WorldWideScience

Sample records for analytical chemistry general

  1. Bias Assessment of General Chemistry Analytes using Commutable Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koerbin, Gus; Tate, Jillian R; Ryan, Julie; Jones, Graham Rd; Sikaris, Ken A; Kanowski, David; Reed, Maxine; Gill, Janice; Koumantakis, George; Yen, Tina; St John, Andrew; Hickman, Peter E; Simpson, Aaron; Graham, Peter

    2014-11-01

    Harmonisation of reference intervals for routine general chemistry analytes has been a goal for many years. Analytical bias may prevent this harmonisation. To determine if analytical bias is present when comparing methods, the use of commutable samples, or samples that have the same properties as the clinical samples routinely analysed, should be used as reference samples to eliminate the possibility of matrix effect. The use of commutable samples has improved the identification of unacceptable analytical performance in the Netherlands and Spain. The International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (IFCC) has undertaken a pilot study using commutable samples in an attempt to determine not only country specific reference intervals but to make them comparable between countries. Australia and New Zealand, through the Australasian Association of Clinical Biochemists (AACB), have also undertaken an assessment of analytical bias using commutable samples and determined that of the 27 general chemistry analytes studied, 19 showed sufficiently small between method biases as to not prevent harmonisation of reference intervals. Application of evidence based approaches including the determination of analytical bias using commutable material is necessary when seeking to harmonise reference intervals.

  2. Enzymes in Analytical Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, Myer M.

    1980-01-01

    Presents tabular information concerning recent research in the field of enzymes in analytic chemistry, with methods, substrate or reaction catalyzed, assay, comments and references listed. The table refers to 128 references. Also listed are 13 general citations. (CS)

  3. Quo vadis, analytical chemistry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valcárcel, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an open, personal, fresh approach to the future of Analytical Chemistry in the context of the deep changes Science and Technology are anticipated to experience. Its main aim is to challenge young analytical chemists because the future of our scientific discipline is in their hands. A description of not completely accurate overall conceptions of our discipline, both past and present, to be avoided is followed by a flexible, integral definition of Analytical Chemistry and its cornerstones (viz., aims and objectives, quality trade-offs, the third basic analytical reference, the information hierarchy, social responsibility, independent research, transfer of knowledge and technology, interfaces to other scientific-technical disciplines, and well-oriented education). Obsolete paradigms, and more accurate general and specific that can be expected to provide the framework for our discipline in the coming years are described. Finally, the three possible responses of analytical chemists to the proposed changes in our discipline are discussed.

  4. General Procedure for the Easy Calculation of pH in an Introductory Course of General or Analytical Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cepriá, Gemma; Salvatella, Luis

    2014-01-01

    All pH calculations for simple acid-base systems used in introductory courses on general or analytical chemistry can be carried out by using a general procedure requiring the use of predominance diagrams. In particular, the pH is calculated as the sum of an independent term equaling the average pK[subscript a] values of the acids involved in the…

  5. Supramolecular analytical chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anslyn, Eric V

    2007-02-02

    A large fraction of the field of supramolecular chemistry has focused in previous decades upon the study and use of synthetic receptors as a means of mimicking natural receptors. Recently, the demand for synthetic receptors is rapidly increasing within the analytical sciences. These classes of receptors are finding uses in simple indicator chemistry, cellular imaging, and enantiomeric excess analysis, while also being involved in various truly practical assays of bodily fluids. Moreover, one of the most promising areas for the use of synthetic receptors is in the arena of differential sensing. Although many synthetic receptors have been shown to yield exquisite selectivities, in general, this class of receptor suffers from cross-reactivities. Yet, cross-reactivity is an attribute that is crucial to the success of differential sensing schemes. Therefore, both selective and nonselective synthetic receptors are finding uses in analytical applications. Hence, a field of chemistry that herein is entitled "Supramolecular Analytical Chemistry" is emerging, and is predicted to undergo increasingly rapid growth in the near future.

  6. Nuclear analytical chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brune, D.; Forkman, B.; Persson, B.

    1984-01-01

    This book covers the general theories and techniques of nuclear chemical analysis, directed at applications in analytical chemistry, nuclear medicine, radiophysics, agriculture, environmental sciences, geological exploration, industrial process control, etc. The main principles of nuclear physics and nuclear detection on which the analysis is based are briefly outlined. An attempt is made to emphasise the fundamentals of activation analysis, detection and activation methods, as well as their applications. The book provides guidance in analytical chemistry, agriculture, environmental and biomedical sciences, etc. The contents include: the nuclear periodic system; nuclear decay; nuclear reactions; nuclear radiation sources; interaction of radiation with matter; principles of radiation detectors; nuclear electronics; statistical methods and spectral analysis; methods of radiation detection; neutron activation analysis; charged particle activation analysis; photon activation analysis; sample preparation and chemical separation; nuclear chemical analysis in biological and medical research; the use of nuclear chemical analysis in the field of criminology; nuclear chemical analysis in environmental sciences, geology and mineral exploration; and radiation protection.

  7. Science Update: Analytical Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthy, Ward

    1980-01-01

    Briefly discusses new instrumentation in the field of analytical chemistry. Advances in liquid chromatography, photoacoustic spectroscopy, the use of lasers, and mass spectrometry are also discussed. (CS)

  8. Analytical Chemistry in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolotov, Yuri

    2016-09-06

    Research in Russian analytical chemistry (AC) is carried out on a significant scale, and the analytical service solves practical tasks of geological survey, environmental protection, medicine, industry, agriculture, etc. The education system trains highly skilled professionals in AC. The development and especially manufacturing of analytical instruments should be improved; in spite of this, there are several good domestic instruments and other satisfy some requirements. Russian AC has rather good historical roots.

  9. Analytical Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Mark

    2013-01-01

    The Analytical Chemistry and Material Development Group maintains a capability in chemical analysis, materials R&D failure analysis and contamination control. The uniquely qualified staff and facility support the needs of flight projects, science instrument development and various technical tasks, as well as Cal Tech.

  10. Division of Analytical Chemistry, 1998

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Elo Harald

    1999-01-01

    The article recounts the 1998 activities of the Division of Analytical Chemistry (DAC- formerly the Working Party on Analytical Chemistry, WPAC), which body is a division of the Federation of European Chemical Societies (FECS). Elo Harald Hansen is the Danish delegate, representing The Danish...... Chemical Society/The Society for Analytical Chemistry....

  11. Advances in analytical chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arendale, W. F.; Congo, Richard T.; Nielsen, Bruce J.

    1991-01-01

    Implementation of computer programs based on multivariate statistical algorithms makes possible obtaining reliable information from long data vectors that contain large amounts of extraneous information, for example, noise and/or analytes that we do not wish to control. Three examples are described. Each of these applications requires the use of techniques characteristic of modern analytical chemistry. The first example, using a quantitative or analytical model, describes the determination of the acid dissociation constant for 2,2'-pyridyl thiophene using archived data. The second example describes an investigation to determine the active biocidal species of iodine in aqueous solutions. The third example is taken from a research program directed toward advanced fiber-optic chemical sensors. The second and third examples require heuristic or empirical models.

  12. Analytical chemistry in space

    CERN Document Server

    Wainerdi, Richard E

    1970-01-01

    Analytical Chemistry in Space presents an analysis of the chemical constitution of space, particularly the particles in the solar wind, of the planetary atmospheres, and the surfaces of the moon and planets. Topics range from space engineering considerations to solar system atmospheres and recovered extraterrestrial materials. Mass spectroscopy in space exploration is also discussed, along with lunar and planetary surface analysis using neutron inelastic scattering. This book is comprised of seven chapters and opens with a discussion on the possibilities for exploration of the solar system by

  13. Process Analytical Chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veltkamp, David J.(VISITORS); Doherty, Steve D.(BCO); Anderson, B B.(VISITORS); Koch, Mel (University of Washington); Bond, Leonard J.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Burgess, Lloyd W.(VISITORS); Ullman, Alan H.(UNKNOWN); Bamberger, Judith A.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Greenwood, Margaret S.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB))

    1999-06-15

    This review of process analytical chemistry is an update to the previous review on this subject published in 1995(A2). The time period covered for this review includes publications written or published from late 1994 until early 1999, with the addition of a few classic references pointing to background information critical to an understanding of a specific topic area. These older references have been critically included as established fundamental works. New topics covered in this review not previously treated as separate subjects in past reviews include sampling systems, imaging (via optical spectroscopy), and ultrasonic analysis.

  14. Significant steps in the evolution of analytical chemistry--is the today's analytical chemistry only chemistry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karayannis, Miltiades I; Efstathiou, Constantinos E

    2012-12-15

    In this review the history of chemistry and specifically the history and the significant steps of the evolution of analytical chemistry are presented. In chronological time spans, covering the ancient world, the middle ages, the period of the 19th century, and the three evolutional periods, from the verge of the 19th century to contemporary times, it is given information for the progress of chemistry and analytical chemistry. During this period, analytical chemistry moved gradually from its pure empirical nature to more rational scientific activities, transforming itself to an autonomous branch of chemistry and a separate discipline. It is also shown that analytical chemistry moved gradually from the status of exclusive serving the chemical science, towards serving, the environment, health, law, almost all areas of science and technology, and the overall society. Some recommendations are also directed to analytical chemistry educators concerning the indispensable nature of knowledge of classical analytical chemistry and the associated laboratory exercises and to analysts, in general, why it is important to use the chemical knowledge to make measurements on problems of everyday life.

  15. The Abbott Architect c8000: analytical performance and productivity characteristics of a new analyzer applied to general chemistry testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauli, Daniela; Seyfarth, Michael; Dibbelt, Leif

    2005-01-01

    Applying basic potentiometric and photometric assays, we evaluated the fully automated random access chemistry analyzer Architect c8000, a new member of the Abbott Architect system family, with respect to both its analytical and operational performance and compared it to an established high-throughput chemistry platform, the Abbott Aeroset. Our results demonstrate that intra- and inter-assay imprecision, inaccuracy, lower limit of detection and linear range of the c8000 generally meet actual requirements of laboratory diagnosis; there were only rare exceptions, e.g. assays for plasma lipase or urine uric acid which apparently need to be improved by additional rinsing of reagent pipettors. Even with plasma exhibiting CK activities as high as 40.000 U/l, sample carryover by the c8000 could not be detected. Comparison of methods run on the c8000 and the Aeroset revealed correlation coefficients of 0.98-1.00; if identical chemistries were applied on both analyzers, slopes of regression lines approached unity. With typical laboratory workloads including 10-20% STAT samples and up to 10% samples with high analyte concentrations demanding dilutional reruns, steady-state throughput numbers of 700 to 800 tests per hour were obtained with the c8000. The system generally responded to STAT orders within 2 minutes yielding analytical STAT order completion times of 5 to 15 minutes depending on the type and number of assays requested per sample. Due to its extended test and sample processing capabilities and highly comfortable software, the c8000 may meet the varying needs of clinical laboratories rather well.

  16. [Photonic crystals for analytical chemistry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi; Li, Jincheng

    2009-09-01

    Photonic crystals, originally created to control the transmission of light, have found their increasing value in the field of analytical chemistry and are probable to become a hot research area soon. This review is hence composed, focusing on their analytical chemistry-oriented applications, including especially their use in chromatography, capillary- and chip-based electrophoresis.

  17. Mathematical methods for physical and analytical chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Goodson, David Z

    2011-01-01

    Mathematical Methods for Physical and Analytical Chemistry presents mathematical and statistical methods to students of chemistry at the intermediate, post-calculus level. The content includes a review of general calculus; a review of numerical techniques often omitted from calculus courses, such as cubic splines and Newton's method; a detailed treatment of statistical methods for experimental data analysis; complex numbers; extrapolation; linear algebra; and differential equations. With numerous example problems and helpful anecdotes, this text gives chemistry students the mathematical

  18. Clustering in analytical chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drab, Klaudia; Daszykowski, Michal

    2014-01-01

    Data clustering plays an important role in the exploratory analysis of analytical data, and the use of clustering methods has been acknowledged in different fields of science. In this paper, principles of data clustering are presented with a direct focus on clustering of analytical data. The role of the clustering process in the analytical workflow is underlined, and its potential impact on the analytical workflow is emphasized.

  19. New Concepts of Quality Assurance in Analytical Chemistry: Will They Influence the Way We Conduct Science in General?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens; Glasdam, Sidsel-Marie; Larsen, Daniel Bo

    2016-01-01

    According to the guide Vocabulary in Metrology (VIM3) (JCGM, 2008), the definition of the concepts of trueness and accuracy has been revised, which has an important impact on analytical chemistry. Additionally, Eurachem/CITAC has published a new edition of the guide to Quantifying Uncertainty...

  20. Making Decisions by Analytical Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov

    , forensics and other fields of science where analytical chemistry is the key instrument of decision making. In order to elucidate the potential origin of the statistical variations found among laboratories, a major program was undertaken including several analytical technologies where the purpose......It has been long recognized that results of analytical chemistry are not flawless, owing to the fact that professional laboratories and research laboratories analysing the same type of samples by the same type of instruments are likely to obtain significantly different results. The European....... These discrepancies are very unfortunate because erroneous conclusions may arise from an otherwise meticulous and dedicated effort of research staff. This may eventually lead to unreliable conclusions thus jeopardizing investigations of environmental monitoring, climate changes, food safety, clinical chemistry...

  1. Inorganic Analytical Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Rolf W.

    The book is a treatise on inorganic analytical reactions in aqueous solution. It covers about half of the elements in the periodic table, i.e. the most important ones : H, Li, B, C, N, O, Na, Mg, Al, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Br, Sr, Mo, Ag, Cd, Sn, Sb, I, Ba, W,...

  2. Laser ablation in analytical chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Richard E; Mao, Xianglei; Gonzalez, Jhanis J; Zorba, Vassilia; Yoo, Jong

    2013-07-02

    In 2002, we wrote an Analytical Chemistry feature article describing the Physics of Laser Ablation in Microchemical Analysis. In line with the theme of the 2002 article, this manuscript discusses current issues in fundamental research, applications based on detecting photons at the ablation site (LIBS and LAMIS) and by collecting particles for excitation in a secondary source (ICP), and directions for the technology.

  3. The isfet in analytical chemistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoot, van der B.H.; Bergveld, P.; Bousse, L.J.

    1982-01-01

    The fast chemical response of the pH-ISFET makes the device an excellent detector in analytical chemistry. The time response of ISFETs, with Al2O3 at the pH-sensitive gate insulator, is determined in a flow injection analysis system. Application of an ISFET and a glass electrode are compared in rapi

  4. Microcomputer Applications in Analytical Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Joseph W.

    The first part of this paper addresses the following topics: (1) the usefulness of microcomputers; (2) applications for microcomputers in analytical chemistry; (3) costs; (4) major microcomputer systems and subsystems; and (5) which microcomputer to buy. Following these brief comments, the major focus of the paper is devoted to a discussion of…

  5. Nuclear techniques in analytical chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Moses, Alfred J; Gordon, L

    1964-01-01

    Nuclear Techniques in Analytical Chemistry discusses highly sensitive nuclear techniques that determine the micro- and macro-amounts or trace elements of materials. With the increasingly frequent demand for the chemical determination of trace amounts of elements in materials, the analytical chemist had to search for more sensitive methods of analysis. This book accustoms analytical chemists with nuclear techniques that possess the desired sensitivity and applicability at trace levels. The topics covered include safe handling of radioactivity; measurement of natural radioactivity; and neutron a

  6. New Concepts of Quality Assurance in Analytical Chemistry: Will They Influence the Way We Conduct Science in General?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens; Glasdam, Sidsel-Marie; Larsen, Daniel Bo;

    2016-01-01

    According to the guide Vocabulary in Metrology (VIM3) (JCGM, 2008), the definition of the concepts of trueness and accuracy has been revised, which has an important impact on analytical chemistry. Additionally, Eurachem/CITAC has published a new edition of the guide to Quantifying Uncertainty....... Despite good intentions and new concepts, as well as practices and procedures for quality assurance, it is shown by these two examples that these efforts may be inadequate or mislead scientists into making major mistakes in the decision-making process. A set of equations is supplied, which are based...

  7. Analytical Chemistry as an Information Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-06-01

    AD-AIOS 433 WASHINGTON UNIV SEATTLE LAB OR CHEMOMETRICS /7/ ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY AS AN INFORMATION SCIENCE Ul NAb7/ .JUN 81 B A KO WALSKI NUUUIA 75C...AN INFORMATION SCIENCE by B. R. Kowalski Prepared for Publication in Trends in Analytical Chemistry University of Washington Department of Chemistry...S. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED Technical Report - Interim ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY AS AN INFORMATION SCIENCE , 2/1981 - 6/1981 6. PERFORMING ORG

  8. Modern Analytical Chemistry in the Contemporary World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šíma, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Students not familiar with chemistry tend to misinterpret analytical chemistry as some kind of the sorcery where analytical chemists working as modern wizards handle magical black boxes able to provide fascinating results. However, this approach is evidently improper and misleading. Therefore, the position of modern analytical chemistry among…

  9. Green analytical chemistry--theory and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobiszewski, Marek; Mechlińska, Agata; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2010-08-01

    This tutorial review summarises the current state of green analytical chemistry with special emphasis on environmentally friendly sample preparation techniques. Green analytical chemistry is a part of the sustainable development concept; its history and origins are described. Miniaturisation of analytical devices and shortening the time elapsing between performing analysis and obtaining reliable analytical results are important aspects of green analytical chemistry. Solventless extraction techniques, the application of alternative solvents and assisted extractions are considered to be the main approaches complying with green analytical chemistry principles.

  10. Ionic liquids in analytical chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soukup-Hein, Renee J; Warnke, Molly M; Armstrong, Daniel W

    2009-01-01

    The role of ionic liquids (ILs) in analytical chemistry is increasing substantially every year. A decade ago there were but a handful of papers in this area of research that were considered curiosities at best. Today, those publications are recognized as seminal articles that gave rise to one of the most rapidly expanding areas of research in chemical analysis. In this review, we briefly highlight early work involving ILs and discuss the most recent advances in separations, mass spectrometry, spectroscopy, and electroanalytical chemistry. Many of the most important advances in these fields depend on the development of new, often unique ILs and multifunctional ILs. A better understanding of the chemical and physical properties of ILs is also essential.

  11. Analytical Chemistry in Microenvironments: Single Nerve Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-03-16

    AD-A251 491 * - OFFICE OF NAVAL RESEARCH GRANT or CONTRACT N00014-90-J-1161 R & T Code 4133030 Technical Report No. 012 Analytical Chemistry in...AGENCY USE ONLY (Leave oldnk) 2. REPORT DATE 1. R EP O R T T Y P E AND DATES COVERED 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE S. FUNDING NUMBERS Analytical Chemistry in...CLASSIFICATION 20. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT OF REPORT OF THIS PAGE OF ABSTRACT unclassified unclassified unclassified ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY IN

  12. Teaching social responsibility in analytical chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valcárcel, M; Christian, G D; Lucena, R

    2013-07-02

    Analytical chemistry is key to the functioning of a modern society. From early days, ethics in measurements have been a concern and that remains today, especially as we have come to rely more on the application of analytical science in many aspects of our lives. The main aim of this Feature is to suggest ways of introducing the topic of social responsibility and its relation to analytical chemistry in undergraduate or graduate chemistry courses.

  13. Analytical Chemistry Core Capability Assessment - Preliminary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barr, Mary E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Farish, Thomas J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-05-16

    The concept of 'core capability' can be nebulous one. Even at a fairly specific level, where core capability equals maintaining essential services, it is highly dependent upon the perspective of the requestor. Samples are submitted to analytical services because the requesters do not have the capability to conduct adequate analyses themselves. Some requests are for general chemical information in support of R and D, process control, or process improvement. Many analyses, however, are part of a product certification package and must comply with higher-level customer quality assurance requirements. So which services are essential to that customer - just those for product certification? Does the customer also (indirectly) need services that support process control and improvement? And what is the timeframe? Capability is often expressed in terms of the currently utilized procedures, and most programmatic customers can only plan a few years out, at best. But should core capability consider the long term where new technologies, aging facilities, and personnel replacements must be considered? These questions, and a multitude of others, explain why attempts to gain long-term consensus on the definition of core capability have consistently failed. This preliminary report will not try to define core capability for any specific program or set of programs. Instead, it will try to address the underlying concerns that drive the desire to determine core capability. Essentially, programmatic customers want to be able to call upon analytical chemistry services to provide all the assays they need, and they don't want to pay for analytical chemistry services they don't currently use (or use infrequently). This report will focus on explaining how the current analytical capabilities and methods evolved to serve a variety of needs with a focus on why some analytes have multiple analytical techniques, and what determines the infrastructure for these analyses. This

  14. Green Chemistry Metrics with Special Reference to Green Analytical Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobiszewski, Marek; Marć, Mariusz; Gałuszka, Agnieszka; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2015-06-12

    The concept of green chemistry is widely recognized in chemical laboratories. To properly measure an environmental impact of chemical processes, dedicated assessment tools are required. This paper summarizes the current state of knowledge in the field of development of green chemistry and green analytical chemistry metrics. The diverse methods used for evaluation of the greenness of organic synthesis, such as eco-footprint, E-Factor, EATOS, and Eco-Scale are described. Both the well-established and recently developed green analytical chemistry metrics, including NEMI labeling and analytical Eco-scale, are presented. Additionally, this paper focuses on the possibility of the use of multivariate statistics in evaluation of environmental impact of analytical procedures. All the above metrics are compared and discussed in terms of their advantages and disadvantages. The current needs and future perspectives in green chemistry metrics are also discussed.

  15. Green Chemistry Metrics with Special Reference to Green Analytical Chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Tobiszewski

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The concept of green chemistry is widely recognized in chemical laboratories. To properly measure an environmental impact of chemical processes, dedicated assessment tools are required. This paper summarizes the current state of knowledge in the field of development of green chemistry and green analytical chemistry metrics. The diverse methods used for evaluation of the greenness of organic synthesis, such as eco-footprint, E-Factor, EATOS, and Eco-Scale are described. Both the well-established and recently developed green analytical chemistry metrics, including NEMI labeling and analytical Eco-scale, are presented. Additionally, this paper focuses on the possibility of the use of multivariate statistics in evaluation of environmental impact of analytical procedures. All the above metrics are compared and discussed in terms of their advantages and disadvantages. The current needs and future perspectives in green chemistry metrics are also discussed.

  16. Modern analytical chemistry in the contemporary world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šíma, Jan

    2016-12-01

    Students not familiar with chemistry tend to misinterpret analytical chemistry as some kind of the sorcery where analytical chemists working as modern wizards handle magical black boxes able to provide fascinating results. However, this approach is evidently improper and misleading. Therefore, the position of modern analytical chemistry among sciences and in the contemporary world is discussed. Its interdisciplinary character and the necessity of the collaboration between analytical chemists and other experts in order to effectively solve the actual problems of the human society and the environment are emphasized. The importance of the analytical method validation in order to obtain the accurate and precise results is highlighted. The invalid results are not only useless; they can often be even fatal (e.g., in clinical laboratories). The curriculum of analytical chemistry at schools and universities is discussed. It is referred to be much broader than traditional equilibrium chemistry coupled with a simple description of individual analytical methods. Actually, the schooling of analytical chemistry should closely connect theory and practice.

  17. Modern analytical chemistry in the contemporary world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šíma, Jan

    2016-02-01

    Students not familiar with chemistry tend to misinterpret analytical chemistry as some kind of the sorcery where analytical chemists working as modern wizards handle magical black boxes able to provide fascinating results. However, this approach is evidently improper and misleading. Therefore, the position of modern analytical chemistry among sciences and in the contemporary world is discussed. Its interdisciplinary character and the necessity of the collaboration between analytical chemists and other experts in order to effectively solve the actual problems of the human society and the environment are emphasized. The importance of the analytical method validation in order to obtain the accurate and precise results is highlighted. The invalid results are not only useless; they can often be even fatal (e.g., in clinical laboratories). The curriculum of analytical chemistry at schools and universities is discussed. It is referred to be much broader than traditional equilibrium chemistry coupled with a simple description of individual analytical methods. Actually, the schooling of analytical chemistry should closely connect theory and practice.

  18. Methodological practicalities in analytical generalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halkier, Bente

    2011-01-01

    In this article, I argue that the existing literature on qualitative methodologies tend to discuss analytical generalization at a relatively abstract and general theoretical level. It is, however, not particularly straightforward to “translate” such abstract epistemological principles into more...... operative methodological strategies for producing analytical generalizations in research practices. Thus, the aim of the article is to contribute to the discussions among qualitatively working researchers about generalizing by way of exemplifying some of the methodological practicalities in analytical...

  19. Report: Analytical Chemistry in a Changing World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laitinen, H. A.

    1980-01-01

    Examines some of the changes that have occurred in the field of analytic chemistry, with emphasis on how the field has adapted to changes in science and technology. Current trends also are identified and discussed. (CS)

  20. Green Chemistry Metrics with Special Reference to Green Analytical Chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Marek Tobiszewski; Mariusz Marć; Agnieszka Gałuszka; Jacek Namieśnik

    2015-01-01

    The concept of green chemistry is widely recognized in chemical laboratories. To properly measure an environmental impact of chemical processes, dedicated assessment tools are required. This paper summarizes the current state of knowledge in the field of development of green chemistry and green analytical chemistry metrics. The diverse methods used for evaluation of the greenness of organic synthesis, such as eco-footprint, E-Factor, EATOS, and Eco-Scale are described. Both the well-establis...

  1. Light-emitting diodes for analytical chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macka, Mirek; Piasecki, Tomasz; Dasgupta, Purnendu K

    2014-01-01

    Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are playing increasingly important roles in analytical chemistry, from the final analysis stage to photoreactors for analyte conversion to actual fabrication of and incorporation in microdevices for analytical use. The extremely fast turn-on/off rates of LEDs have made possible simple approaches to fluorescence lifetime measurement. Although they are increasingly being used as detectors, their wavelength selectivity as detectors has rarely been exploited. From their first proposed use for absorbance measurement in 1970, LEDs have been used in analytical chemistry in too many ways to make a comprehensive review possible. Hence, we critically review here the more recent literature on their use in optical detection and measurement systems. Cloudy as our crystal ball may be, we express our views on the future applications of LEDs in analytical chemistry: The horizon will certainly become wider as LEDs in the deep UV with sufficient intensity become available.

  2. Course on Advanced Analytical Chemistry and Chromatography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov; Fristrup, Peter; Nielsen, Kristian Fog

    2011-01-01

    Methods of analytical chemistry constitute an integral part of decision making in chemical research, and students must master a high degree of knowledge, in order to perform reliable analysis. At DTU departments of chemistry it was thus decided to develop a course that was attractive to master...... students of different direction of studies, to Ph.D. students and to professionals that need an update of their current state of skills and knowledge. A course of 10 ECTS points was devised with the purpose of introducing students to analytical chemistry and chromatography with the aim of including theory...

  3. Dielectric barrier discharges in analytical chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, C; Müller, S; Gurevich, E L; Franzke, J

    2011-06-21

    The present review reflects the importance of dielectric barrier discharges in analytical chemistry. Special about this discharge is-and in contrast to usual discharges with direct current-that the plasma is separated from one or two electrodes by a dielectric barrier. This gives rise to two main features of the dielectric barrier discharges; it can serve as dissociation and excitation device and as ionization mechanism, respectively. The article portrays the various application fields for dielectric barrier discharges in analytical chemistry, for example the use for elemental detection with optical spectrometry or as ionization source for mass spectrometry. Besides the introduction of different kinds of dielectric barrier discharges used for analytical chemistry from the literature, a clear and concise classification of dielectric barrier discharges into capacitively coupled discharges is provided followed by an overview about the characteristics of a dielectric barrier discharge concerning discharge properties and the ignition mechanism.

  4. [Pharmaceutical chemistry of general anaesthetics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szász, György; Takácsné, Novák Krisztina

    2004-01-01

    The paper represents the first part of a planned series of reviews about pharmaceutical chemistry of drugs acting on the central nervous system. The authorial aim and editorial concepts are the same were followed in a former series of papers about pharmaceutical chemistry of agents effecting the heart, blood circulation and vegetative nervous system. Consequently, general anaesthetics are discussed in the present paper through the chapters "history, preparation; structure-properties-activity; application; analysis".

  5. Analytical Chemistry and Measurement Science: (What Has DOE Done for Analytical Chemistry?)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shults, W. D.

    1989-04-01

    Over the past forty years, analytical scientists within the DOE complex have had a tremendous impact on the field of analytical chemistry. This paper suggests six "high impact" research/development areas that either originated within or were brought to maturity within the DOE laboratories. "High impact" means they lead to new subdisciplines or to new ways of doing business.

  6. Improving Conceptions in Analytical Chemistry: The Central Limit Theorem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Lopez, Margarita; Carrasquillo, Arnaldo, Jr.

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the central limit theorem (CLT) and its relation to analytical chemistry. The pedagogic rational, which argues for teaching the CLT in the analytical chemistry classroom, is discussed. Some analytical chemistry concepts that could be improved through an understanding of the CLT are also described. (Contains 2 figures.)

  7. Analytical Chemistry at the Interface Between Materials Science and Biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Brien, Janese C. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2000-09-21

    Likedlessentid sciences, anal~cd chetis~continues toreinvent itself. Moving beyond its traditional roles of identification and quantification, analytical chemistry is now expanding its frontiers into areas previously reserved to other disciplines. This work describes several research efforts that lie at the new interfaces between analytical chemistry and two of these disciplines, namely materials science and biology. In the materials science realm, the search for new materials that may have useful or unique chromatographic properties motivated the synthesis and characterization of electrically conductive sol-gels. In the biology realm, the search for new surface fabrication schemes that would permit or even improve the detection of specific biological reactions motivated the design of miniaturized biological arrays. Collectively, this work represents some of analytical chemistry’s newest forays into these disciplines. The introduction section to this dissertation provides a literature review on several of the key aspects of this work. In advance of the materials science discussion, a brief introduction into electrochemically-modulated liquid chromatography (EMLC) and sol-gel chemistry is provided. In advance of the biological discussions, brief overviews of scanning force microscopy (SFM) and the oxidative chemistry used to construct our biological arrays are provided. This section is followed by four chapters, each of which is presented as a separate manuscript, and focuses on work that describes some of our cross-disciplinary efforts within materials science and biology. This dissertation concludes with a general summary and future prospectus.

  8. Synthesis of Aspirin: A General Chemistry Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmsted, John A., III

    1998-10-01

    An experiment is described that is suitable for the early portion of the laboratory in a general chemistry course and integrates organic examples. It is the two-step synthesis of aspirin starting from oil of wintergreen. The mechanism for this synthesis provides examples of three major classes of chemical reactions: hydrolysis, condensation, and proton transfer. To understand the chemistry, the student must be able to recognize the common molecular framework shared by oil of wintergreen, salicylic acid, and aspirin and to identify the -OH and -CO2 sites where chemical changes occur. The experiment differs in three ways from traditional aspirin synthesis experiments for general chemistry. It is designed to be performed early rather than late; it starts from a naturally occurring material and requires two steps rather than one; and it utilizes FTIR spectroscopy to distinguish among oil of wintergreen starting material, salicylic acid intermediate, and aspirin product. The use of FTIR spectroscopy introduces students to a modern analytical technique that is currently used in research involving aspirin.

  9. Affordances of Instrumentation in General Chemistry Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Kristin Mary Daniels

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to find out what students in the first chemistry course at the undergraduate level (general chemistry for science majors) know about the affordances of instrumentation used in the general chemistry laboratory and how their knowledge develops over time. Overall, students see the PASCO(TM) system as a useful and accurate…

  10. Experimental design in analytical chemistry--part II: applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi-Najafabadi, Heshmatollah; Leardi, Riccardo; Jalali-Heravi, Mehdi

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews the applications of experimental design to optimize some analytical chemistry techniques such as extraction, chromatography separation, capillary electrophoresis, spectroscopy, and electroanalytical methods.

  11. Laser ablation in analytical chemistry - A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russo, Richard E.; Mao, Xianglei; Liu, Haichen; Gonzalez, Jhanis; Mao, Samuel S.

    2001-10-10

    Laser ablation is becoming a dominant technology for direct solid sampling in analytical chemistry. Laser ablation refers to the process in which an intense burst of energy delivered by a short laser pulse is used to sample (remove a portion of) a material. The advantages of laser ablation chemical analysis include direct characterization of solids, no chemical procedures for dissolution, reduced risk of contamination or sample loss, analysis of very small samples not separable for solution analysis, and determination of spatial distributions of elemental composition. This review describes recent research to understand and utilize laser ablation for direct solid sampling, with emphasis on sample introduction to an inductively coupled plasma (ICP). Current research related to contemporary experimental systems, calibration and optimization, and fractionation is discussed, with a summary of applications in several areas.

  12. The rise of environmental analytical chemistry as an interdisciplinary activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Richard

    2009-07-01

    Modern scientific endeavour is increasingly delivered within an interdisciplinary framework. Analytical environmental chemistry is a long-standing example of an interdisciplinary approach to scientific research where value is added by the close cooperation of different disciplines. This editorial piece discusses the rise of environmental analytical chemistry as an interdisciplinary activity and outlines the scope of the Analytical Chemistry and the Environmental Chemistry domains of TheScientificWorldJOURNAL (TSWJ), and the appropriateness of TSWJ's domain format in covering interdisciplinary research. All contributions of new data, methods, case studies, and instrumentation, or new interpretations and developments of existing data, case studies, methods, and instrumentation, relating to analytical and/or environmental chemistry, to the Analytical and Environmental Chemistry domains, are welcome and will be considered equally.

  13. Lecture Notes and Exercises for Course 21240 (Basic Analytical Chemistry)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1999-01-01

    The publication contains notes dealing with difficult topics in analytical chemistry (cfr. Course Descriptions, DTU), relevant exercises as well as final examination problems from the last years.......The publication contains notes dealing with difficult topics in analytical chemistry (cfr. Course Descriptions, DTU), relevant exercises as well as final examination problems from the last years....

  14. Lecture Notes and Exercises for Course 21240 (Basic Analytical Chemistry)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1998-01-01

    The publication contains notes dealing with difficult topics in analytical chemistry (cfr. Course Descriptions, DTU), relevant exercises as well as final examination problems from the last years.......The publication contains notes dealing with difficult topics in analytical chemistry (cfr. Course Descriptions, DTU), relevant exercises as well as final examination problems from the last years....

  15. Some Points in Future Trends in Analytical Chemistry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG ErKang

    2001-01-01

    @@ Analytical chemistry is a science of measurement and characterization. Analytical testing is the eyes for science and technology and also for the production. It is an important target to demonstrate the developing level for science and technology and also the economy in a country. Science and technology and economy development need analytical chemistry. Chemistry needs analytical chemistry and vice versa. Analytical chemistry as a science involves all techniques and methods for obtaining information regarding the composition, identity, purity and constitution of samples of matter in term of the kind, quantity, and grouping of atoms and molecules, as well as the determination of those physical properties and behavior that can be corrected with those objectives.

  16. Some Points in Future Trends in Analytical Chemistry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; ErKang

    2001-01-01

    Analytical chemistry is a science of measurement and characterization. Analytical testing is the eyes for science and technology and also for the production. It is an important target to demonstrate the developing level for science and technology and also the economy in a country. Science and technology and economy development need analytical chemistry. Chemistry needs analytical chemistry and vice versa.  Analytical chemistry as a science involves all techniques and methods for obtaining information regarding the composition, identity, purity and constitution of samples of matter in term of the kind, quantity, and grouping of atoms and molecules, as well as the determination of those physical properties and behavior that can be corrected with those objectives.  ……

  17. Analytical chemistry in the Aegean Sea region: current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samanidou, Victoria F

    2012-12-01

    The Eighth Aegean Analytical Chemistry Days Conference took place in Urla, İzmir, Turkey, from 16-20 September 2012. This conference is held every 2 years, organized alternately by analytical chemistry departments of Turkish and Greek universities, so that analytical chemists from the region around the Aegean Sea can exchange experience and knowledge based on their research in a large number of fields. This report summarizes the most interesting presentations and posters pertaining to bioanalytical work.

  18. Ambientes micelares em química analítica Micellar media in analytical chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Maniasso

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available This review deals with the general use of the surfactants in Analytical Chemistry. Principal characteristic of the micelle is the improvement in selectivity and/or sensitivity of the analytical determination with emphasis on the catalytic reaction and "cloud point" extraction.

  19. Applications of digital computers in analytical chemistry--I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childs, C W; Hallman, P S; Perrin, D D

    1969-06-01

    Digital computers are currently applied to a wide range of chemical problems. Aspects of particular interest to analytical chemists, including statistical treatment. X-ray analysis, spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, gas chromatography and electroanalytical chemistry, are discussed.

  20. Incorporating Information Literacy Skills into Analytical Chemistry: An Evolutionary Step

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walczak, Mary M.; Jackson, Paul T.

    2007-01-01

    The American Chemical Society (ACS) has recently decided to incorporate various information literacy skills for teaching analytical chemistry to the students. The methodology has been found to be extremely effective, as it provides better understanding to the students.

  1. Analytical chemistry methods for mixed oxide fuel, March 1985

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-03-01

    This standard provides analytical chemistry methods for the analysis of materials used to produce mixed oxide fuel. These materials are ceramic fuel and insulator pellets and the plutonium and uranium oxides and nitrates used to fabricate these pellets.

  2. Analytical Chemistry Division's sample transaction system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanton, J.S.; Tilson, P.A.

    1980-10-01

    The Analytical Chemistry Division uses the DECsystem-10 computer for a wide range of tasks: sample management, timekeeping, quality assurance, and data calculation. This document describes the features and operating characteristics of many of the computer programs used by the Division. The descriptions are divided into chapters which cover all of the information about one aspect of the Analytical Chemistry Division's computer processing.

  3. A Comprehensive General Chemistry Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeder, Ryan D.; Jeffery, Kathleen A.

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the use of a comprehensive demonstration suitable for a high school or first-year undergraduate introductory chemistry class. The demonstration involves placing a burning candle in a container adjacent to a beaker containing a basic solution with indicator. After adding a lid, the candle will extinguish and the produced…

  4. Perspective: Status and Future of Analytical Chemistry in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Krishna K

    2017-02-07

    Relative to many other areas in chemistry, analytical chemistry appears singularly lagging behind in India despite the commendable growth it had shown in the past both in teaching and research. Certain presumptions in policy making and current educational practices are believed to be the crux of the problem.

  5. [Recent advancement of photonic-crystal-based analytical chemistry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yun; Guo, Zhenpeng; Wang, Jinyi; Chen, Yi

    2014-04-01

    Photonic crystals are a type of novel materials with ordered structure, nanopores/channels and optical band gap. They have hence important applications in physics, chemistry, biological science and engineering fields. This review summarizes the recent advancement of photonic crystals in analytical chemistry applications, with focus on sensing and separating fields happening in the nearest 5 years.

  6. A review of opportunities for electrospun nanofibers in analytical chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chigome, Samuel; Torto, Nelson

    2011-11-07

    Challenges associated with analyte and matrix complexities and the ever increasing pressure from all sectors of industry for alternative analytical devices, have necessitated the development and application of new materials in analytical chemistry. To date, nanomaterials have emerged as having excellent properties for analytical chemistry applications mainly due to their large surface area to volume ratio and the availability of a wide variety of chemical and morphological modification methods. Of the available nanofibrous material fabrication methods, electrospinning has emerged as the most versatile. It is the aim of this contribution to highlight some of the recent developments that harness the great potential shown by electrospun nanofibers for application in analytical chemistry. The review discusses the use of electrospun nanofibers as a platform for low resolution separation or as a chromatographic sorbent bed for high resolution separation. It concludes by discussing the applications of electrospun nanofibers in detection systems with a specific focus on the development of simple electrospun nanofiber based colorimetric probes.

  7. Analytical Chemistry Laboratory progress report for FY 1985

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, D.W.; Heinrich, R.R.; Jensen, K.J.

    1985-12-01

    The Analytical Chemistry Laboratory is a full-cost-recovery service center, with the primary mission of providing a broad range of technical support services to the scientific and engineering programs at ANL. In addition, ACL conducts a research program in analytical chemistry, works on instrumental and methods development, and provides analytical services for governmental, educational, and industrial organizations. The ACL handles a wide range of analytical problems, from routine standard analyses to unique problems that require significant development of methods and techniques. The purpose of this report is to summarize the technical and administrative activities of the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory (ACL) at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) for Fiscal Year 1985 (October 1984 through September 1985). This is the second annual report for the ACL. 4 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Recent applications of digital computers in analytical chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, D D

    1977-06-01

    Minicomputers are finding increasing use for the control and operation of analytical instruments. This role is likely to be shared in the near future with dedicated microcomputers. Applications of computers to electroanalytical chemistry, Fourier transform techniques, spectroscopy, rapid-reaction kinetics, equilibrium constants, studies of analytical methods and to literature searching, are also discussed.

  9. Cyclodextrins in analytical chemistry: host-guest type molecular recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szente, Lajos; Szemán, Julianna

    2013-09-03

    Cyclodextrins are utilized in many diverse fields of analytical chemistry, due to their propensity to form reversible inclusion complexes and recognize analytes selectively. This Feature shows how these nanocavities can serve analysts in sample preparation, sensitivity and selectivity improvement, enantio-separation, creating single-molecule sensors, and automatizing DNA sequencing.

  10. Selectivity in analytical chemistry: two interpretations for univariate methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorkó, Zsanett; Verbić, Tatjana; Horvai, George

    2015-01-01

    Selectivity is extremely important in analytical chemistry but its definition is elusive despite continued efforts by professional organizations and individual scientists. This paper shows that the existing selectivity concepts for univariate analytical methods broadly fall in two classes: selectivity concepts based on measurement error and concepts based on response surfaces (the response surface being the 3D plot of the univariate signal as a function of analyte and interferent concentration, respectively). The strengths and weaknesses of the different definitions are analyzed and contradictions between them unveiled. The error based selectivity is very general and very safe but its application to a range of samples (as opposed to a single sample) requires the knowledge of some constraint about the possible sample compositions. The selectivity concepts based on the response surface are easily applied to linear response surfaces but may lead to difficulties and counterintuitive results when applied to nonlinear response surfaces. A particular advantage of this class of selectivity is that with linear response surfaces it can provide a concentration independent measure of selectivity. In contrast, the error based selectivity concept allows only yes/no type decision about selectivity.

  11. Analytical Chemistry Laboratory. Progress report for FY 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, D.W.; Boparai, A.S.; Bowers, D.L.

    1996-12-01

    The purpose of this report is to summarize the activities of the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory (ACL) at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) for Fiscal Year (FY) 1996. This annual report is the thirteenth for the ACL. It describes effort on continuing and new projects and contributions of the ACL staff to various programs at ANL. The ACL operates in the ANL system as a full-cost-recovery service center, but has a mission that includes a complementary research and development component: The Analytical Chemistry Laboratory will provide high-quality, cost-effective chemical analysis and related technical support to solve research problems of our clients -- Argonne National Laboratory, the Department of Energy, and others -- and will conduct world-class research and development in analytical chemistry and its applications. Because of the diversity of research and development work at ANL, the ACL handles a wide range of analytical chemistry problems. Some routine or standard analyses are done, but the ACL usually works with commercial laboratories if our clients require high-volume, production-type analyses. It is common for ANL programs to generate unique problems that require significant development of methods and adaption of techniques to obtain useful analytical data. Thus, much of the support work done by the ACL is very similar to our applied analytical chemistry research.

  12. Microfluidics: applications for analytical purposes in chemistry and biochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Ken-ichi; Tachikawa, Kaoru; Manz, Andreas

    2008-11-01

    In this review, we present recent advancements and novel developments in fluidic systems for applied analytical purposes in chemistry, biochemistry, and life science in general that employ and reflect the full benefits of microfluidics. A staggering rise in publications related to integrated, all-in-one microfluidic chips capable of separation, reaction, and detection have been observed, all of which realise the principal of micro total analysis systems or lab-on-a-chip. These integrated chips actively adopt the scaling law concepts, utilising the highly developed fabrication techniques. Their aim is to multi-functionalise and fully automate devices believed to assist the future advancements of point-of-care, clinical, and medical diagnostics.

  13. Analytical Chemistry Laboratory, progress report for FY 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-01

    The purpose of this report is to summarize the activities of the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory (ACL) at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) for Fiscal Year (FY) 1993 (October 1992 through September 1993). This annual report is the tenth for the ACL and describes continuing effort on projects, work on new projects, and contributions of the ACL staff to various programs at ANL. The Analytical Chemistry Laboratory is a full-cost-recovery service center, with the primary mission of providing a broad range of analytical chemistry support services to the scientific and engineering programs at ANL. The ACL also has research programs in analytical chemistry, conducts instrumental and methods development, and provides analytical services for governmental, educational, and industrial organizations. The ACL handles a wide range of analytical problems. Some routine or standard analyses are done, but it is common for the Argonne programs to generate unique problems that require development or modification of methods and adaption of techniques to obtain useful analytical data. The ACL is administratively within the Chemical Technology Division (CMT), its principal ANL client, but provides technical support for many of the technical divisions and programs at ANL. The ACL has four technical groups--Chemical Analysis, Instrumental Analysis, Organic Analysis, and Environmental Analysis--which together include about 45 technical staff members. Talents and interests of staff members cross the group lines, as do many projects within the ACL.

  14. Applications of reversible covalent chemistry in analytical sample preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, David

    2012-12-07

    Reversible covalent chemistry (RCC) adds another dimension to commonly used sample preparation techniques like solid-phase extraction (SPE), solid-phase microextraction (SPME), molecular imprinted polymers (MIPs) or immuno-affinity cleanup (IAC): chemical selectivity. By selecting analytes according to their covalent reactivity, sample complexity can be reduced significantly, resulting in enhanced analytical performance for low-abundance target analytes. This review gives a comprehensive overview of the applications of RCC in analytical sample preparation. The major reactions covered include reversible boronic ester formation, thiol-disulfide exchange and reversible hydrazone formation, targeting analyte groups like diols (sugars, glycoproteins and glycopeptides, catechols), thiols (cysteinyl-proteins and cysteinyl-peptides) and carbonyls (carbonylated proteins, mycotoxins). Their applications range from low abundance proteomics to reversible protein/peptide labelling to antibody chromatography to quantitative and qualitative food analysis. In discussing the potential of RCC, a special focus is on the conditions and restrictions of the utilized reaction chemistry.

  15. Biochemical Applications in the Analytical Chemistry Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, Cynthia; Ruttencutter, Jeffrey

    2004-01-01

    An HPLC and a UV-visible spectrophotometer are identified as instruments that helps to incorporate more biologically-relevant experiments into the course, in order to increase the students understanding of selected biochemistry topics and enhances their ability to apply an analytical approach to biochemical problems. The experiment teaches…

  16. Synergistic relationships between Analytical Chemistry and written standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valcárcel, Miguel, E-mail: qa1vacam@uco.es; Lucena, Rafael

    2013-07-25

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Analytical Chemistry is influenced by international written standards. •Different relationships can be established between them. •Synergies can be generated when these standards are conveniently managed. -- Abstract: This paper describes the mutual impact of Analytical Chemistry and several international written standards (norms and guides) related to knowledge management (CEN-CWA 14924:2004), social responsibility (ISO 26000:2010), management of occupational health and safety (OHSAS 18001/2), environmental management (ISO 14001:2004), quality management systems (ISO 9001:2008) and requirements of the competence of testing and calibration laboratories (ISO 17025:2004). The intensity of this impact, based on a two-way influence, is quite different depending on the standard considered. In any case, a new and fruitful approach to Analytical Chemistry based on these relationships can be derived.

  17. Applications of polydimethylsiloxane in analytical chemistry: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seethapathy, Suresh; Górecki, Tadeusz

    2012-10-31

    Silicones have innumerable applications in many areas of life. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), which belongs to the class of silicones, has been extensively used in the field of analytical chemistry owing to its favourable physicochemical properties. The use of PDMS in analytical chemistry gained importance with its application as a stationary phase in gas chromatographic separations. Since then it has been used in many sample preparation techniques such as solid phase microextraction (SPME), stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE), thin-film extraction, permeation passive sampling, etc. Further, it is gaining importance in the manufacturing of lab-on-a-chip devices, which have revolutionized bio-analysis. Applications of devices containing PDMS and used in the field of analytical chemistry are reviewed in this paper.

  18. Peer Mentoring in the General Chemistry and Organic Chemistry Laboratories: The Pinacol Rearrangement--An Exercise in NMR and IR Spectroscopy for General Chemistry and Organic Chemistry Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrington, Caleb A.; Hill, Jameica B.; Radfar, Ramin; Whisnant, David M.; Bass, Charles G.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes a discovery experiment for general chemistry and organic chemistry labs. Although the pinacol rearrangement has been employed in undergraduate organic laboratories before, in this application organic chemistry students act as mentors to students of general chemistry. Students work together using distillation--a new technique…

  19. Analyte comparisons between 2 clinical chemistry analyzers.

    OpenAIRE

    Sutton, A; Dawson, H; Hoff, B; Grift, E; Shoukri, M

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess agreement between a wet reagent and a dry reagent analyzer. Thirteen analytes (albumin, globulin, alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, amylase, urea nitrogen, calcium, cholesterol, creatinine, glucose, potassium, total bilirubin, and total protein) for both canine and feline serum were evaluated. Concordance correlations, linear regression, and plots of difference against mean were used to analyze the data. Concordance correlations were excel...

  20. Synergistic relationships between Analytical Chemistry and written standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valcárcel, Miguel; Lucena, Rafael

    2013-07-25

    This paper describes the mutual impact of Analytical Chemistry and several international written standards (norms and guides) related to knowledge management (CEN-CWA 14924:2004), social responsibility (ISO 26000:2010), management of occupational health and safety (OHSAS 18001/2), environmental management (ISO 14001:2004), quality management systems (ISO 9001:2008) and requirements of the competence of testing and calibration laboratories (ISO 17025:2004). The intensity of this impact, based on a two-way influence, is quite different depending on the standard considered. In any case, a new and fruitful approach to Analytical Chemistry based on these relationships can be derived.

  1. Magnetic ionic liquids in analytical chemistry: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Kevin D; Nacham, Omprakash; Purslow, Jeffrey A; Pierson, Stephen A; Anderson, Jared L

    2016-08-31

    Magnetic ionic liquids (MILs) have recently generated a cascade of innovative applications in numerous areas of analytical chemistry. By incorporating a paramagnetic component within the cation or anion, MILs exhibit a strong response toward external magnetic fields. Careful design of the MIL structure has yielded magnetoactive compounds with unique physicochemical properties including high magnetic moments, enhanced hydrophobicity, and the ability to solvate a broad range of molecules. The structural tunability and paramagnetic properties of MILs have enabled magnet-based technologies that can easily be added to the analytical method workflow, complement needed extraction requirements, or target specific analytes. This review highlights the application of MILs in analytical chemistry and examines the important structural features of MILs that largely influence their physicochemical and magnetic properties.

  2. Analytical Chemistry Laboratory Progress Report for FY 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, D.W.; Boparai, A.S.; Bowers, D.L. [and others

    1994-12-01

    The purpose of this report is to summarize the activities of the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory (ACL) at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) for Fiscal Year (FY) 1994 (October 1993 through September 1994). This annual report is the eleventh for the ACL and describes continuing effort on projects, work on new projects, and contributions of the ACL staff to various programs at ANL. The Analytical Chemistry Laboratory is a full-cost-recovery service center, with the primary mission of providing a broad range of analytical chemistry support services to the scientific and engineering programs at ANL. The ACL also has a research program in analytical chemistry, conducts instrumental and methods development, and provides analytical services for governmental, educational, and industrial organizations. The ACL handles a wide range of analytical problems. Some routine or standard analyses are done, but it is common for the Argonne programs to generate unique problems that require significant development of methods and adaption of techniques to obtain useful analytical data. The ACL has four technical groups -- Chemical Analysis, Instrumental Analysis, Organic Analysis, and Environmental Analysis -- which together include about 45 technical staff members. Talents and interests of staff members cross the group lines, as do many projects within the ACL. The Chemical Analysis Group uses wet- chemical and instrumental methods for elemental, compositional, and isotopic determinations in solid, liquid, and gaseous samples and provides specialized analytical services. Major instruments in this group include an ion chromatograph (IC), an inductively coupled plasma/atomic emission spectrometer (ICP/AES), spectrophotometers, mass spectrometers (including gas-analysis and thermal-ionization mass spectrometers), emission spectrographs, autotitrators, sulfur and carbon determinators, and a kinetic phosphorescence uranium analyzer.

  3. Analytical Chemistry Laboratory progress report for FY 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, D. W.; Boparai, A. S.; Bowers, D. L.; Graczyk, D. G.

    2000-06-15

    This report summarizes the activities of the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory (ACL) at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) for Fiscal Year (FY) 1999 (October 1998 through September 1999). This annual progress report, which is the sixteenth in this series for the ACL, describes effort on continuing projects, work on new projects, and contributions of the ACL staff to various programs at ANL.

  4. Analytical Chemistry Laboratory progress report for FY 1998.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boparai, A. S.; Bowers, D. L.; Graczyk, D. G.; Green, D. W.; Lindahl, P. C.

    1999-03-29

    This report summarizes the activities of the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory (ACL) at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) for Fiscal Year (FY) 1998 (October 1997 through September 1998). This annual progress report, which is the fifteenth in this series for the ACL, describes effort on continuing projects, work on new projects, and contributions of the ACL staff to various programs at ANL.

  5. An Interactive Analytical Chemistry Summer Camp for Middle School Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Mary E.; Schoenfisch, Mark H.

    2005-01-01

    A summer outreach program, which was implemented for the first time in the summer of 2004, that provided middle school girls with an opportunity to conduct college-level analytical chemistry experiments under the guidance of female graduate students is explained. The program proved beneficial to participants at each level.

  6. Using Presentation Software to Flip an Undergraduate Analytical Chemistry Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Neil; Li, Luisa

    2015-01-01

    An undergraduate analytical chemistry course has been adapted to a flipped course format. Course content was provided by video clips, text, graphics, audio, and simple animations organized as concept maps using the cloud-based presentation platform, Prezi. The advantages of using Prezi to present course content in a flipped course format are…

  7. Spectroelectrochemical Sensing of Aqueous Iron: An Experiment for Analytical Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shtoyko, Tanya; Stuart, Dean; Gray, H. Neil

    2007-01-01

    We have designed a laboratory experiment to illustrate the use of spectroelectrochemical techniques for determination of aqueous iron. The experiment described in this article is applicable to an undergraduate laboratory course in analytical chemistry. Students are asked to fabricate spectroelectrochemical sensors, make electrochemical and optical…

  8. Contributions of Analytical Chemistry to the Clinical Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skogerboe, Kristen J.

    1988-01-01

    Highlights several analytical techniques that are being used in state-of-the-art clinical labs. Illustrates how other advances in instrumentation may contribute to clinical chemistry in the future. Topics include: biosensors, polarization spectroscopy, chemiluminescence, fluorescence, photothermal deflection, and chromatography in clinical…

  9. Applications of polydimethylsiloxane in analytical chemistry: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seethapathy, Suresh [Department of Chemistry, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1 (Canada); Gorecki, Tadeusz, E-mail: tgorecki@uwaterloo.ca [Department of Chemistry, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1 (Canada)

    2012-10-31

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) has numerous applications in analytical chemistry. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sorptive properties of PDMS are used primarily in sampling. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Partitioning properties are used in separations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Permeability of PDMS forms the basis for sample introduction and passive sampling. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Advantageous mechanical properties are used in lab-on-a-chip devices. - Abstract: Silicones have innumerable applications in many areas of life. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), which belongs to the class of silicones, has been extensively used in the field of analytical chemistry owing to its favourable physicochemical properties. The use of PDMS in analytical chemistry gained importance with its application as a stationary phase in gas chromatographic separations. Since then it has been used in many sample preparation techniques such as solid phase microextraction (SPME), stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE), thin-film extraction, permeation passive sampling, etc. Further, it is gaining importance in the manufacturing of lab-on-a-chip devices, which have revolutionized bio-analysis. Applications of devices containing PDMS and used in the field of analytical chemistry are reviewed in this paper.

  10. Analytical chemistry methods for metallic core components: Revision March 1985

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-03-01

    This standard provides analytical chemistry methods for the analysis of alloys used to fabricate core components. These alloys are 302, 308, 316, 316-Ti, and 321 stainless steels and 600 and 718 Inconels and they may include other 300-series stainless steels.

  11. Understanding Quantum Numbers in General Chemistry Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niaz, Mansoor; Fernandez, Ramon

    2008-01-01

    Quantum numbers and electron configurations form an important part of the general chemistry curriculum and textbooks. The objectives of this study are: (1) Elaboration of a framework based on the following aspects: (a) Origin of the quantum hypothesis, (b) Alternative interpretations of quantum mechanics, (c) Differentiation between an orbital and…

  12. Defining Conceptual Understanding in General Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holme, Thomas A.; Luxford, Cynthia J.; Brandriet, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    Among the many possible goals that instructors have for students in general chemistry, the idea that they will better understand the conceptual underpinnings of the science is certainly important. Nonetheless, identifying with clarity what exemplifies student success at achieving this goal is hindered by the challenge of clearly articulating what…

  13. A Flipped Classroom Redesign in General Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Scott A.

    2016-01-01

    The flipped classroom continues to attract significant attention in higher education. Building upon our recent parallel controlled study of the flipped classroom in a second-term general chemistry course ("J. Chem. Educ.," 2016, 93, 13-23), here we report on a redesign of the flipped course aimed at scaling up total enrollment while…

  14. Measuring Student Performance in General Organic Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Ara C.; Ben-Daat, Hagit; Zhu, Mary; Atkinson, Robert; Barrows, Nathan; Gould, Ian R.

    2015-01-01

    Student performance in general organic chemistry courses is determined by a wide range of factors including cognitive ability, motivation and cultural capital. Previous work on cognitive factors has tended to focus on specific areas rather than exploring performance across all problem types and cognitive skills. In this study, we have categorized…

  15. An Environmentally Focused General Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihok, Morgan; Keiser, Joseph T.; Bortiatynski, Jacqueline M.; Mallouk, Thomas E.

    2006-01-01

    The environmentally focused general chemistry laboratory provides a format for teaching the concepts of the mainstream laboratory within an environmental context. The capstone integrated exercise emerged as the overwhelming favorite part of this laboratory and the experiment gave students an opportunity to do a self-directed project, using the…

  16. Analytical Chemistry Laboratory progress report for FY 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, D.W.; Heinrich, R.R.; Jensen, K.J.; Stetter, J.R.

    1985-03-01

    Technical and administrative activities of the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory (ACL) are reported for fiscal year 1984. The ACL is a full-cost-recovery service center, with the primary mission of providing a broad range of technical support services to the scientific and engineering programs at ANL. In addition, ACL conducts a research program in analytical chemistry, works on instrumental and methods development, and provides analytical services for governmental, educational, and industrial organizations. The ACL is administratively within the Chemical Technology Division, the principal user, but provides technical support for all of the technical divisions and programs at ANL. The ACL has three technical groups - Chemical Analysis, Instrumental Analysis, and Organic Analysis. Under technical activities 26 projects are briefly described. Under professional activities, a list is presented for publications and reports, oral presentations, awards and meetings attended. 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Chemometrics tools used in analytical chemistry: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Naveen; Bansal, Ankit; Sarma, G S; Rawal, Ravindra K

    2014-06-01

    This article presents various important tools of chemometrics utilized as data evaluation tools generated by various hyphenated analytical techniques including their application since its advent to today. The work has been divided into various sections, which include various multivariate regression methods and multivariate resolution methods. Finally the last section deals with the applicability of chemometric tools in analytical chemistry. The main objective of this article is to review the chemometric methods used in analytical chemistry (qualitative/quantitative), to determine the elution sequence, classify various data sets, assess peak purity and estimate the number of chemical components. These reviewed methods further can be used for treating n-way data obtained by hyphenation of LC with multi-channel detectors. We prefer to provide a detailed view of various important methods developed with their algorithm in favor of employing and understanding them by researchers not very familiar with chemometrics.

  18. Green analytical chemistry introduction to chloropropanols determination at no economic and analytical performance costs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jędrkiewicz, Renata; Orłowski, Aleksander; Namieśnik, Jacek; Tobiszewski, Marek

    2016-01-15

    In this study we perform ranking of analytical procedures for 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol determination in soy sauces by PROMETHEE method. Multicriteria decision analysis was performed for three different scenarios - metrological, economic and environmental, by application of different weights to decision making criteria. All three scenarios indicate capillary electrophoresis-based procedure as the most preferable. Apart from that the details of ranking results differ for these three scenarios. The second run of rankings was done for scenarios that include metrological, economic and environmental criteria only, neglecting others. These results show that green analytical chemistry-based selection correlates with economic, while there is no correlation with metrological ones. This is an implication that green analytical chemistry can be brought into laboratories without analytical performance costs and it is even supported by economic reasons.

  19. Role-Playing in Analytical Chemistry: The Alumni Speak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Paul T.; Walters, John P.

    2000-08-01

    Cooperative learning constructs take a variety of forms. Over the last 15 years, one such pedagogical structure, role-playing, has been used in the analytical chemistry curriculum at St. Olaf College. A long-term assessment of this teaching method was conducted through use of a survey distributed to alumni graduating between 1987 and 1997. The graduates overwhelmingly indicated that the use of role-playing had a positive impact on their careers as well as their lives. Furthermore, many non-achievement learning outcomes attributed to cooperative learning experiences were reinforced through the survey response. Role-playing created an effective environment in which to develop communication and collaborative skills in addition to the technical skills that are essential to analytical chemistry. These results support continued evolutionary development of this teaching method.

  20. Analytical chemistry laboratory. Progress report for FY 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, D.W.; Boparai, A.S.; Bowers, D.L. [and others

    1997-12-01

    The purpose of this report is to summarize the activities of the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory (ACL) at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) for Fiscal Year (FY) 1997 (October 1996 through September 1997). This annual progress report is the fourteenth in this series for the ACL, and it describes continuing effort on projects, work on new projects, and contributions of the ACL staff to various programs at ANL.

  1. Predicting student success in General Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Daphne Elizabeth

    The goal of this research was to determine the predictors of student success in college level General Chemistry. The potential predictors were categorized as cognitive, non-cognitive, affective, or demographic factors. A broader goal of the study was to provide a reference for academic personnel to better judge the prerequisite skills, knowledge and attitudes that students should attain before enrolling in General Chemistry. Therefore, the study is relevant to chemical educators who are attempting to matriculate candidates for the scientific workforce and to chemical education researches who are interested in student success, student retention and curricular reform. The major hypotheses were that several factors from each category would emerge as significant predictors and that these would differ for students enrolled at three different post-secondary institutions: a community college, a private university and a public university. These hypotheses were tested using multiple regression techniques to analyze grade, student survey and post-test data collected from General Chemistry students at the three institutions. Over-all, twelve factors (six demographic, three cognitive and three affective) emerged as strong, significant predictors of student success. In addition, there were marked differences in which factors emerged based on the type of institution and on how student success was defined. Thus, the major hypotheses of the study were supported. Over-all, this study has significant implications for educational policy, theory, and practice. With regard to policy, there is a need for institutions and departments that offer General Chemistry to provide support for a diverse population of students. And, at the community college level, in particular, there is a need for better academic advising and more institutional support for underprepared students. In the classroom, the professor plays a critical role in influencing students' academic self-concept, which in turn

  2. Chemiluminescence microarrays in analytical chemistry: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidel, Michael; Niessner, Reinhard

    2014-09-01

    Multi-analyte immunoassays on microarrays and on multiplex DNA microarrays have been described for quantitative analysis of small organic molecules (e.g., antibiotics, drugs of abuse, small molecule toxins), proteins (e.g., antibodies or protein toxins), and microorganisms, viruses, and eukaryotic cells. In analytical chemistry, multi-analyte detection by use of analytical microarrays has become an innovative research topic because of the possibility of generating several sets of quantitative data for different analyte classes in a short time. Chemiluminescence (CL) microarrays are powerful tools for rapid multiplex analysis of complex matrices. A wide range of applications for CL microarrays is described in the literature dealing with analytical microarrays. The motivation for this review is to summarize the current state of CL-based analytical microarrays. Combining analysis of different compound classes on CL microarrays reduces analysis time, cost of reagents, and use of laboratory space. Applications are discussed, with examples from food safety, water safety, environmental monitoring, diagnostics, forensics, toxicology, and biosecurity. The potential and limitations of research on multiplex analysis by use of CL microarrays are discussed in this review.

  3. 78 FR 4170 - License Amendment Request for Analytical Bio-Chemistry Laboratories, Inc., Columbia, MO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-18

    ... COMMISSION License Amendment Request for Analytical Bio-Chemistry Laboratories, Inc., Columbia, MO AGENCY... issuance of a license amendment to Materials License No. 24-13365-01 issued to Analytical Bio-Chemistry... accession numbers are: 1. Analytical Bio-Chemistry Laboratories, Inc., Licensee amendment request...

  4. Peer Mentoring in the General Chemistry and Organic Chemistry Laboratories. The Pinacol Rearrangement: An Exercise in NMR and IR Spectroscopy for General Chemistry and Organic Chemistry Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrington, Caleb A.; Hill, Jameica B.; Radfar, Ramin; Whisnant, David M.; Bass, Charles G.

    2008-02-01

    This article describes a discovery experiment for general chemistry and organic chemistry labs. Although the pinacol rearrangement has been employed in undergraduate organic laboratories before, in this application organic chemistry students act as mentors to students of general chemistry. Students work together using distillation—a new technique for the general chemistry students and a basic one for the organic students—to isolate an unknown compound. Then, using spectroscopy (IR and NMR), the students collaborate to determine the structure of the product of the reaction. This application of a standard experiment allows general chemistry students to gain exposure to modern spectroscopic instrumentation and to enhance their problem-solving skills. Organic chemistry students improve their understandings of laboratory techniques and spectroscopic interpretation by acting as the resident experts for the team.

  5. Organization of a cognitive activity of students when teaching analytical chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. Tapalova

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Qualitative analysis allows using basic knowledge of general and inorganic chemistry for the solution of practical problems, disclosure the chemism of the processes that are fundamental for  the methods of analysis. Systematic qualitative analysis develops analytical thinking, establishes a scientific style of thinking of students.Сhemical analysis requires certain skills and abilities and develops the general chemical culture of the future teachers оn chemistry. The result can be evaluated in the course of self-control, peer review, and solving creative problems. Mastering the techniques of critical thinking (comparison, abstraction, generalization and their use in a particular chemical material - are necessary element in the formation of professional thinking of the future chemistry teacher.

  6. Membrane-based microextraction techniques in analytical chemistry: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carasek, Eduardo; Merib, Josias

    2015-06-23

    The use of membrane-based sample preparation techniques in analytical chemistry has gained growing attention from the scientific community since the development of miniaturized sample preparation procedures in the 1990s. The use of membranes makes the microextraction procedures more stable, allowing the determination of analytes in complex and "dirty" samples. This review describes some characteristics of classical membrane-based microextraction techniques (membrane-protected solid-phase microextraction, hollow-fiber liquid-phase microextraction and hollow-fiber renewal liquid membrane) as well as some alternative configurations (thin film and electromembrane extraction) used successfully for the determination of different analytes in a large variety of matrices, some critical points regarding each technique are highlighted.

  7. Increasing Efficiency and Quality by Consolidation of Clinical Chemistry and Immunochemistry Systems with MODULAR ANALYTICS SWA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocarelli, Paolo; Horowitz, Gary L; Gerthoux, Pier Mario; Cecere, Rossana; Imdahl, Roland; Ruinemans-Koerts, Janneke; Luthe, Hilmar; Calatayud, Silvia Pesudo; Salve, Marie Luisa; Kunst, Albert; McGovern, Margaret; Ng, Katherine; Stockmann, Wolfgang

    2008-01-01

    MODULAR ANALYTICS Serum Work Area (in USA Integrated MODULAR ANALYTICS, MODULAR ANALYTICS is a trademark of a member of the Roche Group) represents a further approach to automation in the laboratory medicine. This instrument combines previously introduced modular systems for the clinical chemistry and immunochemistry laboratory and allows customised combinations for various laboratory workloads. Functionality, practicability, and workflow behaviour of MODULAR ANALYTICS Serum Work Area were evaluated in an international multicenter study at six laboratories. Across all experiments, 236000 results from 32400 samples were generated using 93 methods. Simulated routine testing which included provocation incidents and anomalous situations demonstrated good performance and full functionality. Heterogeneous immunoassays, performed on the E-module with the electrochemiluminescence technology, showed reproducibility at the same level of the general chemistry tests, which was well within the clinical demands. Sample carryover cannot occur due to intelligent sample processing. Workflow experiments for the various module combinations, with menus of about 50 assays, yielded mean sample processing times of chemistry and immunochemistry requests; ANALYTICS Serum Work Area offered simplified workflow by combining various laboratory segments. It increased efficiency while maintaining or even improving quality of laboratory processes.

  8. The evolution of analytical chemistry methods in foodomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Monica; Ferranti, Pasquale

    2016-01-08

    The methodologies of food analysis have greatly evolved over the past 100 years, from basic assays based on solution chemistry to those relying on the modern instrumental platforms. Today, the development and optimization of integrated analytical approaches based on different techniques to study at molecular level the chemical composition of a food may allow to define a 'food fingerprint', valuable to assess nutritional value, safety and quality, authenticity and security of foods. This comprehensive strategy, defined foodomics, includes emerging work areas such as food chemistry, phytochemistry, advanced analytical techniques, biosensors and bioinformatics. Integrated approaches can help to elucidate some critical issues in food analysis, but also to face the new challenges of a globalized world: security, sustainability and food productions in response to environmental world-wide changes. They include the development of powerful analytical methods to ensure the origin and quality of food, as well as the discovery of biomarkers to identify potential food safety problems. In the area of nutrition, the future challenge is to identify, through specific biomarkers, individual peculiarities that allow early diagnosis and then a personalized prognosis and diet for patients with food-related disorders. Far from the aim of an exhaustive review of the abundant literature dedicated to the applications of omic sciences in food analysis, we will explore how classical approaches, such as those used in chemistry and biochemistry, have evolved to intersect with the new omics technologies to produce a progress in our understanding of the complexity of foods. Perhaps most importantly, a key objective of the review will be to explore the development of simple and robust methods for a fully applied use of omics data in food science.

  9. Nucleic Acid i-Motif Structures in Analytical Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alba, Joan Josep; Sadurní, Anna; Gargallo, Raimundo

    2016-09-02

    Under the appropriate experimental conditions of pH and temperature, cytosine-rich segments in DNA or RNA sequences may produce a characteristic folded structure known as an i-motif. Besides its potential role in vivo, which is still under investigation, this structure has attracted increasing interest in other fields due to its sharp, fast and reversible pH-driven conformational changes. This "on/off" switch at molecular level is being used in nanotechnology and analytical chemistry to develop nanomachines and sensors, respectively. This paper presents a review of the latest applications of this structure in the field of chemical analysis.

  10. Applications of Optical Microcavity Resonators in Analytical Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, James H; Bailey, Ryan C

    2016-06-12

    Optical resonator sensors are an emerging class of analytical technologies that use recirculating light confined within a microcavity to sensitively measure the surrounding environment. Bolstered by advances in microfabrication, these devices can be configured for a wide variety of chemical or biomolecular sensing applications. We begin with a brief description of optical resonator sensor operation, followed by discussions regarding sensor design, including different geometries, choices of material systems, methods of sensor interrogation, and new approaches to sensor operation. Throughout, key developments are highlighted, including advancements in biosensing and other applications of optical sensors. We discuss the potential of alternative sensing mechanisms and hybrid sensing devices for more sensitive and rapid analyses. We conclude with our perspective on the future of optical microcavity sensors and their promise as versatile detection elements within analytical chemistry.

  11. Tunable lasers and their application in analytical chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinfeld, J. I.

    1975-01-01

    The impact that laser techniques might have in chemical analysis is examined. Absorption, scattering, and heterodyne detection is considered. Particular emphasis is placed on the advantages of using frequency-tunable sources, and dye solution lasers are regarded as the outstanding example of this type of laser. Types of spectroscopy that can be carried out with lasers are discussed along with the ultimate sensitivity or minimum detectable concentration of molecules that can be achieved with each method. Analytical applications include laser microprobe analysis, remote sensing and instrumental methods such as laser-Raman spectroscopy, atomic absorption/fluorescence spectrometry, fluorescence assay techniques, optoacoustic spectroscopy, and polarization measurements. The application of lasers to spectroscopic methods of analysis would seem to be a rewarding field both for research in analytical chemistry and for investments in instrument manufacturing.

  12. Clinical chemistry: challenges for analytical chemistry and the nanosciences from medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durner, Jürgen

    2010-02-01

    Clinical chemistry and laboratory medicine can look back over more than 150 years of eventful history. The subject encompasses all the medicinal disciplines as well as the remaining natural sciences. Clinical chemistry demonstrates how new insights from basic research in biochemical, biological, analytical chemical, engineering, and information technology can be transferred into the daily routine of medicine to improve diagnosis, therapeutic monitoring, and prevention. This Review begins with a presentation of the development of clinical chemistry. Individual steps between the drawing of blood and interpretation of laboratory data are then illustrated; here not only are pitfalls described, but so are quality control systems. The introduction of new methods and trends into medicinal analysis is explored, along with opportunities and problems associated with personalized medicine.

  13. Molecularly imprinted polymers--potential and challenges in analytical chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahony, J.O. [Dublin City University, School of Chemical Sciences, Glasnevin, Dublin 9 (Ireland); Nolan, K. [Dublin City University, School of Chemical Sciences, Glasnevin, Dublin 9 (Ireland); Smyth, M.R. [Dublin City University, School of Chemical Sciences, Glasnevin, Dublin 9 (Ireland); Mizaikoff, B. [Georgia Institute of Technology, School of Chemistry and Biochemistry, 770 State Street, Boggs Building, Atlanta, GA 30332-0400 (United States)]. E-mail: boris.mizaikoff@chemistry.gatech.edu

    2005-04-04

    Among the variety of biomimetic recognition schemes utilizing supramolecular approaches molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) have proven their potential as synthetic receptors in numerous applications ranging from liquid chromatography to assays and sensor technology. Their inherent advantages compared to biochemical/biological recognition systems include robustness, storage endurance and lower costs. However, until recently only few contributions throughout the relevant literature describe quantitative analytical applications of MIPs for practically relevant analyte molecules and real-world samples. Increased motivation to thoroughly evaluate the true potential of MIP technology is clearly attributed to the demands of modern analytical chemistry, which include enhanced sensitivity, selectivity and applicability of molecular recognition building blocks at decreasing costs. In particular, the areas of environmental monitoring, food and beverage analysis and industrial process surveillance require analytical tools capable of discriminating chemicals with high molecular specificity considering increasing numbers of complex environmental contaminants, pollution of raw products and rigorous quality control requested by legislation and consumer protection. Furthermore, efficient product improvement and development of new products requires precise qualitative and quantitative analytical methods. Finally, environmental, food and process safety control issues favor the application of on-line in situ analytical methods with high molecular selectivity. While biorecognition schemes frequently suffer from degrading bioactivity and long-term stability when applied in real-world sample environments, MIPs serving as synthetic antibodies have successfully been applied as stationary phase separation matrix (e.g. HPLC and SPE), recognition component in bioassays (e.g. ELISA) or biomimetic recognition layer in chemical sensor systems. Examples such as MIP-based selective analysis of

  14. Cafeteria-Style Grading in General Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, John A.; Gilbert, Brian D.

    2001-04-01

    Self-selected individual course-grade weighting schemes allow students personal choice of course components in the general chemistry sequence at Coastal Carolina University. With the availability of a wide range of commercial and academically produced pedagogical resources, students can select materials that best suit their own learning styles, social situations, and motivation level. Our students use a signed contract to indicate their preferred grade-weighting schemes for determination of the course grade. In doing so, they choose from course components that include peer-led team learning (PLTL) in the Workshop Chemistry (WSC) model, computer-assisted instruction (CAI) using the ChemSkill Builder (CSB) software, a variety of in-class quizzes and group problem-solving exercises, written exams, and the final written exam. Minimum percentage values are required of all components except WSC and CSB, which have been completely optional graded course components at CCU since the summer of 1999. Comparison of student success in the course and content learning suggests that the improvements observed with introduction of a gamut of activities increase even more when the cafeteria-style grading is implemented.

  15. Analytical Chemistry Division annual progress report for period ending December 31, 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-05-01

    The Analytical Chemistry Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is a large and diversified organization. As such, it serves a multitude of functions for a clientele that exists both in and outside of ORNL. These functions fall into the following general categories: (1) Analytical Research, Development, and Implementation. The division maintains a program to conceptualize, investigate, develop, assess, improve, and implement advanced technology for chemical and physicochemical measurements. Emphasis is on problems and needs identified with ORNL and Department of Energy (DOE) programs; however, attention is also given to advancing the analytical sciences themselves. (2) Programmatic Research, Development, and Utilization. The division carries out a wide variety of chemical work that typically involves analytical research and/or development plus the utilization of analytical capabilities to expedite programmatic interests. (3) Technical Support. The division performs chemical and physicochemical analyses of virtually all types. The Analytical Chemistry Division is organized into four major sections, each of which may carry out any of the three types of work mentioned above. Chapters 1 through 4 of this report highlight progress within the four sections during the period January 1 to December 31, 1988. A brief discussion of the division's role in an especially important environmental program is given in Chapter 5. Information about quality assurance, safety, and training programs is presented in Chapter 6, along with a tabulation of analyses rendered. Publications, oral presentations, professional activities, educational programs, and seminars are cited in Chapters 7 and 8.

  16. Analytical Chemistry Division. Annual progress report for period ending December 31, 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyon, W. S. [ed.

    1982-04-01

    The functions of the Analytical Chemistry Division fall into three general categories: (1) analytical research, development, and implementation; (2) programmatic research, development and utilization; (3) technical support. The Division is organized into five major sections each of which may carry out any type of work falling into the thre categories mentioned above. Chapters 1 through 5 of this report highlight progress within the five sections which are: analytical methodology; mass and emission spectrometry; analytical technical support; bio/organic analysis section; and nuclear and radiochemical analysis. A short summary introduces each chapter to indicate work scope. Information about quality assurance and safety programs is presented in Chapter 6, along with a tabulation of analyses rendered. Chapter 7 covers supplementary activities. Chapter 8 is on presentation of research results (publications, articles reviewed or referred for periodicals). Approximately 56 articles, 31 proceedings publications and 33 reports have been published, and 119 oral presentations given during this reporting period.

  17. Understanding the Impact of a General Chemistry Course on Students' Transition to Organic Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins-Webb, Alexandra; Jeffery, Kathleen A.; Sweeder, Ryan D.

    2016-01-01

    The move from general chemistry to organic chemistry can be a challenge for students as it often involves a transition from quantitatively-oriented to mechanistically-oriented thinking. This study found that the design of the general chemistry course can change the student experience of this transition as assessed by a reflective survey. The…

  18. Analytical Chemistry (edited by R. Kellner, J.- M. Mermet, M. Otto, and H. M. Widmer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Reviewed By Robert Q.

    2000-04-01

    marginal notes. The text is divided into 5 parts (General Topics, Chemical Analysis, Physical Analysis, Computer-Based Analytical Chemistry, and Total Analysis Systems), 16 sections, and many chapters and subsections, all numbered and with headings for easy reference. The book provides comprehensive coverage of analytical science. Many curricula in North America cling to the tired notion of one semester of classical analytical (wet) chemistry followed by a second semester of instrumental analysis, and publishers continue to respond by publishing separate texts for each course. The Europeans, in contrast, have a text that bridges this artificial gap. Included are chapters and subsections on chemical equilibrium, electronic and vibrational spectroscopy, separations, and electrochemistry (found in most first courses in analytical chemistry). The authors also address atomic spectroscopy in all of its forms, luminescence, mass spectrometry, NMR spectrometry, surface analysis, thermal methods, activation analysis, and automated methods of analysis (found in most instrumental courses). Additional, uncommon chapters on chemical and biochemical sensors, immunoassay, chemometrics, miniaturized systems, and process analytical chemistry point toward the present and future of analytical science. The only glaring omission in comparison to other instrumental texts is in the area of measurement systems and electronics. No mention is made of the analytical laboratory, such as descriptions of glassware calibration and suggested experiments, as is found in most quantitative analysis texts in the U.S. The dangers in any multi-authored book include an uneven treatment of topics and a lack of cohesiveness and logical development of topics. I found some evidence of these problems in Analytical Chemistry. My first reaction to the Table of Contents and the grouping of chapters was "Where is ?" and "What about ?" While the order of topics in an analytical chemistry course always is open to debate

  19. A Student Guide to Studying General Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This is a guide for introductory college chemistry students who are new to the subject of chemistry and who have been exposed to linear and second-order algebra equations and the concept of slope. The guide presents directions on the following topics: (1) How to prepare for lectures and take notes; (2) How to study chemistry outside of class using…

  20. Analytical Chemistry Division annual progress report: For period ending December 31, 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-05-01

    This report is divided into analytical spectroscopy; radioactive materials analysis; inorganic chemistry; organic chemistry; ORNL environmental programs; quality assurance, safety, and training; supplementary activities; and presentation of research results.

  1. Reflections on my career in analytical chemistry and biochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeley, Charles C

    2010-01-01

    My career has been focused in two major areas, analytical chemistry and biochemistry of complex lipids and glycoconjugates. Included here are the pioneering work on the gas chromatography of long-chain sphingolipid bases, carbohydrates, steroids and urinary organic acids. Mass spectrometry was utilized extensively in structural studies of sphingolipids, fatty acids, carbohydrates, steroids, urinary organic acids, polyisoprenoid alcohols, and juvenile hormone. Computer systems were developed for the acquisition and analysis of mass spectra, and were used for development of automated metabolic profiling of complex mixtures of metabolites. Fabry's disease was discovered to be a glycosphingolipidosis. Enzymes of lysosomal metabolism of glycosphingolipids were purified, characterized, and used in one of the first demonstrations of the feasibility of enzyme replacement therapy in a lysosomal storage disorder (Fabry's disease). Extracellular sialidases were studied to evaluate the hypothesis that they might be involved in the regulation of membrane growth factor receptors. The enzyme for hematoside synthesis was purified and characterized.

  2. General Chemistry Students' Goals for Chemistry Laboratory Coursework

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeKorver, Brittland K.; Towns, Marcy H.

    2015-01-01

    Little research exists on college students' learning goals in chemistry, let alone specifically pertaining to laboratory coursework. Because students' learning goals are linked to achievement and dependent on context, research on students' goals in the laboratory context may lead to better understanding about the efficacy of lab curricula. This…

  3. Analytical Chemistry in the European Higher Education Area European Higher Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A Eurobachelor degree of Chemistry was endorsed by the EuCheMS division of analytical chemistry in 2004, and it has since then been adopted by many European universities. In the second stage of the European Higher Education Area (EHEA) process of harmonization, there is now focus on developing...... in the EHEA. The weight given to analytical chemistry has been subject to much discussion because mathematics, physics, language, information technology, social competencies and other skills tend to impose on the model for a qualified professional. However, it is a fact that most professionals of chemistry...... hold positions where analytical chemistry is the primary occupation. The education within the EHEA offers subjects related to chemical analysis but not all universities offer courses on analytical chemistry as an independent scientific discipline. Accordingly, the recent development of the analytical...

  4. Puzzling through General Chemistry: A Light-Hearted Approach to Engaging Students with Chemistry Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Susan L.

    2007-01-01

    Several puzzles are designed to be used by chemistry students as learning tools and teach them basic chemical concepts. The topics of the puzzles are based on the chapters from Chemistry, The Central Science used in general chemistry course and the puzzles are in various forms like crosswords, word searches, number searches, puzzles based on…

  5. First 25-hydroxyvitamin D assay for general chemistry analyzers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saida, Fakhri B; Chen, Xiaoru; Tran, Kiet; Dou, Chao; Yuan, Chong

    2015-03-01

    25-Hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], the predominant circulating form of vitamin D, is an accurate indicator of the general vitamin D status of an individual. Because vitamin D deficiencies have been linked to several pathologies (including osteoporosis and rickets), accurate monitoring of 25(OH)D levels is becoming increasingly important in clinical settings. Current 25(OH)D assays are either chromatographic or immunoassay-based assays. These assays include HPLC, liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), enzyme-immunosorbent, immunochemiluminescence, immunofluorescence and radioimmunoassay. All these assays use heterogeneous formats that require phase separation and special instrumentations. In this article, we present an overview of these assays and introduce the first homogeneous assay of 25(OH)D for use on general chemistry analyzers. A special emphasis is put on the unique challenges posed by the 25(OH)D analyte. These challenges include a low detection limit, the dissociation of the analyte from its serum transporter and the inactivation of various binding proteins without phase separation steps.

  6. A New Project-Based Lab for Undergraduate Environmental and Analytical Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adami, Gianpiero

    2006-01-01

    A new project-based lab was developed for third year undergraduate chemistry students based on real world applications. The experience suggests that the total analytical procedure (TAP) project offers a stimulating alternative for delivering science skills and developing a greater interest for analytical chemistry and environmental sciences and…

  7. The Evaluation of Students' Written Reflection on the Learning of General Chemistry Lab Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ng Sook; Li, Ho Ket; Sin, Lee Choy; Sin, Keng Pei

    2014-01-01

    Reflective writing is often used to increase understanding and analytical ability. The lack of empirical evidence on the effect of reflective writing interventions on the learning of general chemistry lab experiment supports the examination of this concept. The central goal of this exploratory study was to evaluate the students' written…

  8. Analysis of Classroom Response System Questions via Four Lenses in a General Chemistry Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruck, Aaron D.; Towns, Marcy H.

    2009-01-01

    General Chemistry lecture questions used in an electronic classroom response system (CRS) were analyzed using three theoretical frameworks and the pedagogical context in which they were presented. The analytical lenses included whether students were allowed to collaborate, Bloom's Taxonomy, a framework developed by Robinson and Nurrenbern, and an…

  9. Comparing Recent Organizing Templates for Test Content between ACS Exams in General Chemistry and AP Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holme, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Two different versions of "big ideas" rooted content maps have recently been published for general chemistry. As embodied in the content outline from the College Board, one of these maps is designed to guide curriculum development and testing for advanced placement (AP) chemistry. The Anchoring Concepts Content Map for general chemistry…

  10. Commentary: Reforming the General Chemistry Textbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, Ronald G.

    1997-05-01

    Most of use who teach chemistry want students to understand what we teach them. But many students, perhaps most, do not try to understand. Even if they set out trying to understand they usually soon conclude that it is too difficult, at least in the time they have available, and they resort, like the others, to learning the material. By learning they mean memorizingnames of substances, formulas, definitions of oxidation and reduction, shapes of orbitals, recipes for assigning oxidation numbers and doing pH calculations, etc., etc. Most students do not particularly object to doing this because it is what they did in high school and is what it means to study. Many will object to being expected to understand, as they find it easier to memorize and most of them have little understanding of what it means to understand. Surprising as it may seem to us, they see chemistry as very abstract, very difficult, and unrelated to real life. But this is perhaps not so surprising if we remember that for these students, chemistry consists of a large amount of apparently unrelated, irrelevant, and useless material that they have memorized rather than understood! Their main objective is to pass the course and get on to something they consider more interesting and more useful. They take from the course very little of value in other courses or in later life and little, if any, understanding of what chemistry is really aboutmerely a conviction that they will never understand it. Over many years I have noticed that when I meet people socially and reveal that I am a professor of chemistry, they are amazed. How could an otherwise normal-appearing sort of guy possibly understand that stuff? They often admit, somewhat apologetically, that chemistry was their worst subject at high school or university or that it was the most difficult of all the subjects they took. Why do I rarely meet anyone who tells me chemistry was fascinating or exciting, or at least interesting? Why do most students find

  11. European analytical column No. 36 from the Division of Analytical Chemistry (DAC) of the European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences (EuCheMS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlberg, Bo; Emons, Hendrik; Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov

    2008-01-01

    European analytical column no. 36 from the division of analytical chemistry (DAC) of the European association for chemical and molecular sciences (EuCheMS)......European analytical column no. 36 from the division of analytical chemistry (DAC) of the European association for chemical and molecular sciences (EuCheMS)...

  12. Stratospheric General Circulation with Chemistry Model (SGCCM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rood, Richard B.; Douglass, Anne R.; Geller, Marvin A.; Kaye, Jack A.; Nielsen, J. Eric; Rosenfield, Joan E.; Stolarski, Richard S.

    1990-01-01

    In the past two years constituent transport and chemistry experiments have been performed using both simple single constituent models and more complex reservoir species models. Winds for these experiments have been taken from the data assimilation effort, Stratospheric Data Analysis System (STRATAN).

  13. Using Clinical Cases to Teach General Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewprashad, Brahmadeo; Kosky, Charles; Vaz, Geraldine S.; Martin, Charlotte L.

    2004-01-01

    A clinical study was designed and used to show the relationship of health and medicine, in a typical clinical scenario, where many chemical principles are involved and that an integrated knowledge of chemistry and biology is essential to the understanding, diagnosing and treating of illnesses. A case study would be a positive learning experience…

  14. Hydrated Cations in the General Chemistry Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffman, George B.; Baxter, John F., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Presents selected information regarding the descriptive chemistry of the common metal ions and their compounds, including the concepts of process of solution, polar molecules, ionic size and charge, complex ions, coordination number, and the Bronsted-Lowry acid-base theory. (CS)

  15. Analytical Chemistry Division annual progress report for period ending December 31, 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-04-01

    The Analytical Chemistry Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is a large and diversified organization. As such, it serves a multitude of functions for a clientele that exists both in and outside of ORNL. These functions fall into the following general categories: Analytical Research, Development and Implementation; Programmatic Research, Development, and Utilization; and Technical Support. The Analytical Chemistry Division is organized into four major sections, each which may carry out any of the three types of work mentioned above. Chapters 1 through 4 of this report highlight progress within the four sections during the period January 1 to December 31, 1989. A brief discussion of the division's role in an especially important environmental program is given in Chapter 5. Information about quality assurance, safety, and training programs is presented in Chapter 6, along with a tabulation of analyses rendered. Publications, oral presentations, professional activities, educational programs, and seminars are cited in Chapters 7 and 8. Approximately 69 articles, 41 proceedings, and 31 reports were published, and 151 oral presentations were given during this reporting period. Some 308,981 determinations were performed.

  16. Students' Written Arguments in General Chemistry Laboratory Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Aeran; Hand, Brian; Greenbowe, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the written arguments developed by college freshman students using the Science Writing Heuristic approach in inquiry-based general chemistry laboratory classrooms and its relationships with students' achievement in chemistry courses. Fourteen freshman students participated in the first year of the study while 19…

  17. Connecting Achievement Motivation to Performance in General Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrell, Brent; Phillips, Michael M.; Barbera, Jack

    2016-01-01

    Student success in chemistry is inherently tied to motivational and other affective processes. We investigated three distinct constructs tied to motivation: self-efficacy, interest, and effort beliefs. These variables were measured twice over the course of a semester in three sections of a first-semester general chemistry course (n = 170). We…

  18. Fluorine Compounds and Dental Health: Applications of General Chemistry Topics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Gabriel

    2009-01-01

    An example about the use of everyday phenomena in teaching general chemistry is given. Students have a greater appreciation of the principles of chemistry if they can see the relevance to their lives. Fluorine compounds in dental applications (as topical or as systemic use) provide an excellent context in which to review core content of general…

  19. Topological data analysis: A promising big data exploration tool in biology, analytical chemistry and physical chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offroy, Marc; Duponchel, Ludovic

    2016-03-03

    An important feature of experimental science is that data of various kinds is being produced at an unprecedented rate. This is mainly due to the development of new instrumental concepts and experimental methodologies. It is also clear that the nature of acquired data is significantly different. Indeed in every areas of science, data take the form of always bigger tables, where all but a few of the columns (i.e. variables) turn out to be irrelevant to the questions of interest, and further that we do not necessary know which coordinates are the interesting ones. Big data in our lab of biology, analytical chemistry or physical chemistry is a future that might be closer than any of us suppose. It is in this sense that new tools have to be developed in order to explore and valorize such data sets. Topological data analysis (TDA) is one of these. It was developed recently by topologists who discovered that topological concept could be useful for data analysis. The main objective of this paper is to answer the question why topology is well suited for the analysis of big data set in many areas and even more efficient than conventional data analysis methods. Raman analysis of single bacteria should be providing a good opportunity to demonstrate the potential of TDA for the exploration of various spectroscopic data sets considering different experimental conditions (with high noise level, with/without spectral preprocessing, with wavelength shift, with different spectral resolution, with missing data).

  20. Conditional generalized analytic Feynman integrals and a generalized integral equation

    OpenAIRE

    Seung Jun Chang; Soon Ja Kang; David Skoug

    2000-01-01

    We use a generalized Brownian motion process to define a generalized Feynman integral and a conditional generalized Feynman integral. We then establish the existence of these integrals for various functionals. Finally we use the conditional generalized Feynman integral to derive a Schrödinger integral equation.

  1. Generalized topological spaces in evolutionary theory and combinatorial chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadler, Bärbel M R; Stadler, Peter F

    2002-01-01

    The search spaces in combinatorial chemistry as well as the sequence spaces underlying (molecular) evolution are conventionally thought of as graphs. Recombination, however, implies a nongraphical structure of the combinatorial search spaces. These structures, and their implications for search process itself, are heretofore not well understood in general. In this contribution we review a very general formalism from point set topology and discuss its application to combinatorial search spaces, fitness landscapes, evolutionary trajectories, and artificial chemistries.

  2. Report of the Polymer Core Course Committee: Polymer Chemistry for Introductory General Chemistry Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carraher, Charles E., Jr.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Lists polymer chemistry topics and depth of topics to be covered in general chemistry courses. Also lists topics using polymers as tools for delivering necessary concepts, discussing 11 topic areas. List of readings, information on textbook evaluation, and illustrative examination questions are included. (JN)

  3. Using Computational Chemistry Activities to Promote Learning and Retention in a Secondary School General Chemistry Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochterski, Joseph W.

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the results of using state-of-the-art, research-quality software as a learning tool in a general chemistry secondary school classroom setting. I present three activities designed to introduce fundamental chemical concepts regarding molecular shape and atomic orbitals to students with little background in chemistry, such as…

  4. Green Goggles: Designing and Teaching a General Chemistry Course to Nonmajors Using a Green Chemistry Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    A novel course using green chemistry as the context to teach general chemistry fundamentals was designed, implemented and is described here. The course design included an active learning approach, with major course graded components including a weekly blog entry, exams, and a semester project that was disseminated by wiki and a public symposium.…

  5. General Chemistry Students' Understanding of Climate Change and the Chemistry Related to Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versprille, Ashley N.; Towns, Marcy H.

    2015-01-01

    While much is known about secondary students' perspectives of climate change, rather less is known about undergraduate students' perspectives. The purpose of this study is to investigate general chemistry students' understanding of the chemistry underlying climate change. Findings that emerged from the analysis of the 24 interviews indicate that…

  6. Analytical Thinking, Analytical Action: Using Prelab Video Demonstrations and e-Quizzes to Improve Undergraduate Preparedness for Analytical Chemistry Practical Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolley, Dianne F.; Wilson, Stephen R.; Kelso, Celine; O'Brien, Glennys; Mason, Claire E.

    2016-01-01

    This project utilizes visual and critical thinking approaches to develop a higher-education synergistic prelab training program for a large second-year undergraduate analytical chemistry class, directing more of the cognitive learning to the prelab phase. This enabled students to engage in more analytical thinking prior to engaging in the…

  7. The role of analytical chemistry in Niger Delta petroleum exploration: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinlua, Akinsehinwa

    2012-06-12

    Petroleum and organic matter from which the petroleum is derived are composed of organic compounds with some trace elements. These compounds give an insight into the origin, thermal maturity and paleoenvironmental history of petroleum, which are essential elements in petroleum exploration. The main tool to acquire the geochemical data is analytical techniques. Due to progress in the development of new analytical techniques, many hitherto petroleum exploration problems have been resolved. Analytical chemistry has played a significant role in the development of petroleum resources of Niger Delta. Various analytical techniques that have aided the success of petroleum exploration in the Niger Delta are discussed. The analytical techniques that have helped to understand the petroleum system of the basin are also described. Recent and emerging analytical methodologies including green analytical methods as applicable to petroleum exploration particularly Niger Delta petroleum province are discussed in this paper. Analytical chemistry is an invaluable tool in finding the Niger Delta oils.

  8. Increasing Efficiency and Quality by Consolidation of Clinical Chemistry and Immunochemistry Systems with MODULAR ANALYTICS SWA

    OpenAIRE

    Mocarelli, Paolo; Horowitz, Gary L.; Gerthoux, Pier Mario; Cecere, Rossana; Imdahl, Roland; Ruinemans-Koerts, Janneke; Luthe, Hilmar; Calatayud, Silvia Pesudo; Salve, Marie Luisa; Kunst, Albert; McGovern, Margaret; Ng, Katherine; Stockmann, Wolfgang

    2008-01-01

    MODULAR ANALYTICS Serum Work Area (in USA Integrated MODULAR ANALYTICS, MODULAR ANALYTICS is a trademark of a member of the Roche Group) represents a further approach to automation in the laboratory medicine. This instrument combines previously introduced modular systems for the clinical chemistry and immunochemistry laboratory and allows customised combinations for various laboratory workloads. Functionality, practicability, and workflow behaviour of MODULAR ANALYTICS Serum Work Area were ev...

  9. Functional Interfaces Constructed by Controlled/Living Radical Polymerization for Analytical Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huai-Song; Song, Min; Hang, Tai-Jun

    2016-02-10

    The high-value applications of functional polymers in analytical science generally require well-defined interfaces, including precisely synthesized molecular architectures and compositions. Controlled/living radical polymerization (CRP) has been developed as a versatile and powerful tool for the preparation of polymers with narrow molecular weight distributions and predetermined molecular weights. Among the CRP system, atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) and reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) are well-used to develop new materials for analytical science, such as surface-modified core-shell particles, monoliths, MIP micro- or nanospheres, fluorescent nanoparticles, and multifunctional materials. In this review, we summarize the emerging functional interfaces constructed by RAFT and ATRP for applications in analytical science. Various polymers with precisely controlled architectures including homopolymers, block copolymers, molecular imprinted copolymers, and grafted copolymers were synthesized by CRP methods for molecular separation, retention, or sensing. We expect that the CRP methods will become the most popular technique for preparing functional polymers that can be broadly applied in analytical chemistry.

  10. ICRPG WORKING GROUP ON ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY ROUND ROBIN NO. 22 -- EUDIOMETRIC ANALYSIS OF POWDERED ALUMINUM,

    Science.gov (United States)

    Analytical Chemistry voted to conduct a round robin to estimate the interlaboratory reproducibility. The round robin was designed to facilitate statistical analysis of the data. Three samples representing different purity levels as

  11. A conflict of analysis: analytical chemistry and milk adulteration in Victorian Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steere-Williams, Jacob

    2014-08-01

    This article centres on a particularly intense debate within British analytical chemistry in the late nineteenth century, between local public analysts and the government chemists of the Inland Revenue Service. The two groups differed in both practical methodologies and in the interpretation of analytical findings. The most striking debates in this period were related to milk analysis, highlighted especially in Victorian courtrooms. It was in protracted court cases, such as the well known Manchester Milk Case in 1883, that analytical chemistry was performed between local public analysts and the government chemists, who were often both used as expert witnesses. Victorian courtrooms were thus important sites in the context of the uneven professionalisation of chemistry. I use this tension to highlight what Christopher Hamlin has called the defining feature of Victorian public health, namely conflicts of professional jurisdiction, which adds nuance to histories of the struggle of professionalisation and public credibility in analytical chemistry.

  12. Integration of Environmental Analytical Chemistry with Environmental Law: The Development of a Problem-Based Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancilla, Devon A.

    2001-01-01

    Introduces an undergraduate level problem-based analytical chemistry laboratory course integrated with an environmental law course. Aims to develop an understanding among students on the use of environmental indicators for environmental evaluation. (Contains 30 references.) (YDS)

  13. Analytical Chemistry Division annual progress report for period ending December 31, 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyon, W.S. (ed.)

    1983-05-01

    The Analytical Chemistry Dvision of Oak Ridge National laboratory (ORNL) serves a multitude of functions for a clientele that exists both in and outside ORNL. These functions fall into the following general categories: (1) analytical research, development, and implementation; (2) programmatic research, development, and utilization; and (3) technical support. The Division is organized into five major sections, each of which may carry out any type of work falling in the three categories mentioned above. Chapters 1 through 5 of this report highlight progress within the five sections (analytical methodology, mass and emission spectrometry, radioactive materials, bio/organic analysis, and general and environmental analysis) during the period January 1, 1982 to December 31, 1982. A short summary introduces each chapter to indicate work scope. Information about quality assurance and safety programs is presented in Chapter 6, along with a tabulation of analyses rendered. Publications, oral presentations, professional activities, educational programs, and seminars are cited in Chapters 7 and 8. Approximately 61 articles, 32 proceedings publications and 37 reports have been published, and 107 oral presentations were given during this reporting period.

  14. Generalized Analytical Solutions for Nonlinear Positive-Negative Index Couplers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zh. Kudyshev

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We find and analyze a generalized analytical solution for nonlinear wave propagation in waveguide couplers with opposite signs of the linear refractive index, nonzero phase mismatch between the channels, and arbitrary nonlinear coefficients.

  15. Chemometric classification techniques as a tool for solving problems in analytical chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevilacqua, Marta; Nescatelli, Riccardo; Bucci, Remo; Magrì, Andrea D; Magrì, Antonio L; Marini, Federico

    2014-01-01

    Supervised pattern recognition (classification) techniques, i.e., the family of chemometric methods whose aim is the prediction of a qualitative response on a set of samples, represent a very important assortment of tools for solving problems in several areas of applied analytical chemistry. This paper describes the theory behind the chemometric classification techniques most frequently used in analytical chemistry together with some examples of their application to real-world problems.

  16. Effects of Computer Based Learning on Students' Attitudes and Achievements towards Analytical Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akcay, Husamettin; Durmaz, Asli; Tuysuz, Cengiz; Feyzioglu, Burak

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of computer-based learning and traditional method on students' attitudes and achievement towards analytical chemistry. Students from Chemistry Education Department at Dokuz Eylul University (D.E.U) were selected randomly and divided into three groups; two experimental (Eg-1 and Eg-2) and a control…

  17. 75 FR 8147 - Notice of Consideration of Amendment Request for Decommissioning of Analytical Bio-Chemistry...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Notice of Consideration of Amendment Request for Decommissioning of Analytical Bio-Chemistry...-Chemistry Laboratories, Inc. (the Licensee) pursuant to 10 CFR part 30. By application dated October...

  18. Integrating Bio-Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry into an Undergraduate Biochemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erasmus, Daniel J.; Brewer, Sharon E.; Cinel, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Undergraduate laboratories expose students to a wide variety of topics and techniques in a limited amount of time. This can be a challenge and lead to less exposure to concepts and activities in bio-inorganic chemistry and analytical chemistry that are closely-related to biochemistry. To address this, we incorporated a new iron determination by…

  19. Evaluating the Effectiveness of the Chemistry Education by Using the Analytic Hierarchy Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yüksel, Mehmet

    2012-01-01

    In this study, an attempt was made to develop a method of measurement and evaluation aimed at overcoming the difficulties encountered in the determination of the effectiveness of chemistry education based on the goals of chemistry education. An Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), which is a multi-criteria decision technique, is used in the present…

  20. Astrochemistry: An Honors Approach to General Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, M. M.; McClinton, D.

    2004-05-01

    Astrochemistry at the collegiate level offers gifted and high achieving students at the secondary education level to explore careers in science and math. This program reinforces the foundation of scientific instruction, yet provides for advanced specialized learning for the college-bound gifted student. Students examine basic chemical theories and their connections with the applications of physics to astronomy. In this program, students meet individuals in related career fields and tour local companies that use high technology. We present our program design that is funded by the Florida Department of Education, Govenor's Summer Program 2004. We also present our alternative teaching strategies including examples of our computer tutorials and our incorporation of the Process Oriented Guided Inquiry Learning (POGIL) approach, a newly funded NSF project that focuses on national dissemination of POGIL methods and materials. We present our reflection methods of student evaluations that are not related to grades. This program can be modified to offer college students a four-credit basic chemistry class, but with application to astronomy and physics.

  1. Pre-analytical phase in clinical chemistry laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neogi SS

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The laboratory testing process is divided into the pre-analytical, analytical and post-analytical phases. For obtaining reliable test results, the prevention and detection of errors at all steps is required. While analytical standards have been developed by recognized quality control criteria, there is a scarcity in the development of standards for the preanalytical phase. This phase is most prone to errors as the steps involved are directly dependent on humans and are out of direct control of the laboratory. Such errors in preanalytical stage often only become apparent in the analytical or post-analytical phase. The development of a pre-analytical quality manual is essential in achieving total quality control. Correct practices and strategies of error prevention can reduce preanalytical errors. This review focuses on prevention of pre-analytical errors that occur while collecting a specimen of blood, urine and cerebrospinal fluid. Most of these can be easily prevented with understanding and education of the personnel involved in and responsible for executing this crucial pre-analytical phase.

  2. A New Approach to the General Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieron, Joseph F.; McCarthy, Paul J.; Kermis, Thomas W.

    1996-11-01

    Background Canisius College is a medium-sized liberal arts college with a longstanding tradition of maintaining an excellent chemistry program. We realized a few years ago, however, that this tradition was not being sustained by our General Chemistry laboratory course, which had not changed significantly in years. With the help of a grant from the National Science Foundation, our department has been able to design a new laboratory course built around several guiding principles. The design called for experiments to be grouped in units or clusters. Each cluster has a unifying theme or common thread, which gives some coherence to the experiments. The clusters and experiments are listed in the appendix and briefly explained below. Course Design Cluster A's topic is organic and polymer chemistry, and its main objective is to show that chemistry can be enjoyable and relevant to common experiences. Data collection is minimal and hands-on manipulation with observable products is emphasized. Cluster B is a case study of the chemistry of maintaining a swimming pool. The common theme is solution chemistry, and the experiments are designed to promote critical thinking. Cluster C encompasses both oxidation - reduction reactions and electrochemistry, and attempts to show the commonality of these important topics. Cluster D is a series of experiments on methods and techniques of analytical chemistry; in this group the analysis of unknown materials is undertaken. Cluster E is covered last in the second semester, and it stresses important concepts in chemistry at a slightly more advanced level. The emphasis is on the relationship of experiment to theory, and the cluster involves experiments in kinetics, equilibrium, and synthesis. Other guidelines that we considered important in our design were the use of computers (when appropriate), the introduction of microscale chemistry, and the use of instrumentation whenever possible. A separate cluster, labeled Mac, was developed to provide

  3. Using Mathematical Software to Introduce Fourier Transforms in Physical Chemistry to Develop Improved Understanding of Their Applications in Analytical Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Tierney C.; Richardson, John N.; Kegerreis, Jeb S.

    2016-01-01

    This manuscript presents an exercise that utilizes mathematical software to explore Fourier transforms in the context of model quantum mechanical systems, thus providing a deeper mathematical understanding of relevant information often introduced and treated as a "black-box" in analytical chemistry courses. The exercise is given to…

  4. Fifty years of continuous improvement: (What has DOE done for analytical chemistry?)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shults, W.D.

    1993-11-01

    Over the past fifty years, analytical scientist within the DOE complex have had a tremendous impact on the field of analytical chemistry. This paper suggests six ``high impact`` research/development areas that either originated within or were brought to maturity within the DOE laboratories. ``High impact`` means they lead to new subdisciplines or to new ways of doing business.

  5. General consideration on sialic acid chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Hongzhi; Chen, Xi

    2012-01-01

    Sialic acids, also known as neuraminic acids, are a family of negatively charged α-keto acids with a nine-carbon backbone. These unique sugars have been found at the termini of many glycan chains of vertebrate cell surface, which play pivotal roles in mediating or modulating a variety of physiological and pathological processes. This brief review covers general approaches for synthesizing sialic acid containing structures. Recently developed synthetic methods along with structural diversities and biological functions of sialic acid are discussed.

  6. Service-Learning General Chemistry: Lead Paint Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesner, Laya; Eyring, Edward M.

    1999-07-01

    Houses painted with lead-based paints are ubiquitous in the United States because the houses and the paint have not worn out two decades after federal regulations prohibited inclusion of lead in paint. Remodeling older homes thus poses a health threat for infants and small children living in those homes. In a service-learning general chemistry class, students disseminate information about this health threat in an older neighborhood. At some of the homes they collect paint samples that they analyze for lead both qualitatively and quantitatively. This service-learning experience generates enthusiasm for general chemistry through the process of working on a "real" problem. Sample collection familiarizes the students with the concept of "representative" sampling. The sample preparation for atomic absorption spectroscopic (AAS) analysis enhances their laboratory skills. The focus of this paper is on the mechanics of integrating this particular service project into the first-term of the normal general chemistry course.

  7. Recent applications of carbon-based nanomaterials in analytical chemistry: critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scida, Karen; Stege, Patricia W; Haby, Gabrielle; Messina, Germán A; García, Carlos D

    2011-04-08

    The objective of this review is to provide a broad overview of the advantages and limitations of carbon-based nanomaterials with respect to analytical chemistry. Aiming to illustrate the impact of nanomaterials on the development of novel analytical applications, developments reported in the 2005-2010 period have been included and divided into sample preparation, separation, and detection. Within each section, fullerenes, carbon nanotubes, graphene, and composite materials will be addressed specifically. Although only briefly discussed, included is a section highlighting nanomaterials with interesting catalytic properties that can be used in the design of future devices for analytical chemistry.

  8. European analytical column no. 37 (January 2009) Division of Analytical Chemistry (DAC) of the European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences (EuCheMS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlberg, Bo; Grasserbauer, Manfred; Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov

    2009-01-01

    This issue of the European Analytical Column has again a somewhat different format: once more DAC invited a guest columnist to give his views on various matters related to Analytical Chemistry in Europe. This year, Professor Manfred Grasserbauer of the Vienna University of Technology focuses...... on current challenges for European analytical chemistry. During the period 2002–2007 Professor Grasserbauer was Director of the Institute for Environment and Sustainability, Joint Research Centre of the European Commission, Ispra. There is no doubt that many challenges exist at the present time for all of us...... representing a major branch of chemistry, namely analytical chemistry. The global financial crisis is affecting all branches of chemistry, especially analytical chemistry since our discipline by tradition has many close links to industry. Already now a decrease of industrial commitment with respect to new...

  9. Determination of Teaching Methods in Chemistry Education by the Analytic Hierarchy Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet YÜKSE

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the relative importance of the topics of the chemistry course for the 9th grade of the secondary education and their teaching methods for an effective chemistry course have been determined by the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP technique. The AHP model of the research have been composed based on the topics in the chemistry course for the 9th grade and pair wise comparison matrix have been determined according to teachers’ view. As a result of the study, relative importance of the topics of the chemistry course as per percentage are compounds (47.8 %, chemical changes (26.5 %, chemical mixture (13.6 %, the development of chemistry (6.3 %, chemistry in our lives (5.8 %. The relative percentages of the teaching methods are narrative (32 %, demonstration (24.9 %, laboratory (18.9 %, question and answer (15.2 %, project work (9 %.

  10. An Experiential Research-Focused Approach: Implementation in a Nonlaboratory-Based Graduate-Level Analytical Chemistry Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toh, Chee-Seng

    2007-01-01

    A project is described which incorporates nonlaboratory research skills in a graduate level course on analytical chemistry. This project will help students to grasp the basic principles and concepts of modern analytical techniques and also help them develop relevant research skills in analytical chemistry.

  11. Experimental and Analytical Studies of Solar System Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, Donald S.

    2003-01-01

    The cosmochemistry research funded by this grant resulted in the publications given in the attached Publication List. The research focused in three areas: (1) Experimental studies of trace element partitioning. (2) Studies of the minor element chemistry and O isotopic compositions of MgAlO4 spinels from Ca-Al-Rich Inclusions in carbonaceous chondrite meteorites, and (3) The abundances and chemical fractionations of Th and U in chondritic meteorites.

  12. A General Chemistry Laboratory Course Designed for Student Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obenland, Carrie A.; Kincaid, Kristi; Hutchinson, John S.

    2014-01-01

    We report a study of the general chemistry laboratory course at one university over four years. We found that when taught as a traditional laboratory course, lab experiences do not encourage students to deepen their understanding of chemical concepts. Although the lab instructor emphasized that the lab experiences were designed to enhance…

  13. Logical Reasoning Ability and Student Performance in General Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Lillian

    2010-01-01

    Logical reasoning skills of students enrolled in a general chemistry course at the University of Puerto Rico in Rio Piedras were measured using the Group Assessment of Logical Thinking (GALT) test. The results were used to determine the students' cognitive level (concrete, transitional, formal) as well as their level of performance by logical…

  14. Presentation of Atomic Structure in Turkish General Chemistry Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niaz, Mansoor; Costu, Bayram

    2009-01-01

    Research in science education has recognized the importance of teaching atomic structure within a history and philosophy of science perspective. The objective of this study is to evaluate general chemistry textbooks published in Turkey based on the eight criteria developed in previous research. Criteria used referred to the atomic models of…

  15. Flow Injection Analysis: A Revolution in Modern Analytical Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Elo Harald

    1996-01-01

    A review is made of the fundamentals of Flow Injection Analysis (FIA), and the versatility and applicability of this analytical concept is demonstrated by a series of examples, comprizing the use of different types of FIA-manifolds and various detection devices (optical and electrochemical). Emph...

  16. In Situ Scanning Probe Microscopy and New Perspectives in Analytical Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov; Zhang, Jingdong; Chi, Qijin

    1999-01-01

    The resolution of scanning probe microscopies is unpresedented but the techniques are fraught with limitations as analytical tools. These limitations and their relationship to the physical mechanisms of image contrast are first discussed. Some new options based on in situ STM, which hold prospects...... for molecular- and mesoscopic-scale analytical chemistry, are then reviewed. They are illustrated by metallic electro-crystallisation and -dissolution, and in situ STM spectroscopy of large redox molecules. The biophysically oriented analytical options of in situ atomic force microscopy, and analytical chemical...... perspectives for the new microcantilever sensor techniques are also discussed....

  17. Manual of analytical methods for the Industrial Hygiene Chemistry Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greulich, K.A.; Gray, C.E. (comp.)

    1991-08-01

    This Manual is compiled from techniques used in the Industrial Hygiene Chemistry Laboratory of Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The procedures are similar to those used in other laboratories devoted to industrial hygiene practices. Some of the methods are standard; some, modified to suit our needs; and still others, developed at Sandia. The authors have attempted to present all methods in a simple and concise manner but in sufficient detail to make them readily usable. It is not to be inferred that these methods are universal for any type of sample, but they have been found very reliable for the types of samples mentioned.

  18. Analytical Chemistry Division annual progress report for period ending December 31, 1985

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shultz, W.D.

    1986-05-01

    Progress reports are presented for the four major sections of the division: analytical spectroscopy, radioactive materials laboratories, inorganic chemistry, and organic chemistry. A brief discussion of the division's role in the Laboratory's Environmental Restoration and Facilities Upgrade is given. Information about quality assurance and safety programs is presented, along with a tabulation of analyses rendered. Publications, oral presentations, professional activities, educational programs, and seminars are cited.

  19. Lead - a preanalytical/analytical variable in clinical chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rašić-Mišić Ivana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lead is one of the most studied clinically important metals due its high toxicity and a high number of workers exposed to it. The interest toward Pb is elevated by the fact that children are especially susceptible to lead poisoning. Research regarding lead poisoning requires a complex, multi-disciplinary (clinical medical and clinical chemical approach. Monitoring human exposure to lead (intake, i.e. poisoning may be achieved by quantification of Pb in tissues and body fluids. For that reason, a number of accurate and reliable analytical methods for the determination of Pb (analytical/preanalytical variable were developed. An objective of this review paper is to provide key information necessary for proper interpretation of results of lead related clinical/laboratory tests. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172061

  20. Integrating the Liberal Arts and Chemistry: A Series of General Chemistry Assignments to Develop Science Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Diane M.; Chengelis Czegan, Demetra A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes assignments that have been implemented in a General Chemistry I course to promote science literacy. This course was chosen in particular because it reaches a broad audience, which includes nonscience majors. The assignment series begins with several discussions and tasks to develop information literacy, in which students find…

  1. A Program of Computational Chemistry Exercises for the First-Semester General Chemistry Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feller, Scott E.; Dallinger, Richard F.; McKinney, Paul Caylor

    2004-01-01

    The computer systems available for molecular modeling are described, along with a discussion of a molecular modeling program created and supported by computational techniques for the first-semester general chemistry course. Various exercises are listed, which direct the learner from a beginner's course in software practice to more complex…

  2. European analytical column No. 37 from the Division of Analytical Chemistry (DAC of the European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences (EuCheMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BO KARLBERG

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTORY COMMENTS FROM THE CHAIRMAN OF DACThe European Analytical Column has again a somewhat different format. We have once more invited a guest columnist to give their views on various matters related to Analytical Chemistry in Europe. This year we have invited Professor Manfred Grasserbauer of the Vienna University of Technology to present some of the current challenges for European analytical chemistry. During the period 2002–2007 Professor Grasserbauer was Director of the Institute for Environment and Sustainability, Joint Research Centre of the European Commission, Ispra. There is no doubt that many challenges exist at the present time for all of us representing a major branch of chemistry, namely analytical chemistry.The global financial crisis is affecting all branches of chemistry but analytical chemistry in particular since our discipline by tradition has many close links to industry. We notice already now a decreased industrial commitment with respect to new research projects and sponsoring of conferences. It is therefore important that we strengthen our efforts and that we keep our presence at analytical chemistry meetings and conferences unchanged.Recent activities of DAC and details regarding the major analytical-chemistry event this year in Europe, Euroanalysis XV in Innsbruck, are also reported.

  3. Bibliometric mapping: eight decades of analytical chemistry, with special focus on the use of mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waaijer, Cathelijn J F; Palmblad, Magnus

    2015-01-01

    In this Feature we use automatic bibliometric mapping tools to visualize the history of analytical chemistry from the 1920s until the present. In particular, we have focused on the application of mass spectrometry in different fields. The analysis shows major shifts in research focus and use of mass spectrometry. We conclude by discussing the application of bibliometric mapping and visualization tools in analytical chemists' research.

  4. Analytical evaluation of the clinical chemistry analyzer Olympus AU2700 plus

    OpenAIRE

    Juricek, Jasna; Derek, Lovorka; Unic, Adriana; Serdar, Tihana; Marijancevic, Domagoj; Zivkovic, Marcela; Romic, Zeljko

    2010-01-01

    Background: The objective of this study was to perform the analytical evaluation of the clinical chemistry analyzer Olympus AU2700 plus. The evaluation was performed according to the guidelines of the European Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (ECCLS). Materials and methods: The evaluation consisted of determination of within-run and between-run imprecision, inaccuracy and comparison with Olympus AU2700. The tested analytes were: glucose, creatinine, urate, total bilirubin, chole...

  5. Black Boxes in Analytical Chemistry: University Students' Misconceptions of Instrumental Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbo, Antonio Domenech; Adelantado, Jose Vicente Gimeno; Reig, Francisco Bosch

    2010-01-01

    Misconceptions of chemistry and chemical engineering university students concerning instrumental analysis have been established from coordinated tests, tutorial interviews and laboratory lessons. Misconceptions can be divided into: (1) formal, involving specific concepts and formulations within the general frame of chemistry; (2)…

  6. Analytical chemistry in water quality monitoring during manned space missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artemyeva, Anastasia A.

    2016-09-01

    Water quality monitoring during human spaceflights is essential. However, most of the traditional methods require sample collection with a subsequent ground analysis because of the limitations in volume, power, safety and gravity. The space missions are becoming longer-lasting; hence methods suitable for in-flight monitoring are demanded. Since 2009, water quality has been monitored in-flight with colorimetric methods allowing for detection of iodine and ionic silver. Organic compounds in water have been monitored with a second generation total organic carbon analyzer, which provides information on the amount of carbon in water at both the U.S. and Russian segments of the International Space Station since 2008. The disadvantage of this approach is the lack of compound-specific information. The recently developed methods and tools may potentially allow one to obtain in-flight a more detailed information on water quality. Namely, the microanalyzers based on potentiometric measurements were designed for online detection of chloride, potassium, nitrate ions and ammonia. The recent application of the current highly developed air quality monitoring system for water analysis was a logical step because most of the target analytes are the same in air and water. An electro-thermal vaporizer was designed, manufactured and coupled with the air quality control system. This development allowed for liberating the analytes from the aqueous matrix and further compound-specific analysis in the gas phase.

  7. The Analytical Chemistry of Drug Monitoring in Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, Larry D.

    2009-07-01

    The detection and deterrence of the abuse of performance-enhancing drugs in sport are important to maintaining a level playing field among athletes and to decreasing the risk to athletes’ health. The World Anti-Doping Program consists of six documents, three of which play a role in analytical development: The World Anti-Doping Code, The List of Prohibited Substances and Methods, and The International Standard for Laboratories. Among the classes of prohibited substances, three have given rise to the most recent analytical developments in the field: anabolic agents; peptide and protein hormones; and methods to increase oxygen delivery to the tissues, including recombinant erythropoietin. Methods for anabolic agents, including designer steroids, have been enhanced through the use of liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry and gas chromatography/combustion/isotope-ratio mass spectrometry. Protein and peptide identification and quantification have benefited from advances in liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. Incorporation of techniques such as flow cytometry and isoelectric focusing have supported the detection of blood doping.

  8. On the General Analytical Solution of the Kinematic Cosserat Equations

    KAUST Repository

    Michels, Dominik L.

    2016-09-01

    Based on a Lie symmetry analysis, we construct a closed form solution to the kinematic part of the (partial differential) Cosserat equations describing the mechanical behavior of elastic rods. The solution depends on two arbitrary analytical vector functions and is analytical everywhere except a certain domain of the independent variables in which one of the arbitrary vector functions satisfies a simple explicitly given algebraic relation. As our main theoretical result, in addition to the construction of the solution, we proof its generality. Based on this observation, a hybrid semi-analytical solver for highly viscous two-way coupled fluid-rod problems is developed which allows for the interactive high-fidelity simulations of flagellated microswimmers as a result of a substantial reduction of the numerical stiffness.

  9. Disruptive by design: a perspective on engineering in analytical chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herr, Amy E

    2013-08-20

    Perhaps paradoxically, we argue that the biological sciences are "data-limited". In contrast to the glut of DNA sequencing data available, high-throughput protein analysis is expensive and largely inaccessible. Hence, we posit that access to robust protein-level data is inadequate. Here, we use the framework of the formal engineering design process to both identify and understand the problems facing measurement science in the 21st century. In particular, discussion centers on the notable challenge of realizing protein analyses that are as effective (and transformative) as genomics tools. This Perspective looks through the lens of a case study on protein biomarker validation and verification, to highlight the importance of iterative design in realizing significant advances over currently available measurement capabilities in the candidate or targeted proteomics space. The Perspective follows a podium presentation given by the author at The 16th International Conference on Miniaturized Systems for Chemistry and Life Sciences (μTAS 2012), specifically focusing on novel targeted proteomic measurement tools based in microfluidic design. The role of unmet needs identification, iteration in concept generation and development, and the existing gap in rapid prototyping tools for separations are all discussed.

  10. Supramolecular chemistry-general principles and selected examples from anion recognition and metallosupramolecular chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Markus

    2007-12-01

    This review gives an introduction into supramolecular chemistry describing in the first part general principles, focusing on terms like noncovalent interaction, molecular recognition, self-assembly, and supramolecular function. In the second part those will be illustrated by simple examples from our laboratories. Supramolecular chemistry is the science that bridges the gap between the world of molecules and nanotechnology. In supramolecular chemistry noncovalent interactions occur between molecular building blocks, which by molecular recognition and self-assembly form (functional) supramolecular entities. It is also termed the "chemistry of the noncovalent bond." Molecular recognition is based on geometrical complementarity based on the "key-and-lock" principle with nonshape-dependent effects, e.g., solvatization, being also highly influential. Self-assembly leads to the formation of well-defined aggregates. Hereby the overall structure of the target ensemble is controlled by the symmetry features of the certain building blocks. Finally, the aggregates can possess special properties or supramolecular functions, which are only found in the ensemble but not in the participating molecules. This review gives an introduction on supramolecular chemistry and illustrates the fundamental principles by recent examples from our group.

  11. Innovative methods for data analysis in analytical chemistry using Bayesian statistics and machine learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woldegebriel, M.T.

    2017-01-01

    In analytical chemistry, rapid advancement in instrumentation, especially in high resolution mass-spectrometry is making a significant contribution for further developments of the field. As such, in separation science, nowadays, several hyphenated techniques have proven to be the state-of-the-art te

  12. Student Learning and Evaluation in Analytical Chemistry Using a Problem-Oriented Approach and Portfolio Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, Mary C.; Singh, Kuki

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a student-focused activity that promotes effective learning in analytical chemistry. Providing an environment where students were responsible for their own learning allowed them to participate at all levels from designing the problem to be addressed, planning the laboratory work to support their learning, to providing evidence…

  13. A Comprehensive Microfluidics Device Construction and Characterization Module for the Advanced Undergraduate Analytical Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piunno, Paul A. E.; Zetina, Adrian; Chu, Norman; Tavares, Anthony J.; Noor, M. Omair; Petryayeva, Eleonora; Uddayasankar, Uvaraj; Veglio, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    An advanced analytical chemistry undergraduate laboratory module on microfluidics that spans 4 weeks (4 h per week) is presented. The laboratory module focuses on comprehensive experiential learning of microfluidic device fabrication and the core characteristics of microfluidic devices as they pertain to fluid flow and the manipulation of samples.…

  14. Online Video Tutorials Increase Learning of Difficult Concepts in an Undergraduate Analytical Chemistry Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yi; Swenson, Sandra; Lents, Nathan

    2012-01-01

    Educational technology has enhanced, even revolutionized, pedagogy in many areas of higher education. This study examines the incorporation of video tutorials as a supplement to learning in an undergraduate analytical chemistry course. The concepts and problems in which students faced difficulty were first identified by assessing students'…

  15. Quantitative Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction for Trace-Metal Determination: An Experiment for Analytical Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavilla, Isela; Costas, Marta; Pena-Pereira, Francisco; Gil, Sandra; Bendicho, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    Ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) is introduced to upper-level analytical chemistry students as a simple strategy focused on sample preparation for trace-metal determination in biological tissues. Nickel extraction in seafood samples and quantification by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) are carried out by a team of four…

  16. Liquid-Liquid Extraction of Insecticides from Juice: An Analytical Chemistry Laboratory Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radford, Samantha A.; Hunter, Ronald E., Jr.; Barr, Dana Boyd; Ryan, P. Barry

    2013-01-01

    A laboratory experiment was developed to target analytical chemistry students and to teach them about insecticides in food, sample extraction, and cleanup. Micro concentrations (sub-microgram/mL levels) of 12 insecticides spiked into apple juice samples are extracted using liquid-liquid extraction and cleaned up using either a primary-secondary…

  17. Incorporating Students' Self-Designed, Research-Based Analytical Chemistry Projects into the Instrumentation Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ruomei

    2015-01-01

    In a typical chemistry instrumentation laboratory, students learn analytical techniques through a well-developed procedure. Such an approach, however, does not engage students in a creative endeavor. To foster the intrinsic motivation of students' desire to learn, improve their confidence in self-directed learning activities and enhance their…

  18. Juicing the Juice: A Laboratory-Based Case Study for an Instrumental Analytical Chemistry Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaber, Peter M.; Dinan, Frank J.; St. Phillips, Michael; Larson, Renee; Pines, Harvey A.; Larkin, Judith E.

    2011-01-01

    A young, inexperienced Food and Drug Administration (FDA) chemist is asked to distinguish between authentic fresh orange juice and suspected reconstituted orange juice falsely labeled as fresh. In an advanced instrumental analytical chemistry application of this case, inductively coupled plasma (ICP) spectroscopy is used to distinguish between the…

  19. Determination of Mercury in Milk by Cold Vapor Atomic Fluorescence: A Green Analytical Chemistry Laboratory Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armenta, Sergio; de la Guardia, Miguel

    2011-01-01

    Green analytical chemistry principles were introduced to undergraduate students in a laboratory experiment focused on determining the mercury concentration in cow and goat milk. In addition to traditional goals, such as accuracy, precision, sensitivity, and limits of detection in method selection and development, attention was paid to the…

  20. An Attenuated Total Reflectance Sensor for Copper: An Experiment for Analytical or Physical Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shtoyko, Tanya; Zudans, Imants; Seliskar, Carl J.; Heineman, William R.; Richardson, John N.

    2004-01-01

    A sensor experiment which can be applied to advanced undergraduate laboratory course in physical or analytical chemistry is described along with certain concepts like the demonstration of chemical sensing, preparation of thin films on a substrate, microtitration, optical determination of complex ion stoichiometry and isosbestic point. It is seen…

  1. Teaching Effective Communication in a Writing-Intensive Analytical Chemistry Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelan, Rebecca J.; Zare, Richard N.

    2003-01-01

    Presents a variety of activities, assignments, and mentoring structures to address the challenges of teaching writing while at the same time delivering analytical chemistry content. Emphasizes the importance of students being able to communicate in the language of their chosen field. (Author/NB)

  2. [Analytical chemistry in works of Maria Skłodowska-Curie].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulanicki, Adam

    2012-01-01

    Maria Skłodowska-Curie--a Nobel Prize winner in chemistry--the elements of learning of chemistry gained just by a dint of work of more than ten months in Warsaw in the Institute of Industry and Agriculture Museum. The Nobel Prize concerned a contribution to the progress of chemistry through the discovery of radium and polonium, separation of radium and study of properties of this amazing element. It was awarded for an extremely arduous work, during which the chemical reactions being the principles of analytical chemistry were realized. Unlike to a typical analytical procedure, an initial attempt here was the thousands of kilograms of uranium ore: pitchblende. The final effect was small amounts of new elements: polonium and radium. Both the knowledge and the intuition of the researcher let her have a triumph. The difficulties she experienced because the properties of the searched chemical elements could only be evaluated thanks to the knowledge on other chemical elements. A significant achievement was the determination of the samples by means of radioactivity measurement, which gave rise to radiochemical analytical methods. An extreme analytical precision was demanded in multiple processes of fractional crystallization and precipitation which finally led to the calculation of the atomic mass of radium.

  3. [Recent progress on analytical chemistry and biochemistry of D-amino acids].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, K; Kato, M; Huang, Y; Ichihara, H; Fukushima, T; Santa, T; Homma, H

    1997-11-01

    Recent findings that D-amino acids, especially D-aspartic acid and D-serine, exist in vivo in the mammalian tissues (brain and peripheries), prompted us now to investigate their biological and pathological roles in mammals. In this review, the overview of the progress of analytical chemistry and biochemistry of D-amino acids is described.

  4. Island Explorations: Discovering Effects of Environmental Research-Based Lab Activities on Analytical Chemistry Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasik, Janice Hall; LeCaptain, Dale; Murphy, Sarah; Martin, Mary; Knight, Rachel M.; Harke, Maureen A.; Burke, Ryan; Beck, Kara; Acevedo-Polakovich, I. David

    2014-01-01

    Motivating students in analytical chemistry can be challenging, in part because of the complexity and breadth of topics involved. Some methods that help encourage students and convey real-world relevancy of the material include incorporating environmental issues, research-based lab experiments, and service learning projects. In this paper, we…

  5. Analysis of a Natural Yellow Dye: An Experiment for Analytical Organic Chemistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Villela, A.; Derksen, G.C.H.; Beek, van T.A.

    2014-01-01

    This experiment exposes second-year undergraduate students taking a course in analytical organic chemistry to high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and quantitative analysis using the internal standard method. This is accomplished using the real-world application of natural dyes for textiles

  6. General Chemistry Courses That Can Affect Achievement: An Action Research Study in Developing a Plan to Improve Undergraduate Chemistry Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shweikeh, Eman

    2014-01-01

    Over the past 50 years, considerable research has been dedicated to chemistry education. In evaluating principal chemistry courses in higher education, educators have noted the learning process for first-year general chemistry courses may be challenging. The current study investigated perceptions of faculty, students and administrators on…

  7. Analytical Chemistry Division annual progress report for period ending December 31, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shults, W.D.

    1993-04-01

    This report is divided into: Analytical spectroscopy (optical spectroscopy, organic mass spectrometry, inorganic mass spectrometry, secondary ion mass spectrometry), inorganic and radiochemistry (transuranium and activation analysis, low-level radiochemical analysis, inorganic analysis, radioactive materials analysis, special projects), organic chemistry (organic spectroscopy, separations and synthesis, special projects, organic analysis, ORNL/UT research program), operations (quality assurance/quality control, environmental protection, safety, analytical improvement, training, radiation control), education programs, supplementary activities, and presentation of research results. Tables are included for articles reviewed or refereed for periodicals, analytical service work, division manpower and financial summary, and organization chart; a glossary is also included.

  8. Exploration of Antarctic Subglacial environments: a challenge for analytical chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traversi, R.; Becagli, S.; Castellano, E.; Ghedini, C.; Marino, F.; Rugi, F.; Severi, M.; Udisti, R.

    2009-12-01

    The large number of subglacial lakes detected in the Dome C area in East Antarctica suggests that this region may be a valuable source of paleo-records essential for understanding the evolution of the Antarctic ice cap and climate changes in the last several millions years. In the framework of the Project on “Exploration and characterization of Concordia Lake, Antarctica”, supported by Italian Program for Antarctic Research (PNRA), a glaciological investigation of the Dome C “Lake District” are planned. Indeed, the glacio-chemical characterisation of the ice column over subglacial lakes will allow to evaluate the fluxes of major and trace chemical species along the ice column and in the accreted ice and, consequently, the availability of nutrients and oligo-elements for possible biological activity in the lake water and sediments. Melting and freezing at the base of the ice sheet should be able to deliver carbon and salts to the lake, as observed for the Vostok subglacial lake, which are thought to be able to support a low concentration of micro-organisms for extended periods of time. Thus, this investigation represents the first step for exploring the subglacial environments including sampling and analysis of accreted ice, lake water and sediments. In order to perform reliable analytical measurements, especially of trace chemical species, clean sub-sampling and analytical techniques are required. For this purpose, the techniques already used by the CHIMPAC laboratory (Florence University) in the framework of international Antarctic drilling Projects (EPICA - European Project for Ice Coring in Antarctica, TALDICE - TALos Dome ICE core, ANDRILL MIS - ANTarctic DRILLing McMurdo Ice Shelf) were optimised and new techniques were developed to ensure a safe sample handling. CHIMPAC laboratory has been involved since several years in the study of Antarctic continent, primarily focused on understanding the bio-geo-chemical cycles of chemical markers and the

  9. The Efficacy of Problem-Based Learning in an Analytical Laboratory Course for Pre-Service Chemistry Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Heojeong; Woo, Ae Ja; Treagust, David; Chandrasegaran, A. L.

    2014-01-01

    The efficacy of problem-based learning (PBL) in an analytical chemistry laboratory course was studied using a programme that was designed and implemented with 20 students in a treatment group over 10 weeks. Data from 26 students in a traditional analytical chemistry laboratory course were used for comparison. Differences in the creative thinking…

  10. Priority survey between indicators and analytic hierarchy process analysis for green chemistry technology assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sungjune; Hong, Seokpyo; Ahn, Kilsoo; Gong, Sungyong

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study presents the indicators and proxy variables for the quantitative assessment of green chemistry technologies and evaluates the relative importance of each assessment element by consulting experts from the fields of ecology, chemistry, safety, and public health. Methods The results collected were subjected to an analytic hierarchy process to obtain the weights of the indicators and the proxy variables. Results These weights may prove useful in avoiding having to resort to qualitative means in absence of weights between indicators when integrating the results of quantitative assessment by indicator. Conclusions This study points to the limitations of current quantitative assessment techniques for green chemistry technologies and seeks to present the future direction for quantitative assessment of green chemistry technologies. PMID:26206364

  11. Hard Cap Espresso Machines in Analytical Chemistry: What Else?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armenta, Sergio; de la Guardia, Miguel; Esteve-Turrillas, Francesc A

    2016-06-21

    A hard cap espresso machine has been used in combination with liquid chromatography with molecular fluorescence detection for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from contaminated soils and sediments providing appropriate extraction efficiencies and quantitative results. Naphthalene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benz[a]anthracene, chrysene, benz[b]fluoranthene, benz[k]fluoranthene, benz[a]pyrene, dibenz[a,h]anthracene, benz[ghi]perylene, and indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene were used as target compounds. It should be mentioned that the pairs benz[a]anthracene-chrysene and dibenz[a,h]anthracene-benz[ghi]perylene peaks coelute under the employed chromatographic conditions; thus, those compounds were determined together. PAHs were extracted from 5.0 g of soil, previously homogenized, freeze-dried, and sieved to 250 μm, with 50 mL of 40% (v/v) acetonitrile in water at a temperature of 72 ± 3 °C. The proposed procedure is really fast, with an extraction time of 11 s, and it reduces the required amount of organic solvent to do the sample preparation. The obtained limit of detection for the evaluated PAHs was from 1 to 38 μg kg(-1). Recoveries were calculated using clean soils spiked with 100, 500, 1000, and 2000 μg kg(-1) PAHs with values ranging from 81 to 121% and good precision with relative standard deviation values lower than 30%. The method was validated using soil and sediment certified reference materials and also using real samples by comparison with ultrasound-assisted extraction, as reference methodology, obtaining statistically comparable results. Thus, the use of hard cap espresso machines in the analytical laboratories offers tremendous possibilities as low cost extraction units for the extraction of solid samples.

  12. ASVCP quality assurance guidelines: control of preanalytical, analytical, and postanalytical factors for urinalysis, cytology, and clinical chemistry in veterinary laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn-Christie, Rebekah G; Flatland, Bente; Friedrichs, Kristen R; Szladovits, Balazs; Harr, Kendal E; Ruotsalo, Kristiina; Knoll, Joyce S; Wamsley, Heather L; Freeman, Kathy P

    2012-03-01

    In December 2009, the American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology (ASVCP) Quality Assurance and Laboratory Standards committee published the updated and peer-reviewed ASVCP Quality Assurance Guidelines on the Society's website. These guidelines are intended for use by veterinary diagnostic laboratories and veterinary research laboratories that are not covered by the US Food and Drug Administration Good Laboratory Practice standards (Code of Federal Regulations Title 21, Chapter 58). The guidelines have been divided into 3 reports: (1) general analytical factors for veterinary laboratory performance and comparisons; (2) hematology, hemostasis, and crossmatching; and (3) clinical chemistry, cytology, and urinalysis. This particular report is one of 3 reports and documents recommendations for control of preanalytical, analytical, and postanalytical factors related to urinalysis, cytology, and clinical chemistry in veterinary laboratories and is adapted from sections 1.1 and 2.2 (clinical chemistry), 1.3 and 2.5 (urinalysis), 1.4 and 2.6 (cytology), and 3 (postanalytical factors important in veterinary clinical pathology) of these guidelines. These guidelines are not intended to be all-inclusive; rather, they provide minimal guidelines for quality assurance and quality control for veterinary laboratory testing and a basis for laboratories to assess their current practices, determine areas for improvement, and guide continuing professional development and education efforts.

  13. FREE VIBRATION OF ANISOTROPIC RECTANGULAR PLATES BY GENERAL ANALYTICAL METHOD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    According to the differential equation for transverse displacement function of anisotropic rectangular thin plates in free vibration, a general analytical solution is established. This general solution, composed of the composite solutions of trigonometric function and hyperbolic function, can satisfy the problem of arbitrary boundary conditions along four edges. The algebraic polynomial with double sine series solutions can also satisfy the problem of boundary conditions at four corners. Consequently, this general solution can be used to solve the vibration problem of anisotropic rectangular plates with arbitrary boundaries accurately. The integral constants can be determined by boundary conditions of four edges and four corners. Each natural frequency and vibration mode can be solved by the determinate of coefficient matrix from the homogeneous linear algebraic equations equal to zero. For example, a composite symmetric angle ply laminated plate with four edges clamped has been calculated and discussed.

  14. Integrating bio-inorganic and analytical chemistry into an undergraduate biochemistry laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erasmus, Daniel J; Brewer, Sharon E; Cinel, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Undergraduate laboratories expose students to a wide variety of topics and techniques in a limited amount of time. This can be a challenge and lead to less exposure to concepts and activities in bio-inorganic chemistry and analytical chemistry that are closely-related to biochemistry. To address this, we incorporated a new iron determination by atomic absorption spectroscopy exercise as part of a five-week long laboratory-based project on the purification of myoglobin from beef. Students were required to prepare samples for chemical analysis, operate an atomic absorption spectrophotometer, critically evaluate their iron data, and integrate these data into a study of myoglobin.

  15. The development of a standard for a power plant analytical chemistry quality management system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meils, D.E. [Scientech, LLC, Dunedin, FL (United States); Mastroianni, J.A. [Scientech Information Services, Oshawa, ON (Canada)

    2008-04-15

    This paper reports on the changes that have taken place since 2004 in the development of a Standard that defines those objectives that must be met in order for a power plant laboratory to demonstrate it operates a technically competent quality management system and is capable of producing technically competent results. The Standard for a Power Plant Analytical Chemistry Quality Management System was produced by the Power Plant Chemistry QA/QC Advisory Group and includes those practices required to meet the stated objectives. (orig.)

  16. Chemistry, Life, the Universe, and Everything: A New Approach to General Chemistry, and a Model for Curriculum Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Melanie; Klymkowsky, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The history of general chemistry is one of almost constant calls for reform, yet over the past 60 years little of substance has changed. Those reforms that have been implemented are almost entirely concerned with how the course is taught, rather than what is to be learned. Here we briefly discuss the history of the general chemistry curriculum and…

  17. Impact of General Chemistry on Student Achievement and Progression to Subsequent Chemistry Courses: A Regression Discontinuity Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shultz, Ginger V.; Gottfried, Amy C.; Winschel, Grace A.

    2015-01-01

    General chemistry is a gateway course that impacts the STEM trajectory of tens of thousands of students each year, and its role in the introductory curriculum as well as its pedagogical design are the center of an ongoing debate. To investigate the role of general chemistry in the curriculum, we report the results of a posthoc analysis of 10 years…

  18. ASVCP quality assurance guidelines: control of general analytical factors in veterinary laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flatland, Bente; Freeman, Kathy P; Friedrichs, Kristen R; Vap, Linda M; Getzy, Karen M; Evans, Ellen W; Harr, Kendal E

    2010-09-01

    Owing to lack of governmental regulation of veterinary laboratory performance, veterinarians ideally should demonstrate a commitment to self-monitoring and regulation of laboratory performance from within the profession. In response to member concerns about quality management in veterinary laboratories, the American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology (ASVCP) formed a Quality Assurance and Laboratory Standards (QAS) committee in 1996. This committee recently published updated and peer-reviewed Quality Assurance Guidelines on the ASVCP website. The Quality Assurance Guidelines are intended for use by veterinary diagnostic laboratories and veterinary research laboratories that are not covered by the US Food and Drug Administration Good Laboratory Practice standards (Code of Federal Regulations Title 21, Chapter 58). The guidelines have been divided into 3 reports on 1) general analytic factors for veterinary laboratory performance and comparisons, 2) hematology and hemostasis, and 3) clinical chemistry, endocrine assessment, and urinalysis. This report documents recommendations for control of general analytical factors within veterinary clinical laboratories and is based on section 2.1 (Analytical Factors Important In Veterinary Clinical Pathology, General) of the newly revised ASVCP QAS Guidelines. These guidelines are not intended to be all-inclusive; rather, they provide minimum guidelines for quality assurance and quality control for veterinary laboratory testing. It is hoped that these guidelines will provide a basis for laboratories to assess their current practices, determine areas for improvement, and guide continuing professional development and education efforts.

  19. Analytic and algorithmic aspects of generalized harmonic sums and polylogarithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ablinger, Jakob; Schneider, Carsten [Johannes Kepler Univ., Linz (Austria). Research Inst. for Symbolic Computation; Bluemlein, Johannes [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany)

    2013-01-15

    In recent three-loop calculations of massive Feynman integrals within Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) and, e.g., in recent combinatorial problems the so-called generalized harmonic sums (in short S-sums) arise. They are characterized by rational (or real) numerator weights also different from {+-}1. In this article we explore the algorithmic and analytic properties of these sums systematically. We work out the Mellin and inverse Mellin transform which connects the sums under consideration with the associated Poincare iterated integrals, also called generalized harmonic polylogarithms. In this regard, we obtain explicit analytic continuations by means of asymptotic expansions of the S-sums which started to occur frequently in current QCD calculations. In addition, we derive algebraic and structural relations, like differentiation w.r.t. the external summation index and different multi-argument relations, for the compactification of S-sum expressions. Finally, we calculate algebraic relations for infinite S-sums, or equivalently for generalized harmonic polylogarithms evaluated at special values. The corresponding algorithms and relations are encoded in the computer algebra package HarmonicSums.

  20. Over a century of detection and quantification capabilities in analytical chemistry--historical overview and trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belter, Magdalena; Sajnóg, Adam; Barałkiewicz, Danuta

    2014-11-01

    The detection limit (LD) and the quantification limit (LQ) are important parameters in the validation process. Estimation of these parameters is especially important when trace and ultra-trace quantities of analyte are to be detected. When the apparatus response from the analyte is below the detection limit, it does not necessarily mean that the analyte is not present in the sample. It may be a message that the analyte concentration could be below the detection capabilities of the instrument or analytical method. By using a more sensitive detector or a different analytical method it is possible to quantitatively determine the analyte in a given sample. The terms associated with detection capabilities have been present in the scientific literature for at least the past 100 years. Numerous terms, definitions and approaches to calculations have been presented during that time period. This paper is an attempt to collect and summarize the principal approaches to the definition and calculation of detection and quantification abilities published from the beginning of 20th century up until the present. Some of the most important methods are described in detail. Furthermore, the authors would like to popularize the knowledge of metrology in chemistry, particularly that part of it which concerns validation of the analytical procedure.

  1. Analytical chemistry of the persistent organic pollutants identified in the Stockholm Convention: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Weiguang; Wang, Xian; Cai, Zongwei

    2013-08-06

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are major environmental concern due to their persistence, long-range transportability, bio-accumulation and potentially adverse effects on living organisms. Analytical chemistry plays an essential role in the measurement of POPs and provides important information on their distribution and environmental transformations. Much effort has been devoted during the last two decades to the development of faster, safer, more reliable and more sensitive analytical techniques for these pollutants. Since the Stockholm Convention (SC) on POPs was adopted 12 years ago, analytical methods have been extensively developed. This review article introduces recent analytical techniques and applications for the determination of POPs in environmental and biota samples, and summarizes the extraction, separation and instrumental analyses of the halogenated POPs. Also, this review covers important aspects for the analyses of SC POPs (e.g. lipid determination and quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC)), and finally discusses future trends for improving the POPs analyses and for potential new POPs.

  2. 75 years of the Division of Analytical Chemistry of the American Chemical Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Roland F

    2013-04-02

    The Division of Analytical Chemistry is celebrating the 75th anniversary of its founding in 1938. We celebrate the continuing high importance of our discipline for all aspects of chemical science and for its applications in so many aspects of everyday life. We especially celebrate the accomplishments of our fellow analytical chemists through the years, and the impact we have had on the profession. This article is a short history of the Division within the context of the parallel development of our profession and our science.

  3. On the outside looking in: redefining the role of analytical chemistry in the biosciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hare, Dominic J; New, Elizabeth J

    2016-07-12

    Biomedical research has moved on from the study of the structure of organs, cells and organelles. Today, the key questions that must be addressed to understand the body in health and disease are related to fundamental biochemistry: the distribution and speciation of chemicals, the regulation of chemical reactions, and the control of chemical environments. To see advances in this field, it is essential for analytical chemists to actively engage in this process, from beginning to end. In this Feature Article, we review the progress that has been made towards gaining an understanding of the chemistry of the body, while commenting on the intrinsic disconnect between new innovations in the field of analytical chemistry and practical application within the biosciences. We identify the challenges that prevent chemists from making a greater impact in this field, and highlight key steps for moving forward.

  4. APPLICATION OF THE ANALYTICAL ELECTRON MICROSCOPE TO THE STUDY OF GRAIN BOUNDARY CHEMISTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, E

    1982-01-01

    High spatial resolution X-ray spectroscopy in the analytical electron microscope (AEM) is a powerful tool for the study of changes in chemistry which occur at grain boundaries in metals and ceramics. Two major advantages are realized through the use of the AEM in these studies : the ability to obtain accurate quantitative microchemical analysis of grain boundary regions, and the capability for determining the structural and crystallographic characteristics of the boundaries on which the chemi...

  5. The impact of supramolecular nanocarriers to contemporary pharmaceutical and analytical chemistry: a minireview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielecki, Patryk; Wasiak, Wieslaw

    2008-06-01

    The paper gives a short review of the most important research results published recently in the field of the applications of supramolecular nanocarriers in modern pharmaceutical and analytical chemistry. The main attention has been paid to the fast developing technology of chemical sensors, ion-selective electrodes and separation methods, in particular to newly designed packing in high-performance liquid chromatography employing supramolecularly aided and membrane mimicking processes.

  6. Portable microwave assisted extraction: An original concept for green analytical chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Petitcolas, Emmanuel; de la Guardia, Miguel; Chemat, Farid

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a portable microwave assisted extraction apparatus (PMAE) for extraction of bioactive compounds especially essential oils and aromas directly in a crop or in a forest. The developed procedure, based on the concept of green analytical chemistry, is appropriate to obtain direct in-field information about the level of essential oils in natural samples and to illustrate green chemical lesson and research. The efficiency of this experiment was validated for the extraction of e...

  7. Analytical Chemistry at the Laboratoire d'Electrochimie Physique et Analytique

    OpenAIRE

    Bondarenko, Alexandra; Cortés-Salazar, Fernando; Gasilova, Natalia; Lesch, Andreas; Qiao, Liang; Girault, Hubert H.

    2015-01-01

    The Laboratoire d'Electrochimie Physique et Analytique (LEPA) has moved to the new Energypolis campus in Sion. This laboratory is involved in energy research in particular by studying charge transfer reactions at soft interfaces and developing interfacial redox electrocatalysis, by pioneering the concept of photo-ionic cells and by integrating redox flow batteries for the production of hydrogen at the pilot scale. Nonetheless, this laboratory has a long tradition in analytical chemistry with ...

  8. Mass and emission spectrometry in the Analytical Chemistry Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, D.H. (ed.)

    1978-11-01

    The capabilities of the Mass and Emission Spectrometry Section of the Analytical Chemistry Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory are described. Many different areas of mass spectrometric expertise are represented in the section: gas analysis, high abundance sensitivity measurements, high- and low-resolution organic analyses, spark source trace constituent analysis, and ion microprobe analysis of surfaces. These capabilities are complemented by emission spectrometry. The instruments are described along with a few applications, some of which are unique.

  9. European analytical column No. 37 from the Division of Analytical Chemistry (DAC) of the European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences (EuCheMS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlberg, Bo; Grasserbauer, Manfred; Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov

    2009-01-01

    The European Analytical Column again has a somewhat different format. We have once more invited a guest columnist to give his views on various matters related to analytical chemistry in Europe. This year we have invited Prof. Manfred Grasserbauer of Vienna University of Technology to present some...

  10. Learning beyond the Classroom: Using Text Messages to Measure General Chemistry Students' Study Habits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Li; Oueini, Razanne; Dickerson, Austin P.; Lewis, Scott E.

    2015-01-01

    This study used a series of text message inquiries sent to General Chemistry students asking: "Have you studied for General Chemistry I in the past 48 hours? If so, how did you study?" This method for collecting data is novel to chemistry education research so the first research goals were to investigate the feasibility of the technique…

  11. A Closer Look at Phase Diagrams for the General Chemistry Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramsch, Stephen A.

    2000-01-01

    Information concerning structural chemistry and phase equilibria contained in the full phase diagrams of common substances is a great deal richer than the general chemistry students are given to believe. Discusses ways of enriching the traditional presentation of phase diagrams in general chemistry courses. (Contains over 20 references.) (WRM)

  12. A new and consistent parameter for measuring the quality of multivariate analytical methods: Generalized analytical sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragoso, Wallace; Allegrini, Franco; Olivieri, Alejandro C

    2016-08-24

    Generalized analytical sensitivity (γ) is proposed as a new figure of merit, which can be estimated from a multivariate calibration data set. It can be confidently applied to compare different calibration methodologies, and helps to solve literature inconsistencies on the relationship between classical sensitivity and prediction error. In contrast to the classical plain sensitivity, γ incorporates the noise properties in its definition, and its inverse is well correlated with root mean square errors of prediction in the presence of general noise structures. The proposal is supported by studying simulated and experimental first-order multivariate calibration systems with various models, namely multiple linear regression, principal component regression (PCR) and maximum likelihood PCR (MLPCR). The simulations included instrumental noise of different types: independently and identically distributed (iid), correlated (pink) and proportional noise, while the experimental data carried noise which is clearly non-iid.

  13. General chemistry courses that can affect achievement: An action research study in developing a plan to improve undergraduate chemistry courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shweikeh, Eman

    Over the past 50 years, considerable research has been dedicated to chemistry education. In evaluating principal chemistry courses in higher education, educators have noted the learning process for first-year general chemistry courses may be challenging. The current study investigated perceptions of faculty, students and administrators on chemistry education at three institutions in Southern California. Via action research, the study sought to develop a plan to improve student engagement in general chemistry courses. A mixed method was utilized to analyze different perceptions on key factors determining the level of commitment and engagement in general chemistry education. The approach to chemistry learning from both a faculty and student perspective was examined including good practices, experiences and extent of active participation. The research study considered well-known measures of effective education with an emphasis on two key components: educational practices and student behavior. Institutional culture was inclusively assessed where cognitive expectations of chemistry teaching and learning were communicated. First, the extent in which faculty members are utilizing the "Seven Principles for Good Practice in Undergraduate Education" in their instruction was explored. Second, student attitudes and approaches toward chemistry learning were examined. The focus was on investigating student understanding of the learning process and the structure of chemistry knowledge. The seven categories used to measure students' expectations for learning chemistry were: effort, concepts, math link, reality link, outcome, laboratory, and visualization. This analysis represents the views of 16 faculty and 140 students. The results validated the assertion that students need some competencies and skills to tackle the challenges of the chemistry learning process to deeply engage in learning. A mismatch exists between the expectations of students and those of the faculty

  14. Recent developments and future trends in solid phase microextraction techniques towards green analytical chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spietelun, Agata; Marcinkowski, Łukasz; de la Guardia, Miguel; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2013-12-20

    Solid phase microextraction find increasing applications in the sample preparation step before chromatographic determination of analytes in samples with a complex composition. These techniques allow for integrating several operations, such as sample collection, extraction, analyte enrichment above the detection limit of a given measuring instrument and the isolation of analytes from sample matrix. In this work the information about novel methodological and instrumental solutions in relation to different variants of solid phase extraction techniques, solid-phase microextraction (SPME), stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) and magnetic solid phase extraction (MSPE) is presented, including practical applications of these techniques and a critical discussion about their advantages and disadvantages. The proposed solutions fulfill the requirements resulting from the concept of sustainable development, and specifically from the implementation of green chemistry principles in analytical laboratories. Therefore, particular attention was paid to the description of possible uses of novel, selective stationary phases in extraction techniques, inter alia, polymeric ionic liquids, carbon nanotubes, and silica- and carbon-based sorbents. The methodological solutions, together with properly matched sampling devices for collecting analytes from samples with varying matrix composition, enable us to reduce the number of errors during the sample preparation prior to chromatographic analysis as well as to limit the negative impact of this analytical step on the natural environment and the health of laboratory employees.

  15. Automatic evaluation and data generation for analytical chemistry instrumental analysis exercises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arsenio Muñoz de la Peña

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In general, laboratory activities are costly in terms of time, space, and money. As such, the ability to provide realistically simulated laboratory data that enables students to practice data analysis techniques as a complementary activity would be expected to reduce these costs while opening up very interesting possibilities. In the present work, a novel methodology is presented for design of analytical chemistry instrumental analysis exercises that can be automatically personalized for each student and the results evaluated immediately. The proposed system provides each student with a different set of experimental data generated randomly while satisfying a set of constraints, rather than using data obtained from actual laboratory work. This allows the instructor to provide students with a set of practical problems to complement their regular laboratory work along with the corresponding feedback provided by the system's automatic evaluation process. To this end, the Goodle Grading Management System (GMS, an innovative web-based educational tool for automating the collection and assessment of practical exercises for engineering and scientific courses, was developed. The proposed methodology takes full advantage of the Goodle GMS fusion code architecture. The design of a particular exercise is provided ad hoc by the instructor and requires basic Matlab knowledge. The system has been employed with satisfactory results in several university courses. To demonstrate the automatic evaluation process, three exercises are presented in detail. The first exercise involves a linear regression analysis of data and the calculation of the quality parameters of an instrumental analysis method. The second and third exercises address two different comparison tests, a comparison test of the mean and a t-paired test.

  16. Integrating Multiple Teaching Methods into a General Chemistry Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco, Joseph S.; Nicoll, Gayle; Trautmann, Marcella

    1998-02-01

    In addition to the traditional lecture format, three other teaching strategies (class discussions, concept maps, and cooperative learning) were incorporated into a freshman level general chemistry course. Student perceptions of their involvement in each of the teaching methods, as well as their perceptions of the utility of each method were used to assess the effectiveness of the integration of the teaching strategies as received by the students. Results suggest that each strategy serves a unique purpose for the students and increased student involvement in the course. These results indicate that the multiple teaching strategies were well received by the students and that all teaching strategies are necessary for students to get the most out of the course.

  17. Fitting It All In: Adapting a Green Chemistry Extraction Experiment for Inclusion in an Undergraduate Analytical Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Heather L.; Beck, Annelise R.; Mulvihill, Martin J.; Douskey, Michelle C.

    2013-01-01

    Several principles of green chemistry are introduced through this experiment designed for use in the undergraduate analytical chemistry laboratory. An established experiment of liquid CO2 extraction of D-limonene has been adapted to include a quantitative analysis by gas chromatography. This facilitates drop-in incorporation of an exciting…

  18. Redox chemistry and natural organic matter (NOM): Geochemists' dream, analytical chemists' nightmare

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacAlady, Donald L.; Walton-Day, Katherine

    2011-01-01

    Natural organic matter (NOM) is an inherently complex mixture of polyfunctional organic molecules. Because of their universality and chemical reversibility, oxidation/reductions (redox) reactions of NOM have an especially interesting and important role in geochemistry. Variabilities in NOM composition and chemistry make studies of its redox chemistry particularly challenging, and details of NOM-mediated redox reactions are only partially understood. This is in large part due to the analytical difficulties associated with NOM characterization and the wide range of reagents and experimental systems used to study NOM redox reactions. This chapter provides a summary of the ongoing efforts to provide a coherent comprehension of aqueous redox chemistry involving NOM and of techniques for chemical characterization of NOM. It also describes some attempts to confirm the roles of different structural moieties in redox reactions. In addition, we discuss some of the operational parameters used to describe NOM redox capacities and redox states, and describe nomenclature of NOM redox chemistry. Several relatively facile experimental methods applicable to predictions of the NOM redox activity and redox states of NOM samples are discussed, with special attention to the proposed use of fluorescence spectroscopy to predict relevant redox characteristics of NOM samples.

  19. Ubiquitous trisulfur radical anion: fundamentals and applications in materials science, electrochemistry, analytical chemistry and geochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chivers, Tristram; Elder, Philip J W

    2013-07-21

    The trisulfur radical anion [S3]˙(-) is well-known from inorganic chemistry textbooks as the blue chromophore in ultramarine blues in which this highly reactive species is trapped in a zeolitic framework. Recent findings have revealed that [S3]˙(-) has a multi-faceted role in a variety of media, including alkali metal-sulfur batteries, aqueous solutions at high temperatures and pressures, and ionic liquids; it has also been used to detect trace amounts of water in organic solvents. This tutorial review illustrates how various physical techniques are used to identify a reactive species in solution and shows how elucidation of electronic structures can be used to explain spectroscopic and structural properties. Examples of the function of [S3]˙(-) in materials science, electrochemistry, analytical chemistry and geochemistry are used to illustrate the widespread influence of this fundamentally important triatomic sulfur species.

  20. Evaluation of Eleventh Grade Turkish Pupils' Comprehension of General Chemistry Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belge Can, Hatice; Boz, Yezdan

    2011-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to evaluate eleventh grade Turkish pupils' comprehension of various general chemistry concepts which in turn enables to investigate chemistry concepts which are easier and harder for students to comprehend. Examining the effect of gender and last semester chemistry course grades on pupils' comprehension of general…

  1. The Effects of Clickers and Online Homework on Students' Achievement in General Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebru, Misganaw T.

    2012-01-01

    Retention of an introductory general chemistry course material is vital for student success in future chemistry and chemistry-related courses. This study investigated the effects of clickers versus online homework on students' long-term content retention, examined the effectiveness of online homework versus no graded homework on…

  2. Development and Assessment of Green, Research-Based Instructional Materials for the General Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacciatore, Kristen L.

    2010-01-01

    This research entails integrating two novel approaches for enriching student learning in chemistry into the context of the general chemistry laboratory. The first is a pedagogical approach based on research in cognitive science and the second is the green chemistry philosophy. Research has shown that inquiry-based approaches are effective in…

  3. Graphene-based materials: fabrication and application for adsorption in analytical chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Liu, Bo; Lu, Qipeng; Qu, Qishu

    2014-10-03

    Graphene, a single layer of carbon atoms densely packed into a honeycomb crystal lattice with unique electronic, chemical, and mechanical properties, is the 2D allotrope of carbon. Owing to the remarkable properties, graphene and graphene-based materials are likely to find potential applications as a sorbent in analytical chemistry. The current review focuses predominantly on the recent development of graphene-based materials and demonstrates their enhanced performance in adsorption of organic compounds, metal ions, and solid phase extraction as well as in separation science since mostly 2012.

  4. Portable microwave assisted extraction: An original concept for green analytical chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perino, Sandrine; Petitcolas, Emmanuel; de la Guardia, Miguel; Chemat, Farid

    2013-11-08

    This paper describes a portable microwave assisted extraction apparatus (PMAE) for extraction of bioactive compounds especially essential oils and aromas directly in a crop or in a forest. The developed procedure, based on the concept of green analytical chemistry, is appropriate to obtain direct in-field information about the level of essential oils in natural samples and to illustrate green chemical lesson and research. The efficiency of this experiment was validated for the extraction of essential oil of rosemary directly in a crop and allows obtaining a quantitative information on the content of essential oil, which was similar to that obtained by conventional methods in the laboratory.

  5. Applications of everyday IT and communications devices in modern analytical chemistry: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grudpan, Kate; Kolev, Spas D; Lapanantnopakhun, Somchai; McKelvie, Ian D; Wongwilai, Wasin

    2015-05-01

    This paper reviews the development and recent use of everyday communications and IT equipment (mobile phones, digital cameras, scanners, webcams, etc) as detection devices for colorimetric chemistries. Such devices can readily be applied for visible detection using reaction formats such as microfluidic paper based analytical devices (µPADs), indicator papers, and well plate reaction vessels. Their use is highly advantageous with respect to cost, simplicity and portability, and offers many opportunities in the areas of point of care diagnosis, and at-site monitoring of environmental, agricultural, food and beverage parameters.

  6. Standard guide for establishing a quality assurance program for analytical chemistry laboratories within the nuclear industry

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2006-01-01

    1.1 This guide covers the establishment of a quality assurance (QA) program for analytical chemistry laboratories within the nuclear industry. Reference to key elements of ANSI/ISO/ASQC Q9001, Quality Systems, provides guidance to the functional aspects of analytical laboratory operation. When implemented as recommended, the practices presented in this guide will provide a comprehensive QA program for the laboratory. The practices are grouped by functions, which constitute the basic elements of a laboratory QA program. 1.2 The essential, basic elements of a laboratory QA program appear in the following order: Section Organization 5 Quality Assurance Program 6 Training and Qualification 7 Procedures 8 Laboratory Records 9 Control of Records 10 Control of Procurement 11 Control of Measuring Equipment and Materials 12 Control of Measurements 13 Deficiencies and Corrective Actions 14

  7. THE ANALYTICAL SOLUTION FOR SEDIMENT REACTION AND DIFFUSION EQUATION WITH GENERALIZED INITIAL-BOUNDARY CONDITIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊岳山; 韦永康

    2001-01-01

    The sediment reaction and diffusion equation with generalized initial and boundary condition is studied. By using Laplace transform and Jordan lemma , an analytical solution is got, which is an extension of analytical solution provided by Cheng Kwokming James ( only diffusion was considered in analytical solution of Cheng ). Some problems arisen in the computation of analytical solution formula are also analysed.

  8. General analytical solutions for DC/AC circuit network analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Rubido, Nicolás; Baptista, Murilo S

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we present novel general analytical solutions for the currents that are developed in the edges of network-like circuits when some nodes of the network act as sources/sinks of DC or AC current. We assume that Ohm's law is valid at every edge and that charge at every node is conserved (with the exception of the source/sink nodes). The resistive, capacitive, and/or inductive properties of the lines in the circuit define a complex network structure with given impedances for each edge. Our solution for the currents at each edge is derived in terms of the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the Laplacian matrix of the network defined from the impedances. This derivation also allows us to compute the equivalent impedance between any two nodes of the circuit and relate it to currents in a closed circuit which has a single voltage generator instead of many input/output source/sink nodes. Contrary to solving Kirchhoff's equations, our derivation allows to easily calculate the redistribution of currents that o...

  9. Recent developments in computer vision-based analytical chemistry: A tutorial review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capitán-Vallvey, Luis Fermín; López-Ruiz, Nuria; Martínez-Olmos, Antonio; Erenas, Miguel M; Palma, Alberto J

    2015-10-29

    Chemical analysis based on colour changes recorded with imaging devices is gaining increasing interest. This is due to its several significant advantages, such as simplicity of use, and the fact that it is easily combinable with portable and widely distributed imaging devices, resulting in friendly analytical procedures in many areas that demand out-of-lab applications for in situ and real-time monitoring. This tutorial review covers computer vision-based analytical (CVAC) procedures and systems from 2005 to 2015, a period of time when 87.5% of the papers on this topic were published. The background regarding colour spaces and recent analytical system architectures of interest in analytical chemistry is presented in the form of a tutorial. Moreover, issues regarding images, such as the influence of illuminants, and the most relevant techniques for processing and analysing digital images are addressed. Some of the most relevant applications are then detailed, highlighting their main characteristics. Finally, our opinion about future perspectives is discussed.

  10. Implementation of Scheduling Algorithm with Robotic Arm and Analytical Plate for Clinical Chemistry Analyzer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudha Ramasamy

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Complete automation is the ultimate goal in health care industry and this is of utmost importance in clinical laboratories. Processor based bio robots are involved in all these automation procedures. In this study, the indigenous robotic platform, used in clinical chemistry analyzers, which is highly flexible and user friendly for small or medium sized hospitals, is designed. A microcontroller based robotic arm is put forth as the robotic platform and this is capable of handling blood samples, reagents, etc. The basic design is of a compact, three circular analytical plates, placed one inside the other. The samples and reagents are loaded onto the analytical plate; the arm then transfers the blood samples and reagents successively to the reaction cell and if required, next to an incubating unit. Two different arms perform all the different tasks based on the controlling algorithm. The circuit manipulating the path of the robot arm, along with other controlling circuitry of the arm is embedded within the arm itself. By automating this unit, the flexibility and throughput of the tests will be increased. Controlled and precise use of reagents and high accuracy of results are additional advantages. Data handling is also simplified. The robotic arm and analytical plate has been designed, a prototype model has been made and synchronization between the two has been achieved. The clear description of arm and analytical plate movement along with the synchronization algorithms are presented in this study.

  11. Electrical field-induced extraction and separation techniques: promising trends in analytical chemistry--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamini, Yadollah; Seidi, Shahram; Rezazadeh, Maryam

    2014-03-03

    Sample preparation is an important issue in analytical chemistry, and is often a bottleneck in chemical analysis. So, the major incentive for the recent research has been to attain faster, simpler, less expensive, and more environmentally friendly sample preparation methods. The use of auxiliary energies, such as heat, ultrasound, and microwave, is one of the strategies that have been employed in sample preparation to reach the above purposes. Application of electrical driving force is the current state-of-the-art, which presents new possibilities for simplifying and shortening the sample preparation process as well as enhancing its selectivity. The electrical driving force has scarcely been utilized in comparison with other auxiliary energies. In this review, the different roles of electrical driving force (as a powerful auxiliary energy) in various extraction techniques, including liquid-, solid-, and membrane-based methods, have been taken into consideration. Also, the references have been made available, relevant to the developments in separation techniques and Lab-on-a-Chip (LOC) systems. All aspects of electrical driving force in extraction and separation methods are too specific to be treated in this contribution. However, the main aim of this review is to provide a brief knowledge about the different fields of analytical chemistry, with an emphasis on the latest efforts put into the electrically assisted membrane-based sample preparation systems. The advantages and disadvantages of these approaches as well as the new achievements in these areas have been discussed, which might be helpful for further progress in the future.

  12. Peptide interfaces with graphene: an emerging intersection of analytical chemistry, theory, and materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Shane R; Claridge, Shelley A

    2016-04-01

    Because noncovalent interface functionalization is frequently required in graphene-based devices, biomolecular self-assembly has begun to emerge as a route for controlling substrate electronic structure or binding specificity for soluble analytes. The remarkable diversity of structures that arise in biological self-assembly hints at the possibility of equally diverse and well-controlled surface chemistry at graphene interfaces. However, predicting and analyzing adsorbed monolayer structures at such interfaces raises substantial experimental and theoretical challenges. In contrast with the relatively well-developed monolayer chemistry and characterization methods applied at coinage metal surfaces, monolayers on graphene are both less robust and more structurally complex, levying more stringent requirements on characterization techniques. Theory presents opportunities to understand early binding events that lay the groundwork for full monolayer structure. However, predicting interactions between complex biomolecules, solvent, and substrate is necessitating a suite of new force fields and algorithms to assess likely binding configurations, solvent effects, and modulations to substrate electronic properties. This article briefly discusses emerging analytical and theoretical methods used to develop a rigorous chemical understanding of the self-assembly of peptide-graphene interfaces and prospects for future advances in the field.

  13. Analytical Chemistry at the Laboratoire d'Electrochimie Physique et Analytique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondarenko, Alexandra; Cortés-Salazar, Fernando; Gasilova, Natalia; Lesch, Andreas; Qiao, Liang; Girault, Hubert H

    2015-01-01

    The Laboratoire d'Electrochimie Physique et Analytique (LEPA) has moved to the new Energypolis campus in Sion. This laboratory is involved in energy research in particular by studying charge transfer reactions at soft interfaces and developing interfacial redox electrocatalysis, by pioneering the concept of photo-ionic cells and by integrating redox flow batteries for the production of hydrogen at the pilot scale. Nonetheless, this laboratory has a long tradition in analytical chemistry with the development of microfabrication techniques such as laser photo-ablation, screen-printing and more recently inkjet printing for the design and fabrication of biosensors and immunosensors. As shown in the present review, the laboratory has recently pioneered new technologies for electrochemical and mass spectrometry imaging and for the screening of allergy in patients. The role of the laboratory in the Valais landscape will be to foster the collaboration with the HES to develop teaching and research in analytical chemistry as this field is a major source of employment for chemists.

  14. Analytical Chemistry Division annual progress report for period ending December 31, 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyon, W.S. (ed.)

    1985-04-01

    Progress reports are presented for the following sections: analytical methodology; mass and emission spectroscopy; radioactive materials analysis; bio/organic analysis; and general and environmental analysis; quality assurance, safety, and tabulation analyses. In addition a list of publications and oral presentations and supplemental activities are included.

  15. Analytical Chemistry Division annual progress report for period ending December 31, 1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyon, W.S. (ed.)

    1984-05-01

    Progress and activities are reported in: analytical methodology, mass and emission spectrometry, radioactive materials analysis, bio/organic analysis, general and environmental analysis, and quality assurance and safety. Supplementary activities are also discussed, and a bibliography of publications is also included. (DLC)

  16. A Transition Program for Underprepared Students in General Chemistry: Diagnosis, Implementation, and Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Shawn P.; Hogrebe, Mark C.; Spees, William M.; Handlin, Larry B.; Noelken, Greg P.; Riley, Julie M.; Frey, Regina F.

    2012-01-01

    We developed an online exam to diagnose students who are underprepared for college-level general chemistry and implemented a program to support them during the general chemistry sequence. This transition program consists of extended-length recitations, peer-led team-learning (PLTL) study groups, and peer-mentoring groups. We evaluated this…

  17. Chemical Remediation of Nickel(II) Waste: A Laboratory Experiment for General Chemistry Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, K. Blake; Rood, Brian E.; Trogden, Bridget G.

    2011-01-01

    This project involved developing a method to remediate large quantities of aqueous waste from a general chemistry laboratory experiment. Aqueous Ni(II) waste from a general chemistry laboratory experiment was converted into solid nickel hydroxide hydrate with a substantial decrease in waste volume. The remediation method was developed for a…

  18. Medicaid Analytic eXtract (MAX) General Information

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Medicaid Analytic eXtract (MAX) data is a set of person-level data files on Medicaid eligibility, service utilization, and payments. The MAX data are created to...

  19. Building a Database for the Historical Analysis of the General Chemistry Curriculum Using ACS General Chemistry Exams as Artifacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luxford, Cynthia J.; Linenberger, Kimberly J.; Raker, Jeffrey R.; Baluyut, John Y.; Reed, Jessica J.; De Silva, Chamila; Holme, Thomas A.

    2015-01-01

    As a discipline, chemistry enjoys a unique position. While many academic areas prepared "cooperative examinations" in the 1930s, only chemistry maintained the activity within what has become the ACS Examinations Institute. As a result, the long-term existence of community-built, norm-referenced, standardized exams provides a historical…

  20. Metal-organic frameworks for analytical chemistry: from sample collection to chromatographic separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Zhi-Yuan; Yang, Cheng-Xiong; Chang, Na; Yan, Xiu-Ping

    2012-05-15

    In modern analytical chemistry researchers pursue novel materials to meet analytical challenges such as improvements in sensitivity, selectivity, and detection limit. Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are an emerging class of microporous materials, and their unusual properties such as high surface area, good thermal stability, uniform structured nanoscale cavities, and the availability of in-pore functionality and outer-surface modification are attractive for diverse analytical applications. This Account summarizes our research on the analytical applications of MOFs ranging from sampling to chromatographic separation. MOFs have been either directly used or engineered to meet the demands of various analytical applications. Bulk MOFs with microsized crystals are convenient sorbents for direct application to in-field sampling and solid-phase extraction. Quartz tubes packed with MOF-5 have shown excellent stability, adsorption efficiency, and reproducibility for in-field sampling and trapping of atmospheric formaldehyde. The 2D copper(II) isonicotinate packed microcolumn has demonstrated large enhancement factors and good shape- and size-selectivity when applied to on-line solid-phase extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water samples. We have explored the molecular sieving effect of MOFs for the efficient enrichment of peptides with simultaneous exclusion of proteins from biological fluids. These results show promise for the future of MOFs in peptidomics research. Moreover, nanosized MOFs and engineered thin films of MOFs are promising materials as novel coatings for solid-phase microextraction. We have developed an in situ hydrothermal growth approach to fabricate thin films of MOF-199 on etched stainless steel wire for solid-phase microextraction of volatile benzene homologues with large enhancement factors and wide linearity. Their high thermal stability and easy-to-engineer nanocrystals make MOFs attractive as new stationary phases to fabricate MOF

  1. Sample Acquisition and Analytical Chemistry Challenges to Verifying Compliance to Aviators Breathing Oxygen (ABO) Purity Specification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, John

    2015-01-01

    NASA has been developing and testing two different types of oxygen separation systems. One type of oxygen separation system uses pressure swing technology, the other type uses a solid electrolyte electrochemical oxygen separation cell. Both development systems have been subjected to long term testing, and performance testing under a variety of environmental and operational conditions. Testing these two systems revealed that measuring the product purity of oxygen, and determining if an oxygen separation device meets Aviator's Breathing Oxygen (ABO) specifications is a subtle and sometimes difficult analytical chemistry job. Verifying product purity of cryogenically produced oxygen presents a different set of analytical chemistry challenges. This presentation will describe some of the sample acquisition and analytical chemistry challenges presented by verifying oxygen produced by an oxygen separator - and verifying oxygen produced by cryogenic separation processes. The primary contaminant that causes gas samples to fail to meet ABO requirements is water. The maximum amount of water vapor allowed is 7 ppmv. The principal challenge of verifying oxygen produced by an oxygen separator is that it is produced relatively slowly, and at comparatively low temperatures. A short term failure that occurs for just a few minutes in the course of a 1 week run could cause an entire tank to be rejected. Continuous monitoring of oxygen purity and water vapor could identify problems as soon as they occur. Long term oxygen separator tests were instrumented with an oxygen analyzer and with an hygrometer: a GE Moisture Monitor Series 35. This hygrometer uses an aluminum oxide sensor. The user's manual does not report this, but long term exposure to pure oxygen causes the aluminum oxide sensor head to bias dry. Oxygen product that exceeded the 7 ppm specification was improperly accepted, because the sensor had biased. The bias is permanent - exposure to air does not cause the sensor to

  2. Teaching Lab Report Writing through Inquiry: A Green Chemistry Stoichiometry Experiment for General Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacciatore, Kristen L.; Sevian, Hannah

    2006-01-01

    We present an alternative to a traditional first-year chemistry laboratory experiment. This experiment has four key features: students utilize stoichiometry, learn and apply principles of green chemistry, engage in authentic scientific inquiry, and discover why each part of a scientific lab report is necessary. The importance and essential…

  3. Interpolation and extrapolation problems of multivariate regression in analytical chemistry: benchmarking the robustness on near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balabin, Roman M; Smirnov, Sergey V

    2012-04-07

    Modern analytical chemistry of industrial products is in need of rapid, robust, and cheap analytical methods to continuously monitor product quality parameters. For this reason, spectroscopic methods are often used to control the quality of industrial products in an on-line/in-line regime. Vibrational spectroscopy, including mid-infrared (MIR), Raman, and near-infrared (NIR), is one of the best ways to obtain information about the chemical structures and the quality coefficients of multicomponent mixtures. Together with chemometric algorithms and multivariate data analysis (MDA) methods, which were especially created for the analysis of complicated, noisy, and overlapping signals, NIR spectroscopy shows great results in terms of its accuracy, including classical prediction error, RMSEP. However, it is unclear whether the combined NIR + MDA methods are capable of dealing with much more complex interpolation or extrapolation problems that are inevitably present in real-world applications. In the current study, we try to make a rather general comparison of linear, such as partial least squares or projection to latent structures (PLS); "quasi-nonlinear", such as the polynomial version of PLS (Poly-PLS); and intrinsically non-linear, such as artificial neural networks (ANNs), support vector regression (SVR), and least-squares support vector machines (LS-SVM/LSSVM), regression methods in terms of their robustness. As a measure of robustness, we will try to estimate their accuracy when solving interpolation and extrapolation problems. Petroleum and biofuel (biodiesel) systems were chosen as representative examples of real-world samples. Six very different chemical systems that differed in complexity, composition, structure, and properties were studied; these systems were gasoline, ethanol-gasoline biofuel, diesel fuel, aromatic solutions of petroleum macromolecules, petroleum resins in benzene, and biodiesel. Eighteen different sample sets were used in total. General

  4. Teaching Effectiveness of Integrating Task-based Approach into Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry Course

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tianjiao; WEI; Yiru; WANG; Sen; HUANG

    2013-01-01

    From the perspective of students,the effectiveness of task-based approach in In-organic and Analytical Chemistry course were summarized.The strength and weak points of TBA were analyzed,and the specific suggestions for obtaining better effect were put forward.The result showed a satisfactory achievement and unexpected result in showing the effectiveness of this teaching model.Not only could this TBA enhance student’s overall knowledge of discipline but also cultivate students’ multi-dimensional competence:competence in searching literatures, communication and management,autonomous,co-operative and reflective learning,and competence in analyzing and problem-solving,as well as improving their language expression ability,and skills in using multi-media and internet technology into their academic course learning and research.The implication of this research on the classroom teaching practice will shed light on the future teaching reform of other courses in China.

  5. Teaching Effective Communication in a Writing-Intensive Analytical Chemistry Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelan, Rebecca J.; Zare, Richard N.

    2003-08-01

    Effective writing and speaking skills are vital for chemical professionals, yet traditional academic preparation does little to develop these skills. In this report, we describe classroom-tested strategies for teaching writing and speaking. In the context of a required lecture and laboratory course in analytical chemistry, students gain extensive experience with reading, writing, revising, and speaking in the way that professional chemists do. Students improve their writing skills by preparing four laboratory reports that follow the conventions of the chemical literature. One of the reports is prepared collaboratively to reflect the real experience of professional chemists. Individualized conferences and critiques by more experienced peers lead to extensive revision of a graded report. Several activities encourage the students to develop an appreciation of the organization and strategy of a scientific article. Finally, the students practice oral communication by preparing and delivering a short presentation, including visual aids, based on a paper from the literature.

  6. Analytical Models of Exoplanetary Atmospheres. III. Gaseous C-H-O-N Chemistry with 9 Molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Heng, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    We present novel, analytical, equilibrium-chemistry formulae for the abundances of molecules in hot exoplanetary atmospheres that include the carbon, oxygen and nitrogen networks. Our hydrogen-dominated solutions involve acetylene (C$_2$H$_2$), ammonia (NH$_3$), carbon dioxide (CO$_2$), carbon monoxide (CO), ethylene (C$_2$H$_4$), hydrogen cyanide (HCN), methane (CH$_4$), molecular nitrogen (N$_2$) and water (H$_2$O). By considering only the gaseous phase, we prove that the mixing ratio of carbon monoxide is governed by a decic equation (polynomial equation of degree 10). We validate our solutions against numerical calculations of equilibrium chemistry that perform Gibbs free energy minimization and demonstrate that they are accurate for temperatures from 500--3000 K. In hydrogen-dominated atmospheres, the ratio of abundances of HCN to CH$_4$ is nearly constant across a wide range of carbon-to-oxygen ratios, which makes it a robust diagnostic of the metallicity in the gas phase. Our validated formulae allow f...

  7. Analytical Models of Exoplanetary Atmospheres. III. Gaseous C-H-O-N Chemistry with Nine Molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heng, Kevin; Tsai, Shang-Min

    2016-10-01

    We present novel, analytical, equilibrium-chemistry formulae for the abundances of molecules in hot exoplanetary atmospheres that include the carbon, oxygen, and nitrogen networks. Our hydrogen-dominated solutions involve acetylene (C2H2), ammonia (NH3), carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), ethylene (C2H4), hydrogen cyanide (HCN), methane (CH4), molecular nitrogen (N2), and water (H2O). By considering only the gas phase, we prove that the mixing ratio of carbon monoxide is governed by a decic equation (polynomial equation of 10 degrees). We validate our solutions against numerical calculations of equilibrium chemistry that perform Gibbs free energy minimization and demonstrate that they are accurate at the ˜ 1 % level for temperatures from 500 to 3000 K. In hydrogen-dominated atmospheres, the ratio of abundances of HCN to CH4 is nearly constant across a wide range of carbon-to-oxygen ratios, which makes it a robust diagnostic of the metallicity in the gas phase. Our validated formulae allow for the convenient benchmarking of chemical kinetics codes and provide an efficient way of enforcing chemical equilibrium in atmospheric retrieval calculations.

  8. Evaluation of clinical chemistry analytes from a single mouse using diluted plasma: effective way to reduce the number of animals in toxicity studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Vinod Kumar; Pandey, Santosh Kumar; Kakade, Somesh; Nirogi, Ramakrishna

    2016-10-01

    Clinical chemistry is an essential analytical tool in many areas of research, drug assessment and development, and in the evaluation of general health. A certain amount of blood is required to evaluate all blood analytes. Experiments where mice are used, it is difficult to measure all analytes due to the small amount of blood that can be obtained from a single animal. To overcome this problem, separate cohorts of animals are used in toxicity studies for hematology and biochemistry analysis. This requires the use of extra animals and additional resources. Hence interpretation of results derived from using these different animals can be unreliable. This study was undertaken to explore the possibility of using diluted plasma for measuring various biochemistry analytes. Plasma from mice was diluted to 3, 5 and 10-fold with Water for Injection, and various biochemistry analytes were analyzed using an automated analyzer. Results of diluted and undiluted plasma from the same mouse were compared. Most of the analytes from the diluted plasma were found to be well within the ranges of the undiluted plasma except for sodium, potassium and chloride. Diluting plasma to analyze some analytes also freed up undiluted plasma for analyzing electrolytes. In conclusion, in order to obtain reliable and interpretable data from a single mouse it is worthwhile considering diluting the plasma, which should reduce the number of animals used in an experiment.

  9. Applications of the New Family of Coherent Multidimensional Spectroscopies for Analytical Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, John C

    2017-03-27

    A new family of vibrational and electronic spectroscopies has emerged, comprising the coherent analogs of traditional analytical methods. These methods are also analogs of coherent multidimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. This new family is based on creating the same quantum mechanical superposition states called multiple quantum coherences (MQCs). NMR MQCs are mixtures of nuclear spin states that retain their quantum mechanical phase information for milliseconds. The MQCs in this new family are mixtures of vibrational and electronic states that retain their phases for picoseconds or shorter times. Ultrafast, high-intensity coherent beams rapidly excite multiple states. The excited MQCs then emit bright beams while they retain their phases. Time-domain methods measure the frequencies of the MQCs by resolving their phase oscillations, whereas frequency-domain methods measure the resonance enhancements of the output beam while scanning the excitation frequencies. The resulting spectra provide multidimensional spectral signatures that increase the spectroscopic selectivity required for analyzing complex samples. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Analytical Chemistry Volume 10 is June 12, 2017. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

  10. Fostering Spatial Skill Acquisition by General Chemistry Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlisle, Deborah; Tyson, Julian; Nieswandt, Martina

    2015-01-01

    The study of chemistry requires the understanding and use of spatial relationships, which can be challenging for many students. Prior research has shown that there is a need to develop students' spatial reasoning skills. To that end, this study implemented guided activities designed to strengthen students' spatial skills, with the aim of improving…

  11. Service Learning Track in General Chemistry: Giving Students a Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaghy, Kelley J.; Saxton, Kathleen J.

    2012-01-01

    Experiential learning is a foundation in chemistry courses from the introductory-level course to upper-level courses through laboratory experiences. Service learning is another type of experiential learning that is slowly gaining momentum in the sciences. There have been several reports in this "Journal" on this pedagogy with respect to student…

  12. Incorporating More Individual Accountability in Group Activities in General Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Charles T., Jr.

    2015-01-01

    A modified model of cooperative learning known as the GIG model (for group-individual-group) designed and implemented in a large enrollment freshman chemistry course. The goal of the model is to establish a cooperative environment while emphasizing greater individual accountability using both group and individual assignments. The assignments were…

  13. Evaluation of Three Instructional Methods for Teaching General Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackman, Lance E.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Reports on a study designed to determine the relative effectiveness of different instructional approaches on chemistry laboratory achievement. Investigated differences in achievement in spectrophotometry among college freshmen who received either traditional, learning cycle, or computer simulation instruction. Results indicated that students…

  14. Perturbative study on the analytic continuation for generalized gravitational entropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prudenziati, Andrea

    2015-05-01

    We study the analytic continuation used by Lewkowycz and Maldacena to prove the Ryu-Takayanagi formula for entanglement entropy, which is the holographic dual of the trace of the β -power of the Euclidean time evolution operator when β ∈R . This will be done perturbatively using a weakly time dependent Hamiltonian, corresponding to a small shift of the dual static background. The perturbation will be set to either satisfy the Lewkowycz-Maldacena proposal or a different analytic continuation, depending on its periodicity conditions. The two choices will be tested by computing the associated entropies and compared to the Ryu-Takayanagi formula. To our surprise we discover that, at first order, they both correctly reproduce the associated entanglement entropy. Furthermore in both cases we find unexpected divergent contributions that we have to discard in order to fit the minimal area computation, and an additional requirement on the β dependence on the metric.

  15. Examining the Effects of Reflective Journals on Pre-Service Science Teachers' General Chemistry Laboratory Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cengiz, Canan; Karatas, Faik Özgür

    2015-01-01

    The general chemistry laboratory is an appropriate place for learning chemistry well. It is also effective for stimulating higher-order thinking skills, including reflective thinking, a skill that is crucial for science teaching as well as learning. This study aims to examine the effects of feedback-supported reflective journal-keeping activities…

  16. Learning and Studying Strategies Used by General Chemistry Students with Different Affective Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Julia Y. K.; Bauer, Christopher F.

    2016-01-01

    Students in general chemistry were partitioned into three groups by cluster analysis of six affective characteristics (emotional satisfaction, intellectual accessibility, chemistry self-concept, math self-concept, self-efficacy, and test anxiety). The at-home study strategies for exam preparation and in-class learning strategies differed among the…

  17. Preparation for College General Chemistry: More than Just a Matter of Content Knowledge Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cracolice, Mark S.; Busby, Brittany D.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the potential of five factors that may be predictive of success in college general chemistry courses: prior knowledge of common alternate conceptions, intelligence, scientific reasoning ability, proportional reasoning ability, and attitude toward chemistry. We found that both prior knowledge and scientific reasoning ability…

  18. Atoms-First Curriculum: A Comparison of Student Success in General Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esterling, Kevin M.; Bartels, Ludwig

    2013-01-01

    We present an evaluation of the impact of an atoms-first curriculum on student success in introductory chemistry classes and find that initially a lower fraction of students obtain passing grades in the first and second quarters of the general chemistry series. This effect is more than reversed for first-quarter students after one year of…

  19. The Representation of People of Color in Undergraduate General Chemistry Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Denise; Domin, Daniel S.

    2007-01-01

    The presence of cultural basis within undergraduate general chemistry textbooks is examined by assessing the extent to and manner in which people of color are represented in textbook photographs. It is proposed that the images that students look upon in the textbooks help in their perceptions of chemistry as a whole.

  20. Applying the Multilevel Framework of Discourse Comprehension to Evaluate the Text Characteristics of General Chemistry Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyburn, Daniel T.; Pazicni, Samuel

    2014-01-01

    Prior chemistry education research has demonstrated a relationship between student reading skill and general chemistry course performance. In addition to student characteristics, however, the qualities of the learning materials with which students interact also impact student learning. For example, low-knowledge students benefit from texts that…

  1. Problem Solving Videos for General Chemistry Review: Students' Perceptions and Use Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards-Babb, Michelle; Curtis, Reagan; Smith, Valerie J.; Xu, Mingming

    2014-01-01

    We examined the use of problem solving videos (PSVs) as a substitute for general chemistry exam review sessions. We investigated student perceptions of course aspects regarding usefulness for supporting their learning of chemistry content. We also examined "how" students used the PSVs to further their learning. Students ranked the PSVs…

  2. Infrared Ion Spectroscopy at Felix: Applications in Peptide Dissociation and Analytical Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oomens, Jos

    2016-06-01

    Infrared free electron lasers such as those in Paris, Berlin and Nijmegen have been at the forefront of the development of infrared ion spectroscopy. In this contribution, I will give an overview of new developments in IR spectroscopy of stored ions at the FELIX Laboratory. In particular, I will focus on recent developments made possible by the coupling of a new commercial ion trap mass spectrometer to the FELIX beamline. The possibility to record IR spectra of mass-selected molecular ions and their reaction products has in recent years shed new light on our understanding of collision induced dissociation (CID) reactions of protonated peptides in mass spectrometry (MS). We now show that it is possible to record IR spectra for the products of electron transfer dissociation (ETD) reactions [M + nH]n+ + A- → [M + nH](n-1)+ + A → {dissociation of analyte} These reactions are now widely used in novel MS-based protein sequencing strategies, but involve complex radical chemistry. The spectroscopic results allow stringent verification of computationally predicted product structures and hence reaction mechanisms and H-atom migration. The sensitivity and high dynamic range of a commercial mass spectrometer also allows us to apply infrared ion spectroscopy to analytes in complex "real-life" mixtures. The ability to record IR spectra with the sensitivity of mass-spectrometric detection is unrivalled in analytical sciences and is particularly useful in the identification of small (biological) molecules, such as in metabolomics. We report preliminary results of a pilot study on the spectroscopic identification of small metabolites in urine and plasma samples.

  3. An Advanced Analytical Chemistry Experiment Using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry, MATLAB, and Chemometrics to Predict Biodiesel Blend Percent Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Karisa M.; Schale, Stephen P.; Le, Trang M.; Larson, Joel C.

    2011-01-01

    We present a laboratory experiment for an advanced analytical chemistry course where we first focus on the chemometric technique partial least-squares (PLS) analysis applied to one-dimensional (1D) total-ion-current gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-TIC) separations of biodiesel blends. Then, we focus on n-way PLS (n-PLS) applied to…

  4. Using a Practical Instructional Development Process to Show That Integrating Lab and Active Learning Benefits Undergraduate Analytical Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goacher, Robyn E.; Kline, Cynthia M.; Targus, Alexis; Vermette, Paul J.

    2017-01-01

    We describe how a practical instructional development process helped a first-year assistant professor rapidly develop, implement, and assess the impact on her Analytical Chemistry course caused by three changes: (a) moving the lab into the same semester as the lecture, (b) developing a more collaborative classroom environment, and (c) increasing…

  5. Tetraglyme Trap for the Determination of Volatile Organic Compounds in Urban Air: Projects for Undergraduate Analytical Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hope, Wilbert W.; Johnson, Clyde; Johnson, Leon P.

    2004-01-01

    The differences in the levels of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), in the ambient air from the two urban locations, were studied by the undergraduate analytical chemistry students. Tetraglyme is very widely used due to its simplicity and its potential for use to investigate VOCs in ambient and indoor air employing a purge-and-trap concentrator…

  6. The Quantitative Resolution of a Mixture of Group II Metal Ions by Thermometric Titration with EDTA. An Analytical Chemistry Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Robert L.; Popham, Ronald E.

    1983-01-01

    Presents an experiment in thermometric titration used in an analytic chemistry-chemical instrumentation course, consisting of two titrations, one a mixture of calcium and magnesium, the other of calcium, magnesium, and barium ions. Provides equipment and solutions list/specifications, graphs, and discussion of results. (JM)

  7. General Economic Equilibrium: Purpose, Analytic Techniques, Collective Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    The lecture is designed to survey modern development of the theory of general equilibrium in a competitive economy and its role in the allocation of...by an evaluation of the needs for further development. The differing general equilibrium tradition in the German-language literature is summarized.

  8. Annual Report 1984. Chemistry Department

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Funck, Jytte; Nielsen, Ole John

    This report contains a brief survey of the main activities in the Chemistry Department. All articles and reports published and lectures given in 1984 are presented. The facilities and equipment are mentioned briefly. The activities are divided into the following groups: radioisotope chemistry, an......, analytical- and organic chemistry, environmental chemistry, polymer chemistry, geochemistry and waste disposal, radical chemistry, positron annihilation, mineral processing, and general.......This report contains a brief survey of the main activities in the Chemistry Department. All articles and reports published and lectures given in 1984 are presented. The facilities and equipment are mentioned briefly. The activities are divided into the following groups: radioisotope chemistry...

  9. An approach to teaching general chemistry II that highlights the interdisciplinary nature of science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumter, Takita Felder; Owens, Patrick M

    2011-01-01

    The need for a revised curriculum within the life sciences has been well-established. One strategy to improve student preparation in the life sciences is to redesign introductory courses like biology, chemistry, and physics so that they better reflect their disciplinary interdependence. We describe a medically relevant, context-based approach to teaching second semester general chemistry that demonstrates the interdisciplinary nature of biology and chemistry. Our innovative method provides a model in which disciplinary barriers are diminished early in the undergraduate science curriculum. The course is divided into three principle educational modules: 1) Fundamentals of General Chemistry, 2) Medical Approaches to Inflammation, and 3) Neuroscience as a connector of chemistry, biology, and psychology. We accurately anticipated that this modified approach to teaching general chemistry would enhance student interest in chemistry and bridge the perceived gaps between biology and chemistry. The course serves as a template for context-based, interdisciplinary teaching that lays the foundation needed to train 21st century scientists.

  10. Effects of Conceptual Systems and Instructional Methods on General Chemistry Laboratory Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackman, Lance E.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of three instructional methods and conceptual systems orientation on achievement in a freshman general chemistry laboratory course. Traditional approach, learning cycle, and computer simulations are discussed. (KR)

  11. APPLICATION OF INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY TO THE ANALYSIS OF INORGANIC NITRATES. PHASE 1. SPECTRA OF INORGANIC NITRATES IN ACETONE AND THE USE OF SUCH SPECTRA IN ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was made of the spectra of soluble inorganic nitrates in acetone solution and the use of such spectra in analytical chemistry . The spectra of...solubilities of anhydrous inorganic nitrates in acetone. The applications of the spectra of inorganic nitrates in acetone to analytical chemistry is

  12. Analytical Chemistry Division annual progress report for period ending December 31, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-01-01

    The following sentences highlight some of the technical activities carried out during 1991. They illustrate the diversity of programs and technical work performed within the Analytical Chemistry Division. Our neutron activation analysis laboratory at HFIR was placed into operation during 1991. We have combined inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP/MS) with a preparation procedure developed at the Argonne National Laboratory to measure ultra-trace levels of U, Pu, Np, and Am in body fluids, primarily urine. Much progress has been made over the last year in the interfacing of an rf-powered glow discharge source to a double-focusing mass spectrometer. Preliminary experiments using electrospray ionization combined with ion trap mass spectrometry show much promise for the analysis of metals in solution. A secondary ion microprobe has been constructed that permits determination of the distribution of organic compounds less than a monolayer thick on samples as large as 1 cm diameter. Fourier transform mass spectrometry has been demonstrated to be a highly effective tool for the detailed characterization of biopolymers, especially normal and modified oligonucleotides. Much has been accomplished in understanding the fundamentals of quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometry. Work with ITMS instrumentation has led to the development of rapid methods for the detection of trace organics in environmental and physiological samples. A new type of time-of-flight mass spectrometer was designed for use with our positron ionization experiments. Fundamental research on chromatography at high concentrations and on gas-solid adsorption has continued. The preparation of a monograph on the chemistry of environmental tobacco smoke was completed this year.

  13. Chemistry for DUMMIES: how to popularize and introduce chemistry to the general public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montangero, Marc

    2012-01-01

    To mark the occasion of the International Year of Chemistry, each week in 2011 I posted a two-minute film demonstrating and explaining a simple and safe experiment to be carried out at home using everyday household products on the site www.chimie.ch/nuls.

  14. Measuring Meaningful Learning in the Undergraduate General Chemistry and Organic Chemistry Laboratories: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, Kelli R.; Bretz, Stacey Lowery

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how students learn in the undergraduate chemistry teaching laboratory is an essential component to developing evidence-based laboratory curricula. The Meaningful Learning in the Laboratory Instrument (MLLI) was developed to measure students' cognitive and affective expectations and experiences for learning in the chemistry…

  15. The ACS Exams Institute Undergraduate Chemistry Anchoring Concepts Content Map I: General Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holme, Thomas; Murphy, Kristen

    2012-01-01

    To provide tools for programmatic assessment related to the use of ACS Exams in undergraduate chemistry courses, the ACS Exams Institute has built a content map that applies to the entire undergraduate curriculum. At the top two levels, the grain size of the content classification is large and spans the entire undergraduate curriculum. At the…

  16. General Scalar-Tensor cosmology: Analytical solutions via Noether symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Masaeli, Erfan; Sepangi, Hamid Reza

    2016-01-01

    We analyze the cosmology of a general Scalar-Tensor theory which encompasses generalized Brans-Dicke theory, Gauss-Bonnet gravity, non-minimal derivative gravity, generalized Galileon gravity and also the general k-essence type models. Instead of taking into account phenomenological considerations we adopt a Noether symmetry approach, as a physical criterion, to single out the form of undetermined functions in the action. These specified functions symmetrize equations of motion in the simplest possible form which result in exact solutions. Demanding de Sitter, power-law and bouncing universe solutions in the absence and presence of matter density leads to exploring new as well as well-investigated models. We show that there are models for which dynamics of the system allow transition from a decelerating phase (matter dominated era) to an accelerating phase (dark energy epoch) and could also lead to general Brans-Dicke with string correction without a self-interaction potential. Furthermore, we classify the mo...

  17. General scalar-tensor cosmology: analytical solutions via noether symmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massaeli, Erfan; Motaharfar, Meysam; Sepangi, Hamid Reza

    2017-02-01

    We analyze the cosmology of a general scalar-tensor theory which encompasses generalized Brans-Dicke theory, Gauss-Bonnet gravity, non-minimal derivative gravity, generalized Galilean gravity and also the general k-essence type models. Instead of taking into account phenomenological considerations we adopt a Noether symmetry approach, as a physical criterion, to single out the form of undetermined functions in the action. These specified functions symmetrize equations of motion in the simplest possible form which result in exact solutions. Demanding de Sitter, power-law and bouncing universe solutions in the absence and presence of matter density leads to exploring new as well as well-investigated models. We show that there are models for which the dynamics of the system allows a transition from a decelerating phase (matter dominated era) to an accelerating phase (dark energy epoch) and could also lead to general Brans-Dicke with string correction without a self-interaction potential. Furthermore, we classify the models based on a phantom or quintessence dark energy point of view. Finally, we obtain the condition for stability of a de Sitter solution for which the solution is an attractor of the system.

  18. Set Correlation as a General Multivariate Data-Analytic Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Jacob

    1982-01-01

    Set correlation is a multivariate generalization of multiple regression/correlation analysis that features the employment of overall measures of association interpretable as proportions of variance and the use of set-partialled sets of variables. The statistical development of the theory and several examples are presented. (Author/JKS)

  19. Development and validation of a path analytic model of students' performance in chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anamuah-Mensah, Jophus; Erickson, Gaalen; Gaskell, Jim

    This article reports the development and validation of an integrated model of performance on a chemical concept - volumetric analysis. From the chemical literature a path-analytic model of performance on volumetric analysis calculation was postulated based on studies utilizing the proportional reasoning schema of Piaget and the Cumulative learning theory of Gagne. This integrated model hypothesized some relationships among the variables: direct proportional reasoning, inverse proportional reasoning, prerequisite concepts (content) and performance on volumetric analysis calculations. This model was postulated for the two groups of students involved in the study - that is those who use algorithms with understanding and those who use algorithms without understanding. Two hundred and sixty-five grade twelve chemistry students in eight schools (14 classes) in the lower mainland of British Columbia, Canada participated fully in the study. With the exception of the test on volumetric analysis calculations all the other tests were administered prior to the teaching of the unit on volumetric analysis. The results of the study indicate that for subjects using algorithms without understanding, their performance on VA problems is not influenced by proportional reasoning strategies while for those who use algorithms with understanding, their performance is influenced by proportional reasoning strategies.

  20. A study of how precursor key concepts for organic chemistry success are understood by general chemistry students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Patrick Gerard

    This study examines college student understanding of key concepts that will support future organic chemistry success as determined by university instructors. During four one-hour individual interviews the sixteen subjects attempted to solve general chemistry problems. A think-aloud protocol was used along with a whiteboard where the students could draw and illustrate their ideas. The protocols for the interviews were adapted from the Covalent Structure and Bonding two-tiered multiple choice diagnostic instrument (Peterson, Treagust, & Garnett, 1989) and augmented by the Geometry and Polarity of Molecules single-tiered multiple choice instrument (Furio & Calatayud, 1996). The interviews were videotaped, transcribed, and coded for analysis to determine the subjects' understanding of the key ideas. The subjects displayed many misconceptions that were summarized into nine assertions about student conceptualization of chemistry. (1) Many students misunderstand the location and nature of intermolecular forces. (2) Some think electronegativity differences among atoms in a molecule are sufficient to make the molecule polar, regardless of spatial arrangement. (3) Most know that higher phase change temperatures imply stronger intermolecular attractions, but many do not understand the difference between covalent molecular and covalent network substances. (4) Many have difficulty deciding whether a molecule is polar or non-polar, often confusing bilateral symmetry with spatial symmetry in all three dimensions. (5) Many cannot reliably draw correct Lewis structures due to carelessness and overuse of flawed algorithms. (6) Many are confused by how electrons can both repel one other and facilitate bonding between atoms via orbitals---this seems oxymoronic to them. (7) Many cannot explain why the atoms of certain elements do not follow the octet rule and some believe the octet rule alone can determine the shape of a molecule. (8) Most do know that electronegativity and polarity

  1. ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY FOR ASTROPHYSICISTS: A SELF-CONSISTENT FORMALISM AND ANALYTICAL SOLUTIONS FOR ARBITRARY C/O

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heng, Kevin; Tsai, Shang-Min [University of Bern, Center for Space and Habitability, Sidlerstrasse 5, CH-3012, Bern (Switzerland); Lyons, James R., E-mail: kevin.heng@csh.unibe.ch [Arizona State University, School of Earth and Space Exploration, Bateman Physical Sciences, Tempe, AZ 85287-1404 (United States)

    2016-01-10

    We present a self-consistent formalism for computing and understanding the atmospheric chemistry of exoplanets from the viewpoint of an astrophysicist. Starting from the first law of thermodynamics, we demonstrate that the van’t Hoff equation (which describes the equilibrium constant), Arrhenius equation (which describes the rate coefficients), and procedures associated with the Gibbs free energy (minimization, rescaling) have a common physical and mathematical origin. We address an ambiguity associated with the equilibrium constant, which is used to relate the forward and reverse rate coefficients, and restate its two definitions. By necessity, one of the equilibrium constants must be dimensionless and equate to an exponential function involving the Gibbs free energy, while the other is a ratio of rate coefficients and must therefore possess physical units. We demonstrate that the Arrhenius equation takes on a functional form that is more general than previously stated without recourse to tagging on ad hoc functional forms. Finally, we derive analytical models of chemical systems, in equilibrium, with carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. We include acetylene and are able to reproduce several key trends, versus temperature and carbon-to-oxygen ratio, published in the literature. The rich variety of behavior that mixing ratios exhibit as a function of the carbon-to-oxygen ratio is merely the outcome of stoichiometric book-keeping and not the direct consequence of temperature or pressure variations.

  2. Analytic theory of curvature effects for wave problems with general boundary conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willatzen, Morten; Gravesen, Jens; Voon, L. C. Lew Yan

    2010-01-01

    A formalism based on a combination of differential geometry and perturbation theory is used to obtain analytic expressions for confined eigenmode changes due to general curvature effects. In cases of circular-shaped and helix-shaped structures, where alternative analytic solutions can be found...

  3. Exploring students' interactions, arguments, and reflections in general chemistry laboratories with different levels of inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Haozhi

    Students' learning in inquiry-based investigations has drawn considerable attention of the science education community. Inquiry activities can be viewed as knowledge construction processes in which students are expected to develop conceptual understanding and critical thinking abilities. Our study aimed to explore the effect of experiments with different levels of inquiry on students' interactions in the laboratory setting, as well as on students' written arguments and reflections. Our results are based on direct observations of group work in college general chemistry laboratories and analysis of associated written lab reports. The analysis of students' interactions in the laboratory was approached from three major analytic dimensions: Functional analysis, cognitive processing, and social processing. According to our results, higher levels of inquiry were associated with an increase in the relative frequency of episodes where students were engaged in proposing ideas versus asking and answering each others' questions. Higher levels of inquiry also favored episodes in which experimental work was approached in a more exploratory (versus procedural) manner. However, no major changes were observed in the extent to which students were engaged in either interpretive discussions of central scientific concepts and ideas. As part of our study we were also interested in characterizing the effects of experiments involving different levels of inquiry on the structure and adequacy of university general chemistry students' written arguments, as well as on the nature of their reflections about laboratory work. Our findings indicate that the level of inquiry of the observed experiments had no significant impact on the structure or adequacy of arguments generated by students. However, the level of inquiry of the experiments seemed to have a major impact on several areas of students' written reflections about laboratory work. In general, our results elicit trends and highlight issues

  4. General Analytical Solutions of Scalar Field Cosmology with Arbitrary Potential

    CERN Document Server

    Dimakis, N; Zampeli, Adamantia; Paliathanasis, Andronikos; Christodoulakis, T; Terzis, Petros A

    2016-01-01

    We present the solution space for the case of a minimally coupled scalar field with arbitrary potential in a FLRW metric. This is made possible due to the existence of a nonlocal integral of motion corresponding to the conformal Killing field of the two-dimensional minisuperspace metric. The case for both spatially flat and non flat are studied first in the presence of only the scalar field and subsequently with the addition of non interacting perfect fluids. It is verified that this addition does not change the general form of the solution, but only the particular expressions of the scalar field and the potential. The results are applied in the case of parametric dark energy models where we derive the scalar field equivalence solution for some proposed models in the literature.

  5. Analytical solution for multilayer plates using general layerwise plate theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuksanović Đorđe M.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with closed-form solution for static analysis of simply supported composite plate, based on generalized laminate plate theory (GLPT. The mathematical model assumes piece-wise linear variation of in-plane displacement components and a constant transverse displacement through the thickness. It also include discrete transverse shear effect into the assumed displacement field, thus providing accurate prediction of transverse shear stresses. Namely, transverse stresses satisfy Hook's law, 3D equilibrium equations and traction free boundary conditions. With assumed displacement field, linear strain-displacement relation, and constitutive equations of the lamina, equilibrium equations are derived using principle of virtual displacements. Navier-type closed form solution of GLPT, is derived for simply supported plate, made of orthotropic laminae, loaded by harmonic and uniform distribution of transverse pressure. Results are compared with 3D elasticity solutions and excellent agreement is found.

  6. Generalized Semi-Analytical Models of Supernova Light Curves

    CERN Document Server

    Chatzopoulos, Emmanouil; Vinko, Jozsef

    2011-01-01

    We present generalized supernova (SN) light curve (LC) models for a variety of power inputs. We provide an expression for the power input that is produced by self-similar forward and reverse shocks in SN ejecta - circumstellar matter (CSM) interaction. We find that this ejecta-CSM interaction luminosity is in agreement with results from multi-dimensional radiation hydrodynamics simulations in the optically-thin case. We develop a model for the case of an optically-thick CSM by invoking an approximation for the effects of radiative diffusion. In the context of this model, we provide predictions for the time of forward shock break-out from the optically-thick part of the CSM envelope. We also introduce a hybrid LC model that incorporates ejecta-CSM interaction plus Ni-56 and Co-56 radioactive decay input. We fit this hybrid model to the LC of the Super-Luminous Supernova (SLSN) 2006gy. We find that this model provides a better fit to the LC of this event than previously presented models. We also address the rel...

  7. Designing an undergraduate laboratory course in general chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vianna José F.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available From an analysis of a learning model based on the theory of information processing four hypothesis were developed for improving the design of laboratory courses. Three of these hypotheses concerned specific procedures to minimise the load on students' working memories (or working spaces and the fourth hypothesis was concerned with the value of mini-projects in enhancing meaningful learning of the knowledge and skills underpinning the set experiments. A three-year study of a first year undergraduate chemistry laboratory course at a Scottish university has been carried out to test these four hypotheses. This paper reports the results of the study relevant to the three hypotheses about the burden on students' working spaces. It was predicted from the learning model that the load on students working space should be reduced by appropriate changes to the written instructions and the laboratory organisation and by the introduction of prelab-work and prelab-training in laboratory techniques. It was concluded from research conducted over the three years period that all these hypothesised changes were effective both in reducing the load on students' working spaces and in improving their attitudes to the laboratory course.

  8. Computer-based, Jeopardy™-like game in general chemistry for engineering majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, S. S.; Saffre, F.; Kadadha, M.; Gater, D. L.; Isakovic, A. F.

    2013-03-01

    We report on the design of Jeopardy™-like computer game for enhancement of learning of general chemistry for engineering majors. While we examine several parameters of student achievement and attitude, our primary concern is addressing the motivation of students, which tends to be low in a traditionally run chemistry lectures. The effect of the game-playing is tested by comparing paper-based game quiz, which constitutes a control group, and computer-based game quiz, constituting a treatment group. Computer-based game quizzes are Java™-based applications that students run once a week in the second part of the last lecture of the week. Overall effectiveness of the semester-long program is measured through pretest-postest conceptual testing of general chemistry. The objective of this research is to determine to what extent this ``gamification'' of the course delivery and course evaluation processes may be beneficial to the undergraduates' learning of science in general, and chemistry in particular. We present data addressing gender-specific difference in performance, as well as background (pre-college) level of general science and chemistry preparation. We outline the plan how to extend such approach to general physics courses and to modern science driven electives, and we offer live, in-lectures examples of our computer gaming experience. We acknowledge support from Khalifa University, Abu Dhabi

  9. Relationships of approaches to studying, metacognition, and intellectual development of general chemistry students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egenti, Henrietta N.

    This study investigated approaches to studying, intellectual developments, and metacognitive skills of general chemistry students enrolled for the spring 2011 semester at a single campus of a multi-campus community college. The three instruments used were the Approaches and Study Skills Inventory for Students (ASSIST), the Learning Environment Preferences (LEP), and the Executive Process Questionnaire (EPQ). The subjects were 138 students enrolled in either general chemistry 1 or 2. The results revealed that the preferred approach to study was the strategic approach. The intellectual development of the students was predominantly Perry's position 2 (dualist) in transition to position 3 (multiplicity). Correlation statistics revealed that deep approach to studying is related to effective employment of metacognitive skills. Students with a deep approach to studying were likely to utilize effective metacognitive skills. Students with a surface approach to studying used no metacognitive skills or ineffective metacognitive skills. Multiple logistic regression analysis was conducted to ascertain which of the three variables, namely approaches to studying, ability to metacognate, or level of intellectual development, was the most salient in predicting the success of general chemistry students. No single variable was found to predict students’ success in general chemistry classes; however, a surface approach to studying predisposes general chemistry students to fail. The implication of this study is that students’ study approaches, intellectual developments, and metacognitive skills are requisite information to enable instructional remediation early in the semester.

  10. Effects of 7-E, KWL and Conventional Instruction on Analytical Thinking, Learning Achievement and Attitudes toward Chemistry Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rungrawee Siribunnam

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The purposes of this research were to compare in analytical thinking, science learning achievement and attitudes toward chemistry learning of Matthayomsuksa 5 students who learned using the 7-E learning cycle, KWL learning method and conventional approach. Approach: The sample consisted of 154 Matthayomsuksa 5 students attending in the first semester of the academic year 2008, Phayakkhaphumwitthayakhan School, Phayakkhaphumphisai District, Mahasarakham Province, cluster random sampling technique was employed. The were divided into two experimental groups who learned using the 7-E learning cycle and KWL learning activities and one control group who learned using the conventional approach. Results: The research instruments were: (1 12 lesson plans for organization of 7-E learning cycle, 12 lesson plans for organization of KWL learning method and 12 lesson plans for organization of the conventional approach; (2 A 30-item analytical thinking test; (3 A 40-item achievement test of science learning achievement and (4 A 20-item of attitudes toward chemistry learning. The statistics used for analyzing the collected data were mean, standard deviation, F-test (one-way MANOVA, Hotelling’s T2 and Univariate t-test. The results of the study revealed that the students who learned using the 7-E learning cycle, KWL learning method and the conventional approach were differently showed analytical thinking, science learning achievement and attitudes toward chemistry learning at the 0.05 level of significance. The students who learned using the 7-E learning cycle showed more science learning achievement than did the students who learned using KWL learning method. Also the result and indicated than analytical thinking, science learning achievement and attitudes toward chemistry learning higher than did the students who learned using the conventional approach. In addition, the students who learned using KWL learning method showed higher analytical

  11. An Example of Analytical Chemistry Comprehensive Experiment%一个分析化学综合实验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧丽娟; 孙爱明; 刘开建

    2016-01-01

    介绍了一个贴近生活的分析化学综合实验—分光光度法测定食品中铁含量。该实验以邻二氮菲为显色剂,对动物肝脏、蔬菜、水果等食品中铁元素含量进行测定,在一个实验中实现了无机化学、物理化学、分析化学和仪器分析的相关学科知识的有机结合,有利于提高学生对分析化学知识的综合操作能力和应用能力,增强了学生的创新能力和团队协作意识。%An Analytical Chemistry comprehensive experiment of determination of iron in food by spectrophotometry with phenanthroline was introduced. The experiment involved the related comprehensive knowledge of Inorganic Chemistry, Physical Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry and Instrumental Analysis which can improve the comprehensive operational ability of the students, enhance students' innovation ability and team spirit.

  12. Analyticity of solutions of analytic non-linear general elliptic boundary value problems,and some results about linear problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Rouhuai

    2006-01-01

    The main aim of this paper is to discuss the problem concerning the analyticity of the solutions of analytic non-linear elliptic boundary value problems.It is proved that if the corresponding first variation is regular in Lopatinski(i) sense,then the solution is analytic up to the boundary.The method of proof really covers the case that the corresponding first variation is regularly elliptic in the sense of Douglis-Nirenberg-Volevich,and hence completely generalize the previous result of C.B.Morrey.The author also discusses linear elliptic boundary value problems for systems of ellip tic partial differential equations where the boundary operators are allowed to have singular integral operators as their coefficients.Combining the standard Fourier transform technique with analytic continuation argument,the author constructs the Poisson and Green's kernel matrices related to the problems discussed and hence obtain some representation formulae to the solutions.Some a priori estimates of Schauder type and Lp type are obtained.

  13. A general approach for monodisperse colloidal perovskites, Chemistry of Materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demirors, A.F.; Imhof, A.

    2009-01-01

    We describe a novel general method for synthesizing monodisperse colloidal perovskite particles at room temperature by postsynthesis addition of metal hydroxides to amorphous titania colloids. In previous work, we used titania particles to synthesize homogenously mixed silica-titania composite parti

  14. Review on composite cation exchanger as interdicipilinary materials in analytical chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, A; Asiri, A. M.; Rub, M. A.; Azum, N.; Khan, A. A. P.; Khan, I; Mondal, P. K.

    2012-01-01

    Green chemistry and technology is the design of chemical manufacturing systems to minimize their adverse affects on the environment. Thus, a primary goal of green chemistry and technology is to reduce the environmental impact of chemical processes and chemical manufacturing while simultaneously enhancing the overall process performance. Although it is beneficial to simply reduce the use of organic solvents in chemical processes, green chemistry and technology goes further, in that it evaluate...

  15. Proteomics Is Analytical Chemistry: Fitness-for-Purpose in the Application of Top-Down and Bottom-Up Analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coorssen, Jens R; Yergey, Alfred L

    2015-12-03

    Molecular mechanisms underlying health and disease function at least in part based on the flexibility and fine-tuning afforded by protein isoforms and post-translational modifications. The ability to effectively and consistently resolve these protein species or proteoforms, as well as assess quantitative changes is therefore central to proteomic analyses. Here we discuss the pros and cons of currently available and developing analytical techniques from the perspective of the full spectrum of available tools and their current applications, emphasizing the concept of fitness-for-purpose in experimental design based on consideration of sample size and complexity; this necessarily also addresses analytical reproducibility and its variance. Data quality is considered the primary criterion, and we thus emphasize that the standards of Analytical Chemistry must apply throughout any proteomic analysis.

  16. A General Chemistry and Precalculus First-Year Interest Group (FIG): Effect on Retention, Skills, and Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pence, Laura E.; Workman, Harry J.; Haruta, Mako E.

    2005-01-01

    The backdrop of the calculus reform movement created a fertile movement for the creation of overlap between general chemistry and precalculus as many of the goals emphasized key concepts from the chemistry lab. By using the graphing calculator in both precalculus and chemistry laboratory enhanced the students' comfort and competence with the…

  17. Corrected Analytical Solution of the Generalized Woods-Saxon Potential for Arbitrary $\\ell$ States

    CERN Document Server

    Bayrak, O

    2015-01-01

    The bound state solution of the radial Schr\\"{o}dinger equation with the generalized Woods-Saxon potential is carefully examined by using the Pekeris approximation for arbitrary $\\ell$ states. The energy eigenvalues and the corresponding eigenfunctions are analytically obtained for different $n$ and $\\ell$ quantum numbers. The obtained closed forms are applied to calculate the single particle energy levels of neutron orbiting around $^{56}$Fe nucleus in order to check consistency between the analytical and Gamow code results. The analytical results are in good agreement with the results obtained by Gamow code for $\\ell=0$.

  18. The Efficacy of Problem-based Learning in an Analytical Laboratory Course for Pre-service Chemistry Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Heojeong; Woo, Ae Ja; Treagust, David; Chandrasegaran, AL

    2014-01-01

    The efficacy of problem-based learning (PBL) in an analytical chemistry laboratory course was studied using a programme that was designed and implemented with 20 students in a treatment group over 10 weeks. Data from 26 students in a traditional analytical chemistry laboratory course were used for comparison. Differences in the creative thinking ability of students in both the treatment and control groups were evaluated before and at the end of the implementation of the programme, using the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking. In addition, changes in students' self-regulated learning skills using the Self-Regulated Learning Interview Schedule (SRLIS) and their self-evaluation proficiency were evaluated. Analysis of covariance showed that the creative thinking ability of the treatment group had improved statistically significantly after the PBL course (p self-regulated learning strategies more frequently than students in the comparison group. According to the results of the self-evaluation, students became more positive and confident in problem-solving and group work as the semester progressed. Overall, PBL was shown to be an effective pedagogical instructional strategy for enhancing chemistry students' creative thinking ability, self-regulated learning skills and self-evaluation.

  19. Introducing Scientific Literature to Honors General Chemistry Students: Teaching Information Literacy and the Nature of Research to First-Year Chemistry Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer-Vinent, Ignacio J.; Bruehl, Margaret; Pan, Denise; Jones, Galin L.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the methodology and implementation of a case study introducing the scientific literature and creative experiment design to honors general chemistry laboratory students. The purpose of this study is to determine whether first-year chemistry students can develop information literacy skills while they engage with the primary…

  20. Design, Development, and Psychometric Analysis of a General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry Topic Inventory Based on the Identified Main Chemistry Topics Relevant to Nursing Clinical Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Corina E.

    2013-01-01

    This two-stage study focused on the undergraduate nursing course that covers topics in general, organic, and biological (GOB) chemistry. In the first stage, the central objective was to identify the main concepts of GOB chemistry relevant to the clinical practice of nursing. The collection of data was based on open-ended interviews of both nursing…

  1. Semi-analytical solution for the generalized absorbing boundary condition in molecular dynamics simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chung-Shuo; Chen, Yan-Yu; Yu, Chi-Hua; Hsu, Yu-Chuan; Chen, Chuin-Shan

    2017-02-01

    We present a semi-analytical solution of a time-history kernel for the generalized absorbing boundary condition in molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. To facilitate the kernel derivation, the concept of virtual atoms in real space that can conform with an arbitrary boundary in an arbitrary lattice is adopted. The generalized Langevin equation is regularized using eigenvalue decomposition and, consequently, an analytical expression of an inverse Laplace transform is obtained. With construction of dynamical matrices in the virtual domain, a semi-analytical form of the time-history kernel functions for an arbitrary boundary in an arbitrary lattice can be found. The time-history kernel functions for different crystal lattices are derived to show the generality of the proposed method. Non-equilibrium MD simulations in a triangular lattice with and without the absorbing boundary condition are conducted to demonstrate the validity of the solution.

  2. THE HILBERT BOUNDARY VALUE PROBLEM FOR GENERALIZED ANALYTIC FUNCTIONS IN CLIFFORD ANALYSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhongwei SI; Jinyuan DU

    2013-01-01

    Let R0,n be the real Clifford algebra generated by e1,e2,…,en satisfying eiej +ejei =-2δij,i,j =1,2,…,n.e0 is the unit element.Let Ω be an open set.A function f is called left generalized analytic in Ω if f satisfies the equation Lf =0,(0.1)where L =q0e0(δ)x0 + q1e1(δ)x1 + … +qnen(δ)xn,qi > 0,i =0,1,…,n.In this article,we first give the kernel function.for the generalized analytic function.Further,the Hilbert boundary value problem for generalized analytic functions in Rn+1+ will be investigated.

  3. Integrating Biology into the General Chemistry Laboratory: Fluorometric Analysis of Chlorophyll "a"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesolowski, Meredith C.

    2014-01-01

    A laboratory experiment that introduces fluorometry of chlorophyll "a" at the general chemistry level is described. The use of thin-layer chromatography to isolate chlorophyll "a" from spirulina and leaf matter enables quantification of small amounts of chlorophyll "a" via fluorometry. Student results were reasonably…

  4. Web-Enhanced General Chemistry Increases Student Completion Rates, Success, and Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Katie E.; Shank, John D.; Shibley, Ivan A., Jr.; Shibley, Lisa R.

    2013-01-01

    General Chemistry I historically had one of the highest failure and withdrawal rates at Penn State Berks, a four-year college within the Penn State system. The course was completely redesigned to incorporate more group work, the use of classroom response systems, peer mentors, and a stronger online presence via the learning management system…

  5. An Analysis of Undergraduate General Chemistry Students' Misconceptions of the Submicroscopic Level of Precipitation Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Resa M.; Barrera, Juliet H.; Mohamed, Saheed C.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined how 21 college-level general chemistry students, who had received instruction that emphasized the symbolic level of ionic equations, explained their submicroscopic-level understanding of precipitation reactions. Students' explanations expressed through drawings and semistructured interviews revealed the nature of the…

  6. The Testing Effect: An Intervention on Behalf of Low-Skilled Comprehenders in General Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyburn, Daniel T.; Pazicni, Samuel; Benassi, Victor A.; Tappin, Elizabeth M.

    2014-01-01

    Past work has demonstrated that language comprehension ability correlates with general chemistry course performance with medium effect sizes. We demonstrate here that language comprehension's strong cognitive grounding can be used to inform effective and equitable pedagogies, namely, instructional interventions that differentially aid…

  7. Can They Succeed? Exploring At-Risk Students' Study Habits in College General Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Li; Shuniak, Constantine; Oueini, Razanne; Robert, Jenay; Lewis, Scott

    2016-01-01

    A well-established literature base identifies a portion of students enrolled in post-secondary General Chemistry as at-risk of failing the course based on incoming metrics. Learning about the experiences and factors that lead to this higher failure rate is essential toward improving retention in this course. This study examines the relationship…

  8. Relationships of Approaches to Studying, Metacognition, and Intellectual Development of General Chemistry Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egenti, Henrietta N.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated approaches to studying, intellectual developments, and metacognitive skills of general chemistry students enrolled for the spring 2011 semester at a single campus of a multi-campus community college. The three instruments used were the Approaches and Study Skills Inventory for Students (ASSIST), the Learning Environment…

  9. Transitioning from Expository Laboratory Experiments to Course-Based Undergraduate Research in General Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Ted M.; Ricciardo, Rebecca; Weaver, Tyler

    2016-01-01

    General chemistry courses predominantly use expository experiments that shape student expectations of what a laboratory activity entails. Shifting within a semester to course-based undergraduate research activities that include greater decision-making, collaborative work, and "messy" real-world data necessitates a change in student…

  10. A Computer Algebra Approach to Solving Chemical Equilibria in General Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalainoff, Melinda; Lachance, Russ; Riegner, Dawn; Biaglow, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we report on a semester-long study of the incorporation into our general chemistry course, of advanced algebraic and computer algebra techniques for solving chemical equilibrium problems. The method presented here is an alternative to the commonly used concentration table method for describing chemical equilibria in general…

  11. Exploring Chemical Equilibrium with Poker Chips: A General Chemistry Laboratory Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindel, Thomas H.

    2012-01-01

    A hands-on laboratory exercise at the general chemistry level introduces students to chemical equilibrium through a simulation that uses poker chips and rate equations. More specifically, the exercise allows students to explore reaction tables, dynamic chemical equilibrium, equilibrium constant expressions, and the equilibrium constant based on…

  12. Self-Assembled Student Interactions in Undergraduate General Chemistry Clicker Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacArthur, James R.; Jones, Loretta

    2013-01-01

    Student interviews, focus groups, and classroom observations were used in an exploratory study of the nature of student interactions in a large (300+ students) general chemistry course taught with clickers. These data suggest that students are self-assembling their learning environment: choosing ways in which to interact with one another during…

  13. Identifying At-Risk Students in General Chemistry via Cluster Analysis of Affective Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Julia Y. K.; Bauer, Christopher F.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify academically at-risk students in first-semester general chemistry using affective characteristics via cluster analysis. Through the clustering of six preselected affective variables, three distinct affective groups were identified: low (at-risk), medium, and high. Students in the low affective group…

  14. Supporting Students' Learning to Learn in General Chemistry Using Moodle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonza´lez, Maritza Lau; Haza, Ulises Ja´uregui; Gramagtes, Aurora Pe´rez; Leo´n, Gloria Farin~as; Le Bolay, Nadine

    2014-01-01

    A combination of regular classroom teaching with the use of resources available on the Moodle platform has been designed to foster the development of skills for learning to learn for students in an undergraduate general chemistry course. The use of the Moodle platform essentially aimed at strengthening the students' prior knowledge of…

  15. Playing with Light: Adventures in Optics and Spectroscopy for Honors and Majors General Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Staveren, Marie N.; Edwards, Kimberly D.; Apkarian, V. A.

    2012-01-01

    A lab was developed for use in an undergraduate honors and majors general chemistry laboratory to introduce students to optics, spectroscopy, and the underlying principles of quantum mechanics. This lab includes four mini-experiments exploring total internal reflection, the tunneling of light, spectra of sparklers and colored candles, and emission…

  16. Inquiry-Based Arson Investigation for General Chemistry Using GC-MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Marta K.; Bukowski, Michael R.; Menachery, Mary D.; Zatorsky, Adam R.

    2010-01-01

    We have developed a two-week guided-inquiry laboratory in which first-semester general chemistry students investigate a suspected arson using gas chromatography--mass spectrometry and paper chromatography. In the process of evaluating evidence from the crime scene, students develop and test hypotheses and learn the fundamentals of chromatography,…

  17. A Genetically Optimized Predictive System for Success in General Chemistry Using a Diagnostic Algebra Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Cameron I.; Pearson, Paul T.

    2012-01-01

    In higher education, many high-enrollment introductory courses have evolved into "gatekeeper" courses due to their high failure rates. These courses prevent many students from attaining their educational goals and often become graduation roadblocks. At the authors' home institution, general chemistry has become a gatekeeper course in which…

  18. Using an Online, Self-Diagnostic Test for Introductory General Chemistry at an Open University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennepohl, Dietmar; Guay, Matthew; Thomas, Vanessa

    2010-01-01

    A simple, online, self-diagnostic tool has been developed to allow students to independently and quickly measure their potential of success in a first-year general chemistry course. The online tool employs well-established performance predictors in areas such as student educational background, conceptual basics, critical thinking, mathematical…

  19. Structure Determination of Unknown Organic Liquids Using NMR and IR Spectroscopy: A General Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavel, John T.; Hyde, Erin C.; Bruch, Martha D.

    2012-01-01

    This experiment introduced general chemistry students to the basic concepts of organic structures and to the power of spectroscopic methods for structure determination. Students employed a combination of IR and NMR spectroscopy to perform de novo structure determination of unknown alcohols, without being provided with a list of possible…

  20. General Chemistry Students' Conceptual Understanding and Language Fluency: Acid-Base Neutralization and Conductometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyachwaya, James M.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine college general chemistry students' conceptual understanding and language fluency in the context of the topic of acids and bases. 115 students worked in groups of 2-4 to complete an activity on conductometry, where they were given a scenario in which a titration of sodium hydroxide solution and dilute…

  1. Podcast Effectiveness as Scaffolding Support for Students Enrolled in First-Semester General Chemistry Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Mary Cynthia Barton

    2010-01-01

    Podcasts covering essential first-semester general chemistry laboratory techniques and central concepts that aid in experimental design or data processing were prepared and made available for students to access on an as-needed basis on iPhones [arrow right] or iPod touches [arrow right]. Research focused in three areas: the extent of podcast…

  2. Using the Plan View to Teach Basic Crystallography in General Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushman, Cody V.; Linford, Matthew R.

    2015-01-01

    The plan view is used in crystallography and materials science to show the positions of atoms in crystal structures. However, it is not widely used in teaching general chemistry. In this contribution, we introduce the plan view, and show these views for the simple cubic, body-centered cubic, face-centered cubic, hexagonal close packed, CsCl, NaCl,…

  3. Dry deposition parameterization of sulfur oxides in a chemistry and general circulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ganzeveld, L.N.; Lelieveld, J.; Roelofs, G.J.

    1998-01-01

    A dry deposition scheme, originally developed to calculate the deposition velocities for the trace gases O3, NO2, NO, and HNO3 in the chemistry and general circulation European Centre Hamburg Model (ECHAM), is extended to sulfur dioxide (SO2) and sulfate (SO42-). In order to reduce some of the short

  4. Assessment of Antioxidant Capacities in Foods: A Research Experience for General Chemistry Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoch, Matthew A.; Russell, Cianan B.; Steffen, Debora M.; Weaver, Gabriela C.; Burgess, John R.

    2009-01-01

    With the booming interest in health food and nutrition, investigations of the antioxidant capacities of various foods have come to the forefront of food science. This general chemistry laboratory curriculum provides students with an opportunity to design and implement their own experiments relating to antioxidants in food. The curriculum is six…

  5. Promoting Student Learning through Group Problem Solving in General Chemistry Recitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahalingam, Madhu; Schaefer, Fred; Morlino, Elisabeth

    2008-01-01

    We describe the implementation and effects of group problem solving in recitation sections associated with the general chemistry course at a small private science university. Recitation sections of approximately 45 students are used to supplement large (approximately 180 students) lecture sections. The primary goal of recitation is working in…

  6. Examination of Bond Properties through Infrared Spectroscopy and Molecular Modeling in the General Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csizmar, Clifford M.; Force, Dee Ann; Warner, Don L.

    2012-01-01

    A concerted effort has been made to increase the opportunities for undergraduate students to address scientific problems employing the processes used by practicing chemists. As part of this effort, an infrared (IR) spectroscopy and molecular modeling experiment was developed for the first-year general chemistry laboratory course. In the…

  7. Infrared and Raman Spectroscopy: A Discovery-Based Activity for the General Chemistry Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgsmiller, Karen L.; O'Connell, Dylan J.; Klauenberg, Kathryn M.; Wilson, Peter M.; Stromberg, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    A discovery-based method is described for incorporating the concepts of IR and Raman spectroscopy into the general chemistry curriculum. Students use three sets of springs to model the properties of single, double, and triple covalent bonds. Then, Gaussian 03W molecular modeling software is used to illustrate the relationship between bond…

  8. Effect of Teaching Metacognitive Learning Strategies on Performance in General Chemistry Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Elzbieta; Kennedy, Eugene; McGuire, Saundra Y.

    2013-01-01

    College students often find general chemistry to be a very challenging rite of passage on their way to degrees in various science, technology, and mathematics disciplines. As teachers, we make efforts to simultaneously patch gaps in students' prior knowledge and instill valuable learning strategies and sound study habits. In this paper, we…

  9. Using a Thematic Laboratory-Centered Curriculum to Teach General Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Todd A.; Samide, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This article describes an approach to general chemistry that involves teaching chemical concepts in the context of two thematic laboratory modules: environmental remediation and the fate of pharmaceuticals in the environment. These modules were designed based on active-learning pedagogies and involve multiple-week projects that dictate what…

  10. Looking beyond Lewis Structures: A General Chemistry Molecular Modeling Experiment Focusing on Physical Properties and Geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linenberger, Kimberly J.; Cole, Renee S.; Sarkar, Somnath

    2011-01-01

    We present a guided-inquiry experiment using Spartan Student Version, ready to be adapted and implemented into a general chemistry laboratory course. The experiment provides students an experience with Spartan Molecular Modeling software while discovering the relationships between the structure and properties of molecules. Topics discussed within…

  11. Analytical Chemistry Division annual progress report for period ending December 31, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shults, W.D.; Lyon, W.S. (ed.)

    1980-05-01

    The progress is reported in the following sections: analytical methodology, mass and emission spectrometry, technical support, bio-organic analysis, nuclear and radiochemical analysis, and quality assurance. (DLC)

  12. Selected chapters from general chemistry in physics teaching with the help of e - learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feszterová, Melánia

    2017-01-01

    Education in the field of natural disciplines - Mathematics, Physics, Chemistry, Ecology and Biology takes part in general education at all schools on the territory of Slovakia. Its aim is to reach the state of balanced development of all personal characteristics of pupils, to teach them correctly identify and analyse problems, propose solutions and above all how to solve the problem itself. High quality education can be reached only through the pedagogues who have a good expertise knowledge, practical experience and high level of pedagogical abilities. The teacher as a disseminator of natural-scientific knowledge should be not only well-informed about modern tendencies in the field, but he/she also should actively participate in project tasks This is the reason why students of 1st year of study (bachelor degree) at the Department of Physics of Constantine the Philosopher University in Nitra attend lectures in the frame of subject General Chemistry. In this paper we present and describe an e - learning course called General Chemistry that is freely accessible to students. One of the aims of this course is to attract attention towards the importance of cross-curricular approach which seems to be fundamental in contemporary natural-scientific education (e.g. between Physics and Chemistry). This is why it is so important to implement a set of new topics and tasks that support development of abilities to realise cross-curricular goals into the process of preparation of future teachers of Physics.

  13. Focus on the nanomaterial-based biosensor papers in Chinese Journal of Analytical Chemistry of the year 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xia; MA LiNa; WANG ZhenXin

    2011-01-01

    Because of their unique physical and chemical properties,nanomaterials have been widely used to develop biosensing systems for bioanalytical and biomedical applications.The journal Chinese Journal of Analytical Chemistry published 35 papers on nanomaterial-based biosensors in 2010,including 5 reviews [1-5] and 29 research articles [6-34].These biosensing systems were fabricated by a broad range of nanomaterials (e.g.,carbon nanotube,gold nanoparticle,magnetic nanoparticle,silica nanoparticle,quantum dot,and so forth,Figure 1),some of them have high quality and get great achievements.

  14. Analytical Chemistry Division annual progress report for period ending November 30, 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyon, W.S. (ed.)

    1978-03-01

    Activities for the year are summarized in sections on analytical methodology, mass and mass emission spectrometry, analytical services, bio-organic analysis, nuclear and radiochemical analysis, and quality assurance and safety. Presentations of research results in publications and reports are tabulated. (JRD)

  15. Development and Preliminary Impacts of the Implementation of an Authentic Research-Based Experiment in General Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasik, Janice Hall; Cottone, Katelyn E.; Heethuis, Mitchell T.; Mueller, Anja

    2013-01-01

    Incorporating research-based lab activities into general chemistry at a large university can be challenging, considering the high enrollments and costs typically associated with the courses. Performing sweeping curricular overhauls of the general chemistry laboratory can be difficult, and in some cases discouraged, as many would rather maintain…

  16. Argumentation as a Lens to Examine Student Discourse in Peer-Led Guided Inquiry for College General Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulatunga, Ushiri Kumarihamy

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation work entails three related studies on the investigation of Peer-Led Guided Inquiry student discourse in a General Chemistry I course through argumentation. The first study, "Argumentation and participation patterns in general chemistry peer-led sessions," is focused on examining arguments and participation patterns in…

  17. Exploring General versus Task-Specific Assessments of Metacognition in University Chemistry Students: A Multitrait-Multimethod Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chia-Yu

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to use multiple assessments to investigate the general versus task-specific characteristics of metacognition in dissimilar chemistry topics. This mixed-method approach investigated the nature of undergraduate general chemistry students' metacognition using four assessments: a self-report questionnaire, assessment of…

  18. Reliability Generalization of Curriculum-Based Measurement Reading Aloud: A Meta-Analytic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Seungsoo

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to employ the meta-analytic method of Reliability Generalization to investigate the magnitude and variability of reliability estimates obtained across studies using Curriculum-Based Measurement reading aloud. Twenty-eight studies that met the inclusion criteria were used to calculate the overall mean reliability of…

  19. Exact Analytical Solution of the Klein-Gordon Equation in the Generalized Woods-Saxon Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayrak, O.; Sahin, D.

    2015-09-01

    The exact analytical solution of the Klein-Gordon equation for the spin-0 particles in the generalized Woods-Saxon potential is presented. The bound state energy eigenvalues and corresponding wave functions are obtained in the closed forms. The correlations between the potential parameters and energy eigenvalues are examined for π0 particles.

  20. Synthetic Nano- and Micromachines in Analytical Chemistry: Sensing, Migration, Capture, Delivery, and Separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Wentao; Wang, Wei; Das, Sambeeta; Yadav, Vinita; Mallouk, Thomas E; Sen, Ayusman

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic nano- and microscale machines move autonomously in solution or drive fluid flows by converting sources of energy into mechanical work. Their sizes are comparable to analytes (sub-nano- to microscale), and they respond to signals from each other and their surroundings, leading to emergent collective behavior. These machines can potentially enable hitherto difficult analytical applications. In this article, we review the development of different classes of synthetic nano- and micromotors and pumps and indicate their possible applications in real-time in situ chemical sensing, on-demand directional transport, cargo capture and delivery, as well as analyte isolation and separation.

  1. Chinese Journal of Chemistry Instructions for Authors 2005

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    1 General Chinese Journal of Chemistry is an international peer-reviewed journal published in English, with its editorial office hosted by the Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences. It publishes original research work in all fields of chemistry, i.e. physical, inorganic, organic and analytic chemistry, etc., in the forms of Accounts, Full Papers, Notes and Communications.

  2. A Multidisciplinary Science Summer Camp for Students with Emphasis on Environmental and Analytical Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Gunnar; Frenzel, Wolfgang; Richter, Wolfgang M.; Ta¨uscher, Lothar; Kubsch, Georg

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the course of events of a five-day summer camp on environmental chemistry with high emphasis on chemical analysis. The annual camp was optional and open for students of all disciplines and levels. The duration of the summer camp was five and a half days in the Feldberg Lake District in northeast Germany (federal state of…

  3. Verslag "Fourth European Conference on Analytical Chemistry", Helsinki, 1981-08-23/28

    OpenAIRE

    Ruig, de, W.G.

    1981-01-01

    Euroanalysis - IV, the "Fourth European Conference on Analytica! Chemistry" was georganiseerd door de Finse Chemische Vereniging en werd gehouden van 23-28 augustus 1981 te Helsinki. Het aantal deelnemers bedroeg 750, afkomstig uit 39 landen. Er waren ruim 250 voordrachten en posters, grotendeels in parallelzittingen. Daarnaast was er een tentoonstelling. Voorts waren er nog een aantal plenaire voordrachten van meer algemene aard.

  4. Incorporating Course-Based Undergraduate Research Experiences into Analytical Chemistry Laboratory Curricula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Melissa A.; Yan, Fei

    2016-01-01

    A continuous effort within an undergraduate university setting is to improve students' learning outcomes and thus improve students' attitudes about a particular field of study. This is undoubtedly relevant within a chemistry laboratory. This paper reports the results of an effort to introduce a problem-based learning strategy into the analytical…

  5. Using Cooperative Learning to Teach Chemistry: A Meta-Analytic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warfa, Abdi-Rizak M.

    2016-01-01

    A meta-analysis of recent quantitative studies that examine the effects of cooperative learning (CL) on achievement outcomes in chemistry is presented. Findings from 25 chemical education studies involving 3985 participants (N[subscript treatment] = 1,845; N[subscript control] = 2,140) and published since 2001 show positive association between…

  6. Development and Validation of a Path Analytic Model of Students' Performance in Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anamuah-Mensah, Jophus; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Reported the development and validation of an integrated model of performance on chemical concept-volumetric analysis. Model was tested on 265 chemistry students in eight schools.Results indicated that for subjects using algorithms without understanding, performance on volumetric analysis problems was not influenced by proportional reasoning…

  7. Opening Remarks for "Analytical Chemistry, Monitoring, and Environmental Fate and Transport" Session at Fluoros 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    There have been a number of revolutionary developments during the past decade that have led to a much more comprehensive understanding of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in the environment. Improvements in analytical instrumentation have made liquid chromatography tri...

  8. Analytical Chemistry Division annual progress report for period ending November 30, 1975

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyon, W.S. (comp. and ed.)

    1976-02-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for each of the six sections on analytical research and development. Service analyses, activities related to education, supplementary professional activities, and means of presentation of research results are also discussed. (JGB)

  9. Ion imprinted polymers: fundamentals, preparation strategies and applications in analytical chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Luiz Diego Marestoni; Maria Del Pilar Taboada Sotomayor; Mariana Gava Segatelli; Lucas Rossi Sartori; César Ricardo Teixeira Tarley

    2013-01-01

    Chemical imprinting technology has been widely used as a valuable tool in selective recognition of a given target analyte (molecule or metal ion), yielding a notable advance in the development of new analytical protocols. Since their discovery, molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) have been extensively studied with excellent reviews published. However, studies involving ion imprinted polymers (IIPs), in which metal ions are recognized in the presence of closely related inorganic ions, remain...

  10. Generalization of the analytical solution of neutron point kinetics equations with time-dependent external source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidi, M.; Behnia, S.; Khodabakhsh, R.

    2014-09-01

    Point reactor kinetics equations with one group of delayed neutrons in the presence of the time-dependent external neutron source are solved analytically during the start-up of a nuclear reactor. Our model incorporates the random nature of the source and linear reactivity variation. We establish a general relationship between the expectation values of source intensity and the expectation values of neutron density of the sub-critical reactor by ignoring the term of the second derivative for neutron density in neutron point kinetics equations. The results of the analytical solution are in good agreement with the results obtained with numerical solution.

  11. A Content Analysis of General Chemistry Laboratory Manuals for Evidence of Higher-Order Cognitive Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domin, Daniel S.

    1999-01-01

    The science laboratory instructional environment is ideal for fostering the development of problem-solving, manipulative, and higher-order thinking skills: the skills needed by today's learner to compete in an ever increasing technology-based society. This paper reports the results of a content analysis of ten general chemistry laboratory manuals. Three experiments from each manual were examined for evidence of higher-order cognitive activities. Analysis was based upon the six major cognitive categories of Bloom's Taxonomy of Educational Objectives: knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis, and evaluation. The results of this study show that the overwhelming majority of general chemistry laboratory manuals provide tasks that require the use of only the lower-order cognitive skills: knowledge, comprehension, and application. Two of the laboratory manuals were disparate in having activities that utilized higher-order cognition. I describe the instructional strategies used within these manuals to foster higher-order cognitive development.

  12. 浅谈分析化学实验考核改革与实践%Reformation and Application of Examinatorial Analytical Chemistry Expermients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    甘春芳; 马建强

    2012-01-01

    The achievements of reformation and exploration in analytical chemistry experiments were expounded.The effects of the examinatorial and designing analytical chemistry and the importance in the reformation in exmerimental teaching also discussed.The designing analytical chemistry experiments was to develop students' abilities of utilizing the learned knowledge on analytical chemistry to solve the problems on experiment and improve their comprehensive abilities and skills in analytical chemistry.%阐述分析化学实验考核改革与实践,主要探讨了将设计性实验引入分析化学实验考核的实施效果以及在实验教学改革中的重要性,设计性实验培养了学生分析问题和解决问题的能力,进而提高学生在分析化学方面的综合能力和技能。

  13. Selected clinical chemistry analytes correlate with the pathogenesis of inclusion body hepatitis experimentally induced by fowl aviadenoviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos, Miguel; Grafl, Beatrice; Liebhart, Dieter; Schwendenwein, Ilse; Hess, Michael

    2016-10-01

    In the present study, clinical chemistry was applied to assess the pathogenesis and progression of experimentally induced inclusion body hepatitis (IBH). For this, five fowl aviadenovirus (FAdV) strains from recent IBH field outbreaks were used to orally inoculate different groups of day-old specific pathogen-free chickens, which were weighed, sampled and examined during necropsy by sequential killing. Mortalities of 50% and 30% were recorded in two groups between 6 and 9 days post-infection (dpi), along with a decreased weight of 23% and 20%, respectively, compared to the control group. Macroscopical changes were seen in the liver and kidney between 6 and 10 dpi, with no lesions being observed in the other organs. Histological lesions were observed in the liver and pancreas during the same period. Plasma was collected from killed birds of each group at each time point and the following clinical chemistry analytes were investigated: aspartate aminotransferase (AST), glutamate dehydrogenase (GLDH), bile acids, total protein, albumin, uric acid and lipase. Plasma protein profile, AST and GLDH, together with bile acids values paralleled the macroscopical and histopathological lesions in the liver, while plasma lipase activity levels coincided with lesions observed in pancreas. In agreement with the histology and clinical chemistry, viral load in the target organs, liver and pancreas, was highest at 7 dpi. Thus, clinical chemistry was found to be a valuable tool in evaluating and monitoring the progression of IBH in experimentally infected birds, providing a deeper knowledge of the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms of a FAdV infection in chickens.

  14. The Advance of Analytical Techniques for Combinatorial Chemistry%组合化学分析方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谌伟民; 黄明智; 黄可龙; 闵忠诚; 张泉

    2005-01-01

      综述了近几年组合化学分析方法的研究进展。在组合化学中得到广泛应用的分析方法有传统的荧光法、比色法、滴定法、燃烧法、元素分析和分光光度法等及现代的红外光谱(FT-IR)、质谱(MS)和质谱联用,核磁共振和近年发展起来的魔角旋转核磁共振(MAS NMR)以及高通量筛选和分析等技术。这些方法各有特点,广泛使用于组合化学中,使组合化学的监测和分析变得便捷和迅速,大大加快了组合化学的发展。%  The advances in analytical techniques for combinatorial chemistry were reviewed in this paper. The methods included conventional fluorometric assay, colorimetric test, titrimetric, combustion elemental, spectrophotometric analysis and modern FT-IR, MS, mass spectrometric hyphenated, NMR and magic angle spinning NMR as well as high-throughput screening and analysis are widely applied in combinatorial chemistry. These methods which allow the convenient monitoring and fast analysis in combinatorial chemistry will accelerate greatly the development of combinatorial chemistry.

  15. Education of Green Chemistry in Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry Experiment%无机及分析化学实验中绿色化学教育的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周振; 周能

    2013-01-01

    According to the rules on inorganic and analytical chemistry experiment, research on the methods of green chemistry education in inorganic and analytical chemistry experiments. Let the students embrace the idea of green chemistry, and cultivate their green consciousness and environmental awareness.%根据无机及分析化学实验教学的特点,探讨在无机及分析化学实验中进行绿色化学教育的方法。让学生树立起绿色化学思想,培养学生的绿色化学意识、环保意识。

  16. Instrumental Analysis of Biodiesel Content in Commercial Diesel Blends: An Experiment for Undergraduate Analytical Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Z. Vivian; Buchman, Joseph T.

    2012-01-01

    The potential of replacing petroleum fuels with renewable biofuels has drawn significant public interest. Many states have imposed biodiesel mandates or incentives to use commercial biodiesel blends. We present an inquiry-driven experiment where students are given the tasks to gather samples, develop analytical methods using various instrumental…

  17. Charge Density Quantification of Polyelectrolyte Polysaccharides by Conductometric Titration: An Analytical Chemistry Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris, Stefano; Mora, Luigi; Capretti, Giorgio; Piergiovanni, Luciano

    2012-01-01

    An easy analytical method for determination of the charge density of polyelectrolytes, including polysaccharides and other biopolymers, is presented. The basic principles of conductometric titration, which is used in the pulp and paper industry as well as in colloid and interface science, were adapted to quantify the charge densities of a…

  18. The intrinsic fluorescence of FAD and its application in analytical chemistry: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbán, Javier; Sanz-Vicente, Isabel; Navarro, Jesús; de Marcos, Susana

    2016-12-01

    This review (with 106 references) mainly deals with the analytical applications of flavin-adenine dinucleotide (FAD) fluorescence. In the first section, the spectroscopic properties of this compound are reviewed at the light of his different acid-base, oxidation and structural forms; the chemical and spectroscopic properties of flavin mononucleotide (FMN) and other flavins will be also briefly discussed. The second section discusses how the properties of FAD fluorescence changes in flavoenzymes (FvEs), again considering the different chemical and structural forms; the glucose oxidase (GOx) and the choline oxidase (ChOx) cases will be commented. Since almost certainly the most reported analytical application of FAD fluorescence is as an auto-indicator in enzymatic methods catalysed by FvE oxidoreductases, it is important to know how the concentrations of the different forms of FAD changes along the reaction and, consequently, the fluorescence and the analytical signals. An approach to do this will be presented in section 3. The fourth part of the paper compiles the analytical applications which have been reported until now based in these fluorescence properties. Finally, some suggestions about tentative future research are also given.

  19. Data Acquisition Programming (LabVIEW): An Aid to Teaching Instrumental Analytical Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gostowski, Rudy

    A course was developed at Austin Peay State University (Tennessee) which offered an opportunity for hands-on experience with the essential components of modern analytical instruments. The course aimed to provide college students with the skills necessary to construct a simple model instrument, including the design and fabrication of electronic…

  20. Analytical Chemistry Division annual progress report for period ending November 30, 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyon, W.S. (ed.)

    1977-02-01

    Activities for the year in the areas of advanced methodology, mass and emission spectroscopy, analytical services for reactor projects and environmental and radiochemical analyses, bio-organic analysis, and quality assurance and safety are reviewed. Presentations of research results in publications, reports, and oral presentations are tabulated. (JSR)

  1. Analytical Chemistry Division. Annual progress report for period ending December 31, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyon, W.S. (ed.)

    1981-05-01

    This report is divided into: analytical methodology; mass and emission spectrometry; technical support; bio/organic analysis; nuclear and radiochemical analysis; quality assurance, safety, and tabulation of analyses; supplementary activities; and presentation of research results. Separate abstracts were prepared for the technical support, bio/organic analysis, and nuclear and radiochemical analysis. (DLC)

  2. Thirty-seventh ORNL/DOE conference on analytical chemistry in energy technology: Abstracts of papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    Abstracts only are given for papers presented during the following topical sessions: Opportunities for collaboration: Industry, academic, national laboratories; Developments in sensor technology; Analysis in containment facilities; Improving the quality of environmental data; Process analysis; Field analysis; Radiological separations; Interactive analytical seminars; Measurements and chemical industry initiatives; and Isotopic measurements and mass spectroscopy.

  3. A New Class of Meromorphically Analytic Functions with Applications to the Generalized Hypergeometric Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firas Ghanim

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a new subclass of meromorphically analytic functions, which is defined by means of a Hadamard product (or convolution. A characterization property such as the coefficient bound is obtained for this class. The other related properties, which are investigated in this paper, include the distortion and the radius of starlikeness. We also consider several applications of our main results to the generalized hypergeometric functions.

  4. Why has the bohr-sommerfeld model of the atom been ignoredby general chemistry textbooks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niaz, Mansoor; Cardellini, Liberato

    2011-12-01

    Bohr's model of the atom is considered to be important by general chemistry textbooks. A major shortcoming of this model was that it could not explain the spectra of atoms containing more than one electron. In order to increase the explanatory power of the model, Sommerfeld hypothesized the existence of elliptical orbits. This study has the following objectives: 1) Formulation of criteria based on a history and philosophy of science framework; and 2) Evaluation of university-level general chemistry textbooks based on the criteria, published in Italy and U.S.A. Presentation of a textbook was considered to be "satisfactory" if it included a description of the Bohr-Sommerfeld model along with diagrams of the elliptical orbits. Of the 28 textbooks published in Italy that were analyzed, only five were classified as "satisfactory". Of the 46 textbooks published in U.S.A., only three were classified as "satisfactory". This study has the following educational implications: a) Sommerfeld's innovation (auxiliary hypothesis) by introducing elliptical orbits, helped to restore the viability of Bohr's model; b) Bohr-Sommerfeld's model went no further than the alkali metals, which led scientists to look for other models; c) This clearly shows that scientific models are tentative in nature; d) Textbook authors and chemistry teachers do not consider the tentative nature of scientific knowledge to be important; e) Inclusion of the Bohr-Sommerfeld model in textbooks can help our students to understand how science progresses.

  5. Results of an interactively coupled atmospheric chemistry - general circulation model. Comparison with observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hein, R.; Dameris, M.; Schnadt, C. [and others

    2000-01-01

    An interactively coupled climate-chemistry model which enables a simultaneous treatment of meteorology and atmospheric chemistry and their feedbacks is presented. This is the first model, which interactively combines a general circulation model based on primitive equations with a rather complex model of stratospheric and tropospheric chemistry, and which is computational efficient enough to allow long-term integrations with currently available computer resources. The applied model version extends from the Earth's surface up to 10 hPa with a relatively high number (39) of vertical levels. We present the results of a present-day (1990) simulation and compare it to available observations. We focus on stratospheric dynamics and chemistry relevant to describe the stratospheric ozone layer. The current model version ECHAM4.L39(DLR)/CHEM can realistically reproduce stratospheric dynamics in the Arctic vortex region, including stratospheric warming events. This constitutes a major improvement compared to formerly applied model versions. However, apparent shortcomings in Antarctic circulation and temperatures persist. The seasonal and interannual variability of the ozone layer is simulated in accordance with observations. Activation and deactivation of chlorine in the polar stratospheric vortices and their interhemispheric differences are reproduced. The consideration of the chemistry feedback on dynamics results in an improved representation of the spatial distribution of stratospheric water vapor concentrations, i.e., the simulated meriodional water vapor gradient in the stratosphere is realistic. The present model version constitutes a powerful tool to investigate, for instance, the combined direct and indirect effects of anthropogenic trace gas emissions, and the future evolution of the ozone layer. (orig.)

  6. Investigating the Longitudinal Impact of a Successful Reform in General Chemistry on Student Enrollment and Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Scott E.

    2014-01-01

    Considerable effort in chemistry education research has been dedicated to developing and evaluating reform pedagogies designed to improve student success in general chemistry. Policy recommendations propose adoption of these techniques as a means to increase the number of science graduates, however there is the potential that the impact of these…

  7. Improving Students' Inquiry Skills and Self-Efficacy through Research-Inspired Modules in the General Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkelmann, Kurt; Baloga, Monica; Marcinkowski, Tom; Giannoulis, Christos; Anquandah, George; Cohen, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Research projects conducted by faculty in STEM departments served as the inspiration for a new curriculum of inquiry-based, multiweek laboratory modules in the general chemistry 1 course. The purpose of this curriculum redesign was to improve students' attitudes about chemistry as well as their self-efficacy and skills in performing inquiry…

  8. From Bhopal to Cold Fusion: A Case-Study Approach to Writing Assignments in Honors General Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamely-Wiik, Donna M.; Haky, Jerome E.; Galin, Jeffrey R.

    2012-01-01

    Faculty from the chemistry and English departments have developed a combined second-semester honors general chemistry and college writing course that fosters critical thinking through challenging writing assignments. Examples of case-study writing assignments and guidelines are provided that faculty at other institutions can adapt in similar…

  9. Introduction of Mass Spectrometry in an First-Semester General Chemistry Laboratory Course: Quantification of Mtbe or Dmso in Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solow, Mike

    2004-01-01

    Quantification of a contaminant in water provides the first-year general chemistry students with a tangible application of mass spectrometry. The relevance of chemistry to assessing and solving environmental problems is highlighted for students when they perform mass spectroscopy experiments.

  10. 分析化学的“准”与绿色环保%Accuracy and Green Environmental Protection of Analytical Chemistry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵景波

    2014-01-01

    实现分析化学这门学科的任务和目的就是分析结果的准确性,“准”是分析化学的灵魂。从夯实理论基础、了解科技前沿、熟练操作技能、综合分析结果和绿色环保理念五个方面阐述实现“准”,同时使分析化学成为绿色化学、环保化学。%The task and purpose of the analytical chemistry discipline is the accuracy of analytical results. 'Accuracy' is the soul of analytical chemis-try. This article discusses how to achieve 'accuracy', and make analytical Chemistry, green Chemistry and environmental y Friendly Chemistry, from five aspects:solid theoretical basis, understanding the frontier of science and technology, mastering operating skil s, comprehensive analysis of results and good green environmental protection idea.

  11. Peroxide induced ultra-weak chemiluminescence and its application in analytical chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhen; Chen, Hui; Lin, Jin-Ming

    2013-09-21

    Chemiluminescence (CL), as a sensitive, rapid, and facile analytical method, has been widely applied in environmental monitoring, clinical diagnosis and food safety. Recently, the main challenge and research interest in the CL study have been focused on exploring new CL systems and obtaining new insight into the interaction between CL reagents. The peroxide induced ultra-weak CL reactions are some new arising systems that have received great attention and have been successfully applied in many fields. The peroxide includes hydrogen peroxide, peroxynitrite, peroxymonocarbonate, peroxomonosulphate and so on. This review paper covers the mechanism of the peroxide induced ultra-weak CL and the analytical applications of the CL have also been summarized. The future prospects for the peroxide induced ultra-weak CL are discussed.

  12. Analysis of the effect of student cognizance of the learning cycle in general chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czapla, Matthew

    While the benefits of the using the Learning Cycle have been well researched, one area that has received surprisingly little investigation is the effect that student cognizance of the learning cycle has on student performance in chemistry. The Learning Cycle, with its strong theoretical roots in scientific practice and learning theory, offers a logical opportunity to educate students in the nature of science and metacognition. In addition, by examining the class holistically, students will have the opportunity to better link the lab and lecture components of the course. We hypothesized that since a keen understanding of the nature of science, strong metacognitive ability, and a holistic view of Learning Cycle classes have all been shown to increase student comprehension in general chemistry, students who were taught to understand the Learning Cycle would perform better than students who were not. Statistical analysis of survey and grade data will be presented.

  13. Analyzing DNA Nanotechnology: A Call to Arms For The Analytical Chemistry Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, Divita; Medintz, Igor L

    2017-03-07

    In order to fully realize the potential of DNA nanotechnology, it is crucial to overcome the lack of robust analytical techniques that continue to hinder the purification and characterization of DNA-based structures. In this Feature, we provide a snapshot of the current state of metrological techniques in DNA nanotechnology and look forward to emerging technologies that may offer new ways to probe and visualize these complex structures.

  14. Acid-Base Chemistry of White Wine: Analytical Characterisation and Chemical Modelling

    OpenAIRE

    Enrico Prenesti; Silvia Berto; Simona Toso; Pier Giuseppe Daniele

    2012-01-01

    A chemical model of the acid-base properties is optimized for each white wine under study, together with the calculation of their ionic strength, taking into account the contributions of all significant ionic species (strong electrolytes and weak one sensitive to the chemical equilibria). Coupling the HPLC-IEC and HPLC-RP methods, we are able to quantify up to 12 carboxylic acids, the most relevant substances responsible of the acid-base equilibria of wine. The analytical concentration of car...

  15. Comparison of the single channel and multichannel (multivariate) concepts of selectivity in analytical chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorkó, Zsanett; Verbić, Tatjana; Horvai, George

    2015-07-01

    Different measures of selectivity are in use for single channel and multichannel linear analytical measurements, respectively. It is important to understand that these two measures express related but still distinctly different features of the respective measurements. These relationships are clarified by introducing new arguments. The most widely used selectivity measure of multichannel linear methods (which is based on the net analyte signal, NAS, concept) expresses the sensitivity to random errors of a determination where all bias from interferents is computationally eliminated using pure component spectra. The conventional selectivity measure of single channel linear measurements, on the other hand, helps to estimate the bias caused by an interferent in a biased measurement. In single channel methods expert knowledge about the samples is used to limit the possible range of interferent concentrations. The same kind of expert knowledge allows improved (lower mean squared error, MSE) analyte determinations also in "classical" multichannel measurements if those are intractable due to perfect collinearity or to high noise inflation. To achieve this goal bias variance tradeoff is employed, hence there remains some bias in the results and therefore the concept of single channel selectivity can be extended in a natural way to multichannel measurements. This extended definition and the resulting selectivity measure can also be applied to the so-called inverse multivariate methods like partial least squares regression (PLSR), principal component regression (PCR) and ridge regression (RR).

  16. Research and Teaching: Computational Methods in General Chemistry--Perceptions of Programming, Prior Experience, and Student Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Lindsay B.; Chiu, Jennie L.; Grisham, Charles M.

    2016-01-01

    This article explores how integrating computational tools into a general chemistry laboratory course can influence student perceptions of programming and investigates relationships among student perceptions, prior experience, and student outcomes.

  17. Using Graphs of Gibbs Energy versus Temperature in General Chemistry Discussions of Phase Changes and Colligative Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Robert M.; Riley, Patrick; Schwinefus, Jeff; Fischer, Paul J.

    2008-01-01

    The use of qualitative graphs of Gibbs energy versus temperature is described in the context of chemical demonstrations involving phase changes and colligative properties at the general chemistry level. (Contains 5 figures and 1 note.)

  18. The Metric Anomaly at the Regular Boundary of the Analytic Torsion of a Bounded Generalized Cone, II. Even-Dimensional Generalized Cone

    CERN Document Server

    Vertman, Boris

    2010-01-01

    We identify the metric anomaly of the analytic torsion for an even-dimensional bounded generalized cone coming from the non-product structure at the regular boundary, hereby filtering out the actual contribution of the conical singularity. This allows us to identify the analytic torsion of a cone purely in terms of cohomology, up to a naturally arising topological invariant - the analytic torsion of the cross section. The arguments are based on the computation of the analytic torsion of the bounded generalized cone, truncated at the conical singularity.

  19. Filmes de metal-hexacianoferrato: uma ferramenta em química analítica Metal-hexacyanoferrate films: a tool in analytical Chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanildo Luiz de Mattos

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Chemically modified electrodes based on hexacyanometalate films are presented as a tool in analytical chemistry. Use of amperometric sensors and/or biosensors based on the metal-hexacyanoferrate films is a tendency. This article reviews some applications of these films for analytical determination of both inorganic (e.g. As3+, S2O3(2- and organic (e.g. cysteine, hydrazine, ascorbic acid, gluthatione, glucose, etc. compounds.

  20. Photography by Cameras Integrated in Smartphones as a Tool for Analytical Chemistry Represented by an Butyrylcholinesterase Activity Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohanka, Miroslav

    2015-06-11

    Smartphones are popular devices frequently equipped with sensitive sensors and great computational ability. Despite the widespread availability of smartphones, practical uses in analytical chemistry are limited, though some papers have proposed promising applications. In the present paper, a smartphone is used as a tool for the determination of cholinesterasemia i.e., the determination of a biochemical marker butyrylcholinesterase (BChE). The work should demonstrate suitability of a smartphone-integrated camera for analytical purposes. Paper strips soaked with indoxylacetate were used for the determination of BChE activity, while the standard Ellman's assay was used as a reference measurement. In the smartphone-based assay, BChE converted indoxylacetate to indigo blue and coloration was photographed using the phone's integrated camera. A RGB color model was analyzed and color values for the individual color channels were determined. The assay was verified using plasma samples and samples containing pure BChE, and validated using Ellmans's assay. The smartphone assay was proved to be reliable and applicable for routine diagnoses where BChE serves as a marker (liver function tests; some poisonings, etc.). It can be concluded that the assay is expected to be of practical applicability because of the results' relevance.

  1. ICL-Based OF-CEAS: A Sensitive Tool for Analytical Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfred, Katherine M; Hunter, Katharine M; Ciaffoni, Luca; Ritchie, Grant A D

    2017-01-03

    Optical-feedback cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy (OF-CEAS) using mid-infrared interband cascade lasers (ICLs) is a sensitive technique for trace gas sensing. The setup of a V-shaped optical cavity operating with a 3.29 μm cw ICL is detailed, and a quantitative characterization of the injection efficiency, locking stability, mode matching, and detection sensitivity is presented. The experimental data are supported by a model to show how optical feedback affects the laser frequency as it is scanned across several longitudinal modes of the optical cavity. The model predicts that feedback enhancement effects under strongly absorbing conditions can cause underestimations in the measured absorption, and these predictions are verified experimentally. The technique is then used in application to the detection of nitrous oxide as an exemplar of the utility of this technique for analytical gas phase spectroscopy. The analytical performance of the spectrometer, expressed as noise equivalent absorption coefficient, was estimated as 4.9 × 10(-9) cm (-1) Hz(-1/2), which compares well with recently reported values.

  2. A Genetically Optimized Predictive System for Success in General Chemistry Using a Diagnostic Algebra Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Cameron I.; Pearson, Paul T.

    2012-02-01

    In higher education, many high-enrollment introductory courses have evolved into "gatekeeper" courses due to their high failure rates. These courses prevent many students from attaining their educational goals and often become graduation roadblocks. At the authors' home institution, general chemistry has become a gatekeeper course in which approximately 25% of students do not pass. This failure rate in chemistry is common, and often higher, at many other institutions of higher education, and mathematical deficiencies are perceived to be a large contributing factor. This paper details the development of a highly accurate predictive system that identifies students at the beginning of the semester who are "at-risk" for earning a grade of C- or below in chemistry. The predictive accuracy of this system is maximized by using a genetically optimized neural network to analyze the results of a diagnostic algebra test designed for a specific population. Once at-risk students have been identified, they can be helped to improve their chances of success using techniques such as concurrent support courses, online tutorials, "just-in-time" instructional aides, study skills, motivational interviewing, and/or peer mentoring.

  3. An Investigation of the Effects of Reader Characteristics on Reading Comprehension Of a General Chemistry Text

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neiles, Kelly Y.

    variable. The results from this regression analysis indicated that the two schema measures (measured by the Pathfinder program) accounted for the greatest amount of variance in four of the reading comprehension variables (encoding the text, bridging and elaborative inferences, and delayed recall of a general summary). This research suggest that providing students with background information on chemistry concepts prior to having them read the text may result in better understanding and more effective incorporation of the chemistry concepts into their schema.

  4. Assessing student perspectives of the laboratory, self-efficacy in chemistry, and attitudes towards science in an undergraduate first-semester general chemistry laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olave, Marcella

    Research is lacking in the general chemistry laboratory that explores the concerted affective predictor variables of student perspectives of the laboratory, self-efficacy in chemistry, and student attitudes towards science. There is little research on the assessment of variables in the affective domain to determine student experiences in the chemistry laboratory. Student experiences in this study were assessed by determining congruence between student perspectives of their actual and preferred general chemistry laboratory environment using the SLEI, and student attitudes towards careers as a scientist using the SAI II. Correlations between scales from the SLEI, SAI II along with the CCSS that measures self-efficacy in college chemistry were identified. A sample of eighty college students enrolled in a first-semester general chemistry laboratory responded to the SLEI, SAI II, and CCSS. A t test indicated there were no significant differences with student cohesiveness, integration, material environment, and rule clarity between the actual and preferred SLEI signifying congruence. There were significant differences between students actual and preferred perception of open-endedness (t = -3.59, df = 28, p = 0.00). Student attitudes towards careers as a scientist could not be determined using pretests and posttests of the SAI II due to a ceiling effect. There were positive significant correlations found between the scales of material environment, integration from the SLEI and the scale of student attitudes towards careers as a scientist using the SAI II. There were also positive significant correlations between self-efficacy for everyday applications, and self-efficacy for cognitive skills from the CCSS with the scale of student attitudes towards careers as a scientist. This study is of significance since it is the first study exploring congruence between the actual and preferred student perspectives of the laboratory using the SLEI in a first semester general chemistry

  5. Implementation of a PETN failure model using ARIA's general chemistry framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobbs, Michael L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-01-01

    We previously developed a PETN thermal decomposition model that accurately predicts thermal ignition and detonator failure [1]. This model was originally developed for CALORE [2] and required several complex user subroutines. Recently, a simplified version of the PETN decomposition model was implemented into ARIA [3] using a general chemistry framework without need for user subroutines. Detonator failure was also predicted with this new model using ENCORE. The model was simplified by 1) basing the model on moles rather than mass, 2) simplifying the thermal conductivity model, and 3) implementing ARIA’s new phase change model. This memo briefly describes the model, implementation, and validation.

  6. Nuclear analytical techniques applied to forensic chemistry; Aplicacion de tecnicas analiticas nucleares en quimica forense

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicolau, Veronica; Montoro, Silvia [Universidad Nacional del Litoral, Santa Fe (Argentina). Facultad de Ingenieria Quimica. Dept. de Quimica Analitica; Pratta, Nora; Giandomenico, Angel Di [Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas, Santa Fe (Argentina). Centro Regional de Investigaciones y Desarrollo de Santa Fe

    1999-11-01

    Gun shot residues produced by firing guns are mainly composed by visible particles. The individual characterization of these particles allows distinguishing those ones containing heavy metals, from gun shot residues, from those having a different origin or history. In this work, the results obtained from the study of gun shot residues particles collected from hands are presented. The aim of the analysis is to establish whether a person has shot a firing gun has been in contact with one after the shot has been produced. As reference samples, particles collected hands of persons affected to different activities were studied to make comparisons. The complete study was based on the application of nuclear analytical techniques such as Scanning Electron Microscopy, Energy Dispersive X Ray Electron Probe Microanalysis and Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. The essays allow to be completed within time compatible with the forensic requirements. (author) 5 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.; e-mail: csedax e adigian at arcride.edu.ar

  7. Extraction and Quantitation of FD&C Red Dye #40 from Beverages Containing Cranberry Juice: A College-Level Analytical Chemistry Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Henry F., III; Rizzo, Jacqueline; Zimmerman, Devon C.; Usher, Karyn M.

    2012-01-01

    A chemical separation experiment can be an interesting addition to an introductory analytical chemistry laboratory course. We have developed an experiment to extract FD&C Red Dye #40 from beverages containing cranberry juice. After extraction, the dye is quantified using colorimetry. The experiment gives students hands-on experience in using solid…

  8. Determination of Total Arsenic and Speciation in Apple Juice by Liquid Chromatography-Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry: An Experiment for the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ping; Colon, Luis A.; Aga, Diana S.

    2016-01-01

    A two-part laboratory experiment was designed for upper-level analytical chemistry students to provide hands-on experience in the use of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for separation and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) for detection. In the first part of the experiment, the students analyze total arsenic in…

  9. Analytical Chemistry Teaching Reform Based on Innovative Talents Training%基于创新人才培养的分析化学教学改革

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何静

    2015-01-01

    This article selects Analytical Chemistry Teaching reform under the conditions of innovative talents training as the key of present study, combined with the author practical experience, first introduced in Analytical Chemistry Teaching in Universities constraining factor, and then deeply analyze the analytical chemistry teaching reform program innovative talents training environment, looking through the optimization of analytical chemistry teaching reform path, to carry out chemical analysis on the future of teaching practice reference recommendations.%文章选择创新人才培养条件下的分析化学教学改革为本次研究的重点内容,结合笔者实践经验,首先介绍高校分析化学教学制约性因素,再对创新人才培养环境下的分析化学教学改革程序进行深入剖析,期待通过优化分析化学教学改革路径,对日后分析化学教学实践活动的开展提供参考建议.

  10. Developments in Analytical Chemistry: Acoustically Levitated Drop Reactors for Enzyme Reaction Kinetics and Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube-Based Sensors for Detection of Toxic Organic Phosphonates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Christopher Ryan

    2009-01-01

    Developments in analytical chemistry were made using acoustically levitated small volumes of liquid to study enzyme reaction kinetics and by detecting volatile organic compounds in the gas phase using single-walled carbon nanotubes. Experience gained in engineering, electronics, automation, and software development from the design and…

  11. The Effect of Learning Style Preferences on Pre-Service Teachers' Performance in General Chemistry Laboratory Course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evrim Ural ALŞAN

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the effect of learning style preferences on freshmen physics, chemistry and biology pre service teachers’ performances in general chemistry laboratory course was investigated. Grasha-Riechman Learning Style Inventory was administered to the pre-service teachers to determine their learning styles. Pre service teachers’ performances were determined by evaluating their experiment reports, midterm exams and final exam. One-Way ANOVA was conducted to determine whether pre-service teachers’ performances differ according to their learning styles in general chemistry laboratory course. The findings displayed that pre-service teachers’ learning styles affected their performances in general chemistry laboratory course. In this study, it was found that pre-service teachers who had “avoidant” learning style preference exhibited the lowest performances, while those who had “independent” and “independent/competitive” learning style preferences showed the highest performances.

  12. Analytic renormalization of multiple zeta functions. Geometry and combinatorics of generalized Euler reflection formula for MZV

    OpenAIRE

    Vieru, Andrei

    2016-01-01

    The renormalization of MZV was until now carried out by algebraic means. In this paper, we show that renormalization in general, and in particular of the multiple zeta functions, is more than just a pure algebraic convention. We give a simple analytic method of computing the regularized values of multiple zeta functions in any dimension for arguments of the form (1,...,1), where the series do not converge. These values happen to be the coefficients of the asymptotic expansion of the inverse G...

  13. The thirty years of the General Chemistry course applied to the freshmen of the undergraduate level at the chemistry institute of Unicamp

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro Faria dos Santos Filho

    2000-01-01

    An overview of the last thirty years of the General Chemistry Course applied to the freshmen in our Institute is presented. All the changes introduced in the course since the first time it was offered up to our days are described and a discussion of the program now developed is given.

  14. General technique for analytical derivatives of post-projected Hartree-Fock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchimochi, Takashi; Ten-no, Seiichiro

    2017-02-01

    In electronic structure theory, the availability of an analytical derivative is one of the desired features for a method to be useful in practical applications, as it allows for geometry optimization as well as computation of molecular properties. With the recent advances in the development of symmetry-projected Hartree-Fock (PHF) methods, we here aim at further extensions by devising the analytic gradients of post-PHF approaches with a special focus on spin-extended (spin-projected) configuration interaction with single and double substitutions (ECISD). Just like standard single-reference methods, the mean-field PHF part does not require the corresponding coupled-perturbed equation to be solved, while the correlation energy term needs the orbital relaxation effect to be accounted for, unless the underlying molecular orbitals are variationally optimized in the presence of the correlation energy. We present a general strategy for post-PHF analytical gradients, which closely parallels that for single-reference methods, yet addressing the major difference between them. The similarity between ECISD and multi-reference CI not only in the energy but also in the optimized geometry is clearly demonstrated by the numerical examples of ozone and cyclobutadiene.

  15. Teaching Reforms and Practices of General Chemistry in Agricultural Universities%Guangzhou Chemical Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁厚群; 胡春燕; 李艳霞; 孙婷婷; 王义华

    2016-01-01

    General Chemistry is an important public basic course in agriculture, forestry, animal science, bioengineering, food engineering, environment engineering majors, etc, in agricultural universities. The main problems during teaching course were analyzed, and according to the curriculum characteristics and the teaching objectives, the teaching contents, patternsand methods were reformedand implemented. The students were found to be more interested in General Chemistry,and their practical handing capabilities were cultivated. The teaching qualityand teaching effect were obviously improved.%《普通化学》是面向高等农业院校农学、林学、动科、生工、食品、环工等专业的一门重要公共基础课。课程组分析课程存在的主要问题,结合本课程特点和教学目标,在教学内容、教学模式、教学方法等方面进行了教学改革与实践。通过这几年的教学改革与实践,不仅学生的学习兴趣和动手实践能力有了很大的进步,教学质量和教学效果也有了明显的提高。

  16. Acid-base chemistry of white wine: analytical characterisation and chemical modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prenesti, Enrico; Berto, Silvia; Toso, Simona; Daniele, Pier Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    A chemical model of the acid-base properties is optimized for each white wine under study, together with the calculation of their ionic strength, taking into account the contributions of all significant ionic species (strong electrolytes and weak one sensitive to the chemical equilibria). Coupling the HPLC-IEC and HPLC-RP methods, we are able to quantify up to 12 carboxylic acids, the most relevant substances responsible of the acid-base equilibria of wine. The analytical concentration of carboxylic acids and of other acid-base active substances was used as input, with the total acidity, for the chemical modelling step of the study based on the contemporary treatment of overlapped protonation equilibria. New protonation constants were refined (L-lactic and succinic acids) with respect to our previous investigation on red wines. Attention was paid for mixed solvent (ethanol-water mixture), ionic strength, and temperature to ensure a thermodynamic level to the study. Validation of the chemical model optimized is achieved by way of conductometric measurements and using a synthetic "wine" especially adapted for testing.

  17. Installation for analytic chemistry under irradiation; Installation de chimie analytique sous rayonnement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fradin, J.; Azoeuf, P.; Guillon, A. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1966-07-01

    An installation has been set up for carrying out manipulations and chemical analyses on radioactive products. It is completely remote-controlled and is of linear shape, 15 metres long; it is made up of three zones: - an active zone containing the apparatus, - a rear zone giving access to the active zone, - a forward zone independent of the two others and completely protected from which the remote-control of the apparatus is effected. The whole assembly has been designed so that each apparatus corresponding to an analytical technique is set up in a sealed enclosure. The sealed enclosures are interconnected by a conveyor. After three years operation, a critical review is now made of the installation. (authors) [French] L'installation a ete realisee pour effectuer des manipulations et des analyses chimiques sur des produits radioactifs. Elle est totalement telecommandee et se presente sous une forme lineaire de 15 metres de longueur et comporte trois zones: - une zone active d'appareillage, - une zone arriere d'intervention, - une zone avant independante des deux premieres et totalement protegee, ou s'operent les telecommandes de l'appareillage. L'ensemble a ete concu de facon a ce que chaque appareillage correspondant a une technique d'analyse soit implante dans une enceinte etanche. Les enceintes etanches sont reliees entre elles par un convoyeur. Apres trois annees de fonctionnement nous faisons le bilan et les critiques de l'installation. (auteurs)

  18. Acid-Base Chemistry of White Wine: Analytical Characterisation and Chemical Modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Prenesti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A chemical model of the acid-base properties is optimized for each white wine under study, together with the calculation of their ionic strength, taking into account the contributions of all significant ionic species (strong electrolytes and weak one sensitive to the chemical equilibria. Coupling the HPLC-IEC and HPLC-RP methods, we are able to quantify up to 12 carboxylic acids, the most relevant substances responsible of the acid-base equilibria of wine. The analytical concentration of carboxylic acids and of other acid-base active substances was used as input, with the total acidity, for the chemical modelling step of the study based on the contemporary treatment of overlapped protonation equilibria. New protonation constants were refined (L-lactic and succinic acids with respect to our previous investigation on red wines. Attention was paid for mixed solvent (ethanol-water mixture, ionic strength, and temperature to ensure a thermodynamic level to the study. Validation of the chemical model optimized is achieved by way of conductometric measurements and using a synthetic “wine” especially adapted for testing.

  19. THE TEACHING-LEARNING PROCESS OF GENERAL CHEMISTRY BY USING VIRTUAL LABORATORIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda Rodríguez-Rivero

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper it is described the use of a group of software, elaborated with didactic objectives, for simulating lab practices and support General Chemistry’s learning at a Cuban university. It is explained how the software were designed so that their visual environment looked like the interior of a chemical laboratory, at the same time, it is monitored the student's interaction with the equipments and instruments according to the objectives expected in the practice. Besides contributing to the saving of resources and care of the environment, the introduction of the software in the process of teaching-learning of General Chemistry allows the students to acquire the necessary abilities to carry out the practices in the real laboratory, since they have the opportunity to repeat the virtual practices as much as necessary. Also, the evaluation is facilitated and instructions for the independent study are included.

  20. What Do Conceptual Holes in Assessment Say about the Topics We Teach in General Chemistry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luxford, Cynthia J.; Holme, Thomas A.

    2015-01-01

    Introductory chemistry has long been considered a service course by various departments that entrust chemistry departments with teaching their students. As a result, most introductory courses include a majority of students who are not chemistry majors, and many are health and science related majors who are required to take chemistry. To identify…

  1. Getting Real: A General Chemistry Laboratory Program Focusing on "Real World" Substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerber, Robert C.; Akhtar, Mohammad J.

    1996-11-01

    -ended exercise on comparison of synthetic and "organic" vitamin C using student-initiated means, including infrared analysis and acid-base and redox titrations. Acknowledgments We gratefully acknowledge the participation of our colleague Robert Schneider in the implementation of this program. Expansion of the program through incorporation of infrared has been made possible by support of the National Science Foundation's Division of Undergraduate Education through grant DUE-9552250, which we also acknowledge with gratitude. Literature Cited 1. An analogous focus in an analytical chemistry laboratory has been described: Sherren, A. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 598-599. 2. Neidig, H. A., Ed. Modular Laboratory Program in Chemistry; Chemical Education Resources, Inc., P. O. Box 357, Palmyra, PA 17078. 3. Kandel, M. J. Chem. Educ. 1989, 66, 322-323; 1988, 65, 782-783. 4. Solomon, S.; Fulep-Poszmik, A.; Lee, A. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 328-329. 5. Deckey, G. MLPC Module ANAL-335; see ref 2. 6. Wolthuis, E. MLPC Module ANAL-416; see ref 2. 7. Flowers, P. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 1068-1069. 8. Burgstahler, A. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1992, 69, 575-576. 9. Gillette, M. L.; Neidig, H. A. MLPC Module ANAL-361; see ref 2. 10. Markow, P. G. MLPC Module ANAL-372; see ref 2. 11. Fuchsman, W. H.; Garg, S. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 67-69. 12. Neidig, H. A.; Spencer, J. N. MLPC Module ANAL-395; see ref 2. 13. Glogovsky, R. L. MLPC Module SYNT-439; see ref 2. 14. Street, K. W. J. Chem. Educ. 1988, 65, 914-915. 15. Forland, K. S.; Hauge-Nilsen, G. S. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 1674-675; Griswold, J. R.; Rauner, R. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 1516-517. 16. Atkins, R. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1975, 52, 550. 17. McCormick, P. G. J. Chem. Educ. 1973, 50, 136-137. 18. Bailey, D. N. J. Chem. Educ. 1974, 51, 488-489. 19. Bowen, H. J. M. J. Chem. Educ. 1990, 67, 75-77; Cloutier, H.; Prud'homme, R. E. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 815-819. 20. Sherman, M. C. Polymers in Chemistry: Experiments and 2Demonstrations; Workshop

  2. Ant Colony Algorithm and Optimization of Test Conditions in Analytical Chemistry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁亚平; 吴庆生; 苏庆德

    2003-01-01

    The research for the new algorithm is in the forward position and an issue of general interest in chemometrics all along.A novel chemometrics method,Chemical Ant Colony Algorithm,has first been developed.In this paper,the basic principle,theevaluation function,and the parameter choice were discussed.This method has been successfully applied to the fitting of nonlinear multivariate function and the optimization of test conditions in chrome-azure-S-Al spctrophotometric system.The sum of residual square of the results is 0.0009,which has reached a good convergence result.

  3. Artificial neural networks in biology and chemistry: the evolution of a new analytical tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartwright, Hugh M

    2008-01-01

    Once regarded as an eccentric and unpromising algorithm for the analysis of scientific data, the neural network has been developed in the last decade into a powerful computational tool. Its use now spans all areas of science, from the physical sciences and engineering to the life sciences and allied subjects. Applications range from the assessment of epidemiological data or the deconvolution of spectra to highly practical applications, such as the electronic nose. This introductory chapter considers briefly the growth in the use of neural networks and provides some general background in preparation for the more detailed chapters that follow.

  4. The Metric Anomaly at the Regular Boundary of the Analytic Torsion of a Bounded Generalized Cone, I. Odd-Dimensional Generalized Cone

    CERN Document Server

    Vertman, Boris

    2010-01-01

    We identify the metric anomaly of the analytic torsion for an odd-dimensional bounded generalized cone coming from the non-product structure at the regular boundary, hereby filtering out the actual contribution of the conical singularity. This allows us to identify the analytic torsion of a cone purely in terms of cohomology, up to a naturally arising torsion-like spectral invariant of the cross section. The arguments are based on the computation of the analytic torsion of the bounded generalized cone, truncated at the conical singularity.

  5. Temperature-controlled micro-TLC: a versatile green chemistry and fast analytical tool for separation and preliminary screening of steroids fraction from biological and environmental samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarzycki, Paweł K; Slączka, Magdalena M; Zarzycka, Magdalena B; Bartoszuk, Małgorzata A; Włodarczyk, Elżbieta; Baran, Michał J

    2011-11-01

    This paper is a continuation of our previous research focusing on development of micro-TLC methodology under temperature-controlled conditions. The main goal of present paper is to demonstrate separation and detection capability of micro-TLC technique involving simple analytical protocols without multi-steps sample pre-purification. One of the advantages of planar chromatography over its column counterpart is that each TLC run can be performed using non-previously used stationary phase. Therefore, it is possible to fractionate or separate complex samples characterized by heavy biological matrix loading. In present studies components of interest, mainly steroids, were isolated from biological samples like fish bile using single pre-treatment steps involving direct organic liquid extraction and/or deproteinization by freeze-drying method. Low-molecular mass compounds with polarity ranging from estetrol to progesterone derived from the environmental samples (lake water, untreated and treated sewage waters) were concentrated using optimized solid-phase extraction (SPE). Specific bands patterns for samples derived from surface water of the Middle Pomerania in northern part of Poland can be easily observed on obtained micro-TLC chromatograms. This approach can be useful as simple and non-expensive complementary method for fast control and screening of treated sewage water discharged by the municipal wastewater treatment plants. Moreover, our experimental results show the potential of micro-TLC as an efficient tool for retention measurements of a wide range of steroids under reversed-phase (RP) chromatographic conditions. These data can be used for further optimalization of SPE or HPLC systems working under RP conditions. Furthermore, we also demonstrated that micro-TLC based analytical approach can be applied as an effective method for the internal standard (IS) substance search. Generally, described methodology can be applied for fast fractionation or screening of the

  6. 无机及分析化学课程教学改革的探究∗%Exploration on Reform of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张秀兰; 韩青霖; 黄萌; 潘亚楠

    2016-01-01

    针对无机及分析化学课程的性质,结合作者从事该课程教学的实践,提出了无机及分析化学课程教学改革的一些新举措:重视教学方式的过渡,激发学生学习的自主性;通过优化教学内容,适当采用多媒体教学,加强实验环节,提高教学质量和效率;在化学教学中渗透绿色化学理念,培养学生的综合素质;为高师《无机及分析化学》教学改革提供理论指导。%Combined with the practices in Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry teaching, new teaching methods were put forward, aimed at the feature of teaching reform in Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry course, including transition of teaching methods to arouse the students’ learning autonomy, optimizing teaching contents, properly using multimedia teaching, strengthening experiment teaching, improving the teaching quality and efficiency, permeating the idea of green chemistry through of the chemical teaching, cultivating the students’ comprehensive quality. It provided theoretical guidance for higher normal Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry teaching reform.

  7. How do video-based demonstration assessment tasks affect problem-solving process, test anxiety, chemistry anxiety and achievement in general chemistry students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrell, Rosalind Stephanie

    2001-12-01

    Because paper-and-pencil testing provides limited knowledge about what students know about chemical phenomena, we have developed video-based demonstrations to broaden measurement of student learning. For example, students might be shown a video demonstrating equilibrium shifts. Two methods for viewing equilibrium shifts are changing the concentration of the reactants and changing the temperature of the system. The students are required to combine the data collected from the video and their knowledge of chemistry to determine which way the equilibrium shifts. Video-based demonstrations are important techniques for measuring student learning because they require students to apply conceptual knowledge learned in class to a specific chemical problem. This study explores how video-based demonstration assessment tasks affect problem-solving processes, test anxiety, chemistry anxiety and achievement in general chemistry students. Several instruments were used to determine students' knowledge about chemistry, students' test and chemistry anxiety before and after treatment. Think-aloud interviews were conducted to determine students' problem-solving processes after treatment. The treatment group was compared to a control group and a group watching video demonstrations. After treatment students' anxiety increased and achievement decreased. There were also no significant differences found in students' problem-solving processes following treatment. These negative findings may be attributed to several factors that will be explored in this study.

  8. Introductory Molecular Orbital Theory: An Honors General Chemistry Computational Lab as Implemented Using Three-Dimensional Modeling Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruddick, Kristie R.; Parrill, Abby L.; Petersen, Richard L.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, a computational molecular orbital theory experiment was implemented in a first-semester honors general chemistry course. Students used the GAMESS (General Atomic and Molecular Electronic Structure System) quantum mechanical software (as implemented in ChemBio3D) to optimize the geometry for various small molecules. Extended Huckel…

  9. Climate Change Concepts and POGIL: Using climate change to teach general chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, D. B.; Lewis, J. E.; Anderson, K.; Latch, D.; Sutheimer, S.; Webster, G.; Middlecamp, C.; Moog, R.

    2013-12-01

    Climate change is a topic that can be used to engage students in a variety of courses and disciplines. Through an NSF-funded project, we have written a set of in-class POGIL (Process Oriented Guided Inquiry Learning) activities that use climate change topics to teach general chemistry concepts. POGIL is a pedagogical approach that uses group activities to teach content and process skills. In these group activities an initial model and a series of critical thinking questions are used to guide students through the introduction to or application of course content. Students complete the activities on their own, with the faculty member as a facilitator of learning, rather than a provider of information. Through assigned group roles and intentionally designed activity structure, process skills, such as teamwork, communication, and information processing, are developed during completion of the activity. While POGIL activities were initially developed for chemistry courses, this approach has now been used to create materials for use in other fields, such as biology, math, engineering and computer science. An additional component of this project is the incorporation of questions that relate to socio-scientific issues, e.g., the economic and social effects of climate change policies. The goal is for students to use evidence-based arguments in situations where opinion-based arguments are common. Key components (i.e., models and the corresponding critical thinking questions) of one activity will be presented. We will also report preliminary feedback based on initial classroom testing of several of the activities.

  10. Double-sided Microfluidic Device for Speciation Analysis of Iron in Water Samples: Towards Greener Analytical Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngvises, Napaporn; Thanurak, Porapichcha; Chaida, Thanatcha; Jukmunee, Jaroon; Alsuhaimi, Awadh

    2015-01-01

    Microfluidics minimize the amounts of reagents and generate less waste. While microdevices are commonly single-sided, producing a substrate with microchannels on multiple surfaces would increase their usefulness. Herein, a polymethymethacrylate substrate incorporating microchannel structures on two sides was sandwiched between two polydimethylsiloxane sheets to create a multi-analysis device, which was used for the spectrophotometric analysis of the ferrous ion (Fe(2+)) and the ferric ion (Fe(3+)), by utilizing colorimetric detection. To monitor the signals from both channel networks, dual optical sensors were integrated into the system. The linear ranges for Fe(2+) and Fe(3+) analyses were 0.1 - 20 mg L(-1) (R(2) = 0.9988) and 1.0 - 40 mg L(-1) (R(2) = 0.9974), respectively. The detection limits for Fe(2+) and Fe(3+) were 0.1 and 0.5 mg L(-1), respectively. The percent recoveries of Fe(2+) and Fe(3+) were 93.5 - 104.3 with an RSD analytical chemistry applications.

  11. Using Journal Articles to Teach Writing Skills for Laboratory Reports in General Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilstra, Luanne

    2001-06-01

    A strategy for helping students develop technical writing skills through laboratory report assignments is described. The students begin by examining a recent journal article, writing a citation for it, and listing the sections the article contains. Students are given guidelines for constructing one specific section and are assigned the task of writing or creating that section for a specific laboratory experiment they have completed. The process is repeated so that each laboratory report focuses on a different part of a journal article. This approach to laboratory reports gives students an introduction to techniques necessary for good technical writing, yet is simple enough for a general chemistry course. Because each laboratory report is just one section of a full, formal laboratory report, grading is structured and straightforward.

  12. Generalization of the Analytical Exponential Model for Homogeneous Reactor Kinetics Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdallah A. Nahla

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mathematical form for two energy groups of three-dimensional homogeneous reactor kinetics equations and average one group of the precursor concentration of delayed neutrons is presented. This mathematical form is called “two energy groups of the point kinetics equations.” We rewrite two energy groups of the point kinetics equations in the matrix form. Generalization of the analytical exponential model (GAEM is developed for solving two energy groups of the point kinetics equations. The GAEM is based on the eigenvalues and the corresponding eigenvectors of the coefficient matrix. The eigenvalues of the coefficient matrix are calculated numerically using visual FORTRAN code, based on Laguerre’s method, to calculate the roots of an algebraic equation with real coefficients. The eigenvectors of the coefficient matrix are calculated analytically. The results of the GAEM are compared with the traditional methods. These comparisons substantiate the accuracy of the results of the GAEM. In addition, the GAEM is faster than the traditional methods.

  13. Analytical Solution of Relativistic Few-Body Bound Systems with a Generalized Yukawa Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslanzadeh, M.; Rajabi, A. A.

    2016-03-01

    We have investigated in this paper the few-body bound systems in a simple semi-relativistic scheme. For this aim, we introduced a spin independent relativistic description for a few-identical body system by presenting the analytical solution of few-particle Klein-Gordon equation. Performing calculations in D-dimensional configuration on the basis of the hypercentral approach, we reduced the few-body Klein-Gordon equation to a Schrödinger-like form. This equation is solved by using the Nikiforov-Uvarov method, through which the energy equations and eigenfunctions for a few-body bound system are obtained. We used the spin- and isospin-independent generalized Yukawa potential in our calculations, and the dependence of the few-body binding energies on the potential parameters has been investigated.

  14. THIRD-ORDER DIFFERENTIAL SUBORDINATION RESULTS FOR ANALYTIC FUNCTIONS INVOLVING THE GENERALIZED BESSEL FUNCTIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huo TANG; Erhan DENIZ

    2014-01-01

    In the present paper, we derive some third-order differential subordination results for analytic functions in the open unit disk, using the operator Bcκf by means of normalized form of the generalized Bessel functions of the first kind, which is defined as z(Bcκ+1f(z))′=κBcκf(z)−(κ−1)Bcκ+1f(z), where b, c, p ∈ C and κ = p+(b+1)/2 ∈ C\\Z−0 (Z−0 = {0,−1,−2, · · ·}). The results are obtained by considering suitable classes of admissible functions. Various known or new special cases of our main results are also pointed out.

  15. EVALUATION OF THE USE OF IPAD IN TEACHING GENERAL CHEMISTRY LAB TO FRESHMEN STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. EID

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available It is generally accepted that the use of iPad enhances students’ engagement in the classroom. However, assessing the benefits of using iPad in teaching laboratory sessions have seen less attention, due to the hands-on nature of these courses. To do this assessment, iPad was applied in teaching two pilot sessions of the General Chemistry Lab, and students’ evaluation was compared to that of other students in sections taught by conventional teaching techniques. The evaluation was based on the students’ assessment of their achievements in meeting the main course outcomes, which indicated that the students in the classes taught using iPad showed more satisfaction with the course, and believed that they have better achieved the outcomes of the course compared to the conventional classes. Furthermore, the comparison process included the overall students’ quantitative performance, which showed insignificant difference between the two classes, with slightly better performance of students in normal classes in quizzes, whereas final exam marks were almost the same for both the iPad piloted students and conventional class students. The differences in quizzes results were attributed to the normal variation in the students’ academic merits. In addition, the piloted students were asked about their experience of using iPad in class and their satisfaction by using different iPad Apps. The feedback was collected and analysed, and the results showed that the students generally enjoyed using iPad in the class and appreciated all Apps.

  16. Exploration Green Chemistry in Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry Experiment%绿色化学在无机及分析化学实验教学中的探索

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申丽华

    2016-01-01

    The concept of green chemistry should be established through pay attention to green chemistry experiment. Realization of green of inorganic and analytical chemistry experiments adopt the following measures: green chemical reagent should be selected, the mini-type devices of experimental should be found, reasonable arrangement of experiment and cycle experiment should be promoted and treating and recycling of the experimental waste experimental should be implemented.%通过重视绿色化学教学实验培养学生绿色化学理念,采取选择绿色化学试剂,实验装置的微型化,合理安排实验和提倡组合循环实验,重视实验废弃物的回收利用的途径实现无机及分析化学实验的绿色化。

  17. Initial Discussion of Teaching Reform in Analytical Chemistry Experiment%分析化学实验教学改革初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧丽娟

    2013-01-01

    The traditional teaching of analytical chemistry experi-ment has many disadvantages and needs to reform. According to teaching practice, a series of reform and exploration for analytical chemistry experiment are carried out in Hunan Institute of Tech-nology, which includes the content of experiment, the teaching method, and the testing system. The results are remarkable.%  传统的分析化学实验教学存在诸多弊端,亟须改革。结合教学实践,湖南工学院从实验内容、教学方法和考核方式等方面对分析化学实验教学进行了积极的改革与探索,取得了良好的成效。

  18. Generalized analytical solution for advection-dispersion equation in finite spatial domain with arbitrary time-dependent inlet boundary condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-S. Chen

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a generalized analytical solution for one-dimensional solute transport in finite spatial domain subject to arbitrary time-dependent inlet boundary condition. The governing equation includes terms accounting for advection, hydrodynamic dispersion, linear equilibrium sorption and first order decay processes. The generalized analytical solution is derived by using the Laplace transform with respect to time and the generalized integral transform technique with respect to the spatial coordinate. Several special cases are presented and compared to illustrate the robustness of the derived generalized analytical solution. Result shows an excellent agreement. The analytical solutions of the special cases derived in this study have practical applications. Moreover, the derived generalized solution which consists an integral representation is evaluated by the numerical integration to extend its usage. The developed generalized solution offers a convenient tool for further development of analytical solution of specified time-dependent inlet boundary conditions or numerical evaluation of the concentration field for arbitrary time-dependent inlet boundary problem.

  19. An Exploration for the Green Chemistry Teaching Reform in Analytical Chemistry for Agricultural University%农业高校分析化学课程教学绿色化的改革探索

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白玲; 李铭芳; 吴东平; 汪小强

    2011-01-01

    In response to the current problems of analytical chmistry teaching, and taking green chemistry as main-stroke, the green chemistry teaching reform in analytical chemistry was explored. A series of reform thoughts and measures were conducted at the aspect of teaching theory concept, the teaching contents, the teaching method and means, the appraising system of courses, and so on. Better teaching results were made. It would promote development of green chemistry,and realize low carbon economy and the sustainable development of national economy.%针对农业高校分析化学课程教学的现状,以绿色化学为主线,进行了分析化学课程教学绿色化的改革探索.从教学理念、教学内容、教学方法和手段、考核手段等方面,提出了一系列改革思路和具体措施,取得了较好的教学效果.

  20. A importância da Química Analítica Qualitativa nos cursos de Química das instituições de ensino superior brasileiras The importance of Qualitative Analytical Chemistry in Chemistry courses in Brazilian universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terezinha Ribeiro Alvim

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available The results of a survey of institutions offering undergraduate studies, with the objective of evaluating the importance of Qualitative Analytical Chemistry for Chemistry courses in Brazil, are presented and discussed. Judging by the data, the content of the course of Qualitative Analytical Chemistry is considered by the Brazilian institutions offering undergraduate studies to be a body of knowledge essential for the formation of the chemist. This aspect is deemed valid for both baccalaureate and teaching license studies.

  1. Analytical bounds on the area spectral efficiency of uplink heterogeneous networks over generalized fading channels

    KAUST Repository

    Shakir, Muhammad

    2014-06-01

    Heterogeneous networks (HetNets) are envisioned to enable next-generation cellular networks by providing higher spectral and energy efficiency. A HetNet is typically composed of multiple radio access technologies where several low-power low-cost operators or user-deployed small-cell base stations (SBSs) complement the macrocell network. In this paper, we consider a two-tier HetNet where the SBSs are arranged around the edge of the reference macrocell such that the resultant configuration is referred to as cell-on-edge (COE). Each mobile user in a small cell is considered capable of adapting its uplink transmit power according to a location-based slow power control mechanism. The COE configuration is observed to increase the uplink area spectral efficiency (ASE) and energy efficiency while reducing the cochannel interference power. A moment-generating-function (MGF)-based approach has been exploited to derive the analytical bounds on the uplink ASE of the COE configuration. The derived expressions are generalized for any composite fading distribution, and closed-form expressions are presented for the generalized- K fading channels. Simulation results are included to support the analysis and to show the efficacy of the COE configuration. A comparative performance analysis is also provided to demonstrate the improvements in the performance of cell-edge users of the COE configuration compared with that of macro-only networks (MoNets) and other unplanned deployment strategies. © 2013 IEEE.

  2. Integrated assessment of runoff from livestock farming operations: analytical chemistry, in vitro bioassays, and in vivo fish exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallin, Jenna E.; Durhan, Elizabeth J.; Evans, Nicola; Jensen, Kathleen M.; Kahl, Michael D.; Kolpin, Dana W.; Kolodziej, Edward P.; Foreman, William T.; LaLone, Carlie A.; Makynen, Elizabeth A.; Seidl, Sara M.; Thomas, Linnea M.; Villeneuve, Daniel L.; Weberg, Matthew A.; Wilson, Vickie S.; Ankley, Gerald T.

    2014-01-01

    Animal waste from livestock farming operations can contain varying levels of natural and synthetic androgens and/or estrogens, which can contaminate surrounding waterways. In the present study, surface stream water was collected from 6 basins containing livestock farming operations. Aqueous concentrations of 12 hormones were determined via chemical analyses. Relative androgenic and estrogenic activity was measured using in vitro cell assays (MDA-kb2 and T47D-Kbluc assays, respectively). In parallel, 48-h static-renewal in vivo exposures were conducted to examine potential endocrine-disrupting effects in fathead minnows. Mature fish were exposed to surface water dilutions (0%, 25%, 50%, and 100%) and 10-ng/L of 17α-ethynylestradiol or 50-ng/L of 17β-trenbolone as positive controls. Hepatic expression of vitellogenin and estrogen receptor α mRNA, gonadal ex vivo testosterone and 17β-estradiol production, and plasma vitellogenin concentrations were examined. Potentially estrogenic and androgenic steroids were detected at low nanogram per liter concentrations. In vitro estrogenic activity was detected in all samples, whereas androgenic activity was detected in only 1 sample. In vivo exposures to the surface water had no significant dose-dependent effect on any of the biological endpoints, with the exception of increased male testosterone production in 1 exposure. The present study, which combines analytical chemistry measurements, in vitro bioassays, and in vivo fish exposures, highlights the integrated value and future use of a combination of techniques to obtain a comprehensive characterization of an environmental chemical mixture. 

  3. Earle K. Plyler Prize for Molecular Spectroscopy & Dynamics Lecture: Broadband Rotational Spectroscopy for Chemical Kinetics, Molecular Structure, and Analytical Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pate, Brooks

    2013-03-01

    Advances in high-speed digital electronics have enabled a new generation of molecular rotational spectroscopy techniques that provide instantaneous broadband spectral coverage. These techniques use a chirped excitation pulse to coherently excite the molecular sample over a spectral bandwidth of 10 GHz or larger through rapid passage. The subsequent time-domain emission is recorded using high-speed digitizers (up to 100 Gigasample/s) and the frequency domain spectrum is produced by fast Fourier transformation. The chirped-pulse Fourier transform (CP-FT) method has been implemented in the microwave frequency range (2-40 GHz) for studies of cold samples in pulsed jet sources and in the mm-wave/terahertz (THz) frequency range for studies of samples at room-temperature. The method has opened new applications for molecular rotational spectroscopy in the area of chemical kinetics where dynamic rotational spectroscopy is used to measure the rates of unimolecular isomerization reactions in highly excited molecules prepared by pulsed infrared laser excitation. In these applications, the isomerization rate is obtained from an analysis of the overall line shapes which are modified by chemical exchange leading to coalescence behavior similar to the effect in NMR spectroscopy. The sensitivity of the method and the ability to extend it to low frequency (2-8 GHz) have significantly increased the size range of molecules and molecular clusters for structure determination using isotopic substitution to build up the 3D molecular structures atom-by-atom. Application to the structure of water clusters with up to 15 water molecules will be presented. When coupled with advances in solid-state mm-wave/THz devices, this method provides a direct digital technique for analytical chemistry of room-temperature gases based on molecular rotational spectroscopy. These high-throughput methods can analyze complex sample mixtures with unmatched chemical selectivity and short analysis times. Work

  4. Simulations of physics and chemistry of polar stratospheric clouds with a general circulation model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchholz, J.

    2005-04-20

    A polar stratospheric cloud submodel has been developed and incorporated in a general circulation model including atmospheric chemistry (ECHAM5/MESSy). The formation and sedimentation of polar stratospheric cloud (PSC) particles can thus be simulated as well as heterogeneous chemical reactions that take place on the PSC particles. For solid PSC particle sedimentation, the need for a tailor-made algorithm has been elucidated. A sedimentation scheme based on first order approximations of vertical mixing ratio profiles has been developed. It produces relatively little numerical diffusion and can deal well with divergent or convergent sedimentation velocity fields. For the determination of solid PSC particle sizes, an efficient algorithm has been adapted. It assumes a monodisperse radii distribution and thermodynamic equilibrium between the gas phase and the solid particle phase. This scheme, though relatively simple, is shown to produce particle number densities and radii within the observed range. The combined effects of the representations of sedimentation and solid PSC particles on vertical H{sub 2}O and HNO{sub 3} redistribution are investigated in a series of tests. The formation of solid PSC particles, especially of those consisting of nitric acid trihydrate, has been discussed extensively in recent years. Three particle formation schemes in accordance with the most widely used approaches have been identified and implemented. For the evaluation of PSC occurrence a new data set with unprecedented spatial and temporal coverage was available. A quantitative method for the comparison of simulation results and observations is developed and applied. It reveals that the relative PSC sighting frequency can be reproduced well with the PSC submodel whereas the detailed modelling of PSC events is beyond the scope of coarse global scale models. In addition to the development and evaluation of new PSC submodel components, parts of existing simulation programs have been

  5. 高职《无机及分析化学》课程改革初探%Study on Reformation of Inorganic and analytical chemistry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马喜峰

    2014-01-01

    As a key specialized course, the course teaching of Inorganic and analytical chemistry plays a significant role in profes-sional cultivation. This paper probes into the course reform of Inorganic and analytical chemistry from the perspectives of course o-rientation, course design, teaching organization, assessment and evaluation, which aims to further the reform in the teaching of Inorganic and analytical chemistry, improve the teaching quality and strengthen the learning effect.%作为一门重要的专业基础课,《无机及分析化学》的课程教学在专业培养中具有举足轻重的作用。从高职《无机及分析化学》课程定位、课程设计、教学组织、考核与评价几个方面对课程改革作了探讨,旨在深化我校《无机及分析化学》课程改革,提高教学质量,增强学习效果。

  6. Analytic, group-theoretic wave functions for confined, correlated N-body systems with general two-body interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, M.; Watson, D. K.; Loeser, J. G.

    2006-08-01

    In this paper, we develop an analytic N-body wave function for identical particles under quantum confinement with a general two-body interaction. A systematic approach to correlation is developed by combining three theoretical methods: dimensional perturbation theory, the FG method of Wilson et. al., and the group theory of the symmetric group. Analytic results are achieved for a completely general interaction potential. Unlike conventional perturbation methods which are applicable only for weakly interacting systems, this analytic approach is applicable to both weakly and strongly interacting systems. This method directly accounts for each two-body interaction, rather than an average interaction so even lowest-order results include beyond-mean-field effects. One major advantage is that N appears as a parameter in the analytical expressions for the energy so results for different N are easy to obtain.

  7. Exploration of Contrastive Teaching Method in Analytical Chemistry Teaching%分析化学教学中对比教学法的探究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈勇

    2015-01-01

    将对比教学法应用于分析化学“误差及分析数据的处理”一章的教学中,通过对分析检测和射击结果的误差和偏差进行示例对比分析,阐明分析数据的准确度和精密度的内涵;该教学法不仅可以激发学生学习分析化学的积极性,有助于学生更加直观和深入地理解分析检测中误差产生的原因以及准确度和精密度的关系,而且对于学生今后在分析实验中如何提高检测结果的准确度和精密度具有启发作用。%Contrastive teaching method was applied in teaching Handling of Error and Analytical Data, a chapter of Analytical Chemistry. The accuracy and the precision of analytical data were illuminated by contrastively teaching the examples about the error and the deviation of analytical detection and shooting. It was found that the contrastive teaching method can not only stimulate students’ interest in learning analytical chemistry, but also help students to intuitively and thoroughly understand the reasons why there were errors in the analytical detection data and the relationship between the accuracy and the precision. Moreover, contrastive teaching method can play an enlightening role in teaching the students how to improve the accuracy and the precision of detection data during the analytical experiments in the future.

  8. Authentic Learning Enviroment in Analytical Chemistry Using Cooperative Methods and Open-Ended Laboratories in Large Lecture Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, John C.

    1996-09-01

    It is recognized that a need exists to move from the passive learning styles that have characterized chemistry courses to an active style in which students participate and assume responsibility for their learning (1 - 5). In addition, it is argued that course reform should be linked to authentic student achievement, so that students can actively experience the feelings of practicing professionals (6). Course experiments where such changes have been introduced have proven successful but the number of examples of such changes is limited in the higher level courses or courses with large enrollments (7 - 11). In this paper, a one-semester introductory analytical chemistry course is described that accomplishes this goal by the use of open-ended laboratories, cooperative learning, and spreadsheet programs. The course uses many of the ideas described by Walters (7). It is offered at the upperclass level to nonmajors and at the freshman level to students with solid chemistry backgrounds from high school. Typically there are 90 students, who are divided into 5 sections. A teaching assistant is assigned to each section. The course has two 4-hour laboratories and two or three lectures each week (depending on whether it is the upperclass or freshman course). The heart of the course changes is the use of open-ended laboratory experiments in the last half of the course. A sample group project is to have the students develop a mixture of acid-base indicators that can serve as a spectroscopic pH meter. These projects are enhanced by dividing the students into teams of four who take charge of all aspects of accomplishing the projects' goals. Since there are many skills required to make these projects work, the first half of the course is spent developing the individual conceptual, computational, laboratory, problem solving, and group skills so students are prepared for the last half. These changes have markedly improved the student attitudes towards each other and towards learning

  9. An Excellent General Chemistry Textbook——Chemistry%简介一本优秀的普通化学教材——Chemistry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宝珍; 韩爽; 周伟红; 刘松艳; 徐家宁

    2010-01-01

    @@ Raymond Chang编写的Chemistry(2010年已出版了第10版,基本3年左右更新一版)是一本侧重化学原理、理论与应用相结合的普通化学教科书.Chang在编写中刻意利用日常生活中的例子说明编写基本原则,培养学生解决问题的能力和思维方式. 笔者手中的Chemistry(第9版)为教师注释版,其主体内容及编排细节与通用版本相同,于2007年由McGraw-Hill公司出版[1].

  10. Development and evaluation of a thermochemistry concept inventory for college-level general chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wren, David A.

    The research presented in this dissertation culminated in a 10-item Thermochemistry Concept Inventory (TCI). The development of the TCI can be divided into two main phases: qualitative studies and quantitative studies. Both phases focused on the primary stakeholders of the TCI, college-level general chemistry instructors and students. Each phase was designed to collect evidence for the validity of the interpretations and uses of TCI testing data. A central use of TCI testing data is to identify student conceptual misunderstandings, which are represented as incorrect options of multiple-choice TCI items. Therefore, quantitative and qualitative studies focused heavily on collecting evidence at the item-level, where important interpretations may be made by TCI users. Qualitative studies included student interviews (N = 28) and online expert surveys (N = 30). Think-aloud student interviews (N = 12) were used to identify conceptual misunderstandings used by students. Novice response process validity interviews (N = 16) helped provide information on how students interpreted and answered TCI items and were the basis of item revisions. Practicing general chemistry instructors (N = 18), or experts, defined boundaries of thermochemistry content included on the TCI. Once TCI items were in the later stages of development, an online version of the TCI was used in expert response process validity survey (N = 12), to provide expert feedback on item content, format and consensus of the correct answer for each item. Quantitative studies included three phases: beta testing of TCI items (N = 280), pilot testing of the a 12-item TCI (N = 485), and a large data collection using a 10-item TCI ( N = 1331). In addition to traditional classical test theory analysis, Rasch model analysis was also used for evaluation of testing data at the test and item level. The TCI was administered in both formative assessment (beta and pilot testing) and summative assessment (large data collection), with

  11. The atmospheric chemistry general circultation model ECHAM5/MESSy1: Consistent simulation of ozone from the surface to the mesosphere

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jöckel, P.; Tost, H.; Pozzer, A.; Brülh, Ch.; Buchholz, J.; Ganzeveld, L.N.; Hoor, P.; Kerkweg, A.; Lawrence, M.G.; Sander, R.; Steil, B.; Stiller, G.; Tanarhte, M.; Taraborrelli, D.; Aardenne, van J.A.; Lelieveld, J.

    2006-01-01

    The new Modular Earth Submodel System (MESSy) describes atmospheric chemistry and meteorological processes in a modular framework, following strict coding standards. It has been coupled to the ECHAM5 general circulation model, which has been slightly modified for this purpose. A 90-layer model setup

  12. IM-Chem: The Use of Instant Messaging to Improve Student Performance and Personalize Large Lecture General Chemistry Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behmke, Derek A.; Atwood, Charles H.

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has linked poor student performance with the depersonalized feeling of large lecture courses. Various forms of enhanced communication have been tried that appear to enhance personalization in large courses. For general chemistry classes taught in a 365-seat lecture hall at the University of Georgia, we have attempted to enhance…

  13. The Influence of Self-Efficacy and Motivational Factors on Academic Performance in General Chemistry Course: A Modeling Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alci, Bulent

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to determine the predictive and explanatory model in terms of university students' academic performance in "General Chemistry" course and their motivational features. The participants were 169 university students in the 1st grade at university. Of the participants, 132 were female and 37 were male students. Regarding…

  14. Effect of Clickers "versus" Online Homework on Students' Long-Term Retention of General Chemistry Course Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebru, Misganaw T.; Phelps, Amy J.; Wulfsberg, Gary

    2012-01-01

    This study reports the effects of student response systems (clickers) "versus" online homework on students' long-term retention of General Chemistry I course material. Long-term content retention was measured by a comprehensive yearlong American Chemical Society (ACS) GC97 exam administered seven months after students had completed the General…

  15. Examining the Effectiveness of a Semi-Self-Paced Flipped Learning Format in a College General Chemistry Sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibbard, Lisa; Sung, Shannon; Wells, Breche´

    2016-01-01

    Flipped learning has come to the forefront in education. It maximizes learning by moving content delivery online, where learning can be self-paced, allowing for class time to focus on student-centered active learning. This five-year cross-sectional study assessed student performance in a college general chemistry for majors sequence taught by a…

  16. Identification of Unknown Chloride Salts Using a Combination of Qualitative Analysis and Titration with Silver Nitrate: A General Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maines, Laina L.; Bruch, Martha D.

    2012-01-01

    General chemistry students often have difficulty writing balanced equations and performing stoichiometry calculations for precipitation reactions, in part because of difficulty understanding the symbolic notation used to represent chemical reactions. We have developed a problem-based experiment to improve student learning of these concepts, and…

  17. Introduction of Differential Scanning Calorimetry in a General Chemistry Laboratory Course: Determination of Thermal Properties of Organic Hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amelia, Ronald; Franks, Thomas; Nirode, William F.

    2007-01-01

    In first-year general chemistry undergraduate courses, thermodynamics and thermal properties such as melting points and changes in enthalpy ([Delta]H) and entropy ([Delta]S) of phase changes are frequently discussed. Typically, classical calorimetric methods of analysis are used to determine [Delta]H of reactions. Differential scanning calorimetry…

  18. The Use of Molecular Modeling as "Pseudoexperimental" Data for Teaching VSEPR as a Hands-On General Chemistry Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Christopher B.; Vandehoef, Crissie; Cook, Allison

    2015-01-01

    A hands-on activity appropriate for first-semester general chemistry students is presented that combines traditional VSEPR methods of predicting molecular geometries with introductory use of molecular modeling. Students analyze a series of previously calculated output files consisting of several molecules each in various geometries. Each structure…

  19. Enhancing Student Performance in First-Semester General Chemistry Using Active Feedback through the World Wide Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Kent A.; Blake, Bob

    2007-01-01

    The World Wide Web recently launched a new interactive feedback system for the instructors, so that can better understanding about their students and their problems. The feedback, in combination with tailored lectures is expected to enhance student performance in the first semester of general chemistry.

  20. Features of Representations in General Chemistry Textbooks: A Peek through the Lens of the Cognitive Load Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyachwaya, James M.; Gillaspie, Merry

    2016-01-01

    The goals of this study were (1) determine the prevalence of various features of representations in five general chemistry textbooks used in the United States, and (2) use cognitive load theory to draw implications of the various features of analyzed representations. We adapted the Graphical Analysis Protocol (GAP) (Slough et al., 2010) to look at…

  1. Impact of the Flipped Classroom on Student Performance and Retention: A Parallel Controlled Study in General Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Michael D.; Reid, Scott A.

    2016-01-01

    Despite much recent interest in the flipped classroom, quantitative studies are slowly emerging, particularly in the sciences. We report a year-long parallel controlled study of the flipped classroom in a second-term general chemistry course. The flipped course was piloted in the off-semester course in Fall 2014, and the availability of the…

  2. Practical Work in Biology, Chemistry and Physics at Lower Secondary and General Upper Secondary Schools in Slovenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorgo, Andrej; Spernjak, Andreja

    2012-01-01

    Syllabi in the science subjects, biology, chemistry and physics at lower and general upper secondary school are compared in the light of their underlying philosophies, goals, objectives and recognized importance in science teaching. Even though all syllabi were prepared within the same framework, great differences among syllabi concerning…

  3. Removal of Aromatic Pollutant Surrogate from Water by Recyclable Magnetite-Activated Carbon Nanocomposite: An Experiment for General Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlan, Ping Y.; Melcer, Michael E.

    2014-01-01

    A general chemistry laboratory experiment using readily available chemicals is described to introduce college students to an exciting class of nanocomposite materials. In a one-step room temperature synthetic process, magnetite nanoparticles are embedded onto activated carbon matrix. The resultant nanocomposite has been shown to combine the…

  4. Two Methods of Determining Total Phenolic Content of Foods and Juices in a General, Organic, and Biological (GOB) Chemistry Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaver, Lee Alan; Leung, Sam H.; Puderbaugh, Amy; Angel, Stephen A.

    2011-01-01

    The determination of total phenolics in foods and fruit juices was used successfully as a laboratory experiment in our undergraduate general, organic, and biological (GOB) chemistry course. Two different colorimetric methods were used over three years and comparative student results indicate that a ferrous ammonium sulfate (FAS) indicator…

  5. The Use of Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry to Introduce General Chemistry Students to Percent Mass and Atomic Mass Calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfennig, Brian W.; Schaefer, Amy K.

    2011-01-01

    A general chemistry laboratory experiment is described that introduces students to instrumental analysis using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), while simultaneously reinforcing the concepts of mass percent and the calculation of atomic mass. Working in small groups, students use the GC to separate and quantify the percent composition…

  6. Quantitative Analysis in the General Chemistry Laboratory: Training Students to Analyze Individual Results in the Context of Collective Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Chris D.; Bridgeman, Adam J.

    2011-01-01

    Titration experiments are ideal for generating large data sets for use in quantitative-analysis activities that are meaningful and transparent to general chemistry students. We report the successful implementation of a sophisticated quantitative exercise in which the students identify a series of unknown acids by determining their molar masses…

  7. Implementation of Gas Chromatography and Microscale Distillation into the General Chemistry Laboratory Curriculum as Vehicles for Examining Intermolecular Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csizmar, Clifford M.; Force, Dee Ann; Warner, Don L.

    2011-01-01

    As part of an NSF-funded Course Curriculum and Laboratory Improvement (CCLI) project that seeks, in part, to increase student exposure to scientific instrumentation, a gas chromatography experiment has been integrated into the second-semester general chemistry laboratory curriculum. The experiment uses affordable, commercially available equipment…

  8. Using Animations in Identifying General Chemistry Students' Misconceptions and Evaluating Their Knowledge Transfer Relating to Particle Position in Physical Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, K. Christopher; Villarreal, Savannah

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on the types of views and misconceptions uncovered after assessing 155 freshman general chemistry students on the concept of particle position during the reversible physical change of melting, using the Melting Cycle Instrument, which illustrates particulate-level representations of a melting-freezing cycle. Animations…

  9. Use of a PhET Interactive Simulation in General Chemistry Laboratory: Models of the Hydrogen Atom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Ted M.; Chamberlain, Julia M.

    2014-01-01

    An activity supporting the PhET interactive simulation, Models of the Hydrogen Atom, has been designed and used in the laboratory portion of a general chemistry course. This article describes the framework used to successfully accomplish implementation on a large scale. The activity guides students through a comparison and analysis of the six…

  10. TextRev: A Window into How General and Organic Chemistry Students Use Textbook Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Bradley D.; Jacobs, Dennis C.

    2003-01-01

    Points out the important use of textbooks and their ancillary resources in lower-division chemistry courses and the scientific misconceptions found in them. Introduces the TextRev Project which is a new resource for data collection and analysis. Investigates how first and second year chemistry students use and value their textbooks and their study…

  11. "General Chemistry"Teaching and Thinking%“普通化学”的教与思

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭义; 朱平

    2014-01-01

    This paper based on the teaching situation of the general chemistry in the technological university, this research proposed interesting teaching, refining content, competency-based instructing system, experiment teaching, and green chem-istry, and so on.%文章针对本校工科专业普通化学的教学现状,提出兴趣教学、精炼内容、因材施教、加强实验教学、绿色化学教学等几个方面的建议。

  12. A three-dimensional general circulation model with coupled chemistry for the middle atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasch, P. J.; Boville, B. A.; Brasseur, G. P.

    1995-05-01

    We document a new middle atmosphere general circulation model that includes ozone photochemistry. The dynamical model component is based on the NCAR middle atmosphere version of the Community Climate Model. The chemistry model component simulates the evolution of 24 chemically reactive gases. The horizontal resolution is approximately 3° in latitude and 6° in longitude. It includes 44 levels, with a maximum vertical grid spacing of about 2.5 km and a top level at around 75 km. The chemical model distinguishes between species where we judge transport to be critical and those for which it may be neglected. Nine longer-lived species (N2O, CH4, H2O, HNO3, N2O5, CO, ClONO2, HCl, and HOCl) and four chemical families (NOy, NOx, Ox and Clx) are advected. Concentrations of 15 species which are typically shorter-lived or are members of the chemical families are diagnosed using quasi-equilibrium assumptions ( O(1D), OH, Cl, O(3P), O3, HO2, NO2, ClO, NO, HNO4, NO3, N, OClO, Cl2O2, H2O2). Distributions for a number of other species are prescribed. Results are presented from a 2-year simulation, which include only gas phase photochemical reactions and in which the ozone distribution forecast from the chemistry module does not affect the radiative forcing of the dynamical fields. The calculated distributions of trace species and their seasonal evolution are often quite realistic, particularly in the northern hemisphere extratropics. Distributions of long-lived species such as N2O and CH4 correspond well to satellite observations. Some features, such as the double peak structure occurring during equinoxes, are not reproduced. The latitudinal variation and seasonal evolution of the ozone column abundance is quite realistic. The calculated vertical distribution of the ozone mixing ratio exhibits significant differences from measured values. The model underestimates significantly the ozone in the upper stratosphere (40 km) and in the extratropics, where the maximum values occur at

  13. Using an innovative combination of quality-by-design and green analytical chemistry approaches for the development of a stability indicating UHPLC method in pharmaceutical products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boussès, Christine; Ferey, Ludivine; Vedrines, Elodie; Gaudin, Karen

    2015-11-10

    An innovative combination of green chemistry and quality by design (QbD) approach is presented through the development of an UHPLC method for the analysis of the main degradation products of dextromethorphan hydrobromide. QbD strategy was integrated to the field of green analytical chemistry to improve method understanding while assuring quality and minimizing environmental impacts, and analyst exposure. This analytical method was thoroughly evaluated by applying risk assessment and multivariate analysis tools. After a scouting phase aimed at selecting a suitable stationary phase and an organic solvent in accordance with green chemistry principles, quality risk assessment tools were applied to determine the critical process parameters (CPPs). The effects of the CPPs on critical quality attributes (CQAs), i.e., resolutions, efficiencies, and solvent consumption were further evaluated by means of a screening design. A response surface methodology was then carried out to model CQAs as function of the selected CPPs and the optimal separation conditions were determined through a desirability analysis. Resulting contour plots enabled to establish the design space (DS) (method operable design region) where all CQAs fulfilled the requirements. An experimental validation of the DS proved that quality within the DS was guaranteed; therefore no more robustness study was required before the validation. Finally, this UHPLC method was validated using the concept of total error and was used to analyze a pharmaceutical drug product.

  14. Forensic chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Suzanne

    2009-01-01

    Forensic chemistry is unique among chemical sciences in that its research, practice, and presentation must meet the needs of both the scientific and the legal communities. As such, forensic chemistry research is applied and derivative by nature and design, and it emphasizes metrology (the science of measurement) and validation. Forensic chemistry has moved away from its analytical roots and is incorporating a broader spectrum of chemical sciences. Existing forensic practices are being revisited as the purview of forensic chemistry extends outward from drug analysis and toxicology into such diverse areas as combustion chemistry, materials science, and pattern evidence.

  15. Introduction of Differential Scanning Calorimetry in a General Chemistry Laboratory Course: Determination of Heat Capacity of Metals and Demonstration of Law of Dulong and Petit

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amelia, Ronald P.; Stracuzzi, Vincent; Nirode, William F.

    2008-01-01

    Today's general chemistry students are introduced to many of the principles and concepts of thermodynamics. In first-year general chemistry undergraduate courses, thermodynamic properties such as heat capacity are frequently discussed. Classical calorimetric methods of analysis and thermal equilibrium experiments are used to determine heat…

  16. Magnetic bubbles and magnetic towers - I. General properties and simple analytical models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aly, J.-J.; Amari, T.

    2012-02-01

    We consider magnetostatic equilibria in which a bounded region D containing a magnetized plasma is either fully confined by a field-free external medium - magnetic bubble equilibria (MBEqs) - or is confined by both such a medium and line-tying in a dense plasma region - magnetic tower equilibria (MTEqs). We first establish some of their general properties. In particular, we derive a series of useful integral equalities relating the magnetic field and the thermal pressures inside and outside D, respectively. We use them to prove the non-existence of an axisymmetric MBEq with a purely poloidal field, and to discuss some recent results of Braithwaite on MBEq formation by relaxation from an initial non-equilibrium state. We next present two families of exact analytical axisymmetric MBEqs with, respectively, spherical and toroidal shapes. The first family is extracted from Prendergast's model of a self-gravitating magnetized body, while the second one is constructed by using Palumbo's theory of isodynamic equilibria, for which both magnetic and thermal pressures take constant values on any flux surface. MTEqs with a large variety of structures are thus obtained in a simple way: we start from an arbitrary MBEq and just consider the part of it above a given plane cutting the bubble D. For MBEqs and MTEqs in either family, we compute in closed form most of the interesting physical quantities (such as energy, magnetic helicity and twist). Our results are expected to be useful for building up simple models of several astrophysical objects (such as X-ray cavities in the intracluster medium, jets emitted by disc accreting compact objects, eruptive events in stellar coronae and their ejecta).

  17. The Role of Analytical Chemistry in Drug Research and Development%分析化学在药物研发中的任务和作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈丹华

    2014-01-01

    药品质量包括身份、纯度、强度、疗效、稳定性和安全性.分析化学与药品质量直接相关.本文结合作者在药物分析化学方面的研究成果和长期体会,论述分析化学在药物研究与开发方面的任务和作用.%Drug quality includes identity,purity,strength,safety,efficacy,and stability.Analytical chemistry is directly related to the quality of the drug.Analytical scientists are fully responsible in identification,purity determination,assay,reference standard selection and characterization,physical form characterization,purification and stability study.They also play important roles in other areas of drug development by working together with synthetic chemists,pharmacologists,toxicologists,formulators,regulatory and quality assurance personnel.This article discusses the role,responsibility and importance of analytical chemistry in drug research and development with examples of author's own research results and pharmaceutical experience.

  18. 蓬勃发展的现代有机分析化学%Flourishing development of modern organic analytical chemistry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张来新; 朱海云; 王冬梅

    2012-01-01

    简要介绍了有机分析化学的发展与应用,重点综述了:①现代有机分析新方法新技术在食物检测中的应用;②现代有机分析新方法新技术对水资源的分析检测;③现代有机分析新方法新技术对水产品中毒性物质的检测.并对现代有机分析化学的发展进行了展望.%The development and application of organic analytical chemistry was briefly introduces,and focused on the survey of applications of new modem organic analytical methods in the fields of food test, water resource detection,and toxic substance test of the aquatic products. Future development of the organic analytical chemistry was prospected in the end.

  19. Analytical methods for describing charged particle dynamics in general focusing lattices using generalized Courant-Snyder theory

    CERN Document Server

    Qin, Hong; Burby, J W; Chung, Moses

    2015-01-01

    The dynamics of charged particles in general linear focusing lattices with quadrupole, skew-quadrupole, dipole, and solenoidal components, as well as torsion of the fiducial orbit and variation of beam energy is parameterized using a generalized Courant-Snyder (CS) theory, which extends the original CS theory for one degree of freedom to higher dimensions. The envelope function is generalized into an envelope matrix, and the phase advance is generalized into a 4D symplectic rotation, or an U(2) element. The 1D envelope equation, also known as the Ermakov-Milne-Pinney equation in quantum mechanics, is generalized to an envelope matrix equation in higher dimensions. Other components of the original CS theory, such as the transfer matrix, Twiss functions, and CS invariant (also known as the Lewis invariant) all have their counterparts, with remarkably similar expressions, in the generalized theory. The gauge group structure of the generalized theory is analyzed. By fixing the gauge freedom with a desired symmetr...

  20. Limit Cycles and Bifurcation in Piecewise-Analytic Systems: 1. General Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Banks, S.P.; Khathur, Saadi. A.

    1989-01-01

    The existence of limit cycles and periodic doubling bifurcations in piecewise-linear and piecewise-analytic systems is studied. Some theoretical sufficient conditions are obtained directly in terms of the right hand sided of the system.

  1. Take-Home Challenges: Extending Discovery-Based Activities beyond the General Chemistry Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, P. K.; Sarquis, A. M.

    1996-04-01

    In an effort to more effectively integrate the experimental nature of chemistry into our students' experiences, we are developing and implementing discovery-based activities into both the laboratory and lecture components of general chemistry. Below we describe and provide an example of a "take-home challenge" intended to supplement the lecture component of the course. These take-home challenges involve the student in chemistry exploration outside of class and extend the context of content and experimentation into a nontraditional laboratory environment. Over 25 take-home challenges have been developed to date. Preliminary evaluation of the impact of the take-home challenges shows that students reporting themselves as receiving a B or C grade in the course find the challenges very useful in helping them gain a conceptual understanding of the phenomena addressed. Students earning an A grade report little or no impact on their learning. Prepared as one-page handouts, each take-home challenge begins with a scene-setting introduction followed by pertinent background information, a list of materials to be collected, and any appropriate safety precautions. The exploration component of the activity integrates leading questions with the procedural instructions to help guide the students through the discovery process and challenge them to stretch their understanding of the chemistry. After completing a take-home challenge activity, students submit written reports containing responses to the questions posed, observations of data collected, and their responses to the challenge. The accompanying sample take-home challenge activity is provided as a novel adaptation of the belch phenomenon that challenges students to experiment in order to explain the factors that account for the observed behavior. Persons interested in field testing the take-home challenges with their classes should contact the authors. Belch Bottle Challenge: What factors are responsible for the behavior of a

  2. Discussion of Curriculum Reform on Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry Experiment%无机及分析化学实验课程教改初探∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玉新; 贾明翰

    2016-01-01

    《无机及分析化学》作为高职化学类专业的一门基础必修课程,对该专业人才的培养起着至关重要的作用。本文围绕该课程的特点,从优化实验内容、激发学生的学习兴趣、加强环保教育、规范实验操作等几个方面出发,对无机及分析化学的实验课程进行了一些有益的探究和尝试。以激发学生的学习兴趣,培养他们严谨的科学态度,使他们学会运用所学的分析方法去解决生活中的实际问题。%The course of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry is a basic compulsory course in higher vocational chemistry specialty. It plays an important role in the cultivation of the talents. Curriculum reform and discussion on Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry experiment were explored and attempted to made the experimental content optimizing, to stimulate students being interest in learning, to strengthen environmental protection education, and to standardize the experimental operation. So the students would be interested in learning, and learn to use the analytical method to solve practical problems in life.

  3. Exploration and Research of New Teaching Model in Analytical Chemistry%分析化学新型教学模式的探索和研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张军军

    2012-01-01

    为了适应高等教育的发展要求,论文探讨和研究了新的分析化学理论教学和实验教学教学模式,以提高学生的对理论知识的掌握,培养学生的实验能力、创新能力和综合素质。%In order to adapt to the higher education development,exploration and reseach of new teaching model in analytical chemistry.Improve student's learning initiative,experiment mastery,innovation ability and comprehensive ability.

  4. 无机及分析化学课程教学浅谈%Briefly Talking about the Teaching of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry Course

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋林玲

    2011-01-01

    The inorganic and analytical chemistry is the basic curriculum for many freshmen. Many suggestions on teaching which include improving learning interests, innovating enthusiasm of students, training different kinds of abilities of students and .improving the teaching quality were carded out in this paper.%无机及分析化学是许多专业大一学生的基础课。本文从教学实践中总结和探讨了如何调动学生学习积极性。培养学生各种能力以及提高教学质量的一些看法。

  5. ANALYTIC EQUATION OF STATE FOR GENERALIZED LENNARD-JONES SOLID INCLUDING LOWEST-ORDER ANHARMONIC AND CORRELATION CORRECTIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng Jian-zheng; Zhang De-jun; Lan Cong-qing; Ye Chao-hui

    2000-01-01

    Based on the cell model, the general formula for the free energy of solids is derived analytically with the lowest order anharmonic modification and correlation effect taken into account. Combining a method of summing over lattice sites, the analytic equation of state for generalized Lennard-Jones solid is derived. The calculations show that the agreement between theory and computer simulation is quite good and is significantly improved as compared with the numerical results in literature. The comparison of different effects shows the theory including all neighbors but only considering the lowest anharmonic and correlation effects may be a good and convenient approximation for practical solids. The approximation can be easily extended to the quantum case and other generalized potentials.

  6. Annual Report of Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-10-01

    The report is the collection of short communications being the review of the scientific activity of Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology - Warsaw in 1997. The papers are gathered in several branches as follows: radiation chemistry and physics; radiochemistry, stable isotopes, nuclear analytical methods, chemistry in general; radiobiology; nuclear technologies and methods. The annual report of INCT-1997 contains also the general information about INCT as well as the full list of scientific papers being published by the staff in 1997

  7. Croatian Analytical Terminology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kastelan-Macan; M.

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Results of analytical research are necessary in all human activities. They are inevitable in making decisions in the environmental chemistry, agriculture, forestry, veterinary medicine, pharmaceutical industry, and biochemistry. Without analytical measurements the quality of materials and products cannot be assessed, so that analytical chemistry is an essential part of technical sciences and disciplines.The language of Croatian science, and analytical chemistry within it, was one of the goals of our predecessors. Due to the political situation, they did not succeed entirely, but for the scientists in independent Croatia this is a duty, because language is one of the most important features of the Croatian identity. The awareness of the need to introduce Croatian terminology was systematically developed in the second half of the 19th century, along with the founding of scientific societies and the wish of scientists to write their scientific works in Croatian, so that the results of their research may be applied in economy. Many authors of textbooks from the 19th and the first half of the 20th century contributed to Croatian analytical terminology (F. Rački, B. Šulek, P. Žulić, G. Pexidr, J. Domac, G. Janeček , F. Bubanović, V. Njegovan and others. M. DeŢelić published the first systematic chemical terminology in 1940, adjusted to the IUPAC recommendations. In the second half of 20th century textbooks in classic analytical chemistry were written by V. Marjanović-Krajovan, M. Gyiketta-Ogrizek, S. Žilić and others. I. Filipović wrote the General and Inorganic Chemistry textbook and the Laboratory Handbook (in collaboration with P. Sabioncello and contributed greatly to establishing the terminology in instrumental analytical methods.The source of Croatian nomenclature in modern analytical chemistry today are translated textbooks by Skoog, West and Holler, as well as by Günnzler i Gremlich, and original textbooks by S. Turina, Z.

  8. A general analytical expression for the radiation source function of emitting and scattering media within the matrix operator method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Quanhua; Simmer, C.; Ruprecht, E.

    1991-05-01

    An analytical expression has been derived for the radiation source function for a thermally emitting and scattering medium within the Matrix-Operator-Method (MOM). The final formulation is equivalent to the one found by Aronson and Yarmush (1966), who applied the transfer matrix to gamma-ray and neutron penetration and to transport problems in slab geometry. For the thermal infrared case, the general analytical expression reduces to a simple formula, which depends only on the zenith angle. The formula is incorporated in the MOM together with analytical expressions of the transmission and reflection operators following Liu (1990). With the aid of these formulations, expressions are derived as parameterizations of the scattering effects of clouds in nonscattering radiative transfer models by a modification of the emissivity and transmittance of clouds. The accuracy is better than 0.5 percent in the 11.5 micron window region for clouds of arbitrary optical depths.

  9. Productive whole-class discussions: A qualitative analysis of peer leader behaviors in general chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckart, Teresa Mcclain

    The intention of this research was to describe behaviors and characteristics of General Chemistry I peer leaders using a pedagogical reform method referred to as Peer-led Guided Inquiry (PLGI), and to discuss the ways in which these peer leaders created productive whole-class discussions. This reform technique engaged students to work on guided inquiry activities while working cooperatively in small groups, led by undergraduate peer leaders. These sessions were video recorded and transcribed. The data was evaluated using grounded theory methods of analysis. This study examined the dialog between students and peer leaders, paying specific attention to question types and observed patterns of interactions. The research took shape by examining the kinds of questions asked by peer leaders and the purposes these questions served. In addition to looking at questions, different kinds of behaviors displayed by peer leaders during their small group sessions were also observed. A close examination of peer leader questions and behaviors aided in developing an answer to the overall research question regarding what factors are associated with productive whole-class discussions. Five major categories of peer leader behaviors evolved from the data and provided a means to compare and contrast productive whole-class discussions. While no category single-handedly determined if a discussion was good or bad, there was a tendency for peer leaders who exhibited positive traits in at least three of the following categories to have consistently better whole-class discussions: Procedural Practices, Supervisory Qualities, Questioning Techniques, Feedback/Responses, and Interpersonal Skills. Furthermore, each of the major categories is tied directly to Interpersonal, Communication, and Leadership skills and their interactions with each other. This study also addressed applications that each of these categories has on instructional practices and their need in peer leader training. In addition

  10. MICROSCOPY, MICRO-CHEMISTRY AND FTIR AS ANALYTICAL TOOLS FOR IDENTIFYING TRANSPARENT FINISHES CASE STUDIES FROM ASTRA MUSEUM – SIBIU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina TIMAR

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Conservation of cultural heritage relies on scientific investigation of artefacts, a key point being identification of the original materials. In this context, besides wood species identification, investigation of finishing layers is of ultimate importance for old furniture and any other wooden objects with historic, documentary or artistic value. The present paper refers to a series of micro-destructive investigation methods applied for identification of finishing materials, namely: simple in situ and laboratory physical tests, optical microscopy, micro-chemistry and FTIR – ATR analysis. Small samples of finishing layers were taken from four furniture objects belonging to CNM ASTRA Sibiu and were analysed according to the usual procedures of the laboratories from Sibiu and Brasov. The results showed that physical tests and microscopy are useful to get basic information on the samples’ morphology and possible classes of coating materials, while micro-chemistry revealed by some successive tests more specific information on the type of finishing materials. FTIR - ATR is a rapid method of identifying the coating materials based on available reference samples or spectra. However, this is not always straightforward and preliminary physical tests of solubility are useful to select the adequate references, while micro-chemistry tests could complete the FTIR result, especially for those components of the finishing layer present in very small amounts (less than 5%, bellow the FTIR sensitivity. Corroboration of microscopy, physical and micro-chemistry tests with FTIR can provide more reliable results in terms of finishes identification and also valuable information for restoration.

  11. Undergraduate Chemistry Students' Perceptions of and Misconceptions about Buffers and Buffer Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orgill, MaryKay; Sutherland, Aynsley

    2008-01-01

    Both upper- and lower-level chemistry students struggle with understanding the concept of buffers and with solving corresponding buffer problems. While it might be reasonable to expect general chemistry students to struggle with this abstract concept, it is surprising that upper-level students in analytical chemistry and biochemistry continue to…

  12. Electrospray ionization and matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry: powerful analytical tools in recombinant protein chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens S.; Svensson, B; Roepstorff, P

    1996-01-01

    Electrospray ionization and matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization are effective ionization methods for mass spectrometry of biomolecules. Here we describe the capabilities of these methods for peptide and protein characterization in biotechnology. An integrated analytical strategy is presen......Electrospray ionization and matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization are effective ionization methods for mass spectrometry of biomolecules. Here we describe the capabilities of these methods for peptide and protein characterization in biotechnology. An integrated analytical strategy...

  13. Methods for Integrating Moderation and Mediation: A General Analytical Framework Using Moderated Path Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Jeffrey R.; Lambert, Lisa Schurer

    2007-01-01

    Studies that combine moderation and mediation are prevalent in basic and applied psychology research. Typically, these studies are framed in terms of moderated mediation or mediated moderation, both of which involve similar analytical approaches. Unfortunately, these approaches have important shortcomings that conceal the nature of the moderated…

  14. Dark-Matter Halo Profiles of a General Cusp/Core with Analytic Velocity and Potential

    CERN Document Server

    Dekel, Avishai; Dutton, Aaron A; Maccio, Andrea V

    2016-01-01

    We present useful functions for the profiles of dark-matter (DM) haloes with a free inner slope, from cusps to cores, where the profiles of density, mass-velocity and potential are simple analytic expressions. Analytic velocity is obtained by expressing the mean density as a simple functional form, and deriving the local density by differentiation. The function involves four shape parameters, with only two or three free: a concentration parameter $c$, inner and outer asymptotic slopes $\\alpha$ and $\\bar{\\gamma}$, and a middle shape parameter $\\beta$. Analytic expressions for the potential and velocity dispersion exist for $\\bar{\\gamma}=3$ and $\\beta$ a natural number. We match the models to the DM haloes in cosmological simulations, with and without baryons, ranging from steep cusps to flat cores. Excellent fits are obtained with three free parameters ($c$, $\\alpha$, $\\bar{\\gamma}$) and $\\beta=2$. For an analytic potential, similar fits are obtained for $\\bar{\\gamma}=3$ and $\\beta=2$ with only two free parame...

  15. A General Factor-Analytic Procedure for Assessing Response Bias in Questionnaire Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrando, Pere J.; Lorenzo-Seva, Urbano; Chico, Eliseo

    2009-01-01

    This article proposes procedures for simultaneously assessing and controlling acquiescence and social desirability in questionnaire items. The procedures are based on a semi-restricted factor-analytic tridimensional model, and can be used with binary, graded-response, or more continuous items. We discuss procedures for fitting the model (item…

  16. Exploration and Practice of Teaching Methods. in Analytical Chemistry%分析化学教学方法探索与实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵丹

    2012-01-01

    分析化学作为化学专业的基础课程之一,具有非常重要的作用。文章介绍了分析化学教学中几种重要的教学方法:兴趣培养教学法、启发式教学法、类比式教学法、逻辑推理教学法和归纳式教学法,并结合作者自身的教学实践,探讨了各种方法在教学中的作用。%As one of the foundation courses of chemistry, analytical chemistry plays a very important role. This article describes several important teaching methods in analytical chemistry: fostering interest in teaching methods, heuristic teaching method, analog teaching methods, logical reasoning teaching methods and inductive teaching method. With combination of teaching practice, the author discusses the effect of all methods in teaching.

  17. Some Idea about the Teaching of "Analytical Chemistry and Experiment"%对“分析化学及实验”教学的一点思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡晓斌

    2014-01-01

    在当前高等教育大众化、大学生有厌学情绪的情况下,为了避免课程教学的表面化,应改进课程评分模式,拓展讲课内容的维度,提高学生的学习参与度。在教学过程中,应做到理论课和实验课紧密配合,严格要求学生进行规范的实验操作,让学生参与设计性试验和教师科研,以提高“分析化学及实验”的教学效果。%Against the background of the popularization of higher education and the appearance of weary mood in learning among college students, the dimension of class teaching should beex-panded and the course scoring model should be improved to in-crease student learning participation and avoid going through the motions in course teaching and learning. The close coordination between analytical chemistry theory course and experimental course must be carried out. Student must be ordered to operate and exercise strictly and exactly in experimental class. Teachers should guide students to take part in designing experiments and teachers' scientific research projects, thus improving the teaching effects of analytical chemistry and experiment.

  18. Improvement and Practice of Analytical Chemistry Experiment Teaching%分析化学实验教学改革与实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏文义

    2012-01-01

    分析化学实验是高校的重要课程之一,本文通过对目前分析化学实验教学的现状,以提高分析化学实验教学效果为目的,分别对实验内容、教学模式、教学理念和考核制度进行了探讨,以调动学生学习的主动性,培养学生的动手能力和创新能力,从而提高分析化学实验教学的质量。%Analytical Chemistry Experiment was one of the important course in the colleges.The experimental contents,teaching methods,teaching contents and experiment assessment were discussed through the analysis of the present situation of the Analytical Chemistry Experiment teaching,which resulted in mobilizing the learning initiative of students,training the practical and creative ability,and improving teaching effectiveness.

  19. An Approach to Teaching General Chemistry II that Highlights the Interdisciplinary Nature of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumter, Takita Felder; Owens, Patrick M.

    2011-01-01

    The need for a revised curriculum within the life sciences has been well-established. One strategy to improve student preparation in the life sciences is to redesign introductory courses like biology, chemistry, and physics so that they better reflect their disciplinary interdependence. We describe a medically relevant, context-based approach to…

  20. Design, Implementation, and Evaluation of a Flipped Format General Chemistry Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Gabriela C.; SturtevantHannah G.

    2015-01-01

    Research has consistently shown that active problem-solving in a collaborative environment supports more effective learning than the traditional lecture approach. In this study, a flipped classroom format was implemented and evaluated in the chemistry majors' sequence at Purdue University over a period of three years. What was formerly lecture…