through development of sophisticated abstractions, algorithms, and analytical techniques that address a broad range of problems, including the following: (1) inference and reconstruction of complex cellular networks; (2) identification of common and coherent patterns in cellular networks, with a view to understanding the organizing principles and building blocks of cellular signaling, regulation, and metabolism; and (3) characterization of cellular mechanisms that underlie the differences between living systems, in terms of evolutionary diversity, development and differentiation, and complex phenotypes, including human disease. These problems pose significant algorithmic and analytical challenges because of the inherent complexity of the systems being studied; limitations of data in terms of availability, scope, and scale; intractability of resulting computational problems; and limitations of reference models for reliable statistical inference. This article provides a broad overview of existing algorithmic and analytical approaches to these problems, highlights key biological insights provided by these approaches, and outlines emerging opportunities and challenges in computational systems biology.

  3. Axion hot dark matter bounds

    CERN Document Server

    Raffelt, G; Mirizzi, A; Wong, Y Y Y

    2008-01-01

    We derive cosmological limits on two-component hot dark matter consisting of neutrinos and axions. We restrict the large-scale structure data to the safely linear regime, excluding the Lyman-alpha forest. We derive Bayesian credible regions in the two-parameter space consisting of m_a and sum(m_nu). Marginalizing over sum(m_nu) provides m_a<1.02 eV (95% CL). In the absence of axions the same data and methods give sum(m_nu)< 0.63 eV (95% CL).

  4. Hot Flow Anomalies at Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collinson, G. A.; Sibeck, David Gary; Boardsen, Scott A.; Moore, Tom; Barabash, S.; Masters, A.; Shane, N.; Slavin, J.A.; Coates, A.J.; Zhang, T. L.; Sarantos, M.

    2012-01-01

    We present a multi-instrument study of a hot flow anomaly (HFA) observed by the Venus Express spacecraft in the Venusian foreshock, on 22 March 2008, incorporating both Venus Express Magnetometer and Analyzer of Space Plasmas and Energetic Atoms (ASPERA) plasma observations. Centered on an interplanetary magnetic field discontinuity with inward convective motional electric fields on both sides, with a decreased core field strength, ion observations consistent with a flow deflection, and bounded by compressive heated edges, the properties of this event are consistent with those of HFAs observed at other planets within the solar system.

  5. Hot demonstration of proposed commercial nuclide removal technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, D. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1996-10-01

    This task covers the development and operation of an experimental test unit located in a Building 4501 hot cell within Building 4501 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This equipment is designed to test radionuclides removal technologies under continuous operatoin on actual ORNL Melton Valley Storage Tank (MVST) supernatant, Savannah River high-level waste supernatant, and Hanford supernatant. The latter two may be simulated by adding the appropriate chemicals and/or nuclides to the MVST supernatant.

  6. Analytical laboratory quality audits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelley, William D.

    2001-06-11

    Analytical Laboratory Quality Audits are designed to improve laboratory performance. The success of the audit, as for many activities, is based on adequate preparation, precise performance, well documented and insightful reporting, and productive follow-up. Adequate preparation starts with definition of the purpose, scope, and authority for the audit and the primary standards against which the laboratory quality program will be tested. The scope and technical processes involved lead to determining the needed audit team resources. Contact is made with the auditee and a formal audit plan is developed, approved and sent to the auditee laboratory management. Review of the auditee's quality manual, key procedures and historical information during preparation leads to better checklist development and more efficient and effective use of the limited time for data gathering during the audit itself. The audit begins with the opening meeting that sets the stage for the interactions between the audit team and the laboratory staff. Arrangements are worked out for the necessary interviews and examination of processes and records. The information developed during the audit is recorded on the checklists. Laboratory management is kept informed of issues during the audit so there are no surprises at the closing meeting. The audit report documents whether the management control systems are effective. In addition to findings of nonconformance, positive reinforcement of exemplary practices provides balance and fairness. Audit closure begins with receipt and evaluation of proposed corrective actions from the nonconformances identified in the audit report. After corrective actions are accepted, their implementation is verified. Upon closure of the corrective actions, the audit is officially closed.

  7. Effects of hot electron inertia on electron-acoustic solitons and double layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verheest, Frank, E-mail: frank.verheest@ugent.be [Sterrenkundig Observatorium, Universiteit Gent, Krijgslaan 281, B–9000 Gent (Belgium); School of Chemistry and Physics, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban 4000 (South Africa); Hellberg, Manfred A., E-mail: hellberg@ukzn.ac.za [School of Chemistry and Physics, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban 4000 (South Africa)

    2015-07-15

    The propagation of arbitrary amplitude electron-acoustic solitons and double layers is investigated in a plasma containing cold positive ions, cool adiabatic and hot isothermal electrons, with the retention of full inertial effects for all species. For analytical tractability, the resulting Sagdeev pseudopotential is expressed in terms of the hot electron density, rather than the electrostatic potential. The existence domains for Mach numbers and hot electron densities clearly show that both rarefactive and compressive solitons can exist. Soliton limitations come from the cool electron sonic point, followed by the hot electron sonic point, until a range of rarefactive double layers occurs. Increasing the relative cool electron density further yields a switch to compressive double layers, which ends when the model assumptions break down. These qualitative results are but little influenced by variations in compositional parameters. A comparison with a Boltzmann distribution for the hot electrons shows that only the cool electron sonic point limit remains, giving higher maximum Mach numbers but similar densities, and a restricted range in relative hot electron density before the model assumptions are exceeded. The Boltzmann distribution can reproduce neither the double layer solutions nor the switch in rarefactive/compressive character or negative/positive polarity.

  8. Neutrino reactions in hot and dense matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lohs, Andreas

    2015-04-13

    In this thesis, neutrino reactions in hot and dense matter are studied. In particular, this work is concerned with neutrino-matter interactions that are relevant for neutrino transport in core-collapse supernovae (CCSNe). The majority of the energy from a CCSN is released in the form of neutrinos. Accurate understanding and computation of these interactions is most relevant to achieve sufficiently reliable predictions for the evolution of CCSNe and other related question such as the production of heavy elements or neutrino oscillations. For this purpose this work follows the combined approach of searching for new important neutrino reactions and improving the computation of those reactions that are already implemented. First we estimate the relevance of charged-current weak interactions that include muon-neutrinos or muons, as well as the role of neutron decay for neutrino transport in CCSNe. All of these reactions were previously neglected in CCSN-simulations. We derive and compute the matrix element and subsequent semi-analytic expressions for transport properties like the inverse mean free path of the new reactions. It is found that these reactions are important for muon neutrinos and low energy electron antineutrinos at very high densities in the protoneutron star surface. Consequently their implementation might lead to several changes in the prediction of CCSNe signatures such as the nucleosynthesis yields. Second we improve the precision in the computation of well known neutrino-nucleon reactions like neutrino absorption on neutrons. We derive semi-analytic expressions for transport properties that use less restrictive approximations while keeping the computational demand constant. Therefore we consider the full relativistic kinematics of all participating particles i.e. allowing for relativistic nucleons and finite lepton masses. Also the weak magnetism terms of the matrix elements are explicitly included to all orders. From our results we suggest that the

  9. Ultrafast Hot Carrier Scattering and Generation from Surface Plasmons in Noble Metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, Marco; Mustafa, Jamal; Neaton, Jeffrey B.; Louie, Steven G.

    2015-03-01

    Non-equilibrium ``hot''carriers in materials are challenging to study experimentally as they thermalize at subpicosecond time and nanometer length scale. Recent experiments employed hot carriers generated by light absorption or surface plasmon annihilation in noble metals (e.g., Au and Ag) for catalysis and solar cells. The energy distribution and transport of the generated hot carriers play a key role in these experiments. We present ab initio calculations of the energy distribution of hot carriers generated by surface plasmons in noble metals, and the relaxation time and mean free path of the hot carriers along different crystal directions within 5 eV of the Fermi energy. Our calculations show the interplay of the noble metal s and d bands in determining the damping rate of the plasmon and the mean free path of the hot carriers. The trends we find as a function of surface plasmon momentum and frequency allow us to define optimal experimental conditions for hot carrier generation and extraction. Our approach combines density functional theory, GW, and electron-phonon calculations. Our work provides microscopic insight into hot carriers in noble metals, and their ultrafast dynamics in the presence of surface plasmons.

  10. Current status and future plan of JMTR Hot Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The hot laboratory (JMTR-HL) was founded to examine the objects mainly irradiated in the Japan materials testing reactor (JMTR) in 1971. The JMTR-HL has an advantage that the hot cell is connected with the reactor vessel of the JMTR by a canal. Hence it is easy to transport irradiated radioactive capsules and specimens through the canal. Since 1971, about 2,400 irradiated capsules have been treated in the JMTR-HL and various post irradiation examinations (PIEs) have been widely performed there. In recent years, several new techniques, e.g., an in-cell irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) test, a scanning-electron microscope (SEM) / electron-back scattering-diffraction pattern (EBSD) observation, were added to the conventional PIEs. In addition, the JMTR-HL had contributed to realize an in-pile IASCC test program at the JMTR through the development of a TIG welding technique by remote-handling with manipulators in the hot cell for re-assembling of capsules. A modification of the facility to treat high burn-up fuels, up to about 100 GWD/t, is planned at the JMTR-HL now. (author)

  11. Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Hot Spots and Detonation on the Roadrunner Supercomputer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mniszewski, Susan; Cawkwell, Marc; Germann, Timothy

    2011-06-01

    The temporal and spatial scales intrinsic to a real detonating explosive are extremely difficult to capture using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Nevertheless, MD remains very attractive since it allows for the resolution of dynamic phenomena at the atomic scale. We have studied the effects of spherical voids on the build up to detonation in three dimensions (3D) in a model explosive using the reactive empirical bond order (REBO) potential for the A-B system. This force field is attractive because it has been shown to support a detonation while being simple, analytic, and short-ranged. The transition from 2D to 3D simulations was facilitated by our port of the REBO force field in the parallel MD code SPaSM to LANL's petaflop Roadrunner supercomputer based on previous work by Swaminarayan and Germann [T. C. Germann et al. Concurrency Computat.: Pract. Exper. 21, 2143 (2009)]. We will provide a detailed discussion of the challenges associated with computing interatomic forces on a hybrid Opteron/Cell BE computational architecture. We will compare and contrast our results in 3D from Roadrunner with earlier 2D simulations of hot-spot assisted detonations by Heim, Herring, and co-workers [S. D. Herring et al. Phys. Rev. B, 82, 214108 (2010)].

  12. Large-scale data analytics

    CERN Document Server

    Gkoulalas-Divanis, Aris

    2014-01-01

    Provides cutting-edge research in large-scale data analytics from diverse scientific areas Surveys varied subject areas and reports on individual results of research in the field Shares many tips and insights into large-scale data analytics from authors and editors with long-term experience and specialization in the field

  13. Understanding Education Involving Geovisual Analytics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenliden, Linnea

    2013-01-01

    Handling the vast amounts of data and information available in contemporary society is a challenge. Geovisual Analytics provides technology designed to increase the effectiveness of information interpretation and analytical task solving. To date, little attention has been paid to the role such tools can play in education and to the extent to which…

  14. Subsidence modelling with analytic elements.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fokker, P.A.; Orlic, B.

    2000-01-01

    The method of Analytic Elements has been extended to enable elasticity calculations, to evaluate subsidence at the surface as resulting from extraction of oil or gas. Validation has been achieved by comparison with more limited analytical methods and with a comprehensive finite-element simulator. Th

  15. Hot Outflows in Galaxy Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Kirkpatrick, C C

    2015-01-01

    The gas-phase metallicity distribution has been analyzed for the hot atmospheres of 29 galaxy clusters using {\\it Chandra X-ray Observatory} observations. All host brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) with X-ray cavity systems produced by radio AGN. We find high elemental abundances projected preferentially along the cavities of 16 clusters. The metal-rich plasma was apparently lifted out of the BCGs with the rising X-ray cavities (bubbles) to altitudes between twenty and several hundred kiloparsecs. A relationship between the maximum projected altitude of the uplifted gas (the "iron radius") and jet power is found with the form $R_{\\rm Fe} \\propto P_{\\rm jet}^{0.45}$. The estimated outflow rates are typically tens of solar masses per year but exceed $100 ~\\rm M_\\odot ~yr^{-1}$ in the most powerful AGN. The outflow rates are 10% to 20% of the cooling rates, and thus alone are unable to offset a cooling inflow. Nevertheless, hot outflows effectively redistribute the cooling gas and may play a significant role at ...

  16. The hot skull: Malignant or feminine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diffusely increased uptake in the calvarium on bone scintigraphy (a hot skull) is often present in patients with bone metastases and metabolic diseases. Excluding these known facts the prevalence of the hot skull and its relation with malignancy and, more specifically, with breast carcinoma have been studied in 673 patients. In women, the hot skull is clearly related to malignancy and to a lesser extent to breast carcinoma. However, another remarkable feature of the hot skull is its predominance in women in general (compared to men) and, therefore, the data suggest that the hot skull can also represent a normal variant of the female skull. We conclude that the hot skull has no clinical value in screening protocols. (orig.)

  17. Menopausal hot flushes after breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Fenlon, D.R.; Corner, J.L.; Haviland, J

    2009-01-01

    The study aimed to improve understanding of the natural history and impact of hot flushes after breast cancer. Data were collected from women participating in an RCT of relaxation to reduce the incidence of flushes from breast cancer follow-up clinics from two hospitals in South-East England. Repondents were 150 women experiencing hot flushes following completion of primary treatment for breast cancer. This study utilized a flush diary, the Hot Flushes and Night Sweats Questionnaire (HFNSQ...

  18. Corrosion Properties of a Volcanic Hot Spring

    OpenAIRE

    Lichti, K. L.; Braham, V. J.; Engelberg, D.; Sanada, N.; Kurata, J.; Nanjo, H.; Ikeuchi, J.; Christenson, B.W.

    1998-01-01

    Volcanic hot pools on White Island, New Zealand provide ready access to acidic fluids at atmospheric pressure. These hot pools can be used to study the corrosion properties of construction materials that might be used for energy production from deep-seated and magma-ambient geothermal systems, or from shallow resources producing acidic fluids. corrosion results for a 1,hot pool are presented. A select group of moderate and high alloy materials appear suitable for energy plant applications. Ch...

  19. Computational Prediction of Hot Spot Residues

    OpenAIRE

    Morrow, John Kenneth; Zhang, Shuxing

    2012-01-01

    Most biological processes involve multiple proteins interacting with each other. It has been recently discovered that certain residues in these protein-protein interactions, which are called hot spots, contribute more significantly to binding affinity than others. Hot spot residues have unique and diverse energetic properties that make them challenging yet important targets in the modulation of protein-protein complexes. Design of therapeutic agents that interact with hot spot residues has pr...

  20. Electrochemical Detection of Multiple Bioprocess Analytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauh, R. David

    2010-01-01

    An apparatus that includes highly miniaturized thin-film electrochemical sensor array has been demonstrated as a prototype of instruments for simultaneous detection of multiple substances of interest (analytes) and measurement of acidity or alkalinity in bioprocess streams. Measurements of pH and of concentrations of nutrients and wastes in cell-culture media, made by use of these instruments, are to be used as feedback for optimizing the growth of cells or the production of desired substances by the cultured cells. The apparatus is designed to utilize samples of minimal volume so as to minimize any perturbation of monitored processes. The apparatus can function in a potentiometric mode (for measuring pH), an amperometric mode (detecting analytes via oxidation/reduction reactions), or both. The sensor array is planar and includes multiple thin-film microelectrodes covered with hydrous iridium oxide. The oxide layer on each electrode serves as both a protective and electrochemical transducing layer. In its transducing role, the oxide provides electrical conductivity for amperometric measurement or pH response for potentiometric measurement. The oxide on an electrode can also serve as a matrix for one or more enzymes that render the electrode sensitive to a specific analyte. In addition to transducing electrodes, the array includes electrodes for potential control. The array can be fabricated by techniques familiar to the microelectronics industry. The sensor array is housed in a thin-film liquid-flow cell that has a total volume of about 100 mL. The flow cell is connected to a computer-controlled subsystem that periodically draws samples from the bioprocess stream to be monitored. Before entering the cell, each 100-mL sample is subjected to tangential-flow filtration to remove particles. In the present version of the apparatus, the electrodes are operated under control by a potentiostat and are used to simultaneously measure the pH and the concentration of glucose

  1. Predictive modeling for hot water inactivation of planktonic and biofilm-associated Sphingomonas parapaucimobilis to support hot water sanitization programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaatz Wahlen, Laura; Parker, Al; Walker, Diane; Pasmore, Mark; Sturman, Paul

    2016-08-01

    Hot water sanitization is a common means to maintain microbial control in process equipment for industries where microorganisms can degrade product or cause safety issues. This study compared the hot water inactivation kinetics of planktonic and biofilm-associated Sphingomonas parapaucimobilis at temperatures relevant to sanitization processes used in the pharmaceutical industry, viz. 65, 70, 75, and 80°C. Biofilms exhibited greater resistance to hot water than the planktonic cells. Both linear and nonlinear statistical models were developed to predict the log reduction as a function of temperature and time. Nonlinear Michaelis-Menten modeling provided the best fit for the inactivation data. Using the model, predictions were calculated to determine the times at which specific log reductions are achieved. While ≥80°C is the most commonly cited temperature for hot water sanitization, the predictive modeling suggests that temperatures ≥75°C are also effective at inactivating planktonic and biofilm bacteria in timeframes appropriate for the pharmaceutical industry. PMID:27319816

  2. Development of Absorption Heat Pump Driven by Low Temperature Hot Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshida, Toshihiro; Nakamura, Naoto; Asai, Hiroshi; Hasatani, Masanobu; Watanabe, Fujio; Fujisawa, Ryou

    We developed an Adsorption Heat Pump (AHP) system, which applies silica-gel as adsorbent and H2O as refrigerant, and is possibly intended to use low temperature hot water (333K) as a driving force. The growing importance to save energy, leads us to develop energy saving systems such as Co-generation systems, including fuel cell system. It is important to use low temperature hot water in order to achieve high efficiency in total. It is, however, noticed that the lower water temperature is, the more difficult its' heat recovery becomes. We reported experimental results of the AHP system, and estimated the possibility to apply low temperature hot water from fuel cell system to the AHP system. We showed quantitatively that the AHP system is able to be driven by low temperature hot water(333K).

  3. 'Hot' cognition in major depressive disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miskowiak, Kamilla W; Carvalho, Andre F

    2014-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with significant cognitive dysfunction in both 'hot' (i.e. emotion-laden) and 'cold' (non-emotional) domains. Here we review evidence pertaining to 'hot' cognitive changes in MDD. This systematic review searched the PubMed and PsycInfo computerized...... in a fronto-limbic network with hyper-activity in limbic and ventral prefrontal regions paired with hypo-activity of dorsal prefrontal regions subserve these abnormalities. A cross-talk of 'hot' and 'cold' cognition disturbances in MDD occurs. Disturbances in 'hot cognition' may also contribute...

  4. Process analytical technology (PAT) for biopharmaceuticals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glassey, Jarka; Gernaey, Krist; Clemens, Christoph;

    2011-01-01

    emphasizes the need for improved PAT solutions. We summarize recent progress in this area based on an expert workshop held at the 8(th) European Symposium on Biochemical Engineering Sciences (Bologna, 2010), and highlight new opportunities for exploiting PAT when applied in biopharmaceutical production. We......Process analytical technology (PAT), the regulatory initiative for building in quality to pharmaceutical manufacturing, has a great potential for improving biopharmaceutical production. The recommended analytical tools for building in quality, multivariate data analysis, mechanistic modeling, novel...... models for interpretation of systems biology data and new sensor technologies for cellular states, are instrumental in exploiting this potential. Industrial biopharmaceutical production has gradually become dependent on large-scale processes using sensitive mammalian cell cultures. This further...

  5. Nanoarchaeota, Their Sulfolobales Host, and Nanoarchaeota Virus Distribution across Yellowstone National Park Hot Springs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munson-McGee, Jacob H; Field, Erin K; Bateson, Mary; Rooney, Colleen; Stepanauskas, Ramunas; Young, Mark J

    2015-11-01

    Nanoarchaeota are obligate symbionts with reduced genomes first described from marine thermal vent environments. Here, both community metagenomics and single-cell analysis revealed the presence of Nanoarchaeota in high-temperature (∼90°C), acidic (pH ≈ 2.5 to 3.0) hot springs in Yellowstone National Park (YNP) (United States). Single-cell genome analysis of two cells resulted in two nearly identical genomes, with an estimated full length of 650 kbp. Genome comparison showed that these two cells are more closely related to the recently proposed Nanobsidianus stetteri from a more neutral YNP hot spring than to the marine Nanoarchaeum equitans. Single-cell and catalyzed reporter deposition-fluorescence in situ hybridization (CARD-FISH) analysis of environmental hot spring samples identified the host of the YNP Nanoarchaeota as a Sulfolobales species known to inhabit the hot springs. Furthermore, we demonstrate that Nanoarchaeota are widespread in acidic to near neutral hot springs in YNP. An integrated viral sequence was also found within one Nanoarchaeota single-cell genome and further analysis of the purified viral fraction from environmental samples indicates that this is likely a virus replicating within the YNP Nanoarchaeota.

  6. Nanoarchaeota, Their Sulfolobales Host, and Nanoarchaeota Virus Distribution across Yellowstone National Park Hot Springs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munson-McGee, Jacob H; Field, Erin K; Bateson, Mary; Rooney, Colleen; Stepanauskas, Ramunas; Young, Mark J

    2015-11-01

    Nanoarchaeota are obligate symbionts with reduced genomes first described from marine thermal vent environments. Here, both community metagenomics and single-cell analysis revealed the presence of Nanoarchaeota in high-temperature (∼90°C), acidic (pH ≈ 2.5 to 3.0) hot springs in Yellowstone National Park (YNP) (United States). Single-cell genome analysis of two cells resulted in two nearly identical genomes, with an estimated full length of 650 kbp. Genome comparison showed that these two cells are more closely related to the recently proposed Nanobsidianus stetteri from a more neutral YNP hot spring than to the marine Nanoarchaeum equitans. Single-cell and catalyzed reporter deposition-fluorescence in situ hybridization (CARD-FISH) analysis of environmental hot spring samples identified the host of the YNP Nanoarchaeota as a Sulfolobales species known to inhabit the hot springs. Furthermore, we demonstrate that Nanoarchaeota are widespread in acidic to near neutral hot springs in YNP. An integrated viral sequence was also found within one Nanoarchaeota single-cell genome and further analysis of the purified viral fraction from environmental samples indicates that this is likely a virus replicating within the YNP Nanoarchaeota. PMID:26341207

  7. ADVANCED HOT GAS FILTER DEVELOPMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E.S. Connolly; G.D. Forsythe

    2000-09-30

    DuPont Lanxide Composites, Inc. undertook a sixty-month program, under DOE Contract DEAC21-94MC31214, in order to develop hot gas candle filters from a patented material technology know as PRD-66. The goal of this program was to extend the development of this material as a filter element and fully assess the capability of this technology to meet the needs of Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) and Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power generation systems at commercial scale. The principal objective of Task 3 was to build on the initial PRD-66 filter development, optimize its structure, and evaluate basic material properties relevant to the hot gas filter application. Initially, this consisted of an evaluation of an advanced filament-wound core structure that had been designed to produce an effective bulk filter underneath the barrier filter formed by the outer membrane. The basic material properties to be evaluated (as established by the DOE/METC materials working group) would include mechanical, thermal, and fracture toughness parameters for both new and used material, for the purpose of building a material database consistent with what is being done for the alternative candle filter systems. Task 3 was later expanded to include analysis of PRD-66 candle filters, which had been exposed to actual PFBC conditions, development of an improved membrane, and installation of equipment necessary for the processing of a modified composition. Task 4 would address essential technical issues involving the scale-up of PRD-66 candle filter manufacturing from prototype production to commercial scale manufacturing. The focus would be on capacity (as it affects the ability to deliver commercial order quantities), process specification (as it affects yields, quality, and costs), and manufacturing systems (e.g. QA/QC, materials handling, parts flow, and cost data acquisition). Any filters fabricated during this task would be used for product qualification tests

  8. The effects of Hot Pepper Extract and Capsaicin on Adipocyte Metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Ching Sheng, Chu; Ki Rok, Kwon; Tae Jin, Rhim; Dong Heui, Kim

    2008-01-01

    Objectives : The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of hot pepper extract and capsaicin on the adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells, lipolysis in rat epididymal adipocytes and histological changes in porcine adipose tissue. Methods : Inhibiton of preadipocyte differentiation and/or stimulation of lipolysis play important roles in reducing obesity. 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were differentiated with adipogenic reagents by incubating for 3 days in the absence or presence of hot pepper ...

  9. Analytical spectroscopy. Analytical Chemistry Symposia Series, Volume 19

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book contains papers covering several fields in analytical chemistry including lasers, mass spectrometry, inductively coupled plasma, activation analysis and emission spectroscopy. Separate abstracting and indexing was done for 64 papers in this book

  10. Radiation-induced chromosomal hot spots at G 1 and G 2 stages of human lymphocytes in culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murugesan R

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Radiation-induced chromosomal break points in cultured lymphocytes of normal healthy individuals as well as of those with certain genetic disorders are reported to be localized at certain specific loci (hot spots. These reports are based on studies carried out in lymphocytes irradiated at G 1 stage. The present study examines whether the location of hot spots and the frequency seen in cells irradiated at G 1 are similar to those irradiated at G 2 stage of the cell cycle and also tests whether cells of patients exhibit hot spots on irradiation.The results showed that the radiation induced chromosomal break points to be similar in those irradiated are G 1 and G 2 stages of the cell cycle and also that cells of patients exhibited chromosomal hot spots.

  11. Description of structure of Fe-Zn intermetalic compounds present in hot-dip galvanized coatings on steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Pokorny

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The article is describing formation, composition, morphology and crystallographic characteristics of intermetalic compounds Fe - Zn present in the coating formed during the process of low-temperature hot-dip galvanizing of carbon steels. In mutual confrontation we introduce older bibliography and results of latest modern researches based on combination of most precise analytical methods.

  12. The hot issues of studies in China on digital information resources: Based on co-word analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA; Feicheng; WANG; Juncheng; CHEN; Jinxia

    2008-01-01

    With the SPSS and the help of factor method and hierarchical clustered method,journal articles on digital information resources(DIR)from CNKI in the past ten years are analyzed with a co-word analytical method in this paper.The hot issues of studies on DIR and the relationship between those subjects are analyzed in this investigation as well.

  13. Normality of Composite Analytic Functions and Sharing an Analytic Function

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao Bing; Yuan Wenjun; Wu Qifeng

    2010-01-01

    A result of Hinchliffe (2003) is extended to transcendental entire function, and an alternative proof is given in this paper. Our main result is as follows: let be an analytic function, a family of analytic functions in a domain , and a transcendental entire function. If and share IM for each pair , and one of the following conditions holds: (1) has at least two distinct zeros for any ; (2) is nonconstant, and there exists such that has only one distinct zero , and su...

  14. Resummations in hot scalar electrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Krämmer, U; Schulz, H

    1994-01-01

    The gauge-boson sector of perturbative scalar electrodynamics is investigated in detail as a testing ground for resummation methods in hot gauge theories. It also serves as a simple non-trivial reference system for the non-Abelian gluon plasma. The complete next-to-leading order contributions to the polarization tensor are obtained within the resummation scheme of Braaten and Pisarski. The simpler scheme proposed recently by Arnold and Espinosa is shown to apply to static quantities only, whereas Braaten-Pisarski resummation turns out to need modification for collective phenomena close to the light-cone. Finally, a recently proposed resummation of quasi-particle damping contributions is assessed critically.

  15. Which new markets are hot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three markets center on the use of natural gas to fuel cars and trucks, to produce electricity and to cool buildings. And the main reasons for the active interest in these three fields might well be boiled down to the two Cs - cost and clean air - or, if you prefer a different letter of the alphabet, the two Es - economy and environment. The meaning, of course, is that gas has a pair of qualities that are hard to beast - low price and low combustible pollutants. This paper provides descriptions of the three burgeoning markets - why they're hot, what their growth projections are, what A.G.A. is doing about them and how local utilities can get in on the action

  16. Hot spots of mutualistic networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilarranz, Luis J; Sabatino, Malena; Aizen, Marcelo A; Bascompte, Jordi

    2015-03-01

    Incorporating interactions into a biogeographical framework may serve to understand how interactions and the services they provide are distributed in space. We begin by simulating the spatiotemporal dynamics of realistic mutualistic networks inhabiting spatial networks of habitat patches. We proceed by comparing the predicted patterns with the empirical results of a set of pollination networks in isolated hills of the Argentinian Pampas. We first find that one needs to sample up to five times as much area to record interactions as would be needed to sample the same proportion of species. Secondly, we find that peripheral patches have fewer interactions and harbour less nested networks - therefore potentially less resilient communities - compared to central patches. Our results highlight the important role played by the structure of dispersal routes on the spatial distribution of community patterns. This may help to understand the formation of biodiversity hot spots. PMID:25402941

  17. [Rape drugs: pharmalogical and analytical aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaulier, J-M; Fonteau, F; Jouanel, E; Lachâtre, G

    2004-01-01

    Rape drugs or compounds used for chemical submission are current hot topics of numerous media based on a few well-documented identified cases. In the aim of considering the compounds potentially involved and subsequently the samples to collect and the toxicological analyses to perform, and according to the aggressor's viewpoint (victim submission and impunity of himself or herself), the characteristics of such compounds were drawn following the drug pharmacological properties. The compounds or therapeutic classes potentially used are numerous and diverse because the expected effects can be obtained by many neuropharmacological mechanisms or combinations of mechanisms. However, a few drugs (i.e. several benzodiazepines, and gamma-hydroxybutyrate) seem to be the ideal candidates owing to advantageous pharmacological properties (low blood concentrations, short elimination half-life) and practical ones (availability, galenic forms). It appears that the quality and precocity of biological specimen collection, the use of specific and sensitive analytical techniques, and the collaboration between the clinician and the toxicologist, are the essential keys for successful toxicological investigations when a case of chemical submission is suspected. PMID:15355803

  18. Banach spaces of analytic functions

    CERN Document Server

    Hoffman, Kenneth

    2007-01-01

    A classic of pure mathematics, this advanced graduate-level text explores the intersection of functional analysis and analytic function theory. Close in spirit to abstract harmonic analysis, it is confined to Banach spaces of analytic functions in the unit disc.The author devotes the first four chapters to proofs of classical theorems on boundary values and boundary integral representations of analytic functions in the unit disc, including generalizations to Dirichlet algebras. The fifth chapter contains the factorization theory of Hp functions, a discussion of some partial extensions of the f

  19. Nuclear techniques in analytical chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Moses, Alfred J; Gordon, L

    1964-01-01

    Nuclear Techniques in Analytical Chemistry discusses highly sensitive nuclear techniques that determine the micro- and macro-amounts or trace elements of materials. With the increasingly frequent demand for the chemical determination of trace amounts of elements in materials, the analytical chemist had to search for more sensitive methods of analysis. This book accustoms analytical chemists with nuclear techniques that possess the desired sensitivity and applicability at trace levels. The topics covered include safe handling of radioactivity; measurement of natural radioactivity; and neutron a

  20. Hot Dry Rock; Geothermal Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1990-01-01

    The commercial utilization of geothermal energy forms the basis of the largest renewable energy industry in the world. More than 5000 Mw of electrical power are currently in production from approximately 210 plants and 10 000 Mw thermal are used in direct use processes. The majority of these systems are located in the well defined geothermal generally associated with crustal plate boundaries or hot spots. The essential requirements of high subsurface temperature with huge volumes of exploitable fluids, coupled to environmental and market factors, limit the choice of suitable sites significantly. The Hot Dry Rock (HDR) concept at any depth originally offered a dream of unlimited expansion for the geothermal industry by relaxing the location constraints by drilling deep enough to reach adequate temperatures. Now, after 20 years intensive work by international teams and expenditures of more than $250 million, it is vital to review the position of HDR in relation to the established geothermal industry. The HDR resource is merely a body of rock at elevated temperatures with insufficient fluids in place to enable the heat to be extracted without the need for injection wells. All of the major field experiments in HDR have shown that the natural fracture systems form the heat transfer surfaces and that it is these fractures that must be for geothermal systems producing from naturally fractured formations provide a basis for directing the forthcoming but, equally, they require accepting significant location constraints on HDR for the time being. This paper presents a model HDR system designed for commercial operations in the UK and uses production data from hydrothermal systems in Japan and the USA to demonstrate the reservoir performance requirements for viable operations. It is shown that these characteristics are not likely to be achieved in host rocks without stimulation processes. However, the long term goal of artificial geothermal systems developed by systematic

  1. Hot Dust Acoustic Solitary Waves in Dust Plasma with Variable Dust Charge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段文山; 吕克朴; 赵金保

    2001-01-01

    Considering the variation of dust charges, we have analytically studied the governing equation for the system with the same model as that for cold dust acoustic waves in a demagnetized plasma but with the contribution of hot dust. The result indicates that the governing equation is also a Kortweg-de Vries equation, although its amplitude and width will be smaller compared with the cold dust case.

  2. Proteomics - new analytical approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Recent developments in the sequencing of the human genome have indicated that the number of coding gene sequences may be as few as 30,000. It is clear, however, that the complexity of the human species is dependent on the much greater diversity of the corresponding protein complement. Estimates of the diversity (discrete protein species) of the human proteome range from 200,000 to 300,000 at the lower end to 2,000,000 to 3,000,000 at the high end. In addition, proteomics (the study of the protein complement to the genome) has been subdivided into two main approaches. Global proteomics refers to a high throughput examination of the full protein set present in a cell under a given environmental condition. Focused proteomics refers to a more detailed study of a restricted set of proteins that are related to a specified biochemical pathway or subcellular structure. While many of the advances in proteomics will be based on the sequencing of the human genome, de novo characterization of protein microheterogeneity (glycosylation, phosphorylation and sulfation as well as the incorporation of lipid components) will be required in disease studies. To characterize these modifications it is necessary to digest the protein mixture with an enzyme to produce the corresponding mixture of peptides. In a process analogous to sequencing of the genome, shot-gun sequencing of the proteome is based on the characterization of the key fragments produced by such a digest. Thus, a glycopeptide and hence a specific glycosylation motif will be identified by a unique mass and then a diagnostic MS/MS spectrum. Mass spectrometry will be the preferred detector in these applications because of the unparalleled information content provided by one or more dimensions of mass measurement. In addition, highly efficient separation processes are an absolute requirement for advanced proteomic studies. For example, a combination of the orthogonal approaches, HPLC and HPCE, can be very powerful

  3. Process and equipment development for hot isostatic pressing treatability study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bateman, Ken; Wahlquist, Dennis; Malewitz, Tim

    2015-03-01

    Battelle Energy Alliance (BEA), LLC, has developed processes and equipment for a pilot-scale hot isostatic pressing (HIP) treatability study to stabilize and volume reduce radioactive calcine stored at Idaho National Laboratory (INL). In 2009, the U. S. Department of Energy signed a Record of Decision with the state of Idaho selecting HIP technology as the method to treat 5,800 yd^3 (4,400 m^3) of granular zirconia and alumina calcine produced between 1953 and 1992 as a waste byproduct of spent nuclear fuel reprocessing. Since the 1990s, a variety of radioactive and hazardous waste forms have been remotely treated using HIP within INL hot cells. To execute the remote process at INL, waste is loaded into a stainless-steel or aluminum can, which is evacuated, sealed, and placed into a HIP furnace. The HIP simultaneously heats and pressurizes the waste, reducing its volume and increasing its durability. Two 1 gal cans of calcine waste currently stored in a shielded cask were identified as candidate materials for a treatability study involving the HIP process. Equipment and materials for cask-handling and calcine transfer into INL hot cells, as well as remotely operated equipment for waste can opening, particle sizing, material blending, and HIP can loading have been designed and successfully tested. These results demonstrate BEA’s readiness for treatment of INL calcine.

  4. Hot Spot Removal System: System description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    Hazardous wastes contaminated with radionuclides, chemicals, and explosives exist across the Department of Energy complex and need to be remediated due to environmental concerns. Currently, an opportunity is being developed to dramatically reduce remediation costs and to assist in the acceleration of schedules associated with these wastes by deploying a Hot Spot Removal System. Removing the hot spot from the waste site will remove risk driver(s) and enable another, more cost effective process/option/remedial alternative (i.e., capping) to be applied to the remainder of the site. The Hot Spot Removal System consists of a suite of technologies that will be utilized to locate and remove source terms. Components of the system can also be used in a variety of other cleanup activities. This Hot Spot Removal System Description document presents technologies that were considered for possible inclusion in the Hot Spot Removal System, technologies made available to the Hot Spot Removal System, industrial interest in the Hot Spot Removal System`s subsystems, the schedule required for the Hot Spot Removal System, the evaluation of the relevant technologies, and the recommendations for equipment and technologies as stated in the Plan section.

  5. Basics of Solar Heating & Hot Water Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Inst. of Architects, Washington, DC.

    In presenting the basics of solar heating and hot water systems, this publication is organized from the general to the specific. It begins by presenting functional and operational descriptions of solar heating and domestic hot water systems, outlining the basic concepts and terminology. This is followed by a description of solar energy utilization…

  6. Refractory Pellet for Hot Blast Stove

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Jing; Peng Xigao

    2011-01-01

    1 Scope This standard specifies the term,definition,classification,specification,technical requirements,test methods,quality appraisal procedures,packing,marking,transportation,storage,and quality certificate of refractory pellet for hot blast stove.This standard is applicable to refractory pellet for hot blast stove.

  7. Sprayformed Hot Work Steels for Rapid Tooling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yunfeng Yang; Simo-Pekka Hannula

    2003-01-01

    The present work compares microstructures of hot work steels made by different processes, that is, by sprayforming,by casting, and a commercially supplied H13 steel. Material benefits are recognized by sprayforming hot working tools such as die inserts fo

  8. Hot Mix Asphalt Recycling: Practices and Principles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohajeri, M.

    2015-01-01

    Hot mix asphalt recycling has become common practice all over the world since the 1970s because of the crisis in oil prices. In the Netherlands, hot recycling has advanced to such an extent that in most of the mixtures more than 50% of reclaimed asphalt (RA) is allowed. These mixtures with such a hi

  9. Solar Energy for Space Heating & Hot Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Energy Research and Development Administration, Washington, DC. Div. of Solar Energy.

    This pamphlet reviews the direct transfer of solar energy into heat, particularly for the purpose of providing space and hot water heating needs. Owners of buildings and homes are provided with a basic understanding of solar heating and hot water systems: what they are, how they perform, the energy savings possible, and the cost factors involved.…

  10. Hot Spot Removal System: System description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazardous wastes contaminated with radionuclides, chemicals, and explosives exist across the Department of Energy complex and need to be remediated due to environmental concerns. Currently, an opportunity is being developed to dramatically reduce remediation costs and to assist in the acceleration of schedules associated with these wastes by deploying a Hot Spot Removal System. Removing the hot spot from the waste site will remove risk driver(s) and enable another, more cost effective process/option/remedial alternative (i.e., capping) to be applied to the remainder of the site. The Hot Spot Removal System consists of a suite of technologies that will be utilized to locate and remove source terms. Components of the system can also be used in a variety of other cleanup activities. This Hot Spot Removal System Description document presents technologies that were considered for possible inclusion in the Hot Spot Removal System, technologies made available to the Hot Spot Removal System, industrial interest in the Hot Spot Removal System''s subsystems, the schedule required for the Hot Spot Removal System, the evaluation of the relevant technologies, and the recommendations for equipment and technologies as stated in the Plan section

  11. Fabrication of lithium ceramics by hot pressing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, C.N.

    1982-03-01

    Controlled density LiA10/sub 2/, Li/sub 2/Zr0/sub 3/, Li/sub 4/SiO/sub 4/ and Li/sub 2/O pellets were fabricated by hot pressing for irradiation testing as candidate tritium breeding materials. Pellet specifications, characterization data, and procedures for hot pressing, pellet grinding and halide removal are discussed.

  12. HotSpot Software Configuration Management Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, H; Homann, S G

    2009-03-12

    This Software Configuration Management Plan (SCMP) describes the software configuration management procedures used to ensure that the HotSpot dispersion model meets the requirements of its user base, which includes: (1) Users of the PC version of HotSpot for consequence assessment, hazard assessment and safety analysis calculations; and (2) Users of the NARAC Web and iClient software tools, which allow users to run HotSpot for consequence assessment modeling These users and sponsors of the HotSpot software and the organizations they represent constitute the intended audience for this document. This plan is intended to meet Critical Recommendations 1 and 3 from the Software Evaluation of HotSpot and DOE Safety Software Toolbox Recommendation for inclusion of HotSpot in the Department of Energy (DOE) Safety Software Toolbox. HotSpot software is maintained for the Department of Energy Office of Emergency Operations by the National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center (NARAC) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). An overview of HotSpot and NARAC are provided.

  13. Cautions Concerning Electronic Analytical Balances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Bruce B.; Wells, John D.

    1986-01-01

    Cautions chemists to be wary of ferromagnetic samples (especially magnetized samples), stray electromagnetic radiation, dusty environments, and changing weather conditions. These and other conditions may alter readings obtained from electronic analytical balances. (JN)

  14. Formative assessment and learning analytics

    OpenAIRE

    Tempelaar, D.T.; Heck, A.; Cuypers, H; Kooij, van der, M.; Vrie, van de, E.

    2013-01-01

    Learning analytics seeks to enhance the learning process through systematic measurements of learning related data, and informing learners and teachers of the results of these measurements, so as to support the control of the learning process. Learning analytics has various sources of information, two main types being intentional and learner activity related metadata [1]. This contribution aims to provide a practical application of Shum and Crick's theoretical framework [1] of a learning analy...

  15. Remote Electro-Analytical Laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratnanjali Gandhi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Remote Laboratories are web based distance learning laboratories that have immense potential to disseminate technology in the area of practical science. These laboratories can be accessed through Internet. In the present paper, we will be discussing our experiences in setting up a remote analytical laboratory at our center. Further, we will discuss remote experiments in the area of electro-analytical chemistry & colorimetry and their role in strengthening the system of science education.

  16. Big Data Analytics in Healthcare

    OpenAIRE

    Ashwin Belle; Raghuram Thiagarajan; S. M. Reza Soroushmehr; Fatemeh Navidi; Daniel A Beard; Kayvan Najarian

    2015-01-01

    The rapidly expanding field of big data analytics has started to play a pivotal role in the evolution of healthcare practices and research. It has provided tools to accumulate, manage, analyze, and assimilate large volumes of disparate, structured, and unstructured data produced by current healthcare systems. Big data analytics has been recently applied towards aiding the process of care delivery and disease exploration. However, the adoption rate and research development in this space is sti...

  17. Analytic torsion and symplectic volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McLellan, Brendan Donald Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    This article studies the abelian analytic torsion on a closed, oriented, quasi-regular Sasakian three-manifold and identifies this quantity as a specific multiple of the natural unit symplectic volume form on the moduli space of flat abelian connections. This identification effectively computes...... the analytic torsion explicitly in terms of Seifert data for a given quasi-regular Sasakian structure on a three-manifold....

  18. Organizational Models for Big Data and Analytics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert L. Grossman

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we introduce a framework for determining how analytics capability should be distributed within an organization. Our framework stresses the importance of building a critical mass of analytics staff, centralizing or decentralizing the analytics staff to support business processes, and establishing an analytics governance structure to ensure that analytics processes are supported by the organization as a whole.

  19. Hot electron pump: a plasmonic rectifying antenna (Presentation Recording)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanik, Ahmet A.; Hossain, Golam I.

    2015-09-01

    Plasmonic nanostructures have been widely explored to improve absorption efficiency of conventional solar cells, either by employing them as a light scatterer, or as a source of local field enhancement. Unavoidable ohmic loss associated with the plasmonic metal nanostructures in visible spectrum, limits the efficiency improvement of photovoltaic devices by employing this local photon density of states (LDOS) engineering approach. Instead of using plasmonic structures as efficiency improving layer, recently, there has been a growing interest in exploring plasmoinc nanoparticle as the active medium for photovoltaic device. By extracting hot electrons that are created in metallic nanoparticles in a non-radiative Landau decay of surface plasmons, many novel plasmonic photovoltaic devices have been proposed. Moreover, these hot electrons in metal nanoparticles promises high efficiency with a spectral response that is not limited by the band gap of the semiconductors (active material of conventional solar cell). In this work, we will show a novel photovoltaic configuration of plasmonic nanoparticle that acts as an antenna by capturing free space ultrahigh frequency electromagnetic wave and rectify them through an ultrafast hot electron pump and eventually inject DC current in the contact of the device. We will introduce a bottom-up quantum mechanical approach model to explain fundamental physical processes involved in this hot electron pump rectifying antenna and it's ultrafast dynamics. Our model is based on non-equilibrium Green's function formalism, a robust theoretical framework to investigate transport and design nanoscale electronic devices. We will demonstrate some fundamental limitations that go the very foundations of quantum mechanics.

  20. Analytical transfer matrix of a quadrupole fringe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Yue-Mei; XU Gang

    2011-01-01

    The analytical linear transfer matrices for different quadrupole fringes including quadratic,high order power and exponential models are deduced in this paper.As an example,the transfer matrices of the quadrupole BEPC Ⅱ 105Q are computed for the above three models and compared with hard edge and sliceby-slice models in cases of near 60° and 90° FODO cells.These models' results are much better than the hard edge model's,and can meet the requirement of accurate calculation.

  1. Magnetic fields and chiral asymmetry in the early hot universe

    CERN Document Server

    Sidorenko, Maxim; Shtanov, Yuri

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we study analytically the process of external generation and subsequent free evolution of the lepton chiral asymmetry and helical magnetic fields in the early hot universe. This process is known to be affected by the Abelian anomaly of the electroweak gauge interactions. As a consequence, chiral asymmetry in the fermion distribution generates magnetic fields of non-zero helicity, and vice versa. We take into account the presence of thermal bath, which serves as a seed for the development of instability in magnetic field in the presence of externally generated lepton chiral asymmetry. The developed helical magnetic field and lepton chiral asymmetry support each other, considerably prolonging their mutual existence, in the process of 'inverse cascade' transferring magnetic-field power from small to large spatial scales. For cosmologically interesting initial conditions, the chiral asymmetry and the energy density of helical magnetic field are shown to evolve by scaling laws, effectively depending...

  2. Core Deuterium Fusion and Radius Inflation in Hot Jupiters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaikumar, Prashanth; Rachid Ouyed

    2016-06-01

    Several laboratory-based studies have shown that the Deuterium fusion cross-section is enhanced in a solid deuterated target as compared to a gas target, attributable to enhanced mobility of deuterons in a metal lattice. As an application, we propose that, for core temperatures and compositions characterizing hot Jupiters, screened Deuterium fusion can occur deep in the interior, and show that the amount of radius inflation from this effect can be important if there is sufficient rock-ice in the core. The mechanism of screened Deuterium fusion, operating in the above temperature range, is generally consistent with the trend in radius anomaly with planetary equilibrium temperature. We also explore the trend with planetary mass using a simple analytic model.

  3. 10 CFR 431.102 - Definitions concerning commercial water heaters, hot water supply boilers, and unfired hot water...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... supply boilers, and unfired hot water storage tanks. 431.102 Section 431.102 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY... Water Heaters, Hot Water Supply Boilers and Unfired Hot Water Storage Tanks § 431.102 Definitions concerning commercial water heaters, hot water supply boilers, and unfired hot water storage tanks....

  4. Motion of a hot particle in viscous fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppenheimer, Naomi; Navardi, Shahin; Stone, Howard A.

    2016-05-01

    We study the motion of a hot particle in a viscous liquid at low Reynolds numbers, which is inspired by recent experiments with Brownian particles heated by a laser. The difference in temperature between a particle and the ambient fluid causes a spatial variation of the viscosity in the vicinity of the solid body. We derive a general analytical expression determining the force and the torque on a particle for low Péclet numbers by exploiting the Lorentz reciprocal theorem. For small temperature and viscosity variations, a perturbation analysis is implemented to evaluate the leading-order correction to the hydrodynamic force and torque on the particle. The results are applied to describe dynamics of a uniformly hot spherical particle and to spherical particles with a nonuniform surface temperature described by dipole and quadrupole moments. Among other results, we find for dipolar thermal fields that there is coupling of the translational and rotational motions when there are local viscosity variations; such coupling is absent in an isothermal fluid.

  5. Performance characterization of geopolymer composites for hot sodium exposed sacrificial layer in fast breeder reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haneefa, K. Mohammed, E-mail: mhkolakkadan@gmail.com [Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Madras, Chennai (India); Santhanam, Manu [Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Madras, Chennai (India); Parida, F.C. [Radiological Safety Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • Performance evaluation of geopolymers subjected to hot liquid sodium is performed. • Apart from mechanical properties, micro-analytical techniques are used for material characterization. • The geopolymer composite showed comparatively lesser damage than conventional cement composites. • Geopolymer technology can emerge as a new choice for sacrificial layer in SCFBRs. - Abstract: A sacrificial layer of concrete is used in sodium cooled fast breeder reactors (SCFBRs) to mitigate thermo-chemical effect of accidentally spilled sodium at and above 550 °C on structural concrete. Performance of this layer is governed by thermo-chemical stability of the ingredients of sacrificial layer concrete. Concrete with limestone aggregate is generally used as a sacrificial layer. Conventional cement based systems exhibit instability in hot liquid sodium environment. Geo-polymer composites are well known to perform excellently at elevated temperatures compared to conventional cement systems. This paper discusses performance of such composites subjected to exposure of hot liquid sodium in air. The investigation includes comprehensive evaluation of various geo-polymer composites before any exposure, after heating to 550 °C in air, and after immersing in hot liquid sodium initially heated to 550 °C in air. Results from the current study indicate that hot liquid sodium produces less damage to geopolymer composites than to the existing conventional cement based system. Hence, the geopolymer technology has potential application in mitigating the degrading effects of sodium fires and can emerge as a new choice for sodium exposed sacrificial layer in SCFBRs.

  6. Massive Warm/Hot Galaxy Coronae as Probed by OVI, OVII and OVIII Absorbers

    CERN Document Server

    Faerman, Yakov; McKee, Christopher F

    2016-01-01

    We construct an analytic phenomenological model for extended warm/hot gaseous coronae of L* galaxies. We aim to reproduce the column densities of highly ionized oxygen ions observed in the ultraviolet and X-ray, as evidence for warm/hot gas in a wide range of temperatures and ionization states. We consider OVI data from the COS-Halos sample of galaxies in combination with the nearby OVII and OVIII absorption that we interpret as arising in an extended corona around the Milky Way. We fit these data sets with a single representative model. The gas in our model is multiphased, with hot and warm components. Each component has a (turbulent) log-normal distribution of temperatures and densities. The hot gas is traced by the OVII and OVIII and is in hydrostatic equilibrium in a Milky Way gravitational potential. The median temperature of the hot gas is $1.8*10^6$ K and the resulting mean hydrogen density is $\\sim 5*10^{-5}~cm^{-3}$, consistent with ram-pressure stripping observed in Milky Way satellites. The warm co...

  7. Linear response of hot gluons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrington, M. E.; Hansson, T. H.; Yamagishi, H.; Zahed, I.

    1989-03-01

    We reexamine the various schemes for calculating the linear response (the retarded Green's function) of a hot gluon plasma. The problems related to gauge invariance are discussed in detail, and results in different gauges are compared. We also point out some issues related to the very definition of a thermal ensemble in the presence of unphysical degrees of freedom. By culculating the retarded Green's function directly in real time, we explicitly study the effects of unphysical degrees of freedom in different gauges. Although there appears to be no unique way to define the response function, we find that several schemes can be questioned on formal grounds and that use of the background-field gauge (BFG) is the most satisfactory in this respect. We discuss two proposals to fix the gauge parameter (α) dependence in the BFG response function, the Vilkovisky-DeWitt effective action corresponding to the choice α = 0 (background Landau gauge), and the "gauge-invariant propagator" of Cornwall et al. corresponding to α = 1 (background Feynman gauge).

  8. Magnetohydrodynamic simulations of hot jupiter upper atmospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two-dimensional simulations of hot Jupiter upper atmospheres including the planet's magnetic field are presented. The goal is to explore magnetic effects on the layer of the atmosphere that is ionized and heated by stellar EUV radiation, and the imprint of these effects on the Lyα transmission spectrum. The simulations are axisymmetric, isothermal, and include both rotation and azimuth-averaged stellar tides. Mass density is converted to atomic hydrogen density through the assumption of ionization equilibrium. The three-zone structure—polar dead zone (DZ), mid-latitude wind zone (WZ), and equatorial DZ—found in previous analytic calculations is confirmed. For a magnetic field comparable to that of Jupiter, the equatorial DZ, which is confined by the magnetic field and corotates with the planet, contributes at least half of the transit signal. For even stronger fields, the gas escaping in the mid-latitude WZ is found to have a smaller contribution to the transit depth than the equatorial DZ. Transmission spectra computed from the simulations are compared to Hubble Space Telescope Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph and Advanced Camera for Surveys data for HD 209458b and HD 189733b, and the range of model parameters consistent with the data is found. The central result of this paper is that the transit depth increases strongly with magnetic field strength when the hydrogen ionization layer is magnetically dominated, for dipole magnetic field B 0 ≳ 10 G. Hence transit depth is sensitive to magnetic field strength, in addition to standard quantities such as the ratio of thermal to gravitational binding energies. Another effect of the magnetic field is that the planet loses angular momentum orders of magnitude faster than in the non-magnetic case, because the magnetic field greatly increases the lever arm for wind braking of the planet's rotation. Spin-down timescales for magnetized models of HD 209458b that agree with the observed transit depth can be

  9. RDF Analytics: Lenses over Semantic Graphs

    OpenAIRE

    Colazzo, Dario; Goasdoué, François; Manolescu, Ioana; Roatis, Alexandra

    2014-01-01

    The development of Semantic Web (RDF) brings new requirements for data analytics tools and methods, going beyond querying to semantics-rich analytics through warehouse-style tools. In this work, we fully redesign, from the bottom up, core data analytics concepts and tools in the context of RDF data, leading to the first complete formal framework for warehouse-style RDF analytics. Notably, we define i) analytical schemas tailored to heterogeneous, semantics-rich RDF graph, ii) analytical queri...

  10. Climate Analytics as a Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnase, John L.; Duffy, Daniel Q.; McInerney, Mark A.; Webster, W. Phillip; Lee, Tsengdar J.

    2014-01-01

    Climate science is a big data domain that is experiencing unprecedented growth. In our efforts to address the big data challenges of climate science, we are moving toward a notion of Climate Analytics-as-a-Service (CAaaS). CAaaS combines high-performance computing and data-proximal analytics with scalable data management, cloud computing virtualization, the notion of adaptive analytics, and a domain-harmonized API to improve the accessibility and usability of large collections of climate data. MERRA Analytic Services (MERRA/AS) provides an example of CAaaS. MERRA/AS enables MapReduce analytics over NASA's Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) data collection. The MERRA reanalysis integrates observational data with numerical models to produce a global temporally and spatially consistent synthesis of key climate variables. The effectiveness of MERRA/AS has been demonstrated in several applications. In our experience, CAaaS is providing the agility required to meet our customers' increasing and changing data management and data analysis needs.

  11. Manual on Safety Aspects of the Design and Equipment of Hot Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the development of atomic energy application and research, hot laboratories are now being constructed in a number of countries. The present publication describes and discusses experience in several countries in designing equipment for these laboratories. The safe handling of highly radioactive substances is the main purpose of hot laboratory design and equipment. The manual aims at helping those persons, particularly in the developing countries, who plan to design and construct a new hot laboratory or modify an existing one. It does not deal in great detail with the engineering design of protective and handling equipment; these matters can be found in the comprehensive list of references. The manual itself covers only basic ideas and different approaches in the design of laboratory building, hot cells, shielded and glove boxes, fume cupboards, and handling and viewing equipment. Systems for transferring materials and main services are also discussed.

  12. Was the Big Bang hot?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, E. L.

    1983-01-01

    Techniques for verifying the spectrum defined by Woody and Richards (WR, 1981), which serves as a base for dust-distorted models of the 3 K background, are discussed. WR detected a sharp deviation from the Planck curve in the 3 K background. The absolute intensity of the background may be determined by the frequency dependence of the dipole anisotropy of the background or the frequency dependence effect in galactic clusters. Both methods involve the Doppler shift; analytical formulae are defined for characterization of the dipole anisotropy. The measurement of the 30-300 GHz spectra of cold galactic dust may reveal the presence of significant amounts of needle-shaped grains, which would in turn support a theory of a cold Big Bang.

  13. Biofilm formation in a hot water system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagh, L.K.; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen; Arvin, Erik;

    2002-01-01

    The biofilm formation rate was measured in situ in a hot water system in an apartment building by specially designed sampling equipment, and the net growth of the suspended bacteria was measured by incubation of water samples with the indigeneous bacteria. The biofilm formation rate reached......, in the sludge, or in the water from the distribution system was negligible. This indicated that bacterial growth took place on the inner surfaces in the hot water system and biofilm formation and detachment of bacteria could account for most of the suspended bacteria actually measured in hot water. Therefore...

  14. A review on hot tearing of magnesium alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangfeng Song

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Hot tearing is often a major casting defect in magnesium alloys and has a significant impact on the quality of their casting products. Hot tearing of magnesium alloys is a complex solidification phenomenon which is still not fully understood, it is of great importance to investigate the hot tearing behaviour of magnesium alloys. This review attempts to summarize the investigations on hot tearing of magnesium alloys over the past decades. The hot tearing criteria including recently developed Kou's criterion are summarized and compared. The numeric simulation and assessing methods of hot tearing, factors influencing hot tearing, and hot tearing susceptibility (HTS of magnesium alloys are discussed.

  15. Chemiluminescence microarrays in analytical chemistry: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidel, Michael; Niessner, Reinhard

    2014-09-01

    Multi-analyte immunoassays on microarrays and on multiplex DNA microarrays have been described for quantitative analysis of small organic molecules (e.g., antibiotics, drugs of abuse, small molecule toxins), proteins (e.g., antibodies or protein toxins), and microorganisms, viruses, and eukaryotic cells. In analytical chemistry, multi-analyte detection by use of analytical microarrays has become an innovative research topic because of the possibility of generating several sets of quantitative data for different analyte classes in a short time. Chemiluminescence (CL) microarrays are powerful tools for rapid multiplex analysis of complex matrices. A wide range of applications for CL microarrays is described in the literature dealing with analytical microarrays. The motivation for this review is to summarize the current state of CL-based analytical microarrays. Combining analysis of different compound classes on CL microarrays reduces analysis time, cost of reagents, and use of laboratory space. Applications are discussed, with examples from food safety, water safety, environmental monitoring, diagnostics, forensics, toxicology, and biosecurity. The potential and limitations of research on multiplex analysis by use of CL microarrays are discussed in this review.

  16. Analytical detection techniques for droplet microfluidics—A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Ying [Institute of Microanalytical Systems, Department of Chemistry, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310058 (China); State Key Laboratory of Industrial Control Technology, Institute of Cyber-Systems and Control, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310058 (China); Fang, Qun, E-mail: fangqun@zju.edu.cn [Institute of Microanalytical Systems, Department of Chemistry, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310058 (China)

    2013-07-17

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •This is the first review paper focused on the analytical techniques for droplet-based microfluidics. •We summarized the analytical methods used in droplet-based microfluidic systems. •We discussed the advantage and disadvantage of each method through its application. •We also discuss the future development direction of analytical methods for droplet-based microfluidic systems. -- Abstract: In the last decade, droplet-based microfluidics has undergone rapid progress in the fields of single-cell analysis, digital PCR, protein crystallization and high throughput screening. It has been proved to be a promising platform for performing chemical and biological experiments with ultra-small volumes (picoliter to nanoliter) and ultra-high throughput. The ability to analyze the content in droplet qualitatively and quantitatively is playing an increasing role in the development and application of droplet-based microfluidic systems. In this review, we summarized the analytical detection techniques used in droplet systems and discussed the advantage and disadvantage of each technique through its application. The analytical techniques mentioned in this paper include bright-field microscopy, fluorescence microscopy, laser induced fluorescence, Raman spectroscopy, electrochemistry, capillary electrophoresis, mass spectrometry, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, absorption detection, chemiluminescence, and sample pretreatment techniques. The importance of analytical detection techniques in enabling new applications is highlighted. We also discuss the future development direction of analytical detection techniques for droplet-based microfluidic systems.

  17. An Analytical Model for the Influence of Contact Resistance on Thermoelectric Efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørk, Rasmus

    2016-01-01

    An analytical model is presented that can account for both electrical and hot and cold thermal contact resistances when calculating the efficiency of a thermoelectric generator. The model is compared to a numerical model of a thermoelectric leg for 16 different thermoelectric materials, as well...... as to the analytical models of Ebling et al. (J Electron Mater 39:1376, 2010) and Min and Rowe (J Power Sour 38:253, 1992). The model presented here is shown to accurately calculate the efficiency for all systems and all contact resistances considered, with an average difference in efficiency between the numerical...... model and the analytical model of -0.07 ± 0.35pp. This makes the model more accurate than previously published models. The maximum absolute difference in efficiency between the analytical model and the numerical model is 1.14pp for all materials and all contact resistances considered....

  18. An analytical model for the influence of contact resistance on thermoelectric efficiency

    CERN Document Server

    Bjørk, R

    2016-01-01

    An analytical model is presented that can account for both electrical and hot and cold thermal contact resistances when calculating the efficiency of a thermoelectric generator. The model is compared to a numerical model of a thermoelectric leg, for 16 different thermoelectric materials, as well as the analytical models of Ebling et. al. (2010) and Min \\& Rowe (1992). The model presented here is shown to accurately calculate the efficiency for all systems and all contact resistances considered, with an average difference in efficiency between the numerical model and the analytical model of $-0.07\\pm0.35$ pp. This makes the model more accurate than previously published models. The maximum absolute difference in efficiency between the analytical model and the numerical model is 1.14 pp for all materials and all contact resistances considered.

  19. Strongly nonlinear oscillators analytical solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Cveticanin, Livija

    2014-01-01

    This book provides the presentation of the motion of pure nonlinear oscillatory systems and various solution procedures which give the approximate solutions of the strong nonlinear oscillator equations. The book presents the original author’s method for the analytical solution procedure of the pure nonlinear oscillator system. After an introduction, the physical explanation of the pure nonlinearity and of the pure nonlinear oscillator is given. The analytical solution for free and forced vibrations of the one-degree-of-freedom strong nonlinear system with constant and time variable parameter is considered. Special attention is given to the one and two mass oscillatory systems with two-degrees-of-freedom. The criteria for the deterministic chaos in ideal and non-ideal pure nonlinear oscillators are derived analytically. The method for suppressing chaos is developed. Important problems are discussed in didactic exercises. The book is self-consistent and suitable as a textbook for students and also for profess...

  20. Spatial Game Analytics and Visualization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drachen, Anders; Schubert, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    The recently emerged field of game analytics and the development and adaptation of business intelligence techniques to support game design and development has given data-driven techniques a direct role in game development. Given that all digital games contain some sort of spatial operation...... for a continuing development. This paper presents a review of current work on spatial and spatio-temporal game analytics across industry and research, describing and defining the key terminology, outlining current techniques and their application. We summarize the current problems and challenges in the field......, and present four key areas of spatial and spatio-temporal analytics: Spatial Outlier Detection, Spatial Clustering, Spatial Predictive Models, Spatial Pattern and Rule Mining. All key areas are well-established outside the context of games and hold the potential to reshape the research roadmap in game...