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Sample records for analytical chemistry inorganic

  1. Inorganic Analytical Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Rolf W.

    The book is a treatise on inorganic analytical reactions in aqueous solution. It covers about half of the elements in the periodic table, i.e. the most important ones : H, Li, B, C, N, O, Na, Mg, Al, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Br, Sr, Mo, Ag, Cd, Sn, Sb, I, Ba, W,...

  2. Integrating Bio-Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry into an Undergraduate Biochemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erasmus, Daniel J.; Brewer, Sharon E.; Cinel, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Undergraduate laboratories expose students to a wide variety of topics and techniques in a limited amount of time. This can be a challenge and lead to less exposure to concepts and activities in bio-inorganic chemistry and analytical chemistry that are closely-related to biochemistry. To address this, we incorporated a new iron determination by…

  3. APPLICATION OF INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY TO THE ANALYSIS OF INORGANIC NITRATES. PHASE 1. SPECTRA OF INORGANIC NITRATES IN ACETONE AND THE USE OF SUCH SPECTRA IN ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was made of the spectra of soluble inorganic nitrates in acetone solution and the use of such spectra in analytical chemistry . The spectra of...solubilities of anhydrous inorganic nitrates in acetone. The applications of the spectra of inorganic nitrates in acetone to analytical chemistry is

  4. Integrating bio-inorganic and analytical chemistry into an undergraduate biochemistry laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erasmus, Daniel J; Brewer, Sharon E; Cinel, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Undergraduate laboratories expose students to a wide variety of topics and techniques in a limited amount of time. This can be a challenge and lead to less exposure to concepts and activities in bio-inorganic chemistry and analytical chemistry that are closely-related to biochemistry. To address this, we incorporated a new iron determination by atomic absorption spectroscopy exercise as part of a five-week long laboratory-based project on the purification of myoglobin from beef. Students were required to prepare samples for chemical analysis, operate an atomic absorption spectrophotometer, critically evaluate their iron data, and integrate these data into a study of myoglobin.

  5. Science Update: Inorganic Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawls, Rebecca

    1981-01-01

    Describes areas of inorganic chemistry which have changed dramatically in the past year or two, including photochemistry, electrochemistry, organometallic complexes, inorganic reaction theory, and solid state chemistry. (DS)

  6. Microfluidics in inorganic chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-Hassan, Ali; Sandre, Olivier; Cabuil, Valérie

    2010-08-23

    The application of microfluidics in chemistry has gained significant importance in the recent years. Miniaturized chemistry platforms provide controlled fluid transport, rapid chemical reactions, and cost-saving advantages over conventional reactors. The advantages of microfluidics have been clearly established in the field of analytical and bioanalytical sciences and in the field of organic synthesis. It is less true in the field of inorganic chemistry and materials science; however in inorganic chemistry it has mostly been used for the separation and selective extraction of metal ions. Microfluidics has been used in materials science mainly for the improvement of nanoparticle synthesis, namely metal, metal oxide, and semiconductor nanoparticles. Microfluidic devices can also be used for the formulation of more advanced and sophisticated inorganic materials or hybrids.

  7. Teaching Effectiveness of Integrating Task-based Approach into Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry Course

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tianjiao; WEI; Yiru; WANG; Sen; HUANG

    2013-01-01

    From the perspective of students,the effectiveness of task-based approach in In-organic and Analytical Chemistry course were summarized.The strength and weak points of TBA were analyzed,and the specific suggestions for obtaining better effect were put forward.The result showed a satisfactory achievement and unexpected result in showing the effectiveness of this teaching model.Not only could this TBA enhance student’s overall knowledge of discipline but also cultivate students’ multi-dimensional competence:competence in searching literatures, communication and management,autonomous,co-operative and reflective learning,and competence in analyzing and problem-solving,as well as improving their language expression ability,and skills in using multi-media and internet technology into their academic course learning and research.The implication of this research on the classroom teaching practice will shed light on the future teaching reform of other courses in China.

  8. Science Update: Inorganic Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawls, Rebecca

    1978-01-01

    This first in a series of articles describing the state of the art of various branches of chemistry reviews inorganic chemistry, including bioinorganic, photochemistry, organometallic, and solid state chemistries. (SL)

  9. Biosynthetic inorganic chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yi

    2006-08-25

    Inorganic chemistry and biology can benefit greatly from each other. Although synthetic and physical inorganic chemistry have been greatly successful in clarifying the role of metal ions in biological systems, the time may now be right to utilize biological systems to advance coordination chemistry. One such example is the use of small, stable, easy-to-make, and well-characterized proteins as ligands to synthesize novel inorganic compounds. This biosynthetic inorganic chemistry is possible thanks to a number of developments in biology. This review summarizes the progress in the synthesis of close models of complex metalloproteins, followed by a description of recent advances in using the approach for making novel compounds that are unprecedented in either inorganic chemistry or biology. The focus is mainly on synthetic "tricks" learned from biology, as well as novel structures and insights obtained. The advantages and disadvantages of this biosynthetic approach are discussed.

  10. 无机及分析化学课程教学改革的探究∗%Exploration on Reform of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张秀兰; 韩青霖; 黄萌; 潘亚楠

    2016-01-01

    针对无机及分析化学课程的性质,结合作者从事该课程教学的实践,提出了无机及分析化学课程教学改革的一些新举措:重视教学方式的过渡,激发学生学习的自主性;通过优化教学内容,适当采用多媒体教学,加强实验环节,提高教学质量和效率;在化学教学中渗透绿色化学理念,培养学生的综合素质;为高师《无机及分析化学》教学改革提供理论指导。%Combined with the practices in Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry teaching, new teaching methods were put forward, aimed at the feature of teaching reform in Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry course, including transition of teaching methods to arouse the students’ learning autonomy, optimizing teaching contents, properly using multimedia teaching, strengthening experiment teaching, improving the teaching quality and efficiency, permeating the idea of green chemistry through of the chemical teaching, cultivating the students’ comprehensive quality. It provided theoretical guidance for higher normal Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry teaching reform.

  11. Analytical Chemistry Laboratory (ACL) procedure compendium. Volume 3, Inorganic instrumental methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-01

    The methods cover: C in solutions, F (electrode), elements by atomic emission spectrometry, inorganic anions by ion chromatography, Hg in water/solids/sludges, As, Se, Bi, Pb, data calculations for SST (single shell tank?) samples, Sb, Tl, Ag, Pu, O/M ratio, ignition weight loss, pH value, ammonia (N), Cr(VI), alkalinity, U, C sepn. from soil/sediment/sludge, Pu purif., total N, water, C and S, surface Cl/F, leachable Cl/F, outgassing of Ge detector dewars, gas mixing, gas isotopic analysis, XRF of metals/alloys/compounds, H in Zircaloy, H/O in metals, inpurity extraction, reduced/total Fe in glass, free acid in U/Pu solns, density of solns, Kr/Xe isotopes in FFTF cover gas, H by combustion, MS of Li and Cs isotopes, MS of lanthanide isotopes, GC operation, total Na on filters, XRF spectroscopy QC, multichannel analyzer operation, total cyanide in water/solid/sludge, free cyanide in water/leachate, hydrazine conc., ICP-MS, {sup 99}Tc, U conc./isotopes, microprobe analysis of solids, gas analysis, total cyanide, H/N{sub 2}O in air, and pH in soil.

  12. 高职《无机及分析化学》课程改革初探%Study on Reformation of Inorganic and analytical chemistry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马喜峰

    2014-01-01

    As a key specialized course, the course teaching of Inorganic and analytical chemistry plays a significant role in profes-sional cultivation. This paper probes into the course reform of Inorganic and analytical chemistry from the perspectives of course o-rientation, course design, teaching organization, assessment and evaluation, which aims to further the reform in the teaching of Inorganic and analytical chemistry, improve the teaching quality and strengthen the learning effect.%作为一门重要的专业基础课,《无机及分析化学》的课程教学在专业培养中具有举足轻重的作用。从高职《无机及分析化学》课程定位、课程设计、教学组织、考核与评价几个方面对课程改革作了探讨,旨在深化我校《无机及分析化学》课程改革,提高教学质量,增强学习效果。

  13. Education of Green Chemistry in Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry Experiment%无机及分析化学实验中绿色化学教育的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周振; 周能

    2013-01-01

    According to the rules on inorganic and analytical chemistry experiment, research on the methods of green chemistry education in inorganic and analytical chemistry experiments. Let the students embrace the idea of green chemistry, and cultivate their green consciousness and environmental awareness.%根据无机及分析化学实验教学的特点,探讨在无机及分析化学实验中进行绿色化学教育的方法。让学生树立起绿色化学思想,培养学生的绿色化学意识、环保意识。

  14. Science Update: Analytical Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthy, Ward

    1980-01-01

    Briefly discusses new instrumentation in the field of analytical chemistry. Advances in liquid chromatography, photoacoustic spectroscopy, the use of lasers, and mass spectrometry are also discussed. (CS)

  15. 无机及分析化学课程教学浅谈%Briefly Talking about the Teaching of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry Course

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋林玲

    2011-01-01

    The inorganic and analytical chemistry is the basic curriculum for many freshmen. Many suggestions on teaching which include improving learning interests, innovating enthusiasm of students, training different kinds of abilities of students and .improving the teaching quality were carded out in this paper.%无机及分析化学是许多专业大一学生的基础课。本文从教学实践中总结和探讨了如何调动学生学习积极性。培养学生各种能力以及提高教学质量的一些看法。

  16. Discussion of Curriculum Reform on Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry Experiment%无机及分析化学实验课程教改初探∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玉新; 贾明翰

    2016-01-01

    《无机及分析化学》作为高职化学类专业的一门基础必修课程,对该专业人才的培养起着至关重要的作用。本文围绕该课程的特点,从优化实验内容、激发学生的学习兴趣、加强环保教育、规范实验操作等几个方面出发,对无机及分析化学的实验课程进行了一些有益的探究和尝试。以激发学生的学习兴趣,培养他们严谨的科学态度,使他们学会运用所学的分析方法去解决生活中的实际问题。%The course of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry is a basic compulsory course in higher vocational chemistry specialty. It plays an important role in the cultivation of the talents. Curriculum reform and discussion on Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry experiment were explored and attempted to made the experimental content optimizing, to stimulate students being interest in learning, to strengthen environmental protection education, and to standardize the experimental operation. So the students would be interested in learning, and learn to use the analytical method to solve practical problems in life.

  17. Enzymes in Analytical Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, Myer M.

    1980-01-01

    Presents tabular information concerning recent research in the field of enzymes in analytic chemistry, with methods, substrate or reaction catalyzed, assay, comments and references listed. The table refers to 128 references. Also listed are 13 general citations. (CS)

  18. Problems in structural inorganic chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Wai-Kee; Mak, Thomas Chung Wai; Mak, Kendrew Kin Wah

    2013-01-01

    This book consists of over 300 problems (and their solutions) in structural inorganic chemistry at the senior undergraduate and beginning graduate level. The topics covered comprise Atomic and Molecular Electronic States, Atomic Orbitals, Hybrid Orbitals, Molecular Symmetry, Molecular Geometry and Bonding, Crystal Field Theory, Molecular Orbital Theory, Vibrational Spectroscopy, and Crystal Structure. The central theme running through these topics is symmetry, molecular or crystalline. The problems collected in this volume originate in examination papers and take-home assignments that have been part of the teaching of the book's two senior authors' at The Chinese University of Hong Kong over the past four decades. The authors' courses include Chemical Bonding, Elementary Quantum Chemistry, Advanced Inorganic Chemistry, X-Ray Crystallography, etc. The problems have been tested by generations of students taking these courses.

  19. Analytical Chemistry in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolotov, Yuri

    2016-09-06

    Research in Russian analytical chemistry (AC) is carried out on a significant scale, and the analytical service solves practical tasks of geological survey, environmental protection, medicine, industry, agriculture, etc. The education system trains highly skilled professionals in AC. The development and especially manufacturing of analytical instruments should be improved; in spite of this, there are several good domestic instruments and other satisfy some requirements. Russian AC has rather good historical roots.

  20. Quo vadis, analytical chemistry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valcárcel, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an open, personal, fresh approach to the future of Analytical Chemistry in the context of the deep changes Science and Technology are anticipated to experience. Its main aim is to challenge young analytical chemists because the future of our scientific discipline is in their hands. A description of not completely accurate overall conceptions of our discipline, both past and present, to be avoided is followed by a flexible, integral definition of Analytical Chemistry and its cornerstones (viz., aims and objectives, quality trade-offs, the third basic analytical reference, the information hierarchy, social responsibility, independent research, transfer of knowledge and technology, interfaces to other scientific-technical disciplines, and well-oriented education). Obsolete paradigms, and more accurate general and specific that can be expected to provide the framework for our discipline in the coming years are described. Finally, the three possible responses of analytical chemists to the proposed changes in our discipline are discussed.

  1. Exploration Green Chemistry in Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry Experiment%绿色化学在无机及分析化学实验教学中的探索

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申丽华

    2016-01-01

    The concept of green chemistry should be established through pay attention to green chemistry experiment. Realization of green of inorganic and analytical chemistry experiments adopt the following measures: green chemical reagent should be selected, the mini-type devices of experimental should be found, reasonable arrangement of experiment and cycle experiment should be promoted and treating and recycling of the experimental waste experimental should be implemented.%通过重视绿色化学教学实验培养学生绿色化学理念,采取选择绿色化学试剂,实验装置的微型化,合理安排实验和提倡组合循环实验,重视实验废弃物的回收利用的途径实现无机及分析化学实验的绿色化。

  2. Analytical Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Mark

    2013-01-01

    The Analytical Chemistry and Material Development Group maintains a capability in chemical analysis, materials R&D failure analysis and contamination control. The uniquely qualified staff and facility support the needs of flight projects, science instrument development and various technical tasks, as well as Cal Tech.

  3. Plasma chemistry for inorganic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, O.

    1980-01-01

    Practical application of plasma chemistry to the development of inorganic materials using both low temperature and warm plasmas are summarized. Topics cover: the surface nitrification and oxidation of metals; chemical vapor deposition; formation of minute oxide particles; the composition of oxides from chloride vapor; the composition of carbides and nitrides; freezing high temperature phases by plasma arc welding and plasma jet; use of plasma in the development of a substitute for petroleum; the production of silicon for use in solar cell batteries; and insulating the inner surface of nuclear fusion reactor walls.

  4. Supramolecular analytical chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anslyn, Eric V

    2007-02-02

    A large fraction of the field of supramolecular chemistry has focused in previous decades upon the study and use of synthetic receptors as a means of mimicking natural receptors. Recently, the demand for synthetic receptors is rapidly increasing within the analytical sciences. These classes of receptors are finding uses in simple indicator chemistry, cellular imaging, and enantiomeric excess analysis, while also being involved in various truly practical assays of bodily fluids. Moreover, one of the most promising areas for the use of synthetic receptors is in the arena of differential sensing. Although many synthetic receptors have been shown to yield exquisite selectivities, in general, this class of receptor suffers from cross-reactivities. Yet, cross-reactivity is an attribute that is crucial to the success of differential sensing schemes. Therefore, both selective and nonselective synthetic receptors are finding uses in analytical applications. Hence, a field of chemistry that herein is entitled "Supramolecular Analytical Chemistry" is emerging, and is predicted to undergo increasingly rapid growth in the near future.

  5. Nuclear analytical chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brune, D.; Forkman, B.; Persson, B.

    1984-01-01

    This book covers the general theories and techniques of nuclear chemical analysis, directed at applications in analytical chemistry, nuclear medicine, radiophysics, agriculture, environmental sciences, geological exploration, industrial process control, etc. The main principles of nuclear physics and nuclear detection on which the analysis is based are briefly outlined. An attempt is made to emphasise the fundamentals of activation analysis, detection and activation methods, as well as their applications. The book provides guidance in analytical chemistry, agriculture, environmental and biomedical sciences, etc. The contents include: the nuclear periodic system; nuclear decay; nuclear reactions; nuclear radiation sources; interaction of radiation with matter; principles of radiation detectors; nuclear electronics; statistical methods and spectral analysis; methods of radiation detection; neutron activation analysis; charged particle activation analysis; photon activation analysis; sample preparation and chemical separation; nuclear chemical analysis in biological and medical research; the use of nuclear chemical analysis in the field of criminology; nuclear chemical analysis in environmental sciences, geology and mineral exploration; and radiation protection.

  6. Division of Analytical Chemistry, 1998

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Elo Harald

    1999-01-01

    The article recounts the 1998 activities of the Division of Analytical Chemistry (DAC- formerly the Working Party on Analytical Chemistry, WPAC), which body is a division of the Federation of European Chemical Societies (FECS). Elo Harald Hansen is the Danish delegate, representing The Danish...... Chemical Society/The Society for Analytical Chemistry....

  7. Advances in analytical chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arendale, W. F.; Congo, Richard T.; Nielsen, Bruce J.

    1991-01-01

    Implementation of computer programs based on multivariate statistical algorithms makes possible obtaining reliable information from long data vectors that contain large amounts of extraneous information, for example, noise and/or analytes that we do not wish to control. Three examples are described. Each of these applications requires the use of techniques characteristic of modern analytical chemistry. The first example, using a quantitative or analytical model, describes the determination of the acid dissociation constant for 2,2'-pyridyl thiophene using archived data. The second example describes an investigation to determine the active biocidal species of iodine in aqueous solutions. The third example is taken from a research program directed toward advanced fiber-optic chemical sensors. The second and third examples require heuristic or empirical models.

  8. Analytical chemistry in space

    CERN Document Server

    Wainerdi, Richard E

    1970-01-01

    Analytical Chemistry in Space presents an analysis of the chemical constitution of space, particularly the particles in the solar wind, of the planetary atmospheres, and the surfaces of the moon and planets. Topics range from space engineering considerations to solar system atmospheres and recovered extraterrestrial materials. Mass spectroscopy in space exploration is also discussed, along with lunar and planetary surface analysis using neutron inelastic scattering. This book is comprised of seven chapters and opens with a discussion on the possibilities for exploration of the solar system by

  9. Process Analytical Chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veltkamp, David J.(VISITORS); Doherty, Steve D.(BCO); Anderson, B B.(VISITORS); Koch, Mel (University of Washington); Bond, Leonard J.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Burgess, Lloyd W.(VISITORS); Ullman, Alan H.(UNKNOWN); Bamberger, Judith A.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Greenwood, Margaret S.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB))

    1999-06-15

    This review of process analytical chemistry is an update to the previous review on this subject published in 1995(A2). The time period covered for this review includes publications written or published from late 1994 until early 1999, with the addition of a few classic references pointing to background information critical to an understanding of a specific topic area. These older references have been critically included as established fundamental works. New topics covered in this review not previously treated as separate subjects in past reviews include sampling systems, imaging (via optical spectroscopy), and ultrasonic analysis.

  10. 制药工程专业无机及分析化学教学探析%Teaching experiences of inorganic and analytical chemistry of pharmaceutical engineering major

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄运瑞

    2012-01-01

    无机及分析化学是制药工程专业学生必须掌握的一门重要专业基础课.提高无机及分析化学教学效果应合理组织安排教材内容、激发学生的学习积极性和在教学中对学生进行环保教育等.%Inorganic and analytical chemistry is an important basic subject for students of pharmaceutical engineering major. Several methods of improving teaching effect of inorganic and analytical chemistry were introduced in this paper, including reasonable arrange teaching material contents, the students interest in learning would be stimulated and for environmental protection education in teaching.

  11. [Photonic crystals for analytical chemistry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi; Li, Jincheng

    2009-09-01

    Photonic crystals, originally created to control the transmission of light, have found their increasing value in the field of analytical chemistry and are probable to become a hot research area soon. This review is hence composed, focusing on their analytical chemistry-oriented applications, including especially their use in chromatography, capillary- and chip-based electrophoresis.

  12. Teaching Chemistry in the New Century: Inorganic Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorhout, Peter K.

    2001-09-01

    At the San Diego ACS meeting, members of the academic community came together to share their visions for teaching inorganic chemistry. They discussed new laboratory experiences, virtual textbooks, integration of computers in the laboratory, undergraduate research experiences, and new ways of classifying reactions to enable students to recognize and categorize reaction types. It was clear from the presentations that, while the toolbox of the inorganic chemist is not now as sophisticated as the organic chemist's, that toolbox must evolve (and is evolving) if we are to understand just a fraction of the unique chemistry that is inorganic.

  13. Clustering in analytical chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drab, Klaudia; Daszykowski, Michal

    2014-01-01

    Data clustering plays an important role in the exploratory analysis of analytical data, and the use of clustering methods has been acknowledged in different fields of science. In this paper, principles of data clustering are presented with a direct focus on clustering of analytical data. The role of the clustering process in the analytical workflow is underlined, and its potential impact on the analytical workflow is emphasized.

  14. Microwave chemistry for inorganic nanomaterials synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilecka, Idalia; Niederberger, Markus

    2010-08-01

    This Feature Article gives an overview of microwave-assisted liquid phase routes to inorganic nanomaterials. Whereas microwave chemistry is a well-established technique in organic synthesis, its use in inorganic nanomaterials' synthesis is still at the beginning and far away from having reached its full potential. However, the rapidly growing number of publications in this field suggests that microwave chemistry will play an outstanding role in the broad field of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology. This article is not meant to give an exhaustive overview of all nanomaterials synthesized by the microwave technique, but to discuss the new opportunities that arise as a result of the unique features of microwave chemistry. Principles, advantages and limitations of microwave chemistry are introduced, its application in the synthesis of different classes of functional nanomaterials is discussed, and finally expected benefits for nanomaterials' synthesis are elaborated.

  15. Research in Inorganic Fluorine Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-05-28

    Constants/ Pergamon, Oxford, 1977. 11 W. A. Sheppard and C. M. Sharts, ’Organic Fluorine Chemistry,’ W. A. Benjamin, New York, 1969. 12 M. Hudlicky...Wilson, W. W., Inorg. Chem., (1988) 27, 3763. 24. Grison, E., Eriks , K., and De Vries, J. L., Acta Crystallogr., (1950), 3, 290. 25. Wilson, W. W. and

  16. Striking a Balance: Experiment and Concept in Undergraduate Inorganic Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, John E.

    1990-01-01

    Described is an inorganic chemistry course based on the premise that a balanced understanding of inorganic chemistry requires knowledge of the experimental, theoretical, and technological aspects of the subject. A detailed description of lectures and laboratories is included. (KR)

  17. Applications of Inorganic Chemistry in Biology: An Interdisciplinary Graduate Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Nicholas; Ross, Paul; Roat, Rosette M.

    1998-06-01

    Inorganic chemistry faculty at Virginia Commonwealth University (VCU) are offering an advanced, interdisciplinary, graduate course entitled "Applications of Inorganic Chemistry in Biology". The course utilizes examples from bioinorganic chemistry to introduce advanced topics in synthesis, structural analysis, and analytical methods that are practiced by inorganic chemists. Emphasis is placed on the structure and function of trace and ultratrace transition metals in biological systems and on the use of metals for medicinal purposes. Instrumental techniques such as electron paramagnetic resonance, Mössbauer spectroscopy, and X-ray crystallography are explained in the detail necessary to familiarize students with their use for analysis of bioinorganic systems and their models. Students have take-home examinations during the term and write a term paper describing a metalloprotein whose X-ray structure data is listed in Brookhaven protein data base. The paper follows the same course pattern of classroom discussion of a bioinorganic system, concentrating on the coordination geometry and nearest neighbor contacts of the metal-binding site in the protein, substrate binding site, and relevance to the metalloprotein or enzyme function, mechanism of action of the enzyme or protein, spectroscopic studies on the metal-binding site, and model studies for the protein's metal-binding site. The instructors conclude that their basic goals for the course - introduction to advanced inorganic chemistry topics using bioinorganic examples with emphasis on primary literature sources and computer-assisted displays - are being accomplished.

  18. Foundation Coursework in Undergraduate Inorganic Chemistry: Results from a National Survey of Inorganic Chemistry Faculty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raker, Jeffrey R.; Reisner, Barbara A.; Smith, Sheila R.; Stewart, Joanne L.; Crane, Johanna L.; Pesterfield, Les; Sobel, Sabrina G.

    2015-01-01

    A national survey of inorganic chemists explored the self-reported topics covered in foundation-level courses in inorganic chemistry at the postsecondary level; the American Chemical Society's Committee on Professional Training defines a foundation course as one at the conclusion of which, "a student should have mastered the vocabulary,…

  19. Making Decisions by Analytical Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov

    , forensics and other fields of science where analytical chemistry is the key instrument of decision making. In order to elucidate the potential origin of the statistical variations found among laboratories, a major program was undertaken including several analytical technologies where the purpose......It has been long recognized that results of analytical chemistry are not flawless, owing to the fact that professional laboratories and research laboratories analysing the same type of samples by the same type of instruments are likely to obtain significantly different results. The European....... These discrepancies are very unfortunate because erroneous conclusions may arise from an otherwise meticulous and dedicated effort of research staff. This may eventually lead to unreliable conclusions thus jeopardizing investigations of environmental monitoring, climate changes, food safety, clinical chemistry...

  20. Analytical Chemistry Division annual progress report: For period ending December 31, 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-05-01

    This report is divided into analytical spectroscopy; radioactive materials analysis; inorganic chemistry; organic chemistry; ORNL environmental programs; quality assurance, safety, and training; supplementary activities; and presentation of research results.

  1. Laser ablation in analytical chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Richard E; Mao, Xianglei; Gonzalez, Jhanis J; Zorba, Vassilia; Yoo, Jong

    2013-07-02

    In 2002, we wrote an Analytical Chemistry feature article describing the Physics of Laser Ablation in Microchemical Analysis. In line with the theme of the 2002 article, this manuscript discusses current issues in fundamental research, applications based on detecting photons at the ablation site (LIBS and LAMIS) and by collecting particles for excitation in a secondary source (ICP), and directions for the technology.

  2. The isfet in analytical chemistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoot, van der B.H.; Bergveld, P.; Bousse, L.J.

    1982-01-01

    The fast chemical response of the pH-ISFET makes the device an excellent detector in analytical chemistry. The time response of ISFETs, with Al2O3 at the pH-sensitive gate insulator, is determined in a flow injection analysis system. Application of an ISFET and a glass electrode are compared in rapi

  3. Microcomputer Applications in Analytical Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Joseph W.

    The first part of this paper addresses the following topics: (1) the usefulness of microcomputers; (2) applications for microcomputers in analytical chemistry; (3) costs; (4) major microcomputer systems and subsystems; and (5) which microcomputer to buy. Following these brief comments, the major focus of the paper is devoted to a discussion of…

  4. Nuclear techniques in analytical chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Moses, Alfred J; Gordon, L

    1964-01-01

    Nuclear Techniques in Analytical Chemistry discusses highly sensitive nuclear techniques that determine the micro- and macro-amounts or trace elements of materials. With the increasingly frequent demand for the chemical determination of trace amounts of elements in materials, the analytical chemist had to search for more sensitive methods of analysis. This book accustoms analytical chemists with nuclear techniques that possess the desired sensitivity and applicability at trace levels. The topics covered include safe handling of radioactivity; measurement of natural radioactivity; and neutron a

  5. Welcome to Inorganics: A New Open Access, Inclusive Forum for Inorganic Chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duncan H. Gregory

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the beauties of inorganic chemistry is its sheer diversity. Just as chemistry sits at the centre of the sciences, inorganic chemistry sits at the centre of chemistry itself. Inorganic chemists are fortunate in having the entire periodic table at their disposal, providing a palette for the creation of a multitude of rich and diverse compounds and materials from the simplest salts to the most complex of molecular species. It follows that the language of inorganic chemistry can thus be a demanding one, accommodating sub-disciplines with very different perspectives and frames of reference. One could argue that it is the unequivocal breadth of inorganic chemistry that empowers inorganic chemists to work at the interfaces, not just between the traditional Inorganic-Organic-Physical boundaries of the discipline, but in the regions where chemistry borders the other physical and life sciences, engineering and socio-economics. [...

  6. Exploration of Reform on Teaching Contents in Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry Experiment%无机及分析化学实验教学内容改革的探索

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宏胜; 陈新华; 许志红; 王磊; 张万强

    2011-01-01

    Chemical experiment was one of the important contents in chemistry teaching.Inorganic chemistry experiment and analytical chemistry experiment were reformed on the teaching outline of the specialty of food science and engineering.The experimental contents were reasonably setted,which can arouse the students' learning interest,improve the experimental teaching effect and the experimental operating ability of students effectively.%化学实验是化学课程教学的重要内容之一。根据我校食品科学与工程专业教学大纲的要求,进行了无机化学实验和分析化学实验课程整合。通过合理安排实验内容,能够激发学生的学习兴趣,有效提高实验教学效果和学生的实验操作技能。

  7. Guidance on students’ quick transformation of thought pattern in the experiment teaching of inorganic and analytical chemistry%无机-分析化学实验教学中引导学生思维方式快速转换研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝扶影; 徐华杰; 刘昭第; 姚向东; 孙林

    2014-01-01

    On the basis of the experiment teaching status and experience of inorganic and analytical chemistry in our depart-ment, this article discussed how to perfect the unity of theoretical teaching and experimental teaching and how to strengthen curricu-lum model of the integration of inorganic chemistry experiment and analytical chemistry experiment. In the teaching of inorganic chemistry experiment, with the cooperation of the multimedia technology, we lay emphasis on cultivating students’ concept of“quantity” and integrate the qualitative and the quantitative methods to realize the seamless connection of inorganic chemistry and analytical chemistry experiment. In this way, we can quickly guide the students to transform their thought pattern from inorganic chemistry to analytical chemistry.%结合本院的无机及分析化学实验教学状况及实践经验,阐述如何完善理论教学与实验教学的统一,强化将无机化学和分析化学实验融为一体的课程设置模式。在无机化学实验的教学中,结合多媒体技术,注重培养学生“量”的概念,融合定性与定量,实现无机与分析的无缝衔接,快速引导学生从无机到分析思维方式的转换。

  8. Analytical Chemistry as an Information Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-06-01

    AD-AIOS 433 WASHINGTON UNIV SEATTLE LAB OR CHEMOMETRICS /7/ ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY AS AN INFORMATION SCIENCE Ul NAb7/ .JUN 81 B A KO WALSKI NUUUIA 75C...AN INFORMATION SCIENCE by B. R. Kowalski Prepared for Publication in Trends in Analytical Chemistry University of Washington Department of Chemistry...S. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED Technical Report - Interim ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY AS AN INFORMATION SCIENCE , 2/1981 - 6/1981 6. PERFORMING ORG

  9. QM/MM methods in inorganic chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bo, Carles; Maseras, Feliu

    2008-06-14

    Quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) methods are a useful tool for the computational study of inorganic systems. They allow a quantitative description of systems larger than those treatable with pure QM methods, in principle with a comparable quality. QM/MM calculations are being currently applied to the research in a variety of topics, including structural effects of ligand bulk, selectivity in homogeneous catalysis and mechanical embedding in heterogeneous catalysis. The QM/MM approach is also useful for the separation of steric and electronic contributions, and as an auxiliary tool for geometry optimization when full QM methods are mandatory. The power of QM/MM methods in inorganic chemistry is illustrated in this Perspective with a summary of recent representative applications.

  10. Modern Analytical Chemistry in the Contemporary World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šíma, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Students not familiar with chemistry tend to misinterpret analytical chemistry as some kind of the sorcery where analytical chemists working as modern wizards handle magical black boxes able to provide fascinating results. However, this approach is evidently improper and misleading. Therefore, the position of modern analytical chemistry among…

  11. Degradation of Environmental Contaminants with Water-Soluble Cobalt Catalysts: An Integrative Inorganic Chemistry Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Alexandra L.; Messersmith, Reid E.; Green, David B.; Fritsch, Joseph M.

    2011-01-01

    We present an integrative laboratory investigation incorporating skills from inorganic chemistry, analytical instrumentation, and physical chemistry applied to a laboratory-scale model of the environmental problem of chlorinated ethylenes in groundwater. Perchloroethylene (C[subscript 2]Cl[subscript 4], PCE) a common dry cleaning solvent,…

  12. Part 6: The Literature of Inorganic Chemistry, Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douville, Judith A.

    2002-01-01

    Presents a list of resources on inorganic chemistry that includes general surveys, nomenclature, dictionaries, handbooks, compilations, and treatises. Selected for use by academic and student chemists. (DDR)

  13. Applications of Raman Spectroscopy to Inorganic Chemistry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RobinJHClarkFRS

    1995-01-01

    The renaissance in Raman spectroscopy some 25-30 years ago had particular and immediate impact on Inorganic Chemistry,viz in areas such as the study of deeply coloued compounds,structural changes on change of state,equilibria,vapour phase band contour analysis,Raman band intensities and the nature of the chemical bond,metal-metal bonding,species in melts,identification of species in solution and of radicals by time-resolved techniques,in bioinorganic chemistry,and of linear-chain semiconductors.More recently,much attention has been directed at the quantitative level at the evaluation of geometric changes in molecules on excitation by resonance Raman spectroscopy.At the qualitative level Raman microscopy is now recognised to be the most effective technique for the identification of pigments-particularly the inorganic ones-on medieval manuscripts and especially of the components(down to grain sizes of -1 um)of pigment mixtures,It is thus a very important technique at the Arts/Science borderling in conservation science.

  14. Green analytical chemistry--theory and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobiszewski, Marek; Mechlińska, Agata; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2010-08-01

    This tutorial review summarises the current state of green analytical chemistry with special emphasis on environmentally friendly sample preparation techniques. Green analytical chemistry is a part of the sustainable development concept; its history and origins are described. Miniaturisation of analytical devices and shortening the time elapsing between performing analysis and obtaining reliable analytical results are important aspects of green analytical chemistry. Solventless extraction techniques, the application of alternative solvents and assisted extractions are considered to be the main approaches complying with green analytical chemistry principles.

  15. Ionic liquids in analytical chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soukup-Hein, Renee J; Warnke, Molly M; Armstrong, Daniel W

    2009-01-01

    The role of ionic liquids (ILs) in analytical chemistry is increasing substantially every year. A decade ago there were but a handful of papers in this area of research that were considered curiosities at best. Today, those publications are recognized as seminal articles that gave rise to one of the most rapidly expanding areas of research in chemical analysis. In this review, we briefly highlight early work involving ILs and discuss the most recent advances in separations, mass spectrometry, spectroscopy, and electroanalytical chemistry. Many of the most important advances in these fields depend on the development of new, often unique ILs and multifunctional ILs. A better understanding of the chemical and physical properties of ILs is also essential.

  16. Discussion on Lean Concepts in Inorganic and Analytic Chemistry Experiment Teaching%浅析精益思想在无机及分析化学实验教学中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    覃利琴; 陈渊; 王荣芳; 陶萍芳

    2016-01-01

    According to the wastefulness action of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry courses and modernism Lean Management theory, it was advance advised that the waste time was decreased via optimizing the course contents and renewing teaching methods, the waste materiel was decreased via adjusting experimental project, using micro-scale experiment and new technique, the economic benefits were increased by popularizing green chemistry and debasing pollution costs, the safety and efficiency were insured by criterion experiment operation, the Lean Management atmosphere were consolidated by cultivating good consciousness and attainments, which enhanced the effect of experiment teaching.%从无机及分析化学实验教学中存在的浪费现象入手,导入现代精益管理理念,提出通过优化课程内容及更新教学方法来减少时间浪费;通过调整项目及使用新技术来减少物料浪费;通过推广绿色化学来提升经济效益;通过规范实验操作来确保安全高效;通过培养良好意识来巩固精益氛围,实现可持续教学。

  17. Significant steps in the evolution of analytical chemistry--is the today's analytical chemistry only chemistry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karayannis, Miltiades I; Efstathiou, Constantinos E

    2012-12-15

    In this review the history of chemistry and specifically the history and the significant steps of the evolution of analytical chemistry are presented. In chronological time spans, covering the ancient world, the middle ages, the period of the 19th century, and the three evolutional periods, from the verge of the 19th century to contemporary times, it is given information for the progress of chemistry and analytical chemistry. During this period, analytical chemistry moved gradually from its pure empirical nature to more rational scientific activities, transforming itself to an autonomous branch of chemistry and a separate discipline. It is also shown that analytical chemistry moved gradually from the status of exclusive serving the chemical science, towards serving, the environment, health, law, almost all areas of science and technology, and the overall society. Some recommendations are also directed to analytical chemistry educators concerning the indispensable nature of knowledge of classical analytical chemistry and the associated laboratory exercises and to analysts, in general, why it is important to use the chemical knowledge to make measurements on problems of everyday life.

  18. Practical approaches to biological inorganic chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Louro, Ricardo O

    2012-01-01

    The book reviews the use of spectroscopic and related methods to investigate the complex structures and mechanisms of biological inorganic systems that contain metals. Each chapter presents an overview of the technique including relevant theory, clearly explains what it is and how it works and then presents how the technique is actually used to evaluate biological structures. Practical examples and problems are included to illustrate each technique and to aid understanding. Designed for students and researchers who want to learn both the basics, and more advanced aspects of bioinorganic chemistry. It includes many colour illustrations enable easier visualization of molecular mechanisms and structures. It provides worked examples and problems that are included to illustrate and test the reader's understanding of each technique. It is written by a multi-author team who use and teach the most important techniques used today to analyse complex biological structures.

  19. Descriptive Inorganic Chemistry (by Geoff Rayner-Canham)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinovich, Daniel

    1998-06-01

    Geoff Rayner-Canham. W. H. Freeman: New York, 1996. 492 pp. ISBN: 0-7167-2819-2. $67.95. There are plenty of good inorganic chemistry books on the market, from venerable reference works (e.g., Cotton and Wilkinson's Advanced Inorganic Chemistry, Greenwood and Earnshaw's Chemistry of the Elements) to "comprehensive" two-semester textbooks (e.g., Huheey, Keiter, and Keiter's Inorganic Chemistry: Principles of Structure and Reactivity, Douglas, McDaniel, and Alexander's Concepts and Models of Inorganic Chemistry). Undergraduate students, especially those new to inorganic chemistry, frequently find these books overwhelming in depth and length (not to mention weight!). Alternatively, some shorter books with less ambitious goals present an oversimplified view of the field or sacrifice conceptual material on behalf of sections on environmental, industrial, or biological chemistry. Rayner-Canham's Descriptive Inorganic Chemistry, a one-semester book aimed specifically at the introductory (sophomore) level, provides an excellent balance of theory and descriptive material, with a fresh look at traditional and current areas of interest in inorganic chemistry.

  20. Polyoxometalates: from inorganic chemistry to materials science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casañ-Pastor, Nieves; Gómez-Romero, Pedro

    2004-05-01

    Polyoxometalates have been traditionally the subject of study of molecular inorganic chemistry. Yet, these polynuclear molecules, reminiscent of oxide clusters, present a wide range of structures and with them ideal frameworks for the deployment of a plethora of useful magnetic, electroionic, catalytic, bioactive and photochemical properties. With this in mind, a new trend towards the application of these remarkable species in materials science is beginning to develop. In this review we analyze this trend and discuss two main lines of thought for the application of polyoxometalates as materials. On the one hand, there is their use as clusters with inherently useful properties on themselves, a line which has produced fundamental studies of their magnetic, electronic or photoelectrochemical properties and has shown these clusters as models for quantum-sized oxides. On the other hand, the encapsulation or integration of polyoxometalates into organic, polymeric or inorganic matrices or substrates opens a whole new field within the area of hybrid materials for harnessing the multifunctional properties of these versatile species in a wide variety of applications, ranging from catalysis to energy storage to biomedicine.

  1. Using Modern Solid-State Analytical Tools for Investigations of an Advanced Carbon Capture Material: Experiments for the Inorganic Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wriedt, Mario; Sculley, Julian P.; Aulakh, Darpandeep; Zhou, Hong-Cai

    2016-01-01

    A simple and straightforward synthesis of an ultrastable porous metal-organic framework (MOF) based on copper(II) and a mixed N donor ligand system is described as a laboratory experiment for chemistry undergraduate students. These experiments and the resulting analysis are designed to teach students basic research tools and procedures while…

  2. Analytical Chemistry in Microenvironments: Single Nerve Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-03-16

    AD-A251 491 * - OFFICE OF NAVAL RESEARCH GRANT or CONTRACT N00014-90-J-1161 R & T Code 4133030 Technical Report No. 012 Analytical Chemistry in...AGENCY USE ONLY (Leave oldnk) 2. REPORT DATE 1. R EP O R T T Y P E AND DATES COVERED 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE S. FUNDING NUMBERS Analytical Chemistry in...CLASSIFICATION 20. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT OF REPORT OF THIS PAGE OF ABSTRACT unclassified unclassified unclassified ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY IN

  3. Teaching social responsibility in analytical chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valcárcel, M; Christian, G D; Lucena, R

    2013-07-02

    Analytical chemistry is key to the functioning of a modern society. From early days, ethics in measurements have been a concern and that remains today, especially as we have come to rely more on the application of analytical science in many aspects of our lives. The main aim of this Feature is to suggest ways of introducing the topic of social responsibility and its relation to analytical chemistry in undergraduate or graduate chemistry courses.

  4. The biological inorganic chemistry of zinc ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krężel, Artur; Maret, Wolfgang

    2016-12-01

    The solution and complexation chemistry of zinc ions is the basis for zinc biology. In living organisms, zinc is redox-inert and has only one valence state: Zn(II). Its coordination environment in proteins is limited by oxygen, nitrogen, and sulfur donors from the side chains of a few amino acids. In an estimated 10% of all human proteins, zinc has a catalytic or structural function and remains bound during the lifetime of the protein. However, in other proteins zinc ions bind reversibly with dissociation and association rates commensurate with the requirements in regulation, transport, transfer, sensing, signalling, and storage. In contrast to the extensive knowledge about zinc proteins, the coordination chemistry of the "mobile" zinc ions in these processes, i.e. when not bound to proteins, is virtually unexplored and the mechanisms of ligand exchange are poorly understood. Knowledge of the biological inorganic chemistry of zinc ions is essential for understanding its cellular biology and for designing complexes that deliver zinc to proteins and chelating agents that remove zinc from proteins, for detecting zinc ion species by qualitative and quantitative analysis, and for proper planning and execution of experiments involving zinc ions and nanoparticles such as zinc oxide (ZnO). In most investigations, reference is made to zinc or Zn(2+) without full appreciation of how biological zinc ions are buffered and how the d-block cation Zn(2+) differs from s-block cations such as Ca(2+) with regard to significantly higher affinity for ligands, preference for the donor atoms of ligands, and coordination dynamics. Zinc needs to be tightly controlled. The interaction with low molecular weight ligands such as water and inorganic and organic anions is highly relevant to its biology but in contrast to its coordination in proteins has not been discussed in the biochemical literature. From the discussion in this article, it is becoming evident that zinc ion speciation is

  5. Holleman-Wiberg's Inorganic Chemistry edited by Nils Wiberg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, William B.

    2002-08-01

    Despite these reservations, I strongly recommend this book. I found interesting and useful information on every topic I looked up. It is a model of thoroughness and organization and a must reference book for every serious teacher, whether of freshman chemistry or advanced inorganic chemistry. It would also make a wonderful textbook, though its size would naturally limit its use to those schools which offer at least a full year's sequence in inorganic chemistry.

  6. Tuberculosis: An Inorganic Medicinal Chemistry Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viganor, Livia; Skerry, Ciaran; McCann, Malachy; Devereux, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) which is caused by the resilient pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) has re-emerged to become a leading public health problem in the world. The growing number of multi-drug resistant MTB strains and the more recently emerging problem with the extensively drug resistant strains of the pathogen are greatly undermining conventional anti-TB therapeutic strategies which are lengthy and expose patients to toxicity and other unwanted side effects. The search for new anti-TB drugs essentially involves either the repurposing of existing organic drugs which are now off patent and already FDA approved, the synthesis of modified analogues of existing organic drugs, with the aim of shortening and improving drug treatment for the disease, or the search for novel structures that offer the possibility of new mechanisms of action against the mycobacterium. Inorganic medicinal chemistry offers an alternative to organic drugs through opportunities for the design of therapeutics that target different biochemical pathways. The incorporation of metal ions into the molecular structure of a potential drug offers the medicinal chemist an opportunity to exploit structural diversity, have access to various oxidation states of the metal and also offer the possibility of enhancing the activity of an established organic drug through its coordination to the metal centre. In this review, we summarize what is currently known about the antitubercular capability of metal complexes, their mechanisms of action and speculate on their potential applications in the clinic.

  7. Exploration and Practice of the Constructivism Teaching Theory in Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry Teaching%建构主义教学理论在无机及分析化学教学中的探索与实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐小兰; 刘英菊

    2016-01-01

    在无机及分析化学的教学实践中,探讨了怎样结合无机及分析化学课程的特点运用建构主义教学理论。根据课程内容采取相应的教学模式,培养学生的自主学习能力,进一步提高教学质量,并促进创新人才的培养。%This article discusses about the application of constructivism teaching theory in inorganic and analytical chemistry teaching based on the characteristics of inorganic and analytical chemistry course. The teaching mode, independence of students and teaching quality are improved in this way.

  8. Surface Chemistry and Spectroscopy of Chromium in Inorganic Oxides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weckhuysen, B.M.; Wachs, I.E.; Schoonheydt, R.A.

    1996-01-01

    Focuses on the surface chemistry and spectroscopy of chromium in inorganic oxides. Characterization of the molecular structures of chromium; Mechanics of hydrogenation-dehydrogenation reactions; Mobility and reactivity on oxidic surfaces.

  9. Green Chemistry Metrics with Special Reference to Green Analytical Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobiszewski, Marek; Marć, Mariusz; Gałuszka, Agnieszka; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2015-06-12

    The concept of green chemistry is widely recognized in chemical laboratories. To properly measure an environmental impact of chemical processes, dedicated assessment tools are required. This paper summarizes the current state of knowledge in the field of development of green chemistry and green analytical chemistry metrics. The diverse methods used for evaluation of the greenness of organic synthesis, such as eco-footprint, E-Factor, EATOS, and Eco-Scale are described. Both the well-established and recently developed green analytical chemistry metrics, including NEMI labeling and analytical Eco-scale, are presented. Additionally, this paper focuses on the possibility of the use of multivariate statistics in evaluation of environmental impact of analytical procedures. All the above metrics are compared and discussed in terms of their advantages and disadvantages. The current needs and future perspectives in green chemistry metrics are also discussed.

  10. Green Chemistry Metrics with Special Reference to Green Analytical Chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Tobiszewski

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The concept of green chemistry is widely recognized in chemical laboratories. To properly measure an environmental impact of chemical processes, dedicated assessment tools are required. This paper summarizes the current state of knowledge in the field of development of green chemistry and green analytical chemistry metrics. The diverse methods used for evaluation of the greenness of organic synthesis, such as eco-footprint, E-Factor, EATOS, and Eco-Scale are described. Both the well-established and recently developed green analytical chemistry metrics, including NEMI labeling and analytical Eco-scale, are presented. Additionally, this paper focuses on the possibility of the use of multivariate statistics in evaluation of environmental impact of analytical procedures. All the above metrics are compared and discussed in terms of their advantages and disadvantages. The current needs and future perspectives in green chemistry metrics are also discussed.

  11. Computer information resources of inorganic chemistry and materials science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiselyova, N N; Dudarev, V A; Zemskov, V S [A.A.Baikov Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2010-02-28

    Information systems used in inorganic chemistry and materials science are considered. The following basic trends in the development of modern information systems in these areas are highlighted: access to information via the Internet, merging of documental and factual databases, involvement of experts in the evaluation of the data reliability, supplementing databases with information analysis tools on the properties of inorganic substances and materials.

  12. Quest for new materials: Inorganic chemistry plays a crucial role

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J Gopalakrishnan; Rohini Mani

    2009-05-01

    There is an endless quest for new materials to meet the demands of advancing technology. Thus, we need new magnetic and metallic/semiconducting materials for spintronics, new low-loss dielectrics for telecommunication, new multi-ferroic materials that combine both ferroelectricity and ferromagnetism for memory devices, new piezoelectrics that do not contain lead, new lithium containing solids for application as cathode/anode/electrolyte in lithium batteries, hydrogen storage materials for mobile/transport applications and catalyst materials that can convert, for example, methane to higher hydrocarbons, and the list is endless! Fortunately for us, chemistry - inorganic chemistry in particular - plays a crucial role in this quest. Most of the functional materials mentioned above are inorganic non-molecular solids, while much of the conventional inorganic chemistry deals with isolated molecules or molecular solids. Even so, the basic concepts that we learn in inorganic chemistry, for example, acidity/basicity, oxidation/reduction (potentials), crystal field theory, low spin-high spin/inner sphere-outer sphere complexes, role of -electrons in transition metal chemistry, electron-transfer reactions, coordination geometries around metal atoms, Jahn-Teller distortion, metal-metal bonds, cation-anion (metal-nonmetal) redox competition in the stabilization of oxidation states - all find crucial application in the design and synthesis of inorganic solids possessing technologically important properties. An attempt has been made here to illustrate the role of inorganic chemistry in this endeavour, drawing examples from the literature as well as from the research work of my group.

  13. Modern analytical chemistry in the contemporary world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šíma, Jan

    2016-12-01

    Students not familiar with chemistry tend to misinterpret analytical chemistry as some kind of the sorcery where analytical chemists working as modern wizards handle magical black boxes able to provide fascinating results. However, this approach is evidently improper and misleading. Therefore, the position of modern analytical chemistry among sciences and in the contemporary world is discussed. Its interdisciplinary character and the necessity of the collaboration between analytical chemists and other experts in order to effectively solve the actual problems of the human society and the environment are emphasized. The importance of the analytical method validation in order to obtain the accurate and precise results is highlighted. The invalid results are not only useless; they can often be even fatal (e.g., in clinical laboratories). The curriculum of analytical chemistry at schools and universities is discussed. It is referred to be much broader than traditional equilibrium chemistry coupled with a simple description of individual analytical methods. Actually, the schooling of analytical chemistry should closely connect theory and practice.

  14. Modern analytical chemistry in the contemporary world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šíma, Jan

    2016-02-01

    Students not familiar with chemistry tend to misinterpret analytical chemistry as some kind of the sorcery where analytical chemists working as modern wizards handle magical black boxes able to provide fascinating results. However, this approach is evidently improper and misleading. Therefore, the position of modern analytical chemistry among sciences and in the contemporary world is discussed. Its interdisciplinary character and the necessity of the collaboration between analytical chemists and other experts in order to effectively solve the actual problems of the human society and the environment are emphasized. The importance of the analytical method validation in order to obtain the accurate and precise results is highlighted. The invalid results are not only useless; they can often be even fatal (e.g., in clinical laboratories). The curriculum of analytical chemistry at schools and universities is discussed. It is referred to be much broader than traditional equilibrium chemistry coupled with a simple description of individual analytical methods. Actually, the schooling of analytical chemistry should closely connect theory and practice.

  15. In-Depth Coursework in Undergraduate Inorganic Chemistry: Results from a National Survey of Inorganic Chemistry Faculty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raker, Jeffrey R.; Reisner, Barbara A.; Smith, Sheila R.; Stewart, Joanne L.; Crane, Johanna L.; Pesterfield, Les; Sobel, Sabrina G.

    2015-01-01

    A national survey of inorganic chemists explored the self-reported topics covered in in-depth inorganic chemistry courses at the postsecondary level; an in-depth course is defined by the American Chemical Society's Committee on Professional Training as a course that integrates and covers topics that were introduced in introductory and foundation…

  16. On some problems of inorganic supramolecular chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pervov, Vladislav S; Zotova, Anna E

    2013-12-02

    In this study, some features that distinguish inorganic supramolecular host-guest objects from traditional architectures are considered. Crystalline inorganic supramolecular structures are the basis for the development of new functional materials. Here, the possible changes in the mechanism of crystalline inorganic supramolecular structure self-organization at high interaction potentials are discussed. The cases of changes in the host structures and corresponding changes in the charge states under guest intercalation, as well as their impact on phase stability and stoichiometry are considered. It was demonstrated that the deviation from the geometrical and topological complementarity conditions may be due to the additional energy gain from forming inorganic supramolecular structures. It has been assumed that molecular recognition principles can be employed for the development of physicochemical analysis and interpretation of metastable states in inorganic crystalline alloys.

  17. Report: Analytical Chemistry in a Changing World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laitinen, H. A.

    1980-01-01

    Examines some of the changes that have occurred in the field of analytic chemistry, with emphasis on how the field has adapted to changes in science and technology. Current trends also are identified and discussed. (CS)

  18. Green Chemistry Metrics with Special Reference to Green Analytical Chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Marek Tobiszewski; Mariusz Marć; Agnieszka Gałuszka; Jacek Namieśnik

    2015-01-01

    The concept of green chemistry is widely recognized in chemical laboratories. To properly measure an environmental impact of chemical processes, dedicated assessment tools are required. This paper summarizes the current state of knowledge in the field of development of green chemistry and green analytical chemistry metrics. The diverse methods used for evaluation of the greenness of organic synthesis, such as eco-footprint, E-Factor, EATOS, and Eco-Scale are described. Both the well-establis...

  19. Mathematical methods for physical and analytical chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Goodson, David Z

    2011-01-01

    Mathematical Methods for Physical and Analytical Chemistry presents mathematical and statistical methods to students of chemistry at the intermediate, post-calculus level. The content includes a review of general calculus; a review of numerical techniques often omitted from calculus courses, such as cubic splines and Newton's method; a detailed treatment of statistical methods for experimental data analysis; complex numbers; extrapolation; linear algebra; and differential equations. With numerous example problems and helpful anecdotes, this text gives chemistry students the mathematical

  20. Light-emitting diodes for analytical chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macka, Mirek; Piasecki, Tomasz; Dasgupta, Purnendu K

    2014-01-01

    Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are playing increasingly important roles in analytical chemistry, from the final analysis stage to photoreactors for analyte conversion to actual fabrication of and incorporation in microdevices for analytical use. The extremely fast turn-on/off rates of LEDs have made possible simple approaches to fluorescence lifetime measurement. Although they are increasingly being used as detectors, their wavelength selectivity as detectors has rarely been exploited. From their first proposed use for absorbance measurement in 1970, LEDs have been used in analytical chemistry in too many ways to make a comprehensive review possible. Hence, we critically review here the more recent literature on their use in optical detection and measurement systems. Cloudy as our crystal ball may be, we express our views on the future applications of LEDs in analytical chemistry: The horizon will certainly become wider as LEDs in the deep UV with sufficient intensity become available.

  1. Course on Advanced Analytical Chemistry and Chromatography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov; Fristrup, Peter; Nielsen, Kristian Fog

    2011-01-01

    Methods of analytical chemistry constitute an integral part of decision making in chemical research, and students must master a high degree of knowledge, in order to perform reliable analysis. At DTU departments of chemistry it was thus decided to develop a course that was attractive to master...... students of different direction of studies, to Ph.D. students and to professionals that need an update of their current state of skills and knowledge. A course of 10 ECTS points was devised with the purpose of introducing students to analytical chemistry and chromatography with the aim of including theory...

  2. Analytical Chemistry Division annual progress report for period ending December 31, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shults, W.D.

    1993-04-01

    This report is divided into: Analytical spectroscopy (optical spectroscopy, organic mass spectrometry, inorganic mass spectrometry, secondary ion mass spectrometry), inorganic and radiochemistry (transuranium and activation analysis, low-level radiochemical analysis, inorganic analysis, radioactive materials analysis, special projects), organic chemistry (organic spectroscopy, separations and synthesis, special projects, organic analysis, ORNL/UT research program), operations (quality assurance/quality control, environmental protection, safety, analytical improvement, training, radiation control), education programs, supplementary activities, and presentation of research results. Tables are included for articles reviewed or refereed for periodicals, analytical service work, division manpower and financial summary, and organization chart; a glossary is also included.

  3. 无机及分析化学课堂互动模式的研究与实践%Research and Practice on Interaction Pattern of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马奕春; 黄丽红; 卢秀莲

    2014-01-01

    Interaction between teachers and students is the foun-dation of the well-going of classroom teaching. To satisfy emo-tional needs of modern college students, and pursue better effects of classroom teaching, the change of teacher-student relationship, from the traditional"teaching and being-taught"to"leading and assisting", is needed. The process of classroom teaching needs the maintenance from both teachers and students. Teachers can lead well by enhancing the teaching ability, organizing teaching activities to cultivate students' sense of ownership,encouraging students to involve in the interaction of classroom teaching in or-der to play the"assisting"role. Based on the teaching practice of inorganic and analytical chemistry, this "leading and assisting"interaction pattern between teachers and students was discussed.%师生互动是维持课堂教学顺利进行的基础。为满足当今大学生的情感需求,追求更好的课堂教学效果,师生关系需要从传统的“教与被教”转变为“主导和辅助”的互动关系,课堂教学的进行需要师生双方的维护。教师需要提高自身教学水平来做好主导工作,并通过组织教学活动来培养起学生的主人翁意识,鼓励学生参与到课堂教学互动中,从而起到“辅助”作用。本文在无机及分析化学教学实践的基础上,对师生间的这种“主导和辅助”的互动模式进行了讨论。

  4. Inorganic Chemistry: A Prestigious History and a Bright Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yam, Vivian Wing-Wah

    2015-07-13

    "…︁Inorganic chemistry has evolved from fundamental studies to the forefronts of interdisciplinary research. What was considered to be impossible or elusive has now become feasible. While we still keep our identity as inorganic chemists, the sharp demarcation between the divisions of different subject disciplines or subdisciplines is no longer relevant …︁" Read more in the Editorial by Vivian W.-W. Yam.

  5. Dielectric barrier discharges in analytical chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, C; Müller, S; Gurevich, E L; Franzke, J

    2011-06-21

    The present review reflects the importance of dielectric barrier discharges in analytical chemistry. Special about this discharge is-and in contrast to usual discharges with direct current-that the plasma is separated from one or two electrodes by a dielectric barrier. This gives rise to two main features of the dielectric barrier discharges; it can serve as dissociation and excitation device and as ionization mechanism, respectively. The article portrays the various application fields for dielectric barrier discharges in analytical chemistry, for example the use for elemental detection with optical spectrometry or as ionization source for mass spectrometry. Besides the introduction of different kinds of dielectric barrier discharges used for analytical chemistry from the literature, a clear and concise classification of dielectric barrier discharges into capacitively coupled discharges is provided followed by an overview about the characteristics of a dielectric barrier discharge concerning discharge properties and the ignition mechanism.

  6. Analytical Chemistry and Measurement Science: (What Has DOE Done for Analytical Chemistry?)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shults, W. D.

    1989-04-01

    Over the past forty years, analytical scientists within the DOE complex have had a tremendous impact on the field of analytical chemistry. This paper suggests six "high impact" research/development areas that either originated within or were brought to maturity within the DOE laboratories. "High impact" means they lead to new subdisciplines or to new ways of doing business.

  7. Inorganic chemistry of defensive peroxidases in the human oral cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashby, M T

    2008-10-01

    The innate host response system is comprised of various mechanisms for orchestrating host response to microbial infection of the oral cavity. The heterogeneity of the oral cavity and the associated microenvironments that are produced give rise to different chemistries that affect the innate defense system. One focus of this review is on how these spatial differences influence the two major defensive peroxidases of the oral cavity, salivary peroxidase (SPO) and myeloperoxidase (MPO). With hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) as an oxidant, the defensive peroxidases use inorganic ions to produce antimicrobials that are generally more effective than H(2)O(2) itself. The concentrations of the inorganic substrates are different in saliva vs. gingival crevicular fluid (GCF). Thus, in the supragingival regime, SPO and MPO work in unison for the exclusive production of hypothiocyanite (OSCN(-), a reactive inorganic species), which constantly bathes nascent plaques. In contrast, MPO is introduced to the GCF during inflammatory response, and in that environment it is capable of producing hypochlorite (OCl(-)), a chemically more powerful oxidant that is implicated in host tissue damage. A second focus of this review is on inter-person variation that may contribute to different peroxidase function. Many of these differences are attributed to dietary or smoking practices that alter the concentrations of relevant inorganic species in the oral cavity (e.g.: fluoride, F(-); cyanide, CN(-); cyanate, OCN(-); thiocyanate, SCN(-); and nitrate, NO(3)(-)). Because of the complexity of the host and microflora biology and the associated chemistry, it is difficult to establish the significance of the human peroxidase systems during the pathogenesis of oral diseases. The problem is particularly complex with respect to the gingival sulcus and periodontal pockets (where the very different defensive stratagems of GCF and saliva co-mingle). Despite this complexity, intriguing in vitro and in vivo

  8. Improving Conceptions in Analytical Chemistry: The Central Limit Theorem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Lopez, Margarita; Carrasquillo, Arnaldo, Jr.

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the central limit theorem (CLT) and its relation to analytical chemistry. The pedagogic rational, which argues for teaching the CLT in the analytical chemistry classroom, is discussed. Some analytical chemistry concepts that could be improved through an understanding of the CLT are also described. (Contains 2 figures.)

  9. 2010 INORGANIC CHEMISTRY GORDON RESEARCH CONFERENCE JUNE 20 - 25, 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JOHN LOCKEMEYER

    2010-06-25

    The Inorganic Chemistry GRC is one of the longest-standing of the GRCs, originating in 1951. Over the years, this conference has played a role in spawning many other GRCs in specialized fields, due to the involvement of elements from most of the periodic table. These include coordination, organometallic, main group, f-element, and solid state chemistries; materials science, catalysis, computational chemistry, nanotechnology, bioinorganic, environmental, and biomedical sciences just to name a few. The 2010 Inorganic Chemistry GRC will continue this tradition, where scientists at all levels from academic, industrial, and national laboratories meet to define the important problems in the field and to highlight emerging opportunities through exchange of ideas and discussion of unpublished results. Invited speakers will present on a wide variety of topics, giving attendees a look at areas both inside and outside of their specialized areas of interest. In addition to invited speakers, the poster sessions at GRCs are a key feature of the conference. All conferees at the Inorganic Chemistry GRC are invited to present a poster on their work, and here the informal setting promotes the free exchange of ideas and fosters new relationships. As in previous years, we will offer poster presenters the opportunity to compete for one of several program spots in which they can give an oral presentation based on the subject matter of their poster. This is a great way to get your work noticed by the scientists attending the meeting, especially for those early in their career path such as junior faculty members, postdoctoral fellows, and those at comparable ranks. Anyone interested in participating in the poster competition should bring an electronic slide presentation and a small hard copy of their poster to submit to the committee.

  10. Analytical Chemistry Division annual progress report for period ending December 31, 1985

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shultz, W.D.

    1986-05-01

    Progress reports are presented for the four major sections of the division: analytical spectroscopy, radioactive materials laboratories, inorganic chemistry, and organic chemistry. A brief discussion of the division's role in the Laboratory's Environmental Restoration and Facilities Upgrade is given. Information about quality assurance and safety programs is presented, along with a tabulation of analyses rendered. Publications, oral presentations, professional activities, educational programs, and seminars are cited.

  11. Analytical Chemistry Core Capability Assessment - Preliminary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barr, Mary E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Farish, Thomas J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-05-16

    The concept of 'core capability' can be nebulous one. Even at a fairly specific level, where core capability equals maintaining essential services, it is highly dependent upon the perspective of the requestor. Samples are submitted to analytical services because the requesters do not have the capability to conduct adequate analyses themselves. Some requests are for general chemical information in support of R and D, process control, or process improvement. Many analyses, however, are part of a product certification package and must comply with higher-level customer quality assurance requirements. So which services are essential to that customer - just those for product certification? Does the customer also (indirectly) need services that support process control and improvement? And what is the timeframe? Capability is often expressed in terms of the currently utilized procedures, and most programmatic customers can only plan a few years out, at best. But should core capability consider the long term where new technologies, aging facilities, and personnel replacements must be considered? These questions, and a multitude of others, explain why attempts to gain long-term consensus on the definition of core capability have consistently failed. This preliminary report will not try to define core capability for any specific program or set of programs. Instead, it will try to address the underlying concerns that drive the desire to determine core capability. Essentially, programmatic customers want to be able to call upon analytical chemistry services to provide all the assays they need, and they don't want to pay for analytical chemistry services they don't currently use (or use infrequently). This report will focus on explaining how the current analytical capabilities and methods evolved to serve a variety of needs with a focus on why some analytes have multiple analytical techniques, and what determines the infrastructure for these analyses. This

  12. Bringing inorganic chemistry to life with inspiration from R. J. P. Williams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, H Allen O; Sadler, Peter J

    2016-03-01

    Our appreciation of the scholarly ideas and thinking of Bob Williams is illustrated here by a few of the areas in which he inspired us. His journey to bring inorganic chemistry to life began with an early interest in analytical chemistry, rationalising the relative stabilities of metal coordination complexes (The Irving-Williams Series), and elucidating the organometallic redox chemistry of vitamin B12. He (and Vallee) recognised that metal ions are in energised (entatic) states in proteins and enzymes, which themselves are dynamic structures of rods and springs. He played a key role in helping Rosenberg to pave the road toward the clinic for the anticancer drug cisplatin. He believed that evolution is not just dependent on DNA, but also on the metallome. Organisms and the environment are one system: does DNA code directly for all the essential elements of life?

  13. Inorganic Chemistry in Hydrogen Storage and Biomass Catalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thorn, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-06-13

    Making or breaking C-H, B-H, C-C bonds has been at the core of catalysis for many years. Making or breaking these bonds to store or recover energy presents us with fresh challenges, including how to catalyze these transformations in molecular systems that are 'tuned' to minimize energy loss and in molecular and material systems present in biomass. This talk will discuss some challenging transformations in chemical hydrogen storage, and some aspects of the inorganic chemistry we are studying in the development of catalysts for biomass utilization.

  14. Design of targeting ligands in medicinal inorganic chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storr, Tim; Thompson, Katherine H; Orvig, Chris

    2006-06-01

    This tutorial review will highlight recent advances in medicinal inorganic chemistry pertaining to the use of multifunctional ligands for enhanced effect. Ligands that adequately bind metal ions and also include specific targeting features are gaining in popularity due to their ability to enhance the efficacy of less complicated metal-based agents. Moving beyond the traditional view of ligands modifying reactivity, stabilizing specific oxidation states, and contributing to substitution inertness, we will discuss recent work involving metal complexes with multifunctional ligands that target specific tissues, membrane receptors, or endogenous molecules, including enzymes.

  15. A refuge for inorganic chemistry: Bunsen's Heidelberg laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawa, Christine

    2014-05-01

    Immediately after its opening in 1855, Bunsen's Heidelberg laboratory became iconic as the most modern and best equipped laboratory in Europe. Although comparatively modest in size, the laboratory's progressive equipment made it a role model for new construction projects in Germany and beyond. In retrospect, it represents an intermediate stage of development between early teaching facilities, such as Liebig's laboratory in Giessen, and the new 'chemistry palaces' that came into existence with Wöhler's Göttingen laboratory of 1860. As a 'transition laboratory,' Bunsen's Heidelberg edifice is of particular historical interest. This paper explores the allocation of spaces to specific procedures and audiences within the laboratory, and the hierarchies and professional rites of passage embedded within it. On this basis, it argues that the laboratory in Heidelberg was tailored to Bunsen's needs in inorganic and physical chemistry and never aimed at a broad-scale representation of chemistry as a whole. On the contrary, it is an example of early specialisation within a chemical laboratory preceding the process of differentiation into chemical sub-disciplines. Finally, it is shown that the relatively small size of this laboratory, and the fact that after ca. 1860 no significant changes were made within the building, are inseparably connected to Bunsen's views on chemistry teaching.

  16. Experimental design in analytical chemistry--part II: applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi-Najafabadi, Heshmatollah; Leardi, Riccardo; Jalali-Heravi, Mehdi

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews the applications of experimental design to optimize some analytical chemistry techniques such as extraction, chromatography separation, capillary electrophoresis, spectroscopy, and electroanalytical methods.

  17. Laser ablation in analytical chemistry - A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russo, Richard E.; Mao, Xianglei; Liu, Haichen; Gonzalez, Jhanis; Mao, Samuel S.

    2001-10-10

    Laser ablation is becoming a dominant technology for direct solid sampling in analytical chemistry. Laser ablation refers to the process in which an intense burst of energy delivered by a short laser pulse is used to sample (remove a portion of) a material. The advantages of laser ablation chemical analysis include direct characterization of solids, no chemical procedures for dissolution, reduced risk of contamination or sample loss, analysis of very small samples not separable for solution analysis, and determination of spatial distributions of elemental composition. This review describes recent research to understand and utilize laser ablation for direct solid sampling, with emphasis on sample introduction to an inductively coupled plasma (ICP). Current research related to contemporary experimental systems, calibration and optimization, and fractionation is discussed, with a summary of applications in several areas.

  18. The rise of environmental analytical chemistry as an interdisciplinary activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Richard

    2009-07-01

    Modern scientific endeavour is increasingly delivered within an interdisciplinary framework. Analytical environmental chemistry is a long-standing example of an interdisciplinary approach to scientific research where value is added by the close cooperation of different disciplines. This editorial piece discusses the rise of environmental analytical chemistry as an interdisciplinary activity and outlines the scope of the Analytical Chemistry and the Environmental Chemistry domains of TheScientificWorldJOURNAL (TSWJ), and the appropriateness of TSWJ's domain format in covering interdisciplinary research. All contributions of new data, methods, case studies, and instrumentation, or new interpretations and developments of existing data, case studies, methods, and instrumentation, relating to analytical and/or environmental chemistry, to the Analytical and Environmental Chemistry domains, are welcome and will be considered equally.

  19. Exploration on the Teaching Reform of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry Experiment Course in Applied and Technical Universities%探讨应用技术型大学无机与分析化学实验课程教学改革

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何静

    2015-01-01

    针对目前大学无机及分析化学实验课程所存在的一些弊端,本文提出对教学内容改革的建议,使内容富有层次化.改革化学实验的环节,使实验预习、实验过程、课后辅导逐步形成一体化.改革化学教学模式以提升教学效果.对大学化学实验课程的实验环节、教学手段以及教学模式等三方面进行改革,培养学生用实事求是、严谨的态度对待化学实验课程教学,提高学生的实际动手操作能力、分析问题的能力.%In view of the shortcomings existing in the current col-lege inorganic and analytical chemistry experiment course, this paper proposes some suggestions on the reform of its teaching content, in order to make its content more diversified. The links of chemistry experiments should be reformed in order to gradually integrate the preparation, process and after counseling of experi-ments. The mode of chemistry teaching should be reformed to improve the teaching effect. Through the above reform, students' practical and rigorous attitude towards chemistry experiment course teaching can be cultivated, and their abilities of practical operation and problem analysis will also be improved.

  20. Student-Directed Explorations to Learn about Ligands in an Inorganic Chemistry Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cass, Marion E.

    2004-01-01

    The student-directed explorations for learning various ligands and their impacts on the field of inorganic chemistry are discussed. Various themes can be adopted by the instructors, like ligand-of-the-week theme, while teaching inorganic chemistry to their students.

  1. Inorganic Chemistry at the Undergraduate Level: Are We All on the Same Page?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesterfield, Les L.; Henrickson, Charles H.

    2001-01-01

    Summarizes and presents results of a national survey on undergraduate inorganic chemistry which asked faculty to describe the general layout of their undergraduate program and course content. Reveals both similarities in the structure of undergraduate inorganic chemistry programs across the country and diversity in content. (ASK)

  2. Lecture Notes and Guidance for Course 21220 (Non-aqueous Inorganic Chemistry)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1998-01-01

    The lecture notes contain the theoretical as well as the practical background material necessary for mastering the special laboratory techniques used in non-aqueous inorganic chemistry (cfr. Course Descriptions, DTU).......The lecture notes contain the theoretical as well as the practical background material necessary for mastering the special laboratory techniques used in non-aqueous inorganic chemistry (cfr. Course Descriptions, DTU)....

  3. Lecture Notes and Exercises for Course 21240 (Basic Analytical Chemistry)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1999-01-01

    The publication contains notes dealing with difficult topics in analytical chemistry (cfr. Course Descriptions, DTU), relevant exercises as well as final examination problems from the last years.......The publication contains notes dealing with difficult topics in analytical chemistry (cfr. Course Descriptions, DTU), relevant exercises as well as final examination problems from the last years....

  4. Lecture Notes and Exercises for Course 21240 (Basic Analytical Chemistry)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1998-01-01

    The publication contains notes dealing with difficult topics in analytical chemistry (cfr. Course Descriptions, DTU), relevant exercises as well as final examination problems from the last years.......The publication contains notes dealing with difficult topics in analytical chemistry (cfr. Course Descriptions, DTU), relevant exercises as well as final examination problems from the last years....

  5. Some Points in Future Trends in Analytical Chemistry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG ErKang

    2001-01-01

    @@ Analytical chemistry is a science of measurement and characterization. Analytical testing is the eyes for science and technology and also for the production. It is an important target to demonstrate the developing level for science and technology and also the economy in a country. Science and technology and economy development need analytical chemistry. Chemistry needs analytical chemistry and vice versa. Analytical chemistry as a science involves all techniques and methods for obtaining information regarding the composition, identity, purity and constitution of samples of matter in term of the kind, quantity, and grouping of atoms and molecules, as well as the determination of those physical properties and behavior that can be corrected with those objectives.

  6. Some Points in Future Trends in Analytical Chemistry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; ErKang

    2001-01-01

    Analytical chemistry is a science of measurement and characterization. Analytical testing is the eyes for science and technology and also for the production. It is an important target to demonstrate the developing level for science and technology and also the economy in a country. Science and technology and economy development need analytical chemistry. Chemistry needs analytical chemistry and vice versa.  Analytical chemistry as a science involves all techniques and methods for obtaining information regarding the composition, identity, purity and constitution of samples of matter in term of the kind, quantity, and grouping of atoms and molecules, as well as the determination of those physical properties and behavior that can be corrected with those objectives.  ……

  7. Analytical chemistry in the Aegean Sea region: current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samanidou, Victoria F

    2012-12-01

    The Eighth Aegean Analytical Chemistry Days Conference took place in Urla, İzmir, Turkey, from 16-20 September 2012. This conference is held every 2 years, organized alternately by analytical chemistry departments of Turkish and Greek universities, so that analytical chemists from the region around the Aegean Sea can exchange experience and knowledge based on their research in a large number of fields. This report summarizes the most interesting presentations and posters pertaining to bioanalytical work.

  8. Modules for Introducing Organometallic Reactions: A Bridge between Organic and Inorganic Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaller, Chris P.; Graham, Kate J.; Johnson, Brian J.

    2015-01-01

    Transition metal organometallic reactions have become increasingly important in the synthesis of organic molecules. A new approach has been developed to introduce organometallic chemistry, along with organic and inorganic chemistry, at the foundational level. This change highlights applications of organometallic chemistry that have dramatically…

  9. Adapting Advanced Inorganic Chemistry Lecture and Laboratory Instruction for a Legally Blind Student

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miecznikowski, John R.; Guberman-Pfeffer, Matthew J.; Butrick, Elizabeth E.; Colangelo, Julie A.; Donaruma, Cristine E.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the strategies and techniques used to successfully teach advanced inorganic chemistry, in the lecture and laboratory, to a legally blind student are described. At Fairfield University, these separate courses, which have a physical chemistry corequisite or a prerequisite, are taught for junior and senior chemistry and biochemistry…

  10. 能力培养为核心的大学基础课教学模式的研究——以"无机及分析化学"课程为例%Research on the Teaching Model of College Foundation Courses with Ability Cultivation as the Core: A Case Study on "Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚宁; 黄森; 王海强; 刘艳萍; 王文己

    2015-01-01

    本文通过"无机及分析化学"多年教学改革实践,研究探讨了大学基础课培养学生创新能力的模式,认为大学基础课教学改革重点在于学习习惯的培养,有目的培养学生独立精神和思考质疑的学习习惯,并建立了相应的教学模式.%Based on many years' practice of teaching reform on"Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry", we studied and explored the model of cultivating students' innovative ability in college foundation courses, holding that the key of college foundation courses teaching reform lies in the cultivation of learning habits and the targeted cultivation of students' independent spirit and learning habit of thinking and doubting, and we also established a teaching model accordingly.

  11. 基于职业导向的《无机及分析化学》基础课改革的探索与实践%Exploration and Practice of the Reform Based onthe Career-oriented Basic CourseInorganic and Analytical Chemistry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹侃; 张爽

    2012-01-01

    Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry is an important specialized basic course of the biological and food specialty of vocational education, which plays a key supporting role in the students" cultivation of their vocational skills and professional qualities. Several rounds of exploration and practice of the career-oriented teaching reform which starts with the teaching content, teaching time, teaching methods and assessment methods will make students more adaptable to the requirements of the positions.%《无机及分析化学》是高职生物类及食品类专业的一门重要的专业基础课,对学生的职业技能和职业素养起到主要支撑作用。通过几轮基于职业导向的教学改革的探索与实践,分别从教学内容、教学时间、教学方法和考核方式入手,让学生能更加适应职业岗位的要求。

  12. Applications of digital computers in analytical chemistry--I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childs, C W; Hallman, P S; Perrin, D D

    1969-06-01

    Digital computers are currently applied to a wide range of chemical problems. Aspects of particular interest to analytical chemists, including statistical treatment. X-ray analysis, spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, gas chromatography and electroanalytical chemistry, are discussed.

  13. Incorporating Information Literacy Skills into Analytical Chemistry: An Evolutionary Step

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walczak, Mary M.; Jackson, Paul T.

    2007-01-01

    The American Chemical Society (ACS) has recently decided to incorporate various information literacy skills for teaching analytical chemistry to the students. The methodology has been found to be extremely effective, as it provides better understanding to the students.

  14. Analytical chemistry methods for mixed oxide fuel, March 1985

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-03-01

    This standard provides analytical chemistry methods for the analysis of materials used to produce mixed oxide fuel. These materials are ceramic fuel and insulator pellets and the plutonium and uranium oxides and nitrates used to fabricate these pellets.

  15. Modeling skills of pre-service chemistry teachers in predicting the structure and properties of inorganic chemistry compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nursa'adah, Euis; Liliasari, Mudzakir, Ahmad

    2016-02-01

    The focus of chemistry is learning about the composition, properties, and transformations of matters. Modeling skills are required to comprehend structure and chemical composition in submicroscopic size. Modeling skills are abilities to produce chemical structure and to explain it into the macroscopic phenomenon and submicroscopic representations. Inorganic chemistry is a study of whole elements in the periodic table and their compounds, except carbon compounds and their derivatives. Knowledge about the structure and properties of chemical substances is a basic model for students in studying inorganic chemistry. Furthermore, students can design and produce to utilize materials needed in their life. This research aimed to describes modeling skills of pre-service chemistry teachers. In order, they are able to determine and synthesize useful materials. The results show that students' modeling skills were in a low level and unable connecting skill categories, even the models of inorganic compounds common. These phenomena indicated that students only describe each element when they learn inorganic chemistry. So that it will make modeling skills of students low. Later, another researches are necessary to develop learning design of inorganic chemistry based on good modeling skills of students.

  16. Analytical Chemistry Division's sample transaction system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanton, J.S.; Tilson, P.A.

    1980-10-01

    The Analytical Chemistry Division uses the DECsystem-10 computer for a wide range of tasks: sample management, timekeeping, quality assurance, and data calculation. This document describes the features and operating characteristics of many of the computer programs used by the Division. The descriptions are divided into chapters which cover all of the information about one aspect of the Analytical Chemistry Division's computer processing.

  17. Perspective: Status and Future of Analytical Chemistry in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Krishna K

    2017-02-07

    Relative to many other areas in chemistry, analytical chemistry appears singularly lagging behind in India despite the commendable growth it had shown in the past both in teaching and research. Certain presumptions in policy making and current educational practices are believed to be the crux of the problem.

  18. [Recent advancement of photonic-crystal-based analytical chemistry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yun; Guo, Zhenpeng; Wang, Jinyi; Chen, Yi

    2014-04-01

    Photonic crystals are a type of novel materials with ordered structure, nanopores/channels and optical band gap. They have hence important applications in physics, chemistry, biological science and engineering fields. This review summarizes the recent advancement of photonic crystals in analytical chemistry applications, with focus on sensing and separating fields happening in the nearest 5 years.

  19. Towards molecular imaging and treatment of disease with radionuclides: the role of inorganic chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blower, Phil

    2006-04-14

    Molecular imaging and radiotherapy using radionuclides is a rapidly expanding field of medicine and medical research. This article highlights the development of the role of inorganic chemistry in designing and producing the radiopharmaceuticals on which this interdisciplinary science depends.

  20. A review of opportunities for electrospun nanofibers in analytical chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chigome, Samuel; Torto, Nelson

    2011-11-07

    Challenges associated with analyte and matrix complexities and the ever increasing pressure from all sectors of industry for alternative analytical devices, have necessitated the development and application of new materials in analytical chemistry. To date, nanomaterials have emerged as having excellent properties for analytical chemistry applications mainly due to their large surface area to volume ratio and the availability of a wide variety of chemical and morphological modification methods. Of the available nanofibrous material fabrication methods, electrospinning has emerged as the most versatile. It is the aim of this contribution to highlight some of the recent developments that harness the great potential shown by electrospun nanofibers for application in analytical chemistry. The review discusses the use of electrospun nanofibers as a platform for low resolution separation or as a chromatographic sorbent bed for high resolution separation. It concludes by discussing the applications of electrospun nanofibers in detection systems with a specific focus on the development of simple electrospun nanofiber based colorimetric probes.

  1. Analytical Chemistry Laboratory progress report for FY 1985

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, D.W.; Heinrich, R.R.; Jensen, K.J.

    1985-12-01

    The Analytical Chemistry Laboratory is a full-cost-recovery service center, with the primary mission of providing a broad range of technical support services to the scientific and engineering programs at ANL. In addition, ACL conducts a research program in analytical chemistry, works on instrumental and methods development, and provides analytical services for governmental, educational, and industrial organizations. The ACL handles a wide range of analytical problems, from routine standard analyses to unique problems that require significant development of methods and techniques. The purpose of this report is to summarize the technical and administrative activities of the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory (ACL) at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) for Fiscal Year 1985 (October 1984 through September 1985). This is the second annual report for the ACL. 4 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Infrared Spectra of Simple Inorganic Ion Pairs in Solid Solution: A Physical Inorganic Chemistry Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Philip J.; Tong, William G.

    1980-01-01

    Presents a physical inorganic experiment in which large single crystals of the alkali halides doped with divalent ion impurities are prepared easily. Demonstrates the ion pairing of inorganic ions in solid solution. (CS)

  3. Recent applications of digital computers in analytical chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, D D

    1977-06-01

    Minicomputers are finding increasing use for the control and operation of analytical instruments. This role is likely to be shared in the near future with dedicated microcomputers. Applications of computers to electroanalytical chemistry, Fourier transform techniques, spectroscopy, rapid-reaction kinetics, equilibrium constants, studies of analytical methods and to literature searching, are also discussed.

  4. Cyclodextrins in analytical chemistry: host-guest type molecular recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szente, Lajos; Szemán, Julianna

    2013-09-03

    Cyclodextrins are utilized in many diverse fields of analytical chemistry, due to their propensity to form reversible inclusion complexes and recognize analytes selectively. This Feature shows how these nanocavities can serve analysts in sample preparation, sensitivity and selectivity improvement, enantio-separation, creating single-molecule sensors, and automatizing DNA sequencing.

  5. Analytical Chemistry Laboratory. Progress report for FY 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, D.W.; Boparai, A.S.; Bowers, D.L.

    1996-12-01

    The purpose of this report is to summarize the activities of the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory (ACL) at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) for Fiscal Year (FY) 1996. This annual report is the thirteenth for the ACL. It describes effort on continuing and new projects and contributions of the ACL staff to various programs at ANL. The ACL operates in the ANL system as a full-cost-recovery service center, but has a mission that includes a complementary research and development component: The Analytical Chemistry Laboratory will provide high-quality, cost-effective chemical analysis and related technical support to solve research problems of our clients -- Argonne National Laboratory, the Department of Energy, and others -- and will conduct world-class research and development in analytical chemistry and its applications. Because of the diversity of research and development work at ANL, the ACL handles a wide range of analytical chemistry problems. Some routine or standard analyses are done, but the ACL usually works with commercial laboratories if our clients require high-volume, production-type analyses. It is common for ANL programs to generate unique problems that require significant development of methods and adaption of techniques to obtain useful analytical data. Thus, much of the support work done by the ACL is very similar to our applied analytical chemistry research.

  6. Analytical Chemistry Laboratory, progress report for FY 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-01

    The purpose of this report is to summarize the activities of the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory (ACL) at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) for Fiscal Year (FY) 1993 (October 1992 through September 1993). This annual report is the tenth for the ACL and describes continuing effort on projects, work on new projects, and contributions of the ACL staff to various programs at ANL. The Analytical Chemistry Laboratory is a full-cost-recovery service center, with the primary mission of providing a broad range of analytical chemistry support services to the scientific and engineering programs at ANL. The ACL also has research programs in analytical chemistry, conducts instrumental and methods development, and provides analytical services for governmental, educational, and industrial organizations. The ACL handles a wide range of analytical problems. Some routine or standard analyses are done, but it is common for the Argonne programs to generate unique problems that require development or modification of methods and adaption of techniques to obtain useful analytical data. The ACL is administratively within the Chemical Technology Division (CMT), its principal ANL client, but provides technical support for many of the technical divisions and programs at ANL. The ACL has four technical groups--Chemical Analysis, Instrumental Analysis, Organic Analysis, and Environmental Analysis--which together include about 45 technical staff members. Talents and interests of staff members cross the group lines, as do many projects within the ACL.

  7. Six Impossible Mechanisms before Breakfast: Arrow Pushing as an Instructional Device in Inorganic Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Steffen; Ghosh, Abhik

    2013-01-01

    In a recent article by the authors, the suggestion was made that arrow pushing, a widely used tool in organic chemistry, could also be profitably employed in the teaching of introductory inorganic chemistry. A number of relatively simple reactions were used to illustrate this thesis, raising the question whether the same approach might rationalize…

  8. An Alternative Educational Approach for an Inorganic Chemistry Laboratory Course in Industrial and Chemical Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garces, Andres; Sanchez-Barba, Luis Fernando

    2011-01-01

    We describe an alternative educational approach for an inorganic chemistry laboratory module named "Experimentation in Chemistry", which is included in Industrial Engineering and Chemical Engineering courses. The main aims of the new approach were to reduce the high levels of failure and dropout on the module and to make the content match the…

  9. Organization of a cognitive activity of students when teaching analytical chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. Tapalova

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Qualitative analysis allows using basic knowledge of general and inorganic chemistry for the solution of practical problems, disclosure the chemism of the processes that are fundamental for  the methods of analysis. Systematic qualitative analysis develops analytical thinking, establishes a scientific style of thinking of students.Сhemical analysis requires certain skills and abilities and develops the general chemical culture of the future teachers оn chemistry. The result can be evaluated in the course of self-control, peer review, and solving creative problems. Mastering the techniques of critical thinking (comparison, abstraction, generalization and their use in a particular chemical material - are necessary element in the formation of professional thinking of the future chemistry teacher.

  10. Applications of reversible covalent chemistry in analytical sample preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, David

    2012-12-07

    Reversible covalent chemistry (RCC) adds another dimension to commonly used sample preparation techniques like solid-phase extraction (SPE), solid-phase microextraction (SPME), molecular imprinted polymers (MIPs) or immuno-affinity cleanup (IAC): chemical selectivity. By selecting analytes according to their covalent reactivity, sample complexity can be reduced significantly, resulting in enhanced analytical performance for low-abundance target analytes. This review gives a comprehensive overview of the applications of RCC in analytical sample preparation. The major reactions covered include reversible boronic ester formation, thiol-disulfide exchange and reversible hydrazone formation, targeting analyte groups like diols (sugars, glycoproteins and glycopeptides, catechols), thiols (cysteinyl-proteins and cysteinyl-peptides) and carbonyls (carbonylated proteins, mycotoxins). Their applications range from low abundance proteomics to reversible protein/peptide labelling to antibody chromatography to quantitative and qualitative food analysis. In discussing the potential of RCC, a special focus is on the conditions and restrictions of the utilized reaction chemistry.

  11. Biochemical Applications in the Analytical Chemistry Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, Cynthia; Ruttencutter, Jeffrey

    2004-01-01

    An HPLC and a UV-visible spectrophotometer are identified as instruments that helps to incorporate more biologically-relevant experiments into the course, in order to increase the students understanding of selected biochemistry topics and enhances their ability to apply an analytical approach to biochemical problems. The experiment teaches…

  12. Synergistic relationships between Analytical Chemistry and written standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valcárcel, Miguel, E-mail: qa1vacam@uco.es; Lucena, Rafael

    2013-07-25

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Analytical Chemistry is influenced by international written standards. •Different relationships can be established between them. •Synergies can be generated when these standards are conveniently managed. -- Abstract: This paper describes the mutual impact of Analytical Chemistry and several international written standards (norms and guides) related to knowledge management (CEN-CWA 14924:2004), social responsibility (ISO 26000:2010), management of occupational health and safety (OHSAS 18001/2), environmental management (ISO 14001:2004), quality management systems (ISO 9001:2008) and requirements of the competence of testing and calibration laboratories (ISO 17025:2004). The intensity of this impact, based on a two-way influence, is quite different depending on the standard considered. In any case, a new and fruitful approach to Analytical Chemistry based on these relationships can be derived.

  13. Applications of polydimethylsiloxane in analytical chemistry: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seethapathy, Suresh; Górecki, Tadeusz

    2012-10-31

    Silicones have innumerable applications in many areas of life. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), which belongs to the class of silicones, has been extensively used in the field of analytical chemistry owing to its favourable physicochemical properties. The use of PDMS in analytical chemistry gained importance with its application as a stationary phase in gas chromatographic separations. Since then it has been used in many sample preparation techniques such as solid phase microextraction (SPME), stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE), thin-film extraction, permeation passive sampling, etc. Further, it is gaining importance in the manufacturing of lab-on-a-chip devices, which have revolutionized bio-analysis. Applications of devices containing PDMS and used in the field of analytical chemistry are reviewed in this paper.

  14. Bias Assessment of General Chemistry Analytes using Commutable Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koerbin, Gus; Tate, Jillian R; Ryan, Julie; Jones, Graham Rd; Sikaris, Ken A; Kanowski, David; Reed, Maxine; Gill, Janice; Koumantakis, George; Yen, Tina; St John, Andrew; Hickman, Peter E; Simpson, Aaron; Graham, Peter

    2014-11-01

    Harmonisation of reference intervals for routine general chemistry analytes has been a goal for many years. Analytical bias may prevent this harmonisation. To determine if analytical bias is present when comparing methods, the use of commutable samples, or samples that have the same properties as the clinical samples routinely analysed, should be used as reference samples to eliminate the possibility of matrix effect. The use of commutable samples has improved the identification of unacceptable analytical performance in the Netherlands and Spain. The International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (IFCC) has undertaken a pilot study using commutable samples in an attempt to determine not only country specific reference intervals but to make them comparable between countries. Australia and New Zealand, through the Australasian Association of Clinical Biochemists (AACB), have also undertaken an assessment of analytical bias using commutable samples and determined that of the 27 general chemistry analytes studied, 19 showed sufficiently small between method biases as to not prevent harmonisation of reference intervals. Application of evidence based approaches including the determination of analytical bias using commutable material is necessary when seeking to harmonise reference intervals.

  15. Analyte comparisons between 2 clinical chemistry analyzers.

    OpenAIRE

    Sutton, A; Dawson, H; Hoff, B; Grift, E; Shoukri, M

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess agreement between a wet reagent and a dry reagent analyzer. Thirteen analytes (albumin, globulin, alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, amylase, urea nitrogen, calcium, cholesterol, creatinine, glucose, potassium, total bilirubin, and total protein) for both canine and feline serum were evaluated. Concordance correlations, linear regression, and plots of difference against mean were used to analyze the data. Concordance correlations were excel...

  16. Synergistic relationships between Analytical Chemistry and written standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valcárcel, Miguel; Lucena, Rafael

    2013-07-25

    This paper describes the mutual impact of Analytical Chemistry and several international written standards (norms and guides) related to knowledge management (CEN-CWA 14924:2004), social responsibility (ISO 26000:2010), management of occupational health and safety (OHSAS 18001/2), environmental management (ISO 14001:2004), quality management systems (ISO 9001:2008) and requirements of the competence of testing and calibration laboratories (ISO 17025:2004). The intensity of this impact, based on a two-way influence, is quite different depending on the standard considered. In any case, a new and fruitful approach to Analytical Chemistry based on these relationships can be derived.

  17. Magnetic ionic liquids in analytical chemistry: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Kevin D; Nacham, Omprakash; Purslow, Jeffrey A; Pierson, Stephen A; Anderson, Jared L

    2016-08-31

    Magnetic ionic liquids (MILs) have recently generated a cascade of innovative applications in numerous areas of analytical chemistry. By incorporating a paramagnetic component within the cation or anion, MILs exhibit a strong response toward external magnetic fields. Careful design of the MIL structure has yielded magnetoactive compounds with unique physicochemical properties including high magnetic moments, enhanced hydrophobicity, and the ability to solvate a broad range of molecules. The structural tunability and paramagnetic properties of MILs have enabled magnet-based technologies that can easily be added to the analytical method workflow, complement needed extraction requirements, or target specific analytes. This review highlights the application of MILs in analytical chemistry and examines the important structural features of MILs that largely influence their physicochemical and magnetic properties.

  18. Analytical Chemistry Laboratory Progress Report for FY 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, D.W.; Boparai, A.S.; Bowers, D.L. [and others

    1994-12-01

    The purpose of this report is to summarize the activities of the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory (ACL) at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) for Fiscal Year (FY) 1994 (October 1993 through September 1994). This annual report is the eleventh for the ACL and describes continuing effort on projects, work on new projects, and contributions of the ACL staff to various programs at ANL. The Analytical Chemistry Laboratory is a full-cost-recovery service center, with the primary mission of providing a broad range of analytical chemistry support services to the scientific and engineering programs at ANL. The ACL also has a research program in analytical chemistry, conducts instrumental and methods development, and provides analytical services for governmental, educational, and industrial organizations. The ACL handles a wide range of analytical problems. Some routine or standard analyses are done, but it is common for the Argonne programs to generate unique problems that require significant development of methods and adaption of techniques to obtain useful analytical data. The ACL has four technical groups -- Chemical Analysis, Instrumental Analysis, Organic Analysis, and Environmental Analysis -- which together include about 45 technical staff members. Talents and interests of staff members cross the group lines, as do many projects within the ACL. The Chemical Analysis Group uses wet- chemical and instrumental methods for elemental, compositional, and isotopic determinations in solid, liquid, and gaseous samples and provides specialized analytical services. Major instruments in this group include an ion chromatograph (IC), an inductively coupled plasma/atomic emission spectrometer (ICP/AES), spectrophotometers, mass spectrometers (including gas-analysis and thermal-ionization mass spectrometers), emission spectrographs, autotitrators, sulfur and carbon determinators, and a kinetic phosphorescence uranium analyzer.

  19. Analytical Chemistry Laboratory progress report for FY 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, D. W.; Boparai, A. S.; Bowers, D. L.; Graczyk, D. G.

    2000-06-15

    This report summarizes the activities of the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory (ACL) at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) for Fiscal Year (FY) 1999 (October 1998 through September 1999). This annual progress report, which is the sixteenth in this series for the ACL, describes effort on continuing projects, work on new projects, and contributions of the ACL staff to various programs at ANL.

  20. Analytical Chemistry Laboratory progress report for FY 1998.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boparai, A. S.; Bowers, D. L.; Graczyk, D. G.; Green, D. W.; Lindahl, P. C.

    1999-03-29

    This report summarizes the activities of the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory (ACL) at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) for Fiscal Year (FY) 1998 (October 1997 through September 1998). This annual progress report, which is the fifteenth in this series for the ACL, describes effort on continuing projects, work on new projects, and contributions of the ACL staff to various programs at ANL.

  1. An Interactive Analytical Chemistry Summer Camp for Middle School Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Mary E.; Schoenfisch, Mark H.

    2005-01-01

    A summer outreach program, which was implemented for the first time in the summer of 2004, that provided middle school girls with an opportunity to conduct college-level analytical chemistry experiments under the guidance of female graduate students is explained. The program proved beneficial to participants at each level.

  2. Using Presentation Software to Flip an Undergraduate Analytical Chemistry Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Neil; Li, Luisa

    2015-01-01

    An undergraduate analytical chemistry course has been adapted to a flipped course format. Course content was provided by video clips, text, graphics, audio, and simple animations organized as concept maps using the cloud-based presentation platform, Prezi. The advantages of using Prezi to present course content in a flipped course format are…

  3. Spectroelectrochemical Sensing of Aqueous Iron: An Experiment for Analytical Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shtoyko, Tanya; Stuart, Dean; Gray, H. Neil

    2007-01-01

    We have designed a laboratory experiment to illustrate the use of spectroelectrochemical techniques for determination of aqueous iron. The experiment described in this article is applicable to an undergraduate laboratory course in analytical chemistry. Students are asked to fabricate spectroelectrochemical sensors, make electrochemical and optical…

  4. Contributions of Analytical Chemistry to the Clinical Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skogerboe, Kristen J.

    1988-01-01

    Highlights several analytical techniques that are being used in state-of-the-art clinical labs. Illustrates how other advances in instrumentation may contribute to clinical chemistry in the future. Topics include: biosensors, polarization spectroscopy, chemiluminescence, fluorescence, photothermal deflection, and chromatography in clinical…

  5. Applications of polydimethylsiloxane in analytical chemistry: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seethapathy, Suresh [Department of Chemistry, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1 (Canada); Gorecki, Tadeusz, E-mail: tgorecki@uwaterloo.ca [Department of Chemistry, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1 (Canada)

    2012-10-31

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) has numerous applications in analytical chemistry. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sorptive properties of PDMS are used primarily in sampling. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Partitioning properties are used in separations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Permeability of PDMS forms the basis for sample introduction and passive sampling. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Advantageous mechanical properties are used in lab-on-a-chip devices. - Abstract: Silicones have innumerable applications in many areas of life. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), which belongs to the class of silicones, has been extensively used in the field of analytical chemistry owing to its favourable physicochemical properties. The use of PDMS in analytical chemistry gained importance with its application as a stationary phase in gas chromatographic separations. Since then it has been used in many sample preparation techniques such as solid phase microextraction (SPME), stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE), thin-film extraction, permeation passive sampling, etc. Further, it is gaining importance in the manufacturing of lab-on-a-chip devices, which have revolutionized bio-analysis. Applications of devices containing PDMS and used in the field of analytical chemistry are reviewed in this paper.

  6. Analytical chemistry methods for metallic core components: Revision March 1985

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-03-01

    This standard provides analytical chemistry methods for the analysis of alloys used to fabricate core components. These alloys are 302, 308, 316, 316-Ti, and 321 stainless steels and 600 and 718 Inconels and they may include other 300-series stainless steels.

  7. Modelling iodide – iodate speciation in atmospheric aerosol: Contributions of inorganic and organic iodine chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pechtl

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The speciation of iodine in atmospheric aerosol is currently poorly understood. Models predict negligible iodide concentrations but accumulation of iodate in aerosol, both of which is not confirmed by recent measurements. We present an updated aqueous phase iodine chemistry scheme for use in atmospheric chemistry models and discuss sensitivity studies with the marine boundary layer model MISTRA. These studies show that iodate can be reduced in acidic aerosol by inorganic reactions, i.e., iodate does not necessarily accumulate in particles. Furthermore, the transformation of particulate iodide to volatile iodine species likely has been overestimated in previous model studies due to negligence of collision-induced upper limits for the reaction rates. However, inorganic reaction cycles still do not seem to be sufficient to reproduce the observed range of iodide – iodate speciation in atmospheric aerosol. Therefore, we also investigate the effects of the recently suggested reaction of HOI with dissolved organic matter to produce iodide. If this reaction is fast enough to compete with the inorganic mechanism, it would not only directly lead to enhanced iodide concentrations but, indirectly via speed-up of the inorganic iodate reduction cycles, also to a decrease in iodate concentrations. Hence, according to our model studies, organic iodine chemistry, combined with inorganic reaction cycles, is able to reproduce observations. The presented chemistry cycles are highly dependent on pH and thus offer an explanation for the large observed variability of the iodide – iodate speciation in atmospheric aerosol.

  8. Analytical Chemistry Laboratory progress report for FY 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, D.W.; Heinrich, R.R.; Jensen, K.J.; Stetter, J.R.

    1985-03-01

    Technical and administrative activities of the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory (ACL) are reported for fiscal year 1984. The ACL is a full-cost-recovery service center, with the primary mission of providing a broad range of technical support services to the scientific and engineering programs at ANL. In addition, ACL conducts a research program in analytical chemistry, works on instrumental and methods development, and provides analytical services for governmental, educational, and industrial organizations. The ACL is administratively within the Chemical Technology Division, the principal user, but provides technical support for all of the technical divisions and programs at ANL. The ACL has three technical groups - Chemical Analysis, Instrumental Analysis, and Organic Analysis. Under technical activities 26 projects are briefly described. Under professional activities, a list is presented for publications and reports, oral presentations, awards and meetings attended. 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Chemometrics tools used in analytical chemistry: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Naveen; Bansal, Ankit; Sarma, G S; Rawal, Ravindra K

    2014-06-01

    This article presents various important tools of chemometrics utilized as data evaluation tools generated by various hyphenated analytical techniques including their application since its advent to today. The work has been divided into various sections, which include various multivariate regression methods and multivariate resolution methods. Finally the last section deals with the applicability of chemometric tools in analytical chemistry. The main objective of this article is to review the chemometric methods used in analytical chemistry (qualitative/quantitative), to determine the elution sequence, classify various data sets, assess peak purity and estimate the number of chemical components. These reviewed methods further can be used for treating n-way data obtained by hyphenation of LC with multi-channel detectors. We prefer to provide a detailed view of various important methods developed with their algorithm in favor of employing and understanding them by researchers not very familiar with chemometrics.

  10. Ubiquitous trisulfur radical anion: fundamentals and applications in materials science, electrochemistry, analytical chemistry and geochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chivers, Tristram; Elder, Philip J W

    2013-07-21

    The trisulfur radical anion [S3]˙(-) is well-known from inorganic chemistry textbooks as the blue chromophore in ultramarine blues in which this highly reactive species is trapped in a zeolitic framework. Recent findings have revealed that [S3]˙(-) has a multi-faceted role in a variety of media, including alkali metal-sulfur batteries, aqueous solutions at high temperatures and pressures, and ionic liquids; it has also been used to detect trace amounts of water in organic solvents. This tutorial review illustrates how various physical techniques are used to identify a reactive species in solution and shows how elucidation of electronic structures can be used to explain spectroscopic and structural properties. Examples of the function of [S3]˙(-) in materials science, electrochemistry, analytical chemistry and geochemistry are used to illustrate the widespread influence of this fundamentally important triatomic sulfur species.

  11. Analytical Chemistry at the Interface Between Materials Science and Biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Brien, Janese C. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2000-09-21

    Likedlessentid sciences, anal~cd chetis~continues toreinvent itself. Moving beyond its traditional roles of identification and quantification, analytical chemistry is now expanding its frontiers into areas previously reserved to other disciplines. This work describes several research efforts that lie at the new interfaces between analytical chemistry and two of these disciplines, namely materials science and biology. In the materials science realm, the search for new materials that may have useful or unique chromatographic properties motivated the synthesis and characterization of electrically conductive sol-gels. In the biology realm, the search for new surface fabrication schemes that would permit or even improve the detection of specific biological reactions motivated the design of miniaturized biological arrays. Collectively, this work represents some of analytical chemistry’s newest forays into these disciplines. The introduction section to this dissertation provides a literature review on several of the key aspects of this work. In advance of the materials science discussion, a brief introduction into electrochemically-modulated liquid chromatography (EMLC) and sol-gel chemistry is provided. In advance of the biological discussions, brief overviews of scanning force microscopy (SFM) and the oxidative chemistry used to construct our biological arrays are provided. This section is followed by four chapters, each of which is presented as a separate manuscript, and focuses on work that describes some of our cross-disciplinary efforts within materials science and biology. This dissertation concludes with a general summary and future prospectus.

  12. A Visually Attractive "Interconnected Network of Ideas" for Organizing the Teaching and Learning of Descriptive Inorganic Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Glen E.

    2014-01-01

    A visually attractive interconnected network of ideas that helps general and second-year inorganic chemistry students make sense of the descriptive inorganic chemistry of the main-group elements is presented. The eight network components include the periodic law, the uniqueness principle, the diagonal effect, the inert-pair effect, the…

  13. Green analytical chemistry introduction to chloropropanols determination at no economic and analytical performance costs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jędrkiewicz, Renata; Orłowski, Aleksander; Namieśnik, Jacek; Tobiszewski, Marek

    2016-01-15

    In this study we perform ranking of analytical procedures for 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol determination in soy sauces by PROMETHEE method. Multicriteria decision analysis was performed for three different scenarios - metrological, economic and environmental, by application of different weights to decision making criteria. All three scenarios indicate capillary electrophoresis-based procedure as the most preferable. Apart from that the details of ranking results differ for these three scenarios. The second run of rankings was done for scenarios that include metrological, economic and environmental criteria only, neglecting others. These results show that green analytical chemistry-based selection correlates with economic, while there is no correlation with metrological ones. This is an implication that green analytical chemistry can be brought into laboratories without analytical performance costs and it is even supported by economic reasons.

  14. Application of ICT-based Learning Resources for University Inorganic Chemistry Course Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana M. Derkach

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article studies expediency and efficiency of various ICT-based learning resources use in university inorganic chemistry course training, detects difference of attitudes toward electronic resources between students and faculty members, which create the background for their efficiency loss

  15. Improving Student Achievement and Satisfaction by Adopting a Blended Learning Approach to Inorganic Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Neil A.; Bland, Will; Christie, Gillian

    2008-01-01

    A blended learning approach to the teaching of a level 2 inorganic chemistry module is presented. Lectures were replaced by study packs, which were supported by formative on-line assessment delivered via Blackboard and a programme of 20 workshops. Learning activities written using the Lockwood format were included in the study pack to facilitate…

  16. A Wiki-Based Group Project in an Inorganic Chemistry Foundation Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristian, Kathleen E.

    2015-01-01

    A semester-long group project that utilizes wiki sites to enhance collaboration was developed for a foundation course in inorganic chemistry. Through structured assignments, student groups use metal-based or metal-combating therapeutic agents as a model for applying and understanding course concepts; they also gain proficiency with scientific- and…

  17. Arrow Pushing: A Rational, Participatory Approach to Teaching Descriptive Inorganic Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Steffen; Ghosh, Abhik

    2011-01-01

    Inorganic chemistry at core consists of a vast array of molecules and chemical reactions. To master the subject, students must learn to think intelligently about this vast body of facts, a feat seldom accomplished in an introductory course. All too often, young undergraduate students perceive the field as an amorphous and illogical body of…

  18. A golden future in medicinal inorganic chemistry : The promise of anticancer gold organometallic compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bertrand, B.; Casini, A.

    2014-01-01

    From wedding rings on fingers to stained glass windows, by way of Olympic medals, gold has been highly prized for millennia. Nowadays, organometallic gold compounds occupy an important place in the field of medicinal inorganic chemistry due to their unique chemical properties with respect to gold co

  19. A History of the Division of Inorganic Chemistry, American Chemical Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailar, John C., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Describes the development of the Division of Inorganic Chemistry, from the founding of the American Chemical Society in 1876, the formation of the Division in 1957, and recent events. Includes tables listing officers of the Division and symposia titles at national meetings. (YP)

  20. Experimental and Theoretical Studies of Atmosphereic Inorganic Chlorine Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, Stanley P.; Friedl, Randall R.

    1993-01-01

    Over the last five years substantial progress has been made in defining the realm of new chlorine chemistry in the polar stratosphere. Application of existing experimental techniques to potentially important chlorine-containing compounds has yielded quantitative kinetic and spectroscopic data as well as qualitative mechanistic insights into the relevant reactions.

  1. Underscoring the influence of inorganic chemistry on nuclear imaging with radiometals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeglis, Brian M; Houghton, Jacob L; Evans, Michael J; Viola-Villegas, Nerissa; Lewis, Jason S

    2014-02-17

    Over the past several decades, radionuclides have matured from largely esoteric and experimental technologies to indispensible components of medical diagnostics. Driving this transition, in part, have been mutually necessary advances in biomedical engineering, nuclear medicine, and cancer biology. Somewhat unsung has been the seminal role of inorganic chemistry in fostering the development of new radiotracers. In this regard, the purpose of this Forum Article is to more visibly highlight the significant contributions of inorganic chemistry to nuclear imaging by detailing the development of five metal-based imaging agents: (64)Cu-ATSM, (68)Ga-DOTATOC, (89)Zr-transferrin, (99m)Tc-sestamibi, and (99m)Tc-colloids. In a concluding section, several unmet needs both in and out of the laboratory will be discussed to stimulate conversation between inorganic chemists and the imaging community.

  2. Alfred Werner's role in the mid-20th century flourishing of American inorganic chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labinger, Jay A

    2014-01-01

    The development of organic and physical chemistry as specialist fields, during the middle and end of the 19th century respectively, left inorganic behind as a decidedly less highly regarded subfield of chemistry. Despite Alfred Werner's groundbreaking studies of coordination chemistry in the early 20th century, that inferior status remained in place - particularly in the US - until the 1950s, when the beginnings of a resurgence that eventually restored its parity with the other subfields can be clearly observed. This paper explores the extent to which Werner's heritage - both direct, in the form of academic descendants, and indirect - contributed to those advances.

  3. Role-Playing in Analytical Chemistry: The Alumni Speak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Paul T.; Walters, John P.

    2000-08-01

    Cooperative learning constructs take a variety of forms. Over the last 15 years, one such pedagogical structure, role-playing, has been used in the analytical chemistry curriculum at St. Olaf College. A long-term assessment of this teaching method was conducted through use of a survey distributed to alumni graduating between 1987 and 1997. The graduates overwhelmingly indicated that the use of role-playing had a positive impact on their careers as well as their lives. Furthermore, many non-achievement learning outcomes attributed to cooperative learning experiences were reinforced through the survey response. Role-playing created an effective environment in which to develop communication and collaborative skills in addition to the technical skills that are essential to analytical chemistry. These results support continued evolutionary development of this teaching method.

  4. Inorganic chemistry and IONiC: an online community bringing cutting-edge research into the classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamieson, Elizabeth R; Eppley, Hilary J; Geselbracht, Margret J; Johnson, Adam R; Reisner, Barbara A; Smith, Sheila R; Stewart, Joanne L; Watson, Lori A; Williams, B Scott

    2011-07-04

    This Viewpoint highlights creative ways that members of the Interactive Online Network of Inorganic Chemists (IONiC) are using journal articles from Inorganic Chemistry to engage undergraduate students in the classroom. We provide information about specific educational materials and networking features available free of charge to the inorganic community on IONiC's web home, the Virtual Inorganic Pedagogical Electronic Resource (VIPEr, www.ionicviper.org ) and describe the benefits of joining this community.

  5. Analytical chemistry laboratory. Progress report for FY 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, D.W.; Boparai, A.S.; Bowers, D.L. [and others

    1997-12-01

    The purpose of this report is to summarize the activities of the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory (ACL) at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) for Fiscal Year (FY) 1997 (October 1996 through September 1997). This annual progress report is the fourteenth in this series for the ACL, and it describes continuing effort on projects, work on new projects, and contributions of the ACL staff to various programs at ANL.

  6. Chemiluminescence microarrays in analytical chemistry: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidel, Michael; Niessner, Reinhard

    2014-09-01

    Multi-analyte immunoassays on microarrays and on multiplex DNA microarrays have been described for quantitative analysis of small organic molecules (e.g., antibiotics, drugs of abuse, small molecule toxins), proteins (e.g., antibodies or protein toxins), and microorganisms, viruses, and eukaryotic cells. In analytical chemistry, multi-analyte detection by use of analytical microarrays has become an innovative research topic because of the possibility of generating several sets of quantitative data for different analyte classes in a short time. Chemiluminescence (CL) microarrays are powerful tools for rapid multiplex analysis of complex matrices. A wide range of applications for CL microarrays is described in the literature dealing with analytical microarrays. The motivation for this review is to summarize the current state of CL-based analytical microarrays. Combining analysis of different compound classes on CL microarrays reduces analysis time, cost of reagents, and use of laboratory space. Applications are discussed, with examples from food safety, water safety, environmental monitoring, diagnostics, forensics, toxicology, and biosecurity. The potential and limitations of research on multiplex analysis by use of CL microarrays are discussed in this review.

  7. 78 FR 4170 - License Amendment Request for Analytical Bio-Chemistry Laboratories, Inc., Columbia, MO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-18

    ... COMMISSION License Amendment Request for Analytical Bio-Chemistry Laboratories, Inc., Columbia, MO AGENCY... issuance of a license amendment to Materials License No. 24-13365-01 issued to Analytical Bio-Chemistry... accession numbers are: 1. Analytical Bio-Chemistry Laboratories, Inc., Licensee amendment request...

  8. The Inorganic Illustrator: A 3-D Graphical Supplement for Inorganic and Bioinorganic Chemistry Courses Distributed on CD-ROM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childs, Scott L.; Hagen, Karl S.

    1996-10-01

    The visualization of molecular and solid state chemical structures in three dimensions is a particularly difficult problem for students to overcome when the primary means of communication is the two-dimensional world of textbooks, blackboards, and overhead projector screens. Recent editions of popular textbooks in organic, inorganic, and biochemistry have included stereoviews of molecules to aid the student, and stereoviews of crystal structures have been used in inorganic chemistry publications for many years. These are powerful aids for visualizing complex molecules, but with the exception of the biochemistry text mentioned above, they are limited to single, static images generally in black and white. Molecular model kits are routinely used very effectively in organic chemistry but their utility in inorganic chemistry is limited to all but the most simple molecules encountered. Now that personal computers are generally accessible and multimedia tools are starting to make an appearance in chemistry lecture halls (1), we can make our inorganic and bioinorganic chemistry and crystallography lectures come alive with the aid of the computer-based resources, which are the essence of this project. As part of this project we are accumulating a database of representative crystal structures of main group molecules, coordination complexes, organometallic compounds, small metalloproteins, bioinorganic model complexes, clusters, and solid state materials in Chem3D Plus format to be viewed with Chem3D Viewer, which is free software from Cambridge Scientific Computing. We are also generating a library of high-quality graphic images of these same molecules and structures using Cerius2 package from Molecular Simulations. These include polyhedral representations of clusters and solid state structures (see Fig. 1). Figure 1. Representation of the user interface: the title page and an example of polyhedral and ball-and-stick representation of an octanuclear iron-oxo cluster. The

  9. Infrared and Raman spectra of inorganic and coordination compounds theory and applications in inorganic chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Nakamoto, Kazuo

    2008-01-01

    The Sixth Edition of this classic work comprises the most comprehensive and current guide to infrared and Raman spectra of inorganic, organometallic, bioinorganic, and coordination compounds. From fundamental theories of vibrational spectroscopy to applications in a variety of compound types, this has been extensively updated. New topics include the theoretical calculations of vibrational frequencies (DFT method), chemical synthesis by matrix co-condensation reactions, time-resolved Raman spectroscopy, and more. This volume is a core reference for chemists and medical professionals working with infrared or Raman spectroscopies and an excellent textbook for graduate courses.

  10. Membrane-based microextraction techniques in analytical chemistry: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carasek, Eduardo; Merib, Josias

    2015-06-23

    The use of membrane-based sample preparation techniques in analytical chemistry has gained growing attention from the scientific community since the development of miniaturized sample preparation procedures in the 1990s. The use of membranes makes the microextraction procedures more stable, allowing the determination of analytes in complex and "dirty" samples. This review describes some characteristics of classical membrane-based microextraction techniques (membrane-protected solid-phase microextraction, hollow-fiber liquid-phase microextraction and hollow-fiber renewal liquid membrane) as well as some alternative configurations (thin film and electromembrane extraction) used successfully for the determination of different analytes in a large variety of matrices, some critical points regarding each technique are highlighted.

  11. Metalloporphyrins as Oxidation Catalysts: Moving toward "Greener" Chemistry in the Inorganic Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Rose A.; Stock, Anne E.; Zovinka, Edward P.

    2012-01-01

    Training future chemists to be aware of the environmental impact of their work is of fundamental importance to global society. To convince chemists to embrace sustainability, the integration of green chemistry across the entire chemistry curriculum is a necessary step. This experiment expands the reach of green chemistry techniques into the…

  12. Synthesis and Metalation of a Ligand: An Interdisciplinary Laboratory Experiment for Second-Year Organic and Introductory Inorganic Chemistry Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasting, Benjamin J.; Bowser, Andrew K.; Anderson-Wile, Amelia M.; Wile, Bradley M.

    2015-01-01

    An interdisciplinary laboratory experiment involving second-year undergraduate organic chemistry and introductory inorganic chemistry undergraduate students is described. Organic chemistry students prepare a series of amine-bis(phenols) via a Mannich reaction, and characterize their products using melting point; FTIR; and [superscript 1]H,…

  13. Application of symmetry operation measures in structural inorganic chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echeverría, Jorge; Alvarez, Santiago

    2008-12-01

    This paper presents an application of the recently proposed symmetry operation measures to the determination of the effective symmetry point group of coordination polyhedra in inorganic solids. Several structure types based on octahedra are found to present distinct distortion patterns each, not strictly attached to the crystallographic site symmetry. These include the (NH4)2[CuCl4], CdI2 (brucite), FeS2 (pyrite), TiO2 (rutile), CaCl2, GdFeO3, PbTiO3,LiNbO3, BiI3, CrCl3, Al2O3, and NiWO4 structures. It is shown that a similar analysis can be applied to the Bailar and tetragonal Jahn-Teller distortions of molecular transition metal complexes, as well as to solids based on tetrahedra, such as the ZnCl2, FeS, BeCl2, SiS2, and KFeS2 structure types.

  14. The chemical bond in inorganic chemistry the bond valence model

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, I David

    2016-01-01

    The bond valence model is a version of the ionic model in which the chemical constraints are expressed in terms of localized chemical bonds formed by the valence charge of the atoms. Theorems derived from the properties of the electrostatic flux predict the rules obeyed by both ionic and covalent bonds. They make quantitative predictions of coordination number, crystal structure, bond lengths and bond angles. Bond stability depends on the matching of the bonding strengths of the atoms, while the conflicting requirements of chemistry and space lead to the structural instabilities responsible for the unusual physical properties displayed by some materials. The model has applications in many fields ranging from mineralogy to molecular biology.

  15. Surface chemistry for molecular layer deposition of organic and hybrid organic-inorganic polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Steven M; Yoon, Byunghoon; Dameron, Arrelaine A

    2009-04-21

    The fabrication of many devices in modern technology requires techniques for growing thin films. As devices miniaturize, manufacturers will need to control thin film growth at the atomic level. Because many devices have challenging morphologies, thin films must be able to coat conformally on structures with high aspect ratios. Techniques based on atomic layer deposition (ALD), a special type of chemical vapor deposition, allow for the growth of ultra-thin and conformal films of inorganic materials using sequential, self-limiting reactions. Molecular layer deposition (MLD) methods extend this strategy to include organic and hybrid organic-inorganic polymeric materials. In this Account, we provide an overview of the surface chemistry for the MLD of organic and hybrid organic-inorganic polymers and examine a variety of surface chemistry strategies for growing polymer thin films. Previously, surface chemistry for the MLD of organic polymers such as polyamides and polyimides has used two-step AB reaction cycles using homo-bifunctional reactants. However, these reagents can react twice and eliminate active sites on the growing polymer surface. To avoid this problem, we can employ alternative precursors for MLD based on hetero-bifunctional reactants and ring-opening reactions. We can also use surface activation or protected chemical functional groups. In addition, we can combine the reactants for ALD and MLD to grow hybrid organic-inorganic polymers that should display interesting properties. For example, using trimethylaluminum (TMA) and various diols as reactants, we can achieve the MLD of alucone organic-inorganic polymers. We can alter the chemical and physical properties of these organic-inorganic polymers by varying the organic constituent in the diol or blending the alucone MLD films with purely inorganic ALD films to build a nanocomposite or nanolaminate. The combination of ALD and MLD reactants enlarges the number of possible sequential self-limiting surface

  16. The relevance of metal organic frameworks (MOFs) in inorganic materials chemistry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Srinivasan Natarajan; Partha Mahata; Debajit Sarma

    2012-03-01

    The metal organic frameworks (MOFs) have evolved to be an important family and a corner stone for research in the area of inorganic chemistry. The progress made since 2000 has attracted researchers from other disciplines to actively engage themselves in this area. This cooperative synergy of different scientific believes have provided important edge and spread to the chemistry of metal-organic frameworks. The ease of synthesis coupled with the observation of properties in the areas of catalysis, sorption, separation, luminescence, bioactivity, magnetism, etc., are a proof of this synergism. In this article, we present the recent developments in this area.

  17. Consistent descriptions of metal–ligand bonds and spin-crossover in inorganic chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kepp, Kasper Planeta

    2013-01-01

    Density functional theory (DFT) is today the unchallenged tool for routinely obtaining molecular information on chemical stability, reactivity, and electronic structure across the Periodic Table. The chemical bond is the fundamental unit of molecular structure and reactivity, and thus, large-scal......-blocks. Physical effects and ingredients in functionals, their systematic errors, and approaches to deal with them are discussed, in order to identify broadly applicable methods for inorganic chemistry.......-scale DFT studies of inorganic systems in catalysis and bioinorganic chemistry rely directly on the ability to balance correlation effects in the involved bonds across the s-, p-, and d-blocks. This review concerns recent efforts to describe such bonds accurately and consistently across the s-, p-, and d...

  18. The evolution of analytical chemistry methods in foodomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Monica; Ferranti, Pasquale

    2016-01-08

    The methodologies of food analysis have greatly evolved over the past 100 years, from basic assays based on solution chemistry to those relying on the modern instrumental platforms. Today, the development and optimization of integrated analytical approaches based on different techniques to study at molecular level the chemical composition of a food may allow to define a 'food fingerprint', valuable to assess nutritional value, safety and quality, authenticity and security of foods. This comprehensive strategy, defined foodomics, includes emerging work areas such as food chemistry, phytochemistry, advanced analytical techniques, biosensors and bioinformatics. Integrated approaches can help to elucidate some critical issues in food analysis, but also to face the new challenges of a globalized world: security, sustainability and food productions in response to environmental world-wide changes. They include the development of powerful analytical methods to ensure the origin and quality of food, as well as the discovery of biomarkers to identify potential food safety problems. In the area of nutrition, the future challenge is to identify, through specific biomarkers, individual peculiarities that allow early diagnosis and then a personalized prognosis and diet for patients with food-related disorders. Far from the aim of an exhaustive review of the abundant literature dedicated to the applications of omic sciences in food analysis, we will explore how classical approaches, such as those used in chemistry and biochemistry, have evolved to intersect with the new omics technologies to produce a progress in our understanding of the complexity of foods. Perhaps most importantly, a key objective of the review will be to explore the development of simple and robust methods for a fully applied use of omics data in food science.

  19. Filmes de metal-hexacianoferrato: uma ferramenta em química analítica Metal-hexacyanoferrate films: a tool in analytical Chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanildo Luiz de Mattos

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Chemically modified electrodes based on hexacyanometalate films are presented as a tool in analytical chemistry. Use of amperometric sensors and/or biosensors based on the metal-hexacyanoferrate films is a tendency. This article reviews some applications of these films for analytical determination of both inorganic (e.g. As3+, S2O3(2- and organic (e.g. cysteine, hydrazine, ascorbic acid, gluthatione, glucose, etc. compounds.

  20. Nucleic Acid i-Motif Structures in Analytical Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alba, Joan Josep; Sadurní, Anna; Gargallo, Raimundo

    2016-09-02

    Under the appropriate experimental conditions of pH and temperature, cytosine-rich segments in DNA or RNA sequences may produce a characteristic folded structure known as an i-motif. Besides its potential role in vivo, which is still under investigation, this structure has attracted increasing interest in other fields due to its sharp, fast and reversible pH-driven conformational changes. This "on/off" switch at molecular level is being used in nanotechnology and analytical chemistry to develop nanomachines and sensors, respectively. This paper presents a review of the latest applications of this structure in the field of chemical analysis.

  1. Evaluated kinetic and photochemical data for atmospheric chemistry: Volume III ? gas phase reactions of inorganic halogens

    OpenAIRE

    Atkinson, R.; Baulch, D. L.; Cox, R A; J. N. Crowley; Hampson, R. F.; Hynes, R. G.; Jenkin, M. E.; M. J. Rossi; Troe, J.

    2007-01-01

    International audience; This article, the third in the series, presents kinetic and photochemical data evaluated by the IUPAC Subcommittee on Gas Kinetic Data Evaluation for Atmospheric Chemistry. It covers the gas phase and photochemical reactions of inorganic halogen species, which were last published in J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, in 2000 (Atkinson et al., 2000), were updated on the IUPAC website in 2003 and are updated again in the present evaluation. The article consists of a summary sheet...

  2. Applications of Optical Microcavity Resonators in Analytical Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, James H; Bailey, Ryan C

    2016-06-12

    Optical resonator sensors are an emerging class of analytical technologies that use recirculating light confined within a microcavity to sensitively measure the surrounding environment. Bolstered by advances in microfabrication, these devices can be configured for a wide variety of chemical or biomolecular sensing applications. We begin with a brief description of optical resonator sensor operation, followed by discussions regarding sensor design, including different geometries, choices of material systems, methods of sensor interrogation, and new approaches to sensor operation. Throughout, key developments are highlighted, including advancements in biosensing and other applications of optical sensors. We discuss the potential of alternative sensing mechanisms and hybrid sensing devices for more sensitive and rapid analyses. We conclude with our perspective on the future of optical microcavity sensors and their promise as versatile detection elements within analytical chemistry.

  3. Tunable lasers and their application in analytical chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinfeld, J. I.

    1975-01-01

    The impact that laser techniques might have in chemical analysis is examined. Absorption, scattering, and heterodyne detection is considered. Particular emphasis is placed on the advantages of using frequency-tunable sources, and dye solution lasers are regarded as the outstanding example of this type of laser. Types of spectroscopy that can be carried out with lasers are discussed along with the ultimate sensitivity or minimum detectable concentration of molecules that can be achieved with each method. Analytical applications include laser microprobe analysis, remote sensing and instrumental methods such as laser-Raman spectroscopy, atomic absorption/fluorescence spectrometry, fluorescence assay techniques, optoacoustic spectroscopy, and polarization measurements. The application of lasers to spectroscopic methods of analysis would seem to be a rewarding field both for research in analytical chemistry and for investments in instrument manufacturing.

  4. Clinical chemistry: challenges for analytical chemistry and the nanosciences from medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durner, Jürgen

    2010-02-01

    Clinical chemistry and laboratory medicine can look back over more than 150 years of eventful history. The subject encompasses all the medicinal disciplines as well as the remaining natural sciences. Clinical chemistry demonstrates how new insights from basic research in biochemical, biological, analytical chemical, engineering, and information technology can be transferred into the daily routine of medicine to improve diagnosis, therapeutic monitoring, and prevention. This Review begins with a presentation of the development of clinical chemistry. Individual steps between the drawing of blood and interpretation of laboratory data are then illustrated; here not only are pitfalls described, but so are quality control systems. The introduction of new methods and trends into medicinal analysis is explored, along with opportunities and problems associated with personalized medicine.

  5. Molecularly imprinted polymers--potential and challenges in analytical chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahony, J.O. [Dublin City University, School of Chemical Sciences, Glasnevin, Dublin 9 (Ireland); Nolan, K. [Dublin City University, School of Chemical Sciences, Glasnevin, Dublin 9 (Ireland); Smyth, M.R. [Dublin City University, School of Chemical Sciences, Glasnevin, Dublin 9 (Ireland); Mizaikoff, B. [Georgia Institute of Technology, School of Chemistry and Biochemistry, 770 State Street, Boggs Building, Atlanta, GA 30332-0400 (United States)]. E-mail: boris.mizaikoff@chemistry.gatech.edu

    2005-04-04

    Among the variety of biomimetic recognition schemes utilizing supramolecular approaches molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) have proven their potential as synthetic receptors in numerous applications ranging from liquid chromatography to assays and sensor technology. Their inherent advantages compared to biochemical/biological recognition systems include robustness, storage endurance and lower costs. However, until recently only few contributions throughout the relevant literature describe quantitative analytical applications of MIPs for practically relevant analyte molecules and real-world samples. Increased motivation to thoroughly evaluate the true potential of MIP technology is clearly attributed to the demands of modern analytical chemistry, which include enhanced sensitivity, selectivity and applicability of molecular recognition building blocks at decreasing costs. In particular, the areas of environmental monitoring, food and beverage analysis and industrial process surveillance require analytical tools capable of discriminating chemicals with high molecular specificity considering increasing numbers of complex environmental contaminants, pollution of raw products and rigorous quality control requested by legislation and consumer protection. Furthermore, efficient product improvement and development of new products requires precise qualitative and quantitative analytical methods. Finally, environmental, food and process safety control issues favor the application of on-line in situ analytical methods with high molecular selectivity. While biorecognition schemes frequently suffer from degrading bioactivity and long-term stability when applied in real-world sample environments, MIPs serving as synthetic antibodies have successfully been applied as stationary phase separation matrix (e.g. HPLC and SPE), recognition component in bioassays (e.g. ELISA) or biomimetic recognition layer in chemical sensor systems. Examples such as MIP-based selective analysis of

  6. Selectivity in analytical chemistry: two interpretations for univariate methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorkó, Zsanett; Verbić, Tatjana; Horvai, George

    2015-01-01

    Selectivity is extremely important in analytical chemistry but its definition is elusive despite continued efforts by professional organizations and individual scientists. This paper shows that the existing selectivity concepts for univariate analytical methods broadly fall in two classes: selectivity concepts based on measurement error and concepts based on response surfaces (the response surface being the 3D plot of the univariate signal as a function of analyte and interferent concentration, respectively). The strengths and weaknesses of the different definitions are analyzed and contradictions between them unveiled. The error based selectivity is very general and very safe but its application to a range of samples (as opposed to a single sample) requires the knowledge of some constraint about the possible sample compositions. The selectivity concepts based on the response surface are easily applied to linear response surfaces but may lead to difficulties and counterintuitive results when applied to nonlinear response surfaces. A particular advantage of this class of selectivity is that with linear response surfaces it can provide a concentration independent measure of selectivity. In contrast, the error based selectivity concept allows only yes/no type decision about selectivity.

  7. The crystal chemistry of inorganic metal borohydrides and their relation to metal oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Černý, Radovan; Schouwink, Pascal

    2015-12-01

    The crystal structures of inorganic homoleptic metal borohydrides are analysed with respect to their structural prototypes found amongst metal oxides in the inorganic databases such as Pearson's Crystal Data [Villars & Cenzual (2015). Pearson's Crystal Data. Crystal Structure Database for Inorganic Compounds, Release 2014/2015, ASM International, Materials Park, Ohio, USA]. The coordination polyhedra around the cations and the borohydride anion are determined, and constitute the basis of the structural systematics underlying metal borohydride chemistry in various frameworks and variants of ionic packing, including complex anions and the packing of neutral molecules in the crystal. Underlying nets are determined by topology analysis using the program TOPOS [Blatov (2006). IUCr CompComm. Newsl. 7, 4-38]. It is found that the Pauling rules for ionic crystals apply to all non-molecular borohydride crystal structures, and that the latter can often be derived by simple deformation of the close-packed anionic lattices c.c.p. and h.c.p., by partially removing anions and filling tetrahedral or octahedral sites. The deviation from an ideal close packing is facilitated in metal borohydrides with respect to the oxide due to geometrical and electronic considerations of the BH4(-) anion (tetrahedral shape, polarizability). This review on crystal chemistry of borohydrides and their similarity to oxides is a contribution which should serve materials engineers as a roadmap to design new materials, synthetic chemists in their search for promising compounds to be prepared, and materials scientists in understanding the properties of novel materials.

  8. Introduction to Homogenous Catalysis with Ruthenium-Catalyzed Oxidation of Alcohols: An Experiment for Undergraduate Advanced Inorganic Chemistry Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miecznikowski, John R.; Caradonna, John P.; Foley, Kathleen M.; Kwiecien, Daniel J.; Lisi, George P.; Martinez, Anthony M.

    2011-01-01

    A three-week laboratory experiment, which introduces students in an advanced inorganic chemistry course to air-sensitive chemistry and catalysis, is described. During the first week, the students synthesize RuCl[subscript 2](PPh[subscript 3])[subscript 3]. During the second and third weeks, the students characterize the formed coordination…

  9. Reflections on my career in analytical chemistry and biochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeley, Charles C

    2010-01-01

    My career has been focused in two major areas, analytical chemistry and biochemistry of complex lipids and glycoconjugates. Included here are the pioneering work on the gas chromatography of long-chain sphingolipid bases, carbohydrates, steroids and urinary organic acids. Mass spectrometry was utilized extensively in structural studies of sphingolipids, fatty acids, carbohydrates, steroids, urinary organic acids, polyisoprenoid alcohols, and juvenile hormone. Computer systems were developed for the acquisition and analysis of mass spectra, and were used for development of automated metabolic profiling of complex mixtures of metabolites. Fabry's disease was discovered to be a glycosphingolipidosis. Enzymes of lysosomal metabolism of glycosphingolipids were purified, characterized, and used in one of the first demonstrations of the feasibility of enzyme replacement therapy in a lysosomal storage disorder (Fabry's disease). Extracellular sialidases were studied to evaluate the hypothesis that they might be involved in the regulation of membrane growth factor receptors. The enzyme for hematoside synthesis was purified and characterized.

  10. Microfluidics: applications for analytical purposes in chemistry and biochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Ken-ichi; Tachikawa, Kaoru; Manz, Andreas

    2008-11-01

    In this review, we present recent advancements and novel developments in fluidic systems for applied analytical purposes in chemistry, biochemistry, and life science in general that employ and reflect the full benefits of microfluidics. A staggering rise in publications related to integrated, all-in-one microfluidic chips capable of separation, reaction, and detection have been observed, all of which realise the principal of micro total analysis systems or lab-on-a-chip. These integrated chips actively adopt the scaling law concepts, utilising the highly developed fabrication techniques. Their aim is to multi-functionalise and fully automate devices believed to assist the future advancements of point-of-care, clinical, and medical diagnostics.

  11. Orbitals in inorganic chemistry: metal rings and clusters, hydronitrogens, and heterocyles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inagaki, Satoshi

    2010-01-01

    A chemical orbital theory is useful in inorganic chemistry. Some applications are described for understanding and designing of inorganic molecules. Among the topics included are: (1) valence electron rules to predict stabilities of three- and four-membered ring metals and for those of regular octahedral M(6) metal clusters solely by counting the number of valence electrons; (2) pentagon stability (stability of five- relative to six-membered rings in some classes of molecules), predicted and applied for understanding and designing saturated molecules of group XV elements; (3) properties of unsaturated hydronitrogens N( m )H( n ) in contrast to those of hydrocarbons C( m )H( n ); (4) unusually short nonbonded distances between metal atoms in cyclic molecules.

  12. Analytical Chemistry in the European Higher Education Area European Higher Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A Eurobachelor degree of Chemistry was endorsed by the EuCheMS division of analytical chemistry in 2004, and it has since then been adopted by many European universities. In the second stage of the European Higher Education Area (EHEA) process of harmonization, there is now focus on developing...... in the EHEA. The weight given to analytical chemistry has been subject to much discussion because mathematics, physics, language, information technology, social competencies and other skills tend to impose on the model for a qualified professional. However, it is a fact that most professionals of chemistry...... hold positions where analytical chemistry is the primary occupation. The education within the EHEA offers subjects related to chemical analysis but not all universities offer courses on analytical chemistry as an independent scientific discipline. Accordingly, the recent development of the analytical...

  13. Inorganic chemistry in nuclear imaging and radiotherapy: current and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Valerie; Demoin, Dustin W; Hoffman, Timothy J; Jurisson, Silvia S

    2012-08-01

    Radiometals play an important role in diagnostic and therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals. This field of radiochemistry is multidisciplinary, involving radiometal production, separation of the radiometal from its target, chelate design for complexing the radiometal in a biologically stable environment, specific targeting of the radiometal to its in vivo site, and nuclear imaging and/or radiotherapy applications of the resultant radiopharmaceutical. The critical importance of inorganic chemistry in the design and application of radiometal-containing imaging and therapy agents is described from a historical perspective to future directions.

  14. A golden future in medicinal inorganic chemistry: the promise of anticancer gold organometallic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, Benoît; Casini, Angela

    2014-03-21

    From wedding rings on fingers to stained glass windows, by way of Olympic medals, gold has been highly prized for millennia. Nowadays, organometallic gold compounds occupy an important place in the field of medicinal inorganic chemistry due to their unique chemical properties with respect to gold coordination compounds. In fact, several studies have proved that they can be used to develop highly efficient metal-based drugs with possible applications in the treatment of cancer. This Perspective summarizes the results obtained for different families of bioactive organometallic gold compounds including cyclometallated gold(iii) complexes with C,N-donor ligands, gold(I) and gold(I/III) N-heterocyclic (NHC) carbene complexes, as well as gold(I) alkynyl complexes, with promising anticancer effects. Most importantly, we will focus on recent developments in the field and discuss the potential of this class of organometallic compounds in relation to their versatile chemistry and innovative mechanisms of action.

  15. Exploration of Antarctic Subglacial environments: a challenge for analytical chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traversi, R.; Becagli, S.; Castellano, E.; Ghedini, C.; Marino, F.; Rugi, F.; Severi, M.; Udisti, R.

    2009-12-01

    interpretation of their records in sedimentary archives (ice cores, sediment cores). This activity takes advantage of facilities for storage, decontamination and pre-analysis treatment of ice and sediment strips (cold room equipped with laminar flow hoods and decontamination devices at different automation level, class 10000 clean room, systems for the complete acid digestion of sediment samples, production of ultra-pure acids and sediments’ granulometric selection) and for analytical determination of a wide range of chemical tracers. In particular, the operative instrumental set includes several Ion Chromatographs for inorganic and selected organic ions measurement (by classical Ion Chromatography and Fast Ion Chromatography), Atomic Absorption and Emission Spectrometers (F-AAS, GF-AAS, ICP-AES) and Inductively Coupled Plasma - Sector Field Mass Spectrometry (ICP-SFMS) for the analysis of the soluble or “available” inorganic fraction together with Ion Beam Analysis techniques for elemental composition (PIXE-PIGE, in collaboration with INFN and Physics Institute of Florence University) and geochemical analysis (SEM-EDS).

  16. Some aspects of analytical chemistry as applied to water quality assurance techniques for reclaimed water: The potential use of X-ray fluorescence spectrometry for automated on-line fast real-time simultaneous multi-component analysis of inorganic pollutants in reclaimed water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, A. C.; Macpherson, L. H.; Rey, M.

    1981-01-01

    The potential use of isotopically excited energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometry for automated on line fast real time (5 to 15 minutes) simultaneous multicomponent (up to 20) trace (1 to 10 parts per billion) analysis of inorganic pollutants in reclaimed water was examined. Three anionic elements (chromium 6, arsenic and selenium) were studied. The inherent lack of sensitivity of XRF spectrometry for these elements mandates use of a preconcentration technique and various methods were examined, including: several direct and indirect evaporation methods; ion exchange membranes; selective and nonselective precipitation; and complexation processes. It is shown tha XRF spectrometry itself is well suited for automated on line quality assurance, and can provide a nondestructive (and thus sample storage and repeat analysis capabilities) and particularly convenient analytical method. Further, the use of an isotopically excited energy dispersive unit (50 mCi Cd-109 source) coupled with a suitable preconcentration process can provide sufficient sensitivity to achieve the current mandated minimum levels of detection without the need for high power X-ray generating tubes.

  17. A New Project-Based Lab for Undergraduate Environmental and Analytical Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adami, Gianpiero

    2006-01-01

    A new project-based lab was developed for third year undergraduate chemistry students based on real world applications. The experience suggests that the total analytical procedure (TAP) project offers a stimulating alternative for delivering science skills and developing a greater interest for analytical chemistry and environmental sciences and…

  18. An Example of Analytical Chemistry Comprehensive Experiment%一个分析化学综合实验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧丽娟; 孙爱明; 刘开建

    2016-01-01

    介绍了一个贴近生活的分析化学综合实验—分光光度法测定食品中铁含量。该实验以邻二氮菲为显色剂,对动物肝脏、蔬菜、水果等食品中铁元素含量进行测定,在一个实验中实现了无机化学、物理化学、分析化学和仪器分析的相关学科知识的有机结合,有利于提高学生对分析化学知识的综合操作能力和应用能力,增强了学生的创新能力和团队协作意识。%An Analytical Chemistry comprehensive experiment of determination of iron in food by spectrophotometry with phenanthroline was introduced. The experiment involved the related comprehensive knowledge of Inorganic Chemistry, Physical Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry and Instrumental Analysis which can improve the comprehensive operational ability of the students, enhance students' innovation ability and team spirit.

  19. Chemistry of Mesoporous Organosilica in Nanotechnology: Molecularly Organic-Inorganic Hybridization into Frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu; Shi, Jianlin

    2016-05-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid materials aiming to combine the individual advantages of organic and inorganic components while overcoming their intrinsic drawbacks have shown great potential for future applications in broad fields. In particular, the integration of functional organic fragments into the framework of mesoporous silica to fabricate mesoporous organosilica materials has attracted great attention in the scientific community for decades. The development of such mesoporous organosilica materials has shifted from bulk materials to nanosized mesoporous organosilica nanoparticles (designated as MONs, in comparison with traditional mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs)) and corresponding applications in nanoscience and nanotechnology. In this comprehensive review, the state-of-art progress of this important hybrid nanomaterial family is summarized, focusing on the structure/composition-performance relationship of MONs of well-defined morphology, nanostructure, and nanoparticulate dimension. The synthetic strategies and the corresponding mechanisms for the design and construction of MONs with varied morphologies, compositions, nanostructures, and functionalities are overviewed initially. Then, the following part specifically concentrates on their broad spectrum of applications in nanotechnology, mainly in nanomedicine, nanocatalysis, and nanofabrication. Finally, some critical issues, presenting challenges and the future development of MONs regarding the rational synthesis and applications in nanotechnology are summarized and discussed. It is highly expected that such a unique molecularly organic-inorganic nanohybrid family will find practical applications in nanotechnology, and promote the advances of this discipline regarding hybrid chemistry and materials.

  20. The recent developments in dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction for preconcentration and determination of inorganic analytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.M. Al-Saidi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently, increasing interest on the use of dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction (DLLME developed in 2006 by Rezaee has been found in the field of separation science. DLLME is miniaturized format of liquid–liquid extraction in which acceptor-to-donor phase ratio is greatly reduced compared with other methods. In the present review, the combination of DLLME with different analytical techniques such as atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS, inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES, gas chromatography (GC, and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC for preconcentration and determination of inorganic analytes in different types of samples will be discussed. Recent developments in DLLME, e.g., displacement-DLLME, the use of an auxiliary solvent for adjustment of density of extraction mixture, and the application of ionic liquid-based DLLME in determination of inorganic species even in the presence of high content of salts are presented in the present review. Finally, comparison of DLLME with the other liquid-phase microextraction approaches and limitations of this technique are provided.

  1. European analytical column No. 36 from the Division of Analytical Chemistry (DAC) of the European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences (EuCheMS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlberg, Bo; Emons, Hendrik; Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov

    2008-01-01

    European analytical column no. 36 from the division of analytical chemistry (DAC) of the European association for chemical and molecular sciences (EuCheMS)......European analytical column no. 36 from the division of analytical chemistry (DAC) of the European association for chemical and molecular sciences (EuCheMS)...

  2. Inorganic sulfur-nitrogen compounds: from gunpowder chemistry to the forefront of biological signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortese-Krott, Miriam M; Butler, Anthony R; Woollins, J Derek; Feelisch, Martin

    2016-04-14

    The reactions between inorganic sulfur and nitrogen-bearing compounds to form S-N containing species have a long history and, besides assuming importance in industrial synthetic processes, are of relevance to microbial metabolism; waste water treatment; aquatic, soil and atmospheric chemistry; and combustion processes. The recent discovery that hydrogen sulfide and nitric oxide exert often similar, sometimes mutually dependent effects in a variety of biological systems, and that the chemical interaction of these two species leads to formation of S-N compounds brought this chemistry to the attention of physiologists, biochemists and physicians. We here provide a perspective about the potential role of S-N compounds in biological signaling and briefly review their chemical properties and bioactivities in the context of the chronology of their discovery. Studies of the biological role of NO revealed why its chemistry is ideally suited for the tasks Nature has chosen for it; realising how the distinctive properties of sulfur can enrich this bioactivity does much to revive 'die Freude am experimentellen Spiel' of the pioneers in this field.

  3. Topological data analysis: A promising big data exploration tool in biology, analytical chemistry and physical chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offroy, Marc; Duponchel, Ludovic

    2016-03-03

    An important feature of experimental science is that data of various kinds is being produced at an unprecedented rate. This is mainly due to the development of new instrumental concepts and experimental methodologies. It is also clear that the nature of acquired data is significantly different. Indeed in every areas of science, data take the form of always bigger tables, where all but a few of the columns (i.e. variables) turn out to be irrelevant to the questions of interest, and further that we do not necessary know which coordinates are the interesting ones. Big data in our lab of biology, analytical chemistry or physical chemistry is a future that might be closer than any of us suppose. It is in this sense that new tools have to be developed in order to explore and valorize such data sets. Topological data analysis (TDA) is one of these. It was developed recently by topologists who discovered that topological concept could be useful for data analysis. The main objective of this paper is to answer the question why topology is well suited for the analysis of big data set in many areas and even more efficient than conventional data analysis methods. Raman analysis of single bacteria should be providing a good opportunity to demonstrate the potential of TDA for the exploration of various spectroscopic data sets considering different experimental conditions (with high noise level, with/without spectral preprocessing, with wavelength shift, with different spectral resolution, with missing data).

  4. Analytical Thinking, Analytical Action: Using Prelab Video Demonstrations and e-Quizzes to Improve Undergraduate Preparedness for Analytical Chemistry Practical Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolley, Dianne F.; Wilson, Stephen R.; Kelso, Celine; O'Brien, Glennys; Mason, Claire E.

    2016-01-01

    This project utilizes visual and critical thinking approaches to develop a higher-education synergistic prelab training program for a large second-year undergraduate analytical chemistry class, directing more of the cognitive learning to the prelab phase. This enabled students to engage in more analytical thinking prior to engaging in the…

  5. Synthesis and Characterization of a Layered Manganese Oxide: Materials Chemistry for the Inorganic or Instrumental Methods Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ching, Stanton; Neupane, Ram P.; Gray, Timothy P.

    2006-01-01

    A three-week laboratory project involving synthesis and characterization of a layered manganese oxide provides an excellent vehicle for teaching important concepts of inorganic chemistry and instrumental methods related to non-molecular systems. Na-birnessite is an easily prepared manganese oxide with a 7 A interlayer spacing and Na[superscript +]…

  6. Electrochemistry of (Dihapto-Buckminster-Fullerene) Pentacarbonyl Tungsten(0): An Experiment for the Inorganic Chemistry Laboratory, Part III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igartua-Nieves, Elvin; Ocasio-Delgado, Yessenia; Rivera-Pagan, Jose; Cortes-Figueroa, Jose E.

    2007-01-01

    Cyclic voltammetry experiments on [60]fullerene, (C[subscript 60]), and (dihapto-[60]fullerene) pentacarbonyl tungsten(0), ([eta][superscript 2]-C[subscript 60])W(CO)[subscript 5], constitute an educational experiment for the inorganic chemistry laboratory with a primary objective to teach the chemical interpretation of a voltammogram, in…

  7. [60]Fullerene Displacement from (Dihapto-Buckminster-Fullerene) Pentacarbonyl Tungsten(0): An Experiment for the Inorganic Chemistry Laboratory, Part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortes-Figueroa, Jose E.; Moore-Russo, Deborah A.

    2006-01-01

    The kinetics experiments on the ligand-C[subscript 60] exchange reactions on (dihapto-[60]fullerene) pentacarbonyl tungsten(0), ([eta][superscript 2]-C[subscript 60])W(CO)[subscript 5], form an educational activity for the inorganic chemistry laboratory that promotes graphical thinking as well as the understanding of kinetics, mechanisms, and the…

  8. Maya chemistry of organic inorganic hybrid materials: isomerization, cyclicization and redox tuning of organic dyes attached to porous silicates

    OpenAIRE

    ANTONIO DOMÉNECH CARBÓ; Valle-Algarra, Francisco M.; Domenech Carbo, Mª Teresa; Osete Cortina, Laura; Domine ., Marcelo Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    [EN] Association of indigo and lapachol dyes to aluminosilicate clays yields polyfunctional organic – inorganic hybrid materials forming Maya Blue-like systems. Upon partial removing of clay's zeolitic water by moderate thermal treatment, abundant isomerization, cyclicization and oxidation reactions occur defining a‘ Maya chemistry whose complexity could explain the versatile use of such materials in the pre-Columbian cultures and permits the...

  9. The role of analytical chemistry in Niger Delta petroleum exploration: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinlua, Akinsehinwa

    2012-06-12

    Petroleum and organic matter from which the petroleum is derived are composed of organic compounds with some trace elements. These compounds give an insight into the origin, thermal maturity and paleoenvironmental history of petroleum, which are essential elements in petroleum exploration. The main tool to acquire the geochemical data is analytical techniques. Due to progress in the development of new analytical techniques, many hitherto petroleum exploration problems have been resolved. Analytical chemistry has played a significant role in the development of petroleum resources of Niger Delta. Various analytical techniques that have aided the success of petroleum exploration in the Niger Delta are discussed. The analytical techniques that have helped to understand the petroleum system of the basin are also described. Recent and emerging analytical methodologies including green analytical methods as applicable to petroleum exploration particularly Niger Delta petroleum province are discussed in this paper. Analytical chemistry is an invaluable tool in finding the Niger Delta oils.

  10. Sixty Years of Chemistry at CAS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WAN Li-Jun

    2011-01-01

    @@ As one of the fundamental and key disciplines of natural sciences, chemistry deals with the properties, composition, structure, transformation and applications of substances.It could be further divided into several branches, such as inorganic chemistry, organic chemistry, physical chemistry, polymer chemistry, analytical chemistry and chemical engineering.In recent years, many new branches and fields have emerged amide the continuous development of chemistry and its interdisciplinary research with mathematics, physics, astronomy, earth science, biology, medical science, materials science, and environmental science.

  11. Increasing Efficiency and Quality by Consolidation of Clinical Chemistry and Immunochemistry Systems with MODULAR ANALYTICS SWA

    OpenAIRE

    Mocarelli, Paolo; Horowitz, Gary L.; Gerthoux, Pier Mario; Cecere, Rossana; Imdahl, Roland; Ruinemans-Koerts, Janneke; Luthe, Hilmar; Calatayud, Silvia Pesudo; Salve, Marie Luisa; Kunst, Albert; McGovern, Margaret; Ng, Katherine; Stockmann, Wolfgang

    2008-01-01

    MODULAR ANALYTICS Serum Work Area (in USA Integrated MODULAR ANALYTICS, MODULAR ANALYTICS is a trademark of a member of the Roche Group) represents a further approach to automation in the laboratory medicine. This instrument combines previously introduced modular systems for the clinical chemistry and immunochemistry laboratory and allows customised combinations for various laboratory workloads. Functionality, practicability, and workflow behaviour of MODULAR ANALYTICS Serum Work Area were ev...

  12. Multifunctional ligands in medicinal inorganic chemistry--current trends and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Linus; Jones, Michael R; Ferreira, Cara L; Storr, Tim

    2012-01-01

    This review will highlight recent advances in ligand design for innovative applications in medicinal inorganic chemistry. Ligands that effectively bind metal ions and also include specific features to enhance targeting, reporting, and overall efficacy are driving innovation in areas of disease diagnosis and therapy. Increasing the potency of therapeutic compounds, while limiting side-effects, is a common goal in medicinal chemistry. In an effort to achieve this goal, compounds are being developed that either target a disease site, or are activated by a disease specific biological process. Metal complexes containing targeting functions and/or bioactive ligands, as well as agents that are activated by specific enzymes, or changes in pH and pO2, provide new avenues for drug development. Radiodiagnostic compounds, magnetic resonance imaging agents, and optical probes containing transition metals offer versatility unavailable to organic imaging agents. In certain cases, dual modality agents have been developed, and will be highlighted. Finally, we will discuss targeted metal binding compounds for treatment of metal overload disorders, and the recent application to neurodegenerative disease.

  13. ICRPG WORKING GROUP ON ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY ROUND ROBIN NO. 22 -- EUDIOMETRIC ANALYSIS OF POWDERED ALUMINUM,

    Science.gov (United States)

    Analytical Chemistry voted to conduct a round robin to estimate the interlaboratory reproducibility. The round robin was designed to facilitate statistical analysis of the data. Three samples representing different purity levels as

  14. A conflict of analysis: analytical chemistry and milk adulteration in Victorian Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steere-Williams, Jacob

    2014-08-01

    This article centres on a particularly intense debate within British analytical chemistry in the late nineteenth century, between local public analysts and the government chemists of the Inland Revenue Service. The two groups differed in both practical methodologies and in the interpretation of analytical findings. The most striking debates in this period were related to milk analysis, highlighted especially in Victorian courtrooms. It was in protracted court cases, such as the well known Manchester Milk Case in 1883, that analytical chemistry was performed between local public analysts and the government chemists, who were often both used as expert witnesses. Victorian courtrooms were thus important sites in the context of the uneven professionalisation of chemistry. I use this tension to highlight what Christopher Hamlin has called the defining feature of Victorian public health, namely conflicts of professional jurisdiction, which adds nuance to histories of the struggle of professionalisation and public credibility in analytical chemistry.

  15. Integration of Environmental Analytical Chemistry with Environmental Law: The Development of a Problem-Based Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancilla, Devon A.

    2001-01-01

    Introduces an undergraduate level problem-based analytical chemistry laboratory course integrated with an environmental law course. Aims to develop an understanding among students on the use of environmental indicators for environmental evaluation. (Contains 30 references.) (YDS)

  16. Chemometric classification techniques as a tool for solving problems in analytical chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevilacqua, Marta; Nescatelli, Riccardo; Bucci, Remo; Magrì, Andrea D; Magrì, Antonio L; Marini, Federico

    2014-01-01

    Supervised pattern recognition (classification) techniques, i.e., the family of chemometric methods whose aim is the prediction of a qualitative response on a set of samples, represent a very important assortment of tools for solving problems in several areas of applied analytical chemistry. This paper describes the theory behind the chemometric classification techniques most frequently used in analytical chemistry together with some examples of their application to real-world problems.

  17. Effects of Computer Based Learning on Students' Attitudes and Achievements towards Analytical Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akcay, Husamettin; Durmaz, Asli; Tuysuz, Cengiz; Feyzioglu, Burak

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of computer-based learning and traditional method on students' attitudes and achievement towards analytical chemistry. Students from Chemistry Education Department at Dokuz Eylul University (D.E.U) were selected randomly and divided into three groups; two experimental (Eg-1 and Eg-2) and a control…

  18. 75 FR 8147 - Notice of Consideration of Amendment Request for Decommissioning of Analytical Bio-Chemistry...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Notice of Consideration of Amendment Request for Decommissioning of Analytical Bio-Chemistry...-Chemistry Laboratories, Inc. (the Licensee) pursuant to 10 CFR part 30. By application dated October...

  19. Evaluating the Effectiveness of the Chemistry Education by Using the Analytic Hierarchy Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yüksel, Mehmet

    2012-01-01

    In this study, an attempt was made to develop a method of measurement and evaluation aimed at overcoming the difficulties encountered in the determination of the effectiveness of chemistry education based on the goals of chemistry education. An Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), which is a multi-criteria decision technique, is used in the present…

  20. Pre-analytical phase in clinical chemistry laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neogi SS

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The laboratory testing process is divided into the pre-analytical, analytical and post-analytical phases. For obtaining reliable test results, the prevention and detection of errors at all steps is required. While analytical standards have been developed by recognized quality control criteria, there is a scarcity in the development of standards for the preanalytical phase. This phase is most prone to errors as the steps involved are directly dependent on humans and are out of direct control of the laboratory. Such errors in preanalytical stage often only become apparent in the analytical or post-analytical phase. The development of a pre-analytical quality manual is essential in achieving total quality control. Correct practices and strategies of error prevention can reduce preanalytical errors. This review focuses on prevention of pre-analytical errors that occur while collecting a specimen of blood, urine and cerebrospinal fluid. Most of these can be easily prevented with understanding and education of the personnel involved in and responsible for executing this crucial pre-analytical phase.

  1. NUCLEAR CHEMISTRY ANNUAL REPORT 1970

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Authors, Various

    1971-05-01

    Papers are presented for the following topics: (1) Nuclear Structure and Nuclear Properties - (a) Nuclear Spectroscopy and Radioactivity; (b) Nuclear Reactions and Scattering; (c) Nuclear Theory; and (d) Fission. (2) Chemical and Atomic Physics - (a) Atomic and Molecular Spectroscopy; and (b) Hyperfine Interactions. (3) Physical, Inorganic, and Analytical Chemistry - (a) X-Ray Crystallography; (b) Physical and Inorganic Chemistry; (c) Radiation Chemistry; and (d) Chemical Engineering. (4) Instrumentation and Systems Development.

  2. Using Mathematical Software to Introduce Fourier Transforms in Physical Chemistry to Develop Improved Understanding of Their Applications in Analytical Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Tierney C.; Richardson, John N.; Kegerreis, Jeb S.

    2016-01-01

    This manuscript presents an exercise that utilizes mathematical software to explore Fourier transforms in the context of model quantum mechanical systems, thus providing a deeper mathematical understanding of relevant information often introduced and treated as a "black-box" in analytical chemistry courses. The exercise is given to…

  3. Fifty years of continuous improvement: (What has DOE done for analytical chemistry?)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shults, W.D.

    1993-11-01

    Over the past fifty years, analytical scientist within the DOE complex have had a tremendous impact on the field of analytical chemistry. This paper suggests six ``high impact`` research/development areas that either originated within or were brought to maturity within the DOE laboratories. ``High impact`` means they lead to new subdisciplines or to new ways of doing business.

  4. Ambientes micelares em química analítica Micellar media in analytical chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Maniasso

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available This review deals with the general use of the surfactants in Analytical Chemistry. Principal characteristic of the micelle is the improvement in selectivity and/or sensitivity of the analytical determination with emphasis on the catalytic reaction and "cloud point" extraction.

  5. Ion imprinted polymers: fundamentals, preparation strategies and applications in analytical chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Luiz Diego Marestoni; Maria Del Pilar Taboada Sotomayor; Mariana Gava Segatelli; Lucas Rossi Sartori; César Ricardo Teixeira Tarley

    2013-01-01

    Chemical imprinting technology has been widely used as a valuable tool in selective recognition of a given target analyte (molecule or metal ion), yielding a notable advance in the development of new analytical protocols. Since their discovery, molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) have been extensively studied with excellent reviews published. However, studies involving ion imprinted polymers (IIPs), in which metal ions are recognized in the presence of closely related inorganic ions, remain...

  6. Recent applications of carbon-based nanomaterials in analytical chemistry: critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scida, Karen; Stege, Patricia W; Haby, Gabrielle; Messina, Germán A; García, Carlos D

    2011-04-08

    The objective of this review is to provide a broad overview of the advantages and limitations of carbon-based nanomaterials with respect to analytical chemistry. Aiming to illustrate the impact of nanomaterials on the development of novel analytical applications, developments reported in the 2005-2010 period have been included and divided into sample preparation, separation, and detection. Within each section, fullerenes, carbon nanotubes, graphene, and composite materials will be addressed specifically. Although only briefly discussed, included is a section highlighting nanomaterials with interesting catalytic properties that can be used in the design of future devices for analytical chemistry.

  7. European analytical column no. 37 (January 2009) Division of Analytical Chemistry (DAC) of the European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences (EuCheMS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlberg, Bo; Grasserbauer, Manfred; Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov

    2009-01-01

    This issue of the European Analytical Column has again a somewhat different format: once more DAC invited a guest columnist to give his views on various matters related to Analytical Chemistry in Europe. This year, Professor Manfred Grasserbauer of the Vienna University of Technology focuses...... on current challenges for European analytical chemistry. During the period 2002–2007 Professor Grasserbauer was Director of the Institute for Environment and Sustainability, Joint Research Centre of the European Commission, Ispra. There is no doubt that many challenges exist at the present time for all of us...... representing a major branch of chemistry, namely analytical chemistry. The global financial crisis is affecting all branches of chemistry, especially analytical chemistry since our discipline by tradition has many close links to industry. Already now a decrease of industrial commitment with respect to new...

  8. Fluorometric method for inorganic pyrophosphatase activity detection and inhibitor screening based on click chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Kefeng; Chen, Zhonghui; Zhou, Ling; Zheng, Ou; Wu, Xiaoping; Guo, Longhua; Qiu, Bin; Lin, Zhenyu; Chen, Guonan

    2015-01-06

    A fluorometric method for pyrophosphatase (PPase) activity detection was developed based on click chemistry. Cu(II) can coordinate with pyrophosphate (PPi), the addition of pyrophosphatase (PPase) into the above system can destroy the coordinate compound because PPase catalyzes the hydrolysis of PPi into inorganic phosphate and produces free Cu(II), and free Cu(II) can be reduced by sodium ascorbate (SA) to form Cu(I), which in turn initiates the ligating reaction between nonfluorescent 3-azidocoumarins and terminal alkynes to produce a highly fluorescent triazole complex, based on which, a simple and sensitive turn on fluorometric method for PPase can be developed. The fluorescence intensity of the system has a linear relationship with the logarithm of the PPase concentration in the range of 0.5 and 10 mU with a detection limit down to 0.2 mU (S/N = 3). This method is cost-effective and convenient without any labels or complicated operations. The proposed system was applied to screen the potential PPase inhibitor with high efficiency. The proposed method can be applied to diagnosis of PPase-related diseases.

  9. 2004 Inorganic Chemistry Gordon Research Conference - July 18-23, 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Clark

    2005-09-16

    The Gordon Research Conference (GRC) on 2004 Inorganic Chemistry Gordon Research Conference - July 18-23, 2004 was held at Salve Regina College, July 18-23, 2004. The Conference was well-attended with 110 participants (attendees list attached). The attendees represented the spectrum of endeavor in this field coming from academia, industry, and government laboratories, both U.S. and foreign scientists, senior researchers, young investigators, and students. In designing the formal speakers program, emphasis was placed on current unpublished research and discussion of the future target areas in this field. There was a conscious effort to stimulate lively discussion about the key issues in the field today. Time for formal presentations was limited in the interest of group discussions. In order that more scientists could communicate their most recent results, poster presentation time was scheduled. Attached is a copy of the formal schedule and speaker program and the poster program. In addition to these formal interactions, 'free time' was scheduled to allow informal discussions. Such discussions are fostering new collaborations and joint efforts in the field.

  10. Immunity induced by a broad class of inorganic crystalline materials is directly controlled by their chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Gareth R; Fierens, Kaat; Preston, Stephen G; Lunn, Daniel; Rysnik, Oliwia; De Prijck, Sofie; Kool, Mirjam; Buckley, Hannah C; Lambrecht, Bart N; O'Hare, Dermot; Austyn, Jonathan M

    2014-06-02

    There is currently no paradigm in immunology that enables an accurate prediction of how the immune system will respond to any given agent. Here we show that the immunological responses induced by members of a broad class of inorganic crystalline materials are controlled purely by their physicochemical properties in a highly predictable manner. We show that structurally and chemically homogeneous layered double hydroxides (LDHs) can elicit diverse human dendritic cell responses in vitro. Using a systems vaccinology approach, we find that every measured response can be modeled using a subset of just three physical and chemical properties for all compounds tested. This correlation can be reduced to a simple linear equation that enables the immunological responses stimulated by newly synthesized LDHs to be predicted in advance from these three parameters alone. We also show that mouse antigen-specific antibody responses in vivo and human macrophage responses in vitro are controlled by the same properties, suggesting they may control diverse responses at both individual component and global levels of immunity. This study demonstrates that immunity can be determined purely by chemistry and opens the possibility of rational manipulation of immunity for therapeutic purposes.

  11. Determination of Teaching Methods in Chemistry Education by the Analytic Hierarchy Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet YÜKSE

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the relative importance of the topics of the chemistry course for the 9th grade of the secondary education and their teaching methods for an effective chemistry course have been determined by the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP technique. The AHP model of the research have been composed based on the topics in the chemistry course for the 9th grade and pair wise comparison matrix have been determined according to teachers’ view. As a result of the study, relative importance of the topics of the chemistry course as per percentage are compounds (47.8 %, chemical changes (26.5 %, chemical mixture (13.6 %, the development of chemistry (6.3 %, chemistry in our lives (5.8 %. The relative percentages of the teaching methods are narrative (32 %, demonstration (24.9 %, laboratory (18.9 %, question and answer (15.2 %, project work (9 %.

  12. Chemistry and applications of inorganic-organic polymers : organically modified silicates

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, Helmut K.; Seiferling, Bernhard

    1986-01-01

    The conbination of inorganic polymeric networks with organic components leads ot inorganic-organic polymers. A convenient method for the introduction of organic radials into an inorganic backbone is the use of aorganosubstituted silico esters in a polycondensation process. This leads to ≡Si-O-Si≡ network containing materials, so-called organically modified silicates (ORMOSILs). For the synthesis of the inorganic backbone, in opposition to the high temperature preparation of non-me...

  13. DFT calculations of quadrupolar solid-state NMR properties: Some examples in solid-state inorganic chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuny, Jerome; Messaoudi, Sabri; Alonzo, Veronique; Furet, Eric; Halet, Jean-François; Le Fur, Eric; Ashbrook, Sharon E; Pickard, Chris J; Gautier, Regis; Le Polles, Laurent

    2008-10-01

    This article presents results of first-principles calculations of quadrupolar parameters measured by solid-state nuclear magnetic measurement (NMR) spectroscopy. Different computational methods based on density functional theory were used to calculate the quadrupolar parameters. Through a series of illustrations from different areas of solid state inorganic chemistry, it is shown how quadrupolar solid-state NMR properties can be tackled by a theoretical approach and can yield structural information.

  14. An Experiential Research-Focused Approach: Implementation in a Nonlaboratory-Based Graduate-Level Analytical Chemistry Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toh, Chee-Seng

    2007-01-01

    A project is described which incorporates nonlaboratory research skills in a graduate level course on analytical chemistry. This project will help students to grasp the basic principles and concepts of modern analytical techniques and also help them develop relevant research skills in analytical chemistry.

  15. Experimental and Analytical Studies of Solar System Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, Donald S.

    2003-01-01

    The cosmochemistry research funded by this grant resulted in the publications given in the attached Publication List. The research focused in three areas: (1) Experimental studies of trace element partitioning. (2) Studies of the minor element chemistry and O isotopic compositions of MgAlO4 spinels from Ca-Al-Rich Inclusions in carbonaceous chondrite meteorites, and (3) The abundances and chemical fractionations of Th and U in chondritic meteorites.

  16. Analytical Chemistry Laboratory (ACL) procedure compendium. Volume 4, Organic methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-01

    This interim notice covers the following: extractable organic halides in solids, total organic halides, analysis by gas chromatography/Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy, hexadecane extracts for volatile organic compounds, GC/MS analysis of VOCs, GC/MS analysis of methanol extracts of cryogenic vapor samples, screening of semivolatile organic extracts, GPC cleanup for semivolatiles, sample preparation for GC/MS for semi-VOCs, analysis for pesticides/PCBs by GC with electron capture detection, sample preparation for pesticides/PCBs in water and soil sediment, report preparation, Florisil column cleanup for pesticide/PCBs, silica gel and acid-base partition cleanup of samples for semi-VOCs, concentrate acid wash cleanup, carbon determination in solids using Coulometrics` CO{sub 2} coulometer, determination of total carbon/total organic carbon/total inorganic carbon in radioactive liquids/soils/sludges by hot persulfate method, analysis of solids for carbonates using Coulometrics` Model 5011 coulometer, and soxhlet extraction.

  17. Flow Injection Analysis: A Revolution in Modern Analytical Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Elo Harald

    1996-01-01

    A review is made of the fundamentals of Flow Injection Analysis (FIA), and the versatility and applicability of this analytical concept is demonstrated by a series of examples, comprizing the use of different types of FIA-manifolds and various detection devices (optical and electrochemical). Emph...

  18. In Situ Scanning Probe Microscopy and New Perspectives in Analytical Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov; Zhang, Jingdong; Chi, Qijin

    1999-01-01

    The resolution of scanning probe microscopies is unpresedented but the techniques are fraught with limitations as analytical tools. These limitations and their relationship to the physical mechanisms of image contrast are first discussed. Some new options based on in situ STM, which hold prospects...... for molecular- and mesoscopic-scale analytical chemistry, are then reviewed. They are illustrated by metallic electro-crystallisation and -dissolution, and in situ STM spectroscopy of large redox molecules. The biophysically oriented analytical options of in situ atomic force microscopy, and analytical chemical...... perspectives for the new microcantilever sensor techniques are also discussed....

  19. Manual of analytical methods for the Industrial Hygiene Chemistry Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greulich, K.A.; Gray, C.E. (comp.)

    1991-08-01

    This Manual is compiled from techniques used in the Industrial Hygiene Chemistry Laboratory of Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The procedures are similar to those used in other laboratories devoted to industrial hygiene practices. Some of the methods are standard; some, modified to suit our needs; and still others, developed at Sandia. The authors have attempted to present all methods in a simple and concise manner but in sufficient detail to make them readily usable. It is not to be inferred that these methods are universal for any type of sample, but they have been found very reliable for the types of samples mentioned.

  20. Lead - a preanalytical/analytical variable in clinical chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rašić-Mišić Ivana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lead is one of the most studied clinically important metals due its high toxicity and a high number of workers exposed to it. The interest toward Pb is elevated by the fact that children are especially susceptible to lead poisoning. Research regarding lead poisoning requires a complex, multi-disciplinary (clinical medical and clinical chemical approach. Monitoring human exposure to lead (intake, i.e. poisoning may be achieved by quantification of Pb in tissues and body fluids. For that reason, a number of accurate and reliable analytical methods for the determination of Pb (analytical/preanalytical variable were developed. An objective of this review paper is to provide key information necessary for proper interpretation of results of lead related clinical/laboratory tests. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172061

  1. European analytical column No. 37 from the Division of Analytical Chemistry (DAC of the European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences (EuCheMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BO KARLBERG

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTORY COMMENTS FROM THE CHAIRMAN OF DACThe European Analytical Column has again a somewhat different format. We have once more invited a guest columnist to give their views on various matters related to Analytical Chemistry in Europe. This year we have invited Professor Manfred Grasserbauer of the Vienna University of Technology to present some of the current challenges for European analytical chemistry. During the period 2002–2007 Professor Grasserbauer was Director of the Institute for Environment and Sustainability, Joint Research Centre of the European Commission, Ispra. There is no doubt that many challenges exist at the present time for all of us representing a major branch of chemistry, namely analytical chemistry.The global financial crisis is affecting all branches of chemistry but analytical chemistry in particular since our discipline by tradition has many close links to industry. We notice already now a decreased industrial commitment with respect to new research projects and sponsoring of conferences. It is therefore important that we strengthen our efforts and that we keep our presence at analytical chemistry meetings and conferences unchanged.Recent activities of DAC and details regarding the major analytical-chemistry event this year in Europe, Euroanalysis XV in Innsbruck, are also reported.

  2. Bibliometric mapping: eight decades of analytical chemistry, with special focus on the use of mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waaijer, Cathelijn J F; Palmblad, Magnus

    2015-01-01

    In this Feature we use automatic bibliometric mapping tools to visualize the history of analytical chemistry from the 1920s until the present. In particular, we have focused on the application of mass spectrometry in different fields. The analysis shows major shifts in research focus and use of mass spectrometry. We conclude by discussing the application of bibliometric mapping and visualization tools in analytical chemists' research.

  3. Analytical evaluation of the clinical chemistry analyzer Olympus AU2700 plus

    OpenAIRE

    Juricek, Jasna; Derek, Lovorka; Unic, Adriana; Serdar, Tihana; Marijancevic, Domagoj; Zivkovic, Marcela; Romic, Zeljko

    2010-01-01

    Background: The objective of this study was to perform the analytical evaluation of the clinical chemistry analyzer Olympus AU2700 plus. The evaluation was performed according to the guidelines of the European Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (ECCLS). Materials and methods: The evaluation consisted of determination of within-run and between-run imprecision, inaccuracy and comparison with Olympus AU2700. The tested analytes were: glucose, creatinine, urate, total bilirubin, chole...

  4. Analytical chemistry in water quality monitoring during manned space missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artemyeva, Anastasia A.

    2016-09-01

    Water quality monitoring during human spaceflights is essential. However, most of the traditional methods require sample collection with a subsequent ground analysis because of the limitations in volume, power, safety and gravity. The space missions are becoming longer-lasting; hence methods suitable for in-flight monitoring are demanded. Since 2009, water quality has been monitored in-flight with colorimetric methods allowing for detection of iodine and ionic silver. Organic compounds in water have been monitored with a second generation total organic carbon analyzer, which provides information on the amount of carbon in water at both the U.S. and Russian segments of the International Space Station since 2008. The disadvantage of this approach is the lack of compound-specific information. The recently developed methods and tools may potentially allow one to obtain in-flight a more detailed information on water quality. Namely, the microanalyzers based on potentiometric measurements were designed for online detection of chloride, potassium, nitrate ions and ammonia. The recent application of the current highly developed air quality monitoring system for water analysis was a logical step because most of the target analytes are the same in air and water. An electro-thermal vaporizer was designed, manufactured and coupled with the air quality control system. This development allowed for liberating the analytes from the aqueous matrix and further compound-specific analysis in the gas phase.

  5. The Analytical Chemistry of Drug Monitoring in Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, Larry D.

    2009-07-01

    The detection and deterrence of the abuse of performance-enhancing drugs in sport are important to maintaining a level playing field among athletes and to decreasing the risk to athletes’ health. The World Anti-Doping Program consists of six documents, three of which play a role in analytical development: The World Anti-Doping Code, The List of Prohibited Substances and Methods, and The International Standard for Laboratories. Among the classes of prohibited substances, three have given rise to the most recent analytical developments in the field: anabolic agents; peptide and protein hormones; and methods to increase oxygen delivery to the tissues, including recombinant erythropoietin. Methods for anabolic agents, including designer steroids, have been enhanced through the use of liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry and gas chromatography/combustion/isotope-ratio mass spectrometry. Protein and peptide identification and quantification have benefited from advances in liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. Incorporation of techniques such as flow cytometry and isoelectric focusing have supported the detection of blood doping.

  6. First implementation of secondary inorganic aerosols in the MOCAGE version R2.15.0 chemistry transport model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guth, J.; Josse, B.; Marécal, V.; Joly, M.; Hamer, P.

    2016-01-01

    In this study we develop a secondary inorganic aerosol (SIA) module for the MOCAGE chemistry transport model developed at CNRM. The aim is to have a module suitable for running at different model resolutions and for operational applications with reasonable computing times. Based on the ISORROPIA II thermodynamic equilibrium module, the new version of the model is presented and evaluated at both the global and regional scales. The results show high concentrations of secondary inorganic aerosols in the most polluted regions: Europe, Asia and the eastern part of North America. Asia shows higher sulfate concentrations than other regions thanks to emission reductions in Europe and North America. Using two simulations, one with and the other without secondary inorganic aerosol formation, the global model outputs are compared to previous studies, to MODIS AOD retrievals, and also to in situ measurements from the HTAP database. The model shows a better agreement with MODIS AOD retrievals in all geographical regions after introducing the new SIA scheme. It also provides a good statistical agreement with in situ measurements of secondary inorganic aerosol composition: sulfate, nitrate and ammonium. In addition, the simulation with SIA generally gives a better agreement with observations for secondary inorganic aerosol precursors (nitric acid, sulfur dioxide, ammonia), in particular with a reduction of the modified normalized mean bias (MNMB). At the regional scale, over Europe, the model simulation with SIA is compared to the in situ measurements from the EMEP database and shows a good agreement with secondary inorganic aerosol composition. The results at the regional scale are consistent with those obtained from the global simulations. The AIRBASE database was used to compare the model to regulated air quality pollutants: particulate matter, ozone and nitrogen dioxide concentrations. Introduction of the SIA in MOCAGE provides a reduction in the PM2.5 MNMB of 0.44 on a

  7. Determining the Quantum Efficiency for Activation of an Organometallic Photoinitiator for Cationic Polymerization: An Experiment for the Physical or Inorganic Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, David M.; Mahar, Maura; Schnabel, R. Chris; Shah, Paras; Lees, Alistair J.; Jakubek, Vladimir

    2007-01-01

    We present a new laboratory experiment on the photochemistry of organometallic [eta][superscript 5],[eta][superscript 6]-mixed-sandwich compounds, which is suitable for both the physical chemistry and inorganic chemistry laboratory. Specifically, students use 1,10-phenanthroline to trap the intermediate formed when…

  8. Disruptive by design: a perspective on engineering in analytical chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herr, Amy E

    2013-08-20

    Perhaps paradoxically, we argue that the biological sciences are "data-limited". In contrast to the glut of DNA sequencing data available, high-throughput protein analysis is expensive and largely inaccessible. Hence, we posit that access to robust protein-level data is inadequate. Here, we use the framework of the formal engineering design process to both identify and understand the problems facing measurement science in the 21st century. In particular, discussion centers on the notable challenge of realizing protein analyses that are as effective (and transformative) as genomics tools. This Perspective looks through the lens of a case study on protein biomarker validation and verification, to highlight the importance of iterative design in realizing significant advances over currently available measurement capabilities in the candidate or targeted proteomics space. The Perspective follows a podium presentation given by the author at The 16th International Conference on Miniaturized Systems for Chemistry and Life Sciences (μTAS 2012), specifically focusing on novel targeted proteomic measurement tools based in microfluidic design. The role of unmet needs identification, iteration in concept generation and development, and the existing gap in rapid prototyping tools for separations are all discussed.

  9. Chinese Journal of Chemistry Instructions for Authors 2005

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    1 General Chinese Journal of Chemistry is an international peer-reviewed journal published in English, with its editorial office hosted by the Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences. It publishes original research work in all fields of chemistry, i.e. physical, inorganic, organic and analytic chemistry, etc., in the forms of Accounts, Full Papers, Notes and Communications.

  10. Innovative methods for data analysis in analytical chemistry using Bayesian statistics and machine learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woldegebriel, M.T.

    2017-01-01

    In analytical chemistry, rapid advancement in instrumentation, especially in high resolution mass-spectrometry is making a significant contribution for further developments of the field. As such, in separation science, nowadays, several hyphenated techniques have proven to be the state-of-the-art te

  11. Student Learning and Evaluation in Analytical Chemistry Using a Problem-Oriented Approach and Portfolio Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, Mary C.; Singh, Kuki

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a student-focused activity that promotes effective learning in analytical chemistry. Providing an environment where students were responsible for their own learning allowed them to participate at all levels from designing the problem to be addressed, planning the laboratory work to support their learning, to providing evidence…

  12. A Comprehensive Microfluidics Device Construction and Characterization Module for the Advanced Undergraduate Analytical Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piunno, Paul A. E.; Zetina, Adrian; Chu, Norman; Tavares, Anthony J.; Noor, M. Omair; Petryayeva, Eleonora; Uddayasankar, Uvaraj; Veglio, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    An advanced analytical chemistry undergraduate laboratory module on microfluidics that spans 4 weeks (4 h per week) is presented. The laboratory module focuses on comprehensive experiential learning of microfluidic device fabrication and the core characteristics of microfluidic devices as they pertain to fluid flow and the manipulation of samples.…

  13. Online Video Tutorials Increase Learning of Difficult Concepts in an Undergraduate Analytical Chemistry Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yi; Swenson, Sandra; Lents, Nathan

    2012-01-01

    Educational technology has enhanced, even revolutionized, pedagogy in many areas of higher education. This study examines the incorporation of video tutorials as a supplement to learning in an undergraduate analytical chemistry course. The concepts and problems in which students faced difficulty were first identified by assessing students'…

  14. Quantitative Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction for Trace-Metal Determination: An Experiment for Analytical Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavilla, Isela; Costas, Marta; Pena-Pereira, Francisco; Gil, Sandra; Bendicho, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    Ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) is introduced to upper-level analytical chemistry students as a simple strategy focused on sample preparation for trace-metal determination in biological tissues. Nickel extraction in seafood samples and quantification by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) are carried out by a team of four…

  15. Liquid-Liquid Extraction of Insecticides from Juice: An Analytical Chemistry Laboratory Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radford, Samantha A.; Hunter, Ronald E., Jr.; Barr, Dana Boyd; Ryan, P. Barry

    2013-01-01

    A laboratory experiment was developed to target analytical chemistry students and to teach them about insecticides in food, sample extraction, and cleanup. Micro concentrations (sub-microgram/mL levels) of 12 insecticides spiked into apple juice samples are extracted using liquid-liquid extraction and cleaned up using either a primary-secondary…

  16. Incorporating Students' Self-Designed, Research-Based Analytical Chemistry Projects into the Instrumentation Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ruomei

    2015-01-01

    In a typical chemistry instrumentation laboratory, students learn analytical techniques through a well-developed procedure. Such an approach, however, does not engage students in a creative endeavor. To foster the intrinsic motivation of students' desire to learn, improve their confidence in self-directed learning activities and enhance their…

  17. Juicing the Juice: A Laboratory-Based Case Study for an Instrumental Analytical Chemistry Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaber, Peter M.; Dinan, Frank J.; St. Phillips, Michael; Larson, Renee; Pines, Harvey A.; Larkin, Judith E.

    2011-01-01

    A young, inexperienced Food and Drug Administration (FDA) chemist is asked to distinguish between authentic fresh orange juice and suspected reconstituted orange juice falsely labeled as fresh. In an advanced instrumental analytical chemistry application of this case, inductively coupled plasma (ICP) spectroscopy is used to distinguish between the…

  18. Determination of Mercury in Milk by Cold Vapor Atomic Fluorescence: A Green Analytical Chemistry Laboratory Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armenta, Sergio; de la Guardia, Miguel

    2011-01-01

    Green analytical chemistry principles were introduced to undergraduate students in a laboratory experiment focused on determining the mercury concentration in cow and goat milk. In addition to traditional goals, such as accuracy, precision, sensitivity, and limits of detection in method selection and development, attention was paid to the…

  19. An Attenuated Total Reflectance Sensor for Copper: An Experiment for Analytical or Physical Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shtoyko, Tanya; Zudans, Imants; Seliskar, Carl J.; Heineman, William R.; Richardson, John N.

    2004-01-01

    A sensor experiment which can be applied to advanced undergraduate laboratory course in physical or analytical chemistry is described along with certain concepts like the demonstration of chemical sensing, preparation of thin films on a substrate, microtitration, optical determination of complex ion stoichiometry and isosbestic point. It is seen…

  20. Teaching Effective Communication in a Writing-Intensive Analytical Chemistry Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelan, Rebecca J.; Zare, Richard N.

    2003-01-01

    Presents a variety of activities, assignments, and mentoring structures to address the challenges of teaching writing while at the same time delivering analytical chemistry content. Emphasizes the importance of students being able to communicate in the language of their chosen field. (Author/NB)

  1. [Analytical chemistry in works of Maria Skłodowska-Curie].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulanicki, Adam

    2012-01-01

    Maria Skłodowska-Curie--a Nobel Prize winner in chemistry--the elements of learning of chemistry gained just by a dint of work of more than ten months in Warsaw in the Institute of Industry and Agriculture Museum. The Nobel Prize concerned a contribution to the progress of chemistry through the discovery of radium and polonium, separation of radium and study of properties of this amazing element. It was awarded for an extremely arduous work, during which the chemical reactions being the principles of analytical chemistry were realized. Unlike to a typical analytical procedure, an initial attempt here was the thousands of kilograms of uranium ore: pitchblende. The final effect was small amounts of new elements: polonium and radium. Both the knowledge and the intuition of the researcher let her have a triumph. The difficulties she experienced because the properties of the searched chemical elements could only be evaluated thanks to the knowledge on other chemical elements. A significant achievement was the determination of the samples by means of radioactivity measurement, which gave rise to radiochemical analytical methods. An extreme analytical precision was demanded in multiple processes of fractional crystallization and precipitation which finally led to the calculation of the atomic mass of radium.

  2. [Recent progress on analytical chemistry and biochemistry of D-amino acids].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, K; Kato, M; Huang, Y; Ichihara, H; Fukushima, T; Santa, T; Homma, H

    1997-11-01

    Recent findings that D-amino acids, especially D-aspartic acid and D-serine, exist in vivo in the mammalian tissues (brain and peripheries), prompted us now to investigate their biological and pathological roles in mammals. In this review, the overview of the progress of analytical chemistry and biochemistry of D-amino acids is described.

  3. Island Explorations: Discovering Effects of Environmental Research-Based Lab Activities on Analytical Chemistry Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasik, Janice Hall; LeCaptain, Dale; Murphy, Sarah; Martin, Mary; Knight, Rachel M.; Harke, Maureen A.; Burke, Ryan; Beck, Kara; Acevedo-Polakovich, I. David

    2014-01-01

    Motivating students in analytical chemistry can be challenging, in part because of the complexity and breadth of topics involved. Some methods that help encourage students and convey real-world relevancy of the material include incorporating environmental issues, research-based lab experiments, and service learning projects. In this paper, we…

  4. Analysis of a Natural Yellow Dye: An Experiment for Analytical Organic Chemistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Villela, A.; Derksen, G.C.H.; Beek, van T.A.

    2014-01-01

    This experiment exposes second-year undergraduate students taking a course in analytical organic chemistry to high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and quantitative analysis using the internal standard method. This is accomplished using the real-world application of natural dyes for textiles

  5. The Efficacy of Problem-Based Learning in an Analytical Laboratory Course for Pre-Service Chemistry Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Heojeong; Woo, Ae Ja; Treagust, David; Chandrasegaran, A. L.

    2014-01-01

    The efficacy of problem-based learning (PBL) in an analytical chemistry laboratory course was studied using a programme that was designed and implemented with 20 students in a treatment group over 10 weeks. Data from 26 students in a traditional analytical chemistry laboratory course were used for comparison. Differences in the creative thinking…

  6. Increasing Efficiency and Quality by Consolidation of Clinical Chemistry and Immunochemistry Systems with MODULAR ANALYTICS SWA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocarelli, Paolo; Horowitz, Gary L; Gerthoux, Pier Mario; Cecere, Rossana; Imdahl, Roland; Ruinemans-Koerts, Janneke; Luthe, Hilmar; Calatayud, Silvia Pesudo; Salve, Marie Luisa; Kunst, Albert; McGovern, Margaret; Ng, Katherine; Stockmann, Wolfgang

    2008-01-01

    MODULAR ANALYTICS Serum Work Area (in USA Integrated MODULAR ANALYTICS, MODULAR ANALYTICS is a trademark of a member of the Roche Group) represents a further approach to automation in the laboratory medicine. This instrument combines previously introduced modular systems for the clinical chemistry and immunochemistry laboratory and allows customised combinations for various laboratory workloads. Functionality, practicability, and workflow behaviour of MODULAR ANALYTICS Serum Work Area were evaluated in an international multicenter study at six laboratories. Across all experiments, 236000 results from 32400 samples were generated using 93 methods. Simulated routine testing which included provocation incidents and anomalous situations demonstrated good performance and full functionality. Heterogeneous immunoassays, performed on the E-module with the electrochemiluminescence technology, showed reproducibility at the same level of the general chemistry tests, which was well within the clinical demands. Sample carryover cannot occur due to intelligent sample processing. Workflow experiments for the various module combinations, with menus of about 50 assays, yielded mean sample processing times of chemistry and immunochemistry requests; ANALYTICS Serum Work Area offered simplified workflow by combining various laboratory segments. It increased efficiency while maintaining or even improving quality of laboratory processes.

  7. Priority survey between indicators and analytic hierarchy process analysis for green chemistry technology assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sungjune; Hong, Seokpyo; Ahn, Kilsoo; Gong, Sungyong

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study presents the indicators and proxy variables for the quantitative assessment of green chemistry technologies and evaluates the relative importance of each assessment element by consulting experts from the fields of ecology, chemistry, safety, and public health. Methods The results collected were subjected to an analytic hierarchy process to obtain the weights of the indicators and the proxy variables. Results These weights may prove useful in avoiding having to resort to qualitative means in absence of weights between indicators when integrating the results of quantitative assessment by indicator. Conclusions This study points to the limitations of current quantitative assessment techniques for green chemistry technologies and seeks to present the future direction for quantitative assessment of green chemistry technologies. PMID:26206364

  8. Hard Cap Espresso Machines in Analytical Chemistry: What Else?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armenta, Sergio; de la Guardia, Miguel; Esteve-Turrillas, Francesc A

    2016-06-21

    A hard cap espresso machine has been used in combination with liquid chromatography with molecular fluorescence detection for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from contaminated soils and sediments providing appropriate extraction efficiencies and quantitative results. Naphthalene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benz[a]anthracene, chrysene, benz[b]fluoranthene, benz[k]fluoranthene, benz[a]pyrene, dibenz[a,h]anthracene, benz[ghi]perylene, and indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene were used as target compounds. It should be mentioned that the pairs benz[a]anthracene-chrysene and dibenz[a,h]anthracene-benz[ghi]perylene peaks coelute under the employed chromatographic conditions; thus, those compounds were determined together. PAHs were extracted from 5.0 g of soil, previously homogenized, freeze-dried, and sieved to 250 μm, with 50 mL of 40% (v/v) acetonitrile in water at a temperature of 72 ± 3 °C. The proposed procedure is really fast, with an extraction time of 11 s, and it reduces the required amount of organic solvent to do the sample preparation. The obtained limit of detection for the evaluated PAHs was from 1 to 38 μg kg(-1). Recoveries were calculated using clean soils spiked with 100, 500, 1000, and 2000 μg kg(-1) PAHs with values ranging from 81 to 121% and good precision with relative standard deviation values lower than 30%. The method was validated using soil and sediment certified reference materials and also using real samples by comparison with ultrasound-assisted extraction, as reference methodology, obtaining statistically comparable results. Thus, the use of hard cap espresso machines in the analytical laboratories offers tremendous possibilities as low cost extraction units for the extraction of solid samples.

  9. Silicon and germanium nanoparticles with tailored surface chemistry as novel inorganic fiber brightening agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deb-Choudhury, Santanu; Prabakar, Sujay; Krsinic, Gail; Dyer, Jolon M; Tilley, Richard D

    2013-07-31

    Low-molecular-weight organic molecules, such as coumarins and stilbenes, are used commercially as fluorescent whitening agents (FWAs) to mask photoyellowing and to brighten colors in fabrics. FWAs achieve this by radiating extra blue light, thus changing the hue and also adding to the brightness. However, organic FWAs can rapidly photodegrade in the presence of ultraviolet (UV) radiation, exacerbating the yellowing process through a reaction involving singlet oxygen species. Inorganic nanoparticles, on the other hand, can provide a similar brightening effect with the added advantage of photostability. We report a targeted approach in designing new inorganic silicon- and germanium-based nanoparticles, functionalized with hydrophilic (amine) surface terminations as novel inorganic FWAs. When applied on wool, by incorporation in a sol-gel Si matrix, the inorganic FWAs improved brightness properties, demonstrated enhanced photostability toward UV radiation, especially the germanium nanoparticles, and also generated considerably lower levels of reactive oxygen species compared to a commercial stilbene-based organic FWA, Uvitex NFW.

  10. Analytical Chemistry (edited by R. Kellner, J.- M. Mermet, M. Otto, and H. M. Widmer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Reviewed By Robert Q.

    2000-04-01

    This text, written in English, was developed by the Division of Analytical Chemistry of the Federation of European Chemical Societies to support the university-level Eurocurriculum in analytical chemistry, a major effort of academics and other analytical scientists throughout Europe and an outgrowth of the economic unification of European countries. The goal of a uniform curriculum and text for analytical chemistry across national borders is laudable, and the editors, led by the late Robert Kellner, deserve commendation for their accomplishments. (The U.S., in contrast, has been late in considering the analytical chemistry curriculum and only recently has published a pamphlet, Curricular Developments in the Analytical Sciences, an outgrowth of several NSF-sponsored workshops.) I can't remember another analytical text that begins with mention of the "big bang" and the beginnings of the universe (!), but I don't believe that the authors and publisher are looking to export their curriculum to neighboring planets. However, I am sure that they are interested in the North American market and its strong analytical chemistry community. It is in this context and in comparison with leading analytical texts in the U.S. that I write this review. At first glance, Analytical Chemistry overwhelms. It is a large book of more than 900 pages, a mass of 2.3 kg, and a volume of nearly 3 L. It is not a book that is easy to stuff into a backpack for the trip to class or lab. Students also may resent paying top dollar for a book that might not last the semester, given that the pages of my review copy began to pull away from the binding after only a few days of gentle use. Beneath the snazzy cover there is a dearth of color printing and photographs. This, combined with a smallish font and figures that are inconsistent in size, quality, and font, makes for a book that is not especially easy on the eyes. The large margins provide ample space for the numerous figures, figure captions, and

  11. Analytical Chemistry Division annual progress report for period ending December 31, 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-05-01

    The Analytical Chemistry Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is a large and diversified organization. As such, it serves a multitude of functions for a clientele that exists both in and outside of ORNL. These functions fall into the following general categories: (1) Analytical Research, Development, and Implementation. The division maintains a program to conceptualize, investigate, develop, assess, improve, and implement advanced technology for chemical and physicochemical measurements. Emphasis is on problems and needs identified with ORNL and Department of Energy (DOE) programs; however, attention is also given to advancing the analytical sciences themselves. (2) Programmatic Research, Development, and Utilization. The division carries out a wide variety of chemical work that typically involves analytical research and/or development plus the utilization of analytical capabilities to expedite programmatic interests. (3) Technical Support. The division performs chemical and physicochemical analyses of virtually all types. The Analytical Chemistry Division is organized into four major sections, each of which may carry out any of the three types of work mentioned above. Chapters 1 through 4 of this report highlight progress within the four sections during the period January 1 to December 31, 1988. A brief discussion of the division's role in an especially important environmental program is given in Chapter 5. Information about quality assurance, safety, and training programs is presented in Chapter 6, along with a tabulation of analyses rendered. Publications, oral presentations, professional activities, educational programs, and seminars are cited in Chapters 7 and 8.

  12. The development of a standard for a power plant analytical chemistry quality management system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meils, D.E. [Scientech, LLC, Dunedin, FL (United States); Mastroianni, J.A. [Scientech Information Services, Oshawa, ON (Canada)

    2008-04-15

    This paper reports on the changes that have taken place since 2004 in the development of a Standard that defines those objectives that must be met in order for a power plant laboratory to demonstrate it operates a technically competent quality management system and is capable of producing technically competent results. The Standard for a Power Plant Analytical Chemistry Quality Management System was produced by the Power Plant Chemistry QA/QC Advisory Group and includes those practices required to meet the stated objectives. (orig.)

  13. Zinc complexes developed as metallopharmaceutics for treating diabetes mellitus based on the bio-medicinal inorganic chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Yutaka; Yasui, Hiroyuki

    2012-01-01

    Biological trace metals such as iron, zinc, copper, and manganese are essential to life and health of humans, and the success of platinum drugs in the cancer chemotherapy has rapidly grown interest in developing inorganic pharmaceutical agents in medicinal chemistry, that is, medicinal inorganic chemistry, using essential elements and other biological trace metals. Transition metal complexes with unique chemical structures may be useful alternatives to the drugs available to address some of the incurable diseases. In this review, we emphasize that metal complexes are an expanding of interest in the research field of treatment of diabetes mellitus. Especially, orally active anti-diabetic and anti-metabolic syndrome zinc complexes have been developed and progressed since the discovery in 2001, where several highly potent anti-diabetic zinc complexes with different coordination structures have quite recently been disclosed, using experimental diabetic animals. In all of the complexes discussed, zinc is found to be biologically active and function by interacting with some target proteins related with diabetes mellitus. The design and screening of zinc complexes with higher activity is not efficient without consideration of the translational research. For the development of a clinically useful metallopharmaceutics, the research of zinc complexes on the long-term toxicity including side effects, clear-cut evidence of target molecule for the in vivo pharmacological action, and good pharmacokinetic property are essential in the current and future studies.

  14. Over a century of detection and quantification capabilities in analytical chemistry--historical overview and trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belter, Magdalena; Sajnóg, Adam; Barałkiewicz, Danuta

    2014-11-01

    The detection limit (LD) and the quantification limit (LQ) are important parameters in the validation process. Estimation of these parameters is especially important when trace and ultra-trace quantities of analyte are to be detected. When the apparatus response from the analyte is below the detection limit, it does not necessarily mean that the analyte is not present in the sample. It may be a message that the analyte concentration could be below the detection capabilities of the instrument or analytical method. By using a more sensitive detector or a different analytical method it is possible to quantitatively determine the analyte in a given sample. The terms associated with detection capabilities have been present in the scientific literature for at least the past 100 years. Numerous terms, definitions and approaches to calculations have been presented during that time period. This paper is an attempt to collect and summarize the principal approaches to the definition and calculation of detection and quantification abilities published from the beginning of 20th century up until the present. Some of the most important methods are described in detail. Furthermore, the authors would like to popularize the knowledge of metrology in chemistry, particularly that part of it which concerns validation of the analytical procedure.

  15. Analytical chemistry of the persistent organic pollutants identified in the Stockholm Convention: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Weiguang; Wang, Xian; Cai, Zongwei

    2013-08-06

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are major environmental concern due to their persistence, long-range transportability, bio-accumulation and potentially adverse effects on living organisms. Analytical chemistry plays an essential role in the measurement of POPs and provides important information on their distribution and environmental transformations. Much effort has been devoted during the last two decades to the development of faster, safer, more reliable and more sensitive analytical techniques for these pollutants. Since the Stockholm Convention (SC) on POPs was adopted 12 years ago, analytical methods have been extensively developed. This review article introduces recent analytical techniques and applications for the determination of POPs in environmental and biota samples, and summarizes the extraction, separation and instrumental analyses of the halogenated POPs. Also, this review covers important aspects for the analyses of SC POPs (e.g. lipid determination and quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC)), and finally discusses future trends for improving the POPs analyses and for potential new POPs.

  16. Analytical Chemistry Division. Annual progress report for period ending December 31, 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyon, W. S. [ed.

    1982-04-01

    The functions of the Analytical Chemistry Division fall into three general categories: (1) analytical research, development, and implementation; (2) programmatic research, development and utilization; (3) technical support. The Division is organized into five major sections each of which may carry out any type of work falling into the thre categories mentioned above. Chapters 1 through 5 of this report highlight progress within the five sections which are: analytical methodology; mass and emission spectrometry; analytical technical support; bio/organic analysis section; and nuclear and radiochemical analysis. A short summary introduces each chapter to indicate work scope. Information about quality assurance and safety programs is presented in Chapter 6, along with a tabulation of analyses rendered. Chapter 7 covers supplementary activities. Chapter 8 is on presentation of research results (publications, articles reviewed or referred for periodicals). Approximately 56 articles, 31 proceedings publications and 33 reports have been published, and 119 oral presentations given during this reporting period.

  17. Incorporating Sustainability and Life Cycle Assessment into First-Year Inorganic Chemistry Major Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guron, Marta; Paul, Jared J.; Roeder, Margaret H.

    2016-01-01

    Although much of the scientific community concerns itself with ideas of a sustainable future, very little of this interest and motivation has reached the classroom experience of the average chemistry major, and therefore, it is imperative to expose students to these ideas early in their careers. The focus of most undergraduate chemistry curricula…

  18. Chemistry-nuclear chemistry division. Progress report, October 1979-September 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, R.R. (comp.)

    1981-05-01

    This report presents the research and development programs pursued by the Chemistry-Nuclear Chemistry Division of the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Topics covered include advanced analytical methods, atmospheric chemistry and transport, biochemistry, biomedical research, element migration and fixation, inorganic chemistry, isotope separation and analysis, atomic and molecular collisions, molecular spectroscopy, muonic x rays, nuclear cosmochemistry, nuclear structure and reactions, radiochemical separations, theoretical chemistry, and unclassified weapons research.

  19. 75 years of the Division of Analytical Chemistry of the American Chemical Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Roland F

    2013-04-02

    The Division of Analytical Chemistry is celebrating the 75th anniversary of its founding in 1938. We celebrate the continuing high importance of our discipline for all aspects of chemical science and for its applications in so many aspects of everyday life. We especially celebrate the accomplishments of our fellow analytical chemists through the years, and the impact we have had on the profession. This article is a short history of the Division within the context of the parallel development of our profession and our science.

  20. On the outside looking in: redefining the role of analytical chemistry in the biosciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hare, Dominic J; New, Elizabeth J

    2016-07-12

    Biomedical research has moved on from the study of the structure of organs, cells and organelles. Today, the key questions that must be addressed to understand the body in health and disease are related to fundamental biochemistry: the distribution and speciation of chemicals, the regulation of chemical reactions, and the control of chemical environments. To see advances in this field, it is essential for analytical chemists to actively engage in this process, from beginning to end. In this Feature Article, we review the progress that has been made towards gaining an understanding of the chemistry of the body, while commenting on the intrinsic disconnect between new innovations in the field of analytical chemistry and practical application within the biosciences. We identify the challenges that prevent chemists from making a greater impact in this field, and highlight key steps for moving forward.

  1. APPLICATION OF THE ANALYTICAL ELECTRON MICROSCOPE TO THE STUDY OF GRAIN BOUNDARY CHEMISTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, E

    1982-01-01

    High spatial resolution X-ray spectroscopy in the analytical electron microscope (AEM) is a powerful tool for the study of changes in chemistry which occur at grain boundaries in metals and ceramics. Two major advantages are realized through the use of the AEM in these studies : the ability to obtain accurate quantitative microchemical analysis of grain boundary regions, and the capability for determining the structural and crystallographic characteristics of the boundaries on which the chemi...

  2. The impact of supramolecular nanocarriers to contemporary pharmaceutical and analytical chemistry: a minireview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielecki, Patryk; Wasiak, Wieslaw

    2008-06-01

    The paper gives a short review of the most important research results published recently in the field of the applications of supramolecular nanocarriers in modern pharmaceutical and analytical chemistry. The main attention has been paid to the fast developing technology of chemical sensors, ion-selective electrodes and separation methods, in particular to newly designed packing in high-performance liquid chromatography employing supramolecularly aided and membrane mimicking processes.

  3. Portable microwave assisted extraction: An original concept for green analytical chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Petitcolas, Emmanuel; de la Guardia, Miguel; Chemat, Farid

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a portable microwave assisted extraction apparatus (PMAE) for extraction of bioactive compounds especially essential oils and aromas directly in a crop or in a forest. The developed procedure, based on the concept of green analytical chemistry, is appropriate to obtain direct in-field information about the level of essential oils in natural samples and to illustrate green chemical lesson and research. The efficiency of this experiment was validated for the extraction of e...

  4. Analytical Chemistry at the Laboratoire d'Electrochimie Physique et Analytique

    OpenAIRE

    Bondarenko, Alexandra; Cortés-Salazar, Fernando; Gasilova, Natalia; Lesch, Andreas; Qiao, Liang; Girault, Hubert H.

    2015-01-01

    The Laboratoire d'Electrochimie Physique et Analytique (LEPA) has moved to the new Energypolis campus in Sion. This laboratory is involved in energy research in particular by studying charge transfer reactions at soft interfaces and developing interfacial redox electrocatalysis, by pioneering the concept of photo-ionic cells and by integrating redox flow batteries for the production of hydrogen at the pilot scale. Nonetheless, this laboratory has a long tradition in analytical chemistry with ...

  5. Mass and emission spectrometry in the Analytical Chemistry Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, D.H. (ed.)

    1978-11-01

    The capabilities of the Mass and Emission Spectrometry Section of the Analytical Chemistry Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory are described. Many different areas of mass spectrometric expertise are represented in the section: gas analysis, high abundance sensitivity measurements, high- and low-resolution organic analyses, spark source trace constituent analysis, and ion microprobe analysis of surfaces. These capabilities are complemented by emission spectrometry. The instruments are described along with a few applications, some of which are unique.

  6. European analytical column No. 37 from the Division of Analytical Chemistry (DAC) of the European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences (EuCheMS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlberg, Bo; Grasserbauer, Manfred; Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov

    2009-01-01

    The European Analytical Column again has a somewhat different format. We have once more invited a guest columnist to give his views on various matters related to analytical chemistry in Europe. This year we have invited Prof. Manfred Grasserbauer of Vienna University of Technology to present some...

  7. Study of the Environment Protecting in Pharmaceutical Inorganic Chemistry Laboratory%药学无机化学实验室绿色化探索

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张秀云

    2012-01-01

    对药学无机化学实验室绿色化建设的必要性及意义进行分析,并探索建设绿色化实验室的主要途径,为建设绿色化无机化学实验室提供参考。%This paper analyzes the necessity and significance of building a green pharmaceutical inorganic chemistry laboratory, explores the main way to protect the environment of the laboratories.This study can provide a reference for the construction of green inorganic chemistry laboratory.

  8. Critical review of the chemistry and thermodynamics of technetium and some of its inorganic compounds and aqueous species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rard, J.A.

    1983-09-15

    Chemical and thermodynamic data for Technetium (Tc) and some of its inorganic compounds and aqueous species are reviewed here. Major emphasis is given to systems with potential geochemical applications, especially the geochemistry of radioactive waste disposal. Compounds considered include oxides, hydroxides, hydrates oxides, halides, oxyhalides, double halides, and sulfides. The aqueous species considered include those in both noncomplexing media (pertechnetates, technetates, aquo-ions, and hydrolyzed cations) and complexing media (halides, sulfates, and phosphates). Thermodynamic values are recommended for specific compounds and aqueous ions when reliable experimental data are available. Where thermodynamic data are inadequate or unavailable, the chemistry is still discussed to provide information about what needs to be measured, and which chemistry needs to be clarified. A major application of these thermodynamic data will be for chemical equilibrium modeling and for construction of potential-pH diagrams for aqueous solutions. Unfortunately, the present lack of data precludes such calculations for complexing aqueous media. The situation is much better for noncomplexing aqueous media, but the chemistry and thermodynamics of cationic Tc(V) species and hydrolyzed Tc(III) species are poorly understood. 240 references, 6 tables.

  9. Instrumentation and analytical methods in carbon balance studies - inorganic components in a marine environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skjelvan, I.; Johannessen, T.; Miller, L.; Stoll, M.

    1996-03-01

    This paper was read at the workshop ``The Norwegian Climate and Ozone Research Programme`` held on 11-12 March 1996. Substantial amounts of anthropogenic CO{sub 2} enters the atmosphere. The land biota acts as a sink for CO{sub 2}, with uncertain consequences. About 30% of the anthropogenic CO{sub 2} added to the atmosphere is absorbed by the ocean and how the ocean acts as a sink is central in understanding the carbon cycle. In their project the authors investigate the inorganic carbon in the ocean, especially total dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, and partial pressure of CO{sub 2} (pCO{sub 2}) in surface ocean and atmosphere. To determine total dissolved inorganic carbon, coulometric analysis is used in which an exact amount of sea water is acidified and the amount of carbon extracted is determined by a coulometer. Alkalinity is determined by potentiometric titration. In the pCO{sub 2} measurement, a small amount of air is circulated in a large amount of sea water and when after some time the amount of CO{sub 2} in the air reflects the CO{sub 2} concentration in the water, the pCO{sub 2} in the gas phase is determined by infra-red detection. The atmospheric pCO{sub 2} is also determined, and the difference between the two partial pressures gives information about source or sink activities. Total carbon and alkalinity measurements are done on discrete samples taken from all depths in the ocean, but for partial pressure detection an underway system is used, which determines the pCO{sub 2} in the surface ocean continuously

  10. Recent developments and future trends in solid phase microextraction techniques towards green analytical chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spietelun, Agata; Marcinkowski, Łukasz; de la Guardia, Miguel; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2013-12-20

    Solid phase microextraction find increasing applications in the sample preparation step before chromatographic determination of analytes in samples with a complex composition. These techniques allow for integrating several operations, such as sample collection, extraction, analyte enrichment above the detection limit of a given measuring instrument and the isolation of analytes from sample matrix. In this work the information about novel methodological and instrumental solutions in relation to different variants of solid phase extraction techniques, solid-phase microextraction (SPME), stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) and magnetic solid phase extraction (MSPE) is presented, including practical applications of these techniques and a critical discussion about their advantages and disadvantages. The proposed solutions fulfill the requirements resulting from the concept of sustainable development, and specifically from the implementation of green chemistry principles in analytical laboratories. Therefore, particular attention was paid to the description of possible uses of novel, selective stationary phases in extraction techniques, inter alia, polymeric ionic liquids, carbon nanotubes, and silica- and carbon-based sorbents. The methodological solutions, together with properly matched sampling devices for collecting analytes from samples with varying matrix composition, enable us to reduce the number of errors during the sample preparation prior to chromatographic analysis as well as to limit the negative impact of this analytical step on the natural environment and the health of laboratory employees.

  11. Silicateins--a novel paradigm in bioinorganic chemistry: enzymatic synthesis of inorganic polymeric silica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Werner E G; Schröder, Heinz C; Burghard, Zaklina; Pisignano, Dario; Wang, Xiaohong

    2013-05-03

    The inorganic matrix of the siliceous skeletal elements of sponges, that is, spicules, is formed of amorphous biosilica. Until a decade ago, it remained unclear how the hard biosilica monoliths of the spicules are formed in sponges that live in a silica-poor (<50 μM) aquatic environment. The following two discoveries caused a paradigm shift and allowed an elucidation of the processes underlying spicule formation; first the discovery that in the spicules only one major protein, silicatein, exists and second, that this protein displays a bio-catalytical, enzymatic function. These findings caused a paradigm shift, since silicatein is the first enzyme that catalyzes the formation of an inorganic polymer from an inorganic monomeric substrate. In the present review the successive steps, following the synthesis of the silicatein product, biosilica, and resulting in the formation of the hard monolithic spicules is given. The new insight is assumed to open new horizons in the field of biotechnology and also in biomedicine.

  12. Analytical assessment about the simultaneous quantification of releasable pharmaceutical relevant inorganic nanoparticles in tap water and domestic waste water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krystek, Petra; Bäuerlein, Patrick S; Kooij, Pascal J F

    2015-03-15

    For pharmaceutical applications, the use of inorganic engineered nanoparticles is of growing interest while silver (Ag) and gold (Au) are the most relevant elements. A few methods were developed recently but the validation and the application testing were quite limited. Therefore, a routinely suitable multi element method for the identification of nanoparticles of different sizes below 100 nm and elemental composition by applying asymmetric flow field flow fraction (AF4) - inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) is developed. A complete validation model of the quantification of releasable pharmaceutical relevant inorganic nanoparticles based on Ag and Au is presented for the most relevant aqueous matrices of tap water and domestic waste water. The samples are originated from locations in the Netherlands and it is of great interest to study the unwanted presence of Ag and Au as nanoparticle residues due to possible health and environmental risks. During method development, instability effects are observed for 60 nm and 70 nm Ag ENPs with different capping agents. These effects are studied more closely in relation to matrix effects. Besides the methodological aspects, the obtained analytical results and relevant performance characteristics (e.g. measuring range, limit of detection, repeatability, reproducibility, trueness, and expanded uncertainty of measurement) are determined and discussed. For the chosen aqueous matrices, the results of the performance characteristics are significantly better for Au ENPs in comparison to Ag ENPs; e.g. repeatability and reproducibility are below 10% for all Au ENPs respectively maximal 27% repeatability for larger Ag ENPs. The method is a promising tool for the simultaneous determination of releasable pharmaceutical relevant inorganic nanoparticles.

  13. Fitting It All In: Adapting a Green Chemistry Extraction Experiment for Inclusion in an Undergraduate Analytical Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Heather L.; Beck, Annelise R.; Mulvihill, Martin J.; Douskey, Michelle C.

    2013-01-01

    Several principles of green chemistry are introduced through this experiment designed for use in the undergraduate analytical chemistry laboratory. An established experiment of liquid CO2 extraction of D-limonene has been adapted to include a quantitative analysis by gas chromatography. This facilitates drop-in incorporation of an exciting…

  14. 无机化学实验教学的探索%The Exploration of Inorganic Chemistry Experiment Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高素云

    2015-01-01

    针对无机化学实验教学特点,根据现代化学实验教学理念,从完善实验教学方法角度出发,对无机化学实验教学模式、绿色化学及微型实验研究、元素性质实验以及在增强实验考核难度等几个方面介绍无机化学实验课堂教学的一些改进措施,通过对实验教学方法的改进,充分调动了学生学习的积极性。实践表明教学质量得到了很大提高,教学效果良好。%According to the characteristics of inorganic experimental teaching, modern experimental teaching philosophy, and in order to complete the experimental teaching mode, improvements of teaching method of experimental teaching which including inorganic experimental teaching mode, the philosophy of green chemistry and miniature experimental study, the experiment of elemental property, enhancing the difficulty of experimental evaluation and so on were introduced. Through improving the experimental teaching methods, the enthusiasm of students was fully mobilized. The results showed that the quality of teaching had a very good improvement, and the effect of teaching was also very good.

  15. 浅议无机化学实验室的绿色化%Discussion on the Green of the Inorganic Chemistry Laboratory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何丽君; 王永红; 李生英; 徐飞

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, some green measures on the inorganic chemistry laboratory were proposed.%就目前实验室的发展趋势,提出了在实现无机化学实验室绿色化的进程中所采取的一些措施.

  16. Development and Application of a Two-Tier Multiple Choice Diagnostic Instrument To Assess High School Students' Understanding of Inorganic Chemistry Qualitative Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Kim Chwee Daniel; Goh, Ngoh Khang; Chia, Lian Sai; Treagust, David F.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the development and application of a two-tier multiple choice diagnostic instrument to assess high school students' understanding of inorganic chemistry qualitative analysis. Shows that the Grade 10 students had difficulty understanding the reactions involved in the identification of cations and anions, for example, double decomposition…

  17. Redox chemistry and natural organic matter (NOM): Geochemists' dream, analytical chemists' nightmare

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacAlady, Donald L.; Walton-Day, Katherine

    2011-01-01

    Natural organic matter (NOM) is an inherently complex mixture of polyfunctional organic molecules. Because of their universality and chemical reversibility, oxidation/reductions (redox) reactions of NOM have an especially interesting and important role in geochemistry. Variabilities in NOM composition and chemistry make studies of its redox chemistry particularly challenging, and details of NOM-mediated redox reactions are only partially understood. This is in large part due to the analytical difficulties associated with NOM characterization and the wide range of reagents and experimental systems used to study NOM redox reactions. This chapter provides a summary of the ongoing efforts to provide a coherent comprehension of aqueous redox chemistry involving NOM and of techniques for chemical characterization of NOM. It also describes some attempts to confirm the roles of different structural moieties in redox reactions. In addition, we discuss some of the operational parameters used to describe NOM redox capacities and redox states, and describe nomenclature of NOM redox chemistry. Several relatively facile experimental methods applicable to predictions of the NOM redox activity and redox states of NOM samples are discussed, with special attention to the proposed use of fluorescence spectroscopy to predict relevant redox characteristics of NOM samples.

  18. Analytical Chemistry Division annual progress report for period ending December 31, 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-04-01

    The Analytical Chemistry Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is a large and diversified organization. As such, it serves a multitude of functions for a clientele that exists both in and outside of ORNL. These functions fall into the following general categories: Analytical Research, Development and Implementation; Programmatic Research, Development, and Utilization; and Technical Support. The Analytical Chemistry Division is organized into four major sections, each which may carry out any of the three types of work mentioned above. Chapters 1 through 4 of this report highlight progress within the four sections during the period January 1 to December 31, 1989. A brief discussion of the division's role in an especially important environmental program is given in Chapter 5. Information about quality assurance, safety, and training programs is presented in Chapter 6, along with a tabulation of analyses rendered. Publications, oral presentations, professional activities, educational programs, and seminars are cited in Chapters 7 and 8. Approximately 69 articles, 41 proceedings, and 31 reports were published, and 151 oral presentations were given during this reporting period. Some 308,981 determinations were performed.

  19. The recent developments in dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction for preconcentration and determination of inorganic analytes

    OpenAIRE

    H.M. Al-Saidi; Adel A.A. Emara

    2014-01-01

    Recently, increasing interest on the use of dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction (DLLME) developed in 2006 by Rezaee has been found in the field of separation science. DLLME is miniaturized format of liquid–liquid extraction in which acceptor-to-donor phase ratio is greatly reduced compared with other methods. In the present review, the combination of DLLME with different analytical techniques such as atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS), inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectr...

  20. 面向"卓越计划"的分析化学教学改革探索%Exploration on the Teaching Reform of Analytical Chem-istry Facing "Excellence Program"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张春燕; 罗建新; 胡汉祥

    2016-01-01

    无机非金属材料工程专业是我校实施教育部"卓越工程师培养计划"专业之一,分析化学是无机非金属材料与工程专业的重要基础课程.针对卓越工程师培养要求和分析化学课程教学特点,探索了面向"卓越计划"的分析化学教学内容、教学方式和考核机制的改革与实践.%Inorganic nonmetallic materials engineering is a major of our college that implements"excellent engineers training pro-gram"proposed by Ministry of Education, while analytical chem-istry is an important foundation course for inorganic nonmetallic materials engineering major. In view of the requirements of ex-cellent engineers training and the teaching characteristics of ana-lytical chemistry, this paper explores the reform and practice of the teaching content, teaching style and evaluation mechanism of analytical chemistry facing"excellence program".

  1. molSimplify: A toolkit for automating discovery in inorganic chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannidis, Efthymios I; Gani, Terry Z H; Kulik, Heather J

    2016-08-15

    We present an automated, open source toolkit for the first-principles screening and discovery of new inorganic molecules and intermolecular complexes. Challenges remain in the automatic generation of candidate inorganic molecule structures due to the high variability in coordination and bonding, which we overcome through a divide-and-conquer tactic that flexibly combines force-field preoptimization of organic fragments with alignment to first-principles-trained metal-ligand distances. Exploration of chemical space is enabled through random generation of ligands and intermolecular complexes from large chemical databases. We validate the generated structures with the root mean squared (RMS) gradients evaluated from density functional theory (DFT), which are around 0.02 Ha/au across a large 150 molecule test set. Comparison of molSimplify results to full optimization with the universal force field reveals that RMS DFT gradients are improved by 40%. Seamless generation of input files, preparation and execution of electronic structure calculations, and post-processing for each generated structure aids interpretation of underlying chemical and energetic trends. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. The effect of variable discharge on the inorganic chemistry downstream of a waste water treatment plant, Boulder Creek, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antweiler, R. C.; Writer, J. H.; Murphy, S. F.

    2012-12-01

    Researchers investigating the effect of wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent on streams often assume that the magnitude of this effect is constant over time. However, discharge of WWTP effluent frequently follows a distinctive diel pattern. WWTP effluent discharge into Boulder Creek, Colorado, for example, varies by almost 200% over the course of a day. Due to this variation, downstream concentrations of chloride, boron and gadolinium (commonly used "conservative tracers") exhibit major changes over a 24-hour period. In order to determine how effluent discharge variability affects stream chemistry, we performed an evaluation of discharge and inorganic chemistry of the City of Boulder's WWTP and Boulder Creek upstream and downstream of the WWTP (representing a 5.4-km reach). Sodium bromide and Rhodamine WT were used to confirm that the same parcel of water was sampled as it moved downstream. The behavior of inorganic constituents fell into three distinct categories, showing conservative behavior, in-stream loss, or in-stream gain. Accounting for variable effluent discharge, the following inorganic constituents behaved conservatively: Cl, SO4, HCO3, F, B, Ba, Ca, Gd, K, Mg, Rb, Co, Cu, Mo, NO3, P and PO4, Sb, SiO2, Sr and Zn. Inorganic compounds which showed evidence of in-stream loss were Bi, Cr, Cs, Ga, Ge, Hg, Se, and Sn. For these elements, the typical pattern was an almost immediate loss: by the time the water had traveled to the first downstream sampling site, 2.3-km below the WWTP, in-stream reactions appeared to have ceased, and a constant flux was observed at all subsequent sites. We speculate that the near-immediate rates represent precipitation and/or adsorption caused by the change in pH and temperature of the mixing zone. Inorganic constituents that showed evidence of in-stream gain were: Al, As, Cd, Fe, I, Li, Mn, Nb, Pb, Re, Th, U, V, W, and all the rare-earth elements (except Gd). As with the in-stream loss group, most of the reactions occurred

  3. Graphene-based materials: fabrication and application for adsorption in analytical chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Liu, Bo; Lu, Qipeng; Qu, Qishu

    2014-10-03

    Graphene, a single layer of carbon atoms densely packed into a honeycomb crystal lattice with unique electronic, chemical, and mechanical properties, is the 2D allotrope of carbon. Owing to the remarkable properties, graphene and graphene-based materials are likely to find potential applications as a sorbent in analytical chemistry. The current review focuses predominantly on the recent development of graphene-based materials and demonstrates their enhanced performance in adsorption of organic compounds, metal ions, and solid phase extraction as well as in separation science since mostly 2012.

  4. Portable microwave assisted extraction: An original concept for green analytical chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perino, Sandrine; Petitcolas, Emmanuel; de la Guardia, Miguel; Chemat, Farid

    2013-11-08

    This paper describes a portable microwave assisted extraction apparatus (PMAE) for extraction of bioactive compounds especially essential oils and aromas directly in a crop or in a forest. The developed procedure, based on the concept of green analytical chemistry, is appropriate to obtain direct in-field information about the level of essential oils in natural samples and to illustrate green chemical lesson and research. The efficiency of this experiment was validated for the extraction of essential oil of rosemary directly in a crop and allows obtaining a quantitative information on the content of essential oil, which was similar to that obtained by conventional methods in the laboratory.

  5. Applications of everyday IT and communications devices in modern analytical chemistry: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grudpan, Kate; Kolev, Spas D; Lapanantnopakhun, Somchai; McKelvie, Ian D; Wongwilai, Wasin

    2015-05-01

    This paper reviews the development and recent use of everyday communications and IT equipment (mobile phones, digital cameras, scanners, webcams, etc) as detection devices for colorimetric chemistries. Such devices can readily be applied for visible detection using reaction formats such as microfluidic paper based analytical devices (µPADs), indicator papers, and well plate reaction vessels. Their use is highly advantageous with respect to cost, simplicity and portability, and offers many opportunities in the areas of point of care diagnosis, and at-site monitoring of environmental, agricultural, food and beverage parameters.

  6. Biological inorganic chemistry at the beginning of the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Harry B

    2003-04-01

    Advances in bioinorganic chemistry since the 1970s have been driven by three factors: rapid determination of high-resolution structures of proteins and other biomolecules, utilization of powerful spectroscopic tools for studies of both structures and dynamics, and the widespread use of macromolecular engineering to create new biologically relevant structures. Today, very large molecules can be manipulated at will, with the result that certain proteins and nucleic acids themselves have become versatile model systems for elucidating biological function.

  7. Standard guide for establishing a quality assurance program for analytical chemistry laboratories within the nuclear industry

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2006-01-01

    1.1 This guide covers the establishment of a quality assurance (QA) program for analytical chemistry laboratories within the nuclear industry. Reference to key elements of ANSI/ISO/ASQC Q9001, Quality Systems, provides guidance to the functional aspects of analytical laboratory operation. When implemented as recommended, the practices presented in this guide will provide a comprehensive QA program for the laboratory. The practices are grouped by functions, which constitute the basic elements of a laboratory QA program. 1.2 The essential, basic elements of a laboratory QA program appear in the following order: Section Organization 5 Quality Assurance Program 6 Training and Qualification 7 Procedures 8 Laboratory Records 9 Control of Records 10 Control of Procurement 11 Control of Measuring Equipment and Materials 12 Control of Measurements 13 Deficiencies and Corrective Actions 14

  8. Functional Interfaces Constructed by Controlled/Living Radical Polymerization for Analytical Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huai-Song; Song, Min; Hang, Tai-Jun

    2016-02-10

    The high-value applications of functional polymers in analytical science generally require well-defined interfaces, including precisely synthesized molecular architectures and compositions. Controlled/living radical polymerization (CRP) has been developed as a versatile and powerful tool for the preparation of polymers with narrow molecular weight distributions and predetermined molecular weights. Among the CRP system, atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) and reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) are well-used to develop new materials for analytical science, such as surface-modified core-shell particles, monoliths, MIP micro- or nanospheres, fluorescent nanoparticles, and multifunctional materials. In this review, we summarize the emerging functional interfaces constructed by RAFT and ATRP for applications in analytical science. Various polymers with precisely controlled architectures including homopolymers, block copolymers, molecular imprinted copolymers, and grafted copolymers were synthesized by CRP methods for molecular separation, retention, or sensing. We expect that the CRP methods will become the most popular technique for preparing functional polymers that can be broadly applied in analytical chemistry.

  9. Recent developments in computer vision-based analytical chemistry: A tutorial review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capitán-Vallvey, Luis Fermín; López-Ruiz, Nuria; Martínez-Olmos, Antonio; Erenas, Miguel M; Palma, Alberto J

    2015-10-29

    Chemical analysis based on colour changes recorded with imaging devices is gaining increasing interest. This is due to its several significant advantages, such as simplicity of use, and the fact that it is easily combinable with portable and widely distributed imaging devices, resulting in friendly analytical procedures in many areas that demand out-of-lab applications for in situ and real-time monitoring. This tutorial review covers computer vision-based analytical (CVAC) procedures and systems from 2005 to 2015, a period of time when 87.5% of the papers on this topic were published. The background regarding colour spaces and recent analytical system architectures of interest in analytical chemistry is presented in the form of a tutorial. Moreover, issues regarding images, such as the influence of illuminants, and the most relevant techniques for processing and analysing digital images are addressed. Some of the most relevant applications are then detailed, highlighting their main characteristics. Finally, our opinion about future perspectives is discussed.

  10. Implementation of Scheduling Algorithm with Robotic Arm and Analytical Plate for Clinical Chemistry Analyzer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudha Ramasamy

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Complete automation is the ultimate goal in health care industry and this is of utmost importance in clinical laboratories. Processor based bio robots are involved in all these automation procedures. In this study, the indigenous robotic platform, used in clinical chemistry analyzers, which is highly flexible and user friendly for small or medium sized hospitals, is designed. A microcontroller based robotic arm is put forth as the robotic platform and this is capable of handling blood samples, reagents, etc. The basic design is of a compact, three circular analytical plates, placed one inside the other. The samples and reagents are loaded onto the analytical plate; the arm then transfers the blood samples and reagents successively to the reaction cell and if required, next to an incubating unit. Two different arms perform all the different tasks based on the controlling algorithm. The circuit manipulating the path of the robot arm, along with other controlling circuitry of the arm is embedded within the arm itself. By automating this unit, the flexibility and throughput of the tests will be increased. Controlled and precise use of reagents and high accuracy of results are additional advantages. Data handling is also simplified. The robotic arm and analytical plate has been designed, a prototype model has been made and synchronization between the two has been achieved. The clear description of arm and analytical plate movement along with the synchronization algorithms are presented in this study.

  11. Electrical field-induced extraction and separation techniques: promising trends in analytical chemistry--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamini, Yadollah; Seidi, Shahram; Rezazadeh, Maryam

    2014-03-03

    Sample preparation is an important issue in analytical chemistry, and is often a bottleneck in chemical analysis. So, the major incentive for the recent research has been to attain faster, simpler, less expensive, and more environmentally friendly sample preparation methods. The use of auxiliary energies, such as heat, ultrasound, and microwave, is one of the strategies that have been employed in sample preparation to reach the above purposes. Application of electrical driving force is the current state-of-the-art, which presents new possibilities for simplifying and shortening the sample preparation process as well as enhancing its selectivity. The electrical driving force has scarcely been utilized in comparison with other auxiliary energies. In this review, the different roles of electrical driving force (as a powerful auxiliary energy) in various extraction techniques, including liquid-, solid-, and membrane-based methods, have been taken into consideration. Also, the references have been made available, relevant to the developments in separation techniques and Lab-on-a-Chip (LOC) systems. All aspects of electrical driving force in extraction and separation methods are too specific to be treated in this contribution. However, the main aim of this review is to provide a brief knowledge about the different fields of analytical chemistry, with an emphasis on the latest efforts put into the electrically assisted membrane-based sample preparation systems. The advantages and disadvantages of these approaches as well as the new achievements in these areas have been discussed, which might be helpful for further progress in the future.

  12. Peptide interfaces with graphene: an emerging intersection of analytical chemistry, theory, and materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Shane R; Claridge, Shelley A

    2016-04-01

    Because noncovalent interface functionalization is frequently required in graphene-based devices, biomolecular self-assembly has begun to emerge as a route for controlling substrate electronic structure or binding specificity for soluble analytes. The remarkable diversity of structures that arise in biological self-assembly hints at the possibility of equally diverse and well-controlled surface chemistry at graphene interfaces. However, predicting and analyzing adsorbed monolayer structures at such interfaces raises substantial experimental and theoretical challenges. In contrast with the relatively well-developed monolayer chemistry and characterization methods applied at coinage metal surfaces, monolayers on graphene are both less robust and more structurally complex, levying more stringent requirements on characterization techniques. Theory presents opportunities to understand early binding events that lay the groundwork for full monolayer structure. However, predicting interactions between complex biomolecules, solvent, and substrate is necessitating a suite of new force fields and algorithms to assess likely binding configurations, solvent effects, and modulations to substrate electronic properties. This article briefly discusses emerging analytical and theoretical methods used to develop a rigorous chemical understanding of the self-assembly of peptide-graphene interfaces and prospects for future advances in the field.

  13. Analytical Chemistry at the Laboratoire d'Electrochimie Physique et Analytique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondarenko, Alexandra; Cortés-Salazar, Fernando; Gasilova, Natalia; Lesch, Andreas; Qiao, Liang; Girault, Hubert H

    2015-01-01

    The Laboratoire d'Electrochimie Physique et Analytique (LEPA) has moved to the new Energypolis campus in Sion. This laboratory is involved in energy research in particular by studying charge transfer reactions at soft interfaces and developing interfacial redox electrocatalysis, by pioneering the concept of photo-ionic cells and by integrating redox flow batteries for the production of hydrogen at the pilot scale. Nonetheless, this laboratory has a long tradition in analytical chemistry with the development of microfabrication techniques such as laser photo-ablation, screen-printing and more recently inkjet printing for the design and fabrication of biosensors and immunosensors. As shown in the present review, the laboratory has recently pioneered new technologies for electrochemical and mass spectrometry imaging and for the screening of allergy in patients. The role of the laboratory in the Valais landscape will be to foster the collaboration with the HES to develop teaching and research in analytical chemistry as this field is a major source of employment for chemists.

  14. Application and Research on the Concept of Green Chemistry in Inorganic Chemistry Experiment%浅谈绿色化学理念在无机化学实验中的应用与研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘品祯; 李红梅; 程志飞; 贾亚琪; 杨珍; 吴迪

    2016-01-01

    Green chemistry is environmentally friendly chemistry. The implementation of green chemistry in Inorganic Chemistry experiments can not only reduce the use of reagents, the discharge of environmental pollutants, reduce the degree of environmental pollution, but also cultivate students to establish a strong sense of environmental protection. Followed the guidance of the concept of green chemistry, content and method of Inorganic Chemistry experiment and the processing of waste and other issues were discussed and optimized, combining with modern teaching methods applied in experimental teaching, realizing the real meaning of green inorganic chemistry experiment. Enhancing the students’ consciousness of green chemistry, achieving the friendly development of people and the environment is urgently needed.%绿色化学是环境友好型化学,而绿色化学在无机化学实验中的实施不仅能减少试剂的使用、环境污染物的排放,降低环境的污染程度,而且能培养学生树立强烈的环保意识。遵从绿色化学理念的指导,对无机化学实验的内容和方法及废弃物的处理等问题进行探讨与优化,结合现代教学手段应用于实验教学,实现真正意义上的绿色化无机化学实验,增强学生的绿色化学意识,实现人与环境的友好发展刻不容缓。

  15. The investigation of green teaching on inorganic chemistry experiments%无机化学实验教学中的“绿色化”探索

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田丽红; 王娟

    2014-01-01

    针对无机化学授课对象多而广,所需试剂种类及用量庞大,产生的废气、废液、废渣等对环境具有危害的特点,通过整合优化实验内容,规范实验操作,采用微型实验、多媒体及网上虚拟实验室,合理收集及处理三废等方面的改革创新。将绿色化学的理念深入到无机化学实验的各个环节中,以初步实现无机化学实验教学的“绿色化”,培养学生的绿色意识。%In the process of teaching on inorganic chemistry experiments,massive and different kinds of chemical reagents must be used and the waste from the experiments is harmful to environment,so it is important to investigate green teaching on inorganic chemistry experiments.Herein,a number of measures have been implemented to achieve the green teaching on inorganic chemistry experiments.The investigation focuses on designing and optimizing experimental content,standardization of the experiment,microscale experiment,multimedia and internet virtual laboratory,and the innovation of collection and disposal of wastes.The aim is to permeate the concept of green chemistry into the teaching of inorganic chemistry experiments.

  16. Inorganic SnIP-type double helices in main group chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, Maximilian; Weihrich, Richard; Nilges, Tom

    2017-03-01

    Inspired by the synthesis of the first atomic-scale double helix semiconductor SnIP this study deals with the question if more atomistic, inorganic double helix compounds are accessible. With the aid of quantum chemical calculations we have identified 31 candidates by a homoatomic substitution in MXPn, varying the group 4 M-element from Si to Pb, the group 7 X-element from F to I and replacing the pnictide (Pn) phosphorus by arsenic. The double-helical structure of SnIP has been used as the starting model for all candidates and the electronic structure and vibrational spectra were determined within the Framework of Density Functional Theory (DFT). Varying the outer MX or the inner Pn helix led to the conclusion that iodide and bromide containing MXPn compounds show similar structures to SnIP. Here, the calculations indicate interesting effects for electronic band gap tuning. For the highly polarized fluorides a segregation of the helices to more complex MX substructures is predicted.

  17. Analytical Chemistry Division annual progress report for period ending December 31, 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyon, W.S. (ed.)

    1983-05-01

    The Analytical Chemistry Dvision of Oak Ridge National laboratory (ORNL) serves a multitude of functions for a clientele that exists both in and outside ORNL. These functions fall into the following general categories: (1) analytical research, development, and implementation; (2) programmatic research, development, and utilization; and (3) technical support. The Division is organized into five major sections, each of which may carry out any type of work falling in the three categories mentioned above. Chapters 1 through 5 of this report highlight progress within the five sections (analytical methodology, mass and emission spectrometry, radioactive materials, bio/organic analysis, and general and environmental analysis) during the period January 1, 1982 to December 31, 1982. A short summary introduces each chapter to indicate work scope. Information about quality assurance and safety programs is presented in Chapter 6, along with a tabulation of analyses rendered. Publications, oral presentations, professional activities, educational programs, and seminars are cited in Chapters 7 and 8. Approximately 61 articles, 32 proceedings publications and 37 reports have been published, and 107 oral presentations were given during this reporting period.

  18. Metal-organic frameworks for analytical chemistry: from sample collection to chromatographic separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Zhi-Yuan; Yang, Cheng-Xiong; Chang, Na; Yan, Xiu-Ping

    2012-05-15

    In modern analytical chemistry researchers pursue novel materials to meet analytical challenges such as improvements in sensitivity, selectivity, and detection limit. Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are an emerging class of microporous materials, and their unusual properties such as high surface area, good thermal stability, uniform structured nanoscale cavities, and the availability of in-pore functionality and outer-surface modification are attractive for diverse analytical applications. This Account summarizes our research on the analytical applications of MOFs ranging from sampling to chromatographic separation. MOFs have been either directly used or engineered to meet the demands of various analytical applications. Bulk MOFs with microsized crystals are convenient sorbents for direct application to in-field sampling and solid-phase extraction. Quartz tubes packed with MOF-5 have shown excellent stability, adsorption efficiency, and reproducibility for in-field sampling and trapping of atmospheric formaldehyde. The 2D copper(II) isonicotinate packed microcolumn has demonstrated large enhancement factors and good shape- and size-selectivity when applied to on-line solid-phase extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water samples. We have explored the molecular sieving effect of MOFs for the efficient enrichment of peptides with simultaneous exclusion of proteins from biological fluids. These results show promise for the future of MOFs in peptidomics research. Moreover, nanosized MOFs and engineered thin films of MOFs are promising materials as novel coatings for solid-phase microextraction. We have developed an in situ hydrothermal growth approach to fabricate thin films of MOF-199 on etched stainless steel wire for solid-phase microextraction of volatile benzene homologues with large enhancement factors and wide linearity. Their high thermal stability and easy-to-engineer nanocrystals make MOFs attractive as new stationary phases to fabricate MOF

  19. Sample Acquisition and Analytical Chemistry Challenges to Verifying Compliance to Aviators Breathing Oxygen (ABO) Purity Specification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, John

    2015-01-01

    NASA has been developing and testing two different types of oxygen separation systems. One type of oxygen separation system uses pressure swing technology, the other type uses a solid electrolyte electrochemical oxygen separation cell. Both development systems have been subjected to long term testing, and performance testing under a variety of environmental and operational conditions. Testing these two systems revealed that measuring the product purity of oxygen, and determining if an oxygen separation device meets Aviator's Breathing Oxygen (ABO) specifications is a subtle and sometimes difficult analytical chemistry job. Verifying product purity of cryogenically produced oxygen presents a different set of analytical chemistry challenges. This presentation will describe some of the sample acquisition and analytical chemistry challenges presented by verifying oxygen produced by an oxygen separator - and verifying oxygen produced by cryogenic separation processes. The primary contaminant that causes gas samples to fail to meet ABO requirements is water. The maximum amount of water vapor allowed is 7 ppmv. The principal challenge of verifying oxygen produced by an oxygen separator is that it is produced relatively slowly, and at comparatively low temperatures. A short term failure that occurs for just a few minutes in the course of a 1 week run could cause an entire tank to be rejected. Continuous monitoring of oxygen purity and water vapor could identify problems as soon as they occur. Long term oxygen separator tests were instrumented with an oxygen analyzer and with an hygrometer: a GE Moisture Monitor Series 35. This hygrometer uses an aluminum oxide sensor. The user's manual does not report this, but long term exposure to pure oxygen causes the aluminum oxide sensor head to bias dry. Oxygen product that exceeded the 7 ppm specification was improperly accepted, because the sensor had biased. The bias is permanent - exposure to air does not cause the sensor to

  20. A global model of tropospheric chlorine chemistry: Organic versus inorganic sources and impact on methane oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossaini, Ryan; Chipperfield, Martyn P.; Saiz-Lopez, Alfonso; Fernandez, Rafael; Monks, Sarah; Feng, Wuhu; Brauer, Peter; Glasow, Roland

    2016-12-01

    Chlorine atoms (Cl) are highly reactive toward hydrocarbons in the Earth's troposphere, including the greenhouse gas methane (CH4). However, the regional and global CH4 sink from Cl is poorly quantified as tropospheric Cl concentrations ([Cl]) are uncertain by 2 orders of magnitude. Here we describe the addition of a detailed tropospheric chlorine scheme to the TOMCAT chemical transport model. The model includes several sources of tropospheric inorganic chlorine (Cly), including (i) the oxidation of chlorocarbons of natural (CH3Cl, CHBr2Cl, CH2BrCl, and CHBrCl2) and anthropogenic (CH2Cl2, CHCl3, C2Cl4, C2HCl3, and CH2ClCH2Cl) origin and (ii) sea-salt aerosol dechlorination. Simulations were performed to quantify tropospheric [Cl], with a focus on the marine boundary layer, and quantify the global significance of Cl atom CH4 oxidation. In agreement with observations, simulated surface levels of hydrogen chloride (HCl), the most abundant Cly reservoir, reach several parts per billion (ppb) over polluted coastal/continental regions, with sub-ppb levels typical in more remote regions. Modeled annual mean surface [Cl] exhibits large spatial variability with the largest levels, typically in the range of 1-5 × 104 atoms cm-3, in the polluted northern hemisphere. Chlorocarbon oxidation provides a tropospheric Cly source of up to 4320 Gg Cl/yr, sustaining a background surface [Cl] of methane sink of 12-13 Tg CH4/yr due the CH4 + Cl reaction ( 2.5% of total CH4 oxidation). Larger regional effects are predicted, with Cl accounting for 10 to >20% of total boundary layer CH4 oxidation in some locations.

  1. 关于无机化学实验课程的教学体会%Experiences on the Inorganic Chemistry Experimental Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安雅睿; 顾颖颖

    2016-01-01

    Chemistry experiment plays a significant role in training students’ practical ability and innovative spirit. At present, inorganic chemistry experiment was the first course of all majors of chemistry, which was prominently focused on by all of colleges and universities. From the practice engaged in inorganic chemistry experimental teaching in recent years, some experiences in the teaching of inorganic chemistry experiment were discussed as follows:teachers must pay attention to the cultivation of students’ basic experimental skills, we should emphasize the improvement of evaluation for student’s grade, modernized teaching technology was one of necessary factor to improve teaching quality, we should encourage green chemistry and microscale experiment in the experimental teaching to save energy and protect environment.%化学实验在培养学生的实践动手能力和创新精神方面发挥着重要的作用。目前,无机化学实验是化学各专业的第一门实验课程,国内各高校都给予重点关注。笔者根据近几年来从事无机化学实验教学的经历,提出以下几点教学体会:。注重学生基本实验技能的培养;②注重学生成绩评价方法的改进;③注重现代化教学手段的使用;④提倡绿色化学及微型实验。

  2. Practice on the Interest-Stimulated Teaching Method of“Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry”Course%“无机与分析化学”课程兴趣教学法的实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金文斌

    2015-01-01

    The interest cultivation of students on the inorganic and analytical chemistry is not only a signifi-cant step of education but also the key factor for students to learn the course. Teachers are required to change ideas and respect the dominant position of students, and then to stimulate and maintain the learning enthusi-asm of students, and finally adopt the project-oriented research-style training mode. On the basis of students ’ self-learning of “project—issues—exploration—communication—analysis—application”, we are intended to stimulate the learning interest, explore interests and career interests of students through real projects and cas-es, and then enrich the teaching means and methods in order to improve the quality of teaching of inorganic and analytical chemistry.%培养学生对“无机与分析化学”课程的兴趣是教学中的一个重要环节,也是学生学好课程的关键因素。教师必须转变观念,尊重学生的主体地位,激发和维持学生学习热情,采用项目导向探究式训练方式,围绕“项目—问题—探究—交流—分析—应用”这条学生自主学习主线,通过真实项目、真实案例激发学生的学习兴趣、探究兴趣和职业兴趣,丰富教学手段和方法,全面提升“无机与分析化学”课程的教学质量。

  3. Goldilocks and the three inorganic equilibria: how Earth's chemistry and life coevolve to be nearly in tune.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickaby, R E M

    2015-03-13

    Life and the chemical environment are united in an inescapable feedback cycle. The periodic table of the elements essential for life has transformed over Earth's history, but, as today, evolved in tune with the elements available in abundance in the environment. The most revolutionary time in life's history was the advent and proliferation of oxygenic photosynthesis which forced the environment towards a greater degree of oxidation. Consideration of three inorganic chemical equilibria throughout this gradual oxygenation prescribes a phased release of trace metals to the environment, which appear to have coevolved with employment of these new chemicals by life. Evolution towards complexity was chemically constrained, and changes in availability of notably Fe, Zn and Cu paced the systematic development of complex organisms. Evolving life repeatedly catalysed its own chemical challenges via the unwitting release of new and initially toxic chemicals. Ultimately, the harnessing of these allowed life to advance to greater complexity, though the mechanism responsible for translating novel chemistry to heritable use remains elusive. Whether a chemical acts as a poison or a nutrient lies both in the dose and in its environmental history.

  4. Ceramic nanoparticle assemblies with tailored shapes and tailored chemistries via biosculpting and shape-preserving inorganic conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickerson, M B; Naik, R R; Sarosi, P M; Agarwal, G; Stone, M O; Sandhage, K H

    2005-01-01

    A novel biosynthetic paradigm is introduced for fabricating three-dimensional (3-D) ceramic nanoparticle assemblies with tailored shapes and tailored chemistries: biosculpting and shape-preserving inorganic conversion (BaSIC). Biosculpting refers to the use of biomolecules that direct the precipitation of ceramic nanoparticles to form a continuous 3-D structure with a tailored shape. We used a peptide derived from a diatom (a type of unicellular algae) to biosculpt silica nanoparticle based assemblies that, in turn, were converted into a new (nonsilica) composition via a shape-preserving gas/silica displacement reaction. Interwoven, microfilamentary silica structures were prepared by exposing a peptide, derived from the silaffin-1A protein of the diatom Cylindrotheca fusiformis, to a tetramethylorthosilicate solution under a linear shear flow condition. Subsequent exposure of the silica microfilaments to magnesium gas at 900 degrees C resulted in conversion into nanocrystalline magnesium oxide microfilaments with a retention of fine (submicrometer) features. Fluid(gas or liquid)/silica displacement reactions leading to a variety of other oxides have also been identified. This hybrid (biogenic/synthetic) approach opens the door to biosculpted ceramic microcomponents with multifarious tailored shapes and compositions for a wide range of environmental, aerospace, biomedical, chemical, telecommunications, automotive, manufacturing, and defense applications.

  5. Cobalt complexes as internal standards for capillary zone electrophoresis-mass spectrometry studies in biological inorganic chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtkamp, Hannah U; Morrow, Stuart J; Kubanik, Mario; Hartinger, Christian G

    2017-01-02

    Run-by-run variations are very common in capillary electrophoretic (CE) separations and cause imprecision in both the migration times and the peak areas. This makes peak and kinetic trend identification difficult and error prone. With the aim to identify suitable standards for CE separations which are compatible with the common detectors UV, ESI-MS, and ICP-MS, the Co(III) complexes [Co(en)3]Cl3, [Co(acac)3] and K[Co(EDTA)] were evaluated as internal standards in the reaction of the anticancer drug cisplatin and guanosine 5'-monophosphate as an example of a classical biological inorganic chemistry experiment. These Co(III) chelate complexes were considered for their stability, accessibility, and the low detection limit for Co in ICP-MS. Furthermore, the Co(III) complexes are positively and negatively charged as well as neutral, allowing the detection in different areas of the electropherograms. The background electrolytes were chosen to cover a wide pH range. The compatibility to the separation conditions was dependent on the ligands attached to the Co(III) centers, with only the acetylacetonato (acac) complex being applicable in the pH range 2.8-9.0. Furthermore, because of being charge neutral, this compound could be used as an electroosmotic flow (EOF) marker. In general, employing Co complexes resulted in improved data sets, particularly with regard to the migration times and peak areas, which resulted, for example, in higher linear ranges for the quantification of cisplatin.

  6. Carborane acids. New "strong yet gentle" acids for organic and inorganic chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Christopher A

    2005-04-07

    Icosahedral carborane anions such as CHB11Cl11- are amongst the least coordinating, most chemically inert anions known. They are also amongst the least basic, so their conjugate acids, H(carborane), are superacids (i.e. stronger than 100% H2SO4). Acidity scale measurements indicate that H(CHB11Cl11) is the strongest pure Brønsted acid presently known, surpassing triflic and fluorosulfuric acid. Nevertheless, it is also an extremely gentle acid--because its conjugate base engages in so little chemistry. Carborane acids separate protic acidity from anion nucleophilicity and destructive oxidative capacity in the conjugate base, to a degree not previously achieved. As a result, many long-sought, highly acidic, reactive cations such as protonated benzene (C6H7+), protonated C60(HC60+), tertiary carbocations (R3C+), vinyl cations (R2C=C(+)-R), silylium ions (R3Si+) and discrete hydronium ions (H3O+, H5O2+ etc.) can be readily isolated as carborane salts and characterized at room temperature by X-ray crystallography.

  7. Teaching Effective Communication in a Writing-Intensive Analytical Chemistry Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelan, Rebecca J.; Zare, Richard N.

    2003-08-01

    Effective writing and speaking skills are vital for chemical professionals, yet traditional academic preparation does little to develop these skills. In this report, we describe classroom-tested strategies for teaching writing and speaking. In the context of a required lecture and laboratory course in analytical chemistry, students gain extensive experience with reading, writing, revising, and speaking in the way that professional chemists do. Students improve their writing skills by preparing four laboratory reports that follow the conventions of the chemical literature. One of the reports is prepared collaboratively to reflect the real experience of professional chemists. Individualized conferences and critiques by more experienced peers lead to extensive revision of a graded report. Several activities encourage the students to develop an appreciation of the organization and strategy of a scientific article. Finally, the students practice oral communication by preparing and delivering a short presentation, including visual aids, based on a paper from the literature.

  8. Organosilica: Chemistry of Mesoporous Organosilica in Nanotechnology: Molecularly Organic-Inorganic Hybridization into Frameworks (Adv. Mater. 17/2016).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu; Shi, Jianlin

    2016-05-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid materials can combine the advantages of organic and inorganic materials, and overcome their drawbacks accordingly. On page 3235, Y. Chen and J. L. Shi review and discuss research progress on the design, synthesis, structure, and composition control of organic-inorganic hybrid mesoporous organosilica nanoparticles (MONs). Extensive applications of MONs in nanotechnology, mainly in nanomedicine, nanocatalysis and nanofabrication are discussed.

  9. Analytical Models of Exoplanetary Atmospheres. III. Gaseous C-H-O-N Chemistry with 9 Molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Heng, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    We present novel, analytical, equilibrium-chemistry formulae for the abundances of molecules in hot exoplanetary atmospheres that include the carbon, oxygen and nitrogen networks. Our hydrogen-dominated solutions involve acetylene (C$_2$H$_2$), ammonia (NH$_3$), carbon dioxide (CO$_2$), carbon monoxide (CO), ethylene (C$_2$H$_4$), hydrogen cyanide (HCN), methane (CH$_4$), molecular nitrogen (N$_2$) and water (H$_2$O). By considering only the gaseous phase, we prove that the mixing ratio of carbon monoxide is governed by a decic equation (polynomial equation of degree 10). We validate our solutions against numerical calculations of equilibrium chemistry that perform Gibbs free energy minimization and demonstrate that they are accurate for temperatures from 500--3000 K. In hydrogen-dominated atmospheres, the ratio of abundances of HCN to CH$_4$ is nearly constant across a wide range of carbon-to-oxygen ratios, which makes it a robust diagnostic of the metallicity in the gas phase. Our validated formulae allow f...

  10. Analytical Models of Exoplanetary Atmospheres. III. Gaseous C-H-O-N Chemistry with Nine Molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heng, Kevin; Tsai, Shang-Min

    2016-10-01

    We present novel, analytical, equilibrium-chemistry formulae for the abundances of molecules in hot exoplanetary atmospheres that include the carbon, oxygen, and nitrogen networks. Our hydrogen-dominated solutions involve acetylene (C2H2), ammonia (NH3), carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), ethylene (C2H4), hydrogen cyanide (HCN), methane (CH4), molecular nitrogen (N2), and water (H2O). By considering only the gas phase, we prove that the mixing ratio of carbon monoxide is governed by a decic equation (polynomial equation of 10 degrees). We validate our solutions against numerical calculations of equilibrium chemistry that perform Gibbs free energy minimization and demonstrate that they are accurate at the ˜ 1 % level for temperatures from 500 to 3000 K. In hydrogen-dominated atmospheres, the ratio of abundances of HCN to CH4 is nearly constant across a wide range of carbon-to-oxygen ratios, which makes it a robust diagnostic of the metallicity in the gas phase. Our validated formulae allow for the convenient benchmarking of chemical kinetics codes and provide an efficient way of enforcing chemical equilibrium in atmospheric retrieval calculations.

  11. Applications of the New Family of Coherent Multidimensional Spectroscopies for Analytical Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, John C

    2017-03-27

    A new family of vibrational and electronic spectroscopies has emerged, comprising the coherent analogs of traditional analytical methods. These methods are also analogs of coherent multidimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. This new family is based on creating the same quantum mechanical superposition states called multiple quantum coherences (MQCs). NMR MQCs are mixtures of nuclear spin states that retain their quantum mechanical phase information for milliseconds. The MQCs in this new family are mixtures of vibrational and electronic states that retain their phases for picoseconds or shorter times. Ultrafast, high-intensity coherent beams rapidly excite multiple states. The excited MQCs then emit bright beams while they retain their phases. Time-domain methods measure the frequencies of the MQCs by resolving their phase oscillations, whereas frequency-domain methods measure the resonance enhancements of the output beam while scanning the excitation frequencies. The resulting spectra provide multidimensional spectral signatures that increase the spectroscopic selectivity required for analyzing complex samples. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Analytical Chemistry Volume 10 is June 12, 2017. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

  12. 绿色化学理念在无机化学实验教学中的渗透%The Infiltrating Green Chemistry Education into Inorganic Chemistry Experiment Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡彩玲; 唐新军

    2014-01-01

    概述了绿色化学的由来和内涵,简要介绍了在无机化学实验教学中进行绿色化学理念渗透的意义,结合教学实际,探究了在无机化学实验教学中进行绿色化学理念渗透的思路和具体措施。实践表明将绿色化学教育渗透于教学中的做法不仅可行,而且有利于提高学生的学习兴趣。%The origin and the intension of green chemistry were introduced. The significance to infiltrate the idea of green chemistry in inorganic chemistry experiment teaching was briefly introduced. Combining with the teaching practice, the ideas and concrete measures to infiltrate the idea of green inorganic chemistry experiment teaching were explored. Practice showed that the penetration of green chemistry education teaching approach was not only feasible, but also helped to improve the students' interest in learning.

  13. Infrared Ion Spectroscopy at Felix: Applications in Peptide Dissociation and Analytical Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oomens, Jos

    2016-06-01

    Infrared free electron lasers such as those in Paris, Berlin and Nijmegen have been at the forefront of the development of infrared ion spectroscopy. In this contribution, I will give an overview of new developments in IR spectroscopy of stored ions at the FELIX Laboratory. In particular, I will focus on recent developments made possible by the coupling of a new commercial ion trap mass spectrometer to the FELIX beamline. The possibility to record IR spectra of mass-selected molecular ions and their reaction products has in recent years shed new light on our understanding of collision induced dissociation (CID) reactions of protonated peptides in mass spectrometry (MS). We now show that it is possible to record IR spectra for the products of electron transfer dissociation (ETD) reactions [M + nH]n+ + A- → [M + nH](n-1)+ + A → {dissociation of analyte} These reactions are now widely used in novel MS-based protein sequencing strategies, but involve complex radical chemistry. The spectroscopic results allow stringent verification of computationally predicted product structures and hence reaction mechanisms and H-atom migration. The sensitivity and high dynamic range of a commercial mass spectrometer also allows us to apply infrared ion spectroscopy to analytes in complex "real-life" mixtures. The ability to record IR spectra with the sensitivity of mass-spectrometric detection is unrivalled in analytical sciences and is particularly useful in the identification of small (biological) molecules, such as in metabolomics. We report preliminary results of a pilot study on the spectroscopic identification of small metabolites in urine and plasma samples.

  14. 应用化学专业无机化学实验教学改革的探索%Preliminary Exploration of the Teaching Reform on the Applied Chemistry Specialty Inorganic Chemistry Experiment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵艳; 赵蕾; 赵红梅; 秦向东

    2014-01-01

    对应用化学专业无机化学实验教学进行了深入的分析和思考,探讨了教学内容及教学手段的改革,探索了建设绿色化实验的主要措施,以绿色化学理念为指导原则,结合教学实际情况,探索无机化学实验教学各环节的绿色化方案,提出实验微型化或小型化等绿色化实验策略,强调实验教学手段的绿色化,从而培养学生的环保意识,为建设绿色化无机化学实验提供参考。%Applied chemistry inorganic chemistry experiment teaching was conducted in -depth analysis and reflection, the reform of teaching contents and teaching methods were discussed , and the main measures of building green experiment were explored.Inorganic chemistry experiment teaching taking green chemical concepts as guidance , combining with teaching practice , greening scheme of experiment teaching of inorganic in each section of teaching process was explored.A series of experimental methods to settle the question , such as promoting microscale or small experiment , were put forward.It was important to emphasize greening of experiment teaching approach to cultivate student's consciousness of environment protection.The study can provide a reference for the construction of green inorganic chemistry.

  15. An Advanced Analytical Chemistry Experiment Using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry, MATLAB, and Chemometrics to Predict Biodiesel Blend Percent Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Karisa M.; Schale, Stephen P.; Le, Trang M.; Larson, Joel C.

    2011-01-01

    We present a laboratory experiment for an advanced analytical chemistry course where we first focus on the chemometric technique partial least-squares (PLS) analysis applied to one-dimensional (1D) total-ion-current gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-TIC) separations of biodiesel blends. Then, we focus on n-way PLS (n-PLS) applied to…

  16. New Concepts of Quality Assurance in Analytical Chemistry: Will They Influence the Way We Conduct Science in General?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens; Glasdam, Sidsel-Marie; Larsen, Daniel Bo

    2016-01-01

    According to the guide Vocabulary in Metrology (VIM3) (JCGM, 2008), the definition of the concepts of trueness and accuracy has been revised, which has an important impact on analytical chemistry. Additionally, Eurachem/CITAC has published a new edition of the guide to Quantifying Uncertainty...

  17. Using a Practical Instructional Development Process to Show That Integrating Lab and Active Learning Benefits Undergraduate Analytical Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goacher, Robyn E.; Kline, Cynthia M.; Targus, Alexis; Vermette, Paul J.

    2017-01-01

    We describe how a practical instructional development process helped a first-year assistant professor rapidly develop, implement, and assess the impact on her Analytical Chemistry course caused by three changes: (a) moving the lab into the same semester as the lecture, (b) developing a more collaborative classroom environment, and (c) increasing…

  18. Tetraglyme Trap for the Determination of Volatile Organic Compounds in Urban Air: Projects for Undergraduate Analytical Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hope, Wilbert W.; Johnson, Clyde; Johnson, Leon P.

    2004-01-01

    The differences in the levels of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), in the ambient air from the two urban locations, were studied by the undergraduate analytical chemistry students. Tetraglyme is very widely used due to its simplicity and its potential for use to investigate VOCs in ambient and indoor air employing a purge-and-trap concentrator…

  19. The Quantitative Resolution of a Mixture of Group II Metal Ions by Thermometric Titration with EDTA. An Analytical Chemistry Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Robert L.; Popham, Ronald E.

    1983-01-01

    Presents an experiment in thermometric titration used in an analytic chemistry-chemical instrumentation course, consisting of two titrations, one a mixture of calcium and magnesium, the other of calcium, magnesium, and barium ions. Provides equipment and solutions list/specifications, graphs, and discussion of results. (JM)

  20. Thermal Behavior of d-Ribose Adsorbed on Silica: Effect of Inorganic Salt Coadsorption and Significance for Prebiotic Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akouche, Mariame; Jaber, Maguy; Zins, Emilie-Laure; Maurel, Marie-Christine; Lambert, Jean-Francois; Georgelin, Thomas

    2016-10-24

    Understanding ribose reactivity is a crucial step in the "RNA world" scenario because this molecule is a component of all extant nucleotides that make up RNA. In solution, ribose is unstable and susceptible to thermal destruction. We examined how ribose behaves upon thermal activation when adsorbed on silica, either alone or with the coadsorption of inorganic salts (MgCl2 , CaCl2 , SrCl2 , CuCl2 , FeCl2 , FeCl3 , ZnCl2 ). A combination of (13) C NMR, in situ IR, and TGA analyses revealed a variety of phenomena. When adsorbed alone, ribose remains stable up to 150 °C, at which point ring opening is observed, together with minor oxidation to a lactone. All the metal salts studied showed specific interactions with ribose after dehydration, resulting in the formation of polydentate metal ion complexes. Anomeric equilibria were affected, generally favoring ribofuranoses. Zn(2+) stabilized ribose up to higher temperatures than bare silica (180 to 200 °C). Most other cations had an adverse effect on ribose stability, with ring opening already upon drying at 70 °C. In addition, alkaline earth cations catalyzed the dehydration of ribose to furfural and, to variable degrees, its further decarbonylation to furan. Transition-metal ions with open d-shells took part in redox reactions with ribose, either as reagents or as catalysts. These results allow the likelihood of prebiotic chemistry scenarios to be evaluated, and may also be of interest for the valorization of biomass-derived carbohydrates by heterogeneous catalysis.

  1. Diel variations in stream chemistry and isotopic composition of dissolved inorganic carbon, upper Clark Fork River, Montana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Stephen R.; Gammons, Christopher H.; Poulson, Simon R.; DeGrandpre, Michael D.

    2007-01-01

    Many rivers undergo diel (24-h) concentration fluctuations of pH, dissolved gases, trace metals, nutrients, and other chemical species. A study conducted in 1994 documented such behavior in the upper Clark Fork River, Montana, a stream whose headwaters have been severely impacted by historic metal mining, milling, and smelting. The purpose of the present investigation was to expand on these earlier findings by conducting simultaneous diel samplings at two sites on the upper Clark Fork River separated by 2.5 h of stream travel time. By monitoring two stations, it was possible to more closely examine the processes that control temporal and spatial gradients in stream chemistry. Another objective was to examine diel changes in the δ13C composition of dissolved inorganic C (DIC) and their relationship to biological activity in the stream. The most important findings of this study include: (1) concentrations of dissolved and particulate heavy metals increased during the night and decreased during the day, in agreement with previous work; (2) these changes were positively correlated to diel changes in pH, dissolved O2, and water temperature; (3) dissolved concentrations increased during the night at the lower site, but showed the opposite behavior at the upper site; and (4) diel changes in δ13C-DIC were noted at both sites, although the timing and magnitudes of the cycles differed. Hypotheses to explain the first two observations include: cyclic co-precipitation of divalent metals with carbonate minerals; pH- and temperature-dependent sorption of metal cations onto the streambed and suspended particles; or photosynthetically enhanced oxidation and removal of Fe and Mn oxides at biofilm surfaces during the daytime. The latter model explains the majority of the field observations, including night-time increases in particulate forms of Fe and other elements.

  2. Analytical Chemistry Division annual progress report for period ending December 31, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-01-01

    The following sentences highlight some of the technical activities carried out during 1991. They illustrate the diversity of programs and technical work performed within the Analytical Chemistry Division. Our neutron activation analysis laboratory at HFIR was placed into operation during 1991. We have combined inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP/MS) with a preparation procedure developed at the Argonne National Laboratory to measure ultra-trace levels of U, Pu, Np, and Am in body fluids, primarily urine. Much progress has been made over the last year in the interfacing of an rf-powered glow discharge source to a double-focusing mass spectrometer. Preliminary experiments using electrospray ionization combined with ion trap mass spectrometry show much promise for the analysis of metals in solution. A secondary ion microprobe has been constructed that permits determination of the distribution of organic compounds less than a monolayer thick on samples as large as 1 cm diameter. Fourier transform mass spectrometry has been demonstrated to be a highly effective tool for the detailed characterization of biopolymers, especially normal and modified oligonucleotides. Much has been accomplished in understanding the fundamentals of quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometry. Work with ITMS instrumentation has led to the development of rapid methods for the detection of trace organics in environmental and physiological samples. A new type of time-of-flight mass spectrometer was designed for use with our positron ionization experiments. Fundamental research on chromatography at high concentrations and on gas-solid adsorption has continued. The preparation of a monograph on the chemistry of environmental tobacco smoke was completed this year.

  3. Development and validation of a path analytic model of students' performance in chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anamuah-Mensah, Jophus; Erickson, Gaalen; Gaskell, Jim

    This article reports the development and validation of an integrated model of performance on a chemical concept - volumetric analysis. From the chemical literature a path-analytic model of performance on volumetric analysis calculation was postulated based on studies utilizing the proportional reasoning schema of Piaget and the Cumulative learning theory of Gagne. This integrated model hypothesized some relationships among the variables: direct proportional reasoning, inverse proportional reasoning, prerequisite concepts (content) and performance on volumetric analysis calculations. This model was postulated for the two groups of students involved in the study - that is those who use algorithms with understanding and those who use algorithms without understanding. Two hundred and sixty-five grade twelve chemistry students in eight schools (14 classes) in the lower mainland of British Columbia, Canada participated fully in the study. With the exception of the test on volumetric analysis calculations all the other tests were administered prior to the teaching of the unit on volumetric analysis. The results of the study indicate that for subjects using algorithms without understanding, their performance on VA problems is not influenced by proportional reasoning strategies while for those who use algorithms with understanding, their performance is influenced by proportional reasoning strategies.

  4. Advanced structural inorganic chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Wai-Kee; Mak, Thomas C W

    2008-01-01

    An English edition of a textbook based on teaching at the final year undergraduate and graduate level. It presents structure and bonding, generalizations of structural trends, crystallographic data, as well as highlights from the recent literature.

  5. CONTROVERTING THE GREENING OF INORGANIC CHEMISTRY EXPERIMENT TEACHING%浅议无机化学实验教学绿色化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈宏; 万新军

    2012-01-01

    在新世纪,我国高校无机化学实验教学绿色化逐渐具有了重要的意义。在绿色化学理念的指导下,教师可以采取选择系列实验、改进实验方法、开展微型实验、实施试剂少量化、再利用实验产物等措施,实现无机化学实验教学绿色化。这样,既保证了实验教学的效果,又减少了实验对环境的污染和降低了实验的成本。%In the new century, the greening of inorganic chemistry experiment teaching has gradually great significance in colleges. Teachers can choose.to take a series of experiments, improve the experiment method, carry out miniature experiment, use less reagent and reuse experiment product under the guidance of green chemistry, it could realize greening the inorganic chemistry experiment teaching. In this way, not only ensure the experiment teaching effect, but also reduce the pollution to the environment and the cost of the experiment.

  6. Teaching Practice and Experience of Inorganic Chemistry in Independent College%独立学院无机化学教学实践与体会

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯彤英; 郭冰之

    2012-01-01

    According to the characteristics and training objectives of independent college,the paper introduced teaching practice and experience of inorganic chemistry including study habit,teaching program,learning interest and teaching attitudes.%论文针对独立学院的特点、培养目标,从学习习惯、教学大纲、学习兴趣和教学态度四个方面浅析了无机化学的教学实践和教学体会。

  7. Inorganic carbon acquisition in potentially toxic and non-toxic diatoms: the effect of pH-induced changes in the seawater carbonate chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trimborn, S; Lundholm, Nina; Thoms, S;

    2008-01-01

    The effects of pH-induced changes in seawater carbonate chemistry on inorganic carbon (C-i) acquisition and domoic acid (DA) production were studied in two potentially toxic diatom species, Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries and Nitzschia navis-varingica, and the non-toxic Stellarima stellaris. In vivo......, it was about 55% in P. multiseries and only approximately 30% in N. navis-varingica. The intracellular content of DA increased in P. multiseries and N. navis-varingica with increasing pH. Based on our data, we propose a novel role for eCA acting as C-i-recycling mechanism. With regard to p...

  8. Exploration into inorganic chemistry experiment teaching reform%无机化学实验教学改革的探索与实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李红喜; 郎建平

    2011-01-01

    结合传统无机化学实验教学中存在的不足,从提高学生实验技术、深化绿色化学教学、将科研思维融入教学和完善考核方法等方面进行了改革探索,取得了较好的效果.%This paper analyzes the actuality of inorganic chemistry teaching experiment with the traditional teaching content and method in the experiment. It puts forward some improvement measurements by improving basic experiment skills of students, intensifying green chemistry education, putting the thinking of scientific research into the teaching, bettering check-up system and so on.

  9. General Procedure for the Easy Calculation of pH in an Introductory Course of General or Analytical Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cepriá, Gemma; Salvatella, Luis

    2014-01-01

    All pH calculations for simple acid-base systems used in introductory courses on general or analytical chemistry can be carried out by using a general procedure requiring the use of predominance diagrams. In particular, the pH is calculated as the sum of an independent term equaling the average pK[subscript a] values of the acids involved in the…

  10. Effects of 7-E, KWL and Conventional Instruction on Analytical Thinking, Learning Achievement and Attitudes toward Chemistry Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rungrawee Siribunnam

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The purposes of this research were to compare in analytical thinking, science learning achievement and attitudes toward chemistry learning of Matthayomsuksa 5 students who learned using the 7-E learning cycle, KWL learning method and conventional approach. Approach: The sample consisted of 154 Matthayomsuksa 5 students attending in the first semester of the academic year 2008, Phayakkhaphumwitthayakhan School, Phayakkhaphumphisai District, Mahasarakham Province, cluster random sampling technique was employed. The were divided into two experimental groups who learned using the 7-E learning cycle and KWL learning activities and one control group who learned using the conventional approach. Results: The research instruments were: (1 12 lesson plans for organization of 7-E learning cycle, 12 lesson plans for organization of KWL learning method and 12 lesson plans for organization of the conventional approach; (2 A 30-item analytical thinking test; (3 A 40-item achievement test of science learning achievement and (4 A 20-item of attitudes toward chemistry learning. The statistics used for analyzing the collected data were mean, standard deviation, F-test (one-way MANOVA, Hotelling’s T2 and Univariate t-test. The results of the study revealed that the students who learned using the 7-E learning cycle, KWL learning method and the conventional approach were differently showed analytical thinking, science learning achievement and attitudes toward chemistry learning at the 0.05 level of significance. The students who learned using the 7-E learning cycle showed more science learning achievement than did the students who learned using KWL learning method. Also the result and indicated than analytical thinking, science learning achievement and attitudes toward chemistry learning higher than did the students who learned using the conventional approach. In addition, the students who learned using KWL learning method showed higher analytical

  11. Automatic evaluation and data generation for analytical chemistry instrumental analysis exercises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arsenio Muñoz de la Peña

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In general, laboratory activities are costly in terms of time, space, and money. As such, the ability to provide realistically simulated laboratory data that enables students to practice data analysis techniques as a complementary activity would be expected to reduce these costs while opening up very interesting possibilities. In the present work, a novel methodology is presented for design of analytical chemistry instrumental analysis exercises that can be automatically personalized for each student and the results evaluated immediately. The proposed system provides each student with a different set of experimental data generated randomly while satisfying a set of constraints, rather than using data obtained from actual laboratory work. This allows the instructor to provide students with a set of practical problems to complement their regular laboratory work along with the corresponding feedback provided by the system's automatic evaluation process. To this end, the Goodle Grading Management System (GMS, an innovative web-based educational tool for automating the collection and assessment of practical exercises for engineering and scientific courses, was developed. The proposed methodology takes full advantage of the Goodle GMS fusion code architecture. The design of a particular exercise is provided ad hoc by the instructor and requires basic Matlab knowledge. The system has been employed with satisfactory results in several university courses. To demonstrate the automatic evaluation process, three exercises are presented in detail. The first exercise involves a linear regression analysis of data and the calculation of the quality parameters of an instrumental analysis method. The second and third exercises address two different comparison tests, a comparison test of the mean and a t-paired test.

  12. Chemistry-Nuclear Chemistry Division. Progress report, October 1980-September 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, R.R. (comp.)

    1982-05-01

    This report describes major progress in the research and development programs pursued by the Chemistry-Nuclear Chemistry Division of the Los Alamos National Laboratory during FY 1981. Topics covered include advanced analytical methods, atmospheric chemistry and transport, biochemistry, biomedical research, medical radioisotopes research, element migration and fixation, nuclear waste isolation research, inorganic and structural chemistry, isotope separation, analysis and applications, the newly established Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Center, atomic and molecular collisions, molecular spectroscopy, nuclear cosmochemistry, nuclear structure and reactions, pion charge exchange, radiochemical separations, theoretical chemistry, and unclassified weapons research.

  13. 绿色化学教育在高职高专无机化学教学中的渗透%The Penetrating Green Chemistry Education into Inorganic Chemistry Teaching of High Vocation College

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐新军

    2012-01-01

    The origin and the intension of green chemistry were introduced.Based on green chemistry ideas,the inorganic chemistry textbook was updated and supplemented suitably,the emphasis was put on how the concept of green chemistry classroom theoretical teaching and experimental teaching to be penetrated.Practice showed that the penetration of green chemistry education teaching approach was not only feasible,but also helpful to improve the students' interest in learning.%概述了绿色化学的由来和基本原理,基于绿色化学思想对无机化学教材进行适当的更新和补充,重点探讨了如何在课堂理论教学和实验教学中进行绿色化学理念的渗透的途径和方法。实践表明将绿色化学教育渗透于教学中的做法不仅可行,而且有利于提高学生的学习兴趣。

  14. Review on composite cation exchanger as interdicipilinary materials in analytical chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, A; Asiri, A. M.; Rub, M. A.; Azum, N.; Khan, A. A. P.; Khan, I; Mondal, P. K.

    2012-01-01

    Green chemistry and technology is the design of chemical manufacturing systems to minimize their adverse affects on the environment. Thus, a primary goal of green chemistry and technology is to reduce the environmental impact of chemical processes and chemical manufacturing while simultaneously enhancing the overall process performance. Although it is beneficial to simply reduce the use of organic solvents in chemical processes, green chemistry and technology goes further, in that it evaluate...

  15. Comparative study of inorganic elements determined in whole blood from Dmd(mdx)/J mice strain by EDXRF and NAA analytical techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redígolo, M M; Sato, I M; Metairon, S; Zamboni, C B

    2016-04-01

    Several diseases can be diagnosed observing the variation of specific elements concentration in body fluids. In this study the concentration of inorganic elements in blood samples of dystrophic (Dmd(mdx)/J) and C57BL/6J (control group) mice strain were determined. The results obtained from Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) were compared with Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) technique. Both analytical techniques showed to be appropriate and complementary offering a new contribution for veterinary medicine as well as detailed knowledge of this pathology.

  16. Exploration on New Features of Teaching of Modern Inorganic Chemistry Experiment%现代无机化学实验教学新特点探索

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔春娜; 谢红璐; 武经宇; 黄继涛; 陈嘉健

    2012-01-01

    结合学校特点对现代无机化学实验教学的新特点进行了总结,从注重学生实验能力的培养,绿色化发展,实验教学方式多样化方面深入阐述,并针对现代无机实验教学提出了几点建议,选择合适的实验仪器,和社团紧密结合,加强科研思路引导。%Combining features of college,the authors concluded features of modern inorganic chemistry experiment.Then,the authors expounded the features from 3 aspects of culturing ability of students' experiment,developing green chemistry and diversifying methods of teaching of experiment.Finally,aiming at modern teaching of inorganic experiment,the authors put forward some suggestions of choosing suitable experiment equipments,combining with club and strengthening guidance of scientific research thoughts.

  17. Black Boxes in Analytical Chemistry: University Students' Misconceptions of Instrumental Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbo, Antonio Domenech; Adelantado, Jose Vicente Gimeno; Reig, Francisco Bosch

    2010-01-01

    Misconceptions of chemistry and chemical engineering university students concerning instrumental analysis have been established from coordinated tests, tutorial interviews and laboratory lessons. Misconceptions can be divided into: (1) formal, involving specific concepts and formulations within the general frame of chemistry; (2)…

  18. Proteomics Is Analytical Chemistry: Fitness-for-Purpose in the Application of Top-Down and Bottom-Up Analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coorssen, Jens R; Yergey, Alfred L

    2015-12-03

    Molecular mechanisms underlying health and disease function at least in part based on the flexibility and fine-tuning afforded by protein isoforms and post-translational modifications. The ability to effectively and consistently resolve these protein species or proteoforms, as well as assess quantitative changes is therefore central to proteomic analyses. Here we discuss the pros and cons of currently available and developing analytical techniques from the perspective of the full spectrum of available tools and their current applications, emphasizing the concept of fitness-for-purpose in experimental design based on consideration of sample size and complexity; this necessarily also addresses analytical reproducibility and its variance. Data quality is considered the primary criterion, and we thus emphasize that the standards of Analytical Chemistry must apply throughout any proteomic analysis.

  19. Heavy haze episodes in Beijing during January 2013: Inorganic ion chemistry and source analysis using highly time-resolved measurements from an urban site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Bin; Zhang, Rui; Yang, Wen; Bai, Zhipeng; Ma, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Wenjie

    2016-02-15

    The heavy air pollution that occurred in Beijing in January of 2013 attracted intense attention around the world. During this period, we conducted highly time-resolved measurements of inorganic ions associated with PM2.5 at an urban site of Beijing, and investigated ion chemistry and potential sources. Hourly concentrations of Cl(-), NO3(-), SO4(2-), Na(+), NH4(+), K(+), Mg(2+), and Ca(2+) were measured. Peak concentrations of SO4(2-) and NO3(-) were observed on the 10th-15th, 21st-24th, and the 26th-30th during this monitoring campaign. The percentages of SO4(2-) and NH4(+) in total ion concentration increased with the enhancement of PM2.5 concentrations, indicating that high concentrations of SO4(2-) and NH4(+) may play important roles in the formation of haze episodes. The ratio of [NO3(-)]/[SO4(2-)] was calculated, revealing that the sources of SO4(2-) would contribute more to the formation of PM2.5 than mobile sources. Diurnal variations of SO4(2-), NO3(-), NH4(+) (SNA) exhibited a similar pattern, with high concentrations at night and low levels during the day, revealing that meteorological conditions, such as mixing layer height, relative humidity, were likely to be responsible for high levels of SNA at night. The roles of meteorological conditions were further discussed in the formation of secondary inorganic ions. Relative humidity and temperature played key roles and exhibited positive correlations with secondary inorganic ions. An aerosol inorganics simulation model showed that SNA existed mainly in the aqueous phase during the sampling period. Furthermore, potential sources were identified by applying positive matrix factorization model. Secondary nitrate, secondary sulfate, coal combustion and biomass burning, as well as fugitive dust, were considered to be major contributors to total ions.

  20. Reform and Innovation of Experiment Teaching of Inorganic Chemistry%无机化学实验教学改革与创新

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘媛; 邹清; 房川琳; 杨宗懿; 刘艳红

    2016-01-01

    Traditional inorganic chemistry experiment teaching for cultivating the students’basic operation and basic quality played a good role,but also had some disadvantages.It not well adapted to cultivate applied talents in colleges and universities.It is ur-gent to reform.In the process of experiment,the teaching of inorganic chemistry ,teaching contents,teaching mode,green chemistry and opening laboratory were reformed and explored.In these fields,the dominant position of students in the experimental teaching was highlighted,and the interests of students were stimulated.Meanwhile,students’manipulative ability and creative thinking have been cultivated.%传统的无机化学实验教学对学生基本操作和基本素质的培养起到了良好的作用,但也出现了一些弊端,不能很好地适应高校培养应用型人才目标的需求,迫切需要进行改革。该文从教学内容和教学模式、绿色化学教学和开放实验室等方面进行教学改革和探索。突出学生在实验教学中的主体地位,激发学生的兴趣,充分调动教师和学生的积极性,锻炼和培养学生的实践动手和创新能力。

  1. ASVCP quality assurance guidelines: control of preanalytical, analytical, and postanalytical factors for urinalysis, cytology, and clinical chemistry in veterinary laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn-Christie, Rebekah G; Flatland, Bente; Friedrichs, Kristen R; Szladovits, Balazs; Harr, Kendal E; Ruotsalo, Kristiina; Knoll, Joyce S; Wamsley, Heather L; Freeman, Kathy P

    2012-03-01

    In December 2009, the American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology (ASVCP) Quality Assurance and Laboratory Standards committee published the updated and peer-reviewed ASVCP Quality Assurance Guidelines on the Society's website. These guidelines are intended for use by veterinary diagnostic laboratories and veterinary research laboratories that are not covered by the US Food and Drug Administration Good Laboratory Practice standards (Code of Federal Regulations Title 21, Chapter 58). The guidelines have been divided into 3 reports: (1) general analytical factors for veterinary laboratory performance and comparisons; (2) hematology, hemostasis, and crossmatching; and (3) clinical chemistry, cytology, and urinalysis. This particular report is one of 3 reports and documents recommendations for control of preanalytical, analytical, and postanalytical factors related to urinalysis, cytology, and clinical chemistry in veterinary laboratories and is adapted from sections 1.1 and 2.2 (clinical chemistry), 1.3 and 2.5 (urinalysis), 1.4 and 2.6 (cytology), and 3 (postanalytical factors important in veterinary clinical pathology) of these guidelines. These guidelines are not intended to be all-inclusive; rather, they provide minimal guidelines for quality assurance and quality control for veterinary laboratory testing and a basis for laboratories to assess their current practices, determine areas for improvement, and guide continuing professional development and education efforts.

  2. The Efficacy of Problem-based Learning in an Analytical Laboratory Course for Pre-service Chemistry Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Heojeong; Woo, Ae Ja; Treagust, David; Chandrasegaran, AL

    2014-01-01

    The efficacy of problem-based learning (PBL) in an analytical chemistry laboratory course was studied using a programme that was designed and implemented with 20 students in a treatment group over 10 weeks. Data from 26 students in a traditional analytical chemistry laboratory course were used for comparison. Differences in the creative thinking ability of students in both the treatment and control groups were evaluated before and at the end of the implementation of the programme, using the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking. In addition, changes in students' self-regulated learning skills using the Self-Regulated Learning Interview Schedule (SRLIS) and their self-evaluation proficiency were evaluated. Analysis of covariance showed that the creative thinking ability of the treatment group had improved statistically significantly after the PBL course (p self-regulated learning strategies more frequently than students in the comparison group. According to the results of the self-evaluation, students became more positive and confident in problem-solving and group work as the semester progressed. Overall, PBL was shown to be an effective pedagogical instructional strategy for enhancing chemistry students' creative thinking ability, self-regulated learning skills and self-evaluation.

  3. 无机化学实验绿色化设计与探索%The Design and Exploration to the Inorganic Chemistry Experiment Greening

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐飞; 李生英; 汪淼; 许世红; 何丽君; 赵国虎

    2012-01-01

    In this paper,two typical example of inorganic chemistry experiment were analyzed.Some principle of green chemistry such as prevent pollution from the source,form chemistry experiment method by improving the routine test and reduced emissions of "three wastes" were used.From the view of saving resources and preventing pollution,this paper also reformed and re-examined the traditional chemical methods.%以两个典型的无机化学实验为例,按照从源头上阻止污染、改进常规实验形成化学实验新方法、从节约资源和防止污染的观点重新审视和改革传统化学实验方法、减少"三废"排放等原理,对无机化学实验的绿色化进行了探索.

  4. Guangzhou Chemical Industry%Improvement on the Preparation Method of A Complex [ Co(NH3) 5 Cl] Cl2 for Undergraduate Inorganic Chemistry Experiment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易正戟; 刘洋; 毛芳芳; 崔莺; 陈满生

    2016-01-01

    Preparation of the coordination compound [ Co ( NH3 ) 5 Cl ] Cl2 is an important inorganic synthesis experiment for the undergraduate Inorganic Chemistry course. However,according to the textbook operation, not only the yield of target product was low and some by-products were produced, but also the volatilization of HCl and NH3 would cause atmosphere pollution. Meanwhile, the target coordination compound detection gave rise to the waste of much valuable reagent AgNO3 . On the basis of green chemistry principle, the key procedure and reagent dosage for the undergraduate Inorganic Chemistry experiment’ for preparing a kind of Co(III) complex were improved. Therefore, the reactant amount of AgNO3 was saved, the yield and purity of the coordination product were increased, and the effect of environmental protection was also achieved.%配位化合物[ Co( NH3)5 Cl] Cl2的制备是大学无机化学课程中一个重要的无机合成实验,但按照教材中的步骤进行操作,不但产率低、易生成其它副产物,而且HCl和NH3气体的挥发容易造成大气污染;同时,目标配合物的检测会造成大量贵重试剂AgNO3的浪费。基于绿色化学理念,针对教材中“一种Co( III)配合物的制备”相关的关键步骤和药品用量进行了改进和创新,节省了AgNO3试剂的用量,提高了产品的产率和纯度,同时也达到了环保的效果。

  5. Analytical Chemistry Division annual progress report for period ending December 31, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shults, W.D.; Lyon, W.S. (ed.)

    1980-05-01

    The progress is reported in the following sections: analytical methodology, mass and emission spectrometry, technical support, bio-organic analysis, nuclear and radiochemical analysis, and quality assurance. (DLC)

  6. The Abbott Architect c8000: analytical performance and productivity characteristics of a new analyzer applied to general chemistry testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauli, Daniela; Seyfarth, Michael; Dibbelt, Leif

    2005-01-01

    Applying basic potentiometric and photometric assays, we evaluated the fully automated random access chemistry analyzer Architect c8000, a new member of the Abbott Architect system family, with respect to both its analytical and operational performance and compared it to an established high-throughput chemistry platform, the Abbott Aeroset. Our results demonstrate that intra- and inter-assay imprecision, inaccuracy, lower limit of detection and linear range of the c8000 generally meet actual requirements of laboratory diagnosis; there were only rare exceptions, e.g. assays for plasma lipase or urine uric acid which apparently need to be improved by additional rinsing of reagent pipettors. Even with plasma exhibiting CK activities as high as 40.000 U/l, sample carryover by the c8000 could not be detected. Comparison of methods run on the c8000 and the Aeroset revealed correlation coefficients of 0.98-1.00; if identical chemistries were applied on both analyzers, slopes of regression lines approached unity. With typical laboratory workloads including 10-20% STAT samples and up to 10% samples with high analyte concentrations demanding dilutional reruns, steady-state throughput numbers of 700 to 800 tests per hour were obtained with the c8000. The system generally responded to STAT orders within 2 minutes yielding analytical STAT order completion times of 5 to 15 minutes depending on the type and number of assays requested per sample. Due to its extended test and sample processing capabilities and highly comfortable software, the c8000 may meet the varying needs of clinical laboratories rather well.

  7. Inorganic chemistry. Synthesis and characterization of P₂N₃⁻: an aromatic ion composed of phosphorus and nitrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velian, Alexandra; Cummins, Christopher C

    2015-05-29

    Aromaticity is predominantly associated with carbon-rich compounds but can also occur in all-inorganic ones. We report the synthesis of the diphosphatriazolate anion, a rare example of a planar aromatic inorganic species. Treatment of azide (N3(-)) in tetrahydrofuran solution with P2A2 (A = C14H10), a source of P2, produced P2N3(-), which we isolated as its [Na-kryptofix-221](+) salt in 22% yield and characterized by single-crystal x-ray diffraction. Salts [Na-kryptofix-221] [P2N3] and [Na-kryptofix-221] [P2(15)NN2] were analyzed by infrared and Raman spectroscopy, (15)N and (31)P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and mass spectrometry. The formation of the P2N3(-) anion was investigated using density functional theory, and its aromatic character was confirmed by NICS (nucleus-independent chemical shift) and QTAIM (quantum theory of atoms in molecules) methods.

  8. Uma proposta de síntese para o ensino integrado das disciplinas experimentais de química orgânica e inorgânica nos cursos de graduação A proposal of synthesis for the integrated teaching of organic and inorganic experimental chemistry in the undergraduate courses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson Fernandes de Farias

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of the layered compound VO(PO4(H2O2 and its use to oxidize 2-butanol to the ketone 2-butanone, is proposed as an experiment to integrate the organic and inorganic experimental undergraduate chemistry courses, in an atempt to overcome the observed disrupture between organic and inorganic chemistry.

  9. New Concepts of Quality Assurance in Analytical Chemistry: Will They Influence the Way We Conduct Science in General?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens; Glasdam, Sidsel-Marie; Larsen, Daniel Bo;

    2016-01-01

    According to the guide Vocabulary in Metrology (VIM3) (JCGM, 2008), the definition of the concepts of trueness and accuracy has been revised, which has an important impact on analytical chemistry. Additionally, Eurachem/CITAC has published a new edition of the guide to Quantifying Uncertainty....... Despite good intentions and new concepts, as well as practices and procedures for quality assurance, it is shown by these two examples that these efforts may be inadequate or mislead scientists into making major mistakes in the decision-making process. A set of equations is supplied, which are based...

  10. Focus on the nanomaterial-based biosensor papers in Chinese Journal of Analytical Chemistry of the year 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xia; MA LiNa; WANG ZhenXin

    2011-01-01

    Because of their unique physical and chemical properties,nanomaterials have been widely used to develop biosensing systems for bioanalytical and biomedical applications.The journal Chinese Journal of Analytical Chemistry published 35 papers on nanomaterial-based biosensors in 2010,including 5 reviews [1-5] and 29 research articles [6-34].These biosensing systems were fabricated by a broad range of nanomaterials (e.g.,carbon nanotube,gold nanoparticle,magnetic nanoparticle,silica nanoparticle,quantum dot,and so forth,Figure 1),some of them have high quality and get great achievements.

  11. Host-guest chemistry for tuning colloidal solubility, self-organization and photoconductivity of inorganic-capped nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodnarchuk, Maryna I; Yakunin, Sergii; Piveteau, Laura; Kovalenko, Maksym V

    2015-12-09

    Colloidal inorganic nanocrystals (NCs), functionalized with inorganic capping ligands, such as metal chalcogenide complexes (MCCs), have recently emerged as versatile optoelectronic materials. As-prepared, highly charged MCC-capped NCs are dispersible only in highly polar solvents, and lack the ability to form long-range ordered NC superlattices. Here we report a simple and general methodology, based on host-guest coordination of MCC-capped NCs with macrocyclic ethers (crown ethers and cryptands), enabling the solubilization of inorganic-capped NCs in solvents of any polarity and improving the ability to form NC superlattices. The corona of organic molecules can also serve as a convenient knob for the fine adjustment of charge transport and photoconductivity in films of NCs. In particular, high-infrared-photon detectivities of up to 3.3 × 10(11) Jones with a fast response (3 dB cut-off at 3 kHz) at the wavelength of 1,200 nm were obtained with films of PbS/K3AsS4/decyl-18-crown-6 NCs.

  12. Analytical Chemistry Division annual progress report for period ending November 30, 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyon, W.S. (ed.)

    1978-03-01

    Activities for the year are summarized in sections on analytical methodology, mass and mass emission spectrometry, analytical services, bio-organic analysis, nuclear and radiochemical analysis, and quality assurance and safety. Presentations of research results in publications and reports are tabulated. (JRD)

  13. Development and application of a two-tier multiple choice diagnostic instrument to assess high school students' understanding of inorganic chemistry qualitative analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Kim Chwee Daniel; Khang Goh, Ngoh; Sai Chia, Lian; Treagust, David F.

    2002-04-01

    This article describes the development and application of a two-tier multiple choice diagnostic instrument to assess high school students' understanding of inorganic chemistry qualitative analysis. The development of the diagnostic instrument was guided by the framework outlined by Treagust. The instrument was administered to 915 Grade 10 students (15 to 17 years old) from 11 schools after they had learned the theory involved in qualitative analysis and after a series of qualitative analysis practical sessions. The Cronbach alpha reliability of the instrument was .68, the facility indices ranged from .17 to .48, and the discrimination indices ranged from .20 to .53. The study showed that the Grade 10 students had difficulty understanding the reactions involved in the identification of cations and anions, for example, double decomposition reactions, the formation and reaction of complex salts, and thermal decomposition. The findings of the study and literature on practical work were used to develop a qualitative analysis teaching package.

  14. Synthetic Nano- and Micromachines in Analytical Chemistry: Sensing, Migration, Capture, Delivery, and Separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Wentao; Wang, Wei; Das, Sambeeta; Yadav, Vinita; Mallouk, Thomas E; Sen, Ayusman

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic nano- and microscale machines move autonomously in solution or drive fluid flows by converting sources of energy into mechanical work. Their sizes are comparable to analytes (sub-nano- to microscale), and they respond to signals from each other and their surroundings, leading to emergent collective behavior. These machines can potentially enable hitherto difficult analytical applications. In this article, we review the development of different classes of synthetic nano- and micromotors and pumps and indicate their possible applications in real-time in situ chemical sensing, on-demand directional transport, cargo capture and delivery, as well as analyte isolation and separation.

  15. Gold nanoparticles-induced enhancement of the analytical response of an electrochemical biosensor based on an organic-inorganic hybrid composite material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbadillo, M; Casero, E; Petit-Domínguez, M D; Vázquez, L; Pariente, F; Lorenzo, E

    2009-12-15

    The design and characterization of a new organic-inorganic hybrid composite material for glucose electrochemical sensing are described. This material is based on the entrapment of both gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and glucose oxidase, which was chosen as a model, into a sol-gel matrix. The addition of spectroscopic grade graphite to this system, which confers conductivity, leads to the development of a material particularly attractive for electrochemical biosensor fabrication. The characterization of the hybrid composite material was performed using atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy techniques. This composite material was applied to the determination of glucose in presence of hydroxymethylferrocene as a redox mediator. The system exhibits a clear electrocatalytic activity towards glucose, allowing its determination at 250 mV vs Ag/AgCl. The performance of the resulting enzyme biosensor was evaluated in terms of sensitivity, detection limit, linear response range, stability and accuracy. Finally, the enhancement of the analytical response of the resulting biosensor induced by the presence of gold nanoparticles was evaluated by comparison with a similar organic-inorganic hybrid composite material without AuNPs.

  16. Electronic Transitions as a Probe of Tetrahedral versus Octahedral Coordination in Nickel(II) Complexes: An Undergraduate Inorganic Chemistry Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filgueiras, Carlos A. L.; Carazza, Fernando

    1980-01-01

    Discusses procedures, theoretical considerations, and results of an experiment involving the preparation of a tetrahedral nickel(II) complex and its transformation into an octahedral species. Suggests that fundamental aspects of coordination chemistry can be demonstrated by simple experiments performed in introductory level courses. (Author/JN)

  17. Synthesis and Characterization of Europium(III) and Terbium(III) Complexes: An Advanced Undergraduate Inorganic Chemistry Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swavey, Shawn

    2010-01-01

    Undergraduate laboratories rarely involve lanthanide coordination chemistry. This is unfortunate in light of the ease with which many of these complexes are made and the interesting and instructive photophysical properties they entail. The forbidden nature of the 4f transitions associated with the lanthanides is overcome by incorporation of…

  18. Sol-Gel Synthesis of a Biotemplated Inorganic Photocatalyst: A Simple Experiment for Introducing Undergraduate Students to Materials Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boffa, Vittorio; Yue, Yuanzheng; He, Wen

    2012-01-01

    As part of a laboratory course, undergraduate students were asked to use baker's yeast cells as biotemplate in preparing TiO[subscript 2] powders and to test the photocatalytic activity of the resulting materials. This laboratory experience, selected because of the important environmental implications of soft chemistry and photocatalysis, provides…

  19. A Multidisciplinary Science Summer Camp for Students with Emphasis on Environmental and Analytical Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Gunnar; Frenzel, Wolfgang; Richter, Wolfgang M.; Ta¨uscher, Lothar; Kubsch, Georg

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the course of events of a five-day summer camp on environmental chemistry with high emphasis on chemical analysis. The annual camp was optional and open for students of all disciplines and levels. The duration of the summer camp was five and a half days in the Feldberg Lake District in northeast Germany (federal state of…

  20. Verslag "Fourth European Conference on Analytical Chemistry", Helsinki, 1981-08-23/28

    OpenAIRE

    Ruig, de, W.G.

    1981-01-01

    Euroanalysis - IV, the "Fourth European Conference on Analytica! Chemistry" was georganiseerd door de Finse Chemische Vereniging en werd gehouden van 23-28 augustus 1981 te Helsinki. Het aantal deelnemers bedroeg 750, afkomstig uit 39 landen. Er waren ruim 250 voordrachten en posters, grotendeels in parallelzittingen. Daarnaast was er een tentoonstelling. Voorts waren er nog een aantal plenaire voordrachten van meer algemene aard.

  1. Incorporating Course-Based Undergraduate Research Experiences into Analytical Chemistry Laboratory Curricula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Melissa A.; Yan, Fei

    2016-01-01

    A continuous effort within an undergraduate university setting is to improve students' learning outcomes and thus improve students' attitudes about a particular field of study. This is undoubtedly relevant within a chemistry laboratory. This paper reports the results of an effort to introduce a problem-based learning strategy into the analytical…

  2. Using Cooperative Learning to Teach Chemistry: A Meta-Analytic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warfa, Abdi-Rizak M.

    2016-01-01

    A meta-analysis of recent quantitative studies that examine the effects of cooperative learning (CL) on achievement outcomes in chemistry is presented. Findings from 25 chemical education studies involving 3985 participants (N[subscript treatment] = 1,845; N[subscript control] = 2,140) and published since 2001 show positive association between…

  3. Development and Validation of a Path Analytic Model of Students' Performance in Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anamuah-Mensah, Jophus; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Reported the development and validation of an integrated model of performance on chemical concept-volumetric analysis. Model was tested on 265 chemistry students in eight schools.Results indicated that for subjects using algorithms without understanding, performance on volumetric analysis problems was not influenced by proportional reasoning…

  4. Nanopore analytics: sensing of single molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howorka, Stefan; Siwy, Zuzanna

    2009-08-01

    In nanopore analytics, individual molecules pass through a single nanopore giving rise to detectable temporary blockades in ionic pore current. Reflecting its simplicity, nanopore analytics has gained popularity and can be conducted with natural protein as well as man-made polymeric and inorganic pores. The spectrum of detectable analytes ranges from nucleic acids, peptides, proteins, and biomolecular complexes to organic polymers and small molecules. Apart from being an analytical tool, nanopores have developed into a general platform technology to investigate the biophysics, physicochemistry, and chemistry of individual molecules (critical review, 310 references).

  5. Opening Remarks for "Analytical Chemistry, Monitoring, and Environmental Fate and Transport" Session at Fluoros 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    There have been a number of revolutionary developments during the past decade that have led to a much more comprehensive understanding of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in the environment. Improvements in analytical instrumentation have made liquid chromatography tri...

  6. Analytical Chemistry Division annual progress report for period ending November 30, 1975

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyon, W.S. (comp. and ed.)

    1976-02-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for each of the six sections on analytical research and development. Service analyses, activities related to education, supplementary professional activities, and means of presentation of research results are also discussed. (JGB)

  7. 无机化学课程改革探讨与实践%Exploration and Practice of Inorganic Chemistry Teaching Reform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹爱萍; 李慧卿; 曹叶霞

    2014-01-01

    《无机化学》是化学专业开设的第一门专业基础课。针对无机化学课程内容繁杂、涉及知识点多的教学特点,结合我院大一学生的实际情况,以学生为主体,以转变课堂教学模式、提高学生素质为导向,对无机化学课程从优化教材体系、改革教学方法和考试试卷改革三方面进行了探索和实践,旨在培养学生自主学习意识,提高学生的综合素质,为以后的学习、就业奠定基础。%Inorganic Chemistry was a compulsory basic course for freshman in chemistry major in college , which had complex content and more knowledge points .According to its feature and students'condition in our college , optimizing teaching material structure , reforming teaching methods and innovating exam paper with ideas of student -based studying , transforming teaching mode in class and increasing students'quality as a guide were explored to cultivate student autonomous learning , increase their comprehensive qualities and help them to obtain employment in future .

  8. Reforming Exploration on Experiment Teaching of Inorganic Chemistry%无机化学实验教学的改革探索

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫循智; 李红英

    2012-01-01

      传统的无机化学实验教学方法,不利于培养学生的动手能力、创新思维及科学探究精神,为此,近年来菏泽学院化学化工系在无机化学实验课的教学上,从教学内容、教学方式、教学理念和考核方法等方面进行了改革探索。在实验内容上,适当增加综合性和设计性实验;实行开放式实验教学;将“绿色化学”思想贯穿于实验过程,培养学生的绿色环保意识;在实验课考核方法上,由原来的平时成绩占30%、期末笔试成绩占70%,改为平时成绩占70%、实验操作成绩占30%。通过上述改革探索,收到了良好的教学效果。%  The traditional teaching method of inorganic chemistry went against to cultivate undergraduate oper -ation ability, innovation ideation and scientific exploring spirit .Therefore, in recent years, the Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering in Heze University made some reforming exploration on experiment curriculum of inorganic chemistry from aspects:teaching content,teaching mode,teaching concept and examine means .On ex-periment content, added properly some all -around and design experiments;carried out open experiment teaching;impenetrated whole experiment process with “green chemistry”thinking, cultivated undergraduate consciousness a-bout green environment protecting;on examine means, changed primarily normal days achievement occuping 30%, final written examination achievement occuping 70% of overall achevement to normal days achievement occuping 70%, final operation examination achievement occuping 30%.Favourable teaching effect was obtained via reforma-tion experiment mentioned above .

  9. 浅谈分析化学实验考核改革与实践%Reformation and Application of Examinatorial Analytical Chemistry Expermients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    甘春芳; 马建强

    2012-01-01

    The achievements of reformation and exploration in analytical chemistry experiments were expounded.The effects of the examinatorial and designing analytical chemistry and the importance in the reformation in exmerimental teaching also discussed.The designing analytical chemistry experiments was to develop students' abilities of utilizing the learned knowledge on analytical chemistry to solve the problems on experiment and improve their comprehensive abilities and skills in analytical chemistry.%阐述分析化学实验考核改革与实践,主要探讨了将设计性实验引入分析化学实验考核的实施效果以及在实验教学改革中的重要性,设计性实验培养了学生分析问题和解决问题的能力,进而提高学生在分析化学方面的综合能力和技能。

  10. Selected clinical chemistry analytes correlate with the pathogenesis of inclusion body hepatitis experimentally induced by fowl aviadenoviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos, Miguel; Grafl, Beatrice; Liebhart, Dieter; Schwendenwein, Ilse; Hess, Michael

    2016-10-01

    In the present study, clinical chemistry was applied to assess the pathogenesis and progression of experimentally induced inclusion body hepatitis (IBH). For this, five fowl aviadenovirus (FAdV) strains from recent IBH field outbreaks were used to orally inoculate different groups of day-old specific pathogen-free chickens, which were weighed, sampled and examined during necropsy by sequential killing. Mortalities of 50% and 30% were recorded in two groups between 6 and 9 days post-infection (dpi), along with a decreased weight of 23% and 20%, respectively, compared to the control group. Macroscopical changes were seen in the liver and kidney between 6 and 10 dpi, with no lesions being observed in the other organs. Histological lesions were observed in the liver and pancreas during the same period. Plasma was collected from killed birds of each group at each time point and the following clinical chemistry analytes were investigated: aspartate aminotransferase (AST), glutamate dehydrogenase (GLDH), bile acids, total protein, albumin, uric acid and lipase. Plasma protein profile, AST and GLDH, together with bile acids values paralleled the macroscopical and histopathological lesions in the liver, while plasma lipase activity levels coincided with lesions observed in pancreas. In agreement with the histology and clinical chemistry, viral load in the target organs, liver and pancreas, was highest at 7 dpi. Thus, clinical chemistry was found to be a valuable tool in evaluating and monitoring the progression of IBH in experimentally infected birds, providing a deeper knowledge of the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms of a FAdV infection in chickens.

  11. The Advance of Analytical Techniques for Combinatorial Chemistry%组合化学分析方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谌伟民; 黄明智; 黄可龙; 闵忠诚; 张泉

    2005-01-01

      综述了近几年组合化学分析方法的研究进展。在组合化学中得到广泛应用的分析方法有传统的荧光法、比色法、滴定法、燃烧法、元素分析和分光光度法等及现代的红外光谱(FT-IR)、质谱(MS)和质谱联用,核磁共振和近年发展起来的魔角旋转核磁共振(MAS NMR)以及高通量筛选和分析等技术。这些方法各有特点,广泛使用于组合化学中,使组合化学的监测和分析变得便捷和迅速,大大加快了组合化学的发展。%  The advances in analytical techniques for combinatorial chemistry were reviewed in this paper. The methods included conventional fluorometric assay, colorimetric test, titrimetric, combustion elemental, spectrophotometric analysis and modern FT-IR, MS, mass spectrometric hyphenated, NMR and magic angle spinning NMR as well as high-throughput screening and analysis are widely applied in combinatorial chemistry. These methods which allow the convenient monitoring and fast analysis in combinatorial chemistry will accelerate greatly the development of combinatorial chemistry.

  12. 大学生科学素质和创新能力与无机化学实验教学%Optimize Teaching of Inorganic Chemistry Experiment Improve the Student's Innovative Ability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    娄正松

    2011-01-01

    介绍了无机化学实验的重要性,在分析了无机化学实验的特点和教学中存在的一些问题后,针对性地提出了解决问题的方法。在无机化学实验教学中,首先要抓学生的基本操作和技能的训练,使其形成规范化的操作,并养成良好的实验习惯。探讨了在无机化学实验中培养学生的创新能力和树立绿色化学思想。通过改进实验内容、妥善处理实验产生的废弃物等方法,实现无机化学实验绿色化。%The significance of the inorganic chemistry experiment was indicated in the paper.The traits of basic chemistry experiment and the problems existing in teaching were analyzed,and the solutions to the issue were put forward.The paper pointed out that the first thing to do in inorganic chemistry experiment teaching was to attach the importance on students' basic operation and skills,which helped them standardize their operation and developed good experimental habits.Training students' innovative thinking competence and establishing students' idea of green chemistry were discussed in the course of inorganic chemistry experiment.Green experiment of inorganic chemistry can be carried out by means of improving the content of experiment and properly disposing the wastes of the experiment.

  13. Instrumental Analysis of Biodiesel Content in Commercial Diesel Blends: An Experiment for Undergraduate Analytical Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Z. Vivian; Buchman, Joseph T.

    2012-01-01

    The potential of replacing petroleum fuels with renewable biofuels has drawn significant public interest. Many states have imposed biodiesel mandates or incentives to use commercial biodiesel blends. We present an inquiry-driven experiment where students are given the tasks to gather samples, develop analytical methods using various instrumental…

  14. Charge Density Quantification of Polyelectrolyte Polysaccharides by Conductometric Titration: An Analytical Chemistry Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris, Stefano; Mora, Luigi; Capretti, Giorgio; Piergiovanni, Luciano

    2012-01-01

    An easy analytical method for determination of the charge density of polyelectrolytes, including polysaccharides and other biopolymers, is presented. The basic principles of conductometric titration, which is used in the pulp and paper industry as well as in colloid and interface science, were adapted to quantify the charge densities of a…

  15. The intrinsic fluorescence of FAD and its application in analytical chemistry: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbán, Javier; Sanz-Vicente, Isabel; Navarro, Jesús; de Marcos, Susana

    2016-12-01

    This review (with 106 references) mainly deals with the analytical applications of flavin-adenine dinucleotide (FAD) fluorescence. In the first section, the spectroscopic properties of this compound are reviewed at the light of his different acid-base, oxidation and structural forms; the chemical and spectroscopic properties of flavin mononucleotide (FMN) and other flavins will be also briefly discussed. The second section discusses how the properties of FAD fluorescence changes in flavoenzymes (FvEs), again considering the different chemical and structural forms; the glucose oxidase (GOx) and the choline oxidase (ChOx) cases will be commented. Since almost certainly the most reported analytical application of FAD fluorescence is as an auto-indicator in enzymatic methods catalysed by FvE oxidoreductases, it is important to know how the concentrations of the different forms of FAD changes along the reaction and, consequently, the fluorescence and the analytical signals. An approach to do this will be presented in section 3. The fourth part of the paper compiles the analytical applications which have been reported until now based in these fluorescence properties. Finally, some suggestions about tentative future research are also given.

  16. Data Acquisition Programming (LabVIEW): An Aid to Teaching Instrumental Analytical Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gostowski, Rudy

    A course was developed at Austin Peay State University (Tennessee) which offered an opportunity for hands-on experience with the essential components of modern analytical instruments. The course aimed to provide college students with the skills necessary to construct a simple model instrument, including the design and fabrication of electronic…

  17. Analytical Chemistry Division annual progress report for period ending November 30, 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyon, W.S. (ed.)

    1977-02-01

    Activities for the year in the areas of advanced methodology, mass and emission spectroscopy, analytical services for reactor projects and environmental and radiochemical analyses, bio-organic analysis, and quality assurance and safety are reviewed. Presentations of research results in publications, reports, and oral presentations are tabulated. (JSR)

  18. Analytical Chemistry Division annual progress report for period ending December 31, 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyon, W.S. (ed.)

    1985-04-01

    Progress reports are presented for the following sections: analytical methodology; mass and emission spectroscopy; radioactive materials analysis; bio/organic analysis; and general and environmental analysis; quality assurance, safety, and tabulation analyses. In addition a list of publications and oral presentations and supplemental activities are included.

  19. Analytical Chemistry Division annual progress report for period ending December 31, 1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyon, W.S. (ed.)

    1984-05-01

    Progress and activities are reported in: analytical methodology, mass and emission spectrometry, radioactive materials analysis, bio/organic analysis, general and environmental analysis, and quality assurance and safety. Supplementary activities are also discussed, and a bibliography of publications is also included. (DLC)

  20. Analytical Chemistry Division. Annual progress report for period ending December 31, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyon, W.S. (ed.)

    1981-05-01

    This report is divided into: analytical methodology; mass and emission spectrometry; technical support; bio/organic analysis; nuclear and radiochemical analysis; quality assurance, safety, and tabulation of analyses; supplementary activities; and presentation of research results. Separate abstracts were prepared for the technical support, bio/organic analysis, and nuclear and radiochemical analysis. (DLC)

  1. Thirty-seventh ORNL/DOE conference on analytical chemistry in energy technology: Abstracts of papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    Abstracts only are given for papers presented during the following topical sessions: Opportunities for collaboration: Industry, academic, national laboratories; Developments in sensor technology; Analysis in containment facilities; Improving the quality of environmental data; Process analysis; Field analysis; Radiological separations; Interactive analytical seminars; Measurements and chemical industry initiatives; and Isotopic measurements and mass spectroscopy.

  2. Design and Research of Inorganic Chemistry Experimental Teaching Based on Green Chemical Concept%基于绿色化学理念的无机化学实验教学的设计与研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张秀梅

    2012-01-01

    Green chemistry attracted much attention,not only owing to cut down experimental costs and reduce pollution,but only may turn out environmental consciousness of students.Inorganic chemistry experimental teaching was designed according to green chemistry concept.It showed in many aspects of teaching thought,teaching contents and teaching methods.Green chemistry consciousness was permeated in every aspect of the experiment teaching,and hoped to inorganic chemistry experiment could accord with the requirement of green chemistry,%绿色化学不仅能降低实验费用,减少环境污染而且可以培养学生的环保意识.因而越来越吸引人们广泛的关注,我们在绿色化学理念的导向下,从教学思想、教学内容、教学方法等方面对无机化学实验进行了设计,在实验教学的每个环节都渗透绿色意识,以期让无机化学实验符合绿色化学的要求。

  3. 分析化学的“准”与绿色环保%Accuracy and Green Environmental Protection of Analytical Chemistry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵景波

    2014-01-01

    实现分析化学这门学科的任务和目的就是分析结果的准确性,“准”是分析化学的灵魂。从夯实理论基础、了解科技前沿、熟练操作技能、综合分析结果和绿色环保理念五个方面阐述实现“准”,同时使分析化学成为绿色化学、环保化学。%The task and purpose of the analytical chemistry discipline is the accuracy of analytical results. 'Accuracy' is the soul of analytical chemis-try. This article discusses how to achieve 'accuracy', and make analytical Chemistry, green Chemistry and environmental y Friendly Chemistry, from five aspects:solid theoretical basis, understanding the frontier of science and technology, mastering operating skil s, comprehensive analysis of results and good green environmental protection idea.

  4. Peroxide induced ultra-weak chemiluminescence and its application in analytical chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhen; Chen, Hui; Lin, Jin-Ming

    2013-09-21

    Chemiluminescence (CL), as a sensitive, rapid, and facile analytical method, has been widely applied in environmental monitoring, clinical diagnosis and food safety. Recently, the main challenge and research interest in the CL study have been focused on exploring new CL systems and obtaining new insight into the interaction between CL reagents. The peroxide induced ultra-weak CL reactions are some new arising systems that have received great attention and have been successfully applied in many fields. The peroxide includes hydrogen peroxide, peroxynitrite, peroxymonocarbonate, peroxomonosulphate and so on. This review paper covers the mechanism of the peroxide induced ultra-weak CL and the analytical applications of the CL have also been summarized. The future prospects for the peroxide induced ultra-weak CL are discussed.

  5. Analyzing DNA Nanotechnology: A Call to Arms For The Analytical Chemistry Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, Divita; Medintz, Igor L

    2017-03-07

    In order to fully realize the potential of DNA nanotechnology, it is crucial to overcome the lack of robust analytical techniques that continue to hinder the purification and characterization of DNA-based structures. In this Feature, we provide a snapshot of the current state of metrological techniques in DNA nanotechnology and look forward to emerging technologies that may offer new ways to probe and visualize these complex structures.

  6. Acid-Base Chemistry of White Wine: Analytical Characterisation and Chemical Modelling

    OpenAIRE

    Enrico Prenesti; Silvia Berto; Simona Toso; Pier Giuseppe Daniele

    2012-01-01

    A chemical model of the acid-base properties is optimized for each white wine under study, together with the calculation of their ionic strength, taking into account the contributions of all significant ionic species (strong electrolytes and weak one sensitive to the chemical equilibria). Coupling the HPLC-IEC and HPLC-RP methods, we are able to quantify up to 12 carboxylic acids, the most relevant substances responsible of the acid-base equilibria of wine. The analytical concentration of car...

  7. Inorganic and organic ground-water chemistry in the Canal Creek area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorah, M.M.; Vroblesky, D.A.

    1989-01-01

    Groundwater chemical data were collected from November 1986 through April 1987 in the first phase of a 5-year study to assess the possibility of groundwater contamination in the Canal Creek area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. Water samples were collected from 87 observation wells screened in Coastal Plain sediments; 59 samples were collected from the Canal Creek aquifer, 18 from the overlying surficial aquifer, and 10 from the lower confined aquifer. Dissolved solids, chloride, iron, manganese, fluoride, mercury, and chromium are present in concentrations that exceed the Federal maximum contaminant levels for drinking water. Elevated chloride and dissolved-solids concentrations appear to be related from contaminant plumes but also could result from brackish-water intrusion. Excessive concentrations of iron and manganese were the most extensive water quality problems found among the inorganic constituents and are derived from natural dissolution of minerals and oxide coatings in the aquifer sediments. Volatile organic compounds are present in the Canal Creek and surficial aquifers, but samples from the lower confined aquifer do not show any evidence of contamination by inorganic or organic chemicals. The volatile organic contaminants detected in the groundwater and their maximum concentrations (in micrograms/L) include 1,1,2,2- tetrachloroethane (9,000); carbon tetrachloride (480); chloroform (460); 1,1,2-trichloroethane (80); 1,2-dichloroethane (990); 1,1-dichloroethane (3.1); tetrachloroethylene (100); trichloroethylene (1,800); 1,2-trans- dichloroethylene (1,200); 1,1-dichloroethylene (4.4); vinyl chloride (140); benzene (70); and chlorobenzene (39). On the basis of information on past activities in the study area, some sources of the volatile organic compounds include: (1) decontaminants and degreasers; (2) clothing-impregnating operations; (3) the manufacture of impregnite material; (4) the manufacture of tear gas; and (5) fuels used in garages and at

  8. Comparison of the single channel and multichannel (multivariate) concepts of selectivity in analytical chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorkó, Zsanett; Verbić, Tatjana; Horvai, George

    2015-07-01

    Different measures of selectivity are in use for single channel and multichannel linear analytical measurements, respectively. It is important to understand that these two measures express related but still distinctly different features of the respective measurements. These relationships are clarified by introducing new arguments. The most widely used selectivity measure of multichannel linear methods (which is based on the net analyte signal, NAS, concept) expresses the sensitivity to random errors of a determination where all bias from interferents is computationally eliminated using pure component spectra. The conventional selectivity measure of single channel linear measurements, on the other hand, helps to estimate the bias caused by an interferent in a biased measurement. In single channel methods expert knowledge about the samples is used to limit the possible range of interferent concentrations. The same kind of expert knowledge allows improved (lower mean squared error, MSE) analyte determinations also in "classical" multichannel measurements if those are intractable due to perfect collinearity or to high noise inflation. To achieve this goal bias variance tradeoff is employed, hence there remains some bias in the results and therefore the concept of single channel selectivity can be extended in a natural way to multichannel measurements. This extended definition and the resulting selectivity measure can also be applied to the so-called inverse multivariate methods like partial least squares regression (PLSR), principal component regression (PCR) and ridge regression (RR).

  9. Very Facile Polarity Umpolung and Noncovalent Functionalization of Inorganic Nanoparticles: A Tool Kit for Supramolecular Materials Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeininger, Lukas; Petzi, Stefanie; Schönamsgruber, Jörg; Portilla, Luis; Halik, Marcus; Hirsch, Andreas

    2015-09-28

    The facile assembly of shell-by-shell (SbS)-coated nanoparticles [TiO2-PAC16]@shell 1-7 (PAC16 = hexadecylphosphonic acid), which are soluble in water and can be isolated as stable solids, is reported. In these functional architectures, an umpolung of dispersibility (organic apolar versus water) was accomplished by the noncovalent binding of ligands 1-7 to titania nanoparticles [TiO2-PAC16] containing a first covalent coating with PAC16. Ligands 1-7 are amphiphilic and form the outer second shell of [TiO2-PAC16]@shell 1-7. The tailor-designed dendritic building blocks 3-5 contain negative and positive charges in the same molecule, and ligands 6 and 7 contain a perylenetetracarboxylic acid dimide (PDI) core (6/7) as a photoactive reporter component. In the redox and photoactive system [TiO2-PAC16]@shell 7, electronic communication between the inorganic core to the PDI ligands was observed.

  10. Analytical Chemistry Laboratory (ACL) procedure compendium. Volume 2, Sample preparation methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-01

    This volume contains the interim change notice for sample preparation methods. Covered are: acid digestion for metals analysis, fusion of Hanford tank waste solids, water leach of sludges/soils/other solids, extraction procedure toxicity (simulate leach in landfill), sample preparation for gamma spectroscopy, acid digestion for radiochemical analysis, leach preparation of solids for free cyanide analysis, aqueous leach of solids for anion analysis, microwave digestion of glasses and slurries for ICP/MS, toxicity characteristic leaching extraction for inorganics, leach/dissolution of activated metal for radiochemical analysis, extraction of single-shell tank (SST) samples for semi-VOC analysis, preparation and cleanup of hydrocarbon- containing samples for VOC and semi-VOC analysis, receiving of waste tank samples in onsite transfer cask, receipt and inspection of SST samples, receipt and extrusion of core samples at 325A shielded facility, cleaning and shipping of waste tank samplers, homogenization of solutions/slurries/sludges, and test sample preparation for bioassay quality control program.

  11. A versatile nanobuilding precursor for the effective architecture of well-defined organic/inorganic hybrid via click chemistry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ya Kun Zhu; Shan Yi Guang; Hong Yao Xu

    2012-01-01

    A novel octazido substituted nanobuilding precursor,octakis[dimethy(p-azidomethylene)siloxyl]octasilsesquioxane (ODA),was prepared by the conventional diazo-transfer reaction of octakis[dimethy(p-chloromethylene)silyl]octasilsesquioxane (ODC)with NaN3,and its structure was characterized by FT-IR,1H,13C,29Si NMR and MALDI-TOF MS,respectively.The structural rearrangement of POSS core in the synthesis strategy of ODA developed in this work was effectively prohibited in comparison with traditionary azidization process.The resultant ODA was not only soluble in common solvents such as CHCl3,THF,toluene,DMF and DMSO,but also could effectively serve as a versatile nanobuilding precursor for the architecture of well-defined organicinorganic hybrids via click chemistry.

  12. Approaching isomerism in organic and inorganic compounds: activity based on the use of problem situations during initial chemistry teacher training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    osé Euzébio Simões Neto

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This study sought investigate: i the understanding of isomerism by future chemistry teachers during initial training; and ii the construction of isomer concepts after an approach centered on problem situations (SP’s. Two problem situations related to isomerism (historical context and medicinal applications were elaborated. A textual learning material developed for this purpose and concrete molecular models were used of system resources in the problem situation resolution process. Data were colleted using a questionnaire, field observation and semi-structured interview, and analyzed according to the ideas presented by Meirieu (1998. The two SP’s had obstacles, transposable to only a few of the nine groups that responded. Inadequate use of the isomer concept was observed in many of the responses considered scarcely satisfactory or unsatisfactory.

  13. Invited award contribution for ACS Award in Inorganic Chemistry. Geometric and electronic structure contributions to function in bioinorganic chemistry: active sites in non-heme iron enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, E I

    2001-07-16

    Spectroscopy has played a major role in the definition of structure/function correlations in bioinorganic chemistry. The importance of spectroscopy combined with electronic structure calculations is clearly demonstrated by the non-heme iron enzymes. Many members of this large class of enzymes activate dioxygen using a ferrous active site that has generally been difficult to study with most spectroscopic methods. A new spectroscopic methodology has been developed utilizing variable temperature, variable field magnetic circular dichroism, which enables one to obtain detailed insight into the geometric and electronic structure of the non-heme ferrous active site and probe its reaction mechanism on a molecular level. This spectroscopic methodology is presented and applied to a number of key mononuclear non-heme iron enzymes leading to a general mechanistic strategy for O2 activation. These studies are then extended to consider the new features present in the binuclear non-heme iron enzymes and applied to understand (1) the mechanism of the two electron/coupled proton transfer to dioxygen binding to a single iron center in hemerythrin and (2) structure/function correlations over the oxygen-activating enzymes stearoyl-ACP Delta9-desaturase, ribonucleotide reductase, and methane monooxygenase. Electronic structure/reactivity correlations for O2 activation by non-heme relative to heme iron enzymes will also be developed.

  14. Photography by Cameras Integrated in Smartphones as a Tool for Analytical Chemistry Represented by an Butyrylcholinesterase Activity Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohanka, Miroslav

    2015-06-11

    Smartphones are popular devices frequently equipped with sensitive sensors and great computational ability. Despite the widespread availability of smartphones, practical uses in analytical chemistry are limited, though some papers have proposed promising applications. In the present paper, a smartphone is used as a tool for the determination of cholinesterasemia i.e., the determination of a biochemical marker butyrylcholinesterase (BChE). The work should demonstrate suitability of a smartphone-integrated camera for analytical purposes. Paper strips soaked with indoxylacetate were used for the determination of BChE activity, while the standard Ellman's assay was used as a reference measurement. In the smartphone-based assay, BChE converted indoxylacetate to indigo blue and coloration was photographed using the phone's integrated camera. A RGB color model was analyzed and color values for the individual color channels were determined. The assay was verified using plasma samples and samples containing pure BChE, and validated using Ellmans's assay. The smartphone assay was proved to be reliable and applicable for routine diagnoses where BChE serves as a marker (liver function tests; some poisonings, etc.). It can be concluded that the assay is expected to be of practical applicability because of the results' relevance.

  15. ICL-Based OF-CEAS: A Sensitive Tool for Analytical Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfred, Katherine M; Hunter, Katharine M; Ciaffoni, Luca; Ritchie, Grant A D

    2017-01-03

    Optical-feedback cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy (OF-CEAS) using mid-infrared interband cascade lasers (ICLs) is a sensitive technique for trace gas sensing. The setup of a V-shaped optical cavity operating with a 3.29 μm cw ICL is detailed, and a quantitative characterization of the injection efficiency, locking stability, mode matching, and detection sensitivity is presented. The experimental data are supported by a model to show how optical feedback affects the laser frequency as it is scanned across several longitudinal modes of the optical cavity. The model predicts that feedback enhancement effects under strongly absorbing conditions can cause underestimations in the measured absorption, and these predictions are verified experimentally. The technique is then used in application to the detection of nitrous oxide as an exemplar of the utility of this technique for analytical gas phase spectroscopy. The analytical performance of the spectrometer, expressed as noise equivalent absorption coefficient, was estimated as 4.9 × 10(-9) cm (-1) Hz(-1/2), which compares well with recently reported values.

  16. Interpolation and extrapolation problems of multivariate regression in analytical chemistry: benchmarking the robustness on near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balabin, Roman M; Smirnov, Sergey V

    2012-04-07

    Modern analytical chemistry of industrial products is in need of rapid, robust, and cheap analytical methods to continuously monitor product quality parameters. For this reason, spectroscopic methods are often used to control the quality of industrial products in an on-line/in-line regime. Vibrational spectroscopy, including mid-infrared (MIR), Raman, and near-infrared (NIR), is one of the best ways to obtain information about the chemical structures and the quality coefficients of multicomponent mixtures. Together with chemometric algorithms and multivariate data analysis (MDA) methods, which were especially created for the analysis of complicated, noisy, and overlapping signals, NIR spectroscopy shows great results in terms of its accuracy, including classical prediction error, RMSEP. However, it is unclear whether the combined NIR + MDA methods are capable of dealing with much more complex interpolation or extrapolation problems that are inevitably present in real-world applications. In the current study, we try to make a rather general comparison of linear, such as partial least squares or projection to latent structures (PLS); "quasi-nonlinear", such as the polynomial version of PLS (Poly-PLS); and intrinsically non-linear, such as artificial neural networks (ANNs), support vector regression (SVR), and least-squares support vector machines (LS-SVM/LSSVM), regression methods in terms of their robustness. As a measure of robustness, we will try to estimate their accuracy when solving interpolation and extrapolation problems. Petroleum and biofuel (biodiesel) systems were chosen as representative examples of real-world samples. Six very different chemical systems that differed in complexity, composition, structure, and properties were studied; these systems were gasoline, ethanol-gasoline biofuel, diesel fuel, aromatic solutions of petroleum macromolecules, petroleum resins in benzene, and biodiesel. Eighteen different sample sets were used in total. General

  17. Inorganic ground-water chemistry at an experimental New Albany Shale (Devonian-Mississippian) in situ gasification site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branam, T.D.; Comer, J.B.; Shaffer, N.R.; Ennis, M.V.; Carpenter, S.H.

    1991-01-01

    Experimental in situ gasification of New Albany Shale (Devonian-Mississippian) has been conducted in Clark County. Analyses of ground water sampled from a production well and nine nearby monitoring wells 3 months after a brief in situ gasification period revealed changes in water chemistry associated with the gasification procedure. Dissolved iron, calcium and sulphate in ground water from the production well and wells as much as 2 m away were significantly higher than in ground water from wells over 9 m away. Dissolved components in the more distant wells are in the range of those in regional ground water. Thermal decomposition of pyrite during the gasification process generated the elevated levels of iron and sulphate in solution. High concentrations of calcium indicate buffering by dissolution of carbonate minerals. While iron quickly precipitates, calcium and sulphate remain in the ground water. Trends in the concentration of sulphate show that altered ground water migrated mostly in a south-westerly direction from the production well along natural joints in the New Albany Shale. ?? 1991.

  18. Nuclear analytical techniques applied to forensic chemistry; Aplicacion de tecnicas analiticas nucleares en quimica forense

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicolau, Veronica; Montoro, Silvia [Universidad Nacional del Litoral, Santa Fe (Argentina). Facultad de Ingenieria Quimica. Dept. de Quimica Analitica; Pratta, Nora; Giandomenico, Angel Di [Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas, Santa Fe (Argentina). Centro Regional de Investigaciones y Desarrollo de Santa Fe

    1999-11-01

    Gun shot residues produced by firing guns are mainly composed by visible particles. The individual characterization of these particles allows distinguishing those ones containing heavy metals, from gun shot residues, from those having a different origin or history. In this work, the results obtained from the study of gun shot residues particles collected from hands are presented. The aim of the analysis is to establish whether a person has shot a firing gun has been in contact with one after the shot has been produced. As reference samples, particles collected hands of persons affected to different activities were studied to make comparisons. The complete study was based on the application of nuclear analytical techniques such as Scanning Electron Microscopy, Energy Dispersive X Ray Electron Probe Microanalysis and Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. The essays allow to be completed within time compatible with the forensic requirements. (author) 5 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.; e-mail: csedax e adigian at arcride.edu.ar

  19. Status and Discussion on Features of Reform of Experiment of Inorganic Chemistry%无机化学实验教学改革的现状和探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄继涛; 谢红璐; 武经宇; 崔春娜; 林志华

    2012-01-01

    In this paper,the author analyzed the features of deep-going,green,miniature and meticulous of teaching reform of experiment of inorganic chemistry.Finally,the author discussed and put forward related suggestions of content of teaching of experiment of inorganic chemistry,culturing innovation of students,building diversification of mechanism of performance appraisal,importing advanced equipments and culturing interests of students.%分析了无机化学实验教学改革的深入化、绿色化、微型化、精细化等特点,对无机化学实验教学的内容,学生创新性的培养,考核机制多元化的建立,先进设备引入以及对学生兴趣的培养进行了探讨,并提出相关建议。

  20. 多元智能理论在无机化学实验教学中的应用研究%Application of multiple intelligence theory in inorganic chemistry experiment teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿凤华; 王永祥

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of inorganic chemistry experiment is to cultivate the basic knowledge and operating skilling of the students and improve the students′ overall qualities.We applied the multiple intelligence(MI) theory and the method of elicitation and induction teaching in inorganic chemistry experiment teaching to develop the students′ multiple intelligence and cultivate the students′ overall abilities.%无机化学实验的目的是强化学生的基础知识,培养其基本技能,提高其科学素养.本文从多元智能理论出发,在无机化学实验教学中采用启发诱导式教学方法,全面发展学生多种智能,培养其综合能力.

  1. Extraction and Quantitation of FD&C Red Dye #40 from Beverages Containing Cranberry Juice: A College-Level Analytical Chemistry Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Henry F., III; Rizzo, Jacqueline; Zimmerman, Devon C.; Usher, Karyn M.

    2012-01-01

    A chemical separation experiment can be an interesting addition to an introductory analytical chemistry laboratory course. We have developed an experiment to extract FD&C Red Dye #40 from beverages containing cranberry juice. After extraction, the dye is quantified using colorimetry. The experiment gives students hands-on experience in using solid…

  2. Determination of Total Arsenic and Speciation in Apple Juice by Liquid Chromatography-Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry: An Experiment for the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ping; Colon, Luis A.; Aga, Diana S.

    2016-01-01

    A two-part laboratory experiment was designed for upper-level analytical chemistry students to provide hands-on experience in the use of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for separation and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) for detection. In the first part of the experiment, the students analyze total arsenic in…

  3. Analytical Chemistry Teaching Reform Based on Innovative Talents Training%基于创新人才培养的分析化学教学改革

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何静

    2015-01-01

    This article selects Analytical Chemistry Teaching reform under the conditions of innovative talents training as the key of present study, combined with the author practical experience, first introduced in Analytical Chemistry Teaching in Universities constraining factor, and then deeply analyze the analytical chemistry teaching reform program innovative talents training environment, looking through the optimization of analytical chemistry teaching reform path, to carry out chemical analysis on the future of teaching practice reference recommendations.%文章选择创新人才培养条件下的分析化学教学改革为本次研究的重点内容,结合笔者实践经验,首先介绍高校分析化学教学制约性因素,再对创新人才培养环境下的分析化学教学改革程序进行深入剖析,期待通过优化分析化学教学改革路径,对日后分析化学教学实践活动的开展提供参考建议.

  4. Developments in Analytical Chemistry: Acoustically Levitated Drop Reactors for Enzyme Reaction Kinetics and Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube-Based Sensors for Detection of Toxic Organic Phosphonates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Christopher Ryan

    2009-01-01

    Developments in analytical chemistry were made using acoustically levitated small volumes of liquid to study enzyme reaction kinetics and by detecting volatile organic compounds in the gas phase using single-walled carbon nanotubes. Experience gained in engineering, electronics, automation, and software development from the design and…

  5. Acid-base chemistry of white wine: analytical characterisation and chemical modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prenesti, Enrico; Berto, Silvia; Toso, Simona; Daniele, Pier Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    A chemical model of the acid-base properties is optimized for each white wine under study, together with the calculation of their ionic strength, taking into account the contributions of all significant ionic species (strong electrolytes and weak one sensitive to the chemical equilibria). Coupling the HPLC-IEC and HPLC-RP methods, we are able to quantify up to 12 carboxylic acids, the most relevant substances responsible of the acid-base equilibria of wine. The analytical concentration of carboxylic acids and of other acid-base active substances was used as input, with the total acidity, for the chemical modelling step of the study based on the contemporary treatment of overlapped protonation equilibria. New protonation constants were refined (L-lactic and succinic acids) with respect to our previous investigation on red wines. Attention was paid for mixed solvent (ethanol-water mixture), ionic strength, and temperature to ensure a thermodynamic level to the study. Validation of the chemical model optimized is achieved by way of conductometric measurements and using a synthetic "wine" especially adapted for testing.

  6. Installation for analytic chemistry under irradiation; Installation de chimie analytique sous rayonnement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fradin, J.; Azoeuf, P.; Guillon, A. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1966-07-01

    An installation has been set up for carrying out manipulations and chemical analyses on radioactive products. It is completely remote-controlled and is of linear shape, 15 metres long; it is made up of three zones: - an active zone containing the apparatus, - a rear zone giving access to the active zone, - a forward zone independent of the two others and completely protected from which the remote-control of the apparatus is effected. The whole assembly has been designed so that each apparatus corresponding to an analytical technique is set up in a sealed enclosure. The sealed enclosures are interconnected by a conveyor. After three years operation, a critical review is now made of the installation. (authors) [French] L'installation a ete realisee pour effectuer des manipulations et des analyses chimiques sur des produits radioactifs. Elle est totalement telecommandee et se presente sous une forme lineaire de 15 metres de longueur et comporte trois zones: - une zone active d'appareillage, - une zone arriere d'intervention, - une zone avant independante des deux premieres et totalement protegee, ou s'operent les telecommandes de l'appareillage. L'ensemble a ete concu de facon a ce que chaque appareillage correspondant a une technique d'analyse soit implante dans une enceinte etanche. Les enceintes etanches sont reliees entre elles par un convoyeur. Apres trois annees de fonctionnement nous faisons le bilan et les critiques de l'installation. (auteurs)

  7. Acid-Base Chemistry of White Wine: Analytical Characterisation and Chemical Modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Prenesti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A chemical model of the acid-base properties is optimized for each white wine under study, together with the calculation of their ionic strength, taking into account the contributions of all significant ionic species (strong electrolytes and weak one sensitive to the chemical equilibria. Coupling the HPLC-IEC and HPLC-RP methods, we are able to quantify up to 12 carboxylic acids, the most relevant substances responsible of the acid-base equilibria of wine. The analytical concentration of carboxylic acids and of other acid-base active substances was used as input, with the total acidity, for the chemical modelling step of the study based on the contemporary treatment of overlapped protonation equilibria. New protonation constants were refined (L-lactic and succinic acids with respect to our previous investigation on red wines. Attention was paid for mixed solvent (ethanol-water mixture, ionic strength, and temperature to ensure a thermodynamic level to the study. Validation of the chemical model optimized is achieved by way of conductometric measurements and using a synthetic “wine” especially adapted for testing.

  8. Croatian Analytical Terminology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kastelan-Macan; M.

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Results of analytical research are necessary in all human activities. They are inevitable in making decisions in the environmental chemistry, agriculture, forestry, veterinary medicine, pharmaceutical industry, and biochemistry. Without analytical measurements the quality of materials and products cannot be assessed, so that analytical chemistry is an essential part of technical sciences and disciplines.The language of Croatian science, and analytical chemistry within it, was one of the goals of our predecessors. Due to the political situation, they did not succeed entirely, but for the scientists in independent Croatia this is a duty, because language is one of the most important features of the Croatian identity. The awareness of the need to introduce Croatian terminology was systematically developed in the second half of the 19th century, along with the founding of scientific societies and the wish of scientists to write their scientific works in Croatian, so that the results of their research may be applied in economy. Many authors of textbooks from the 19th and the first half of the 20th century contributed to Croatian analytical terminology (F. Rački, B. Šulek, P. Žulić, G. Pexidr, J. Domac, G. Janeček , F. Bubanović, V. Njegovan and others. M. DeŢelić published the first systematic chemical terminology in 1940, adjusted to the IUPAC recommendations. In the second half of 20th century textbooks in classic analytical chemistry were written by V. Marjanović-Krajovan, M. Gyiketta-Ogrizek, S. Žilić and others. I. Filipović wrote the General and Inorganic Chemistry textbook and the Laboratory Handbook (in collaboration with P. Sabioncello and contributed greatly to establishing the terminology in instrumental analytical methods.The source of Croatian nomenclature in modern analytical chemistry today are translated textbooks by Skoog, West and Holler, as well as by Günnzler i Gremlich, and original textbooks by S. Turina, Z.

  9. Azotobacter vinelandii metal storage protein: "classical" inorganic chemistry involved in Mo/W uptake and release processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schemberg, Jörg; Schneider, Klaus; Fenske, Dirk; Müller, Achim

    2008-03-03

    could also be constructed in vitro by a metalate-ion exchange procedure by using the isolated MoSto protein. The high W content of the isolated cell-made WSto (approximately 110 atoms/protein molecule) and the relatively low amount of tungstate that was released from the protein under optimal "release conditions", demonstrates that the W-oxide-based clusters are more stable inside the protein cavity than the Mo-oxide analogues, as expected from the corresponding findings in polyoxometalate chemistry. The optimized isolation of the W-loaded protein form allowed us to get single crystals, and to determine the crystal X-ray structure. This proved that the protein contains remarkably different types of polyoxotungstates, the formation of which is templated in an unprecedented process by the different protein pockets. (Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2007, 46, 2408-2413).

  10. Multifunctional nanoparticles: Analytical prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dios, Alejandro Simon de [University of Oviedo, Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Av. Julian Claveria, 8, 33006 Oviedo (Spain); Diaz-Garcia, Marta Elena, E-mail: medg@uniovi.es [University of Oviedo, Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Av. Julian Claveria, 8, 33006 Oviedo (Spain)

    2010-05-07

    Multifunctional nanoparticles are among the most exciting nanomaterials with promising applications in analytical chemistry. These applications include (bio)sensing, (bio)assays, catalysis and separations. Although most of these applications are based on the magnetic, optical and electrochemical properties of multifunctional nanoparticles, other aspects such as the synergistic effect of the functional groups and the amplification effect associated with the nanoscale dimension have also been observed. Considering not only the nature of the raw material but also the shape, there is a huge variety of nanoparticles. In this review only magnetic, quantum dots, gold nanoparticles, carbon and inorganic nanotubes as well as silica, titania and gadolinium oxide nanoparticles are addressed. This review presents a narrative summary on the use of multifuncional nanoparticles for analytical applications, along with a discussion on some critical challenges existing in the field and possible solutions that have been or are being developed to overcome these challenges.

  11. Teaching Reform and Exploration on Greenness of Inorganic Chemistry Experiments in Higher Vocational College%高职无机化学实验绿色化教学的改革探索

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱双云

    2012-01-01

    文章阐述了开展无机化学实验绿色化教学对培养学生树立绿色化学理念、提高环保意识的重要性,并从优化实验教材、推广“微型实验”的教学模式、正确回收和处理化学实验中的产物和废弃物、采用多媒体仿真化学实验教学、精心设计实验案例等方面探讨开展无机化学实验绿色化教学的改革途径和措施。%The paper expounds carrying out Green Inorganic Chemistry experiments teaching to cultivate students' establishing the concept of green chemistry, enhance the environmental awareness of importance, And from optimizing Experimental teaching materials, promotion the "mini-experiment" of teaching, the correct recovery and disposal of Chemical experiment in the product and waste and, using multimedia simulation chemistry experimental teaching, elaborately designing experiment case etc. discussion on development of green inorganic chemistry experiment teaching reform ways and measures.

  12. Double-sided Microfluidic Device for Speciation Analysis of Iron in Water Samples: Towards Greener Analytical Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngvises, Napaporn; Thanurak, Porapichcha; Chaida, Thanatcha; Jukmunee, Jaroon; Alsuhaimi, Awadh

    2015-01-01

    Microfluidics minimize the amounts of reagents and generate less waste. While microdevices are commonly single-sided, producing a substrate with microchannels on multiple surfaces would increase their usefulness. Herein, a polymethymethacrylate substrate incorporating microchannel structures on two sides was sandwiched between two polydimethylsiloxane sheets to create a multi-analysis device, which was used for the spectrophotometric analysis of the ferrous ion (Fe(2+)) and the ferric ion (Fe(3+)), by utilizing colorimetric detection. To monitor the signals from both channel networks, dual optical sensors were integrated into the system. The linear ranges for Fe(2+) and Fe(3+) analyses were 0.1 - 20 mg L(-1) (R(2) = 0.9988) and 1.0 - 40 mg L(-1) (R(2) = 0.9974), respectively. The detection limits for Fe(2+) and Fe(3+) were 0.1 and 0.5 mg L(-1), respectively. The percent recoveries of Fe(2+) and Fe(3+) were 93.5 - 104.3 with an RSD analytical chemistry applications.

  13. ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY FOR ASTROPHYSICISTS: A SELF-CONSISTENT FORMALISM AND ANALYTICAL SOLUTIONS FOR ARBITRARY C/O

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heng, Kevin; Tsai, Shang-Min [University of Bern, Center for Space and Habitability, Sidlerstrasse 5, CH-3012, Bern (Switzerland); Lyons, James R., E-mail: kevin.heng@csh.unibe.ch [Arizona State University, School of Earth and Space Exploration, Bateman Physical Sciences, Tempe, AZ 85287-1404 (United States)

    2016-01-10

    We present a self-consistent formalism for computing and understanding the atmospheric chemistry of exoplanets from the viewpoint of an astrophysicist. Starting from the first law of thermodynamics, we demonstrate that the van’t Hoff equation (which describes the equilibrium constant), Arrhenius equation (which describes the rate coefficients), and procedures associated with the Gibbs free energy (minimization, rescaling) have a common physical and mathematical origin. We address an ambiguity associated with the equilibrium constant, which is used to relate the forward and reverse rate coefficients, and restate its two definitions. By necessity, one of the equilibrium constants must be dimensionless and equate to an exponential function involving the Gibbs free energy, while the other is a ratio of rate coefficients and must therefore possess physical units. We demonstrate that the Arrhenius equation takes on a functional form that is more general than previously stated without recourse to tagging on ad hoc functional forms. Finally, we derive analytical models of chemical systems, in equilibrium, with carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. We include acetylene and are able to reproduce several key trends, versus temperature and carbon-to-oxygen ratio, published in the literature. The rich variety of behavior that mixing ratios exhibit as a function of the carbon-to-oxygen ratio is merely the outcome of stoichiometric book-keeping and not the direct consequence of temperature or pressure variations.

  14. Study on the greening of inorganic chemistry experiment in Huainan Normal University%浅谈淮南师范学院无机化学实验教学的绿色化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈建平; 黄月琴

    2011-01-01

    依据无机化学实验的特点,对如何在实验课程教学中用绿色化学的观念对传统化学实验改造进行探讨,结合实际教学经验,指出改进实验设计、改进实验装置、推行微型实验、开发现代实验技术和实验的末端处理是实现无机化学实验绿色化的途径。%According to the characteristics of inorganic chemistry experiment, study on how to explore using experimental teaching the concept of green chemistry experiments on the transformation of traditional chemistry is clone in this paper. Combined with the tea

  15. Theoretical chemistry periodicities in chemistry and biology

    CERN Document Server

    Eyring, Henry

    1978-01-01

    Theoretical Chemistry: Periodicities in Chemistry and Biology, Volume 4 covers the aspects of theoretical chemistry. The book discusses the stably rotating patterns of reaction and diffusion; the chemistry of inorganic systems exhibiting nonmonotonic behavior; and population cycles. The text also describes the mathematical modeling of excitable media in neurobiology and chemistry; oscillating enzyme reactions; and oscillatory properties and excitability of the heart cell membrane. Selected topics from the theory of physico-chemical instabilities are also encompassed. Chemists, mechanical engin

  16. The Breath of Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josephsen, Jens

    The present preliminary text is a short thematic presentation in biological inorganic chemistry meant to illustrate general and inorganic (especially coordination) chemistry in biochemistry. The emphasis is on molecular models to explain features of the complicated mechanisms essential to breathing...

  17. Initial Discussion of Teaching Reform in Analytical Chemistry Experiment%分析化学实验教学改革初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧丽娟

    2013-01-01

    The traditional teaching of analytical chemistry experi-ment has many disadvantages and needs to reform. According to teaching practice, a series of reform and exploration for analytical chemistry experiment are carried out in Hunan Institute of Tech-nology, which includes the content of experiment, the teaching method, and the testing system. The results are remarkable.%  传统的分析化学实验教学存在诸多弊端,亟须改革。结合教学实践,湖南工学院从实验内容、教学方法和考核方式等方面对分析化学实验教学进行了积极的改革与探索,取得了良好的成效。

  18. On the Greening of Inorganic Chemistry Experiment Teaching in Colleges and Universities%浅谈高校无机化学实验教学的绿色化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高英; 曾宪佳

    2013-01-01

    The Emission of a lot of pollutants from chemistry experiment teaching may harm the health of teachers and students.As to the greening of chemistry experiments ,the paper suggests students conducting wastewater treatment experi-ments in inorganic chemical experiments ,carrying out miniature experimenting teaching and other methods .Green chemistry teaching in university chemistry experiment is not only necessary , but also feasible .The teacher should be guided by the concept of green chemistry teaching chemistry experiments ,to cultivate chemistry talents with the awareness of green chem-istry,realize the greening of chemistry teaching .%针对在化学实验教学中因大量污染物的排放可能对师生健康和环境造成严重危害的实际,就如何进行绿色化学实验教学这一问题,文章提出了学生开展无机化学实验废液的处理实验、进行实验微型化教学以及实验应多采用仪器法等方法,在高校化学实验教学中渗透绿色化学教学思想是必要的,也是可行的。化学教师应该用绿色化学的理念指导化学实验教学,培养具有绿色意识的化学人才,实现化学实验教学的绿色化。

  19. An Exploration for the Green Chemistry Teaching Reform in Analytical Chemistry for Agricultural University%农业高校分析化学课程教学绿色化的改革探索

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白玲; 李铭芳; 吴东平; 汪小强

    2011-01-01

    In response to the current problems of analytical chmistry teaching, and taking green chemistry as main-stroke, the green chemistry teaching reform in analytical chemistry was explored. A series of reform thoughts and measures were conducted at the aspect of teaching theory concept, the teaching contents, the teaching method and means, the appraising system of courses, and so on. Better teaching results were made. It would promote development of green chemistry,and realize low carbon economy and the sustainable development of national economy.%针对农业高校分析化学课程教学的现状,以绿色化学为主线,进行了分析化学课程教学绿色化的改革探索.从教学理念、教学内容、教学方法和手段、考核手段等方面,提出了一系列改革思路和具体措施,取得了较好的教学效果.

  20. A importância da Química Analítica Qualitativa nos cursos de Química das instituições de ensino superior brasileiras The importance of Qualitative Analytical Chemistry in Chemistry courses in Brazilian universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terezinha Ribeiro Alvim

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available The results of a survey of institutions offering undergraduate studies, with the objective of evaluating the importance of Qualitative Analytical Chemistry for Chemistry courses in Brazil, are presented and discussed. Judging by the data, the content of the course of Qualitative Analytical Chemistry is considered by the Brazilian institutions offering undergraduate studies to be a body of knowledge essential for the formation of the chemist. This aspect is deemed valid for both baccalaureate and teaching license studies.

  1. Integrated assessment of runoff from livestock farming operations: analytical chemistry, in vitro bioassays, and in vivo fish exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallin, Jenna E.; Durhan, Elizabeth J.; Evans, Nicola; Jensen, Kathleen M.; Kahl, Michael D.; Kolpin, Dana W.; Kolodziej, Edward P.; Foreman, William T.; LaLone, Carlie A.; Makynen, Elizabeth A.; Seidl, Sara M.; Thomas, Linnea M.; Villeneuve, Daniel L.; Weberg, Matthew A.; Wilson, Vickie S.; Ankley, Gerald T.

    2014-01-01

    Animal waste from livestock farming operations can contain varying levels of natural and synthetic androgens and/or estrogens, which can contaminate surrounding waterways. In the present study, surface stream water was collected from 6 basins containing livestock farming operations. Aqueous concentrations of 12 hormones were determined via chemical analyses. Relative androgenic and estrogenic activity was measured using in vitro cell assays (MDA-kb2 and T47D-Kbluc assays, respectively). In parallel, 48-h static-renewal in vivo exposures were conducted to examine potential endocrine-disrupting effects in fathead minnows. Mature fish were exposed to surface water dilutions (0%, 25%, 50%, and 100%) and 10-ng/L of 17α-ethynylestradiol or 50-ng/L of 17β-trenbolone as positive controls. Hepatic expression of vitellogenin and estrogen receptor α mRNA, gonadal ex vivo testosterone and 17β-estradiol production, and plasma vitellogenin concentrations were examined. Potentially estrogenic and androgenic steroids were detected at low nanogram per liter concentrations. In vitro estrogenic activity was detected in all samples, whereas androgenic activity was detected in only 1 sample. In vivo exposures to the surface water had no significant dose-dependent effect on any of the biological endpoints, with the exception of increased male testosterone production in 1 exposure. The present study, which combines analytical chemistry measurements, in vitro bioassays, and in vivo fish exposures, highlights the integrated value and future use of a combination of techniques to obtain a comprehensive characterization of an environmental chemical mixture. 

  2. Earle K. Plyler Prize for Molecular Spectroscopy & Dynamics Lecture: Broadband Rotational Spectroscopy for Chemical Kinetics, Molecular Structure, and Analytical Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pate, Brooks

    2013-03-01

    Advances in high-speed digital electronics have enabled a new generation of molecular rotational spectroscopy techniques that provide instantaneous broadband spectral coverage. These techniques use a chirped excitation pulse to coherently excite the molecular sample over a spectral bandwidth of 10 GHz or larger through rapid passage. The subsequent time-domain emission is recorded using high-speed digitizers (up to 100 Gigasample/s) and the frequency domain spectrum is produced by fast Fourier transformation. The chirped-pulse Fourier transform (CP-FT) method has been implemented in the microwave frequency range (2-40 GHz) for studies of cold samples in pulsed jet sources and in the mm-wave/terahertz (THz) frequency range for studies of samples at room-temperature. The method has opened new applications for molecular rotational spectroscopy in the area of chemical kinetics where dynamic rotational spectroscopy is used to measure the rates of unimolecular isomerization reactions in highly excited molecules prepared by pulsed infrared laser excitation. In these applications, the isomerization rate is obtained from an analysis of the overall line shapes which are modified by chemical exchange leading to coalescence behavior similar to the effect in NMR spectroscopy. The sensitivity of the method and the ability to extend it to low frequency (2-8 GHz) have significantly increased the size range of molecules and molecular clusters for structure determination using isotopic substitution to build up the 3D molecular structures atom-by-atom. Application to the structure of water clusters with up to 15 water molecules will be presented. When coupled with advances in solid-state mm-wave/THz devices, this method provides a direct digital technique for analytical chemistry of room-temperature gases based on molecular rotational spectroscopy. These high-throughput methods can analyze complex sample mixtures with unmatched chemical selectivity and short analysis times. Work

  3. Inorganic chemistry: Deconstructing water oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Sarah A.; Borovik, A. S.

    2013-04-01

    During photosynthesis, the oxygen-evolving complex oxidizes water to produce molecular oxygen. Now, a possible role for the calcium ion in this complex has been proposed based on the electrochemical properties of a series of synthetic heterometallic clusters.

  4. Research in Inorganic Fluorine Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-01

    Room-Temperature X-ra, Poder Data I,’r indeed face-centered cubic and that an alternate solution." a OHSbF. primitive cubic CsPF, structure, can be...5 posing the NF 4HF 2. This can be achieved by judicious pumping at about 0, C. This is continued until a solid This method has successfully been

  5. 地方高校转型背景下无机化学实验教学的改革%The Reform of Inorganic Chemistry Experiment Teaching Under the BackGround of the Transformation of Local Universities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王辉

    2015-01-01

    In view of the disadvantages in traditional inorganic chemistry experiment teaching, combined with the teaching practice of college, from the reform of experiment teaching contents, down to earth, the reform of experiment teaching method, giving prominence to the students as the main body, strengthening experimental literacy training to improve the comprehensive quality of students, exploration of microscale chemical experiment, and advocating green chemistry experiment four aspects were discussed to the reform of inorganic chemistry experiment teaching, in order to adapt to the current requirements of the transformation and development of local universities.%针对传统无机化学实验教学中存在的问题,结合学院的教学实践,从改革实验教学内容,接足地气;改革实验教学方法,突出以学生为主体;加强实验素养培养,提高学生综合素质;探索微型化实验,倡导绿色化学实验等四个方面对无机化学实验教学改革进行了探讨,以期适应当前地方高校转型发展要求。

  6. 创建绿色、高效无机化学实验室的探讨%Discussion on construction of green and highly efficient inorganic chemistry laboratory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈功轩; 张蕾; 黄青; 马晓玲; 吴田; 黄元乔

    2012-01-01

    The guiding ideology of management and basic requirements to create green and efficient inorganic chemistry laboratory are described. The practice and experience of the experimental preparation, design, operation, instrument cleaning and waste disposal to create a green and efficient inorganic chemistry laboratory in College of Chemistry and Life Sciences of Hubei University of Education are elaborated on.%阐述了绿色、高效无机化学实验室建设、管理的指导思想和基本要求,从实验准备、实验设计、实验操作、仪器清洗和废物处理、实验室管理等方面介绍了湖北第二师范学院化学与生命科学学院创建绿色、高效的无机化学实验室的做法和经验.

  7. Evaluation of clinical chemistry analytes from a single mouse using diluted plasma: effective way to reduce the number of animals in toxicity studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Vinod Kumar; Pandey, Santosh Kumar; Kakade, Somesh; Nirogi, Ramakrishna

    2016-10-01

    Clinical chemistry is an essential analytical tool in many areas of research, drug assessment and development, and in the evaluation of general health. A certain amount of blood is required to evaluate all blood analytes. Experiments where mice are used, it is difficult to measure all analytes due to the small amount of blood that can be obtained from a single animal. To overcome this problem, separate cohorts of animals are used in toxicity studies for hematology and biochemistry analysis. This requires the use of extra animals and additional resources. Hence interpretation of results derived from using these different animals can be unreliable. This study was undertaken to explore the possibility of using diluted plasma for measuring various biochemistry analytes. Plasma from mice was diluted to 3, 5 and 10-fold with Water for Injection, and various biochemistry analytes were analyzed using an automated analyzer. Results of diluted and undiluted plasma from the same mouse were compared. Most of the analytes from the diluted plasma were found to be well within the ranges of the undiluted plasma except for sodium, potassium and chloride. Diluting plasma to analyze some analytes also freed up undiluted plasma for analyzing electrolytes. In conclusion, in order to obtain reliable and interpretable data from a single mouse it is worthwhile considering diluting the plasma, which should reduce the number of animals used in an experiment.

  8. Exploration of Contrastive Teaching Method in Analytical Chemistry Teaching%分析化学教学中对比教学法的探究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈勇

    2015-01-01

    将对比教学法应用于分析化学“误差及分析数据的处理”一章的教学中,通过对分析检测和射击结果的误差和偏差进行示例对比分析,阐明分析数据的准确度和精密度的内涵;该教学法不仅可以激发学生学习分析化学的积极性,有助于学生更加直观和深入地理解分析检测中误差产生的原因以及准确度和精密度的关系,而且对于学生今后在分析实验中如何提高检测结果的准确度和精密度具有启发作用。%Contrastive teaching method was applied in teaching Handling of Error and Analytical Data, a chapter of Analytical Chemistry. The accuracy and the precision of analytical data were illuminated by contrastively teaching the examples about the error and the deviation of analytical detection and shooting. It was found that the contrastive teaching method can not only stimulate students’ interest in learning analytical chemistry, but also help students to intuitively and thoroughly understand the reasons why there were errors in the analytical detection data and the relationship between the accuracy and the precision. Moreover, contrastive teaching method can play an enlightening role in teaching the students how to improve the accuracy and the precision of detection data during the analytical experiments in the future.

  9. Mass spectrometry. [in organic ion and biorganic chemistry and medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burlingame, A. L.; Cox, R. E.; Derrick, P. J.

    1974-01-01

    Review of the present status of mass spectrometry in the light of pertinent recent publications spanning the period from December 1971 to January 1974. Following an initial survey of techniques, instruments, and computer applications, a sharp distinction is made between the chemistry of organic (radical-)ions and analytical applications in biorganic chemistry and medicine. The emphasis is on the chemistry of organic (radical-)ions at the expense of inorganic, organometallic, and surface ion chemistry. Biochemistry and medicine are chosen because of their contemporary importance and because of the stupendous contributions of mass spectroscopy to these fields in the past two years. In the review of gas-phase organic ion chemistry, special attention is given to studies making significant contributions to the understanding of ion chemistry.

  10. Application of 2-Trichloromethylbenzimidazole in Analytical Chemistry: A Highly Selective Chromogenic Reagent for Thin-Layer Chromatography and Some Other Analytical Uses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leszek Konopski

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available 2-Trichloromethylbenzimidazole (TCMB was used as a chromogenic reagent in organic or inorganic analysis, mainly in thin-layer chromatography (TLC. In reactions of TCMB with some heteroaromatic nitrogen containing compounds, such as azines, azoles and benzazoles, a formation of high colored products occurred. For azines, the chromogenic reaction was highly regioselective, since the both adjacent α-positions versus the nitrogen atom(s must not be substituted. A TLC method of detection was developed. Thirty azines, azoles, and benzazoles were detected at the detection limit 10 ng to 1 μg. This method was also applied for detection of heteroaromatic pesticides, and the attempts to construct active and passive dosimeters for nicotine were made. In a prechromatographic reaction of aromatic o-diamines with methyl trichloroacetimidate, TCMB or its derivatives were formed in situ. Followed by TLC and visualization in pyridine vapors, this procedure was applied for detection of o-phenylenediamine derivatives. The reaction product of TCMB and pyridine (LI Complex was identified and fully characterized. Two different reaction mechanisms: with electron deficient basic heteroaromatic compounds, like pyridine, and with more acidic compounds, for example, pyrrole, were discussed. In aqueous solutions, the LI Complex may be also used as a new indicator for complexometric, adsorption and acid-base titration of inorganic compounds.

  11. The ACS Inorganic Exam and Its Influence (?) on the Inorganic Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sienko, M. J.

    1980-01-01

    Summarizes results of a questionnaire asking if the ASC standarized test influences what is taught in inorganic chemistry courses. Chief controlling factors are indicated to be: (1) instructor's preference and (2) textbook content. Suggestions are given to enhance amount of inorganic chemistry in undergraduate curricula. (Author/JN)

  12. Using an innovative combination of quality-by-design and green analytical chemistry approaches for the development of a stability indicating UHPLC method in pharmaceutical products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boussès, Christine; Ferey, Ludivine; Vedrines, Elodie; Gaudin, Karen

    2015-11-10

    An innovative combination of green chemistry and quality by design (QbD) approach is presented through the development of an UHPLC method for the analysis of the main degradation products of dextromethorphan hydrobromide. QbD strategy was integrated to the field of green analytical chemistry to improve method understanding while assuring quality and minimizing environmental impacts, and analyst exposure. This analytical method was thoroughly evaluated by applying risk assessment and multivariate analysis tools. After a scouting phase aimed at selecting a suitable stationary phase and an organic solvent in accordance with green chemistry principles, quality risk assessment tools were applied to determine the critical process parameters (CPPs). The effects of the CPPs on critical quality attributes (CQAs), i.e., resolutions, efficiencies, and solvent consumption were further evaluated by means of a screening design. A response surface methodology was then carried out to model CQAs as function of the selected CPPs and the optimal separation conditions were determined through a desirability analysis. Resulting contour plots enabled to establish the design space (DS) (method operable design region) where all CQAs fulfilled the requirements. An experimental validation of the DS proved that quality within the DS was guaranteed; therefore no more robustness study was required before the validation. Finally, this UHPLC method was validated using the concept of total error and was used to analyze a pharmaceutical drug product.

  13. Forensic chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Suzanne

    2009-01-01

    Forensic chemistry is unique among chemical sciences in that its research, practice, and presentation must meet the needs of both the scientific and the legal communities. As such, forensic chemistry research is applied and derivative by nature and design, and it emphasizes metrology (the science of measurement) and validation. Forensic chemistry has moved away from its analytical roots and is incorporating a broader spectrum of chemical sciences. Existing forensic practices are being revisited as the purview of forensic chemistry extends outward from drug analysis and toxicology into such diverse areas as combustion chemistry, materials science, and pattern evidence.

  14. Study on How to Improve the Students' Learning Interest in Inorganic Chemistry of the Bological Engineering%生物工程专业学生学习无机化学兴趣培养的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜红宇; 袁霖; 廖利香

    2013-01-01

    With the bological engineering specialty core courses"inorganic chemistry"as the research object, this paper studies how to improve the students' learning interest of the courses. The results show that the students' learning interest in inorganic chemistry can be enhanced by these ways as followed:emphasizing the function and position of the curriculum, teaching content associated with the past and the future, introducing knowledge of chemical history and chemist, training self study ability of the students in an orderly way step by step, answering the students' questions in time.%以生物工程专业基础必修课程“无机化学”为研究对象,探索如何提高学生学习该课程的兴趣。研究表明,通过强调该课程的作用和地位、教学内容要承前启后、适当介绍化学史和化学家事迹、循序渐进地培养学生的自学能力、及时答疑解惑等方式,可以提高学生的学习无机化学的兴趣。

  15. The Role of Analytical Chemistry in Drug Research and Development%分析化学在药物研发中的任务和作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈丹华

    2014-01-01

    药品质量包括身份、纯度、强度、疗效、稳定性和安全性.分析化学与药品质量直接相关.本文结合作者在药物分析化学方面的研究成果和长期体会,论述分析化学在药物研究与开发方面的任务和作用.%Drug quality includes identity,purity,strength,safety,efficacy,and stability.Analytical chemistry is directly related to the quality of the drug.Analytical scientists are fully responsible in identification,purity determination,assay,reference standard selection and characterization,physical form characterization,purification and stability study.They also play important roles in other areas of drug development by working together with synthetic chemists,pharmacologists,toxicologists,formulators,regulatory and quality assurance personnel.This article discusses the role,responsibility and importance of analytical chemistry in drug research and development with examples of author's own research results and pharmaceutical experience.

  16. 蓬勃发展的现代有机分析化学%Flourishing development of modern organic analytical chemistry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张来新; 朱海云; 王冬梅

    2012-01-01

    简要介绍了有机分析化学的发展与应用,重点综述了:①现代有机分析新方法新技术在食物检测中的应用;②现代有机分析新方法新技术对水资源的分析检测;③现代有机分析新方法新技术对水产品中毒性物质的检测.并对现代有机分析化学的发展进行了展望.%The development and application of organic analytical chemistry was briefly introduces,and focused on the survey of applications of new modem organic analytical methods in the fields of food test, water resource detection,and toxic substance test of the aquatic products. Future development of the organic analytical chemistry was prospected in the end.

  17. Exploration and Research of New Teaching Model in Analytical Chemistry%分析化学新型教学模式的探索和研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张军军

    2012-01-01

    为了适应高等教育的发展要求,论文探讨和研究了新的分析化学理论教学和实验教学教学模式,以提高学生的对理论知识的掌握,培养学生的实验能力、创新能力和综合素质。%In order to adapt to the higher education development,exploration and reseach of new teaching model in analytical chemistry.Improve student's learning initiative,experiment mastery,innovation ability and comprehensive ability.

  18. 无机化学实验教学改革中的“绿色化”实践∗%“Green” Practices in the Reform of Inorganic Chemistry Experiment Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冶杰慧; 王威; 纪利春; 郭俊文

    2016-01-01

    依据化学实验“绿色化”设计的原则,就如何实现无机化学实验的“绿色化”改革,结合我院实际教学经验进行了初步的实践探索。通过寻找可以替代的试剂药品;开展微型化实验;发展多个实验的联合;开发仿真实验等方法实现无机化学实验的绿色化实践。取得了良好的效果,有效地降低了环境污染,而且建立并强化了学生的环保意识和实验的“绿色化”意识,提高了学生节能减排的责任感,也激发了学生的实验兴趣和创新实验能力。%According the principle of “green” design about chemistry experiment, study on how to bring about a“green” reform of Inorganic Chemistry experiment was carried out in our college. Combined with the teaching experience, some measures on “green” practice of Inorganic Chemistry experiment were carried out, such as looking for substitute, practicing mini-experiment, developing series experiment and developing simulation experiment. These measures had achieved good effect, not only reduced the pollution of the environment but also established and strengthened the students′consciousness of environmental protection and the experiment of “green”. Furthermore, the students′ sense of responsibility of energy conservation and emissions reduction was improved, and the students’ interest in experiment and the ability in innovative experiment were stimulated.

  19. Unprecedented conformational variability in main group inorganic chemistry: the tetraazidoarsenite and -antimonite salts A+ [M(N3)4]- (A = NMe4, PPh4, (Ph3P)2N; M = As, Sb), five similar salts, five different anion structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haiges, Ralf; Rahm, Martin; Christe, Karl O

    2013-01-07

    A unique example for conformational variability in inorganic main group chemistry has been discovered. The arrangement of the azido ligands in the pseudotrigonal bipyramidal [As(N(3))(4)](-) and [Sb(N(3))(4)](-) anions theoretically can give rise to seven different conformers which have identical MN(4) skeletons but different azido ligand arrangements and very similar energies. We have now synthesized and structurally characterized five of these conformers by subtle variations in the nature of the counterion. Whereas conformational variability is common in organic chemistry, it is rare in inorganic main group chemistry and is usually limited to two. To our best knowledge, the experimental observation of five distinct single conformers for the same type of anion is unprecedented. Theoretical calculations at the M06-2X/cc-pwCVTZ-PP level for all seven possible basic conformers show that (1) the energy differences between the five experimentally observed conformers are about 1 kcal/mol or less, and (2) the free monomeric anions are the energetically favored species in the gas phase and also for [As(N(3))(4)](-) in the solid state, whereas for [Sb(N(3))(4)](-) associated anions are energetically favored in the solid state and possibly in solutions. Raman spectroscopy shows that in the azide antisymmetric stretching region, the solid-state spectra are distinct for the different conformers, and permits their identification. The spectra of solutions are solvent dependent and differ from those of the solids indicating the presence of rapidly exchanging equilibria of different conformers. The only compound for which a solid with a single well-ordered conformer could not be isolated was [N(CH(3))(4)][As(N(3))(4)] which formed a viscous, room-temperature ionic liquid. Its Raman spectrum was identical to that of its CH(3)CN solution indicating the presence of an equilibrium of multiple conformers.

  20. MICROSCOPY, MICRO-CHEMISTRY AND FTIR AS ANALYTICAL TOOLS FOR IDENTIFYING TRANSPARENT FINISHES CASE STUDIES FROM ASTRA MUSEUM – SIBIU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina TIMAR

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Conservation of cultural heritage relies on scientific investigation of artefacts, a key point being identification of the original materials. In this context, besides wood species identification, investigation of finishing layers is of ultimate importance for old furniture and any other wooden objects with historic, documentary or artistic value. The present paper refers to a series of micro-destructive investigation methods applied for identification of finishing materials, namely: simple in situ and laboratory physical tests, optical microscopy, micro-chemistry and FTIR – ATR analysis. Small samples of finishing layers were taken from four furniture objects belonging to CNM ASTRA Sibiu and were analysed according to the usual procedures of the laboratories from Sibiu and Brasov. The results showed that physical tests and microscopy are useful to get basic information on the samples’ morphology and possible classes of coating materials, while micro-chemistry revealed by some successive tests more specific information on the type of finishing materials. FTIR - ATR is a rapid method of identifying the coating materials based on available reference samples or spectra. However, this is not always straightforward and preliminary physical tests of solubility are useful to select the adequate references, while micro-chemistry tests could complete the FTIR result, especially for those components of the finishing layer present in very small amounts (less than 5%, bellow the FTIR sensitivity. Corroboration of microscopy, physical and micro-chemistry tests with FTIR can provide more reliable results in terms of finishes identification and also valuable information for restoration.

  1. Electrospray ionization and matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry: powerful analytical tools in recombinant protein chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens S.; Svensson, B; Roepstorff, P

    1996-01-01

    Electrospray ionization and matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization are effective ionization methods for mass spectrometry of biomolecules. Here we describe the capabilities of these methods for peptide and protein characterization in biotechnology. An integrated analytical strategy is presen......Electrospray ionization and matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization are effective ionization methods for mass spectrometry of biomolecules. Here we describe the capabilities of these methods for peptide and protein characterization in biotechnology. An integrated analytical strategy...

  2. Exploration and Practice of Teaching Methods. in Analytical Chemistry%分析化学教学方法探索与实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵丹

    2012-01-01

    分析化学作为化学专业的基础课程之一,具有非常重要的作用。文章介绍了分析化学教学中几种重要的教学方法:兴趣培养教学法、启发式教学法、类比式教学法、逻辑推理教学法和归纳式教学法,并结合作者自身的教学实践,探讨了各种方法在教学中的作用。%As one of the foundation courses of chemistry, analytical chemistry plays a very important role. This article describes several important teaching methods in analytical chemistry: fostering interest in teaching methods, heuristic teaching method, analog teaching methods, logical reasoning teaching methods and inductive teaching method. With combination of teaching practice, the author discusses the effect of all methods in teaching.

  3. Some Idea about the Teaching of "Analytical Chemistry and Experiment"%对“分析化学及实验”教学的一点思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡晓斌

    2014-01-01

    在当前高等教育大众化、大学生有厌学情绪的情况下,为了避免课程教学的表面化,应改进课程评分模式,拓展讲课内容的维度,提高学生的学习参与度。在教学过程中,应做到理论课和实验课紧密配合,严格要求学生进行规范的实验操作,让学生参与设计性试验和教师科研,以提高“分析化学及实验”的教学效果。%Against the background of the popularization of higher education and the appearance of weary mood in learning among college students, the dimension of class teaching should beex-panded and the course scoring model should be improved to in-crease student learning participation and avoid going through the motions in course teaching and learning. The close coordination between analytical chemistry theory course and experimental course must be carried out. Student must be ordered to operate and exercise strictly and exactly in experimental class. Teachers should guide students to take part in designing experiments and teachers' scientific research projects, thus improving the teaching effects of analytical chemistry and experiment.

  4. Improvement and Practice of Analytical Chemistry Experiment Teaching%分析化学实验教学改革与实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏文义

    2012-01-01

    分析化学实验是高校的重要课程之一,本文通过对目前分析化学实验教学的现状,以提高分析化学实验教学效果为目的,分别对实验内容、教学模式、教学理念和考核制度进行了探讨,以调动学生学习的主动性,培养学生的动手能力和创新能力,从而提高分析化学实验教学的质量。%Analytical Chemistry Experiment was one of the important course in the colleges.The experimental contents,teaching methods,teaching contents and experiment assessment were discussed through the analysis of the present situation of the Analytical Chemistry Experiment teaching,which resulted in mobilizing the learning initiative of students,training the practical and creative ability,and improving teaching effectiveness.

  5. "In situ" extraction of essential oils by use of Dean-Stark glassware and a Vigreux column inside a microwave oven: a procedure for teaching green analytical chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemat, Farid; Perino-Issartier, Sandrine; Petitcolas, Emmanuel; Fernandez, Xavier

    2012-08-01

    One of the principal objectives of sustainable and green processing development remains the dissemination and teaching of green chemistry in colleges, high schools, and academic laboratories. This paper describes simple glassware that illustrates the phenomenon of extraction in a conventional microwave oven as energy source and a process for green analytical chemistry. Simple glassware comprising a Dean-Stark apparatus (for extraction of aromatic plant material and recovery of essential oils and distilled water) and a Vigreux column (as an air-cooled condenser inside the microwave oven) was designed as an in-situ extraction vessel inside a microwave oven. The efficiency of this experiment was validated for extraction of essential oils from 30 g fresh orange peel, a by-product in the production of orange juice. Every laboratory throughout the world can use this equipment. The microwave power is 100 W and the irradiation time 15 min. The method is performed at atmospheric pressure without added solvent or water and furnishes essential oils similar to those obtained by conventional hydro or steam distillation. By use of GC-MS, 22 compounds in orange peel were separated and identified; the main compounds were limonene (72.1%), β-pinene (8.4%), and γ-terpinene (6.9%). This procedure is appropriate for the teaching laboratory, does not require any special microwave equipment, and enables the students to learn the skills of extraction, and chromatographic and spectroscopic analysis. They are also exposed to a dramatic visual example of rapid, sustainable, and green extraction of an essential oil, and are introduced to successful sustainable and green analytical chemistry.

  6. From China to the world: Science China Chemistry celebrates the International Year of Chemistry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU XiaoWen; XUE Zi-Ling

    2012-01-01

    1 Introduction Science China Chemistry is considered the best and most comprehensive chemistry journal in China,Its primary mission is to communicate the results of basic and innovative chemistry research.The subject areas include physical chemistry,organic chemistry,inorganic chemistry,polymer chemistry,biological chemistry,environmental chemistry,and chemical engineering in the form of Feature Articles,Reviews,Communications,Articles,and News & Comments.

  7. Organic chemistry on solid surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Zhen; Zaera, Francisco [Department of Chemistry, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States)

    2006-07-15

    Chemistry on solid surfaces is central to many areas of practical interest such as heterogeneous catalysis, tribology, electrochemistry, and materials processing. With the development of many surface-sensitive analytical techniques in the past decades, great advances have been possible in our understanding of such surface chemistry at the molecular level. Earlier studies with model systems, single crystals in particular, have provided rich information about the adsorption and reaction kinetics of simple inorganic molecules. More recently, the same approach has been expanded to the study of the surface chemistry of relatively complex organic molecules, in large measure in connection with the selective synthesis of fine chemicals and pharmaceuticals. In this report, the chemical reactions of organic molecules and fragments on solid surfaces, mainly on single crystals of metals but also on crystals of metal oxides, carbides, nitrides, phosphides, sulfides and semiconductors as well as on more complex models such as bimetallics, alloys, and supported particles, are reviewed. A scheme borrowed from the organometallic and organic chemistry literature is followed in which key examples of representative reactions are cited first, and general reactivity trends in terms of both the reactants and the nature of the surface are then identified to highlight important mechanistic details. An attempt has been made to emphasize recent advances, but key earlier examples are cited as needed. Finally, correlations between surface and organometallic and organic chemistry, the relevance of surface reactions to applied catalysis and materials functionalization, and some promising future directions in this area are briefly discussed. (author)

  8. Heterogeneous chemistry: a mechanism missing in current models to explain secondary inorganic aerosol formation during the January 2013 haze episode in North China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Zheng

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Severe regional haze pollution events occurred in eastern and central China in January 2013, which had adverse effects on the environment and public health. Extremely high levels of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 μm or less (PM2.5 with dominant components of sulfate and nitrate are responsible for the haze pollution. Although heterogeneous chemistry is thought to play an important role in the production of sulfate and nitrate during haze episodes, few studies have comprehensively evaluated the effect of heterogeneous chemistry on haze formation in China by using the 3-D models due to of a lack of treatments for heterogeneous reactions in most climate and chemical transport models. In this work, the offline-coupled WRF-CMAQ model with newly added heterogeneous reactions is applied to East Asia to evaluate the impacts of heterogeneous chemistry and the meteorological anomaly during January 2013 on regional haze formation. The revised CMAQ with heterogeneous chemistry not only captures the magnitude and temporal variation of sulfate and nitrate, but also reproduces the enhancement of relative contribution of sulfate and nitrate to PM2.5 mass from clean days to polluted haze days. These results indicate the significant role of heterogeneous chemistry in regional haze formation and improve the understanding of the haze formation mechanisms during the January 2013 episode.

  9. Authentic Learning Enviroment in Analytical Chemistry Using Cooperative Methods and Open-Ended Laboratories in Large Lecture Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, John C.

    1996-09-01

    It is recognized that a need exists to move from the passive learning styles that have characterized chemistry courses to an active style in which students participate and assume responsibility for their learning (1 - 5). In addition, it is argued that course reform should be linked to authentic student achievement, so that students can actively experience the feelings of practicing professionals (6). Course experiments where such changes have been introduced have proven successful but the number of examples of such changes is limited in the higher level courses or courses with large enrollments (7 - 11). In this paper, a one-semester introductory analytical chemistry course is described that accomplishes this goal by the use of open-ended laboratories, cooperative learning, and spreadsheet programs. The course uses many of the ideas described by Walters (7). It is offered at the upperclass level to nonmajors and at the freshman level to students with solid chemistry backgrounds from high school. Typically there are 90 students, who are divided into 5 sections. A teaching assistant is assigned to each section. The course has two 4-hour laboratories and two or three lectures each week (depending on whether it is the upperclass or freshman course). The heart of the course changes is the use of open-ended laboratory experiments in the last half of the course. A sample group project is to have the students develop a mixture of acid-base indicators that can serve as a spectroscopic pH meter. These projects are enhanced by dividing the students into teams of four who take charge of all aspects of accomplishing the projects' goals. Since there are many skills required to make these projects work, the first half of the course is spent developing the individual conceptual, computational, laboratory, problem solving, and group skills so students are prepared for the last half. These changes have markedly improved the student attitudes towards each other and towards learning

  10. Reform Exploration of the Teaching Mode of Analytical Chemistry%高职药学专业分析化学教学模式改革探索

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张伟; 何玲玲; 胡奇军; 韦国兵

    2016-01-01

    随着我国医药行业的快速发展,基于药物研发、药品质量控制与产品走向国际市场的要求,医药行业对熟悉分析化学理论与操作技术手段的药学专业技术人才需求不断增加。因此以基于学生职业能力培养为目的,以职业能力需求为教育导向,从课程知识体系、教学方法、考核方式、科研能力的培养、实验教学、横向拓宽教学等方面对高职药学专业《分析化学》课程进行教学改革探索,培养应用型的药学专业分析实践型人才。%With the rapid development of China’s pharmaceutical industry and the demand on the basis of drug development, drug quality control and product coming to the international marker, the requirement of pharmaceutical professional and technical personnel, who are familiar with analytical chemistry theory and operation technique, is increasing. Therefore, in analysis of Chemical Education in the higher vocational pharmacy, the reform of the course of Analytical Chemistry in pharmaceutical specialty should be explored from aspects of curriculum knowledge system, teaching method, assessment method, scientific ability cultivation, experiment teaching, lateral broadening teaching, aiming at the training of students’ professional ability and education orientation of professional ability demand, which can really cultivate analytical and practical talents with applied type in pharmaceutical specialty.

  11. Materials Chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Fahlman, Bradley D

    2011-01-01

    The 2nd edition of Materials Chemistry builds on the strengths that were recognized by a 2008 Textbook Excellence Award from the Text and Academic Authors Association (TAA). Materials Chemistry addresses inorganic-, organic-, and nano-based materials from a structure vs. property treatment, providing a suitable breadth and depth coverage of the rapidly evolving materials field. The 2nd edition continues to offer innovative coverage and practical perspective throughout. After briefly defining materials chemistry and its history, seven chapters discuss solid-state chemistry, metals, semiconducting materials, organic "soft" materials, nanomaterials, and materials characterization. All chapters have been thoroughly updated and expanded with, for example, new sections on ‘soft lithographic’ patterning, ‘click chemistry’ polymerization, nanotoxicity, graphene, as well as many biomaterials applications. The polymer and ‘soft’ materials chapter represents the largest expansion for the 2nd edition. Each ch...

  12. International Federation of Clinical Chemistry. Use of artificial intelligence in analytical systems for the clinical laboratory. IFCC Committee on Analytical Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Place, J F; Truchaud, A; Ozawa, K; Pardue, H; Schnipelsky, P

    1994-12-16

    The incorporation of information-processing technology into analytical systems in the form of standard computing software has recently been advanced by the introduction of artificial intelligence (AI) both as expert systems and as neural networks. This paper considers the role of software in system operation, control and automation and attempts to define intelligence. AI is characterized by its ability to deal with incomplete and imprecise information and to accumulate knowledge. Expert systems, building on standard computing techniques, depend heavily on the domain experts and knowledge engineers that have programmed them to represent the real world. Neural networks are intended to emulate the pattern-recognition and parallel-processing capabilities of the human brain and are taught rather than programmed. The future may lie in a combination of the recognition ability of the neural network and the rationalization capability of the expert system. In the second part of this paper, examples are given of applications of AI in stand-alone systems for knowledge engineering and medical diagnosis and in embedded systems for failure detection, image analysis, user interfacing, natural language processing, robotics and machine learning, as related to clinical laboratories. It is concluded that AI constitutes a collective form of intellectual property and that there is a need for better documentation, evaluation and regulation of the systems already being used widely in clinical laboratories.

  13. FastTrack to supercritical fluid chromatographic purification: Implementation of a walk-up analytical supercritical fluid chromatography/mass spectrometry screening system in the medicinal chemistry laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurigemma, Christine; Farrell, William

    2010-09-24

    Medicinal chemists often depend on analytical instrumentation for reaction monitoring and product confirmation at all stages of pharmaceutical discovery and development. To obtain pure compounds for biological assays, the removal of side products and final compounds through purification is often necessary. Prior to purification, chemists often utilize open-access analytical LC/MS instruments because mass confirmation is fast and reliable, and the chromatographic separation of most sample constituents is sufficient. Supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) is often used as an orthogonal technique to HPLC or when isolation of the free base of a compound is desired. In laboratories where SFC is the predominant technique for analysis and purification of compounds, a reasonable approach for quickly determining suitable purification conditions is to screen the sample against different columns. This can be a bottleneck to the purification process. To commission SFC for open-access use, a walk-up analytical SFC/MS screening system was implemented in the medicinal chemistry laboratory. Each sample is automatically screened through six column/method conditions, and on-demand data processing occurs for the chromatographers after each screening method is complete. This paper highlights the "FastTrack" approach to expediting samples through purification.

  14. Hydrolysis Studies and Quantitative Determination of Aluminum Ions Using [superscript 27]Al NMR: An Undergraduate Analytical Chemistry Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtin, Maria A.; Ingalls, Laura R.; Campbell, Andrew; James-Pederson, Magdalena

    2008-01-01

    This article describes a novel experiment focused on metal ion hydrolysis and the equilibria related to metal ions in aqueous systems. Using [superscript 27]Al NMR, the students become familiar with NMR spectroscopy as a quantitative analytical tool for the determination of aluminum by preparing a standard calibration curve using standard aluminum…

  15. Nobel Chemistry in the Laboratory: Synthesis of a Ruthenium Catalyst for Ring-Closing Olefin Metathesis--An Experiment for the Advanced Inorganic or Organic Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, George E.

    2007-01-01

    An experiment for the upper-level undergraduate laboratory is described in which students synthesize a ruthenium olefin metathesis catalyst, then use the catalyst to carry out the ring-closing metathesis of diethyl diallylmalonate. The olefin metathesis reaction was the subject of the 2005 Nobel Prize in chemistry. The catalyst chosen for this…

  16. 高等农业院校无机化学教学中绿色创新思维的培养探讨%Research of Inorganic Chemistry Teaching in Agricultural University Based on the Green Chemis-try and Innovation Training

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柯飞; 陈培荣; 王文保

    2016-01-01

    The idea of green chemistry and innovation training has attracted increasing attention by the international higher education. This paper analyzed the disadvantages existed in the teaching process of inorganic chemistry in ag⁃ricultural university. Further the significance to infiltrate the idea of green chemistry and innovation training in inor⁃ganic chemistry teaching was introduced,and some constructive opinions and suggestions were also put forward.Se⁃quentially,the students desire for knowledge can be inflamed and the effective teaching can also be raised.%注重培养学生的绿色创新思维是当今国际人才教育发展的大趋势。该文针对目前农业院校无机化学教育体系中存在的一些问题,并结合高等农业院校所具有的独特优势,提出了在无机化学教学中注入绿色创新思维培养,并对培养的具体方法和途径进行了探讨,进而激发大学生们对无机化学学习的热情和兴趣。

  17. Heterogeneous chemistry: a mechanism missing in current models to explain secondary inorganic aerosol formation during the January 2013 haze episode in North China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, B.; Zhang, Q.; Zhang, Y.; He, K. B.; Wang, K.; Zheng, G. J.; Duan, F. K.; Ma, Y. L.; Kimoto, T.

    2015-02-01

    Severe regional haze pollution events occurred in eastern and central China in January 2013, which had adverse effects on the environment and public health. Extremely high levels of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 μm or less (PM2.5) with dominant components of sulfate and nitrate are responsible for the haze pollution. Although heterogeneous chemistry is thought to play an important role in the production of sulfate and nitrate during haze episodes, few studies have comprehensively evaluated the effect of heterogeneous chemistry on haze formation in China by using the 3-D models due to of a lack of treatments for heterogeneous reactions in most climate and chemical transport models. In this work, the WRF-CMAQ model with newly added heterogeneous reactions is applied to East Asia to evaluate the impacts of heterogeneous chemistry and the meteorological anomaly during January 2013 on regional haze formation. As the parameterization of heterogeneous reactions on different types of particles is not well established yet, we arbitrarily selected the uptake coefficients from reactions on dust particles and then conducted several sensitivity runs to find the value that can best match observations. The revised CMAQ with heterogeneous chemistry not only captures the magnitude and temporal variation of sulfate and nitrate, but also reproduces the enhancement of relative contribution of sulfate and nitrate to PM2.5 mass from clean days to polluted haze days. These results indicate the significant role of heterogeneous chemistry in regional haze formation and improve the understanding of the haze formation mechanisms during the January 2013 episode.

  18. Influence of water chemistry and natural organic matter on active and passive uptake of inorganic mercury by gills of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klinck, Joel [Department of Biology, Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo, Ont., N2L 3C5 (Canada); Dunbar, Michael [Department of Biology, Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo, Ont., N2L 3C5 (Canada); Brown, Stephanie [Department of Biology, Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo, Ont., N2L 3C5 (Canada); Nichols, Joel [Department of Biology, Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo, Ont., N2L 3C5 (Canada); Winter, Anna [Department of Biology, Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo, Ont., N2L 3C5 (Canada); Hughes, Christopher [Department of Biology, Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo, Ont., N2L 3C5 (Canada); Playle, Richard C. [Department of Biology, Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo, Ont., N2L 3C5 (Canada)]. E-mail: rplayle@wlu.ca

    2005-03-25

    To distinguish physiologically regulated uptake from passive uptake of inorganic Hg in fish, rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were exposed to inorganic Hg (0.5, 1, or 2 {mu}M total Hg) in ion-poor water with various treatments. Addition of ions to the water (mM concentrations of Ca, K, Cl) did not consistently alter Hg accumulation by trout gills, although there was a trend to higher Hg accumulation at higher ion concentrations. The apical Ca channel blockers Verapamil and lanthanum also did not consistently affect Hg accumulation by trout gills. Pre-treatment of trout with the Na channel blocker Phenamil decreased Hg uptake by about half. These results suggest a combination of physiologically regulated and passive uptake of Hg by trout gills. Strong complexing agents of Hg (EDTA, NTA, ethylenediamine, cysteine) decreased Hg-binding by trout gills in a dose-dependent manner. From these data, a conditional equilibrium binding constant for Hg to the gills was estimated as log K {sub Hg-gill} = 18.0, representing very strong binding of Hg to the gills. This value is a first step in creating a biotic ligand model (BLM) for inorganic Hg and fish. Natural organic matter (2-10 mg C/L) also decreased Hg-binding by trout gills, although mM concentrations of Na, K, and Cl interfered with this effect. At low concentrations of these ions, natural organic matter samples isolated from various sources bound Hg to similar degrees, as judged by Hg accumulation by trout gills. A conditional binding constant to natural organic matter (NOM) was estimated as log K {sub Hg-NOM} = 18.0 with about 0.5 {mu}mol binding sites per mg C, representing strong binding of Hg to NOM.

  19. European Analytical Column

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlberg, B.; Grasserbauer, M.; Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov

    2009-01-01

    The European Analytical Column has once more invited a guest columnist to give his views on various matters related to analytical chemistry in Europe. This year, we have invited Professor Manfred Grasserbauer of the Vienna University of Technology to present some of the current challenges...... for European analytical chemistry. During the period 2002–07, Professor Grasserbauer was Director of the Institute for Environment and Sustainability, Joint Research Centre of the European Commission (EC), Ispra, Italy. There is no doubt that many challenges exist at the present time for all of us representing...... a major branch of chemistry, namely analytical chemistry. The global financial crisis is affecting all branches of chemistry, but analytical chemistry, in particular, since our discipline by tradition has many close links to industry. We have already noticed decreased industrial commitment with respect...

  20. 如何通过无机化学教学引导学生自主学习%How to Guide Students' Independent Study Through the Teaching of Inorganic Chemistry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗景; 周军

    2011-01-01

    无机化学是化学专业学生的第一门专业基础课程,通过该课程的教学培养学生的自主学习能力对学生在今后的专业课程学习有很大的帮助.教师应尊重学生在学习中的主体地位,同时利用教学内容和教学手段达到引导学生自主学习的目的.%Inorganic Chemistry is the first basic course for chemistry profession students. It's very helpful for learning professional courses in the future by teaching students the self-learning ability. Teachers should respect students' main body of learning. Meanwhile, make use of teaching content and teaching methods to achieve the purpose of guiding students independent study.

  1. Generation,Development,and Recent Applications in Modern Organic Analytical Chemistry%现代有机分析化学的产生发展及应用新进展∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张来新

    2014-01-01

    This paper briefly introduced the generation,development,and applications of modern organic analyti-cal chemistry. Emphases were put on three parts:① applications of new nano-materials in modern organic analyti-cal chemistry;② applications of modern organic analytical chemistry in medicine science and biology;③ applica-tions of modern organic analytical chemistry in food analysis and food chemistry.%简要介绍了现代有机分析化学的产生发展及应用,详细综述了:①新型纳米材料在现代有机分析化学中的应用;②现代有机分析化学在医药学及生物学方面的应用;③现代有机分析化学在食品分析及食品化学中的应用。

  2. Application of Virtual Experiment in Pharmacy Analytical Chemistry Experiment%虚拟实验在药学专业分析化学实验中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵秀丽

    2015-01-01

    Analytical chemistry is a professional basic course in pharmacy specialty.At the same time, it’s a high experimental science, so the basic knowledge and basic skills in Analytical Chemistry Experiment is critical to its professional course.The current major problems existed in the teaching of Analytical Chemistry Experiment was analyzed, and the advantages of virtual chemistry experiment were described.Introducing virtual experimental teaching methods in traditional experimental teaching process could not only stimulate students’interest in learning, but also improve teaching effectiveness of Analytical Chemistry Experiment.%分析化学是一门实验性很强的科学,作为药学专业的专业基础课,分析化学实验基本知识和基本技能对其专业课的学习至关重要。分析目前分析化学实验教学中存在的主要问题,阐述虚拟化学实验的优势,如果在传统实验教学过程中引入虚拟实验教学方法,不仅可以激发学生的学习兴趣,还能提高分析化学实验教学效果。

  3. Discussion on Teaching Methods of Analytical Chemistry Experiment%分析化学实验教学方法初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周瑞

    2016-01-01

    To the current situation of teaching of Analytical Chemistry Experiment , the importance of verified experiment teaching was explained .Some suggestions of how to start verified experiment and cultivation of the steady basic skills were given from the views of basic skills training , the processing of experimental data and class interaction .The necessity of open design experiment was analyzed .How to mobilize the initiative and creativity of students was discussed taking advantage of open design experiment .Opinions about the development direction of Analytical Chemistry Experiment teaching were raised , which should changed from verified experiment to the parallel mode in verified and open design experiment.%针对分析化学实验教学的现状,阐述了开设验证性基础实验的必要性。从基本操作技能的训练、实验数据的处理分析和课堂互动三个方面分别讨论了如何更好的开设验证性实验,培养学生扎实的实验基本功;在开设验证性实验的基础上,说明了开设设计性实验的必要性,对如何利用设计性实验调动学生探究科学的积极性和创造性提出了几点建议;认为今后分析化学实验的发展方向应该由验证性转向验证性和设计性并行的教学方式。

  4. 分析化学教学与实践案例分析关联性初探%An Approach to the Relationship between Analytical Chemistry Teaching and Practice Case Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高琳

    2011-01-01

    Based on the analysis of the current situation of ana-lytical chemistry teaching,teaching experience and the practical feature of analytical chemistry,this paper proposes the integration of the theory,experiment teaching of analytical chemistry and various analytical objects through a case analysis,hoping to im-prove students' learning orientation.The perfect integration of class teaching and practice can improve teaching effect and st-udents' understanding of analytical chemistry,broad students' thinking,cultivate their DIY ability,thus effective teaching goal can be achieved.%本文通过对当前不同学科专业的大学分析化学教学现状进行分析,总结教学过程存在的问题,结合分析化学学科实践性强等特点,提出通过结合具体案例,把分析化学的理论和试验教学与不同学科的具体分析对象相结合,以此来提高学习针对性;将课堂教学和实践应用有机结合,达到改善教学效果,提高学生对分析化学学科实践性认识,拓宽学生思维,培养学生动手能力等目的。

  5. GC/MS analytical procedure for the characterization of glycerolipids, natural waxes, terpenoid resins, proteinaceous and polysaccharide materials in the same paint microsample avoiding interferences from inorganic media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lluveras, Anna; Bonaduce, Ilaria; Andreotti, Alessia; Colombini, Maria Perla

    2010-01-01

    An innovative GC/MS procedure for the characterization of organic materials in samples from works of art was developed. It is based on a multistep chemical pretreatment of the samples based on the ammonia extraction of proteins and polysaccharide materials, in order to separate them from lipid and resinous materials. The extraction is then followed by the separation and purification of proteinaceous and polysaccharide materials before hydrolysis, based on the use of monolithic sorbent tip technology with a C4 stationary phase. Lipids and resins are saponified/salified separately. Three fractions are generated and analyzed separately by GC/MS, thus enabling a quantitative analysis to be performed on aldoses and uronic acids, amino acids, mono- and dicarboxylic aliphatic acids, to determine polysaccharide, proteinaceous, and glycerolipid materials and molecular pattern recognition for the natural resin and wax components. With this analytical procedure, for the first time, glycerolipids, natural waxes, and proteinaceous, resinous, and polysaccharide materials can be simultaneously characterized in the same microsample from painted works of art. This new analytical approach prevents any analytical difficulties arising when the sample is divided into several different aliquots to be chemically processed separately, in order to characterize the various classes of organic materials. The procedure was successfully applied to samples from paintings from the Bamiyan Buddhas and a panel painting from the 15th century, highlighting the occurrence of glycerolipids, animal and plant resins, proteinaceous and polysaccharide materials.

  6. Atmospheric Chemistry for Astrophysicists: A Self-consistent Formalism and Analytical Solutions for Arbitrary C/O

    CERN Document Server

    Heng, Kevin; Tsai, Shang-Min

    2015-01-01

    We present a self-consistent formalism for computing and understanding the atmospheric chemistry of exoplanets. Starting from the first law of thermodynamics, we demonstrate that the van't Hoff equation (which describes the equilibrium constant), Arrhenius equation (which describes the rate coefficients) and procedures associated with the Gibbs free energy (minimisation, rescaling) have a common physical and mathematical origin. We correct an ambiguity associated with the equilibrium constant, which is used to relate the forward and reverse rate coefficients, and rigorously derive its two definitions. By necessity, one of the equilibrium constants must be dimensionless and equate to an exponential function involving the Gibbs free energy, while the other is a ratio of rate coefficients and must therefore possess physical units. To avoid confusion, we simply term them the dimensionless and dimensional equilibrium constants. We demonstrate that the Arrhenius equation takes on a functional form that is more gene...

  7. Materials of the yearly scientific assembly of the Polish Chemical Society - Torun`93: chemistry of new materials; Materialy z dorocznego zjazdu naukowego - Torun`93: chemia nowych materialow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    Scientific conference accompanied the assembly of Polish Chemical Society has been held in 1993 in Torun. The conference has been divided into 12 sections and 4 symposia covering the most important research fields in chemistry. The general view on scientific progress has been presented during the plenary session. Then proceedings have performed in specialist sessions on: contemporary methods in organic chemistry chemistry, chemistry and physico-chemistry of polymers, coordination chemistry state-of-the-art prospects, absorption and absorbents, new chemical technologies of organic compounds, new chemical technologies of inorganic compounds, environment protection, new methods in analytical chemistry, photochemistry and chemical kinetics, crystallochemistry, history of chemistry and didactics, new substances in health protection, membranes and membrane techniques, electroactive organic compounds, zeolites - material properties.

  8. Innovation and discussion on the teaching pattern of elemental chemistry part of inorganic chemistry%无机化学中元素化学部分教学模式的改革与探索

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄群增

    2012-01-01

    针对在无机化学中元素化学部分教学过程中存在的问题,结合教学中的实践体会,从五个方面探讨了元素化学部分教学模式的改革:优化教学方法,加强师生双向互动;将化学基础理论贯穿到教学中,使教学系统化;强化实践环节,促进理论教学;引入多媒体技术,提高教学效果;增加新知识,扩大学生的科学视野.%Aiming at the problems in the teaching of the elemental chemistry curriculum and based on the author's experience in the teaching research,in this paper,five kinds of teaching patterns for the innovation and research on the element chemistry classroom teaching pattern is initially discussed,such as optimizing the teaching method and reinforcing the two-way interactive of teacher and student,putting forward the principles of chemistry into the process of elemental chemistry teaching and systematizing the teaching content,strengthening the practice step and promoting the theoretical teaching,introduction of the multimedia technology and improving teaching effect,increasing new knowledge and widening the view of students.

  9. 配位印迹聚合物在分析化学中的应用进展%Application Development of Complex Imprinted Polymer in Analytical Chemistry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄健祥; 胡玉玲; 胡玉斐; 李攻科

    2012-01-01

    分子印迹聚合物(MIP)是一种对目标分子(模板分子)具有选择性结合能力的聚合物.配位印迹聚合物(CIP)是基于金属离子与功能单体、模板分子间配位作用的分子印迹聚合物,既沿袭了MIP的优点,又具有适用于极性环境等优点,在食品、环境、生物、医药等领域目标物的识别中有良好的应用潜力.本文介绍了CIP的原理和特点,综述了CIP在分析化学中的应用进展,展望了CIP的发展前景.%Molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) has the selective binding ability for target molecule (template molecule). Based on the coordination among metal, functional monomer and template molecule, complex imprinted polymer (CIP) holds selectivity derived from MIP and has some specialties like being stable and effective in polar environment, which make a great potential of the recognition of target analytes in food, environmental, biological and pharmaceutical samples. In this paper, the characteristic of CIP was introduced. Its development of application in analytical chemistry was summarized. The foreground of complex imprinted technique was previewed.

  10. News for analytical chemists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov; Karlberg, Bo

    2009-01-01

    The EuCheMS Division of Analytical Chemistry (DAC) maintains a website with informations on groups of analytical chemistry at European universities (www.dac-euchems. org). Everyone may contribute to the database and contributors are responsible for an annual update of the information. The service...

  11. ;Click; analytics for ;click; chemistry - A simple method for calibration-free evaluation of online NMR spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalik-Onichimowska, Aleksandra; Kern, Simon; Riedel, Jens; Panne, Ulrich; King, Rudibert; Maiwald, Michael

    2017-04-01

    Driven mostly by the search for chemical syntheses under biocompatible conditions, so called ;click; chemistry rapidly became a growing field of research. The resulting simple one-pot reactions are so far only scarcely accompanied by an adequate optimization via comparably straightforward and robust analysis techniques possessing short set-up times. Here, we report on a fast and reliable calibration-free online NMR monitoring approach for technical mixtures. It combines a versatile fluidic system, continuous-flow measurement of 1H spectra with a time interval of 20 s per spectrum, and a robust, fully automated algorithm to interpret the obtained data. As a proof-of-concept, the thiol-ene coupling between N-boc cysteine methyl ester and allyl alcohol was conducted in a variety of non-deuterated solvents while its time-resolved behaviour was characterized with step tracer experiments. Overlapping signals in online spectra during thiol-ene coupling could be deconvoluted with a spectral model using indirect hard modeling and were subsequently converted to either molar ratios (using a calibration-free approach) or absolute concentrations (using 1-point calibration). For various solvents the kinetic constant k for pseudo-first order reaction was estimated to be 3.9 h-1 at 25 °C. The obtained results were compared with direct integration of non-overlapping signals and showed good agreement with the implemented mass balance.

  12. Orbital interactions in chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Albright, Thomas A; Whangbo, Myung-Hwan

    2013-01-01

    Explains the underlying structure that unites all disciplines in chemistry Now in its second edition, this book explores organic, organometallic, inorganic, solid state, and materials chemistry, demonstrating how common molecular orbital situations arise throughout the whole chemical spectrum. The authors explore the relationships that enable readers to grasp the theory that underlies and connects traditional fields of study within chemistry, thereby providing a conceptual framework with which to think about chemical structure and reactivity problems. Orbital Interactions

  13. Identifying Deficiencies in the Environmental Chemistry Educational Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoa Tran, Thi; Bigger, Stephen W.; Kruger, Tony; Orbell, John D.; Buddhadasa, Saman; Barone, Sebastian

    2001-12-01

    Saman Buddhadasa and Sebastian Barone Australian Government Analytical Laboratories, South Melbourne, Victoria 3205, Australia A survey of environmental chemistry laboratory experiments published during the period 1969-2000 in the mainstream chemical education journals, The Journal of Chemical Education and Education in Chemistry, was conducted. The experiments were categorized as being related to the environmental domains of air, water, or soil. Using the same timeframe, a similar survey was carried out for commonly used environmental chemistry textbooks, assessing the relative number of pages devoted to the same areas. The data obtained from both analyses indicate that the area of soil is seriously underrepresented in the environmental chemistry educational literature. This suggests a need to develop more environmental chemistry educational material (in the form of published laboratory experiments and textbook material) related to soil chemistry and soil contamination. To provide a basis for optimizing the level of integration in the design of such experiments, the publications surveyed were categorized according to how they integrate the four traditional subfields of chemistry --organic, inorganic, physical, and analytical.

  14. Practice of Case-Based Teaching in Analytical Chemistry%案例教学法在分析化学理论教学中的实践研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何婧琳; 曹忠; 李丹; 张玲; 谭淑珍; 陈平; 李伟

    2016-01-01

    研究了案例教学法在分析化学理论教学中的实践,内容包括案例选材、设计、实施和案例模型评估。案例教学法模式在促进学生扎实学习理论知识的同时,改进学生对于分析化学课程的认知,提高学生的专业技能。案例教学法在分析化学理论教学中的实践可以在教师教学和学生学习之间建立良好的互动关系,并最终改善分析化学课程教学。%This paper focuses on an investigation of case-based teaching in the analytical chemistry course. The research includes an overview of the selection, design, implementation, and evaluation of the case model. The case-based teaching model makes students active and improves their views and skil s in analytical chemistry course. Research of case-based teaching in analytical chemistry course wil build an excel ent rapport between teachers and students, and, ultimately, lead to improvements in analytical chemistry course.

  15. Study on the Construction of Practical Teaching Model in Analytical Chemistry Experiment Teaching%实践型分析化学实验教学模式的构建研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祁文静; 吴狄; 饶灿

    2015-01-01

    指出了分析化学作为基础化学课程,其配套的实验教学也同样具有重要的教学意义,分析了当前分析化学实验教学存在的问题,探讨了实践型分析化学实验教学模式的构建,以期提供参考。%As a basic chemistry course ,the article points out that the auxiliary experiment teaching also has important significance in teaching .the article analyzes the current problems exist in the analytical chemistry experiment course and discusses the construction of practical teaching model in analytical chemistry experi‐ment teaching ,w hich aim to provide some references .

  16. Evaluation of innovative stationary phase ligand chemistries and analytical conditions for the analysis of basic drugs by supercritical fluid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desfontaine, Vincent; Veuthey, Jean-Luc; Guillarme, Davy

    2016-03-18

    Similar to reversed phase liquid chromatography, basic compounds can be highly challenging to analyze by supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC), as they tend to exhibit poor peak shape, especially those with high pKa values. In this study, three new stationary phase ligand chemistries available in sub -2 μm particle sizes, namely 2-picolylamine (2-PIC), 1-aminoanthracene (1-AA) and diethylamine (DEA), were tested in SFC conditions for the analysis of basic drugs. Due to the basic properties of these ligands, it is expected that the repulsive forces may improve peak shape of basic substances, similarly to the widely used 2-ethypyridine (2-EP) phase. However, among the 38 tested basic drugs, less of 10% displayed Gaussian peaks (asymmetry between 0.8 and 1.4) using pure CO2/methanol on these phases. The addition of 10mM ammonium formate as mobile phase additive, drastically improved peak shapes and increased this proportion to 67% on 2-PIC. Introducing the additive in the injection solvent rather than in the organic modifier, gave acceptable results for 2-PIC only, with 31% of Gaussian peaks with an average asymmetry of 1.89 for the 38 selected basic drugs. These columns were also compared to hybrid silica (BEH), DIOL and 2-EP stationary phases, commonly employed in SFC. These phases commonly exhibit alternative retention and selectivity. In the end, the two most interesting ligands used as complementary columns were 2-PIC and BEH, as they provided suitable peak shapes for the basic drugs and almost orthogonal selectivities.

  17. Halogen Chemistry in the CMAQ Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halogens (iodine and bromine) emitted from oceans alter atmospheric chemistry and influence atmospheric ozone mixing ratio. We previously incorporated a representation of detailed halogen chemistry and emissions of organic and inorganic halogen species into the hemispheric Commun...

  18. Preparation of Bismuth Vanadate Yellow Pigment:an Inorganic Chemistry Experiment Recommended%钒酸铋黄色颜料的制备--推荐一个无机化学教学实验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王周; 石建新; 彭敏; 赖瑢; 李莲云; 陈六平

    2016-01-01

    该实验以Bi(NO3)3和NH4VO3为原料,采用液相沉淀法,制备钒酸铋黄色颜料。学生通过控制反应物初始浓度、溶液pH、温度与时间等条件制备分散性良好、颗粒细小、组成均匀的钒酸铋。实验涉及溶液配制、加热搅拌、简易回流、控温、调pH、检验、抽滤、洗涤、干燥等操作。钒酸铋是一种绿色环保的黄色颜料,且具有降解污染物的光催化性能,因此,该实验不仅对于提高学生无机制备实验能力具有很好的教学效果,还在实验教学中渗透了环保理念。%The preparation of bismuth vanadate yel ow pigment by the liquid-phase precipitation method using Bi(NO3)3 and NH4VO3 as raw materials is recommended as an inorganic chemistry experiment. Students are required to obtain smal and uniform BiVO4 yel ow pigment particles with good dispersity by control ing the initial concentration of reactants, the pH of solution, the reaction temperature and duration. The experimental procedures involve solution preparation, heating, stirring, simple reflux, temperature and pH control, ion test, the suction filtration, washing and drying. Bismuth vanadate not only is a kind of green environmental protection yel ow pigment, but also has the photocatalytic performance to degrade pol utants. Therefore, the experiment not only is beneficial to the improvement of students' preparation ability in inorganic chemistry experiment, but also imparts the environmental education in the experimental teaching.

  19. Annual reports in inorganic and general syntheses 1974

    CERN Document Server

    Niedenzu, Kurt

    1975-01-01

    Annual Reports in Inorganic and General Syntheses-1974 presents an organized annual summary of synthetic developments in inorganic chemistry and its related areas. The book discusses the chemistry of simple and complex metal hydrides of main groups I, II, and III, boron, aluminium, gallium, indium, thallium, silicon, germanium, tin, lead, phosphorus, arsenic, antimony, bismuth, chalcogens, halogens, and pseudohalogens. The text also describes the chemistry of scandium, yttrium, lanthanides, actinides, titanium, zirconium, hafnium, vanadium, niobium, tantalum, chromium, molybdenum, tungsten, ma

  20. Optoacoustic spectroscopy for real-time monitoring of strongly light-absorbing solutions in applications to analytical chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filimonova, Tatyana A; Volkov, Dmitry S; Proskurnin, Mikhail A; Pelivanov, Ivan M

    2013-12-01

    An optoacoustic technique for solutions of strongly light-absorbing analytes at 0.1-0.01 mol l(-1) is proposed. The technique is based on the wide-band forward mode detection of temporal profiles of laser-generated ultrasonic pulses (optoacoustic signals). The leading edge of the signal repeats the distribution of the laser fluence in the medium, which makes it possible to determine its optical absorption and investigate its dynamics during a reaction. The range of light-absorption coefficients starts from 1 to 5 and reaches 10(4) to 10(5) cm(-1). The determination of iron(II) as ferroin shows the possibility of probing 0.1 mol l(-1) of iron(II), which was not previously achieved for this reaction by optical spectroscopy. To further prove the concept, kinetic measurements for ferroin decomposition at the level of 0.1 mol l(-1) and at high pHs are performed. The results are compared with spectrophotometry at lower concentrations and show good reproducibility and accuracy of kinetic constants.