WorldWideScience

Sample records for analytical approaches demonstrate

  1. Methodological Demonstration of a Text Analytics Approach to Country Logistics System Assessments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kinra, Aseem; Mukkamala, Raghava Rao; Vatrapu, Ravi

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop and demonstrate a semi-automated text analytics approach for the identification and categorization of information that can be used for country logistics assessments. In this paper, we develop the methodology on a set of documents for 21 countries using...... and the text analyst. Implications are discussed and future work is outlined....

  2. Definition, development, and demonstration of analytical procedures for the structured assessment approach. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    Analytical procedures were refined for the Structural Assessment Approach for assessing the Material Control and Accounting systems at facilities that contain special nuclear material. Requirements were established for an efficient, feasible algorithm to be used in evaluating system performance measures that involve the probability of detection. Algorithm requirements to calculate the probability of detection for a given type of adversary and the target set are described

  3. Demonstrating Success: Web Analytics and Continuous Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loftus, Wayne

    2012-01-01

    As free and low-cost Web analytics tools become more sophisticated, libraries' approach to user analysis can become more nuanced and precise. Tracking appropriate metrics with a well-formulated analytics program can inform design decisions, demonstrate the degree to which those decisions have succeeded, and thereby inform the next iteration in the…

  4. Proteomics - new analytical approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hancock, W.S.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Recent developments in the sequencing of the human genome have indicated that the number of coding gene sequences may be as few as 30,000. It is clear, however, that the complexity of the human species is dependent on the much greater diversity of the corresponding protein complement. Estimates of the diversity (discrete protein species) of the human proteome range from 200,000 to 300,000 at the lower end to 2,000,000 to 3,000,000 at the high end. In addition, proteomics (the study of the protein complement to the genome) has been subdivided into two main approaches. Global proteomics refers to a high throughput examination of the full protein set present in a cell under a given environmental condition. Focused proteomics refers to a more detailed study of a restricted set of proteins that are related to a specified biochemical pathway or subcellular structure. While many of the advances in proteomics will be based on the sequencing of the human genome, de novo characterization of protein microheterogeneity (glycosylation, phosphorylation and sulfation as well as the incorporation of lipid components) will be required in disease studies. To characterize these modifications it is necessary to digest the protein mixture with an enzyme to produce the corresponding mixture of peptides. In a process analogous to sequencing of the genome, shot-gun sequencing of the proteome is based on the characterization of the key fragments produced by such a digest. Thus, a glycopeptide and hence a specific glycosylation motif will be identified by a unique mass and then a diagnostic MS/MS spectrum. Mass spectrometry will be the preferred detector in these applications because of the unparalleled information content provided by one or more dimensions of mass measurement. In addition, highly efficient separation processes are an absolute requirement for advanced proteomic studies. For example, a combination of the orthogonal approaches, HPLC and HPCE, can be very powerful

  5. An approximate analytical approach to resampling averages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malzahn, Dorthe; Opper, M.

    2004-01-01

    Using a novel reformulation, we develop a framework to compute approximate resampling data averages analytically. The method avoids multiple retraining of statistical models on the samples. Our approach uses a combination of the replica "trick" of statistical physics and the TAP approach for appr...... for approximate Bayesian inference. We demonstrate our approach on regression with Gaussian processes. A comparison with averages obtained by Monte-Carlo sampling shows that our method achieves good accuracy....

  6. On the analytical demonstration of Planck-Einstein relation

    OpenAIRE

    Molina Morales, Eddy Luis

    2016-01-01

    In this paper a possible analytical demonstration of Planck's Law for the spectral distribution of the electromagnetic energy radiated by hot bodies is presented, but in this case, the solutions of Maxwell's equations for the electromagnetic radiation problem of Hertz’s dipole are used. The concepts of quantum energy and of photon are redefined from the classical point of view, relating them to the possible electronic nature of electromagnetic waves and the electromagnetic field in general. B...

  7. Analytic approaches to relativistic hydrodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatta, Yoshitaka

    2016-12-15

    I summarize our recent work towards finding and utilizing analytic solutions of relativistic hydrodynamic. In the first part I discuss various exact solutions of the second-order conformal hydrodynamics. In the second part I compute flow harmonics v{sub n} analytically using the anisotropically deformed Gubser flow and discuss its dependence on n, p{sub T}, viscosity, the chemical potential and the charge.

  8. Faculty Workload: An Analytical Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennison, George M.

    2012-01-01

    Recent discussions of practices in higher education have tended toward muck-raking and self-styled exposure of cynical self-indulgence by faculty and administrators at the expense of students and their families, as usually occurs during periods of economic duress, rather than toward analytical studies designed to foster understanding This article…

  9. Nonlinear optics an analytical approach

    CERN Document Server

    Mandel, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Based on the author's extensive teaching experience and lecture notes, this textbook provides a substantially analytical rather than descriptive presentation of nonlinear optics. Divided into five parts, with most chapters corresponding to a two-hour lecture, the book begins with a unique account of the historical development from Kirchhoff's law for the black-body radiation to Planck's quantum hypothesis and Einstein's discovery of spontaneous emission - providing all the explicit proofs. The subsequent sections deal with matter quantization, ultrashort pulse propagation in 2-level media, cavity nonlinear optics, chi(2) and chi(3) media. For graduate and PhD students in nonlinear optics or photonics, while also representing a valuable reference for researchers in these fields.

  10. Consumer energy conservation policy. An analytical approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDougall, G.H.G.; Ritchie, J.R.B.

    1984-06-01

    To capture the potential energy savings available in the consumer sector an analytical approach to conservation policy is proposed. A policy framework is described and the key constructs including a payoff matrix analysis and a consumer impact analysis are discussed. Implications derived from the considerable amount of prior consumer research are provided to illustrate the effect on the design and implementation of future programmes. The result of this analytical approach to conservation policy - economic stability and economic security - are goals well worth pursuing.

  11. Collaborative Visual Analytics: A Health Analytics Approach to Injury Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hajj, Samar; Fisher, Brian; Smith, Jennifer; Pike, Ian

    2017-09-12

    Background : Accurate understanding of complex health data is critical in order to deal with wicked health problems and make timely decisions. Wicked problems refer to ill-structured and dynamic problems that combine multidimensional elements, which often preclude the conventional problem solving approach. This pilot study introduces visual analytics (VA) methods to multi-stakeholder decision-making sessions about child injury prevention; Methods : Inspired by the Delphi method, we introduced a novel methodology-group analytics (GA). GA was pilot-tested to evaluate the impact of collaborative visual analytics on facilitating problem solving and supporting decision-making. We conducted two GA sessions. Collected data included stakeholders' observations, audio and video recordings, questionnaires, and follow up interviews. The GA sessions were analyzed using the Joint Activity Theory protocol analysis methods; Results : The GA methodology triggered the emergence of ' common g round ' among stakeholders. This common ground evolved throughout the sessions to enhance stakeholders' verbal and non-verbal communication, as well as coordination of joint activities and ultimately collaboration on problem solving and decision-making; Conclusion s : Understanding complex health data is necessary for informed decisions. Equally important, in this case, is the use of the group analytics methodology to achieve ' common ground' among diverse stakeholders about health data and their implications.

  12. Collaborative Visual Analytics: A Health Analytics Approach to Injury Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samar Al-Hajj

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Accurate understanding of complex health data is critical in order to deal with wicked health problems and make timely decisions. Wicked problems refer to ill-structured and dynamic problems that combine multidimensional elements, which often preclude the conventional problem solving approach. This pilot study introduces visual analytics (VA methods to multi-stakeholder decision-making sessions about child injury prevention; Methods: Inspired by the Delphi method, we introduced a novel methodology—group analytics (GA. GA was pilot-tested to evaluate the impact of collaborative visual analytics on facilitating problem solving and supporting decision-making. We conducted two GA sessions. Collected data included stakeholders’ observations, audio and video recordings, questionnaires, and follow up interviews. The GA sessions were analyzed using the Joint Activity Theory protocol analysis methods; Results: The GA methodology triggered the emergence of ‘common ground’ among stakeholders. This common ground evolved throughout the sessions to enhance stakeholders’ verbal and non-verbal communication, as well as coordination of joint activities and ultimately collaboration on problem solving and decision-making; Conclusions: Understanding complex health data is necessary for informed decisions. Equally important, in this case, is the use of the group analytics methodology to achieve ‘common ground’ among diverse stakeholders about health data and their implications.

  13. A Demonstration of Approach and Avoidance Conflicts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, W. Scott

    2010-01-01

    Choosing between 2 unpleasant alternatives (Would you rather be less intelligent or less attractive?) is more difficult than choosing between two desirable options (Would you rather be more intelligent or more attractive?). Here I describe a classroom demonstration of avoidance-avoidance conflicts. Students make a series of approach-approach and…

  14. Consumer energy - conservation policy: an analytical approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDougall, G.H.G.; Ritchie, J.R.B.

    1984-06-01

    To capture the potential energy savings available in the consumer sector an analytical approach to conservation policy is proposed. A policy framework is described, and the key constructs including a payoff matrix analysis and a consumer impact analysis are discussed. Implications derived from the considerable amount of prior consumer research are provided to illustrate the effect on the design and implementation of future programs. The result of this analytical approach to conservation policy (economic stability and economic security) are goals well worth pursuing. 13 references, 2 tables.

  15. A Statistical Mechanics Approach to Approximate Analytical Bootstrap Averages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malzahn, Dorthe; Opper, Manfred

    2003-01-01

    We apply the replica method of Statistical Physics combined with a variational method to the approximate analytical computation of bootstrap averages for estimating the generalization error. We demonstrate our approach on regression with Gaussian processes and compare our results with averages...

  16. Analytical approach to the evaluation of nuclide transmutations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vukadin, Z.; Osmokrovic, P.

    1995-01-01

    Analytical approach to the evaluation of nuclide concentrations in a transmutation chain is presented. Non singular Bateman coefficients and depletion functions are used to overcome numerical difficulties when applying well-known Bateman solution of a simple radioactive decay. Method enables evaluation of complete decay chains without elimination of short lived radionuclides. It is efficient and accurate. Practical application of the method is demonstrated by computing the neptunium series inventory in used Candu TM fuel. (author)

  17. An analytic approach to cyber adversarial dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Patrick; Cybenko, George

    2012-06-01

    To date, cyber security investment by both the government and commercial sectors has been largely driven by the myopic best response of players to the actions of their adversaries and their perception of the adversarial environment. However, current work in applying traditional game theory to cyber operations typically assumes that games exist with prescribed moves, strategies, and payos. This paper presents an analytic approach to characterizing the more realistic cyber adversarial metagame that we believe is being played. Examples show that understanding the dynamic metagame provides opportunities to exploit an adversary's anticipated attack strategy. A dynamic version of a graph-based attack-defend game is introduced, and a simulation shows how an optimal strategy can be selected for success in the dynamic environment.

  18. Analytical Thinking, Analytical Action: Using Prelab Video Demonstrations and e-Quizzes to Improve Undergraduate Preparedness for Analytical Chemistry Practical Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolley, Dianne F.; Wilson, Stephen R.; Kelso, Celine; O'Brien, Glennys; Mason, Claire E.

    2016-01-01

    This project utilizes visual and critical thinking approaches to develop a higher-education synergistic prelab training program for a large second-year undergraduate analytical chemistry class, directing more of the cognitive learning to the prelab phase. This enabled students to engage in more analytical thinking prior to engaging in the…

  19. An algebraic approach to the analytic bootstrap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alday, Luis F. [Mathematical Institute, University of Oxford, Andrew Wiles Building, Radcliffe Observatory Quarter, Woodstock Road, Oxford, OX2 6GG (United Kingdom); Zhiboedov, Alexander [Center for the Fundamental Laws of Nature, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2017-04-27

    We develop an algebraic approach to the analytic bootstrap in CFTs. By acting with the Casimir operator on the crossing equation we map the problem of doing large spin sums to any desired order to the problem of solving a set of recursion relations. We compute corrections to the anomalous dimension of large spin operators due to the exchange of a primary and its descendants in the crossed channel and show that this leads to a Borel-summable expansion. We analyse higher order corrections to the microscopic CFT data in the direct channel and its matching to infinite towers of operators in the crossed channel. We apply this method to the critical O(N) model. At large N we reproduce the first few terms in the large spin expansion of the known two-loop anomalous dimensions of higher spin currents in the traceless symmetric representation of O(N) and make further predictions. At small N we present the results for the truncated large spin expansion series of anomalous dimensions of higher spin currents.

  20. Spatial Correlation Of Streamflows: An Analytical Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betterle, A.; Schirmer, M.; Botter, G.

    2016-12-01

    The interwoven space and time variability of climate and landscape properties results in complex and non-linear hydrological response of streamflow dynamics. Understanding how meteorologic and morphological characteristics of catchments affect similarity/dissimilarity of streamflow timeseries at their outlets represents a scientific challenge with application in water resources management, ecological studies and regionalization approaches aimed to predict streamflows in ungauged areas. In this study, we establish an analytical approach to estimate the spatial correlation of daily streamflows in two arbitrary locations within a given hydrologic district or river basin at seasonal and annual time scales. The method is based on a stochastic description of the coupled streamflow dynamics at the outlet of two catchments. The framework aims to express the correlation of daily streamflows at two locations along a river network as a function of a limited number of physical parameters characterizing the main underlying hydrological drivers, that include climate conditions, precipitation regime and catchment drainage rates. The proposed method portrays how heterogeneity of climate and landscape features affect the spatial variability of flow regimes along river systems. In particular, we show that frequency and intensity of synchronous effective rainfall events in the relevant contributing catchments are the main driver of the spatial correlation of daily discharge, whereas only pronounced differences in the drainage rate of the two basins bear a significant effect on the streamflow correlation. The topological arrangement of the two outlets also influences the underlying streamflow correlation, as we show that nested catchments tend to maximize the spatial correlation of flow regimes. The application of the method to a set of catchments in the South-Eastern US suggests the potential of the proposed tool for the characterization of spatial connections of flow regimes in the

  1. Pavement Performance : Approaches Using Predictive Analytics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-23

    Acceptable pavement condition is paramount to road safety. Using predictive analytics techniques, this project attempted to develop models that provide an assessment of pavement condition based on an array of indictors that include pavement distress,...

  2. Learning analytics approach of EMMA project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tammets, Kairit; Brouns, Francis

    2014-01-01

    The EMMA project provides a MOOC platform to aggregate and delivers massive open online courses (MOOC) in multiple languages from a variety of European universities. Learning analytics play an important role in MOOCs to support the individual needs of the learner.

  3. Analytical fuzzy approach to biological data analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiping Zhang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of the physiological state of an individual requires an objective evaluation of biological data while taking into account both measurement noise and uncertainties arising from individual factors. We suggest to represent multi-dimensional medical data by means of an optimal fuzzy membership function. A carefully designed data model is introduced in a completely deterministic framework where uncertain variables are characterized by fuzzy membership functions. The study derives the analytical expressions of fuzzy membership functions on variables of the multivariate data model by maximizing the over-uncertainties-averaged-log-membership values of data samples around an initial guess. The analytical solution lends itself to a practical modeling algorithm facilitating the data classification. The experiments performed on the heartbeat interval data of 20 subjects verified that the proposed method is competing alternative to typically used pattern recognition and machine learning algorithms.

  4. Analytic approaches to atomic response properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamm, E.E.

    1980-01-01

    Many important response properties, e.g., multipole polarizabilites and sum rules, photodetachment cross sections, and closely-related long-range dispersion force coefficients, are insensitive to details of electronic structure. In this investigation, analytic asymptotic theories of atomic response properties are constructed that yield results as accurate as those obtained by more elaborate numerical methods. In the first chapter, a novel and simple method is used to determined the multipole sum rules S/sub l/(-k), for positive and negative values of k, of the hydrogen atom and the hydrogen negative ion in the asymptotic approximation. In the second chapter, an analytically-tractable extended asymptotic model for the response properites of weakly-bound anions is proposed and the multipole polarizability, multipole sum rules, and photodetachment cross section determined by the model are computed analytically. Dipole polarizabilities and photodetachment cross sections determined from the model for Li-, Na-, and K- are compared with the numercal results of Moores and Norcross. Agreement is typically within 15% if the pseudopotential is included. In the third chapter a comprehensive and unified treatment of atomic multipole oscillator strengths, dynamic multipole polarizabilites, and dispersion force constants in a variety of Coulomb-like approximations is presented. A theoretically and computationally superior modification of the original Bates-Damgaard (BD) procedure, referred to here as simply the Coulomb approximation (CA), is introduced. An analytic expression for the dynamic multipole polarizability is found which contains as special cases this quantity within the CA, the extended Coulomb approximation (ECA) of Adelman and Szabo, and the quantum defect orbital (QDO) method of Simons

  5. Forecasting Hotspots-A Predictive Analytics Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciejewski, R; Hafen, R; Rudolph, S; Larew, S G; Mitchell, M A; Cleveland, W S; Ebert, D S

    2011-04-01

    Current visual analytics systems provide users with the means to explore trends in their data. Linked views and interactive displays provide insight into correlations among people, events, and places in space and time. Analysts search for events of interest through statistical tools linked to visual displays, drill down into the data, and form hypotheses based upon the available information. However, current systems stop short of predicting events. In spatiotemporal data, analysts are searching for regions of space and time with unusually high incidences of events (hotspots). In the cases where hotspots are found, analysts would like to predict how these regions may grow in order to plan resource allocation and preventative measures. Furthermore, analysts would also like to predict where future hotspots may occur. To facilitate such forecasting, we have created a predictive visual analytics toolkit that provides analysts with linked spatiotemporal and statistical analytic views. Our system models spatiotemporal events through the combination of kernel density estimation for event distribution and seasonal trend decomposition by loess smoothing for temporal predictions. We provide analysts with estimates of error in our modeling, along with spatial and temporal alerts to indicate the occurrence of statistically significant hotspots. Spatial data are distributed based on a modeling of previous event locations, thereby maintaining a temporal coherence with past events. Such tools allow analysts to perform real-time hypothesis testing, plan intervention strategies, and allocate resources to correspond to perceived threats.

  6. Spark - a modern approach for distributed analytics

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Kothuri, Prasanth

    2016-01-01

    The Hadoop ecosystem is the leading opensource platform for distributed storing and processing big data. It is a very popular system for implementing data warehouses and data lakes. Spark has also emerged to be one of the leading engines for data analytics. The Hadoop platform is available at CERN as a central service provided by the IT department. By attending the session, a participant will acquire knowledge of the essential concepts need to benefit from the parallel data processing offered by Spark framework. The session is structured around practical examples and tutorials. Main topics: Architecture overview - work distribution, concepts of a worker and a driver Computing concepts of transformations and actions Data processing APIs - RDD, DataFrame, and SparkSQL

  7. A discourse-analytical approach to intertextual advertisements: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A discourse-analytical approach to intertextual advertisements: a model to describe a dominant world-view. ... The intertextual messages in advertising discourse can be regarded as generallyaccepted shared ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  8. Ball Bearing Stiffnesses- A New Approach Offering Analytical Expressions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guay, Pascal; Frikha, Ahmed

    2015-09-01

    Space mechanisms use preloaded ball bearings in order to withstand the severe vibrations during launch.The launch strength requires the calculation of the bearing stiffness, but this calculation is complex. Nowadays, there is no analytical expression that gives the stiffness of a bearing. Stiffness is computed using an iterative algorithm such as Newton-Raphson, to solve the nonlinear system of equations.This paper aims at offering a simplified analytical approach, based on the assumption that the contact angle is constant. This approach gives analytical formulas of the stiffness of preloaded ball bearing.

  9. Disentangling WTP per QALY data: different analytical approaches, different answers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyrd-Hansen, Dorte; Kjaer, Trine

    2012-03-01

    A large random sample of the Danish general population was asked to value health improvements by way of both the time trade-off elicitation technique and willingness-to-pay (WTP) using contingent valuation methods. The data demonstrate a high degree of heterogeneity across respondents in their relative valuations on the two scales. This has implications for data analysis. We show that the estimates of WTP per QALY are highly sensitive to the analytical strategy. For both open-ended and dichotomous choice data we demonstrate that choice of aggregated approach (ratios of means) or disaggregated approach (means of ratios) affects estimates markedly as does the interpretation of the constant term (which allows for disproportionality across the two scales) in the regression analyses. We propose that future research should focus on why some respondents are unwilling to trade on the time trade-off scale, on how to interpret the constant value in the regression analyses, and on how best to capture the heterogeneity in preference structures when applying mixed multinomial logit. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Development of analytical cell support for vitrification at the West Valley Demonstration Project. Topical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barber, F.H.; Borek, T.T.; Christopher, J.Z. [and others

    1997-12-01

    Analytical and Process Chemistry (A&PC) support is essential to the high-level waste vitrification campaign at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP). A&PC characterizes the waste, providing information necessary to formulate the recipe for the target radioactive glass product. High-level waste (HLW) samples are prepared and analyzed in the analytical cells (ACs) and Sample Storage Cell (SSC) on the third floor of the main plant. The high levels of radioactivity in the samples require handling them in the shielded cells with remote manipulators. The analytical hot cells and third floor laboratories were refurbished to ensure optimal uninterrupted operation during the vitrification campaign. New and modified instrumentation, tools, sample preparation and analysis techniques, and equipment and training were required for A&PC to support vitrification. Analytical Cell Mockup Units (ACMUs) were designed to facilitate method development, scientist and technician training, and planning for analytical process flow. The ACMUs were fabricated and installed to simulate the analytical cell environment and dimensions. New techniques, equipment, and tools could be evaluated m in the ACMUs without the consequences of generating or handling radioactive waste. Tools were fabricated, handling and disposal of wastes was addressed, and spatial arrangements for equipment were refined. As a result of the work at the ACMUs the remote preparation and analysis methods and the equipment and tools were ready for installation into the ACs and SSC m in July 1995. Before use m in the hot cells, all remote methods had been validated and four to eight technicians were trained on each. Fine tuning of the procedures has been ongoing at the ACs based on input from A&PC technicians. Working at the ACs presents greater challenges than had development at the ACMUs. The ACMU work and further refinements m in the ACs have resulted m in a reduction m in analysis turnaround time (TAT).

  11. Development of analytical cell support for vitrification at the West Valley Demonstration Project. Topical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barber, F.H.; Borek, T.T.; Christopher, J.Z.

    1997-12-01

    Analytical and Process Chemistry (A ampersand PC) support is essential to the high-level waste vitrification campaign at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP). A ampersand PC characterizes the waste, providing information necessary to formulate the recipe for the target radioactive glass product. High-level waste (HLW) samples are prepared and analyzed in the analytical cells (ACs) and Sample Storage Cell (SSC) on the third floor of the main plant. The high levels of radioactivity in the samples require handling them in the shielded cells with remote manipulators. The analytical hot cells and third floor laboratories were refurbished to ensure optimal uninterrupted operation during the vitrification campaign. New and modified instrumentation, tools, sample preparation and analysis techniques, and equipment and training were required for A ampersand PC to support vitrification. Analytical Cell Mockup Units (ACMUs) were designed to facilitate method development, scientist and technician training, and planning for analytical process flow. The ACMUs were fabricated and installed to simulate the analytical cell environment and dimensions. New techniques, equipment, and tools could be evaluated m in the ACMUs without the consequences of generating or handling radioactive waste. Tools were fabricated, handling and disposal of wastes was addressed, and spatial arrangements for equipment were refined. As a result of the work at the ACMUs the remote preparation and analysis methods and the equipment and tools were ready for installation into the ACs and SSC m in July 1995. Before use m in the hot cells, all remote methods had been validated and four to eight technicians were trained on each. Fine tuning of the procedures has been ongoing at the ACs based on input from A ampersand PC technicians. Working at the ACs presents greater challenges than had development at the ACMUs. The ACMU work and further refinements m in the ACs have resulted m in a reduction m in

  12. Analytical Approach in DeCoM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Deepak

    2011-01-01

    There are many papers on describing a LHP as an overall system, but few detail on the condenser section of a loop heat pipe. The DeCoM (Deepak Condenser Model) method utilizes user set initial parameters in-order to simulate a condenser by calculating the interactions between the fluid and the wall. Equations are derived for two sections of the condenser: a two-phase section and a subcooled (liquid) section. All Equations are based upon the conservation of energy theory, from which fluid temperature, and fluid quality values are solved. In order to solve for the heat transfer value, between fluid and the wall in two phase section, the Lockhart-Martinelli correlation method was implemented as a solution approach. For Liquid phase, the Reynolds number was used in-order to differentiate the flow state, from either turbulent or laminar, and Nusselt number was used to solve for the film coefficient. To represent these calculations for both sections a flow chart is presented in order to display the execution process of DeCoM. The benefit of DeCoM is that it is capable of performing preliminary analysis without requiring a license and without much of users knowledge on condensers.

  13. An analytical statistical approach to the 3D reconstruction problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cierniak, Robert [Czestochowa Univ. of Technology (Poland). Inst. of Computer Engineering

    2011-07-01

    The presented here approach is concerned with the reconstruction problem for 3D spiral X-ray tomography. The reconstruction problem is formulated taking into considerations the statistical properties of signals obtained in X-ray CT. Additinally, image processing performed in our approach is involved in analytical methodology. This conception significantly improves quality of the obtained after reconstruction images and decreases the complexity of the reconstruction problem in comparison with other approaches. Computer simulations proved that schematically described here reconstruction algorithm outperforms conventional analytical methods in obtained image quality. (orig.)

  14. SRC-I demonstration plant analytical laboratory methods manual. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klusaritz, M.L.; Tewari, K.C.; Tiedge, W.F.; Skinner, R.W.; Znaimer, S.

    1983-03-01

    This manual is a compilation of analytical procedures required for operation of a Solvent-Refined Coal (SRC-I) demonstration or commercial plant. Each method reproduced in full includes a detailed procedure, a list of equipment and reagents, safety precautions, and, where possible, a precision statement. Procedures for the laboratory's environmental and industrial hygiene modules are not included. Required American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) methods are cited, and ICRC's suggested modifications to these methods for handling coal-derived products are provided.

  15. Towards Big Earth Data Analytics: The EarthServer Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Peter

    2013-04-01

    Big Data in the Earth sciences, the Tera- to Exabyte archives, mostly are made up from coverage data whereby the term "coverage", according to ISO and OGC, is defined as the digital representation of some space-time varying phenomenon. Common examples include 1-D sensor timeseries, 2-D remote sensing imagery, 3D x/y/t image timeseries and x/y/z geology data, and 4-D x/y/z/t atmosphere and ocean data. Analytics on such data requires on-demand processing of sometimes significant complexity, such as getting the Fourier transform of satellite images. As network bandwidth limits prohibit transfer of such Big Data it is indispensable to devise protocols allowing clients to task flexible and fast processing on the server. The EarthServer initiative, funded by EU FP7 eInfrastructures, unites 11 partners from computer and earth sciences to establish Big Earth Data Analytics. One key ingredient is flexibility for users to ask what they want, not impeded and complicated by system internals. The EarthServer answer to this is to use high-level query languages; these have proven tremendously successful on tabular and XML data, and we extend them with a central geo data structure, multi-dimensional arrays. A second key ingredient is scalability. Without any doubt, scalability ultimately can only be achieved through parallelization. In the past, parallelizing code has been done at compile time and usually with manual intervention. The EarthServer approach is to perform a samentic-based dynamic distribution of queries fragments based on networks optimization and further criteria. The EarthServer platform is comprised by rasdaman, an Array DBMS enabling efficient storage and retrieval of any-size, any-type multi-dimensional raster data. In the project, rasdaman is being extended with several functionality and scalability features, including: support for irregular grids and general meshes; in-situ retrieval (evaluation of database queries on existing archive structures, avoiding data

  16. Multi-analytical Approaches Informing the Risk of Sepsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwadry-Sridhar, Femida; Lewden, Benoit; Mequanint, Selam; Bauer, Michael

    Sepsis is a significant cause of mortality and morbidity and is often associated with increased hospital resource utilization, prolonged intensive care unit (ICU) and hospital stay. The economic burden associated with sepsis is huge. With advances in medicine, there are now aggressive goal oriented treatments that can be used to help these patients. If we were able to predict which patients may be at risk for sepsis we could start treatment early and potentially reduce the risk of mortality and morbidity. Analytic methods currently used in clinical research to determine the risk of a patient developing sepsis may be further enhanced by using multi-modal analytic methods that together could be used to provide greater precision. Researchers commonly use univariate and multivariate regressions to develop predictive models. We hypothesized that such models could be enhanced by using multiple analytic methods that together could be used to provide greater insight. In this paper, we analyze data about patients with and without sepsis using a decision tree approach and a cluster analysis approach. A comparison with a regression approach shows strong similarity among variables identified, though not an exact match. We compare the variables identified by the different approaches and draw conclusions about the respective predictive capabilities,while considering their clinical significance.

  17. Bridging analytical approaches for low-carbon transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geels, Frank W.; Berkhout, Frans; van Vuuren, Detlef P.

    2016-06-01

    Low-carbon transitions are long-term multi-faceted processes. Although integrated assessment models have many strengths for analysing such transitions, their mathematical representation requires a simplification of the causes, dynamics and scope of such societal transformations. We suggest that integrated assessment model-based analysis should be complemented with insights from socio-technical transition analysis and practice-based action research. We discuss the underlying assumptions, strengths and weaknesses of these three analytical approaches. We argue that full integration of these approaches is not feasible, because of foundational differences in philosophies of science and ontological assumptions. Instead, we suggest that bridging, based on sequential and interactive articulation of different approaches, may generate a more comprehensive and useful chain of assessments to support policy formation and action. We also show how these approaches address knowledge needs of different policymakers (international, national and local), relate to different dimensions of policy processes and speak to different policy-relevant criteria such as cost-effectiveness, socio-political feasibility, social acceptance and legitimacy, and flexibility. A more differentiated set of analytical approaches thus enables a more differentiated approach to climate policy making.

  18. Analytical approach for the Floquet theory of delay differential equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmendinger, C; Wunderlin, A; Pelster, A

    1999-05-01

    We present an analytical approach to deal with nonlinear delay differential equations close to instabilities of time periodic reference states. To this end we start with approximately determining such reference states by extending the Poincaré-Lindstedt and the Shohat expansions, which were originally developed for ordinary differential equations. Then we systematically elaborate a linear stability analysis around a time periodic reference state. This allows us to approximately calculate the Floquet eigenvalues and their corresponding eigensolutions by using matrix valued continued fractions.

  19. Elements of a function analytic approach to probability.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghanem, Roger Georges (University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA); Red-Horse, John Robert

    2008-02-01

    We first provide a detailed motivation for using probability theory as a mathematical context in which to analyze engineering and scientific systems that possess uncertainties. We then present introductory notes on the function analytic approach to probabilistic analysis, emphasizing the connections to various classical deterministic mathematical analysis elements. Lastly, we describe how to use the approach as a means to augment deterministic analysis methods in a particular Hilbert space context, and thus enable a rigorous framework for commingling deterministic and probabilistic analysis tools in an application setting.

  20. Analytical and unitary approach in mesons electromagnetic form factor applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liptaj, A.

    2010-07-01

    In the dissertation thesis we address several topics related to the domain of particle physics. All of them represent interesting open problems that can be connected to the elastic or transition electromagnetic form factors of mesons, the form factors being the main objects of our interest. Our ambition is to contribute to the solution of these problems and use for that purpose known analytic properties of the form factors and the unitarity condition. These two tools are very powerful in the low energy domain (such as bound states of partons), where the perturbative QCD looses its validity. This is the motivation for construction of the unitary and analytic (U and A) models of studied form factors, that enable us to get the majority of our results. We use the U and A model to evaluate the contribution of the processes e"+e"- → Pγ, P = π"0, η, η to the muon magnetic anomaly a_μ in the lowest order of the hadronic vacuum polarization. For the contribution a_μ"h"a"d","L"O (π"+π"-) we demonstrate, that the use of the model leads to a dramatic error reduction with respect to the results of other authors. We also get a shift in the central value in the 'correct' direction, that brings the theoretical value closer to the experimental one. This results encourages us to use the model also for the evaluation of a_μ"h"a"d","L"O (P_γ). These contributions are smaller, however the precision of the experiment makes their evaluation necessary. We further use the U and A model of the transition form factors of π"0, η and η"' mesons to predict the partial decay widths of these particles Γ_π_"0_→_γ_γ and Γ_η_→_γ_γ and Γ_η_"'_→_γ_γ. In this way we make an independent cross check of the PDG table values. We find an agreement in the case of Γ_η_→_γ_γ and Γ_η_"'_→_γ_γ, even a smaller uncertainty for Γ_η_"'_→_γ_γ. In the case of Γ_π_"0_→_γ_γ we find a disagreement that points to an interesting problem. We wonder whether it could be

  1. xQuake: A Modern Approach to Seismic Network Analytics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, C. E.; Aikin, K. E.

    2017-12-01

    While seismic networks have expanded over the past few decades, and social needs for accurate and timely information has increased dramatically, approaches to the operational needs of both global and regional seismic observatories have been slow to adopt new technologies. This presentation presents the xQuake system that provides a fresh approach to seismic network analytics based on complexity theory and an adaptive architecture of streaming connected microservices as diverse data (picks, beams, and other data) flow into a final, curated catalog of events. The foundation for xQuake is the xGraph (executable graph) framework that is essentially a self-organizing graph database. An xGraph instance provides both the analytics as well as the data storage capabilities at the same time. Much of the analytics, such as synthetic annealing in the detection process and an evolutionary programing approach for event evolution, draws from the recent GLASS 3.0 seismic associator developed by and for the USGS National Earthquake Information Center (NEIC). In some respects xQuake is reminiscent of the Earthworm system, in that it comprises processes interacting through store and forward rings; not surprising as the first author was the lead architect of the original Earthworm project when it was known as "Rings and Things". While Earthworm components can easily be integrated into the xGraph processing framework, the architecture and analytics are more current (e.g. using a Kafka Broker for store and forward rings). The xQuake system is being released under an unrestricted open source license to encourage and enable sthe eismic community support in further development of its capabilities.

  2. Fractal approach to computer-analytical modelling of tree crown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berezovskaya, F.S.; Karev, G.P.; Kisliuk, O.F.; Khlebopros, R.G.; Tcelniker, Yu.L.

    1993-09-01

    In this paper we discuss three approaches to the modeling of a tree crown development. These approaches are experimental (i.e. regressive), theoretical (i.e. analytical) and simulation (i.e. computer) modeling. The common assumption of these is that a tree can be regarded as one of the fractal objects which is the collection of semi-similar objects and combines the properties of two- and three-dimensional bodies. We show that a fractal measure of crown can be used as the link between the mathematical models of crown growth and light propagation through canopy. The computer approach gives the possibility to visualize a crown development and to calibrate the model on experimental data. In the paper different stages of the above-mentioned approaches are described. The experimental data for spruce, the description of computer system for modeling and the variant of computer model are presented. (author). 9 refs, 4 figs

  3. Analytical approach of laser beam propagation in the hollow polygonal light pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Guangzhi; Zhu, Xiao; Zhu, Changhong

    2013-08-10

    An analytical method of researching the light distribution properties on the output end of a hollow n-sided polygonal light pipe and a light source with a Gaussian distribution is developed. The mirror transformation matrices and a special algorithm of removing void virtual images are created to acquire the location and direction vector of each effective virtual image on the entrance plane. The analytical method is demonstrated by Monte Carlo ray tracing. At the same time, four typical cases are discussed. The analytical results indicate that the uniformity of light distribution varies with the structural and optical parameters of the hollow n-sided polygonal light pipe and light source with a Gaussian distribution. The analytical approach will be useful to design and choose the hollow n-sided polygonal light pipe, especially for high-power laser beam homogenization techniques.

  4. Big data analytics in immunology: a knowledge-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guang Lan; Sun, Jing; Chitkushev, Lou; Brusic, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    With the vast amount of immunological data available, immunology research is entering the big data era. These data vary in granularity, quality, and complexity and are stored in various formats, including publications, technical reports, and databases. The challenge is to make the transition from data to actionable knowledge and wisdom and bridge the knowledge gap and application gap. We report a knowledge-based approach based on a framework called KB-builder that facilitates data mining by enabling fast development and deployment of web-accessible immunological data knowledge warehouses. Immunological knowledge discovery relies heavily on both the availability of accurate, up-to-date, and well-organized data and the proper analytics tools. We propose the use of knowledge-based approaches by developing knowledgebases combining well-annotated data with specialized analytical tools and integrating them into analytical workflow. A set of well-defined workflow types with rich summarization and visualization capacity facilitates the transformation from data to critical information and knowledge. By using KB-builder, we enabled streamlining of normally time-consuming processes of database development. The knowledgebases built using KB-builder will speed up rational vaccine design by providing accurate and well-annotated data coupled with tailored computational analysis tools and workflow.

  5. Big Data Analytics in Immunology: A Knowledge-Based Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang Lan Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With the vast amount of immunological data available, immunology research is entering the big data era. These data vary in granularity, quality, and complexity and are stored in various formats, including publications, technical reports, and databases. The challenge is to make the transition from data to actionable knowledge and wisdom and bridge the knowledge gap and application gap. We report a knowledge-based approach based on a framework called KB-builder that facilitates data mining by enabling fast development and deployment of web-accessible immunological data knowledge warehouses. Immunological knowledge discovery relies heavily on both the availability of accurate, up-to-date, and well-organized data and the proper analytics tools. We propose the use of knowledge-based approaches by developing knowledgebases combining well-annotated data with specialized analytical tools and integrating them into analytical workflow. A set of well-defined workflow types with rich summarization and visualization capacity facilitates the transformation from data to critical information and knowledge. By using KB-builder, we enabled streamlining of normally time-consuming processes of database development. The knowledgebases built using KB-builder will speed up rational vaccine design by providing accurate and well-annotated data coupled with tailored computational analysis tools and workflow.

  6. A Fault Sample Simulation Approach for Virtual Testability Demonstration Test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yong; QIU Jing; LIU Guanjun; YANG Peng

    2012-01-01

    Virtual testability demonstration test has many advantages,such as low cost,high efficiency,low risk and few restrictions.It brings new requirements to the fault sample generation.A fault sample simulation approach for virtual testability demonstration test based on stochastic process theory is proposed.First,the similarities and differences of fault sample generation between physical testability demonstration test and virtual testability demonstration test are discussed.Second,it is pointed out that the fault occurrence process subject to perfect repair is renewal process.Third,the interarrival time distribution function of the next fault event is given.Steps and flowcharts of fault sample generation are introduced.The number of faults and their occurrence time are obtained by statistical simulation.Finally,experiments are carried out on a stable tracking platform.Because a variety of types of life distributions and maintenance modes are considered and some assumptions are removed,the sample size and structure of fault sample simulation results are more similar to the actual results and more reasonable.The proposed method can effectively guide the fault injection in virtual testability demonstration test.

  7. Statistical Approaches to Assess Biosimilarity from Analytical Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdick, Richard; Coffey, Todd; Gutka, Hiten; Gratzl, Gyöngyi; Conlon, Hugh D; Huang, Chi-Ting; Boyne, Michael; Kuehne, Henriette

    2017-01-01

    Protein therapeutics have unique critical quality attributes (CQAs) that define their purity, potency, and safety. The analytical methods used to assess CQAs must be able to distinguish clinically meaningful differences in comparator products, and the most important CQAs should be evaluated with the most statistical rigor. High-risk CQA measurements assess the most important attributes that directly impact the clinical mechanism of action or have known implications for safety, while the moderate- to low-risk characteristics may have a lower direct impact and thereby may have a broader range to establish similarity. Statistical equivalence testing is applied for high-risk CQA measurements to establish the degree of similarity (e.g., highly similar fingerprint, highly similar, or similar) of selected attributes. Notably, some high-risk CQAs (e.g., primary sequence or disulfide bonding) are qualitative (e.g., the same as the originator or not the same) and therefore not amenable to equivalence testing. For biosimilars, an important step is the acquisition of a sufficient number of unique originator drug product lots to measure the variability in the originator drug manufacturing process and provide sufficient statistical power for the analytical data comparisons. Together, these analytical evaluations, along with PK/PD and safety data (immunogenicity), provide the data necessary to determine if the totality of the evidence warrants a designation of biosimilarity and subsequent licensure for marketing in the USA. In this paper, a case study approach is used to provide examples of analytical similarity exercises and the appropriateness of statistical approaches for the example data.

  8. The behavior-analytic approach to emotional self-control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jussara Rocha Batista

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Some psychological approaches distinguish behavioral self-control from emotional self-control, the latter being approached with the reference to inside events controlled by the individual himself. This paper offers some directions to a behavior-analytic approach of what has been referred to as emotional self-control. According to Behavior Analysis, no new process is found in emotional self-control, but components that are additional to those found in behavioral self-control, which require appropriate treatment. The paper highlights some determinants of behavioral repertoires taken as instances of emotional self-control: the social context in which self-control is produced and maintained; the conflicts between consequences for the individual and for the group; and the degree of participation of the motor apparatus in the emission of emotional responses. Keywords: emotional self-control; emotional responses; inner world; behavior analysis.

  9. Satellite Orbit Under Influence of a Drag - Analytical Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinović, M. M.; Šegan, S. D.

    2017-12-01

    The report studies some changes in orbital elements of the artificial satellites of Earth under influence of atmospheric drag. In order to develop possibilities of applying the results in many future cases, an analytical interpretation of the orbital element perturbations is given via useful, but very long expressions. The development is based on the TD88 air density model, recently upgraded with some additional terms. Some expressions and formulae were developed by the computer algebra system Mathematica and tested in some hypothetical cases. The results have good agreement with iterative (numerical) approach.

  10. Cryogenic parallel, single phase flows: an analytical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichhorn, R.

    2017-02-01

    Managing the cryogenic flows inside a state-of-the-art accelerator cryomodule has become a demanding endeavour: In order to build highly efficient modules, all heat transfers are usually intercepted at various temperatures. For a multi-cavity module, operated at 1.8 K, this requires intercepts at 4 K and at 80 K at different locations with sometimes strongly varying heat loads which for simplicity reasons are operated in parallel. This contribution will describe an analytical approach, based on optimization theories.

  11. Advances in Assays and Analytical Approaches for Botulinum Toxin Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grate, Jay W.; Ozanich, Richard M.; Warner, Marvin G.; Bruckner-Lea, Cindy J.; Marks, James D.

    2010-08-04

    Methods to detect botulinum toxin, the most poisonous substance known, are reviewed. Current assays are being developed with two main objectives in mind: 1) to obtain sufficiently low detection limits to replace the mouse bioassay with an in vitro assay, and 2) to develop rapid assays for screening purposes that are as sensitive as possible while requiring an hour or less to process the sample an obtain the result. This review emphasizes the diverse analytical approaches and devices that have been developed over the last decade, while also briefly reviewing representative older immunoassays to provide background and context.

  12. Analytical approaches for the characterization of nickel proteome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Lamana, Javier; Szpunar, Joanna

    2017-08-16

    The use of nickel in modern industry and in consumer products implies some health problems for the human being. Nickel allergy and nickel carcinogenicity are well-known health effects related to human exposure to nickel, either during production of nickel-containing products or by direct contact with the final item. In this context, the study of nickel toxicity and nickel carcinogenicity involves the understanding of their molecular mechanisms and hence the characterization of the nickel-binding proteins in different biological samples. During the last 50 years, a broad range of analytical techniques, covering from the first chromatographic columns to the last generation mass spectrometers, have been used in order to fully characterize the nickel proteome. The aim of this review is to present a critical view of the different analytical approaches that have been applied for the purification, isolation, detection and identification of nickel-binding proteins. The different analytical techniques used are discussed from a critical point of view, highlighting advantages and limitations.

  13. Demonstration of an efficient cooling approach for SBIRS-Low

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieczkoski, S. J.; Myers, E. A.

    2002-05-01

    The Space Based Infrared System-Low (SBIRS-Low) segment is a near-term Air Force program for developing and deploying a constellation of low-earth orbiting observation satellites with gimbaled optics cooled to cryogenic temperatures. The optical system design and requirements present unique challenges that make conventional cooling approaches both complicated and risky. The Cryocooler Interface System (CIS) provides a remote, efficient, and interference-free means of cooling the SBIRS-Low optics. Technology Applications Inc. (TAI), through a two-phase Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) program with Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), has taken the CIS from initial concept feasibility through the design, build, and test of a prototype system. This paper presents the development and demonstration testing of the prototype CIS. Prototype system testing has demonstrated the high efficiency of this cooling approach, making it an attractive option for SBIRS-Low and other sensitive optical and detector systems that require low-impact cryogenic cooling.

  14. Demonstration of risk-based approaches to nuclear plant regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahn, F.J.; Sursock, J.P.; Darling, S.S.; Oddo, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes generic technical support EPRI is providing to the nuclear power industry relative to its recent initiatives in the area of risk-based regulations (RBR). A risk-based regulatory approach uses probabilistic risk assessment (PRA), or similar techniques, to allocate safety resources commensurate with the risk posed by nuclear plant operations. This approach will reduce O ampersand M costs, and also improve nuclear plant safety. In order to enhance industry, Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and public confidence in RBR, three things need to be shown: (1) manpower/resource savings are significant for both NRC and industry; (2) the process is doable in a reasonable amount of time; and (3) the process, if uniformly applied, results in demonstrably cheaper power and safer plants. In 1992, EPRI performed a qualitative study of the key RBR issues contributing to high O ampersand M costs. The results are given on Table 1. This study is being followed up by an in-depth quantitative cost/benefit study to focus technical work on producing guidelines/procedures for licensing submittals to NRC. The guidelines/procedures necessarily will be developed from successful demonstration projects such as the Fitzpatrick pilot plant study proposed by the New York Power Authority and other generic applications. This paper presents three examples: two motor operated valve projects performed by QUADREX Energy Services Corporation working with utilities in responding to NRC Generic Letter 89-10, and a third project working with Yankee Atomic Electric Company on service water systems at a plant in its service system. These demonstration projects aim to show the following: (1) the relative ease of putting together a technical case based on RBR concepts; (2) clarity in differentiating the various risk trade-offs, and in communicating overall reductions in risk with NRC; and (3) improved prioritization of NRC directives

  15. ANALYTICAL APPROACHES TO THE STUDY OF EXPORT TRANSACTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Viktorovna Medvedeva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Analytical approaches to research of export operations depend on the conditions containing in separate external economic contracts with foreign buyers and also on a form of an exit of the Russian supplier of export goods to a foreign market. By means of analytical procedures it is possible to foresee and predict admissible situations which can have an adverse effect on a financial position of the economic subject. The economic entity, the engaged foreign economic activity, has to carry out surely not only the analysis of the current activity, but also the analysis of export operations. In article analytical approaches of carrying out the analysis of export operations are considered, on an example the analysis of export operations in dynamics is submitted, it is recommended to use the formulas allowing to estimate export in dynamics. For the comparative analysis export volume in the comparable prices is estimated. On the commodity groups including and quantitatively and qualitatively commensurable goods, the index of quantitative structure is calculated, the coefficient of delay of delivery of goods in comparison with other periods pays off. Carrying out the analysis allows to determine a tendency of change of export deliveries by export operations for the analyzed period for adoption of administrative decisions.Purpose Definition of the ways and receptions of the analysis applying when carrying out the analysis of export operations.Methodology in article economic-mathematical methods, and also statistical methods of the analysis were used.Results: the most informative parameters showing some aspects of carrying out the analysis of export operations are received.Practical implications it is expedient to apply the received results the economic subjects which are carrying out foreign economic activity, one of which elements are export operations.

  16. Towards a Set Theoretical Approach to Big Data Analytics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mukkamala, Raghava Rao; Hussain, Abid; Vatrapu, Ravi

    2014-01-01

    Formal methods, models and tools for social big data analytics are largely limited to graph theoretical approaches such as social network analysis (SNA) informed by relational sociology. There are no other unified modeling approaches to social big data that integrate the conceptual, formal...... this technique to the data analysis of big social data collected from Facebook page of the fast fashion company, H&M....... and software realms. In this paper, we first present and discuss a theory and conceptual model of social data. Second, we outline a formal model based on set theory and discuss the semantics of the formal model with a real-world social data example from Facebook. Third, we briefly present and discuss...

  17. The Navier-Stokes equations an elementary functional analytic approach

    CERN Document Server

    Sohr, Hermann

    2001-01-01

    The primary objective of this monograph is to develop an elementary and self-contained approach to the mathematical theory of a viscous, incompressible fluid in a domain of the Euclidean space, described by the equations of Navier-Stokes. Moreover, the theory is presented for completely general domains, in particular, for arbitrary unbounded, nonsmooth domains. Therefore, restriction was necessary to space dimensions two and three, which are also the most significant from a physical point of view. For mathematical generality, however, the linearized theory is expounded for general dimensions higher than one. Although the functional analytic approach developed here is, in principle, known to specialists, the present book fills a gap in the literature providing a systematic treatment of a subject that has been documented until now only in fragments. The book is mainly directed to students familiar with basic tools in Hilbert and Banach spaces. However, for the readers’ convenience, some fundamental properties...

  18. Cognitive neuroscience robotics B analytic approaches to human understanding

    CERN Document Server

    Ishiguro, Hiroshi; Asada, Minoru; Osaka, Mariko; Fujikado, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive Neuroscience Robotics is the first introductory book on this new interdisciplinary area. This book consists of two volumes, the first of which, Synthetic Approaches to Human Understanding, advances human understanding from a robotics or engineering point of view. The second, Analytic Approaches to Human Understanding, addresses related subjects in cognitive science and neuroscience. These two volumes are intended to complement each other in order to more comprehensively investigate human cognitive functions, to develop human-friendly information and robot technology (IRT) systems, and to understand what kind of beings we humans are. Volume B describes to what extent cognitive science and neuroscience have revealed the underlying mechanism of human cognition, and investigates how development of neural engineering and advances in other disciplines could lead to deep understanding of human cognition.

  19. The Navier-Stokes equations an elementary functional analytic approach

    CERN Document Server

    Sohr, Hermann

    2001-01-01

    The primary objective of this monograph is to develop an elementary and self­ contained approach to the mathematical theory of a viscous incompressible fluid in a domain 0 of the Euclidean space ]Rn, described by the equations of Navier­ Stokes. The book is mainly directed to students familiar with basic functional analytic tools in Hilbert and Banach spaces. However, for readers' convenience, in the first two chapters we collect without proof some fundamental properties of Sobolev spaces, distributions, operators, etc. Another important objective is to formulate the theory for a completely general domain O. In particular, the theory applies to arbitrary unbounded, non-smooth domains. For this reason, in the nonlinear case, we have to restrict ourselves to space dimensions n = 2,3 that are also most significant from the physical point of view. For mathematical generality, we will develop the lin­ earized theory for all n 2 2. Although the functional-analytic approach developed here is, in principle, known ...

  20. Managing knowledge business intelligence: A cognitive analytic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surbakti, Herison; Ta'a, Azman

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to identify and analyze integration of Knowledge Management (KM) and Business Intelligence (BI) in order to achieve competitive edge in context of intellectual capital. Methodology includes review of literatures and analyzes the interviews data from managers in corporate sector and models established by different authors. BI technologies have strong association with process of KM for attaining competitive advantage. KM have strong influence from human and social factors and turn them to the most valuable assets with efficient system run under BI tactics and technologies. However, the term of predictive analytics is based on the field of BI. Extracting tacit knowledge is a big challenge to be used as a new source for BI to use in analyzing. The advanced approach of the analytic methods that address the diversity of data corpus - structured and unstructured - required a cognitive approach to provide estimative results and to yield actionable descriptive, predictive and prescriptive results. This is a big challenge nowadays, and this paper aims to elaborate detail in this initial work.

  1. Equivalent properties for perforated plates. An analytical approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cepkauskas, M.M.; Yang Jianfeng

    2005-01-01

    Structures that contain perforated plates have been a subject of interest in the Nuclear Industry. Steam generators, condensers and reactor internals utilize plates containing holes which act as flow holes or separate structures from flow by using a 'tube bank' design. The equivalent plate method has been beneficial in analyzing perforate plates. Details are found in various papers found in the bibliography. In addition the ASME code addresses perforated plates in Appendix A-8000, but is limited to a triangular hole pattern. This early work performed in this field utilized test data and analytical approaches. This paper is an examination of an analytical approach for determining equivalent plate mechanical and thermal properties. First a patch of the real plate is identified that provides a model for the necessary physical behavior of the plate. The average strain of this patch is obtained by first applying simplified one dimensional mechanical load to the patch, determining stress as a function of position, converting the stress to strain and then integrating the strain over the patch length. This average strain is then equated to the average strain of an equivalent fictitious rectangular patch. This results in obtaining equivalent Young's Modulus and Poison's Ratio for the equivalent plate in all three orthogonal directions. The corresponding equivalent shear modulus in all three directions is then determined. An orthotropic material stress strain matrix relationship is provided for the fictitious properties. By equating the real average strain with the fictitious average strain in matrix form, a stress multiplier is found to convert average fictitious stress to average real stress. This same type of process is repeated for heat conduction coefficients and coefficients of thermal expansion. Results are provided for both a square and triangular hole pattern. Reasonable results are obtained when comparing the effective Young's Modulus and Poison's Ratio with ASME

  2. Analytical approach for confirming the achievement of LMFBR reliability goals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingram, G.E.; Elerath, J.G.; Wood, A.P.

    1981-01-01

    The approach, recommended by GE-ARSD, for confirming the achievement of LMFBR reliability goals relies upon a comprehensive understanding of the physical and operational characteristics of the system and the environments to which the system will be subjected during its operational life. This kind of understanding is required for an approach based on system hardware testing or analyses, as recommended in this report. However, for a system as complex and expensive as the LMFBR, an approach which relies primarily on system hardware testing would be prohibitive both in cost and time to obtain the required system reliability test information. By using an analytical approach, results of tests (reliability and functional) at a low level within the specific system of interest, as well as results from other similar systems can be used to form the data base for confirming the achievement of the system reliability goals. This data, along with information relating to the design characteristics and operating environments of the specific system, will be used in the assessment of the system's reliability

  3. Approaching near real-time biosensing: microfluidic microsphere based biosensor for real-time analyte detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Noa; Sabhachandani, Pooja; Golberg, Alexander; Konry, Tania

    2015-04-15

    In this study we describe a simple lab-on-a-chip (LOC) biosensor approach utilizing well mixed microfluidic device and a microsphere-based assay capable of performing near real-time diagnostics of clinically relevant analytes such cytokines and antibodies. We were able to overcome the adsorption kinetics reaction rate-limiting mechanism, which is diffusion-controlled in standard immunoassays, by introducing the microsphere-based assay into well-mixed yet simple microfluidic device with turbulent flow profiles in the reaction regions. The integrated microsphere-based LOC device performs dynamic detection of the analyte in minimal amount of biological specimen by continuously sampling micro-liter volumes of sample per minute to detect dynamic changes in target analyte concentration. Furthermore we developed a mathematical model for the well-mixed reaction to describe the near real time detection mechanism observed in the developed LOC method. To demonstrate the specificity and sensitivity of the developed real time monitoring LOC approach, we applied the device for clinically relevant analytes: Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF)-α cytokine and its clinically used inhibitor, anti-TNF-α antibody. Based on the reported results herein, the developed LOC device provides continuous sensitive and specific near real-time monitoring method for analytes such as cytokines and antibodies, reduces reagent volumes by nearly three orders of magnitude as well as eliminates the washing steps required by standard immunoassays. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Analytic Model Predictive Control of Uncertain Nonlinear Systems: A Fuzzy Adaptive Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuyan Peng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A fuzzy adaptive analytic model predictive control method is proposed in this paper for a class of uncertain nonlinear systems. Specifically, invoking the standard results from the Moore-Penrose inverse of matrix, the unmatched problem which exists commonly in input and output dimensions of systems is firstly solved. Then, recurring to analytic model predictive control law, combined with fuzzy adaptive approach, the fuzzy adaptive predictive controller synthesis for the underlying systems is developed. To further reduce the impact of fuzzy approximation error on the system and improve the robustness of the system, the robust compensation term is introduced. It is shown that by applying the fuzzy adaptive analytic model predictive controller the rudder roll stabilization system is ultimately uniformly bounded stabilized in the H-infinity sense. Finally, simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  5. Modern Adaptive Analytics Approach to Lowering Seismic Network Detection Thresholds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, C. E.

    2017-12-01

    Modern seismic networks present a number of challenges, but perhaps most notably are those related to 1) extreme variation in station density, 2) temporal variation in station availability, and 3) the need to achieve detectability for much smaller events of strategic importance. The first of these has been reasonably addressed in the development of modern seismic associators, such as GLASS 3.0 by the USGS/NEIC, though some work still remains to be done in this area. However, the latter two challenges demand special attention. Station availability is impacted by weather, equipment failure or the adding or removing of stations, and while thresholds have been pushed to increasingly smaller magnitudes, new algorithms are needed to achieve even lower thresholds. Station availability can be addressed by a modern, adaptive architecture that maintains specified performance envelopes using adaptive analytics coupled with complexity theory. Finally, detection thresholds can be lowered using a novel approach that tightly couples waveform analytics with the event detection and association processes based on a principled repicking algorithm that uses particle realignment for enhanced phase discrimination.

  6. An analytic approach to optimize tidal turbine fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelz, P.; Metzler, M.

    2013-12-01

    Motivated by global warming due to CO2-emission various technologies for harvesting of energy from renewable sources are developed. Hydrokinetic turbines get applied to surface watercourse or tidal flow to gain electrical energy. Since the available power for hydrokinetic turbines is proportional to the projected cross section area, fields of turbines are installed to scale shaft power. Each hydrokinetic turbine of a field can be considered as a disk actuator. In [1], the first author derives the optimal operation point for hydropower in an open-channel. The present paper concerns about a 0-dimensional model of a disk-actuator in an open-channel flow with bypass, as a special case of [1]. Based on the energy equation, the continuity equation and the momentum balance an analytical approach is made to calculate the coefficient of performance for hydrokinetic turbines with bypass flow as function of the turbine head and the ratio of turbine width to channel width.

  7. A Visual Analytics Approach for Correlation, Classification, and Regression Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steed, Chad A [ORNL; SwanII, J. Edward [Mississippi State University (MSU); Fitzpatrick, Patrick J. [Mississippi State University (MSU); Jankun-Kelly, T.J. [Mississippi State University (MSU)

    2012-02-01

    New approaches that combine the strengths of humans and machines are necessary to equip analysts with the proper tools for exploring today's increasing complex, multivariate data sets. In this paper, a novel visual data mining framework, called the Multidimensional Data eXplorer (MDX), is described that addresses the challenges of today's data by combining automated statistical analytics with a highly interactive parallel coordinates based canvas. In addition to several intuitive interaction capabilities, this framework offers a rich set of graphical statistical indicators, interactive regression analysis, visual correlation mining, automated axis arrangements and filtering, and data classification techniques. The current work provides a detailed description of the system as well as a discussion of key design aspects and critical feedback from domain experts.

  8. Robot Learning from Demonstration: A Task-level Planning Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Staffan Ekvall

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we deal with the problem of learning by demonstration, task level learning and planning for robotic applications that involve object manipulation. Preprogramming robots for execution of complex domestic tasks such as setting a dinner table is of little use, since the same order of subtasks may not be conceivable in the run time due to the changed state of the world. In our approach, we aim to learn the goal of the task and use a task planner to reach the goal given different initial states of the world. For some tasks, there are underlying constraints that must be fulfille, and knowing just the final goal is not sufficient. We propose two techniques for constraint identification. In the first case, the teacher can directly instruct the system about the underlying constraints. In the second case, the constraints are identified by the robot itself based on multiple observations. The constraints are then considered in the planning phase, allowing the task to be executed without violating any of them. We evaluate our work on a real robot performing pick-and-place tasks.

  9. Uncertainties in workplace external dosimetry - An analytical approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambrosi, P.

    2006-01-01

    The uncertainties associated with external dosimetry measurements at workplaces depend on the type of dosemeter used together with its performance characteristics and the information available on the measurement conditions. Performance characteristics were determined in the course of a type test and information about the measurement conditions can either be general, e.g. 'research' and 'medicine', or specific, e.g. 'X-ray testing equipment for aluminium wheel rims'. This paper explains an analytical approach to determine the measurement uncertainty. It is based on the Draft IEC Technical Report IEC 62461 Radiation Protection Instrumentation - Determination of Uncertainty in Measurement. Both this paper and the report cannot eliminate the fact that the determination of the uncertainty requires a larger effort than performing the measurement itself. As a counterbalance, the process of determining the uncertainty results not only in a numerical value of the uncertainty but also produces the best estimate of the quantity to be measured, which may differ from the indication of the instrument. Thus it also improves the result of the measurement. (authors)

  10. Analytic game—theoretic approach to ground-water extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loáiciga, Hugo A.

    2004-09-01

    The roles of cooperation and non-cooperation in the sustainable exploitation of a jointly used groundwater resource have been quantified mathematically using an analytical game-theoretic formulation. Cooperative equilibrium arises when ground-water users respect water-level constraints and consider mutual impacts, which allows them to derive economic benefits from ground-water indefinitely, that is, to achieve sustainability. This work shows that cooperative equilibrium can be obtained from the solution of a quadratic programming problem. For cooperative equilibrium to hold, however, enforcement must be effective. Otherwise, according to the commonized costs-privatized profits paradox, there is a natural tendency towards non-cooperation and non-sustainable aquifer mining, of which overdraft is a typical symptom. Non-cooperative behavior arises when at least one ground-water user neglects the externalities of his adopted ground-water pumping strategy. In this instance, water-level constraints may be violated in a relatively short time and the economic benefits from ground-water extraction fall below those obtained with cooperative aquifer use. One example illustrates the game theoretic approach of this work.

  11. Analytic approach to auroral electron transport and energy degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stamnes, K.

    1980-01-01

    The interaction of a beam of auroral electrons with the atmosphere is described by the linear transport equation, encompassing discrete energy loss, multiple scattering, and secondary electrons. A solution to the transport equation provides the electron intensity as a function of altitude, pitch angle (with respect to the geomagnetic field) and energy. A multi-stream (discrete ordinate) approximation to the transport equation is developed. An analytic solution is obtained in this approximation. The computational scheme obtained by combining the present transport code with the energy degradation method of Swartz (1979) conserves energy identically. The theory provides a framework within which angular distributions can be easily calculated and interpreted. Thus, a detailed study of the angular distributions of 'non-absorbed' electrons (i.e., electrons that have lost just a small fraction of their incident energy) reveals a systematic variation with incident angle and energy, and with penetration depth. The present approach also gives simple yet accurate solutions in low order multi-stream approximations. The accuracy of the four-stream approximation is generally within a few per cent, whereas two-stream results for backscattered mean intensities and fluxes are accurate to within 10-15%. (author)

  12. A Decision Analytic Approach to Exposure-Based Chemical ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The manufacture of novel synthetic chemicals has increased in volume and variety, but often the environmental and health risks are not fully understood in terms of toxicity and, in particular, exposure. While efforts to assess risks have generally been effective when sufficient data are available, the hazard and exposure data necessary to assess risks adequately are unavailable for the vast majority of chemicals in commerce. The US Environmental Protection Agency has initiated the ExpoCast Program to develop tools for rapid chemical evaluation based on potential for exposure. In this context, a model is presented in which chemicals are evaluated based on inherent chemical properties and behaviorally-based usage characteristics over the chemical’s life cycle. These criteria are assessed and integrated within a decision analytic framework, facilitating rapid assessment and prioritization for future targeted testing and systems modeling. A case study outlines the prioritization process using 51 chemicals. The results show a preliminary relative ranking of chemicals based on exposure potential. The strength of this approach is the ability to integrate relevant statistical and mechanistic data with expert judgment, allowing for an initial tier assessment that can further inform targeted testing and risk management strategies. The National Exposure Research Laboratory′s (NERL′s) Human Exposure and Atmospheric Sciences Division (HEASD) conducts research in suppor

  13. Ram Pressure Stripping Made Easy: An Analytical Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köppen, J.; Jáchym, P.; Taylor, R.; Palouš, J.

    2018-06-01

    The removal of gas by ram pressure stripping of galaxies is treated by a purely kinematic description. The solution has two asymptotic limits: if the duration of the ram pressure pulse exceeds the period of vertical oscillations perpendicular to the galactic plane, the commonly used quasi-static criterion of Gunn & Gott is obtained which uses the maximum ram pressure that the galaxy has experienced along its orbit. For shorter pulses the outcome depends on the time-integrated ram pressure. This parameter pair fully describes the gas mass fraction that is stripped from a given galaxy. This approach closely reproduces results from SPH simulations. We show that typical galaxies follow a very tight relation in this parameter space corresponding to a pressure pulse length of about 300 Myr. Thus, the Gunn & Gott criterion provides a good description for galaxies in larger clusters. Applying the analytic description to a sample of 232 Virgo galaxies from the GoldMine database, we show that the ICM provides indeed the ram pressures needed to explain the deficiencies. We also can distinguish current and past strippers, including objects whose stripping state was unknown.

  14. Linear response theory an analytic-algebraic approach

    CERN Document Server

    De Nittis, Giuseppe

    2017-01-01

    This book presents a modern and systematic approach to Linear Response Theory (LRT) by combining analytic and algebraic ideas. LRT is a tool to study systems that are driven out of equilibrium by external perturbations. In particular the reader is provided with a new and robust tool to implement LRT for a wide array of systems. The proposed formalism in fact applies to periodic and random systems in the discrete and the continuum. After a short introduction describing the structure of the book, its aim and motivation, the basic elements of the theory are presented in chapter 2. The mathematical framework of the theory is outlined in chapters 3–5: the relevant von Neumann algebras, noncommutative $L^p$- and Sobolev spaces are introduced; their construction is then made explicit for common physical systems; the notion of isopectral perturbations and the associated dynamics are studied. Chapter 6 is dedicated to the main results, proofs of the Kubo and Kubo-Streda formulas. The book closes with a chapter about...

  15. GANViz: A Visual Analytics Approach to Understand the Adversarial Game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junpeng; Gou, Liang; Yang, Hao; Shen, Han-Wei

    2018-06-01

    Generative models bear promising implications to learn data representations in an unsupervised fashion with deep learning. Generative Adversarial Nets (GAN) is one of the most popular frameworks in this arena. Despite the promising results from different types of GANs, in-depth understanding on the adversarial training process of the models remains a challenge to domain experts. The complexity and the potential long-time training process of the models make it hard to evaluate, interpret, and optimize them. In this work, guided by practical needs from domain experts, we design and develop a visual analytics system, GANViz, aiming to help experts understand the adversarial process of GANs in-depth. Specifically, GANViz evaluates the model performance of two subnetworks of GANs, provides evidence and interpretations of the models' performance, and empowers comparative analysis with the evidence. Through our case studies with two real-world datasets, we demonstrate that GANViz can provide useful insight into helping domain experts understand, interpret, evaluate, and potentially improve GAN models.

  16. An analytical demonstration of coupling schemes between magnetohydrodynamic codes and eddy current codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yueqiang; Albanese, R.; Rubinacci, G.; Portone, A.; Villone, F.

    2008-01-01

    In order to model a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) instability that strongly couples to external conducting structures (walls and/or coils) in a fusion device, it is often necessary to combine a MHD code solving for the plasma response, with an eddy current code computing the fields and currents of conductors. We present a rigorous proof of the coupling schemes between these two types of codes. One of the coupling schemes has been introduced and implemented in the CARMA code [R. Albanese, Y. Q. Liu, A. Portone, G. Rubinacci, and F. Villone, IEEE Trans. Magn. 44, 1654 (2008); A. Portone, F. Villone, Y. Q. Liu, R. Albanese, and G. Rubinacci, Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 50, 085004 (2008)] that couples the MHD code MARS-F[Y. Q. Liu, A. Bondeson, C. M. Fransson, B. Lennartson, and C. Breitholtz, Phys. Plasmas 7, 3681 (2000)] and the eddy current code CARIDDI[R. Albanese and G. Rubinacci, Adv. Imaging Electron Phys. 102, 1 (1998)]. While the coupling schemes are described for a general toroidal geometry, we give the analytical proof for a cylindrical plasma.

  17. Learning Analytics for Online Discussions: Embedded and Extracted Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Alyssa Friend; Zhao, Yuting; Hausknecht, Simone Nicole

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes an application of learning analytics that builds on an existing research program investigating how students contribute and attend to the messages of others in asynchronous online discussions. We first overview the E-Listening research program and then explain how this work was translated into analytics that students and…

  18. A Progressive Approach to Teaching Analytics in the Marketing Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yiyuan; Levin, Michael A.

    2018-01-01

    With the emerging use of analytics tools and methodologies in marketing, marketing educators have provided students training and experiences beyond the soft skills associated with understanding consumer behavior. Previous studies have only discussed how to apply analytics in course designs, tools, and related practices. However, there is a lack of…

  19. A Generalized Pivotal Quantity Approach to Analytical Method Validation Based on Total Error.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Harry; Zhang, Jianchun

    2015-01-01

    The primary purpose of method validation is to demonstrate that the method is fit for its intended use. Traditionally, an analytical method is deemed valid if its performance characteristics such as accuracy and precision are shown to meet prespecified acceptance criteria. However, these acceptance criteria are not directly related to the method's intended purpose, which is usually a gurantee that a high percentage of the test results of future samples will be close to their true values. Alternate "fit for purpose" acceptance criteria based on the concept of total error have been increasingly used. Such criteria allow for assessing method validity, taking into account the relationship between accuracy and precision. Although several statistical test methods have been proposed in literature to test the "fit for purpose" hypothesis, the majority of the methods are not designed to protect the risk of accepting unsuitable methods, thus having the potential to cause uncontrolled consumer's risk. In this paper, we propose a test method based on generalized pivotal quantity inference. Through simulation studies, the performance of the method is compared to five existing approaches. The results show that both the new method and the method based on β-content tolerance interval with a confidence level of 90%, hereafter referred to as the β-content (0.9) method, control Type I error and thus consumer's risk, while the other existing methods do not. It is further demonstrated that the generalized pivotal quantity method is less conservative than the β-content (0.9) method when the analytical methods are biased, whereas it is more conservative when the analytical methods are unbiased. Therefore, selection of either the generalized pivotal quantity or β-content (0.9) method for an analytical method validation depends on the accuracy of the analytical method. It is also shown that the generalized pivotal quantity method has better asymptotic properties than all of the current

  20. Analytical Features: A Knowledge-Based Approach to Audio Feature Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pachet François

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a feature generation system designed to create audio features for supervised classification tasks. The main contribution to feature generation studies is the notion of analytical features (AFs, a construct designed to support the representation of knowledge about audio signal processing. We describe the most important aspects of AFs, in particular their dimensional type system, on which are based pattern-based random generators, heuristics, and rewriting rules. We show how AFs generalize or improve previous approaches used in feature generation. We report on several projects using AFs for difficult audio classification tasks, demonstrating their advantage over standard audio features. More generally, we propose analytical features as a paradigm to bring raw signals into the world of symbolic computation.

  1. Geovisual Analytics Approach to Exploring Public Political Discourse on Twitter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan K. Nelson

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We introduce spatial patterns of Tweets visualization (SPoTvis, a web-based geovisual analytics tool for exploring messages on Twitter (or “tweets” collected about political discourse, and illustrate the potential of the approach with a case study focused on a set of linked political events in the United States. In October 2013, the U.S. Congressional debate over the allocation of funds to the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (commonly known as the ACA or “Obamacare” culminated in a 16-day government shutdown. Meanwhile the online health insurance marketplace related to the ACA was making a public debut hampered by performance and functionality problems. Messages on Twitter during this time period included sharply divided opinions about these events, with many people angry about the shutdown and others supporting the delay of the ACA implementation. SPoTvis supports the analysis of these events using an interactive map connected dynamically to a term polarity plot; through the SPoTvis interface, users can compare the dominant subthemes of Tweets in any two states or congressional districts. Demographic attributes and political information on the display, coupled with functionality to show (dissimilar features, enrich users’ understandings of the units being compared. Relationships among places, politics and discourse on Twitter are quantified using statistical analyses and explored visually using SPoTvis. A two-part user study evaluates SPoTvis’ ability to enable insight discovery, as well as the tool’s design, functionality and applicability to other contexts.

  2. Learning Analytics to Inform Teaching and Learning Approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Gray, Geraldine; McGuinness, Colm; Owende, Philip

    2016-01-01

    Learning analytics is an evolving discipline with capability for educational data analysis to enable better understanding of learning processes. This paper reports on learning analytics research at Institute of Technology Blanchardstown, Ireland, that indicated measureable factors can identify first year students at risk of failing based on data available prior to commencement of first year of study. The study was conducted over three years, 2010 to 2012, on a student population from a range ...

  3. Analysis and synthesis of bianisotropic metasurfaces by using analytical approach based on equivalent parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danaeifar, Mohammad; Granpayeh, Nosrat

    2018-03-01

    An analytical method is presented to analyze and synthesize bianisotropic metasurfaces. The equivalent parameters of metasurfaces in terms of meta-atom properties and other specifications of metasurfaces are derived. These parameters are related to electric, magnetic, and electromagnetic/magnetoelectric dipole moments of the bianisotropic media, and they can simplify the analysis of complicated and multilayer structures. A metasurface of split ring resonators is studied as an example demonstrating the proposed method. The optical properties of the meta-atom are explored, and the calculated polarizabilities are applied to find the reflection coefficient and the equivalent parameters of the metasurface. Finally, a structure consisting of two metasurfaces of the split ring resonators is provided, and the proposed analytical method is applied to derive the reflection coefficient. The validity of this analytical approach is verified by full-wave simulations which demonstrate good accuracy of the equivalent parameter method. This method can be used in the analysis and synthesis of bianisotropic metasurfaces with different materials and in different frequency ranges by considering electric, magnetic, and electromagnetic/magnetoelectric dipole moments.

  4. Demonstration of FBRM as process analytical technology tool for dewatering processes via CST correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobbledick, Jeffrey; Nguyen, Alexander; Latulippe, David R

    2014-07-01

    The current challenges associated with the design and operation of net-energy positive wastewater treatment plants demand sophisticated approaches for the monitoring of polymer-induced flocculation. In anaerobic digestion (AD) processes, the dewaterability of the sludge is typically assessed from off-line lab-bench tests - the capillary suction time (CST) test is one of the most common. Focused beam reflectance measurement (FBRM) is a promising technique for real-time monitoring of critical performance attributes in large scale processes and is ideally suited for dewatering applications. The flocculation performance of twenty-four cationic polymers, that spanned a range of polymer size and charge properties, was measured using both the FBRM and CST tests. Analysis of the data revealed a decreasing monotonic trend; the samples that had the highest percent removal of particles less than 50 microns in size as determined by FBRM had the lowest CST values. A subset of the best performing polymers was used to evaluate the effects of dosage amount and digestate sources on dewatering performance. The results from this work show that FBRM is a powerful tool that can be used for optimization and on-line monitoring of dewatering processes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Multi-analytical approach for profiling some essential medical drugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abubakar, M.

    2015-07-01

    Counterfeit and substandard pharmaceutical drugs are chiefly rampant in developing countries due to inadequate analytical facilities and lack of regulatory oversight. The production of counterfeit or substandard drugs is broadly problematic. Underestimating it therefore leads to morbidity, mortality, drug resistance, introduction of toxic substances into the body and loss of confidence in health care systems. Medical drugs that are often counterfeited range from antimalarial drugs to antiretroviral drugs with antibiotics being counterfeited the most. This research work, therefore, aims at contributing towards the establishment of measures/processes for distinguishing between fake and genuine amoxicillin drugs. This was achieved by the identification and quantification of the Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient (API) and the excipients in the drug formulation. The major analytical techniques employed for this research work were Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA), X-ray Powder Diffraction (XRD), High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) and in vitro Dissolution Test. The amoxicillin samples analyzed were the foreign generic amoxicillin purchased from Ernest Chemists pharmacy at East Legon, Accra, the National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) amoxicillin purchased at Fair Mile pharmacy at West Legon, Accra and the Suspected Fake amoxicillin purchased at Okaishi market. For the establishment of fingerprint for identification of substandard amoxicillin, INAA was used to qualitatively determine the short lived radionuclides (excipients) which then facilitated the correct identification of the API and the excipient phases in each of the amoxicillin groups. The phases identified were Amoxicillin Trihydrate as the excipient, Magnesium Stearate (hydrated) and Magnesium Stearate (anhydrous) as the excipients. For Quality control purposes, High Performance Liquid Chromatography approach and also, the in vitro Dissolution test were conducted on each of the groups of

  6. An analytics approach to designing patient centered medical homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajorlou, Saeede; Shams, Issac; Yang, Kai

    2015-03-01

    Recently the patient centered medical home (PCMH) model has become a popular team based approach focused on delivering more streamlined care to patients. In current practices of medical homes, a clinical based prediction frame is recommended because it can help match the portfolio capacity of PCMH teams with the actual load generated by a set of patients. Without such balances in clinical supply and demand, issues such as excessive under and over utilization of physicians, long waiting time for receiving the appropriate treatment, and non-continuity of care will eliminate many advantages of the medical home strategy. In this paper, by using the hierarchical generalized linear model with multivariate responses, we develop a clinical workload prediction model for care portfolio demands in a Bayesian framework. The model allows for heterogeneous variances and unstructured covariance matrices for nested random effects that arise through complex hierarchical care systems. We show that using a multivariate approach substantially enhances the precision of workload predictions at both primary and non primary care levels. We also demonstrate that care demands depend not only on patient demographics but also on other utilization factors, such as length of stay. Our analyses of a recent data from Veteran Health Administration further indicate that risk adjustment for patient health conditions can considerably improve the prediction power of the model.

  7. Experimental and analytical study for demonstration program on shielding of casks for high-level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueki, K.; Nakazawa, M.; Hattorl, S.; Ozaki, S.; Tamaki, H.; Kadotani, H.; Ishizuka, T.; Ishikawa, S.

    1993-01-01

    The following remarks were obtained from the experiment and the DOT 3.5 and the MCNP analyses on the gamma ray and the neutron dose equivalent rates in the cask of interest. 1. The cask has thinner neutron shielding parts around the trunnions. Significant neutrons streaming around the trunnion parts was observed which was also cleared by the MCNP analysis for the 252 Cf source experiment. Accordingly, detailed neutron streaming calculations are required to evaluate the dose levels around the trunnions when loading the vitrified high-level wastes. 2. The room-scattered obstructive neutrons, mainly originating from the neutrons penetrating around the trunnions, at the top and the bottom of the cask are reduced significantly by preparing the water tank at the top and the water layer at the bottom. Therefore, a more accurate experiment is to be carried out in the future shielding experiment especially for neutrons. However, because the water tank and the layer do not exist in the actual high-level wastes transport cask, the experiment without the water tank and layer are not dispensable to demonstrate the transport conditions of the actual cask, too. 3. The gamma-ray and the neutron dose equivalent rate distributions obtained from the DOT 3.5 and the MCNP calculations, respectively, agreed closely with the measured values in the cask areas of interest. Accordingly, the DOT 3.5 code and the MCNP code with the NESX estimator can be employed not only for the shielding analysis of the future experiments, but also for making a safety analysis report of high-level wastes transport casks. (J.P.N.)

  8. Data analytics approach to create waste generation profiles for waste management and collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niska, Harri; Serkkola, Ari

    2018-04-30

    Extensive monitoring data on waste generation is increasingly collected in order to implement cost-efficient and sustainable waste management operations. In addition, geospatial data from different registries of the society are opening for free usage. Novel data analytics approaches can be built on the top of the data to produce more detailed, and in-time waste generation information for the basis of waste management and collection. In this paper, a data-based approach based on the self-organizing map (SOM) and the k-means algorithm is developed for creating a set of waste generation type profiles. The approach is demonstrated using the extensive container-level waste weighting data collected in the metropolitan area of Helsinki, Finland. The results obtained highlight the potential of advanced data analytic approaches in producing more detailed waste generation information e.g. for the basis of tailored feedback services for waste producers and the planning and optimization of waste collection and recycling. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. New vistas in refractive laser beam shaping with an analytic design approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duerr, Fabian; Thienpont, Hugo

    2014-05-01

    Many commercial, medical and scientific applications of the laser have been developed since its invention. Some of these applications require a specific beam irradiance distribution to ensure optimal performance. Often, it is possible to apply geometrical methods to design laser beam shapers. This common design approach is based on the ray mapping between the input plane and the output beam. Geometric ray mapping designs with two plano-aspheric lenses have been thoroughly studied in the past. Even though analytic expressions for various ray mapping functions do exist, the surface profiles of the lenses are still calculated numerically. In this work, we present an alternative novel design approach that allows direct calculation of the rotational symmetric lens profiles described by analytic functions. Starting from the example of a basic beam expander, a set of functional differential equations is derived from Fermat's principle. This formalism allows calculating the exact lens profiles described by Taylor series coefficients up to very high orders. To demonstrate the versatility of this new approach, two further cases are solved: a Gaussian to at-top irradiance beam shaping system, and a beam shaping system that generates a more complex dark-hollow Gaussian (donut-like) irradiance profile with zero intensity in the on-axis region. The presented ray tracing results confirm the high accuracy of all calculated solutions and indicate the potential of this design approach for refractive beam shaping applications.

  10. New Approaches to Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Demonstrated in Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priest, G. R.; Rizzo, A.; Madin, I.; Lyles Smith, R.; Stimely, L.

    2012-12-01

    Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries and Oregon Emergency Management collaborated over the last four years to increase tsunami preparedness for residents and visitors to the Oregon coast. Utilizing support from the National Tsunami Hazards Mitigation Program (NTHMP), new approaches to outreach and tsunami hazard assessment were developed and then applied. Hazard assessment was approached by first doing two pilot studies aimed at calibrating theoretical models to direct observations of tsunami inundation gleaned from the historical and prehistoric (paleoseismic/paleotsunami) data. The results of these studies were then submitted to peer-reviewed journals and translated into 1:10,000-12,000-scale inundation maps. The inundation maps utilize a powerful new tsunami model, SELFE, developed by Joseph Zhang at the Oregon Health & Science University. SELFE uses unstructured computational grids and parallel processing technique to achieve fast accurate simulation of tsunami interactions with fine-scale coastal morphology. The inundation maps were simplified into tsunami evacuation zones accessed as map brochures and an interactive mapping portal at http://www.oregongeology.org/tsuclearinghouse/. Unique in the world are new evacuation maps that show separate evacuation zones for distant versus locally generated tsunamis. The brochure maps explain that evacuation time is four hours or more for distant tsunamis but 15-20 minutes for local tsunamis that are invariably accompanied by strong ground shaking. Since distant tsunamis occur much more frequently than local tsunamis, the two-zone maps avoid needless over evacuation (and expense) caused by one-zone maps. Inundation mapping for the entire Oregon coast will be complete by ~2014. Educational outreach was accomplished first by doing a pilot study to measure effectiveness of various approaches using before and after polling and then applying the most effective methods. In descending order, the most effective

  11. SAW-Based Phononic Crystal Microfluidic Sensor-Microscale Realization of Velocimetry Approaches for Integrated Analytical Platform Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oseev, Aleksandr; Lucklum, Ralf; Zubtsov, Mikhail; Schmidt, Marc-Peter; Mukhin, Nikolay V; Hirsch, Soeren

    2017-09-23

    The current work demonstrates a novel surface acoustic wave (SAW) based phononic crystal sensor approach that allows the integration of a velocimetry-based sensor concept into single chip integrated solutions, such as Lab-on-a-Chip devices. The introduced sensor platform merges advantages of ultrasonic velocimetry analytic systems and a microacoustic sensor approach. It is based on the analysis of structural resonances in a periodic composite arrangement of microfluidic channels confined within a liquid analyte. Completed theoretical and experimental investigations show the ability to utilize periodic structure localized modes for the detection of volumetric properties of liquids and prove the efficacy of the proposed sensor concept.

  12. Analytic operator approach to fermionic lattice field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, A.

    1985-01-01

    An analytic Lanczos algorithm previously used to extract the spectrum of bosonic lattice field theories in the continuum region is extended to theories with fermions. The method is illustrated in detail for the (1+1)-dimensional Gross-Neveu model. All parameters in the model (coupling, lattice size N, number of fermion flavors Nsub(F), etc.) appear explicitly in analytic formulas for matrix elements of the hamiltonian. The method is applied to the calculation of the collective field vacuum expectation value and the mass gap, and excellent agreement obtained with explicit results available from the large Nsub(F) solution of the model. (orig.)

  13. ‘Positioning’ in the conversation analytic approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Day, Dennis; Kjærbeck, Susanne

    2013-01-01

    of ‘positioning’ is used at all levels of analysis in the former, there appears to be no such analytical concept in EM/CA. The aim of this article is to inquire if EM/CA tools for the analysis of identities and relations in talk might be considered interesting from the perspective of positioning theory. To do so...

  14. Governance Analytical Framework : an Approach to Health Systems ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Researchers will develop and test a methodology - Governance Analytical Framework - for analyzing and assessing the influence of governance pattern on health ... IDRC and the São Paulo Research Foundation (FAPESP) signed a scientific and technological cooperation agreement to support joint research projects in ...

  15. Lyophilization: a useful approach to the automation of analytical processes?

    OpenAIRE

    de Castro, M. D. Luque; Izquierdo, A.

    1990-01-01

    An overview of the state-of-the-art in the use of lyophilization for the pretreatment of samples and standards prior to their storage and/or preconcentration is presented. The different analytical applications of this process are dealt with according to the type of material (reagent, standard, samples) and matrix involved.

  16. An analytical approach to managing complex process problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramstad, Kari; Andersen, Espen; Rohde, Hans Christian; Tydal, Trine

    2006-03-15

    The oil companies are continuously investing time and money to ensure optimum regularity on their production facilities. High regularity increases profitability, reduces workload on the offshore organisation and most important; - reduces discharge to air and sea. There are a number of mechanisms and tools available in order to achieve high regularity. Most of these are related to maintenance, system integrity, well operations and process conditions. However, for all of these tools, they will only be effective if quick and proper analysis of fluids and deposits are carried out. In fact, analytical backup is a powerful tool used to maintain optimised oil production, and should as such be given high priority. The present Operator (Hydro Oil and Energy) and the Chemical Supplier (MI Production Chemicals) have developed a cooperation to ensure that analytical backup is provided efficiently to the offshore installations. The Operator's Research and Development (R and D) departments and the Chemical Supplier have complementary specialties in both personnel and equipment, and this is utilized to give the best possible service when required from production technologists or operations. In order for the Operator's Research departments, Health, Safety and Environment (HSE) departments and Operations to approve analytical work performed by the Chemical Supplier, a number of analytical tests are carried out following procedures agreed by both companies. In the present paper, three field case examples of analytical cooperation for managing process problems will be presented. 1) Deposition in a Complex Platform Processing System. 2) Contaminated Production Chemicals. 3) Improved Monitoring of Scale Inhibitor, Suspended Solids and Ions. In each case the Research Centre, Operations and the Chemical Supplier have worked closely together to achieve fast solutions and Best Practice. (author) (tk)

  17. Identifying bioaccumulative halogenated organic compounds using a nontargeted analytical approach: seabirds as sentinels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J Millow

    Full Text Available Persistent organic pollutants (POPs are typically monitored via targeted mass spectrometry, which potentially identifies only a fraction of the contaminants actually present in environmental samples. With new anthropogenic compounds continuously introduced to the environment, novel and proactive approaches that provide a comprehensive alternative to targeted methods are needed in order to more completely characterize the diversity of known and unknown compounds likely to cause adverse effects. Nontargeted mass spectrometry attempts to extensively screen for compounds, providing a feasible approach for identifying contaminants that warrant future monitoring. We employed a nontargeted analytical method using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC/TOF-MS to characterize halogenated organic compounds (HOCs in California Black skimmer (Rynchops niger eggs. Our study identified 111 HOCs; 84 of these compounds were regularly detected via targeted approaches, while 27 were classified as typically unmonitored or unknown. Typically unmonitored compounds of note in bird eggs included tris(4-chlorophenylmethane (TCPM, tris(4-chlorophenylmethanol (TCPMOH, triclosan, permethrin, heptachloro-1'-methyl-1,2'-bipyrrole (MBP, as well as four halogenated unknown compounds that could not be identified through database searching or the literature. The presence of these compounds in Black skimmer eggs suggests they are persistent, bioaccumulative, potentially biomagnifying, and maternally transferring. Our results highlight the utility and importance of employing nontargeted analytical tools to assess true contaminant burdens in organisms, as well as to demonstrate the value in using environmental sentinels to proactively identify novel contaminants.

  18. A geovisual analytic approach to understanding geo-social relationships in the international trade network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Wei; Yin, Peifeng; Di, Qian; Hardisty, Frank; MacEachren, Alan M

    2014-01-01

    The world has become a complex set of geo-social systems interconnected by networks, including transportation networks, telecommunications, and the internet. Understanding the interactions between spatial and social relationships within such geo-social systems is a challenge. This research aims to address this challenge through the framework of geovisual analytics. We present the GeoSocialApp which implements traditional network analysis methods in the context of explicitly spatial and social representations. We then apply it to an exploration of international trade networks in terms of the complex interactions between spatial and social relationships. This exploration using the GeoSocialApp helps us develop a two-part hypothesis: international trade network clusters with structural equivalence are strongly 'balkanized' (fragmented) according to the geography of trading partners, and the geographical distance weighted by population within each network cluster has a positive relationship with the development level of countries. In addition to demonstrating the potential of visual analytics to provide insight concerning complex geo-social relationships at a global scale, the research also addresses the challenge of validating insights derived through interactive geovisual analytics. We develop two indicators to quantify the observed patterns, and then use a Monte-Carlo approach to support the hypothesis developed above.

  19. The demonstration of nonlinear analytic model for the strain field induced by thermal copper filled TSVs (through silicon via

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. Liao

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The thermo-elastic strain is induced by through silicon vias (TSV due to the difference of thermal expansion coefficients between the copper (∼18 ppm/ °C and silicon (∼2.8 ppm/ °C when the structure is exposed to a thermal ramp budget in the three dimensional integrated circuit (3DIC process. These thermal expansion stresses are high enough to introduce the delamination on the interfaces between the copper, silicon, and isolated dielectric. A compact analytic model for the strain field induced by different layouts of thermal copper filled TSVs with the linear superposition principle is found to have large errors due to the strong stress interaction between TSVs. In this work, a nonlinear stress analytic model with different TSV layouts is demonstrated by the finite element method and the analysis of the Mohr's circle. The characteristics of stress are also measured by the atomic force microscope-raman technique with nanometer level space resolution. The change of the electron mobility with the consideration of this nonlinear stress model for the strong interactions between TSVs is ∼2–6% smaller in comparison with those from the consideration of the linear stress superposition principle only.

  20. Heavy element stable isotope ratios. Analytical approaches and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanimizu, Masaharu; Sohrin, Yoshiki; Hirata, Takafumi

    2013-01-01

    Continuous developments in inorganic mass spectrometry techniques, including a combination of an inductively coupled plasma ion source and a magnetic sector-based mass spectrometer equipped with a multiple-collector array, have revolutionized the precision of isotope ratio measurements, and applications of inorganic mass spectrometry for biochemistry, geochemistry, and marine chemistry are beginning to appear on the horizon. Series of pioneering studies have revealed that natural stable isotope fractionations of many elements heavier than S (e.g., Fe, Cu, Zn, Sr, Ce, Nd, Mo, Cd, W, Tl, and U) are common on Earth, and it had been widely recognized that most physicochemical reactions or biochemical processes induce mass-dependent isotope fractionation. The variations in isotope ratios of the heavy elements can provide new insights into past and present biochemical and geochemical processes. To achieve this, the analytical community is actively solving problems such as spectral interference, mass discrimination drift, chemical separation and purification, and reduction of the contamination of analytes. This article describes data calibration and standardization protocols to allow interlaboratory comparisons or to maintain traceability of data, and basic principles of isotope fractionation in nature, together with high-selectivity and high-yield chemical separation and purification techniques for stable isotope studies.

  1. ANALYTIC CAUSATIVES IN JAVANESE: A LEXICAL- FUNCTIONAL APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Subiyanto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Analytic  causatives  are  the  type  of  causatives  formed  by  separate predicates  expressing the cause and the effect, that is, the causing notion  is  realized  by  a  word  separate  from  the  word  denoting  the caused activity. This paper aims to discuss the forms and syntactic structure  of  analytic  causatives  in  Javanese.  To  discuss  the syntactic structure, the theory of lexical functional grammar (LFG is  employed.  The  data  used  in  this  study  is  the  „ngoko‟  level  of Javanese of the Surakarta dialect. By using a negation marker and modals  as  the  syntactic  operators to test mono-  or bi-clausality  of analytic  causatives,  the  writer  found  that  analytic  causatives  in Javanese form biclausal constructions. These constructions have an X-COMP  structure,  in  that  the  SUBJ  of  the  second  verb  is controlled  by  the  OBJ  of  the  causative  verb  (Ngawe  „make‟.  In terms  of  the  constituent  structure,  analytic  causatives  have  two kinds of structures, which are V-cause OBJ X-COMP and V-cause X-COMP OBJ. Kausatif  analitik  adalah  tipe  kausatif  yang  dibentuk  oleh  dua predikat  atau  dua  kata  terpisah  untuk  mengungkapkan  makna sebab dan akibat, yakni makna sebab direalisasikan oleh kata yang berbeda  dengan  kata  yang  menyatakan  makna  akibat.  Tulisan  ini membahas  bentuk  dan  struktur  sintaksis  kausatif  analitik  dalam bahasa Jawa. Untuk menjelaskan struktur sintaksis digunakan teori Tata  Bahasa  Leksikal  Fungsional.  Data  yang  digunakan  dalam penelitian  ini  adalah  bahasa  Jawa  dialek  Surakarta  ragam  ngoko. Dengan  menggunakan  alat  uji  pemarkah  negasi  dan  penggunaaan modalitas,  penulis  menemukan  bahwa  kausatif  analitik  dalam bahasa Jawa membentuk struktur biklausa. Konstruksi ini memiliki struktur  X

  2. The Identification and Significance of Intuitive and Analytic Problem Solving Approaches Among College Physics Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorsland, Martin N.; Novak, Joseph D.

    1974-01-01

    Described is an approach to assessment of intuitive and analytic modes of thinking in physics. These modes of thinking are associated with Ausubel's theory of learning. High ability in either intuitive or analytic thinking was associated with success in college physics, with high learning efficiency following a pattern expected on the basis of…

  3. An analytical approach to the assessment of transuranics transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piera, M.; Sanz, J.; Perlado, M.; Minguez, E.; Martinez-Val, J.M.

    1999-01-01

    An analytical study of Pu isotopes burnup in different transmutator prototypes is presented in this paper. Each prototype has been identified by a set of averaged cross sections, i.e., they are characterized by the neutron spectrum. Three types of systems have been considered: a fast spectrum reactor, which can be associated to molten lead systems; a fully thermalized reactor; and an epithermal reactor with a strong contribution to resonance reactions. The study has been focused on the burnup of Pu-239, Pu-240 and Pu-241 because they account (directly or indirectly) for the highest contribution to long-term radiotoxicity, as already pointed out. Pu-239 also conveys significant concerns on long-term proliferation risks. Therefore, elimination of these nuclei is the most important priority in the framework of reducing the nuclear waste risk in the long-term scenario. (author)

  4. Analytical approaches for arsenic determination in air: A critical review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sánchez-Rodas, Daniel, E-mail: rodas@uhu.es [Centre for Research in Sustainable Chemistry-CIQSO, Associated Unit CSIC-University of Huelva “Atmospheric Pollution”, Campus El Carmen, University of Huelva, 21071 Huelva (Spain); Department of Chemistry and Materials Science, University of Huelva, 21071 Huelva (Spain); Sánchez de la Campa, Ana M. [Centre for Research in Sustainable Chemistry-CIQSO, Associated Unit CSIC-University of Huelva “Atmospheric Pollution”, Campus El Carmen, University of Huelva, 21071 Huelva (Spain); Department of Mining, Mechanic and Energetic Engineering, ETSI, University of Huelva, 21071 Huelva (Spain); Alsioufi, Louay [Centre for Research in Sustainable Chemistry-CIQSO, Associated Unit CSIC-University of Huelva “Atmospheric Pollution”, Campus El Carmen, University of Huelva, 21071 Huelva (Spain)

    2015-10-22

    This review describes the different steps involved in the determination of arsenic in air, considering the particulate matter (PM) and the gaseous phase. The review focuses on sampling, sample preparation and instrumental analytical techniques for both total arsenic determination and speciation analysis. The origin, concentration and legislation concerning arsenic in ambient air are also considered. The review intends to describe the procedures for sample collection of total suspended particles (TSP) or particles with a certain diameter expressed in microns (e.g. PM10 and PM2.5), or the collection of the gaseous phase containing gaseous arsenic species. Sample digestion of the collecting media for PM is described, indicating proposed and established procedures that use acids or mixtures of acids aided with different heating procedures. The detection techniques are summarized and compared (ICP-MS, ICP-OES and ET-AAS), as well those techniques capable of direct analysis of the solid sample (PIXE, INAA and XRF). The studies about speciation in PM are also discussed, considering the initial works that employed a cold trap in combination with atomic spectroscopy detectors, or the more recent studies based on chromatography (GC or HPLC) combined with atomic or mass detectors (AFS, ICP-MS and MS). Further trends and challenges about determination of As in air are also addressed. - Highlights: • Review about arsenic in the air. • Sampling, sample treatment and analysis of arsenic in particulate matter and gaseous phase. • Total arsenic determination and arsenic speciation analysis.

  5. A tiered analytical approach for investigating poor quality emergency contraceptives.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Eugenia Monge

    Full Text Available Reproductive health has been deleteriously affected by poor quality medicines. Emergency contraceptive pills (ECPs are an important birth control method that women can use after unprotected coitus for reducing the risk of pregnancy. In response to the detection of poor quality ECPs commercially available in the Peruvian market we developed a tiered multi-platform analytical strategy. In a survey to assess ECP medicine quality in Peru, 7 out of 25 different batches showed inadequate release of levonorgestrel by dissolution testing or improper amounts of active ingredient. One batch was found to contain a wrong active ingredient, with no detectable levonorgestrel. By combining ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-ion mobility spectrometry-mass spectrometry (UHPLC-IMS-MS and direct analysis in real time MS (DART-MS the unknown compound was identified as the antibiotic sulfamethoxazole. Quantitation by UHPLC-triple quadrupole tandem MS (QqQ-MS/MS indicated that the wrong ingredient was present in the ECP sample at levels which could have significant physiological effects. Further chemical characterization of the poor quality ECP samples included the identification of the excipients by 2D Diffusion-Ordered Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (DOSY 1H NMR indicating the presence of lactose and magnesium stearate.

  6. Analytical and statistical approaches in the characterization of synthetic polymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dimzon, I.K.

    2015-01-01

    Polymers vary in terms of the monomer/s used; the number, distribution and type of linkage of monomers per molecule; and the side chains and end groups attached. Given this diversity, traditional single-technique approaches to characterization often give limited and inadequate information about a

  7. Radio drama adaptations: an approach towards an analytical methodology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huwiler, E.

    2010-01-01

    This article establishes a methodology with which radio drama pieces can be analysed. It thereby integrates all features the art form has to offer: voices, music, noises, but also technical features like cutting and mixing contribute to the narrative that is being told. This approach emphasizes the

  8. Analytical methods for prefiltering of close approaches between ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2010-02-10

    Feb 10, 2010 ... find out the close approach for all objects with simulations. ... the operational satellite and other orbiting objects. ... Recently, space scientists all over the Globe are giving much ... avoidances (Alarcon-Rodriguez et al., 2004, Gronchi, 2005 and Choi et al., 2009) for the stability of future Low Earth Orbit (LEO).

  9. Analytic equation of state for FCC C60 solid based on analytic mean-field potential approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Jiuxun

    2006-01-01

    The analytic mean-field approach (AMFP) was applied to the FCC C60 solid. For the intermolecular forces the Girifalco potential has been utilized. The analytic expressions for the Helmholtz free energy, internal energy and equation of state have been derived. The numerical results of thermodynamic quantities are compared with the molecular dynamic (MD) simulations and the unsymmetrized self-consistent field approach (CUSF) in the literature. It is shown that our AMFP results are in good agreement with the MD data both at low and high temperatures. The results of CUSF are in accordance with the AMFP at low temperature, but at high temperature the difference becomes prominent. Especially the AMFP predicted that the FCC C60 solid is stable upto 2202 K, the spinodal temperature, in good agreement with 2320 K from the MD simulation. However, the CUST just gives 1916 K, a temperature evidently lower than the MD data. The AMFP qualifies as a useful approach that can reasonably consider the anharmonic effects at high temperature

  10. Spacecraft formation control using analytical finite-duration approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Larbi, Mohamed Khalil; Stoll, Enrico

    2018-03-01

    This paper derives a control concept for formation flight (FF) applications assuming circular reference orbits. The paper focuses on a general impulsive control concept for FF which is then extended to the more realistic case of non-impulsive thrust maneuvers. The control concept uses a description of the FF in relative orbital elements (ROE) instead of the classical Cartesian description since the ROE provide a direct insight into key aspects of the relative motion and are particularly suitable for relative orbit control purposes and collision avoidance analysis. Although Gauss' variational equations have been first derived to offer a mathematical tool for processing orbit perturbations, they are suitable for several different applications. If the perturbation acceleration is due to a control thrust, Gauss' variational equations show the effect of such a control thrust on the Keplerian orbital elements. Integrating the Gauss' variational equations offers a direct relation between velocity increments in the local vertical local horizontal frame and the subsequent change of Keplerian orbital elements. For proximity operations, these equations can be generalized from describing the motion of single spacecraft to the description of the relative motion of two spacecraft. This will be shown for impulsive and finite-duration maneuvers. Based on that, an analytical tool to estimate the error induced through impulsive maneuver planning is presented. The resulting control schemes are simple and effective and thus also suitable for on-board implementation. Simulations show that the proposed concept improves the timing of the thrust maneuver executions and thus reduces the residual error of the formation control.

  11. Traceability of 'Limone di Siracusa PGI' by a multidisciplinary analytical and chemometric approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amenta, M; Fabroni, S; Costa, C; Rapisarda, P

    2016-11-15

    Food traceability is increasingly relevant with respect to safety, quality and typicality issues. Lemon fruits grown in a typical lemon-growing area of southern Italy (Siracusa), have been awarded the PGI (Protected Geographical Indication) recognition as 'Limone di Siracusa'. Due to its peculiarity, consumers have an increasing interest about this product. The detection of potential fraud could be improved by using the tools linking the composition of this production to its typical features. This study used a wide range of analytical techniques, including conventional techniques and analytical approaches, such as spectral (NIR spectra), multi-elemental (Fe, Zn, Mn, Cu, Li, Sr) and isotopic ((13)C/(12)C, (18)O/(16)O) marker investigations, joined with multivariate statistical analysis, such as PLS-DA (Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis) and LDA (Linear Discriminant Analysis), to implement a traceability system to verify the authenticity of 'Limone di Siracusa' production. The results demonstrated a very good geographical discrimination rate. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Contaminant ingress into multizone buildings: An analytical state-space approach

    KAUST Repository

    Parker, Simon

    2013-08-13

    The ingress of exterior contaminants into buildings is often assessed by treating the building interior as a single well-mixed space. Multizone modelling provides an alternative way of representing buildings that can estimate concentration time series in different internal locations. A state-space approach is adopted to represent the concentration dynamics within multizone buildings. Analysis based on this approach is used to demonstrate that the exposure in every interior location is limited to the exterior exposure in the absence of removal mechanisms. Estimates are also developed for the short term maximum concentration and exposure in a multizone building in response to a step-change in concentration. These have considerable potential for practical use. The analytical development is demonstrated using a simple two-zone building with an inner zone and a range of existing multizone models of residential buildings. Quantitative measures are provided of the standard deviation of concentration and exposure within a range of residential multizone buildings. Ratios of the maximum short term concentrations and exposures to single zone building estimates are also provided for the same buildings. © 2013 Tsinghua University Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  13. A functional analytic approach to computer-interactive mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ninness, Chris; Rumph, Robin; McCuller, Glen; Harrison, Carol; Ford, Angela M; Ninness, Sharon K

    2005-01-01

    Following a pretest, 11 participants who were naive with regard to various algebraic and trigonometric transformations received an introductory lecture regarding the fundamentals of the rectangular coordinate system. Following the lecture, they took part in a computer-interactive matching-to-sample procedure in which they received training on particular formula-to-formula and formula-to-graph relations as these formulas pertain to reflections and vertical and horizontal shifts. In training A-B, standard formulas served as samples and factored formulas served as comparisons. In training B-C, factored formulas served as samples and graphs served as comparisons. Subsequently, the program assessed for mutually entailed B-A and C-B relations as well as combinatorially entailed C-A and A-C relations. After all participants demonstrated mutual entailment and combinatorial entailment, we employed a test of novel relations to assess 40 different and complex variations of the original training formulas and their respective graphs. Six of 10 participants who completed training demonstrated perfect or near-perfect performance in identifying novel formula-to-graph relations. Three of the 4 participants who made more than three incorrect responses during the assessment of novel relations showed some commonality among their error patterns. Derived transfer of stimulus control using mathematical relations is discussed.

  14. Analytical and computational approaches to define the Aspergillus niger secretome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsang, Adrian; Butler, Gregory D.; Powlowski, Justin; Panisko, Ellen A.; Baker, Scott E.

    2009-03-01

    We used computational and mass spectrometric approaches to characterize the Aspergillus niger secretome. The 11,200 gene models predicted in the genome of A. niger strain ATCC 1015 were the data source for the analysis. Depending on the computational methods used, 691 to 881 proteins were predicted to be secreted proteins. We cultured A. niger in six different media and analyzed the extracellular proteins produced using mass spectrometry. A total of 222 proteins were identified, with 39 proteins expressed under all six conditions and 74 proteins expressed under only one condition. The secreted proteins identified by mass spectrometry were used to guide the correction of about 20 gene models. Additional analysis focused on extracellular enzymes of interest for biomass processing. Of the 63 glycoside hydrolases predicted to be capable of hydrolyzing cellulose, hemicellulose or pectin, 94% of the exo-acting enzymes and only 18% of the endo-acting enzymes were experimentally detected.

  15. Analytic and probabilistic approaches to dynamics in negative curvature

    CERN Document Server

    Peigné, Marc; Sambusetti, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    The work of E. Hopf and G.A. Hedlund, in the 1930s, on transitivity and ergodicity of the geodesic flow for hyperbolic surfaces, marked the beginning of the investigation of the statistical properties and stochastic behavior of the flow. The first central limit theorem for the geodesic flow was proved in the 1960s by Y. Sinai for compact hyperbolic manifolds. Since then, strong relationships have been found between the fields of ergodic theory, analysis, and geometry. Different approaches and new tools have been developed to study the geodesic flow, including measure theory, thermodynamic formalism, transfer operators, Laplace operators, and Brownian motion. All these different points of view have led to a deep understanding of more general dynamical systems, in particular the so-called Anosov systems, with applications to geometric problems such as counting, equirepartition, mixing, and recurrence properties of the orbits. This book comprises two independent texts that provide a self-contained introduction t...

  16. Nuclear emergency response planning based on participatory decision analytic approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinkko, K.

    2004-10-01

    This work was undertaken in order to develop methods and techniques for evaluating systematically and comprehensively protective action strategies in the case of a nuclear or radiation emergency. This was done in a way that the concerns and issues of all key players related to decisions on protective actions could be aggregated into decision- making transparently and in an equal manner. An approach called facilitated workshop, based on the theory of Decision Analysis, was tailored and tested in the planning of actions to be taken. The work builds on case studies in which it was assumed that a hypothetical accident in a nuclear power plant had led to a release of considerable amounts of radionuclides and therefore different types of protective actions should be considered. Altogether six workshops were organised in which all key players were represented, i.e., the authorities, expert organisations, industry and agricultural producers. The participants were those responsible for preparing advice or presenting matters for those responsible for the formal decision-making. Many preparatory meetings were held with various experts to prepare information for the workshops. It was considered essential that the set-up strictly follow the decision- making process to which the key players are accustomed. Key players or stakeholders comprise responsible administrators and organisations, politicians as well as representatives of the citizens affected and other persons who will and are likely to take part in decision-making in nuclear emergencies. The realistic nature and the disciplined process of a facilitated workshop and commitment to decision-making yielded up insight in many radiation protection issues. The objectives and attributes which are considered in a decision on protective actions were discussed in many occasions and were defined for different accident scenario to come. In the workshops intervention levels were derived according justification and optimisation

  17. Analytic Approach to Resolving Parking Problems in Downtown Zagreb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolf Malić

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Parking issue is one of the major problems in Zagreb, andin relation to that Zagreb does not differ from other similar orbigger European cities. The problem the city is facing is beingpresented in the paper. It is complex and can be solved gradually,using operative and planning measures, by applying influentialparameters assessments based on which the appropriateparking-garage spaces assessment would be selected. Besides,all the knowledge learned from experiences of similar Europeancities should be used in resolving stationary traffic problem.Introduction of fast public urban transport would providepassengers with improved services (particularly in relation tothe travelling time introducing modern traffic system thatwould reduce the travelling time to below 30 minutes for the farthestrelations. Further improvement in reducing parking problemsin downtown as well as Zagreb broader area would not bepossible without t,nplementing th.s approach.

  18. [Academic review of global health approaches: an analytical framework].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco-Giraldo, Alvaro

    2015-09-01

    In order to identify perspectives on global health, this essay analyzes different trends from academia that have enriched global health and international health. A database was constructed with information from the world's leading global health centers. The search covered authors on global diplomacy and global health and was performed in PubMed, LILACS, and Google Scholar with the key words "global health" and "international health". Research and training centers in different countries have taken various academic approaches to global health; various interests and ideological orientations have emerged in relation to the global health concept. Based on the mosaic of global health centers and their positions, the review concludes that the new concept reflects the construction of a paradigm of renewal in international health and global health, the pre-paradigmatic stage of which has still not reached a final version.

  19. Unemployment and Causes of Hospital Admission Considering Different Analytical Approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg-Beckhoff, Gabriele; Gulis, Gabriel; Kronborg Bak, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    and circulatory disease. Register-based data was analysed for the period of 2006 to 2009. In the cross-sectional analysis, a multiple logistic regression model was conducted based on the year 2006 and cohort information from the same year onward up to 2009 was available for a cox regression model. Social welfare...... compensated unemployment and both types of disease specific hospital admission was associated statistically significant in the cross-sectional analysis. With regard to circulatory disease, the cohort approach suggests that social welfare compensated unemployment might lead to hospital admission due...... to the disease. Given the significant results in the cross-sectional analysis for hospital admission due to cancer, the unfound cohort effect might indicate a reverse causation suggesting that the disease caused joblessness and finally, social welfare compensated unemployment and not vice versa. Comparing...

  20. Constructing and deriving reciprocal trigonometric relations: a functional analytic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ninness, Chris; Dixon, Mark; Barnes-Holmes, Dermot; Rehfeldt, Ruth Anne; Rumph, Robin; McCuller, Glen; Holland, James; Smith, Ronald; Ninness, Sharon K; McGinty, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Participants were pretrained and tested on mutually entailed trigonometric relations and combinatorially entailed relations as they pertained to positive and negative forms of sine, cosine, secant, and cosecant. Experiment 1 focused on training and testing transformations of these mathematical functions in terms of amplitude and frequency followed by tests of novel relations. Experiment 2 addressed training in accordance with frames of coordination (same as) and frames of opposition (reciprocal of) followed by more tests of novel relations. All assessments of derived and novel formula-to-graph relations, including reciprocal functions with diversified amplitude and frequency transformations, indicated that all 4 participants demonstrated substantial improvement in their ability to identify increasingly complex trigonometric formula-to-graph relations pertaining to same as and reciprocal of to establish mathematically complex repertoires.

  1. An analytical approach for the Propagation Saw Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetti, Lorenzo; Fischer, Jan-Thomas; Gaume, Johan

    2016-04-01

    The Propagation Saw Test (PST) [1, 2] is an experimental in-situ technique that has been introduced to assess crack propagation propensity in weak snowpack layers buried below cohesive snow slabs. This test attracted the interest of a large number of practitioners, being relatively easy to perform and providing useful insights for the evaluation of snow instability. The PST procedure requires isolating a snow column of 30 centimeters of width and -at least-1 meter in the downslope direction. Then, once the stratigraphy is known (e.g. from a manual snow profile), a saw is used to cut a weak layer which could fail, potentially leading to the release of a slab avalanche. If the length of the saw cut reaches the so-called critical crack length, the onset of crack propagation occurs. Furthermore, depending on snow properties, the crack in the weak layer can initiate the fracture and detachment of the overlying slab. Statistical studies over a large set of field data confirmed the relevance of the PST, highlighting the positive correlation between test results and the likelihood of avalanche release [3]. Recent works provided key information on the conditions for the onset of crack propagation [4] and on the evolution of slab displacement during the test [5]. In addition, experimental studies [6] and simplified models [7] focused on the qualitative description of snowpack properties leading to different failure types, namely full propagation or fracture arrest (with or without slab fracture). However, beside current numerical studies utilizing discrete elements methods [8], only little attention has been devoted to a detailed analytical description of the PST able to give a comprehensive mechanical framework of the sequence of processes involved in the test. Consequently, this work aims to give a quantitative tool for an exhaustive interpretation of the PST, stressing the attention on important parameters that influence the test outcomes. First, starting from a pure

  2. A Fuzzy analytical hierarchy process approach in irrigation networks maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riza Permana, Angga; Rintis Hadiani, Rr.; Syafi'i

    2017-11-01

    Ponorogo Regency has 440 Irrigation Area with a total area of 17,950 Ha. Due to the limited budget and lack of maintenance cause decreased function on the irrigation. The aim of this study is to make an appropriate system to determine the indices weighted of the rank prioritization criteria for irrigation network maintenance using a fuzzy-based methodology. The criteria that are used such as the physical condition of irrigation networks, area of service, estimated maintenance cost, and efficiency of irrigation water distribution. 26 experts in the field of water resources in the Dinas Pekerjaan Umum were asked to fill out the questionnaire, and the result will be used as a benchmark to determine the rank of irrigation network maintenance priority. The results demonstrate that the physical condition of irrigation networks criterion (W1) = 0,279 has the greatest impact on the assessment process. The area of service (W2) = 0,270, efficiency of irrigation water distribution (W4) = 0,249, and estimated maintenance cost (W3) = 0,202 criteria rank next in effectiveness, respectively. The proposed methodology deals with uncertainty and vague data using triangular fuzzy numbers, and, moreover, it provides a comprehensive decision-making technique to assess maintenance priority on irrigation network.

  3. Automated robot-assisted surgical skill evaluation: Predictive analytics approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fard, Mahtab J; Ameri, Sattar; Darin Ellis, R; Chinnam, Ratna B; Pandya, Abhilash K; Klein, Michael D

    2018-02-01

    Surgical skill assessment has predominantly been a subjective task. Recently, technological advances such as robot-assisted surgery have created great opportunities for objective surgical evaluation. In this paper, we introduce a predictive framework for objective skill assessment based on movement trajectory data. Our aim is to build a classification framework to automatically evaluate the performance of surgeons with different levels of expertise. Eight global movement features are extracted from movement trajectory data captured by a da Vinci robot for surgeons with two levels of expertise - novice and expert. Three classification methods - k-nearest neighbours, logistic regression and support vector machines - are applied. The result shows that the proposed framework can classify surgeons' expertise as novice or expert with an accuracy of 82.3% for knot tying and 89.9% for a suturing task. This study demonstrates and evaluates the ability of machine learning methods to automatically classify expert and novice surgeons using global movement features. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Field-driven chiral bubble dynamics analysed by a semi-analytical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandermeulen, J.; Leliaert, J.; Dupré, L.; Van Waeyenberge, B.

    2017-12-01

    Nowadays, field-driven chiral bubble dynamics in the presence of the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction are a topic of thorough investigation. In this paper, a semi-analytical approach is used to derive equations of motion that express the bubble wall (BW) velocity and the change in in-plane magnetization angle as function of the micromagnetic parameters of the involved interactions, thereby taking into account the two-dimensional nature of the bubble wall. It is demonstrated that the equations of motion enable an accurate description of the expanding and shrinking convex bubble dynamics and an expression for the transition field between shrinkage and expansion is derived. In addition, these equations of motion show that the BW velocity is not only dependent on the driving force, but also on the BW curvature. The absolute BW velocity increases for both a shrinking and an expanding bubble, but for different reasons: for expanding bubbles, it is due to the increasing importance of the driving force, while for shrinking bubbles, it is due to the increasing importance of contributions related to the BW curvature. Finally, using this approach we show how the recently proposed magnetic bubblecade memory can operate in the flow regime in the presence of a tilted sinusoidal magnetic field and at greatly reduced bubble sizes compared to the original device prototype.

  5. An Analytical Approach for Fast Recovery of the LSI Properties in Magnetic Particle Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Jabbari Asl

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Linearity and shift invariance (LSI characteristics of magnetic particle imaging (MPI are important properties for quantitative medical diagnosis applications. The MPI image equations have been theoretically shown to exhibit LSI; however, in practice, the necessary filtering action removes the first harmonic information, which destroys the LSI characteristics. This lost information can be constant in the x-space reconstruction method. Available recovery algorithms, which are based on signal matching of multiple partial field of views (pFOVs, require much processing time and a priori information at the start of imaging. In this paper, a fast analytical recovery algorithm is proposed to restore the LSI properties of the x-space MPI images, representable as an image of discrete concentrations of magnetic material. The method utilizes the one-dimensional (1D x-space imaging kernel and properties of the image and lost image equations. The approach does not require overlapping of pFOVs, and its complexity depends only on a small-sized system of linear equations; therefore, it can reduce the processing time. Moreover, the algorithm only needs a priori information which can be obtained at one imaging process. Considering different particle distributions, several simulations are conducted, and results of 1D and 2D imaging demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  6. A Deep Learning Approach to on-Node Sensor Data Analytics for Mobile or Wearable Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravi, Daniele; Wong, Charence; Lo, Benny; Yang, Guang-Zhong

    2017-01-01

    The increasing popularity of wearable devices in recent years means that a diverse range of physiological and functional data can now be captured continuously for applications in sports, wellbeing, and healthcare. This wealth of information requires efficient methods of classification and analysis where deep learning is a promising technique for large-scale data analytics. While deep learning has been successful in implementations that utilize high-performance computing platforms, its use on low-power wearable devices is limited by resource constraints. In this paper, we propose a deep learning methodology, which combines features learned from inertial sensor data together with complementary information from a set of shallow features to enable accurate and real-time activity classification. The design of this combined method aims to overcome some of the limitations present in a typical deep learning framework where on-node computation is required. To optimize the proposed method for real-time on-node computation, spectral domain preprocessing is used before the data are passed onto the deep learning framework. The classification accuracy of our proposed deep learning approach is evaluated against state-of-the-art methods using both laboratory and real world activity datasets. Our results show the validity of the approach on different human activity datasets, outperforming other methods, including the two methods used within our combined pipeline. We also demonstrate that the computation times for the proposed method are consistent with the constraints of real-time on-node processing on smartphones and a wearable sensor platform.

  7. MODULAR ANALYTICS: A New Approach to Automation in the Clinical Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, Gary L; Zaman, Zahur; Blanckaert, Norbert J C; Chan, Daniel W; Dubois, Jeffrey A; Golaz, Olivier; Mensi, Noury; Keller, Franz; Stolz, Herbert; Klingler, Karl; Marocchi, Alessandro; Prencipe, Lorenzo; McLawhon, Ronald W; Nilsen, Olaug L; Oellerich, Michael; Luthe, Hilmar; Orsonneau, Jean-Luc; Richeux, Gérard; Recio, Fernando; Roldan, Esther; Rymo, Lars; Wicktorsson, Anne-Charlotte; Welch, Shirley L; Wieland, Heinrich; Grawitz, Andrea Busse; Mitsumaki, Hiroshi; McGovern, Margaret; Ng, Katherine; Stockmann, Wolfgang

    2005-01-01

    MODULAR ANALYTICS (Roche Diagnostics) (MODULAR ANALYTICS, Elecsys and Cobas Integra are trademarks of a member of the Roche Group) represents a new approach to automation for the clinical chemistry laboratory. It consists of a control unit, a core unit with a bidirectional multitrack rack transportation system, and three distinct kinds of analytical modules: an ISE module, a P800 module (44 photometric tests, throughput of up to 800 tests/h), and a D2400 module (16 photometric tests, throughput up to 2400 tests/h). MODULAR ANALYTICS allows customised configurations for various laboratory workloads. The performance and practicability of MODULAR ANALYTICS were evaluated in an international multicentre study at 16 sites. Studies included precision, accuracy, analytical range, carry-over, and workflow assessment. More than 700 000 results were obtained during the course of the study. Median between-day CVs were typically less than 3% for clinical chemistries and less than 6% for homogeneous immunoassays. Median recoveries for nearly all standardised reference materials were within 5% of assigned values. Method comparisons versus current existing routine instrumentation were clinically acceptable in all cases. During the workflow studies, the work from three to four single workstations was transferred to MODULAR ANALYTICS, which offered over 100 possible methods, with reduction in sample splitting, handling errors, and turnaround time. Typical sample processing time on MODULAR ANALYTICS was less than 30 minutes, an improvement from the current laboratory systems. By combining multiple analytic units in flexible ways, MODULAR ANALYTICS met diverse laboratory needs and offered improvement in workflow over current laboratory situations. It increased overall efficiency while maintaining (or improving) quality.

  8. Rubbertown Next Generation Emission Measurement Demonstration Project Provides Innovative Approaches to Protecting Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA and the Louisville Metro Air Pollution Control District (LMAPCD) are working together on a research project to demonstrate NGEM approaches near facilities in the Rubbertown industrial area of Louisville, KY.

  9. Web GIS in practice IX: a demonstration of geospatial visual analytics using Microsoft Live Labs Pivot technology and WHO mortality data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamel Boulos, Maged N; Viangteeravat, Teeradache; Anyanwu, Matthew N; Ra Nagisetty, Venkateswara; Kuscu, Emin

    2011-03-16

    The goal of visual analytics is to facilitate the discourse between the user and the data by providing dynamic displays and versatile visual interaction opportunities with the data that can support analytical reasoning and the exploration of data from multiple user-customisable aspects. This paper introduces geospatial visual analytics, a specialised subtype of visual analytics, and provides pointers to a number of learning resources about the subject, as well as some examples of human health, surveillance, emergency management and epidemiology-related geospatial visual analytics applications and examples of free software tools that readers can experiment with, such as Google Public Data Explorer. The authors also present a practical demonstration of geospatial visual analytics using partial data for 35 countries from a publicly available World Health Organization (WHO) mortality dataset and Microsoft Live Labs Pivot technology, a free, general purpose visual analytics tool that offers a fresh way to visually browse and arrange massive amounts of data and images online and also supports geographic and temporal classifications of datasets featuring geospatial and temporal components. Interested readers can download a Zip archive (included with the manuscript as an additional file) containing all files, modules and library functions used to deploy the WHO mortality data Pivot collection described in this paper.

  10. Mitigating Sports Injury Risks Using Internet of Things and Analytics Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkerson, Gary B; Gupta, Ashish; Colston, Marisa A

    2018-03-12

    Sport injuries restrict participation, impose a substantial economic burden, and can have persisting adverse effects on health-related quality of life. The effective use of Internet of Things (IoT), when combined with analytics approaches, can improve player safety through identification of injury risk factors that can be addressed by targeted risk reduction training activities. Use of IoT devices can facilitate highly efficient quantification of relevant functional capabilities prior to sport participation, which could substantially advance the prevailing sport injury management paradigm. This study introduces a framework for using sensor-derived IoT data to supplement other data for objective estimation of each individual college football player's level of injury risk, which is an approach to injury prevention that has not been previously reported. A cohort of 45 NCAA Division I-FCS college players provided data in the form of self-ratings of persisting effects of previous injuries and single-leg postural stability test. Instantaneous change in body mass acceleration (jerk) during the test was quantified by a smartphone accelerometer, with data wirelessly transmitted to a secure cloud server. Injuries sustained from the beginning of practice sessions until the end of the 13-game season were documented, along with the number of games played by each athlete over the course of a 13-game season. Results demonstrate a strong prediction model. Our approach may have strong relevance to the estimation of injury risk for other physically demanding activities. Clearly, there is great potential for improvement of injury prevention initiatives through identification of individual athletes who possess elevated injury risk and targeted interventions. © 2018 Society for Risk Analysis.

  11. A Multi-Level Middle-Out Cross-Zooming Approach for Large Graph Analytics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, Pak C.; Mackey, Patrick S.; Cook, Kristin A.; Rohrer, Randall M.; Foote, Harlan P.; Whiting, Mark A.

    2009-10-11

    This paper presents a working graph analytics model that embraces the strengths of the traditional top-down and bottom-up approaches with a resilient crossover concept to exploit the vast middle-ground information overlooked by the two extreme analytical approaches. Our graph analytics model is developed in collaboration with researchers and users, who carefully studied the functional requirements that reflect the critical thinking and interaction pattern of a real-life intelligence analyst. To evaluate the model, we implement a system prototype, known as GreenHornet, which allows our analysts to test the theory in practice, identify the technological and usage-related gaps in the model, and then adapt the new technology in their work space. The paper describes the implementation of GreenHornet and compares its strengths and weaknesses against the other prevailing models and tools.

  12. Equity Analytics: A Methodological Approach for Quantifying Participation Patterns in Mathematics Classroom Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinholz, Daniel L.; Shah, Niral

    2018-01-01

    Equity in mathematics classroom discourse is a pressing concern, but analyzing issues of equity using observational tools remains a challenge. In this article, we propose equity analytics as a quantitative approach to analyzing aspects of equity and inequity in classrooms. We introduce a classroom observation tool that focuses on relatively…

  13. Behavioural effects of advanced cruise control use : a meta-analytic approach.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dragutinovic, N. Brookhuis, K.A. Hagenzieker, M.P. & Marchau, V.A.W.J.

    2006-01-01

    In this study, a meta-analytic approach was used to analyse effects of Advanced Cruise Control (ACC) on driving behaviour reported in seven driving simulator studies. The effects of ACC on three consistent outcome measures, namely, driving speed, headway and driver workload have been analysed. The

  14. A multiscale analytical approach for bone remodeling simulations : linking scales from collagen to trabeculae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colloca, M.; Blanchard, R.; Hellmich, C.; Ito, K.; Rietbergen, van B.

    2014-01-01

    Bone is a dynamic and hierarchical porous material whose spatial and temporal mechanical properties can vary considerably due to differences in its microstructure and due to remodeling. Hence, a multiscale analytical approach, which combines bone structural information at multiple scales to the

  15. Reducing Post-Decision Dissonance in International Decisions: The Analytic Hierarchy Process Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuBois, Frank L.

    1999-01-01

    Describes use of the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) as a teaching tool to illustrate the complexities of decision making in an international environment. The AHP approach uses managerial input to develop pairwise comparisons of relevant decision criteria to efficiently generate an appropriate solution. (DB)

  16. An Investigation of First-Year Engineering Student and Instructor Perspectives of Learning Analytics Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, David B.; Brozina, Cory; Novoselich, Brian

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates how first-year engineering undergraduates and their instructors describe the potential for learning analytics approaches to contribute to student success. Results of qualitative data collection in a first-year engineering course indicated that both students and instructors\temphasized a preference for learning analytics…

  17. Indirect Pursuits of Intimacy in Romantic Couples Everyday Conversations: A Discourse Analytic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neill Korobov

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available A discourse analytic approach was used to examine how twenty young adult romantic couples (ages 19-26 employed criticisms and insinuations of infidelity in their natural unstructured interactions to indirectly and creatively pursue closeness. The research has been motivated by an expanding arena of research that shows that ostensibly contentious interactional moments among young adult intimates may not be adversarial, but rather may be methods that promote a playful repartee that leads to affiliation. I demonstrate how criticisms are both often highly gendered and typically formulated and responded to in tongue-in-cheek, non-serious ways that involve the creative use of various forms of irony, laughter, rekeyings, abrupt non-sequiturs, and topic shifts that mitigate the potential for the criticisms to become adversarial. Similarly, the insinuations of infidelity were often designed by the couples to attend to interactional breaches. They functioned as a brief but effective way for one partner to signal that they had been dismissed or neglected in the preceding discursive turns. My central finding is that young adult romantic couples maintain closeness amidst potential conflict in their natural everyday conversational interactions.

  18. An analytical approach to characterize morbidity profile dissimilarity between distinct cohorts using electronic medical records

    OpenAIRE

    Schildcrout, Jonathan S.; Basford, Melissa A.; Pulley, Jill M.; Masys, Daniel R.; Roden, Dan M.; Wang, Deede; Chute, Christopher G.; Kullo, Iftikhar J.; Carrell, David; Peissig, Peggy; Kho, Abel; Denny, Joshua C.

    2010-01-01

    We describe a two-stage analytical approach for characterizing morbidity profile dissimilarity among patient cohorts using electronic medical records. We capture morbidities using the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD-9) codes. In the first stage of the approach separate logistic regression analyses for ICD-9 sections (e.g., “hypertensive disease” or “appendicitis”) are conducted, and the odds ratios that describe adjusted differences in pre...

  19. Fabricating Simple Wax Screen-Printing Paper-Based Analytical Devices to Demonstrate the Concept of Limiting Reagent in Acid- Base Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namwong, Pithakpong; Jarujamrus, Purim; Amatatongchai, Maliwan; Chairam, Sanoe

    2018-01-01

    In this article, a low-cost, simple, and rapid fabrication of paper-based analytical devices (PADs) using a wax screen-printing method is reported here. The acid-base reaction is implemented in the simple PADs to demonstrate to students the chemistry concept of a limiting reagent. When a fixed concentration of base reacts with a gradually…

  20. Shielding computations for solution transfer lines from Analytical Lab to process cells of Demonstration Fast Reactor Plant (DFRP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baskar, S.; Jose, M.T.; Baskaran, R.; Venkatraman, B.

    2018-01-01

    The diluted virgin solutions (both aqueous and organic) and aqueous analytical waste generated from experimental analysis of process solutions, pertaining to Fast Breeder Test Reactor (FBTR) and Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR), in glove boxes of active analytical Laboratory (AAL) are pumped back to the process cells through a pipe in pipe arrangement. There are 6 transfer lines (Length 15-32 m), 2 for each type of transfer. The transfer lines passes through the area inside the AAL and also the operating area. Hence it is required to compute the necessary radial shielding requirement around the lines to limit the dose rates in both the areas to the permissible values as per the regulatory requirement

  1. A program wide framework for evaluating data driven teaching and learning - earth analytics approaches, results and lessons learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasser, L. A.; Gold, A. U.

    2017-12-01

    There is a deluge of earth systems data available to address cutting edge science problems yet specific skills are required to work with these data. The Earth analytics education program, a core component of Earth Lab at the University of Colorado - Boulder - is building a data intensive program that provides training in realms including 1) interdisciplinary communication and collaboration 2) earth science domain knowledge including geospatial science and remote sensing and 3) reproducible, open science workflows ("earth analytics"). The earth analytics program includes an undergraduate internship, undergraduate and graduate level courses and a professional certificate / degree program. All programs share the goals of preparing a STEM workforce for successful earth analytics driven careers. We are developing an program-wide evaluation framework that assesses the effectiveness of data intensive instruction combined with domain science learning to better understand and improve data-intensive teaching approaches using blends of online, in situ, asynchronous and synchronous learning. We are using targeted online search engine optimization (SEO) to increase visibility and in turn program reach. Finally our design targets longitudinal program impacts on participant career tracts over time.. Here we present results from evaluation of both an interdisciplinary undergrad / graduate level earth analytics course and and undergraduate internship. Early results suggest that a blended approach to learning and teaching that includes both synchronous in-person teaching and active classroom hands-on learning combined with asynchronous learning in the form of online materials lead to student success. Further we will present our model for longitudinal tracking of participant's career focus overtime to better understand long-term program impacts. We also demonstrate the impact of SEO optimization on online content reach and program visibility.

  2. An analytical approach to activating demand elasticity with a demand response mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clastres, Cedric; Khalfallah, Haikel

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work is to demonstrate analytically the conditions under which activating the elasticity of consumer demand could benefit social welfare. We have developed an analytical equilibrium model to quantify the effect of deploying demand response on social welfare and energy trade. The novelty of this research is that it demonstrates the existence of an optimal area for the price signal in which demand response enhances social welfare. This optimal area is negatively correlated to the degree of competitiveness of generation technologies and the market size of the system. In particular, it should be noted that the value of un-served energy or energy reduction which the producers could lose from such a demand response scheme would limit its effectiveness. This constraint is even greater if energy trade between countries is limited. Finally, we have demonstrated scope for more aggressive demand response, when only considering the impact in terms of consumer surplus. (authors)

  3. Gravitational wave generation from bubble collisions in first-order phase transitions: An analytic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caprini, Chiara; Durrer, Ruth; Servant, Geraldine

    2008-01-01

    Gravitational wave production from bubble collisions was calculated in the early 1990s using numerical simulations. In this paper, we present an alternative analytic estimate, relying on a different treatment of stochasticity. In our approach, we provide a model for the bubble velocity power spectrum, suitable for both detonations and deflagrations. From this, we derive the anisotropic stress and analytically solve the gravitational wave equation. We provide analytical formulas for the peak frequency and the shape of the spectrum which we compare with numerical estimates. In contrast to the previous analysis, we do not work in the envelope approximation. This paper focuses on a particular source of gravitational waves from phase transitions. In a companion article, we will add together the different sources of gravitational wave signals from phase transitions: bubble collisions, turbulence and magnetic fields and discuss the prospects for probing the electroweak phase transition at LISA

  4. Toward Analytic Solution of Nonlinear Differential Difference Equations via Extended Sensitivity Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darmani, G.; Setayeshi, S.; Ramezanpour, H.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper an efficient computational method based on extending the sensitivity approach (SA) is proposed to find an analytic exact solution of nonlinear differential difference equations. In this manner we avoid solving the nonlinear problem directly. By extension of sensitivity approach for differential difference equations (DDEs), the nonlinear original problem is transformed into infinite linear differential difference equations, which should be solved in a recursive manner. Then the exact solution is determined in the form of infinite terms series and by intercepting series an approximate solution is obtained. Numerical examples are employed to show the effectiveness of the proposed approach. (general)

  5. An approach to estimate spatial distribution of analyte within cells using spectrally-resolved fluorescence microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Dharmendar Kumar; Irfanullah, Mir; Basu, Santanu Kumar; Madhu, Sheri; De, Suman; Jadhav, Sameer; Ravikanth, Mangalampalli; Chowdhury, Arindam

    2017-03-01

    While fluorescence microscopy has become an essential tool amongst chemists and biologists for the detection of various analyte within cellular environments, non-uniform spatial distribution of sensors within cells often restricts extraction of reliable information on relative abundance of analytes in different subcellular regions. As an alternative to existing sensing methodologies such as ratiometric or FRET imaging, where relative proportion of analyte with respect to the sensor can be obtained within cells, we propose a methodology using spectrally-resolved fluorescence microscopy, via which both the relative abundance of sensor as well as their relative proportion with respect to the analyte can be simultaneously extracted for local subcellular regions. This method is exemplified using a BODIPY sensor, capable of detecting mercury ions within cellular environments, characterized by spectral blue-shift and concurrent enhancement of emission intensity. Spectral emission envelopes collected from sub-microscopic regions allowed us to compare the shift in transition energies as well as integrated emission intensities within various intracellular regions. Construction of a 2D scatter plot using spectral shifts and emission intensities, which depend on the relative amount of analyte with respect to sensor and the approximate local amounts of the probe, respectively, enabled qualitative extraction of relative abundance of analyte in various local regions within a single cell as well as amongst different cells. Although the comparisons remain semi-quantitative, this approach involving analysis of multiple spectral parameters opens up an alternative way to extract spatial distribution of analyte in heterogeneous systems. The proposed method would be especially relevant for fluorescent probes that undergo relatively nominal shift in transition energies compared to their emission bandwidths, which often restricts their usage for quantitative ratiometric imaging in

  6. Comparison of maximum runup through analytical and numerical approaches for different fault parameters estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanoglu, U.; Wronna, M.; Baptista, M. A.; Miranda, J. M. A.

    2017-12-01

    The one-dimensional analytical runup theory in combination with near shore synthetic waveforms is a promising tool for tsunami rapid early warning systems. Its application in realistic cases with complex bathymetry and initial wave condition from inverse modelling have shown that maximum runup values can be estimated reasonably well. In this study we generate a simplistic bathymetry domains which resemble realistic near-shore features. We investigate the accuracy of the analytical runup formulae to the variation of fault source parameters and near-shore bathymetric features. To do this we systematically vary the fault plane parameters to compute the initial tsunami wave condition. Subsequently, we use the initial conditions to run the numerical tsunami model using coupled system of four nested grids and compare the results to the analytical estimates. Variation of the dip angle of the fault plane showed that analytical estimates have less than 10% difference for angles 5-45 degrees in a simple bathymetric domain. These results shows that the use of analytical formulae for fast run up estimates constitutes a very promising approach in a simple bathymetric domain and might be implemented in Hazard Mapping and Early Warning.

  7. Analytical approach to phonons and electron-phonon interactions in single-walled zigzag carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kandemir, B S; Keskin, M [Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, Ankara University, 06100 Tandogan, Ankara (Turkey)

    2008-08-13

    In this paper, exact analytical expressions for the entire phonon spectra in single-walled carbon nanotubes with zigzag geometry are presented by using a new approach, originally developed by Kandemir and Altanhan. This approach is based on the concept of construction of a classical lattice Hamiltonian of single-walled carbon nanotubes, wherein the nearest and next nearest neighbor and bond bending interactions are all included, then its quantization and finally diagonalization of the resulting second quantized Hamiltonian. Furthermore, within this context, explicit analytical expressions for the relevant electron-phonon interaction coefficients are also investigated for single-walled carbon nanotubes having this geometry, by the phonon modulation of the hopping interaction.

  8. Analytical approach to phonons and electron-phonon interactions in single-walled zigzag carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kandemir, B S; Keskin, M

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, exact analytical expressions for the entire phonon spectra in single-walled carbon nanotubes with zigzag geometry are presented by using a new approach, originally developed by Kandemir and Altanhan. This approach is based on the concept of construction of a classical lattice Hamiltonian of single-walled carbon nanotubes, wherein the nearest and next nearest neighbor and bond bending interactions are all included, then its quantization and finally diagonalization of the resulting second quantized Hamiltonian. Furthermore, within this context, explicit analytical expressions for the relevant electron-phonon interaction coefficients are also investigated for single-walled carbon nanotubes having this geometry, by the phonon modulation of the hopping interaction

  9. Analytical approach to landside system dynamics at airport passenger terminals: departmentalization and holistic view

    OpenAIRE

    Montesinos Ferrer, Marti

    2016-01-01

    Airport landside system is complex, with multiple interrelations. Currently, each facility is managed locally without a systemic view. This study analyzes the impact of different resource management policies on the overall system performance (embarking direction). The results are derived from an analytical approach, based on queueing theory, which allows investigating different time-varying resource allocation policies at each processing facility and its impact on system dynamics.

  10. Factor-Analytic and Individualized Approaches to Constructing Brief Measures of ADHD Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpe, Robert J.; Gadow, Kenneth D.; Blom-Hoffman, Jessica; Feinberg, Adam B.

    2009-01-01

    Two studies were performed to examine a factor-analytic and an individualized approach to creating short progress-monitoring measures from the longer "ADHD-Symptom Checklist-4" (ADHD-SC4). In Study 1, teacher ratings on items of the ADHD:Inattentive (IA) and ADHD:Hyperactive-Impulsive (HI) scales of the ADHD-SC4 were factor analyzed in a normative…

  11. A semi-analytical approach for solving of nonlinear systems of functional differential equations with delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebenda, Josef; Šmarda, Zdeněk

    2017-07-01

    In the paper, we propose a correct and efficient semi-analytical approach to solve initial value problem for systems of functional differential equations with delay. The idea is to combine the method of steps and differential transformation method (DTM). In the latter, formulas for proportional arguments and nonlinear terms are used. An example of using this technique for a system with constant and proportional delays is presented.

  12. A general analytical approach to the one-group, one-dimensional transport equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barichello, L.B.; Vilhena, M.T.

    1993-01-01

    The main feature of the presented approach to solve the neutron transport equation consists in the application of the Laplace transform to the discrete ordinates equations, which yields a linear system of order N to be solved (LTS N method). In this paper this system is solved analytically and the inversion is performed using the Heaviside expansion technique. The general formulation achieved by this procedure is then applied to homogeneous and heterogeneous one-group slab-geometry problems. (orig.) [de

  13. Semi-analytical approach to modelling the dynamic behaviour of soil excited by embedded foundations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bucinskas, Paulius; Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard

    2017-01-01

    The underlying soil has a significant effect on the dynamic behaviour of structures. The paper proposes a semi-analytical approach based on a Green’s function solution in frequency–wavenumber domain. The procedure allows calculating the dynamic stiffness for points on the soil surface as well...... are analysed. It is determined how simplification of the numerical model affects the overall dynamic behaviour. © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd....

  14. The Effect of Group Works and Demonstrative Experiments Based on Conceptual Change Approach: Photosynthesis and Respiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibik, Ayse Sert; Diken, Emine Hatun; Darcin, Emine Selcen

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of the use of group works and demonstration experiments based on conceptual change approach in the elimination of misconception about the subject of photosynthesis and respiration in plants in pre-service science teachers. This study was conducted with 78 pre-service science teachers including…

  15. Basic emotion processing and the adolescent brain: Task demands, analytic approaches, and trajectories of changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa B. Del Piero

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Early neuroimaging studies suggested that adolescents show initial development in brain regions linked with emotional reactivity, but slower development in brain structures linked with emotion regulation. However, the increased sophistication of adolescent brain research has made this picture more complex. This review examines functional neuroimaging studies that test for differences in basic emotion processing (reactivity and regulation between adolescents and either children or adults. We delineated different emotional processing demands across the experimental paradigms in the reviewed studies to synthesize the diverse results. The methods for assessing change (i.e., analytical approach and cohort characteristics (e.g., age range were also explored as potential factors influencing study results. Few unifying dimensions were found to successfully distill the results of the reviewed studies. However, this review highlights the potential impact of subtle methodological and analytic differences between studies, need for standardized and theory-driven experimental paradigms, and necessity of analytic approaches that are can adequately test the trajectories of developmental change that have recently been proposed. Recommendations for future research highlight connectivity analyses and non-linear developmental trajectories, which appear to be promising approaches for measuring change across adolescence. Recommendations are made for evaluating gender and biological markers of development beyond chronological age.

  16. Design of laser-generated shockwave experiments. An approach using analytic models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Y.T.; Trainor, R.J.

    1980-01-01

    Two of the target-physics phenomena which must be understood before a clean experiment can be confidently performed are preheating due to suprathermal electrons and shock decay due to a shock-rarefaction interaction. Simple analytic models are described for these two processes and the predictions of these models are compared with those of the LASNEX fluid physics code. We have approached this work not with the view of surpassing or even approaching the reliability of the code calculations, but rather with the aim of providing simple models which may be used for quick parameter-sensitivity evaluations, while providing physical insight into the problems

  17. Comprehensive assessment of regional selenium resources in soils based on the analytic hierarchy process: Assessment system construction and case demonstration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Ruoyu; Song, Shuai; Shi, Yajing; Shi, Yajuan; Lu, Yonglong; Zheng, Xiaoqi; Xu, Xiangbo; Wang, Yurong; Han, Xuesong

    2017-12-15

    The redundancy or deficiency of selenium in soils can cause adverse effects on crops and even threaten human health. It was necessary to assess selenium resources with a rigorous scientific appraisal. Previous studies of selenium resource assessment were usually carried out using a single index evaluation. A multi-index evaluation method (analytic hierarchy process) was used in this study to establish a comprehensive assessment system based on consideration of selenium content, soil nutrients and soil environmental quality. The criteria for the comprehensive assessment system were classified by summing critical values in the standards with weights and a Geographical Information System was used to reflect the regional distribution of the assessment results. Boshan, a representative region for developing selenium-rich agriculture, was taken as a case area and classified into Zone I-V, which suggested priority areas for developing selenium-rich agriculture. Most parts of the North and Midlands of Boshan were relatively suitable for development of selenium-rich agriculture. Soils in south fractions were contaminated by Cd, PAHs, HCHs and DDTs, in which it was forbidden to farm. This study was expected to provide the basis for developing selenium-rich agriculture and an example for comprehensive evaluation of relevant resources in a region. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Critical Discourse Analysis. The Elaboration of a Problem Oriented Discourse Analytic Approach After Foucault

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rainer Diaz-Bone

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The German discourse researcher Siegfried JÄGER from Duisburg is the first to have published a German-language book about the methodology of discourse analysis after FOUCAULT. JÄGER integrates in his work the discourse analytic work of Jürgen LINK as well as the interdisciplinary discussion carried on in the discourse analytic journal "kultuRRevolution" (Journal for Applied Discourse Analysis. JÄGER and his co-workers were associated with the Duisburger Institute for Language Research and Social Research (DISS, see http://www.diss-duisburg.de/ for 20 years, developing discourse theory and the methodology of discourse analysis. The interview was done via e-mail. It depicts the discourse analytic approach of JÄGER and his co-workers following the works of FOUCAULT and LINK. The interview reconstructs JÄGERs vita and his academic career. Further topics of the interview are the agenda of JÄGERs discourse studies, methodological considerations, the (problematic relationship between FOUCAULDian discourse analysis and (discourses, linguistics, styles and organization of research and questions concerning applied discourse analytic research as a form of critical intervention. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0603219

  19. Optimal design of supply chain network under uncertainty environment using hybrid analytical and simulation modeling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiadamrong, N.; Piyathanavong, V.

    2017-12-01

    Models that aim to optimize the design of supply chain networks have gained more interest in the supply chain literature. Mixed-integer linear programming and discrete-event simulation are widely used for such an optimization problem. We present a hybrid approach to support decisions for supply chain network design using a combination of analytical and discrete-event simulation models. The proposed approach is based on iterative procedures until the difference between subsequent solutions satisfies the pre-determined termination criteria. The effectiveness of proposed approach is illustrated by an example, which shows closer to optimal results with much faster solving time than the results obtained from the conventional simulation-based optimization model. The efficacy of this proposed hybrid approach is promising and can be applied as a powerful tool in designing a real supply chain network. It also provides the possibility to model and solve more realistic problems, which incorporate dynamism and uncertainty.

  20. Combined analytical and numerical approaches in Dynamic Stability analyses of engineering systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Náprstek, Jiří

    2015-03-01

    Dynamic Stability is a widely studied area that has attracted many researchers from various disciplines. Although Dynamic Stability is usually associated with mechanics, theoretical physics or other natural and technical disciplines, it is also relevant to social, economic, and philosophical areas of our lives. Therefore, it is useful to occasionally highlight the general aspects of this amazing area, to present some relevant examples and to evaluate its position among the various branches of Rational Mechanics. From this perspective, the aim of this study is to present a brief review concerning the Dynamic Stability problem, its basic definitions and principles, important phenomena, research motivations and applications in engineering. The relationships with relevant systems that are prone to stability loss (encountered in other areas such as physics, other natural sciences and engineering) are also noted. The theoretical background, which is applicable to many disciplines, is presented. In this paper, the most frequently used Dynamic Stability analysis methods are presented in relation to individual dynamic systems that are widely discussed in various engineering branches. In particular, the Lyapunov function and exponent procedures, Routh-Hurwitz, Liénard, and other theorems are outlined together with demonstrations. The possibilities for analytical and numerical procedures are mentioned together with possible feedback from experimental research and testing. The strengths and shortcomings of these approaches are evaluated together with examples of their effective complementing of each other. The systems that are widely encountered in engineering are presented in the form of mathematical models. The analyses of their Dynamic Stability and post-critical behaviour are also presented. The stability limits, bifurcation points, quasi-periodic response processes and chaotic regimes are discussed. The limit cycle existence and stability are examined together with their

  1. Relativistic algorithm for time transfer in Mars missions under IAU Resolutions: an analytic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Jun-Yang; Xie Yi

    2015-01-01

    With tremendous advances in modern techniques, Einstein's general relativity has become an inevitable part of deep space missions. We investigate the relativistic algorithm for time transfer between the proper time τ of the onboard clock and the Geocentric Coordinate Time, which extends some previous works by including the effects of propagation of electromagnetic signals. In order to evaluate the implicit algebraic equations and integrals in the model, we take an analytic approach to work out their approximate values. This analytic model might be used in an onboard computer because of its limited capability to perform calculations. Taking an orbiter like Yinghuo-1 as an example, we find that the contributions of the Sun, the ground station and the spacecraft dominate the outcomes of the relativistic corrections to the model. (research papers)

  2. Effects of Bimolecular Recombination on Impedance Spectra in Organic Semiconductors: Analytical Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takata, Masashi; Takagi, Kenichiro; Nagase, Takashi; Kobayashi, Takashi; Naito, Hiroyoshi

    2016-04-01

    An analytical expression for impedance spectra in the case of double injection (both electrons and holes are injected into an organic semiconductor thin film) has been derived from the basic transport equations (the current density equation, the continuity equation and the Possion's equation). Capacitance-frequency characteristics calculated from the analytical expression have been examined at different recombination constants and different values of mobility balance defined by a ratio of electron mobility to hole mobility. Negative capacitance appears when the recombination constant is lower than the Langevin recombination constant and when the value of the mobility balance approaches unity. These results are consistent with the numerical results obtained by a device simulator (Atlas, Silvaco).

  3. A semi-analytical refrigeration cycle modelling approach for a heat pump hot water heater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panaras, G.; Mathioulakis, E.; Belessiotis, V.

    2018-04-01

    The use of heat pump systems in applications like the production of hot water or space heating makes important the modelling of the processes for the evaluation of the performance of existing systems, as well as for design purposes. The proposed semi-analytical model offers the opportunity to estimate the performance of a heat pump system producing hot water, without using detailed geometrical or any performance data. This is important, as for many commercial systems the type and characteristics of the involved subcomponents can hardly be detected, thus not allowing the implementation of more analytical approaches or the exploitation of the manufacturers' catalogue performance data. The analysis copes with the issues related with the development of the models of the subcomponents involved in the studied system. Issues not discussed thoroughly in the existing literature, as the refrigerant mass inventory in the case an accumulator is present, are examined effectively.

  4. Improving Wind Turbine Drivetrain Reliability Using a Combined Experimental, Computational, and Analytical Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Y.; van Dam, J.; Bergua, R.; Jove, J.; Campbell, J.

    2015-03-01

    Nontorque loads induced by the wind turbine rotor overhang weight and aerodynamic forces can greatly affect drivetrain loads and responses. If not addressed properly, these loads can result in a decrease in gearbox component life. This work uses analytical modeling, computational modeling, and experimental data to evaluate a unique drivetrain design that minimizes the effects of nontorque loads on gearbox reliability: the Pure Torque(R) drivetrain developed by Alstom. The drivetrain has a hub-support configuration that transmits nontorque loads directly into the tower rather than through the gearbox as in other design approaches. An analytical model of Alstom's Pure Torque drivetrain provides insight into the relationships among turbine component weights, aerodynamic forces, and the resulting drivetrain loads. Main shaft bending loads are orders of magnitude lower than the rated torque and are hardly affected by wind conditions and turbine operations.

  5. Integrated assessment of the global warming problem: A decision-analytical approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Lenthe, J.; Hendrickx, L.; Vlek, C.A.J.

    1994-12-01

    The multi-disciplinary character of the global warming problem asks for an integrated assessment approach for ordering and combining the various physical, ecological, economical, and sociological results. The Netherlands initiated their own National Research Program (NRP) on Global Air Pollution and Climate Change (NRP). The first phase (NRP-1) identified the integration theme as one of five central research themes. The second phase (NRP-2) shows a growing concern for integrated assessment issues. The current two-year research project 'Characterizing the risks: a comparative analysis of the risks of global warming and of relevant policy options, which started in September 1993, comes under the integrated assessment part of the Dutch NRP. The first part of the interim report describes the search for an integrated assessment methodology. It starts with emphasizing the need for integrated assessment at a relatively high level of aggregation and from a policy point of view. The conclusion will be that a decision-analytical approach might fit the purpose of a policy-oriented integrated modeling of the global warming problem. The discussion proceeds with an account on decision analysis and its explicit incorporation and analysis of uncertainty. Then influence diagrams, a relatively recent development in decision analysis, are introduced as a useful decision-analytical approach for integrated assessment. Finally, a software environment for creating and analyzing complex influence diagram models is discussed. The second part of the interim report provides a first, provisional integrated modeling of the global warming problem, emphasizing on the illustration of the decision-analytical approach. Major problem elements are identified and an initial problem structure is developed. The problem structure is described in terms of hierarchical influence diagrams. At some places the qualitative structure is filled with quantitative data

  6. Analytical use of multi-protein Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer to demonstrate membrane-facilitated interactions within cytokine receptor complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Christopher D; Izotova, Lara S; Pestka, Sidney

    2013-10-01

    Experiments measuring Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) between cytokine receptor chains and their associated proteins led to hypotheses describing their organization in intact cells. These interactions occur within a larger protein complex or within a given nano-environment. To illustrate this complexity empirically, we developed a protocol to analyze FRET among more than two fluorescent proteins (multi-FRET). In multi-FRET, we model FRET among more than two fluorophores as the sum of all possible pairwise interactions within the complex. We validated our assumption by demonstrating that FRET among pairs within a fluorescent triplet resembled FRET between each pair measured in the absence of the third fluorophore. FRET between two receptor chains increases with increasing FRET between the ligand-binding chain (e.g., IFN-γR1, IL-10R1 and IFN-λR1) and an acylated fluorescent protein that preferentially resides within subsections of the plasma membrane. The interaction of IL-10R2 with IFN-λR1 or IL-10R1 results in decreased FRET between IL-10R2 and the acylated fluorescent protein. Finally, we analyzed FRET among four fluorescent proteins to demonstrate that as FRET between IFN-γR1 and IFN-γR2 or between IFN-αR1 and IFN-αR2c increases, FRET among other pairs of proteins changes within each complex. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Analytical approach for evaluating temperature field of thermal modified asphalt pavement and urban heat island effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Jiaqi; Wang, Hao; Zhu, Hongzhou

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Derive an analytical approach to predict temperature fields of multi-layered asphalt pavement based on Green’s function. • Analyze the effects of thermal modifications on heat output from pavement to near-surface environment. • Evaluate pavement solutions for reducing urban heat island (UHI) effect. - Abstract: This paper aims to present an analytical approach to predict temperature fields in asphalt pavement and evaluate the effects of thermal modification on near-surface environment for urban heat island (UHI) effect. The analytical solution of temperature fields in the multi-layered pavement structure was derived with the Green’s function method, using climatic factors including solar radiation, wind velocity, and air temperature as input parameters. The temperature solutions were validated with an outdoor field experiment. By using the proposed analytical solution, temperature fields in the pavement with different pavement surface albedo, thermal conductivity, and layer combinations were analyzed. Heat output from pavement surface to the near-surface environment was studied as an indicator of pavement contribution to UHI effect. The analysis results show that increasing pavement surface albedo could decrease pavement temperature at various depths, and increase heat output intensity in the daytime but decrease heat output intensity in the nighttime. Using reflective pavement to mitigate UHI may be effective for an open street but become ineffective for the street surrounded by high buildings. On the other hand, high-conductivity pavement could alleviate the UHI effect in the daytime for both the open street and the street surrounded by high buildings. Among different combinations of thermal-modified asphalt mixtures, the layer combination of high-conductivity surface course and base course could reduce the maximum heat output intensity and alleviate the UHI effect most.

  8. Numerical and analytical approaches to an advection-diffusion problem at small Reynolds number and large Péclet number

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Nathaniel J.; Licata, Nicholas A.

    2018-05-01

    Obtaining a detailed understanding of the physical interactions between a cell and its environment often requires information about the flow of fluid surrounding the cell. Cells must be able to effectively absorb and discard material in order to survive. Strategies for nutrient acquisition and toxin disposal, which have been evolutionarily selected for their efficacy, should reflect knowledge of the physics underlying this mass transport problem. Motivated by these considerations, in this paper we discuss the results from an undergraduate research project on the advection-diffusion equation at small Reynolds number and large Péclet number. In particular, we consider the problem of mass transport for a Stokesian spherical swimmer. We approach the problem numerically and analytically through a rescaling of the concentration boundary layer. A biophysically motivated first-passage problem for the absorption of material by the swimming cell demonstrates quantitative agreement between the numerical and analytical approaches. We conclude by discussing the connections between our results and the design of smart toxin disposal systems.

  9. Applying Advanced Analytical Approaches to Characterize the Impact of Specific Clinical Gaps and Profiles on the Management of Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Cordell, Karyn D; Joubin, Kathy; Haimowitz, Steven

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study was to add a predictive modeling approach to the meta-analysis of continuing medical education curricula to determine whether this technique can be used to better understand clinical decision making. Using the education of rheumatologists on rheumatoid arthritis management as a model, this study demonstrates how the combined methodology has the ability to not only characterize learning gaps but also identify those proficiency areas that have the greatest impact on clinical behavior. The meta-analysis included seven curricula with 25 activities. Learners who identified as rheumatologists were evaluated across multiple learning domains, using a uniform methodology to characterize learning gains and gaps. A performance composite variable (called the treatment individualization and optimization score) was then established as a target upon which predictive analytics were conducted. Significant predictors of the target included items related to the knowledge of rheumatologists and confidence concerning 1) treatment guidelines and 2) tests that measure disease activity. In addition, a striking demographic predictor related to geographic practice setting was also identified. The results demonstrate the power of advanced analytics to identify key predictors that influence clinical behaviors. Furthermore, the ability to provide an expected magnitude of change if these predictors are addressed has the potential to substantially refine educational priorities to those drivers that, if targeted, will most effectively overcome clinical barriers and lead to the greatest success in achieving treatment goals.

  10. Accounting for context in studies of health inequalities: a review and comparison of analytic approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schempf, Ashley H; Kaufman, Jay S

    2012-10-01

    A common epidemiologic objective is to evaluate the contribution of residential context to individual-level disparities by race or socioeconomic position. We reviewed analytic strategies to account for the total (observed and unobserved factors) contribution of environmental context to health inequalities, including conventional fixed effects (FE) and hybrid FE implemented within a random effects (RE) or a marginal model. To illustrate results and limitations of the various analytic approaches of accounting for the total contextual component of health disparities, we used data on births nested within neighborhoods as an applied example of evaluating neighborhood confounding of racial disparities in gestational age at birth, including both a continuous and a binary outcome. Ordinary and RE models provided disparity estimates that can be substantially biased in the presence of neighborhood confounding. Both FE and hybrid FE models can account for cluster level confounding and provide disparity estimates unconfounded by neighborhood, with the latter having greater flexibility in allowing estimation of neighborhood-level effects and intercept/slope variability when implemented in a RE specification. Given the range of models that can be implemented in a hybrid approach and the frequent goal of accounting for contextual confounding, this approach should be used more often. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. The Flipped MOOC: Using Gamification and Learning Analytics in MOOC Design—A Conceptual Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland Klemke

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Recently, research has highlighted the potential of Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs for education, as well as their drawbacks, which are well known. Several studies state that the main limitations of the MOOCs are low completion and high dropout rates of participants. However, MOOCs suffer also from the lack of participant engagement, personalization, and despite the fact that several formats and types of MOOCs are reported in the literature, the majority of them contain a considerable amount of content that is mainly presented in a video format. This is in contrast to the results reported in other educational settings, where engagement and active participation are identified as success factors. We present the results of a study that involved educational experts and learning scientists giving new and interesting insights towards the conceptualization of a new design approach, the flipped MOOC, applying the flipped classroom approach to the MOOCs’ design and making use of gamification and learning analytics. We found important indications, applicable to the concept of a flipped MOOC, which entails turning MOOCs from mainly content-oriented delivery machines into personalized, interactive, and engaging learning environments. Our findings support the idea that MOOCs can be enriched by the orchestration of a flipped classroom approach in combination with the support of gamification and learning analytics.

  12. A Visual Analytics Approach for Extracting Spatio-Temporal Urban Mobility Information from Mobile Network Traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Euro Beinat

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a visual analytics approach for deriving spatio-temporal patterns of collective human mobility from a vast mobile network traffic data set. More than 88 million movements between pairs of radio cells—so-called handovers—served as a proxy for more than two months of mobility within four urban test areas in Northern Italy. In contrast to previous work, our approach relies entirely on visualization and mapping techniques, implemented in several software applications. We purposefully avoid statistical or probabilistic modeling and, nonetheless, reveal characteristic and exceptional mobility patterns. The results show, for example, surprising similarities and symmetries amongst the total mobility and people flows between the test areas. Moreover, the exceptional patterns detected can be associated to real-world events such as soccer matches. We conclude that the visual analytics approach presented can shed new light on large-scale collective urban mobility behavior and thus helps to better understand the “pulse” of dynamic urban systems.

  13. Do different data analytic approaches generate discrepant findings when measuring mother-infant HPA axis attunement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Nicola K; Kashy, Deborah A; Levendosky, Alytia A; Bogat, G Anne; Lonstein, Joseph S

    2017-03-01

    Attunement between mothers and infants in their hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis responsiveness to acute stressors is thought to benefit the child's emerging physiological and behavioral self-regulation, as well as their socioemotional development. However, there is no universally accepted definition of attunement in the literature, which appears to have resulted in inconsistent statistical analyses for determining its presence or absence, and contributed to discrepant results. We used a series of data analytic approaches, some previously used in the attunement literature and others not, to evaluate the attunement between 182 women and their 1-year-old infants in their HPA axis responsivity to acute stress. Cortisol was measured in saliva samples taken from mothers and infants before and twice after a naturalistic laboratory stressor (infant arm restraint). The results of the data analytic approaches were mixed, with some analyses suggesting attunement while others did not. The strengths and weaknesses of each statistical approach are discussed, and an analysis using a cross-lagged model that considered both time and interactions between mother and infant appeared the most appropriate. Greater consensus in the field about the conceptualization and analysis of physiological attunement would be valuable in order to advance our understanding of this phenomenon. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Exploring Multi-Scale Spatiotemporal Twitter User Mobility Patterns with a Visual-Analytics Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junjun Yin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Understanding human mobility patterns is of great importance for urban planning, traffic management, and even marketing campaign. However, the capability of capturing detailed human movements with fine-grained spatial and temporal granularity is still limited. In this study, we extracted high-resolution mobility data from a collection of over 1.3 billion geo-located Twitter messages. Regarding the concerns of infringement on individual privacy, such as the mobile phone call records with restricted access, the dataset is collected from publicly accessible Twitter data streams. In this paper, we employed a visual-analytics approach to studying multi-scale spatiotemporal Twitter user mobility patterns in the contiguous United States during the year 2014. Our approach included a scalable visual-analytics framework to deliver efficiency and scalability in filtering large volume of geo-located tweets, modeling and extracting Twitter user movements, generating space-time user trajectories, and summarizing multi-scale spatiotemporal user mobility patterns. We performed a set of statistical analysis to understand Twitter user mobility patterns across multi-level spatial scales and temporal ranges. In particular, Twitter user mobility patterns measured by the displacements and radius of gyrations of individuals revealed multi-scale or multi-modal Twitter user mobility patterns. By further studying such mobility patterns in different temporal ranges, we identified both consistency and seasonal fluctuations regarding the distance decay effects in the corresponding mobility patterns. At the same time, our approach provides a geo-visualization unit with an interactive 3D virtual globe web mapping interface for exploratory geo-visual analytics of the multi-level spatiotemporal Twitter user movements.

  15. A simplified ALARA approach to demonstration of compliance with surface contaminated object regulatory requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pope, R.B.; Shappert, L.B.; Michelhaugh, R.D.; Boyle, R.W.; Cook, J.C.

    1998-02-01

    The US Department of Transportation (DOT) and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) have jointly prepared a comprehensive set of draft guidance for consignors and inspectors to use when applying the newly imposed regulatory requirements for low specific activity (LSA) material and surface contaminated objects (SCOs). The guidance is being developed to facilitate compliance with the new LSA material and SCO requirements, not to impose additional requirements. These new requirements represent, in some areas, significant departures from the manner in which packaging and transportation of these materials and objects were previously controlled. On occasion, it may be appropriate to use conservative approaches to demonstrate compliance with some of the requirements, ensuring that personnel are not exposed to radiation at unnecessary levels, so that exposures are kept as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). In the draft guidance, one such approach would assist consignors preparing a shipment of a large number of SCOs in demonstrating compliance without unnecessarily exposing personnel. In applying this approach, users need to demonstrate that four conditions are met. These four conditions are used to categorize non-activated, contaminated objects as SCO-2. It is expected that, by applying this approach, it will be possible to categorize a large number of small contaminated objects as SCO-2 without the need for detailed, quantitative measurements of fixed, accessible contamination, or of total (fixed and non-fixed) contamination on inaccessible surfaces. The method, which is based upon reasoned argument coupled with limited measurements and the application of a sum of fractions rule, is described and examples of its use are provided

  16. Collector modulation in high-voltage bipolar transistor in the saturation mode: Analytical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmitriev, A. P.; Gert, A. V.; Levinshtein, M. E.; Yuferev, V. S.

    2018-04-01

    A simple analytical model is developed, capable of replacing the numerical solution of a system of nonlinear partial differential equations by solving a simple algebraic equation when analyzing the collector resistance modulation of a bipolar transistor in the saturation mode. In this approach, the leakage of the base current into the emitter and the recombination of non-equilibrium carriers in the base are taken into account. The data obtained are in good agreement with the results of numerical calculations and make it possible to describe both the motion of the front of the minority carriers and the steady state distribution of minority carriers across the collector in the saturation mode.

  17. Analytic network process (ANP approach for product mix planning in railway industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Pazoki Toroudi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Given the competitive environment in the global market in recent years, organizations need to plan for increased profitability and optimize their performance. Planning for an appropriate product mix plays essential role for the success of most production units. This paper applies analytical network process (ANP approach for product mix planning for a part supplier in Iran. The proposed method uses four criteria including cost of production, sales figures, supply of raw materials and quality of products. In addition, the study proposes different set of products as alternatives for production planning. The preliminary results have indicated that that the proposed study of this paper could increase productivity, significantly.

  18. Europe needs to take clear, analytical approach in considering future of nuclear energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepherd, John [nuclear 24, Redditch (United Kingdom)

    2016-11-15

    Europe's political leaders have been accused of failing to offer a clear and comprehensive approach to the future of nuclear power in Europe. The criticism came in an opinion adopted recently by the European Economic and Social Committee (EESC). According to the EESC, the European Commission should propose ''a clear analytical process and methodology which can offer a consistent, voluntary framework for national decision-making about the role - if any - of nuclear power in the energy mix''.

  19. Analytical approach for predicting three-dimensional tire-pavement contact load

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hernandez, JA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info De Beer1_2014.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 38657 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name De Beer1_2014.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 75 Transportation Research Record... by measuring the applied forces in each perpendicular direction (15). Analytical Approach for Predicting Three-Dimensional Tire–Pavement Contact Load Jaime A. Hernandez, Angeli Gamez, Imad L. Al-Qadi, and Morris De Beer J. A. Hernandez, A. Gamez, and I. L...

  20. Analytic mappings: a new approach in particle production by accelerated observers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, N.

    1982-01-01

    This is a summary of the authors recent results about physical consequences of analytic mappings in the space-time. Classically, the mapping defines an accelerated frame. At the quantum level it gives rise to particle production. Statistically, the real singularities of the mapping have associated temperatures. This concerns a new approach in Q.F.T. as formulated in accelerated frames. It has been considered as a first step in the understanding of the deep connection that could exist between the structure (geometry and topology) of the space-time and thermodynamics, mainly motivated by the works of Hawking since 1975. (Auth.)

  1. A combined analytic-numeric approach for some boundary-value problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Turkyilmazoglu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A combined analytic-numeric approach is undertaken in the present work for the solution of boundary-value problems in the finite or semi-infinite domains. Equations to be treated arise specifically from the boundary layer analysis of some two and three-dimensional flows in fluid mechanics. The purpose is to find quick but accurate enough solutions. Taylor expansions at either boundary conditions are computed which are next matched to the other asymptotic or exact boundary conditions. The technique is applied to the well-known Blasius as well as Karman flows. Solutions obtained in terms of series compare favorably with the existing ones in the literature.

  2. Europe needs to take clear, analytical approach in considering future of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shepherd, John

    2016-01-01

    Europe's political leaders have been accused of failing to offer a clear and comprehensive approach to the future of nuclear power in Europe. The criticism came in an opinion adopted recently by the European Economic and Social Committee (EESC). According to the EESC, the European Commission should propose ''a clear analytical process and methodology which can offer a consistent, voluntary framework for national decision-making about the role - if any - of nuclear power in the energy mix''.

  3. The analytical approach to optimization of active region structure of quantum dot laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korenev, V V; Savelyev, A V; Zhukov, A E; Omelchenko, A V; Maximov, M V

    2014-01-01

    Using the analytical approach introduced in our previous papers we analyse the possibilities of optimization of size and structure of active region of semiconductor quantum dot lasers emitting via ground-state optical transitions. It is shown that there are optimal length' dispersion and number of QD layers in laser active region which allow one to obtain lasing spectrum of a given width at minimum injection current. Laser efficiency corresponding to the injection current optimized by the cavity length is practically equal to its maximum value

  4. The analytical approach to optimization of active region structure of quantum dot laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korenev, V. V.; Savelyev, A. V.; Zhukov, A. E.; Omelchenko, A. V.; Maximov, M. V.

    2014-10-01

    Using the analytical approach introduced in our previous papers we analyse the possibilities of optimization of size and structure of active region of semiconductor quantum dot lasers emitting via ground-state optical transitions. It is shown that there are optimal length' dispersion and number of QD layers in laser active region which allow one to obtain lasing spectrum of a given width at minimum injection current. Laser efficiency corresponding to the injection current optimized by the cavity length is practically equal to its maximum value.

  5. Analytical approach to the multi-state lasing phenomenon in quantum dot lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korenev, V. V.; Savelyev, A. V.; Zhukov, A. E.; Omelchenko, A. V.; Maximov, M. V.

    2013-03-01

    We introduce an analytical approach to describe the multi-state lasing phenomenon in quantum dot lasers. We show that the key parameter is the hole-to-electron capture rate ratio. If it is lower than a certain critical value, the complete quenching of ground-state lasing takes place at high injection levels. At higher values of the ratio, the model predicts saturation of the ground-state power. This explains the diversity of experimental results and their contradiction to the conventional rate equation model. Recently found enhancement of ground-state lasing in p-doped samples and temperature dependence of the ground-state power are also discussed.

  6. AEROSTATIC AND AERODYNAMIC MODULES OF A HYBRID BUOYANT AIRCRAFT: AN ANALYTICAL APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwar Ul Haque

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available An analytical approach is essential for the estimation of the requirements of aerodynamic and aerostatic lift for a hybrid buoyant aircraft. Such aircrafts have two different modules to balance the weight of aircraft; aerostatic module and aerodynamic module. Both these modules are to be treated separately for estimation of the mass budget of propulsion systems and required power. In the present work, existing relationships of aircraft and airship are reviewed for its further application for these modules. Limitations of such relationships are also disussed and it is precieved that it will provide a strating point for better understanding of design anatomy of such aircraft.

  7. An analytic approach to sunset diagrams in chiral perturbation theory: Theory and practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ananthanarayan, B.; Ghosh, Shayan [Indian Institute of Science, Centre for High Energy Physics, Karnataka (India); Bijnens, Johan [Lund University, Department of Astronomy and Theoretical Physics, Lund (Sweden); Hebbar, Aditya [Indian Institute of Science, Centre for High Energy Physics, Karnataka (India); University of Delaware, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Newark, DE (United States)

    2016-12-15

    We demonstrate the use of several code implementations of the Mellin-Barnes method available in the public domain to derive analytic expressions for the sunset diagrams that arise in the two-loop contribution to the pion mass and decay constant in three-flavoured chiral perturbation theory. We also provide results for all possible two mass configurations of the sunset integral, and derive a new one-dimensional integral representation for the one mass sunset integral with arbitrary external momentum. Thoroughly annotated Mathematica notebooks are provided as ancillary files in the Electronic Supplementary Material to this paper, which may serve as pedagogical supplements to the methods described in this paper. (orig.)

  8. An analytic approach to sunset diagrams in chiral perturbation theory: Theory and practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ananthanarayan, B.; Ghosh, Shayan; Bijnens, Johan; Hebbar, Aditya

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate the use of several code implementations of the Mellin-Barnes method available in the public domain to derive analytic expressions for the sunset diagrams that arise in the two-loop contribution to the pion mass and decay constant in three-flavoured chiral perturbation theory. We also provide results for all possible two mass configurations of the sunset integral, and derive a new one-dimensional integral representation for the one mass sunset integral with arbitrary external momentum. Thoroughly annotated Mathematica notebooks are provided as ancillary files in the Electronic Supplementary Material to this paper, which may serve as pedagogical supplements to the methods described in this paper. (orig.)

  9. Annual banned-substance review: analytical approaches in human sports drug testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thevis, Mario; Kuuranne, Tiia; Walpurgis, Katja; Geyer, Hans; Schänzer, Wilhelm

    2016-01-01

    The aim of improving anti-doping efforts is predicated on several different pillars, including, amongst others, optimized analytical methods. These commonly result from exploiting most recent developments in analytical instrumentation as well as research data on elite athletes' physiology in general, and pharmacology, metabolism, elimination, and downstream effects of prohibited substances and methods of doping, in particular. The need for frequent and adequate adaptations of sports drug testing procedures has been incessant, largely due to the uninterrupted emergence of new chemical entities but also due to the apparent use of established or even obsolete drugs for reasons other than therapeutic means, such as assumed beneficial effects on endurance, strength, and regeneration capacities. Continuing the series of annual banned-substance reviews, literature concerning human sports drug testing published between October 2014 and September 2015 is summarized and reviewed in reference to the content of the 2015 Prohibited List as issued by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA), with particular emphasis on analytical approaches and their contribution to enhanced doping controls. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. An analytical approach for a nodal scheme of two-dimensional neutron transport problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barichello, L.B.; Cabrera, L.C.; Prolo Filho, J.F.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Nodal equations for a two-dimensional neutron transport problem. → Analytical Discrete Ordinates Method. → Numerical results compared with the literature. - Abstract: In this work, a solution for a two-dimensional neutron transport problem, in cartesian geometry, is proposed, on the basis of nodal schemes. In this context, one-dimensional equations are generated by an integration process of the multidimensional problem. Here, the integration is performed for the whole domain such that no iterative procedure between nodes is needed. The ADO method is used to develop analytical discrete ordinates solution for the one-dimensional integrated equations, such that final solutions are analytical in terms of the spatial variables. The ADO approach along with a level symmetric quadrature scheme, lead to a significant order reduction of the associated eigenvalues problems. Relations between the averaged fluxes and the unknown fluxes at the boundary are introduced as the usually needed, in nodal schemes, auxiliary equations. Numerical results are presented and compared with test problems.

  11. On Thermally Interacting Multiple Boreholes with Variable Heating Strength: Comparison between Analytical and Numerical Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc A. Rosen

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The temperature response in the soil surrounding multiple boreholes is evaluated analytically and numerically. The assumption of constant heat flux along the borehole wall is examined by coupling the problem to the heat transfer problem inside the borehole and presenting a model with variable heat flux along the borehole length. In the analytical approach, a line source of heat with a finite length is used to model the conduction of heat in the soil surrounding the boreholes. In the numerical method, a finite volume method in a three dimensional meshed domain is used. In order to determine the heat flux boundary condition, the analytical quasi-three-dimensional solution to the heat transfer problem of the U-tube configuration inside the borehole is used. This solution takes into account the variation in heating strength along the borehole length due to the temperature variation of the fluid running in the U-tube. Thus, critical depths at which thermal interaction occurs can be determined. Finally, in order to examine the validity of the numerical method, a comparison is made with the results of line source method.

  12. An analytical approach to Sr isotope ratio determination in Lambrusco wines for geographical traceability purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durante, Caterina; Baschieri, Carlo; Bertacchini, Lucia; Bertelli, Davide; Cocchi, Marina; Marchetti, Andrea; Manzini, Daniela; Papotti, Giulia; Sighinolfi, Simona

    2015-04-15

    Geographical origin and authenticity of food are topics of interest for both consumers and producers. Among the different indicators used for traceability studies, (87)Sr/(86)Sr isotopic ratio has provided excellent results. In this study, two analytical approaches for wine sample pre-treatment, microwave and low temperature mineralisation, were investigated to develop accurate and precise analytical method for (87)Sr/(86)Sr determination. The two procedures led to comparable results (paired t-test, with tanalytical procedure was evaluated by using a control sample (wine sample), processed during each sample batch (calculated Relative Standard Deviation, RSD%, equal to 0.002%. Lambrusco PDO (Protected Designation of Origin) wines coming from four different vintages (2009, 2010, 2011 and 2012) were pre-treated according to the best procedure and their isotopic values were compared with isotopic data coming from (i) soils of their territory of origin and (ii) wines obtained by same grape varieties cultivated in different districts. The obtained results have shown no significant variability among the different vintages of wines and a perfect agreement between the isotopic range of the soils and wines has been observed. Nevertheless, the investigated indicator was not enough powerful to discriminate between similar products. To this regard, it is worth to note that more soil samples as well as wines coming from different districts will be considered to obtain more trustworthy results. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Map Archive Mining: Visual-Analytical Approaches to Explore Large Historical Map Collections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes H. Uhl

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Historical maps are unique sources of retrospective geographical information. Recently, several map archives containing map series covering large spatial and temporal extents have been systematically scanned and made available to the public. The geographical information contained in such data archives makes it possible to extend geospatial analysis retrospectively beyond the era of digital cartography. However, given the large data volumes of such archives (e.g., more than 200,000 map sheets in the United States Geological Survey topographic map archive and the low graphical quality of older, manually-produced map sheets, the process to extract geographical information from these map archives needs to be automated to the highest degree possible. To understand the potential challenges (e.g., salient map characteristics and data quality variations in automating large-scale information extraction tasks for map archives, it is useful to efficiently assess spatio-temporal coverage, approximate map content, and spatial accuracy of georeferenced map sheets at different map scales. Such preliminary analytical steps are often neglected or ignored in the map processing literature but represent critical phases that lay the foundation for any subsequent computational processes including recognition. Exemplified for the United States Geological Survey topographic map and the Sanborn fire insurance map archives, we demonstrate how such preliminary analyses can be systematically conducted using traditional analytical and cartographic techniques, as well as visual-analytical data mining tools originating from machine learning and data science.

  14. Analytical Modeling Approach to Study Harmonic Mitigation in AC Grids with Active Impedance at Selective Frequencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Abad

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analytical model, oriented to study harmonic mitigation aspects in AC grids. As it is well known, the presence of non-desired harmonics in AC grids can be palliated in several manners. However, in this paper, a power electronic-based active impedance at selective frequencies (ACISEF is used, due to its already proven flexibility and adaptability to the changing characteristics of AC grids. Hence, the proposed analytical model approach is specially conceived to globally consider both the model of the AC grid itself with its electric equivalent impedances, together with the power electronic-based ACISEF, including its control loops. In addition, the proposed analytical model presents practical and useful properties, as it is simple to understand and simple to use, it has low computational cost and simple adaptability to different scenarios of AC grids, and it provides an accurate enough representation of the reality. The benefits of using the proposed analytical model are shown in this paper through some examples of its usefulness, including an analysis of stability and the identification of sources of instability for a robust design, an analysis of effectiveness in harmonic mitigation, an analysis to assist in the choice of the most suitable active impedance under a given state of the AC grid, an analysis of the interaction between different compensators, and so on. To conclude, experimental validation of a 2.15 kA ACISEF in a real 33 kV AC grid is provided, in which real users (household and industry loads and crucial elements such as wind parks and HVDC systems are near inter-connected.

  15. Demonstrating the use of web analytics and an online survey to understand user groups of a national network of river level data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macleod, Christopher Kit; Braga, Joao; Arts, Koen; Ioris, Antonio; Han, Xiwu; Sripada, Yaji; van der Wal, Rene

    2016-04-01

    The number of local, national and international networks of online environmental sensors are rapidly increasing. Where environmental data are made available online for public consumption, there is a need to advance our understanding of the relationships between the supply of and the different demands for such information. Understanding how individuals and groups of users are using online information resources may provide valuable insights into their activities and decision making. As part of the 'dot.rural wikiRivers' project we investigated the potential of web analytics and an online survey to generate insights into the use of a national network of river level data from across Scotland. These sources of online information were collected alongside phone interviews with volunteers sampled from the online survey, and interviews with providers of online river level data; as part of a larger project that set out to help improve the communication of Scotland's online river data. Our web analytics analysis was based on over 100 online sensors which are maintained by the Scottish Environmental Protection Agency (SEPA). Through use of Google Analytics data accessed via the R Ganalytics package we assessed: if the quality of data provided by Google Analytics free service is good enough for research purposes; if we could demonstrate what sensors were being used, when and where; how the nature and pattern of sensor data may affect web traffic; and whether we can identify and profile these users based on information from traffic sources. Web analytics data consists of a series of quantitative metrics which capture and summarize various dimensions of the traffic to a certain web page or set of pages. Examples of commonly used metrics include the number of total visits to a site and the number of total page views. Our analyses of the traffic sources from 2009 to 2011 identified several different major user groups. To improve our understanding of how the use of this national

  16. Polynomial approach method to solve the neutron point kinetics equations with use of the analytic continuation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tumelero, Fernanda; Petersen, Claudio Zen; Goncalves, Glenio Aguiar [Universidade Federal de Pelotas, Capao do Leao, RS (Brazil). Programa de Pos Graduacao em Modelagem Matematica; Schramm, Marcelo [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Mecanica

    2016-12-15

    In this work, we report a solution to solve the Neutron Point Kinetics Equations applying the Polynomial Approach Method. The main idea is to expand the neutron density and delayed neutron precursors as a power series considering the reactivity as an arbitrary function of the time in a relatively short time interval around an ordinary point. In the first interval one applies the initial conditions and the analytical continuation is used to determine the solutions of the next intervals. A genuine error control is developed based on an analogy with the Rest Theorem. For illustration, we also report simulations for different approaches types (linear, quadratic and cubic). The results obtained by numerical simulations for linear approximation are compared with results in the literature.

  17. Multidisciplinary design and analytic approaches to advance prospective research on the multilevel determinants of child health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sara B; Little, Todd D; Masyn, Katherine; Mehta, Paras D; Ghazarian, Sharon R

    2017-06-01

    Characterizing the determinants of child health and development over time, and identifying the mechanisms by which these determinants operate, is a research priority. The growth of precision medicine has increased awareness and refinement of conceptual frameworks, data management systems, and analytic methods for multilevel data. This article reviews key methodological challenges in cohort studies designed to investigate multilevel influences on child health and strategies to address them. We review and summarize methodological challenges that could undermine prospective studies of the multilevel determinants of child health and ways to address them, borrowing approaches from the social and behavioral sciences. Nested data, variation in intervals of data collection and assessment, missing data, construct measurement across development and reporters, and unobserved population heterogeneity pose challenges in prospective multilevel cohort studies with children. We discuss innovations in missing data, innovations in person-oriented analyses, and innovations in multilevel modeling to address these challenges. Study design and analytic approaches that facilitate the integration across multiple levels, and that account for changes in people and the multiple, dynamic, nested systems in which they participate over time, are crucial to fully realize the promise of precision medicine for children and adolescents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Analytical strategic environmental assessment (ANSEA) developing a new approach to SEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalkmann, Holger; Herrera, Rodrigo Jiliberto; Bongardt, Daniel

    2004-01-01

    The objective of analytical strategic environmental assessment (ANSEA) is to provide a decision-centred approach to the SEA process. The ANSEA project evolved from the realisation that, in many cases, SEA, as currently practised, is not able to ensure an appropriate integration of environmental values. The focus of SEA is on predicting impacts, but the tool takes no account of the decision-making processes it is trying to influence. At strategic decision-making levels, in turn, it is often difficult to predict impacts with the necessary exactitude. The decision-making sciences could teach some valuable lessons here. Instead of focusing on the quantitative prediction of environmental consequences, the ANSEA approach concentrates on the integration of environmental objectives into decision-making processes. Thus, the ANSEA approach provides a framework for analysing and assessing the decision-making processes of policies, plans and programmes (PPP). To enhance environmental integration into the decision-making process, decision windows (DW) can be identified. The approach is designed to be objective and transparent to ensure that environmental considerations are taken into account, or--from an ex-post perspective--to allow an evaluation of how far environmental considerations have been integrated into the decision-making process under assessment. The paper describes the concepts and the framework of the ANSEA approach and discusses its relation to SEA and the EC Directive

  19. TrajGraph: A Graph-Based Visual Analytics Approach to Studying Urban Network Centralities Using Taxi Trajectory Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaoke; Zhao, Ye; Yang, Jing; Zhang, Chong; Ma, Chao; Ye, Xinyue

    2016-01-01

    We propose TrajGraph, a new visual analytics method, for studying urban mobility patterns by integrating graph modeling and visual analysis with taxi trajectory data. A special graph is created to store and manifest real traffic information recorded by taxi trajectories over city streets. It conveys urban transportation dynamics which can be discovered by applying graph analysis algorithms. To support interactive, multiscale visual analytics, a graph partitioning algorithm is applied to create region-level graphs which have smaller size than the original street-level graph. Graph centralities, including Pagerank and betweenness, are computed to characterize the time-varying importance of different urban regions. The centralities are visualized by three coordinated views including a node-link graph view, a map view and a temporal information view. Users can interactively examine the importance of streets to discover and assess city traffic patterns. We have implemented a fully working prototype of this approach and evaluated it using massive taxi trajectories of Shenzhen, China. TrajGraph's capability in revealing the importance of city streets was evaluated by comparing the calculated centralities with the subjective evaluations from a group of drivers in Shenzhen. Feedback from a domain expert was collected. The effectiveness of the visual interface was evaluated through a formal user study. We also present several examples and a case study to demonstrate the usefulness of TrajGraph in urban transportation analysis.

  20. Maternal and infant activity: Analytic approaches for the study of circadian rhythm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Karen A; Burr, Robert L; Spieker, Susan

    2015-11-01

    The study of infant and mother circadian rhythm entails choice of instruments appropriate for use in the home environment as well as selection of analytic approach that characterizes circadian rhythm. While actigraphy monitoring suits the needs of home study, limited studies have examined mother and infant rhythm derived from actigraphy. Among this existing research a variety of analyses have been employed to characterize 24-h rhythm, reducing ability to evaluate and synthesize findings. Few studies have examined the correspondence of mother and infant circadian parameters for the most frequently cited approaches: cosinor, non-parametric circadian rhythm analysis (NPCRA), and autocorrelation function (ACF). The purpose of this research was to examine analytic approaches in the study of mother and infant circadian activity rhythm. Forty-three healthy mother and infant pairs were studied in the home environment over a 72h period at infant age 4, 8, and 12 weeks. Activity was recorded continuously using actigraphy monitors and mothers completed a diary. Parameters of circadian rhythm were generated from cosinor analysis, NPCRA, and ACF. The correlation among measures of rhythm center (cosinor mesor, NPCRA mid level), strength or fit of 24-h period (cosinor magnitude and R(2), NPCRA amplitude and relative amplitude (RA)), phase (cosinor acrophase, NPCRA M10 and L5 midpoint), and rhythm stability and variability (NPCRA interdaily stability (IS) and intradaily variability (IV), ACF) was assessed, and additionally the effect size (eta(2)) for change over time evaluated. Results suggest that cosinor analysis, NPCRA, and autocorrelation provide several comparable parameters of infant and maternal circadian rhythm center, fit, and phase. IS and IV were strongly correlated with the 24-h cycle fit. The circadian parameters analyzed offer separate insight into rhythm and differing effect size for the detection of change over time. Findings inform selection of analysis and

  1. A Big Data and Learning Analytics Approach to Process-Level Feedback in Cognitive Simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecaric, Martin; Boutis, Kathy; Beckstead, Jason; Pusic, Martin

    2017-02-01

    Collecting and analyzing large amounts of process data for the purposes of education can be considered a big data/learning analytics (BD/LA) approach to improving learning. However, in the education of health care professionals, the application of BD/LA is limited to date. The authors discuss the potential advantages of the BD/LA approach for the process of learning via cognitive simulations. Using the lens of a cognitive model of radiograph interpretation with four phases (orientation, searching/scanning, feature detection, and decision making), they reanalyzed process data from a cognitive simulation of pediatric ankle radiography where 46 practitioners from three expertise levels classified 234 cases online. To illustrate the big data component, they highlight the data available in a digital environment (time-stamped, click-level process data). Learning analytics were illustrated using algorithmic computer-enabled approaches to process-level feedback.For each phase, the authors were able to identify examples of potentially useful BD/LA measures. For orientation, the trackable behavior of re-reviewing the clinical history was associated with increased diagnostic accuracy. For searching/scanning, evidence of skipping views was associated with an increased false-negative rate. For feature detection, heat maps overlaid on the radiograph can provide a metacognitive visualization of common novice errors. For decision making, the measured influence of sequence effects can reflect susceptibility to bias, whereas computer-generated path maps can provide insights into learners' diagnostic strategies.In conclusion, the augmented collection and dynamic analysis of learning process data within a cognitive simulation can improve feedback and prompt more precise reflection on a novice clinician's skill development.

  2. Approach of decision making based on the analytic hierarchy process for urban landscape management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srdjevic, Zorica; Lakicevic, Milena; Srdjevic, Bojan

    2013-03-01

    This paper proposes a two-stage group decision making approach to urban landscape management and planning supported by the analytic hierarchy process. The proposed approach combines an application of the consensus convergence model and the weighted geometric mean method. The application of the proposed approach is shown on a real urban landscape planning problem with a park-forest in Belgrade, Serbia. Decision makers were policy makers, i.e., representatives of several key national and municipal institutions, and experts coming from different scientific fields. As a result, the most suitable management plan from the set of plans is recognized. It includes both native vegetation renewal in degraded areas of park-forest and continued maintenance of its dominant tourism function. Decision makers included in this research consider the approach to be transparent and useful for addressing landscape management tasks. The central idea of this paper can be understood in a broader sense and easily applied to other decision making problems in various scientific fields.

  3. Approach of Decision Making Based on the Analytic Hierarchy Process for Urban Landscape Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srdjevic, Zorica; Lakicevic, Milena; Srdjevic, Bojan

    2013-03-01

    This paper proposes a two-stage group decision making approach to urban landscape management and planning supported by the analytic hierarchy process. The proposed approach combines an application of the consensus convergence model and the weighted geometric mean method. The application of the proposed approach is shown on a real urban landscape planning problem with a park-forest in Belgrade, Serbia. Decision makers were policy makers, i.e., representatives of several key national and municipal institutions, and experts coming from different scientific fields. As a result, the most suitable management plan from the set of plans is recognized. It includes both native vegetation renewal in degraded areas of park-forest and continued maintenance of its dominant tourism function. Decision makers included in this research consider the approach to be transparent and useful for addressing landscape management tasks. The central idea of this paper can be understood in a broader sense and easily applied to other decision making problems in various scientific fields.

  4. Risk-informed Analytical Approaches to Concentration Averaging for the Purpose of Waste Classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esh, D.W.; Pinkston, K.E.; Barr, C.S.; Bradford, A.H.; Ridge, A.Ch.

    2009-01-01

    Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff has developed a concentration averaging approach and guidance for the review of Department of Energy (DOE) non-HLW determinations. Although the approach was focused on this specific application, concentration averaging is generally applicable to waste classification and thus has implications for waste management decisions as discussed in more detail in this paper. In the United States, radioactive waste has historically been classified into various categories for the purpose of ensuring that the disposal system selected is commensurate with the hazard of the waste such that public health and safety will be protected. However, the risk from the near-surface disposal of radioactive waste is not solely a function of waste concentration but is also a function of the volume (quantity) of waste and its accessibility. A risk-informed approach to waste classification for near-surface disposal of low-level waste would consider the specific characteristics of the waste, the quantity of material, and the disposal system features that limit accessibility to the waste. NRC staff has developed example analytical approaches to estimate waste concentration, and therefore waste classification, for waste disposed in facilities or with configurations that were not anticipated when the regulation for the disposal of commercial low-level waste (i.e. 10 CFR Part 61) was developed. (authors)

  5. Simplified Analytic Approach of Pole-to-Pole Faults in MMC-HVDC for AC System Backup Protection Setting Calculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tongkun Lan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available AC (alternating current system backup protection setting calculation is an important basis for ensuring the safe operation of power grids. With the increasing integration of modular multilevel converter based high voltage direct current (MMC-HVDC into power grids, it has been a big challenge for the AC system backup protection setting calculation, as the MMC-HVDC lacks the fault self-clearance capability under pole-to-pole faults. This paper focused on the pole-to-pole faults analysis for the AC system backup protection setting calculation. The principles of pole-to-pole faults analysis were discussed first according to the standard of the AC system protection setting calculation. Then, the influence of fault resistance on the fault process was investigated. A simplified analytic approach of pole-to-pole faults in MMC-HVDC for the AC system backup protection setting calculation was proposed. In the proposed approach, the derived expressions of fundamental frequency current are applicable under arbitrary fault resistance. The accuracy of the proposed approach was demonstrated by PSCAD/EMTDC (Power Systems Computer-Aided Design/Electromagnetic Transients including DC simulations.

  6. Beam steering in superconducting quarter-wave resonators: An analytical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Facco

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Beam steering in superconducting quarter-wave resonators (QWRs, which is mainly caused by magnetic fields, has been pointed out in 2001 in an early work [A. Facco and V. Zviagintsev, in Proceedings of the Particle Accelerator Conference, Chicago, IL, 2001 (IEEE, New York, 2001, p. 1095], where an analytical formula describing it was proposed and the influence of cavity geometry was discussed. Since then, the importance of this effect was recognized and effective correction techniques have been found [P. N. Ostroumov and K. W. Shepard, Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 4, 110101 (2001PRABFM1098-440210.1103/PhysRevSTAB.4.110101]. This phenomenon was further studied in the following years, mainly with numerical methods. In this paper we intend to go back to the original approach and, using well established approximations, derive a simple analytical expression for QWR steering which includes correction methods and reproduces the data starting from a few calculable geometrical constants which characterize every cavity. This expression, of the type of the Panofski equation, can be a useful tool in the design of superconducting quarter-wave resonators and in the definition of their limits of application with different beams.

  7. Experimental and analytical combined thermal approach for local tribological understanding in metal cutting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artozoul, Julien; Lescalier, Christophe; Dudzinski, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Metal cutting is a highly complex thermo-mechanical process. The knowledge of temperature in the chip forming zone is essential to understand it. Conventional experimental methods such as thermocouples only provide global information which is incompatible with the high stress and temperature gradients met in the chip forming zone. Field measurements are essential to understand the localized thermo-mechanical problem. An experimental protocol has been developed using advanced infrared imaging in order to measure temperature distribution in both the tool and the chip during an orthogonal or oblique cutting operation. It also provides several information on the chip formation process such as some geometrical characteristics (tool-chip contact length, chip thickness, primary shear angle) and thermo-mechanical information (heat flux dissipated in deformation zone, local interface heat partition ratio). A study is carried out on the effects of cutting conditions i.e. cutting speed, feed and depth of cut on the temperature distribution along the contact zone for an elementary operation. An analytical thermal model has been developed to process experimental data and access more information i.e. local stress or heat flux distribution. - Highlights: • A thermal analytical model is proposed for orthogonal cutting process. • IR thermography is used during cutting tests. • Combined experimental and modeling approaches are applied. • Heat flux and stress distribution at the tool-chip interface are determined. • The decomposition into sticking and sliding zones is defined.

  8. Quasi-Steady Evolution of Hillslopes in Layered Landscapes: An Analytic Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glade, R. C.; Anderson, R. S.

    2018-01-01

    Landscapes developed in layered sedimentary or igneous rocks are common on Earth, as well as on other planets. Features such as hogbacks, exposed dikes, escarpments, and mesas exhibit resistant rock layers adjoining more erodible rock in tilted, vertical, or horizontal orientations. Hillslopes developed in the erodible rock are typically characterized by steep, linear-to-concave slopes or "ramps" mantled with material derived from the resistant layers, often in the form of large blocks. Previous work on hogbacks has shown that feedbacks between weathering and transport of the blocks and underlying soft rock can create relief over time and lead to the development of concave-up slope profiles in the absence of rilling processes. Here we employ an analytic approach, informed by numerical modeling and field data, to describe the quasi-steady state behavior of such rocky hillslopes for the full spectrum of resistant layer dip angles. We begin with a simple geometric analysis that relates structural dip to erosion rates. We then explore the mechanisms by which our numerical model of hogback evolution self-organizes to meet these geometric expectations, including adjustment of soil depth, erosion rates, and block velocities along the ramp. Analytical solutions relate easily measurable field quantities such as ramp length, slope, block size, and resistant layer dip angle to local incision rate, block velocity, and block weathering rate. These equations provide a framework for exploring the evolution of layered landscapes and pinpoint the processes for which we require a more thorough understanding to predict their evolution over time.

  9. Quantum state engineering and reconstruction in cavity QED. An analytical approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lougovski, P.

    2004-01-01

    The models of a strongly-driven micromaser and a one-atom laser are developed. Their analytical solutions are obtained by means of phase space techniques. It is shown how to exploit the model of a one-atom laser for simultaneous generation and monitoring of the decoherence of the atom-field ''Schroedinger cat'' states. The similar machinery applied to the problem of the generation of the maximally-entangled states of two atoms placed inside an optical cavity permits its analytical solution. The steady-state solution of the problem exhibits a structure in which the two-atom maximally-entangled state correlates with the vacuum state of the cavity. As a consequence, it is demonstrated that the atomic maximally-entangled state, depending on a coupling regime, can be produced via a single or a sequence of no-photon measurements. The question of the implementation of a quantum memory device using a dispersive interaction between the collective internal ground state of an atomic ensemble and two orthogonal modes of a cavity is addressed. The problem of quantum state reconstruction in the context of cavity quantum electrodynamics is considered. The optimal operational definition of the Wigner function of a cavity field is worked out. It is based on the Fresnel transform of the atomic inversion of a probe atom. The general integral transformation for the Wigner function reconstruction of a particle in an arbitrary symmetric potential is derived

  10. An analytical approach to estimate the number of small scatterers in 2D inverse scattering problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fazli, Roohallah; Nakhkash, Mansor

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an analytical method to estimate the location and number of actual small targets in 2D inverse scattering problems. This method is motivated from the exact maximum likelihood estimation of signal parameters in white Gaussian noise for the linear data model. In the first stage, the method uses the MUSIC algorithm to acquire all possible target locations and in the next stage, it employs an analytical formula that works as a spatial filter to determine which target locations are associated to the actual ones. The ability of the method is examined for both the Born and multiple scattering cases and for the cases of well-resolved and non-resolved targets. Many numerical simulations using both the coincident and non-coincident arrays demonstrate that the proposed method can detect the number of actual targets even in the case of very noisy data and when the targets are closely located. Using the experimental microwave data sets, we further show that this method is successful in specifying the number of small inclusions. (paper)

  11. Mobility spectrum analytical approach for intrinsic band picture of Ba(FeAs)2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, K. K.; Tanabe, Y.; Urata, T.; Heguri, S.; Tanigaki, K.; Kida, T.; Hagiwara, M.

    2014-09-01

    Unconventional high temperature superconductivity as well as three-dimensional bulk Dirac cone quantum states arising from the unique d-orbital topology have comprised an intriguing research area in physics. Here we apply a special analytical approach using a mobility spectrum, in which the carrier number is conveniently described as a function of mobility without any hypothesis, both on the types and the numbers of carriers, for the interpretations of longitudinal and transverse electric transport of high quality single crystal Ba(FeAs)2 in a wide range of magnetic fields. We show that the majority carriers are accommodated in large parabolic hole and electron pockets with very different topology as well as remarkably different mobility spectra, whereas the minority carriers reside in Dirac quantum states with the largest mobility as high as 70,000 cm2(Vs)-1. The deduced mobility spectra are discussed and compared to the reported sophisticated first principle band calculations.

  12. Thermal and electrical energy management in a PEMFC stack - An analytical approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandiyan, S.; Jayakumar, K.; Rajalakshmi, N.; Dhathathreyan, K.S. [Centre for Fuel Cell Technology, ARC International (ARCI), 120, Mambakkam Main Road, Medavakkam, Chennai 601 302 (India)

    2008-02-15

    An analytical method has been developed to differentiate the electrical and thermal resistance of the PEM fuel cell assembly in the fuel cell operating conditions. The usefulness of this method lies in the determination of the electrical resistance based on the polarization curve and the thermal resistance from the mass balance. This method also paves way for the evaluation of cogeneration from a PEMFC power plant. Based on this approach, the increase in current and resistance due to unit change in temperature at a particular current density has been evaluated. It was observed that the internal resistance of the cell is dependent on the electrode fabrication process, which also play a major role in the thermal management of the fuel cell stack. (author)

  13. Analysis of the extracts of Isatis tinctoria by new analytical approaches of HPLC, MS and NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jue; Qu, Fan

    2011-01-01

    The methods of extraction, separation and analysis of alkaloids and indole glucosinolates (GLs) ofIsatis tinctoria were reviewed. Different analytical approaches such as High-pressure Liquid Chromatography (HPLC), Liquid Chromatography with Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry (LC/ESI/MS), Electrospray Ionization Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (ESI-TOF-MS), and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) were used to validate and identity of these constituents. These methods provide rapid separation, identification and quantitative measurements of alkaloids and GLs of Isatis tinctoria. By connection with different detectors to HPLC such as PDA, ELSD, ESI- and APCI-MS in positive and negative ion modes, complicated compounds could be detected with at least two independent detection modes. The molecular formula can be derived in a second step of ESI-TOF-MS data. But for some constituents, UV and MS cannot provide sufficient structure identification. After peak purification, NMR by semi-preparative HPLC can be used as a complementary method.

  14. Genome-wide analytical approaches for reverse metabolic engineering of industrially relevant phenotypes in yeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oud, Bart; Maris, Antonius J A; Daran, Jean-Marc; Pronk, Jack T

    2012-01-01

    Successful reverse engineering of mutants that have been obtained by nontargeted strain improvement has long presented a major challenge in yeast biotechnology. This paper reviews the use of genome-wide approaches for analysis of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains originating from evolutionary engineering or random mutagenesis. On the basis of an evaluation of the strengths and weaknesses of different methods, we conclude that for the initial identification of relevant genetic changes, whole genome sequencing is superior to other analytical techniques, such as transcriptome, metabolome, proteome, or array-based genome analysis. Key advantages of this technique over gene expression analysis include the independency of genome sequences on experimental context and the possibility to directly and precisely reproduce the identified changes in naive strains. The predictive value of genome-wide analysis of strains with industrially relevant characteristics can be further improved by classical genetics or simultaneous analysis of strains derived from parallel, independent strain improvement lineages. PMID:22152095

  15. Thermal fatigue crack growth in mixing tees nuclear piping - An analytical approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radu, V.

    2009-01-01

    The assessment of fatigue crack growth due to cyclic thermal loads arising from turbulent mixing presents significant challenges, principally due to the difficulty of establishing the actual loading spectrum. So-called sinusoidal methods represent a simplified approach in which the entire spectrum is replaced by a sine-wave variation of the temperature at the inner pipe surface. The need for multiple calculations in this process has lead to the development of analytical solutions for thermal stresses in a pipe subject to sinusoidal thermal loading, described in previous work performed at JRC IE Petten, The Netherlands, during the author's stage as seconded national expert. Based on these stress distributions solutions, the paper presents a methodology for assessment of thermal fatigue crack growth life in mixing tees nuclear piping. (author)

  16. Electromagnetic imaging of multiple-scattering small objects: non-iterative analytical approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, X; Zhong, Y

    2008-01-01

    Multiple signal classification (MUSIC) imaging method and the least squares method are applied to solve the electromagnetic inverse scattering problem of determining the locations and polarization tensors of a collection of small objects embedded in a known background medium. Based on the analysis of induced electric and magnetic dipoles, the proposed MUSIC method is able to deal with some special scenarios, due to the shapes and materials of objects, to which the standard MUSIC doesn't apply. After the locations of objects are obtained, the nonlinear inverse problem of determining the polarization tensors of objects accounting for multiple scattering between objects is solved by a non-iterative analytical approach based on the least squares method

  17. A network analytical approach to the study of labour market mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toubøl, Jonas; Larsen, Anton Grau; Jensen, Carsten Strøby

    (RR), which enable us to identify clusters of inter-mobile categories. We apply the method to data of the labour market mobility in Denmark 2000-2007 and demonstrate how this new method can overcome some long standing obstacles to the advance of labour market segmentation theory: Instead...... of the typical theory driven definition of the labour market segments, the use of social network analysis enable a data driven definition of the segments based on the direct observation of mobility between job-positions, which reveals a number of new findings.......The aim of this paper is to present a new network analytical method for analysis of social mobility between categories like occupations or industries. The method consists of two core components; the algorithm MONECA (Mobility Network Clustering Algorithm), and the intensity measure of Relative Risk...

  18. A demonstration of a low cost approach to security at shipping facilities and ports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huck, Robert C.; Al Akkoumi, Mouhammad K.; Herath, Ruchira W.; Sluss, James J., Jr.; Radhakrishnan, Sridhar; Landers, Thomas L.

    2010-04-01

    Government funding for the security at shipping facilities and ports is limited so there is a need for low cost scalable security systems. With over 20 million sea, truck, and rail containers entering the United States every year, these facilities pose a large risk to security. Securing these facilities and monitoring the variety of traffic that enter and leave is a major task. To accomplish this, the authors have developed and fielded a low cost fully distributed building block approach to port security at the inland Port of Catoosa in Oklahoma. Based on prior work accomplished in the design and fielding of an intelligent transportation system in the United States, functional building blocks, (e.g. Network, Camera, Sensor, Display, and Operator Console blocks) can be assembled, mixed and matched, and scaled to provide a comprehensive security system. The following functions are demonstrated and scaled through analysis and demonstration: Barge tracking, credential checking, container inventory, vehicle tracking, and situational awareness. The concept behind this research is "any operator on any console can control any device at any time."

  19. Experimental/analytical approaches to modeling, calibrating and optimizing shaking table dynamics for structural dynamic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trombetti, Tomaso

    This thesis presents an Experimental/Analytical approach to modeling and calibrating shaking tables for structural dynamic applications. This approach was successfully applied to the shaking table recently built in the structural laboratory of the Civil Engineering Department at Rice University. This shaking table is capable of reproducing model earthquake ground motions with a peak acceleration of 6 g's, a peak velocity of 40 inches per second, and a peak displacement of 3 inches, for a maximum payload of 1500 pounds. It has a frequency bandwidth of approximately 70 Hz and is designed to test structural specimens up to 1/5 scale. The rail/table system is mounted on a reaction mass of about 70,000 pounds consisting of three 12 ft x 12 ft x 1 ft reinforced concrete slabs, post-tensioned together and connected to the strong laboratory floor. The slip table is driven by a hydraulic actuator governed by a 407 MTS controller which employs a proportional-integral-derivative-feedforward-differential pressure algorithm to control the actuator displacement. Feedback signals are provided by two LVDT's (monitoring the slip table relative displacement and the servovalve main stage spool position) and by one differential pressure transducer (monitoring the actuator force). The dynamic actuator-foundation-specimen system is modeled and analyzed by combining linear control theory and linear structural dynamics. The analytical model developed accounts for the effects of actuator oil compressibility, oil leakage in the actuator, time delay in the response of the servovalve spool to a given electrical signal, foundation flexibility, and dynamic characteristics of multi-degree-of-freedom specimens. In order to study the actual dynamic behavior of the shaking table, the transfer function between target and actual table accelerations were identified using experimental results and spectral estimation techniques. The power spectral density of the system input and the cross power spectral

  20. Comparison of marine spatial planning methods in Madagascar demonstrates value of alternative approaches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas F Allnutt

    Full Text Available The Government of Madagascar plans to increase marine protected area coverage by over one million hectares. To assist this process, we compare four methods for marine spatial planning of Madagascar's west coast. Input data for each method was drawn from the same variables: fishing pressure, exposure to climate change, and biodiversity (habitats, species distributions, biological richness, and biodiversity value. The first method compares visual color classifications of primary variables, the second uses binary combinations of these variables to produce a categorical classification of management actions, the third is a target-based optimization using Marxan, and the fourth is conservation ranking with Zonation. We present results from each method, and compare the latter three approaches for spatial coverage, biodiversity representation, fishing cost and persistence probability. All results included large areas in the north, central, and southern parts of western Madagascar. Achieving 30% representation targets with Marxan required twice the fish catch loss than the categorical method. The categorical classification and Zonation do not consider targets for conservation features. However, when we reduced Marxan targets to 16.3%, matching the representation level of the "strict protection" class of the categorical result, the methods show similar catch losses. The management category portfolio has complete coverage, and presents several management recommendations including strict protection. Zonation produces rapid conservation rankings across large, diverse datasets. Marxan is useful for identifying strict protected areas that meet representation targets, and minimize exposure probabilities for conservation features at low economic cost. We show that methods based on Zonation and a simple combination of variables can produce results comparable to Marxan for species representation and catch losses, demonstrating the value of comparing alternative

  1. A novel fast and accurate pseudo-analytical simulation approach for MOAO

    KAUST Repository

    Gendron, É .; Charara, Ali; Abdelfattah, Ahmad; Gratadour, D.; Keyes, David E.; Ltaief, Hatem; Morel, C.; Vidal, F.; Sevin, A.; Rousset, G.

    2014-01-01

    Multi-object adaptive optics (MOAO) is a novel adaptive optics (AO) technique for wide-field multi-object spectrographs (MOS). MOAO aims at applying dedicated wavefront corrections to numerous separated tiny patches spread over a large field of view (FOV), limited only by that of the telescope. The control of each deformable mirror (DM) is done individually using a tomographic reconstruction of the phase based on measurements from a number of wavefront sensors (WFS) pointing at natural and artificial guide stars in the field. We have developed a novel hybrid, pseudo-analytical simulation scheme, somewhere in between the end-to- end and purely analytical approaches, that allows us to simulate in detail the tomographic problem as well as noise and aliasing with a high fidelity, and including fitting and bandwidth errors thanks to a Fourier-based code. Our tomographic approach is based on the computation of the minimum mean square error (MMSE) reconstructor, from which we derive numerically the covariance matrix of the tomographic error, including aliasing and propagated noise. We are then able to simulate the point-spread function (PSF) associated to this covariance matrix of the residuals, like in PSF reconstruction algorithms. The advantage of our approach is that we compute the same tomographic reconstructor that would be computed when operating the real instrument, so that our developments open the way for a future on-sky implementation of the tomographic control, plus the joint PSF and performance estimation. The main challenge resides in the computation of the tomographic reconstructor which involves the inversion of a large matrix (typically 40 000 × 40 000 elements). To perform this computation efficiently, we chose an optimized approach based on the use of GPUs as accelerators and using an optimized linear algebra library: MORSE providing a significant speedup against standard CPU oriented libraries such as Intel MKL. Because the covariance matrix is

  2. A novel fast and accurate pseudo-analytical simulation approach for MOAO

    KAUST Repository

    Gendron, É.

    2014-08-04

    Multi-object adaptive optics (MOAO) is a novel adaptive optics (AO) technique for wide-field multi-object spectrographs (MOS). MOAO aims at applying dedicated wavefront corrections to numerous separated tiny patches spread over a large field of view (FOV), limited only by that of the telescope. The control of each deformable mirror (DM) is done individually using a tomographic reconstruction of the phase based on measurements from a number of wavefront sensors (WFS) pointing at natural and artificial guide stars in the field. We have developed a novel hybrid, pseudo-analytical simulation scheme, somewhere in between the end-to- end and purely analytical approaches, that allows us to simulate in detail the tomographic problem as well as noise and aliasing with a high fidelity, and including fitting and bandwidth errors thanks to a Fourier-based code. Our tomographic approach is based on the computation of the minimum mean square error (MMSE) reconstructor, from which we derive numerically the covariance matrix of the tomographic error, including aliasing and propagated noise. We are then able to simulate the point-spread function (PSF) associated to this covariance matrix of the residuals, like in PSF reconstruction algorithms. The advantage of our approach is that we compute the same tomographic reconstructor that would be computed when operating the real instrument, so that our developments open the way for a future on-sky implementation of the tomographic control, plus the joint PSF and performance estimation. The main challenge resides in the computation of the tomographic reconstructor which involves the inversion of a large matrix (typically 40 000 × 40 000 elements). To perform this computation efficiently, we chose an optimized approach based on the use of GPUs as accelerators and using an optimized linear algebra library: MORSE providing a significant speedup against standard CPU oriented libraries such as Intel MKL. Because the covariance matrix is

  3. Cost-effectiveness analysis of diarrhoea management approaches in Nigeria: A decision analytical model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles E Okafor

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Diarrhoea is a leading cause of death in Nigerian children under 5 years. Implementing the most cost-effective approach to diarrhoea management in Nigeria will help optimize health care resources allocation. This study evaluated the cost-effectiveness of various approaches to diarrhoea management namely: the 'no treatment' approach (NT; the preventive approach with rotavirus vaccine; the integrated management of childhood illness for diarrhoea approach (IMCI; and rotavirus vaccine plus integrated management of childhood illness for diarrhoea approach (rotavirus vaccine + IMCI.Markov cohort model conducted from the payer's perspective was used to calculate the cost-effectiveness of the four interventions. The markov model simulated a life cycle of 260 weeks for 33 million children under five years at risk of having diarrhoea (well state. Disability adjusted life years (DALYs averted was used to quantify clinical outcome. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER served as measure of cost-effectiveness.Based on cost-effectiveness threshold of $2,177.99 (i.e. representing Nigerian GDP/capita, all the approaches were very cost-effective but rotavirus vaccine approach was dominated. While IMCI has the lowest ICER of $4.6/DALY averted, the addition of rotavirus vaccine was cost-effective with an ICER of $80.1/DALY averted. Rotavirus vaccine alone was less efficient in optimizing health care resource allocation.Rotavirus vaccine + IMCI approach was the most cost-effective approach to childhood diarrhoea management. Its awareness and practice should be promoted in Nigeria. Addition of rotavirus vaccine should be considered for inclusion in the national programme of immunization. Although our findings suggest that addition of rotavirus vaccine to IMCI for diarrhoea is cost-effective, there may be need for further vaccine demonstration studies or real life studies to establish the cost-effectiveness of the vaccine in Nigeria.

  4. Social Media Analytics: A New Approach for Cyberspace Enabled Understanding of Operational Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-10

    analytics, Hsinchun Chen, Roger HL Chiang, and Veda C. Storey, “Business intelligence and analytics: from big data to big impact,” MIS Quarterly 36...Roger H. L. Chiang, and Veda C. Storey. “Business Intelligence and Analytics: From Big Data to Big Impact.” MIS Quarterly 36, no. 4 (December 2012

  5. An analytical approach to separate climate and human contributions to basin streamflow variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Changbin; Wang, Liuming; Wanrui, Wang; Qi, Jiaguo; Linshan, Yang; Zhang, Yuan; Lei, Wu; Cui, Xia; Wang, Peng

    2018-04-01

    Climate variability and anthropogenic regulations are two interwoven factors in the ecohydrologic system across large basins. Understanding the roles that these two factors play under various hydrologic conditions is of great significance for basin hydrology and sustainable water utilization. In this study, we present an analytical approach based on coupling water balance method and Budyko hypothesis to derive effectiveness coefficients (ECs) of climate change, as a way to disentangle contributions of it and human activities to the variability of river discharges under different hydro-transitional situations. The climate dominated streamflow change (ΔQc) by EC approach was compared with those deduced by the elasticity method and sensitivity index. The results suggest that the EC approach is valid and applicable for hydrologic study at large basin scale. Analyses of various scenarios revealed that contributions of climate change and human activities to river discharge variation differed among the regions of the study area. Over the past several decades, climate change dominated hydro-transitions from dry to wet, while human activities played key roles in the reduction of streamflow during wet to dry periods. Remarkable decline of discharge in upstream was mainly due to human interventions, although climate contributed more to runoff increasing during dry periods in the semi-arid downstream. Induced effectiveness on streamflow changes indicated a contribution ratio of 49% for climate and 51% for human activities at the basin scale from 1956 to 2015. The mathematic derivation based simple approach, together with the case example of temporal segmentation and spatial zoning, could help people understand variation of river discharge with more details at a large basin scale under the background of climate change and human regulations.

  6. Quantitative Comparison of Ternary Eutectic Phase-Field Simulations with Analytical 3D Jackson-Hunt Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmetz, Philipp; Kellner, Michael; Hötzer, Johannes; Nestler, Britta

    2018-02-01

    For the analytical description of the relationship between undercoolings, lamellar spacings and growth velocities during the directional solidification of ternary eutectics in 2D and 3D, different extensions based on the theory of Jackson and Hunt are reported in the literature. Besides analytical approaches, the phase-field method has been established to study the spatially complex microstructure evolution during the solidification of eutectic alloys. The understanding of the fundamental mechanisms controlling the morphology development in multiphase, multicomponent systems is of high interest. For this purpose, a comparison is made between the analytical extensions and three-dimensional phase-field simulations of directional solidification in an ideal ternary eutectic system. Based on the observed accordance in two-dimensional validation cases, the experimentally reported, inherently three-dimensional chain-like pattern is investigated in extensive simulation studies. The results are quantitatively compared with the analytical results reported in the literature, and with a newly derived approach which uses equal undercoolings. A good accordance of the undercooling-spacing characteristics between simulations and the analytical Jackson-Hunt apporaches are found. The results show that the applied phase-field model, which is based on the Grand potential approach, is able to describe the analytically predicted relationship between the undercooling and the lamellar arrangements during the directional solidification of a ternary eutectic system in 3D.

  7. Optimal starting conditions for the rendezvous maneuver: Analytical and computational approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciarcia, Marco

    The three-dimensional rendezvous between two spacecraft is considered: a target spacecraft on a circular orbit around the Earth and a chaser spacecraft initially on some elliptical orbit yet to be determined. The chaser spacecraft has variable mass, limited thrust, and its trajectory is governed by three controls, one determining the thrust magnitude and two determining the thrust direction. We seek the time history of the controls in such a way that the propellant mass required to execute the rendezvous maneuver is minimized. Two cases are considered: (i) time-to-rendezvous free and (ii) time-to-rendezvous given, respectively equivalent to (i) free angular travel and (ii) fixed angular travel for the target spacecraft. The above problem has been studied by several authors under the assumption that the initial separation coordinates and the initial separation velocities are given, hence known initial conditions for the chaser spacecraft. In this paper, it is assumed that both the initial separation coordinates and initial separation velocities are free except for the requirement that the initial chaser-to-target distance is given so as to prevent the occurrence of trivial solutions. Two approaches are employed: optimal control formulation (Part A) and mathematical programming formulation (Part B). In Part A, analyses are performed with the multiple-subarc sequential gradient-restoration algorithm for optimal control problems. They show that the fuel-optimal trajectory is zero-bang, namely it is characterized by two subarcs: a long coasting zero-thrust subarc followed by a short powered max-thrust braking subarc. While the thrust direction of the powered subarc is continuously variable for the optimal trajectory, its replacement with a constant (yet optimized) thrust direction produces a very efficient guidance trajectory. Indeed, for all values of the initial distance, the fuel required by the guidance trajectory is within less than one percent of the fuel required

  8. A Visual Analytics Approach for Station-Based Air Quality Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yi; Ma, Cuixia; Wu, Chao; Xu, Xiaowei; Guo, Yike; Zhou, Yuanchun; Li, Jianhui

    2016-12-24

    With the deployment of multi-modality and large-scale sensor networks for monitoring air quality, we are now able to collect large and multi-dimensional spatio-temporal datasets. For these sensed data, we present a comprehensive visual analysis approach for air quality analysis. This approach integrates several visual methods, such as map-based views, calendar views, and trends views, to assist the analysis. Among those visual methods, map-based visual methods are used to display the locations of interest, and the calendar and the trends views are used to discover the linear and periodical patterns. The system also provides various interaction tools to combine the map-based visualization, trends view, calendar view and multi-dimensional view. In addition, we propose a self-adaptive calendar-based controller that can flexibly adapt the changes of data size and granularity in trends view. Such a visual analytics system would facilitate big-data analysis in real applications, especially for decision making support.

  9. An analytical approach to characterize morbidity profile dissimilarity between distinct cohorts using electronic medical records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schildcrout, Jonathan S; Basford, Melissa A; Pulley, Jill M; Masys, Daniel R; Roden, Dan M; Wang, Deede; Chute, Christopher G; Kullo, Iftikhar J; Carrell, David; Peissig, Peggy; Kho, Abel; Denny, Joshua C

    2010-12-01

    We describe a two-stage analytical approach for characterizing morbidity profile dissimilarity among patient cohorts using electronic medical records. We capture morbidities using the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD-9) codes. In the first stage of the approach separate logistic regression analyses for ICD-9 sections (e.g., "hypertensive disease" or "appendicitis") are conducted, and the odds ratios that describe adjusted differences in prevalence between two cohorts are displayed graphically. In the second stage, the results from ICD-9 section analyses are combined into a general morbidity dissimilarity index (MDI). For illustration, we examine nine cohorts of patients representing six phenotypes (or controls) derived from five institutions, each a participant in the electronic MEdical REcords and GEnomics (eMERGE) network. The phenotypes studied include type II diabetes and type II diabetes controls, peripheral arterial disease and peripheral arterial disease controls, normal cardiac conduction as measured by electrocardiography, and senile cataracts. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A Visual Analytics Approach for Station-Based Air Quality Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Du

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available With the deployment of multi-modality and large-scale sensor networks for monitoring air quality, we are now able to collect large and multi-dimensional spatio-temporal datasets. For these sensed data, we present a comprehensive visual analysis approach for air quality analysis. This approach integrates several visual methods, such as map-based views, calendar views, and trends views, to assist the analysis. Among those visual methods, map-based visual methods are used to display the locations of interest, and the calendar and the trends views are used to discover the linear and periodical patterns. The system also provides various interaction tools to combine the map-based visualization, trends view, calendar view and multi-dimensional view. In addition, we propose a self-adaptive calendar-based controller that can flexibly adapt the changes of data size and granularity in trends view. Such a visual analytics system would facilitate big-data analysis in real applications, especially for decision making support.

  11. General analytical approach for sound transmission loss analysis through a thick metamaterial plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oudich, Mourad; Zhou, Xiaoming; Badreddine Assouar, M.

    2014-01-01

    We report theoretically and numerically on the sound transmission loss performance through a thick plate-type acoustic metamaterial made of spring-mass resonators attached to the surface of a homogeneous elastic plate. Two general analytical approaches based on plane wave expansion were developed to calculate both the sound transmission loss through the metamaterial plate (thick and thin) and its band structure. The first one can be applied to thick plate systems to study the sound transmission for any normal or oblique incident sound pressure. The second approach gives the metamaterial dispersion behavior to describe the vibrational motions of the plate, which helps to understand the physics behind sound radiation through air by the structure. Computed results show that high sound transmission loss up to 72 dB at 2 kHz is reached with a thick metamaterial plate while only 23 dB can be obtained for a simple homogeneous plate with the same thickness. Such plate-type acoustic metamaterial can be a very effective solution for high performance sound insulation and structural vibration shielding in the very low-frequency range

  12. General analytical approach for sound transmission loss analysis through a thick metamaterial plate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oudich, Mourad; Zhou, Xiaoming; Badreddine Assouar, M., E-mail: Badreddine.Assouar@univ-lorraine.fr [CNRS, Institut Jean Lamour, Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy F-54506 (France); Institut Jean Lamour, University of Lorraine, Boulevard des Aiguillettes, BP: 70239, 54506 Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy (France)

    2014-11-21

    We report theoretically and numerically on the sound transmission loss performance through a thick plate-type acoustic metamaterial made of spring-mass resonators attached to the surface of a homogeneous elastic plate. Two general analytical approaches based on plane wave expansion were developed to calculate both the sound transmission loss through the metamaterial plate (thick and thin) and its band structure. The first one can be applied to thick plate systems to study the sound transmission for any normal or oblique incident sound pressure. The second approach gives the metamaterial dispersion behavior to describe the vibrational motions of the plate, which helps to understand the physics behind sound radiation through air by the structure. Computed results show that high sound transmission loss up to 72 dB at 2 kHz is reached with a thick metamaterial plate while only 23 dB can be obtained for a simple homogeneous plate with the same thickness. Such plate-type acoustic metamaterial can be a very effective solution for high performance sound insulation and structural vibration shielding in the very low-frequency range.

  13. An analytical approach to the positive reactivity void coefficient of TRIGA Mark-II reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edgue, Erdinc; Yarman, Tolga

    1988-01-01

    Previous calculations of reactivity void coefficient of I.T.U. TRIGA Mark-II Reactor was done by the second author et al. The theoretical predictions were afterwards, checked in this reactor experimentally. In this work an analytical approach is developed to evaluate rather quickly the reactivity void coefficient of I.T.U. TRIGA Mark-II, versus the size of the void inserted into the reactor. It is thus assumed that the reactor is a cylindrical, bare nuclear system. Next a belt of water of 2πrΔrH is introduced axially at a distance r from the center line of the system. r here, is the thickness of the belt, and H is the height of the reactor. The void is described by decreasing the water density in the belt region. A two group diffusion theory is adopted to determine the criticality of our configuration. The space dependency of the group fluxes are, thereby, assumed to be J 0 (2.405 r / R) cos (π Z / H), the same as that associated with the original bare reactor uniformly loaded prior to the change. A perturbation type of approach, thence, furnishes the effect of introducing a void in the belt region. The reactivity void coefficient can, rather surprisingly, be indeed positive. To our knowledge, this fact had not been established, by the supplier. The agreement of our predictions with the experimental results is good. (author)

  14. Integrated Care and Connected Health Approaches Leveraging Personalised Health through Big Data Analytics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maglaveras, Nicos; Kilintzis, Vassilis; Koutkias, Vassilis; Chouvarda, Ioanna

    2016-01-01

    Integrated care and connected health are two fast evolving concepts that have the potential to leverage personalised health. From the one side, the restructuring of care models and implementation of new systems and integrated care programs providing coaching and advanced intervention possibilities, enable medical decision support and personalized healthcare services. From the other side, the connected health ecosystem builds the means to follow and support citizens via personal health systems in their everyday activities and, thus, give rise to an unprecedented wealth of data. These approaches are leading to the deluge of complex data, as well as in new types of interactions with and among users of the healthcare ecosystem. The main challenges refer to the data layer, the information layer, and the output of information processing and analytics. In all the above mentioned layers, the primary concern is the quality both in data and information, thus, increasing the need for filtering mechanisms. Especially in the data layer, the big biodata management and analytics ecosystem is evolving, telemonitoring is a step forward for data quality leverage, with numerous challenges still left to address, partly due to the large number of micro-nano sensors and technologies available today, as well as the heterogeneity in the users' background and data sources. This leads to new R&D pathways as it concerns biomedical information processing and management, as well as to the design of new intelligent decision support systems (DSS) and interventions for patients. In this paper, we illustrate these issues through exemplar research targeting chronic patients, illustrating the current status and trends in PHS within the integrated care and connected care world.

  15. A platform analytical quality by design (AQbD) approach for multiple UHPLC-UV and UHPLC-MS methods development for protein analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochling, Jianmei; Wu, Wei; Hua, Yimin; Guan, Qian; Castaneda-Merced, Juan

    2016-06-05

    A platform analytical quality by design approach for methods development is presented in this paper. This approach is not limited just to method development following the same logical Analytical quality by design (AQbD) process, it is also exploited across a range of applications in methods development with commonality in equipment and procedures. As demonstrated by the development process of 3 methods, the systematic approach strategy offers a thorough understanding of the method scientific strength. The knowledge gained from the UHPLC-UV peptide mapping method can be easily transferred to the UHPLC-MS oxidation method and the UHPLC-UV C-terminal heterogeneity methods of the same protein. In addition, the platform AQbD method development strategy ensures method robustness is built in during development. In early phases, a good method can generate reliable data for product development allowing confident decision making. Methods generated following the AQbD approach have great potential for avoiding extensive post-approval analytical method change. While in the commercial phase, high quality data ensures timely data release, reduced regulatory risk, and lowered lab operational cost. Moreover, large, reliable database and knowledge gained during AQbD method development provide strong justifications during regulatory filling for the selection of important parameters or parameter change needs for method validation, and help to justify for removal of unnecessary tests used for product specifications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Demonstration of Subscale Cermet Fuel Specimen Fabrication Approach Using Spark Plasma Sintering and Diffusion Bonding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Marvin W.; Tucker, Dennis S.; Benensky, Kelsa M.

    2018-01-01

    Nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) has the potential to expand the limits of human space exploration by enabling crewed missions to Mars and beyond. The viability of NTP hinges on the development of a robust nuclear fuel material that can perform in the harsh operating environment (> or = 2500K, reactive hydrogen) of a nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) engine. Efforts are ongoing to develop fuel material and to assemble fuel elements that will be stable during the service life of an NTR. Ceramic-metal (cermet) fuels are being actively pursued by NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) due to their demonstrated high-temperature stability and hydrogen compatibility. Building on past cermet fuel development research, experiments were conducted to investigate a modern fabrication approach for cermet fuel elements. The experiments used consolidated tungsten (W)-60vol%zirconia (ZrO2) compacts that were formed via spark plasma sintering (SPS). The consolidated compacts were stacked and diffusion bonded to assess the integrity of the bond lines and internal cooling channel cladding. The assessment included hot hydrogen testing of the manufactured surrogate fuel and pure W for 45 minutes at 2500 K in the compact fuel element environmental test (CFEET) system. Performance of bonded W-ZrO2 rods was compared to bonded pure W rods to access bond line integrity and composite stability. Bonded surrogate fuels retained structural integrity throughout testing and incurred minimal mass loss.

  17. Approaches to Demonstrating the Reliability and Validity of Core Diagnostic Criteria for Chronic Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruehl, Stephen; Ohrbach, Richard; Sharma, Sonia; Widerstrom-Noga, Eva; Dworkin, Robert H; Fillingim, Roger B; Turk, Dennis C

    2016-09-01

    The Analgesic, Anesthetic, and Addiction Clinical Trial Translations, Innovations, Opportunities, and Networks-American Pain Society Pain Taxonomy (AAPT) is designed to be an evidence-based multidimensional chronic pain classification system that will facilitate more comprehensive and consistent chronic pain diagnoses, and thereby enhance research, clinical communication, and ultimately patient care. Core diagnostic criteria (dimension 1) for individual chronic pain conditions included in the initial version of AAPT will be the focus of subsequent empirical research to evaluate and provide evidence for their reliability and validity. Challenges to validating diagnostic criteria in the absence of clear and identifiable pathophysiological mechanisms are described. Based in part on previous experience regarding the development of evidence-based diagnostic criteria for psychiatric disorders, headache, and specific chronic pain conditions (fibromyalgia, complex regional pain syndrome, temporomandibular disorders, pain associated with spinal cord injuries), several potential approaches for documentation of the reliability and validity of the AAPT diagnostic criteria are summarized. The AAPT is designed to be an evidence-based multidimensional chronic pain classification system. Conceptual and methodological issues related to demonstrating the reliability and validity of the proposed AAPT chronic pain diagnostic criteria are discussed. Copyright © 2016 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The successful demonstration of aerobic landfilling. The potential for a more sustainable solid waste management approach?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Read, A.D. [School of Earth Science and Geography, Center for Environmental and Earth Science Research, Kingston University, Penrhyn Road, Surrey, KT1 2EE Kingston upon Thames (United Kingdom); Hudgins, M. [Environmental Control Systems Inc., Atlanta, GA (United States); Harper, S. [US Environmental Protection Agency, Region IV, Atlanta, GA (United States); Phillips, P. [School of Environmental Science, University College Northampton, Northampton (United Kingdom); Morris, J. [School of Law and Accountancy, University College Northampton, Northampton (United Kingdom)

    2001-06-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills worldwide are experiencing the consequences of conventional landfilling techniques, whereby anaerobic conditions are created within the landfilled waste. Under anaerobic conditions within a landfill site slow stabilization of the waste mass occurs, producing methane, (an explosive 'green house' gas) and leachate (which can pollute groundwater) over long periods of time. As a potential solution, it was demonstrated that the aerobic degradation of MSW within a landfill can significantly increase the rate of waste decomposition and settlement, decrease the methane production and leachate leaving the system, and potentially increase the operational life of the site. Readily integrated into the existing landfill infrastructure, this approach can safely and cost-effectively convert a MSW landfill from anaerobic to aerobic degradation processes, thereby effectively composting much of the organic portions (one of the potentially polluting elements in a conventional landfill site) of the waste. This paper summarizes the successful results of two separate aerobic landfill projects located in Georgia (USA) and discusses the potential, economic and environmental impacts to worldwide solid waste management practices.

  19. Exploration of Simple Analytical Approaches for Rapid Detection of Pathogenic Bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahman, Salma [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Many of the current methods for pathogenic bacterial detection require long sample-preparation and analysis time, as well as complex instrumentation. This dissertation explores simple analytical approaches (e.g., flow cytometry and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy) that may be applied towards ideal requirements of a microbial detection system, through method and instrumentation development, and by the creation and characterization of immunosensing platforms. This dissertation is organized into six sections. In the general Introduction section a literature review on several of the key aspects of this work is presented. First, different approaches for detection of pathogenic bacteria will be reviewed, with a comparison of the relative strengths and weaknesses of each approach, A general overview regarding diffuse reflectance spectroscopy is then presented. Next, the structure and function of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) formed from organosulfur molecules at gold and micrometer and sub-micrometer patterning of biomolecules using SAMs will be discussed. This section is followed by four research chapters, presented as separate manuscripts. Chapter 1 describes the efforts and challenges towards the creation of imunosensing platforms that exploit the flexibility and structural stability of SAMs of thiols at gold. 1H, 1H, 2H, 2H-perfluorodecyl-1-thiol SAM (PFDT) and dithio-bis(succinimidyl propionate)-(DSP)-derived SAMs were used to construct the platform. Chapter 2 describes the characterization of the PFDT- and DSP-derived SAMs, and the architectures formed when it is coupled to antibodies as well as target bacteria. These studies used infrared reflection spectroscopy (IRS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance (EQCM), Chapter 3 presents a new sensitive, and portable diffuse reflection based technique for the rapid identification and quantification of pathogenic bacteria. Chapter 4 reports research efforts in the

  20. An integrated approach using orthogonal analytical techniques to characterize heparan sulfate structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beccati, Daniela; Lech, Miroslaw; Ozug, Jennifer; Gunay, Nur Sibel; Wang, Jing; Sun, Elaine Y; Pradines, Joël R; Farutin, Victor; Shriver, Zachary; Kaundinya, Ganesh V; Capila, Ishan

    2017-02-01

    Heparan sulfate (HS), a glycosaminoglycan present on the surface of cells, has been postulated to have important roles in driving both normal and pathological physiologies. The chemical structure and sulfation pattern (domain structure) of HS is believed to determine its biological function, to vary across tissue types, and to be modified in the context of disease. Characterization of HS requires isolation and purification of cell surface HS as a complex mixture. This process may introduce additional chemical modification of the native residues. In this study, we describe an approach towards thorough characterization of bovine kidney heparan sulfate (BKHS) that utilizes a variety of orthogonal analytical techniques (e.g. NMR, IP-RPHPLC, LC-MS). These techniques are applied to characterize this mixture at various levels including composition, fragment level, and overall chain properties. The combination of these techniques in many instances provides orthogonal views into the fine structure of HS, and in other instances provides overlapping / confirmatory information from different perspectives. Specifically, this approach enables quantitative determination of natural and modified saccharide residues in the HS chains, and identifies unusual structures. Analysis of partially digested HS chains allows for a better understanding of the domain structures within this mixture, and yields specific insights into the non-reducing end and reducing end structures of the chains. This approach outlines a useful framework that can be applied to elucidate HS structure and thereby provides means to advance understanding of its biological role and potential involvement in disease progression. In addition, the techniques described here can be applied to characterization of heparin from different sources.

  1. Theoretical study of molecular vibrations in electron momentum spectroscopy experiments on furan: An analytical versus a molecular dynamical approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morini, Filippo; Deleuze, Michael S.; Watanabe, Noboru; Takahashi, Masahiko

    2015-01-01

    The influence of thermally induced nuclear dynamics (molecular vibrations) in the initial electronic ground state on the valence orbital momentum profiles of furan has been theoretically investigated using two different approaches. The first of these approaches employs the principles of Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics, whereas the so-called harmonic analytical quantum mechanical approach resorts to an analytical decomposition of contributions arising from quantized harmonic vibrational eigenstates. In spite of their intrinsic differences, the two approaches enable consistent insights into the electron momentum distributions inferred from new measurements employing electron momentum spectroscopy and an electron impact energy of 1.2 keV. Both approaches point out in particular an appreciable influence of a few specific molecular vibrations of A 1 symmetry on the 9a 1 momentum profile, which can be unravelled from considerations on the symmetry characteristics of orbitals and their energy spacing

  2. Demonstration Of A Green-blue Approach For A Strategic Management Of Urban Runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonczyk, J. C.; Quinn, P. F.; Heidrich, O.; James, P.; Harris, N.; Dawson, R. J.; Pearson, D. J.

    2016-12-01

    infrastructure to carry out detailed experiments, with the aim of improving the evidence based for green-blue solutions. Science Central and its approach to surface runoff is to be an exemplar of a future, sustainable city with a vision to demonstrate that making space for water can provide a more liveable and thriving environment for all.

  3. A non-linear manifold alignment approach to robot learning from demonstrations

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Makondo, Ndivhuwo

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available with potentially different, but unknown, kinematics from humans. This paper proposes a method that enables robots with unknown kinematics to learn skills from demonstrations. Our proposed method requires a motion trajectory obtained from human demonstrations via a...

  4. Demonstrating a small utility approach to demand-side program implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-01

    The US DOE awarded a grant to the Burlington Electric Department (B.E.D.) to test a demand-side management (DSM) demonstration program designed to quickly save a significant amount of power with little disruption to the utility's customers or its normal operations. B.E.D. is a small municipal utility located in northern Vermont, with a lengthy history of successful DSM involvement. In our grant application, we proposed to develop a replicable program and approach to DSM that might be useful to other small utilities and to write a report to enable such replication. We believe that this DSM program and/or individual program components are replicable. This report is designed to allow other utilities interested in DSM to replicate this program or specific program design features to meet their DSM goals. We also wanted to use the opportunity of this grant to test the waters of residential heating fuel-switching. We hoped to test the application of one fuel-switching technology, and to benefit from the lessons learned in developing a full-scale DSM program for this end- use. To this end the pilot effort has been very successful. In the pilot pressure we installed direct-vent gas fired space heaters sized as supplemental heating units in 44 residences heated solely by electric resistance heat. We installed the gas space heating units at no cost to the owners or residents. We surveyed participating customers. The results of those surveys are included in this report and preliminary estimates of winter peak capacity load reductions are also noted in this report.

  5. Demonstrating a small utility approach to demand-side program implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The US DOE awarded a grant to the Burlington Electric Department (B.E.D.) to test a demand-side management (DSM) demonstration program designed to quickly save a significant amount of power with little disruption to the utility's customers or its normal operations. B.E.D. is a small municipal utility located in northern Vermont, with a lengthy history of successful DSM involvement. In our grant application, we proposed to develop a replicable program and approach to DSM that might be useful to other small utilities and to write a report to enable such replication. We believe that this DSM program and/or individual program components are replicable. This report is designed to allow other utilities interested in DSM to replicate this program or specific program design features to meet their DSM goals. We also wanted to use the opportunity of this grant to test the waters of residential heating fuel-switching. We hoped to test the application of one fuel-switching technology, and to benefit from the lessons learned in developing a full-scale DSM program for this end- use. To this end the pilot effort has been very successful. In the pilot pressure we installed direct-vent gas fired space heaters sized as supplemental heating units in 44 residences heated solely by electric resistance heat. We installed the gas space heating units at no cost to the owners or residents. We surveyed participating customers. The results of those surveys are included in this report and preliminary estimates of winter peak capacity load reductions are also noted in this report

  6. Gamma ray tracking with the AGATA demonstrator. A novel approach for in-beam spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birkenbach, Benedikt

    2014-01-01

    -rays were detected with the AGATA demonstrator consisting of five AGATA triple cluster detectors. An additional micro channel plate detector for particle detection was mounted inside the scattering chamber in order to request kinematic coincidences. The analysis procedures for the two complex sub-detectors AGATA and PRISMA were extended and adapted to the specific requirements of this new approach for actinide spectroscopy. First the complex analysis of the magnetic spectrometer PRISMA and solutions for unexpected detector behaviour like time drifts and aberration corrections are described. As a result the individual isotopes of elements from Barium to Tellurium were identified confirming the very high quality of the PRISMA spectrometer and its design parameters. The analysis of the γ-ray spectra comprised a detailed PSA and GRT analysis of the AGATA demonstrator. This analysis included also data analysis developments for the AGATA collaboration. The data of the AGATA demonstrator, the PRISMA spectrometer and the ancillary detectors were merged to obtain background free Doppler corrected spectra for the beam- and target-like reaction products. The simultaneous Doppler correction for beam and target-like ions included an elaborate optimization procedure for unobservable experimental parameters. The γ-ray spectra for the individual isotopes is consistent with the isotope identification of the PRISMA analysis. For the beam like particles γ-ray spectra of the isotopes 128-139 Xe are presented and discussed. For the target like nuclei γ-ray spectra of the isotopes 236-240 U are deduced. By gating on the remaining excitation energy after the multi-nucleon transfer reaction the neutron evaporation and fission of the excited actinide nuclei were suppressed. Coincidences between AGATA and PRISMA were exploited for the first time together with the particle coincidence between beam- and target-like nuclei. These triple coincidences allowed further background reduction. The results

  7. Spatial Analytic Hierarchy Process Model for Flood Forecasting: An Integrated Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matori, Abd Nasir; Yusof, Khamaruzaman Wan; Hashim, Mustafa Ahmad; Lawal, Dano Umar; Balogun, Abdul-Lateef

    2014-01-01

    Various flood influencing factors such as rainfall, geology, slope gradient, land use, soil type, drainage density, temperature etc. are generally considered for flood hazard assessment. However, lack of appropriate handling/integration of data from different sources is a challenge that can make any spatial forecasting difficult and inaccurate. Availability of accurate flood maps and thorough understanding of the subsurface conditions can adequately enhance flood disasters management. This study presents an approach that attempts to provide a solution to this drawback by combining Geographic Information System (GIS)-based Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) model as spatial forecasting tools. In achieving the set objectives, spatial forecasting of flood susceptible zones in the study area was made. A total number of five set of criteria/factors believed to be influencing flood generation in the study area were selected. Priority weights were assigned to each criterion/factor based on Saaty's nine point scale of preference and weights were further normalized through the AHP. The model was integrated into a GIS system in order to produce a flood forecasting map

  8. Genome-wide analytical approaches for reverse metabolic engineering of industrially relevant phenotypes in yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oud, Bart; van Maris, Antonius J A; Daran, Jean-Marc; Pronk, Jack T

    2012-03-01

    Successful reverse engineering of mutants that have been obtained by nontargeted strain improvement has long presented a major challenge in yeast biotechnology. This paper reviews the use of genome-wide approaches for analysis of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains originating from evolutionary engineering or random mutagenesis. On the basis of an evaluation of the strengths and weaknesses of different methods, we conclude that for the initial identification of relevant genetic changes, whole genome sequencing is superior to other analytical techniques, such as transcriptome, metabolome, proteome, or array-based genome analysis. Key advantages of this technique over gene expression analysis include the independency of genome sequences on experimental context and the possibility to directly and precisely reproduce the identified changes in naive strains. The predictive value of genome-wide analysis of strains with industrially relevant characteristics can be further improved by classical genetics or simultaneous analysis of strains derived from parallel, independent strain improvement lineages. © 2011 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A Hybrid Approach for Reliability Analysis Based on Analytic Hierarchy Process and Bayesian Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zubair, Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    By using analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and Bayesian Network (BN) the present research signifies the technical and non-technical issues of nuclear accidents. The study exposed that the technical faults was one major reason of these accidents. Keep an eye on other point of view it becomes clearer that human behavior like dishonesty, insufficient training, and selfishness are also play a key role to cause these accidents. In this study, a hybrid approach for reliability analysis based on AHP and BN to increase nuclear power plant (NPP) safety has been developed. By using AHP, best alternative to improve safety, design, operation, and to allocate budget for all technical and non-technical factors related with nuclear safety has been investigated. We use a special structure of BN based on the method AHP. The graphs of the BN and the probabilities associated with nodes are designed to translate the knowledge of experts on the selection of best alternative. The results show that the improvement in regulatory authorities will decrease failure probabilities and increase safety and reliability in industrial area.

  10. An analytic approach to probability tables for the unresolved resonance region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, David; Kawano, Toshihiko

    2017-09-01

    The Unresolved Resonance Region (URR) connects the fast neutron region with the Resolved Resonance Region (RRR). The URR is problematic since resonances are not resolvable experimentally yet the fluctuations in the neutron cross sections play a discernible and technologically important role: the URR in a typical nucleus is in the 100 keV - 2 MeV window where the typical fission spectrum peaks. The URR also represents the transition between R-matrix theory used to described isolated resonances and Hauser-Feshbach theory which accurately describes the average cross sections. In practice, only average or systematic features of the resonances in the URR are known and are tabulated in evaluations in a nuclear data library such as ENDF/B-VII.1. Codes such as AMPX and NJOY can compute the probability distribution of the cross section in the URR under some assumptions using Monte Carlo realizations of sets of resonances. These probability distributions are stored in the so-called PURR tables. In our work, we begin to develop a scheme for computing the covariance of the cross section probability distribution analytically. Our approach offers the possibility of defining the limits of applicability of Hauser-Feshbach theory and suggests a way to calculate PURR tables directly from systematics for nuclei whose RRR is unknown, provided one makes appropriate assumptions about the shape of the cross section probability distribution.

  11. Decision support for energy conservation promotion: an analytic hierarchy process approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kablan, M.M.

    2004-01-01

    An effective energy conservation program in any country should encourage the different enterprises, utilities and individuals to employ energy efficient processes, technologies, equipment, and materials. Governments use different mechanisms or policy instruments such as pricing policy (PP), regulation and legislation (RL), training and education, fiscal and financial incentives (FFI), and R and D to promote energy conservation. Effective implementation of energy conservation policies requires prioritization of the different available policy instruments. This paper presents an analytic hierarchy process (AHP) based modeling framework for the prioritization of energy conservation policy instruments. The use of AHP to support management in the prioritization process of policy instruments for promoting energy conservation is illustrated in this research using the case study of Jordan. The research provided a comprehensive framework for performing the prioritization in a scientific and systematic manner. The four most promising policy instruments for promoting energy conservation in Jordan are RL (37.4%), followed by FFI (22.2%), PP (18.0%), and Training, education and qualification (14.5%). One of the major advantages of the use of the AHP approach is that it breaks a large problem into smaller problems which enables the decision-maker (DM) to have a better concentration and to make more sound decisions. In addition, AHP employs a consistency test that can screen out inconsistent judgements. The presented methodology of the research might be beneficial to DMs in other countries

  12. An analytic approach to 2D electronic PE spectra of molecular systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szoecs, V.

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The three-pulse photon echo (3P-PE) spectra of finite molecular systems using direct calculation from electronic Hamiltonians allows peak classification from 3P-PE spectra dynamics. Display Omitted Highlights: → RWA approach to electronic photon echo. → A straightforward calculation of 2D electronic spectrograms in finite molecular systems. → Importance of population time dynamics in relation to inter-site coherent coupling. - Abstract: The three-pulse photon echo (3P-PE) spectra of finite molecular systems and simplified line broadening models is presented. The Fourier picture of a heterodyne detected three-pulse rephasing PE signal in the δ-pulse limit of the external field is derived in analytic form. The method includes contributions of one and two-excitonic states and allows direct calculation of Fourier PE spectrogram from corresponding Hamiltonian. As an illustration, the proposed treatment is applied to simple systems, e.g. 2-site two-level system (TLS) and n-site TLS model of photosynthetic unit. The importance of relation between Fourier picture of 3P-PE dynamics (corresponding to nonzero population time, T) and coherent inter-state coupling is emphasized.

  13. Analytical approaches to the determination of spin-dependent parton distribution functions at NNLO approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salajegheh, Maral; Nejad, S. Mohammad Moosavi; Khanpour, Hamzeh; Tehrani, S. Atashbar

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we present SMKA18 analysis, which is a first attempt to extract the set of next-to-next-leading-order (NNLO) spin-dependent parton distribution functions (spin-dependent PDFs) and their uncertainties determined through the Laplace transform technique and Jacobi polynomial approach. Using the Laplace transformations, we present an analytical solution for the spin-dependent Dokshitzer-Gribov-Lipatov-Altarelli-Parisi evolution equations at NNLO approximation. The results are extracted using a wide range of proton g1p(x ,Q2) , neutron g1n(x ,Q2) , and deuteron g1d(x ,Q2) spin-dependent structure functions data set including the most recent high-precision measurements from COMPASS16 experiments at CERN, which are playing an increasingly important role in global spin-dependent fits. The careful estimations of uncertainties have been done using the standard Hessian error propagation. We will compare our results with the available spin-dependent inclusive deep inelastic scattering data set and other results for the spin-dependent PDFs in literature. The results obtained for the spin-dependent PDFs as well as spin-dependent structure functions are clearly explained both in the small and large values of x .

  14. An analytic approach to probability tables for the unresolved resonance region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brown David

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Unresolved Resonance Region (URR connects the fast neutron region with the Resolved Resonance Region (RRR. The URR is problematic since resonances are not resolvable experimentally yet the fluctuations in the neutron cross sections play a discernible and technologically important role: the URR in a typical nucleus is in the 100 keV – 2 MeV window where the typical fission spectrum peaks. The URR also represents the transition between R-matrix theory used to described isolated resonances and Hauser-Feshbach theory which accurately describes the average cross sections. In practice, only average or systematic features of the resonances in the URR are known and are tabulated in evaluations in a nuclear data library such as ENDF/B-VII.1. Codes such as AMPX and NJOY can compute the probability distribution of the cross section in the URR under some assumptions using Monte Carlo realizations of sets of resonances. These probability distributions are stored in the so-called PURR tables. In our work, we begin to develop a scheme for computing the covariance of the cross section probability distribution analytically. Our approach offers the possibility of defining the limits of applicability of Hauser-Feshbach theory and suggests a way to calculate PURR tables directly from systematics for nuclei whose RRR is unknown, provided one makes appropriate assumptions about the shape of the cross section probability distribution.

  15. Thermo-optic characteristics of hybrid polymer/silica microstructured optical fiber: An analytical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Dinesh Kumar; Sharma, Anurag; Tripathi, Saurabh Mani

    2018-04-01

    Microstructured optical fibers (MOFs) allow a variety of advanced materials to be infiltrated in their air-voids for obtaining the increased fiber functionality, and offering a new versatile platform for developing the compact sensors devices. We aim to investigate the thermal characteristics of high-index core triangular hybrid polymer/silica MOFs with circular air-voids infused with polymer by using the analytical field model [1]. We demonstrate that infiltration of air-voids with polymer, e.g., polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) can facilitate to tune the fundamental modal properties of MOF such as effective index of the mode, near and the far-field profiles, effective mode area and the numerical aperture over the temperature ranging from 0 °C to 100 °C, for different values of relative air-void ratios. The evolution of the mode shape for a given temperature has been investigated in transition from near-field to far-field regime. We have studied the thermal dependence of splice losses between hybrid MOF and the standard step-index single-mode optical fiber in combination with Fresnel losses. For enhancing the evanescent field interactions, we have evaluated fraction of power associated with fundamental mode of hybrid MOF. We have compared the accuracy of our results with those based on full-vector finite-difference (FD) method, as available in the literature.

  16. ProLBB - A Probabilistic Approach to Leak Before Break Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dillstroem, Peter; Weilin Zang (Inspecta Technology AB, Stockholm (SE))

    2007-11-15

    Recently, the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate has developed guidelines on how to demonstrate the existence of Leak Before Break (LBB). The guidelines, mainly based on NUREG/CR-6765, define the steps that must be fulfilled to get a conservative assessment of LBB acceptability. In this report, a probabilistic LBB approach is defined and implemented into the software ProLBB. The main conclusions, from the study presented in this report, are summarized below. - The probabilistic approach developed in this study was applied to different piping systems in both Boiler Water Reactors (BWR) and Pressurised Water Reactors (PWR). Pipe sizes were selected so that small, medium and large pipes were included in the analysis. The present study shows that the conditional probability of fracture is in general small for the larger diameter pipes when evaluated as function of leak flow rate. However, when evaluated as function of fraction of crack length around the circumference, then the larger diameter pipes will belong to the ones with the highest conditional fracture probabilities. - The total failure probability, corresponding to the product between the leak probability and the conditional fracture probability, will be very small for all pipe geometries when evaluated as function of fraction of crack length around the circumference. This is mainly due to a small leak probability which is consistent with expectations since no active damage mechanism has been assumed. - One of the objectives of the approach was to be able to check the influence of off-centre cracks (i.e. the possibility that cracks occur randomly around the pipe circumference). To satisfy this objective, new stress intensity factor solutions for off-centre cracks were developed. Also to check how off-centre cracks influence crack opening areas, new form factors solutions for COA were developed taking plastic deformation into account. - The influence from an off-center crack position on the conditional

  17. ProLBB - A Probabilistic Approach to Leak Before Break Demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dillstroem, Peter; Weilin Zang

    2007-11-01

    Recently, the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate has developed guidelines on how to demonstrate the existence of Leak Before Break (LBB). The guidelines, mainly based on NUREG/CR-6765, define the steps that must be fulfilled to get a conservative assessment of LBB acceptability. In this report, a probabilistic LBB approach is defined and implemented into the software ProLBB. The main conclusions, from the study presented in this report, are summarized below. - The probabilistic approach developed in this study was applied to different piping systems in both Boiler Water Reactors (BWR) and Pressurised Water Reactors (PWR). Pipe sizes were selected so that small, medium and large pipes were included in the analysis. The present study shows that the conditional probability of fracture is in general small for the larger diameter pipes when evaluated as function of leak flow rate. However, when evaluated as function of fraction of crack length around the circumference, then the larger diameter pipes will belong to the ones with the highest conditional fracture probabilities. - The total failure probability, corresponding to the product between the leak probability and the conditional fracture probability, will be very small for all pipe geometries when evaluated as function of fraction of crack length around the circumference. This is mainly due to a small leak probability which is consistent with expectations since no active damage mechanism has been assumed. - One of the objectives of the approach was to be able to check the influence of off-centre cracks (i.e. the possibility that cracks occur randomly around the pipe circumference). To satisfy this objective, new stress intensity factor solutions for off-centre cracks were developed. Also to check how off-centre cracks influence crack opening areas, new form factors solutions for COA were developed taking plastic deformation into account. - The influence from an off-center crack position on the conditional

  18. Occupational radiation protection around medical linear accelerators: measurements and semi-analytical approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donadille, L.; Derreumaux, S.; Mantione, J.; Robbes, I.; Trompier, F.; Amgarou, K.; Asselineau, B.; Martin, A.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: X-rays produced by high-energy (larger than 6 MeV) medical electron linear accelerators create secondary neutron radiation fields mainly by photonuclear reactions inside the materials of the accelerator head, the patient and the walls of the therapy room. Numerous papers were devoted to the study of neutron production in medical linear accelerators and resulting decay of activation products. However, data associated to doses delivered to workers in treatment conditions are scarce. In France, there are more than 350 external radiotherapy facilities representing almost all types of techniques and designs. IRSN carried out a measurement campaign in order to investigate the variation of the occupational dose according the different encountered situations. Six installations were investigated, associated with the main manufacturers (Varian, Elekta, General Electrics, Siemens), for several nominal energies, conventional and IMRT techniques, and bunker designs. Measurements were carried out separately for neutron and photon radiation fields, and for radiation associated with the decay of the activation products, by means of radiometers, tissue-equivalent proportional counters and spectrometers (neutron and photon spectrometry). They were performed at the positions occupied by the workers, i.e. outside the bunker during treatments, inside between treatments. Measurements have been compared to published data. In addition, semi-empirical analytical approaches recommended by international protocols were used to estimate doses inside and outside the bunkers. The results obtained by both approaches were compared and analysed. The annual occupational effective dose was estimated to about 1 mSv, including more than 50 % associated with the decay of activation products and less than 10 % due to direct exposure to leakage neutrons produced during treatments. (author)

  19. Multi-criteria approach with linear combination technique and analytical hierarchy process in land evaluation studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orhan Dengiz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Land evaluation analysis is a prerequisite to achieving optimum utilization of the available land resources. Lack of knowledge on best combination of factors that suit production of yields has contributed to the low production. The aim of this study was to determine the most suitable areas for agricultural uses. For that reasons, in order to determine land suitability classes of the study area, multi-criteria approach was used with linear combination technique and analytical hierarchy process by taking into consideration of some land and soil physico-chemical characteristic such as slope, texture, depth, derange, stoniness, erosion, pH, EC, CaCO3 and organic matter. These data and land mapping unites were taken from digital detailed soil map scaled as 1:5.000. In addition, in order to was produce land suitability map GIS was program used for the study area. This study was carried out at Mahmudiye, Karaamca, Yazılı, Çiçeközü, Orhaniye and Akbıyık villages in Yenişehir district of Bursa province. Total study area is 7059 ha. 6890 ha of total study area has been used as irrigated agriculture, dry farming agriculture, pasture while, 169 ha has been used for non-agricultural activities such as settlement, road water body etc. Average annual temperature and precipitation of the study area are 16.1oC and 1039.5 mm, respectively. Finally after determination of land suitability distribution classes for the study area, it was found that 15.0% of the study area has highly (S1 and moderately (S2 while, 85% of the study area has marginally suitable and unsuitable coded as S3 and N. It was also determined some relation as compared results of linear combination technique with other hierarchy approaches such as Land Use Capability Classification and Suitability Class for Agricultural Use methods.

  20. Soviet-designed pressurized water reactor symptomatic emergency operating instruction analytical procedure: approach, methodology, development and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beelman, R.J.

    1999-01-01

    A symptom approach to the analytical validation of symptom-based EOPs includes: (1) Identification of critical safety functions to the maintenance of fission product barrier integrity; (2) Identification of the symptoms which manifest an impending challenge to critical safety function maintenance; (3) Development of a symptomatic methodology to delineate bounding plant transient response modes; (4) Specification of bounding scenarios; (5) Development of a systematic calculational approach consistent with the objectives of the methodology; (6) Performance of thermal-hydraulic computer code calculations implementing the analytical methodology; (7) Interpretation of the analytical results on the basis of information available to the operator; (8) Application of the results to the validation of the proposed operator actions; (9) Production of a technical basis document justifying the proposed operator actions. (author)

  1. A Semi-Analytical Approach for the Response of Nonlinear Conservative Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kimiaeifar, Amin; Barari, Amin; Fooladi, M

    2011-01-01

    This work applies Parameter expanding method (PEM) as a powerful analytical technique in order to obtain the exact solution of nonlinear problems in the classical dynamics. Lagrange method is employed to derive the governing equations. The nonlinear governing equations are solved analytically by ...

  2. A new approach combining analytical methods for workplace exposure assessment of inhalable multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tromp, P.C.; Kuijpers, E.; Bekker, C.; Godderis, L.; Lan, Q.; Jedynska, A.D.; Vermeulen, R.; Pronk, A.

    2017-01-01

    To date there is no consensus about the most appropriate analytical method for measuring carbon nanotubes (CNTs), hampering the assessment and limiting the comparison of data. The goal of this study is to develop an approach for the assessment of the level and nature of inhalable multi-wall CNTs

  3. A learning analytics approach to correlate the academic achievements of students with interaction data from an educational simulator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vahdat, M.; Oneto, L.; Anguita, D.; Funk, M.; Rauterberg, M.; Conole, G.; Klobucar, T.; Rensing, C.; Konert, J.; Lavoue, E.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a Learning Analytics approach for understanding the learning behavior of students while interacting with Technology Enhanced Learning tools. In this work we show that it is possible to gain insight into the learning processes of students from their interaction data. We base our

  4. Wastewater-based epidemiology, an analytical chemical approach for the investigation of human consumption of lifestyle chemicals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Causanilles Llanes, A.

    2018-01-01

    The research presented in this thesis supports the hypothesis that wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) approach can be used as an alternative and non-intrusive technique that provides information about a population’s health and lifestyle habits. The focus is in the essential role of analytical

  5. A Development-Oriented IS Evaluation Approach: Case Demonstration for DSS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah J Miah

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Information systems (IS development research needs a broader conceptual lens for evaluating IS design qualities. Most conventional IS evaluation approaches are focused on narrow objectives, such as the process and content rather than the development process as a whole. This paper describes a qualitative evaluation of a new approach that extends evaluation strategies to incorporate development phases, specifically within decision support systems (DSS development. The conceptual approach is based on a mental model from the design science research paradigm and evaluates DSS development at various design checkpoints. This paper also describes qualitative findings on the applicability of the conceptual approach in a socio-technical design context.

  6. Child protection medical service demonstration centers in approaching child abuse and neglect in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yu-Ching; Huang, Jing-Long; Hsia, Shao-Hsuan; Lin, Kuang-Lin; Lee, En-Pei; Chou, I-Jun; Hsin, Yi-Chen; Lo, Fu-Song; Wu, Chang-Teng; Chiu, Cheng-Hsun; Wu, Han-Ping

    2016-11-01

    Child abuse includes all forms of physical and emotional ill treatment, sexual abuse, neglect, and exploitation that results in actual or potential harm to the child's health, development, or dignity. In Taiwan, the Child Protection Medical Service Demonstration Center (CPMSDC) was established to protect children from abuse and neglect. We further analyzed and compared the trends and clinical characteristics of cases reported by CPMSDC to evaluate the function of CPMSDC in approaching child abuse and neglect in Taiwan. We prospectively recorded children with reported child abuse and neglect in a CPMSDC in a tertiary medical center from 2014 to 2015. Furthermore, we analyzed and compared age, gender, scene, identifying settings, time of visits, injury type, injury severity, hospital admission, hospitalization duration, and outcomes based on the different types of abuse and the different settings in which the abuse or neglect were identified. Of 361 child abuse cases (mean age 4.8 ± 5.36 years), the incidence was highest in 1- to 6-year-old children (n = 198, 54.85%). Physical abuse and neglect were predominant in males, while sexual abuse was predominant in females (P Neglect was most common (n = 279, 75.85%), followed by physical (n = 56, 15.51%) and sexual abuse (n = 26, 7.2%). The most common identifying setting was the emergency department (n = 320, 88.64%), with neglect being most commonly reported. Head, neck, and facial injuries were more common in physically abused children than in neglected and sexual abused children (P neglect (P abuse, and to increase the rate of registry. Cases of physical abuse had a higher Injury Severity Score, longer duration of hospitalization, and more injuries of head, face, and neck compared with other types of abuse. The reported rate of neglect was highly elevated after the CPMSDC established during the study period. Recognition of neglect is not easy, but the consequent injury, especially

  7. Analysis Of Masamo Catfish Marketing By Analytical Approach At Farmer Group “Sumber Lancar”, Blimbing, Malang City

    OpenAIRE

    Abidin, Zainal; Handayani, Wahyu; Fattah, Mochammad

    2016-01-01

    Masamo as new variety of catfish cultivated by the farmer group "Sumber Lancar" in Blimbing, Malang currently has a lot of demand due to increasing consumers who like to eat fish to meet the need for protein for the body. Increasing of Masamo catfish demand followed by production and marketing efforts. This study wants to know whether the marketing efficient. Therefore, this study uses analytical approach approach in order to identify institutional and channel of Masamo Catfish marketing perf...

  8. Cutting through the layers: Alternating perspectives and co-laborative analytic approaches to understanding occupation and its objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mewes, Julie Sascia; Elliot, Michelle L.; Lee, Kim

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, three qualitative researchers with professional backgrounds in social anthropology, occupational therapy, and occupational science present their methodological and theoretical standpoints and resultant analytical approaches on a single set of ethnographic data – an event occurring......, such an approach reveals similarities, differences, and complexity that may arise when attempting to locate occupation as the central unit of analysis. The conclusion suggests that cutting through the layers of occupation necessarily provides multiple ontologies....

  9. A Simple Approach for Demonstrating Soil Water Retention and Field Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, A.; Heitman, J. L.; Bowman, D.

    2010-01-01

    It is difficult to demonstrate the soil water retention relationship and related concepts because the specialized equipment required for performing these measurements is unavailable in most classrooms. This article outlines a low-cost, easily visualized method by which these concepts can be demonstrated in most any classroom. Columns (62.5 cm…

  10. A low-cost approach for rapidly creating demonstration models for hands-on learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinzli, Kristoph-Dietrich; Kunberger, Tanya; O'Neill, Robert; Badir, Ashraf

    2018-01-01

    Demonstration models allow students to readily grasp theory and relate difficult concepts and equations to real life. However drawbacks of using these demonstration models are that they are can be costly to purchase from vendors or take a significant amount of time to build. These two limiting factors can pose a significant obstacle for adding demonstrations to the curriculum. This article presents an assignment to overcome these obstacles, which has resulted in 36 demonstration models being added to the curriculum. The article also presents the results of student performance on course objectives as a result of the developed models being used in the classroom. Overall, significant improvement in student learning outcomes, due to the addition of demonstration models, has been observed.

  11. A Two-Step Approach for Analytical Optimal Hedging with Two Triggers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiesong Hu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Hedging is widely used to mitigate severe water shortages in the operation of reservoirs during droughts. Rationing is usually instituted with one hedging policy, which is based only on one trigger, i.e., initial storage level or current water availability. It may perform poorly in balancing the benefits of a release during the current period versus those of carryover storage during future droughts. This study proposes a novel hedging rule to improve the efficiency of a reservoir operated to supply water, in which, based on two triggers, hedging is initiated with three different hedging sub-rules through a two-step approach. In the first step, the sub-rule is triggered based on the relationship between the initial reservoir storage level and the level of the target rule curve or the firm rule curve at the end of the current period. This step is mainly concerned with increasing the water level or not in the current period. Hedging is then triggered under the sub-rule based on current water availability in the second step, in which the trigger implicitly considers both initial and ending reservoir storage levels in the current period. Moreover, the amount of hedging is analytically derived based on the Karush–Kuhn–Tucker (KKT conditions. In addition, the hedging parameters are optimized using the improved particle swarm optimization (IPSO algorithm coupled with a rule-based simulation. A single water-supply reservoir located in Hubei Province in central China is selected as a case study. The operation results show that the proposed rule is reasonable and significantly improves the reservoir operation performance for both long-term and critical periods relative to other operation policies, such as the standard operating policy (SOP and the most commonly used hedging rules.

  12. Heterogeneity of emotional and interpersonal difficulties in alcohol-dependence: A cluster analytic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurage, Pierre; Timary, Philippe de; D'Hondt, Fabien

    2017-08-01

    Emotional and interpersonal impairments have been largely reported in alcohol-dependence, and their role in its development and maintenance is widely established. However, earlier studies have exclusively focused on group comparisons between healthy controls and alcohol-dependent individuals, considering them as a homogeneous population. The variability of socio-emotional profiles in this disorder thus remains totally unexplored. The present study used a cluster analytic approach to explore the heterogeneity of affective and social disorders in alcohol-dependent individuals. 296 recently-detoxified alcohol-dependent patients were first compared with 246 matched healthy controls regarding self-reported emotional (i.e. alexithymia) and social (i.e. interpersonal problems) difficulties. Then, a cluster analysis was performed, focusing on the alcohol-dependent sample, to explore the presence of differential patterns of socio-emotional deficits and their links with demographic, psychopathological and alcohol-related variables. The group comparison between alcohol-dependent individuals and controls clearly confirmed that emotional and interpersonal difficulties constitute a key factor in alcohol-dependence. However, the cluster analysis identified five subgroups of alcohol-dependent individuals, presenting distinct combinations of alexithymia and interpersonal problems ranging from a total absence of reported impairment to generalized socio-emotional difficulties. Alcohol-dependent individuals should no more be considered as constituting a unitary group regarding their affective and interpersonal difficulties, but rather as a population encompassing a wide variety of socio-emotional profiles. Future experimental studies on emotional and social variables should thus go beyond mere group comparisons to explore this heterogeneity, and prevention programs proposing an individualized evaluation and rehabilitation of these deficits should be promoted. Copyright © 2017

  13. Metals and trace elements in feathers: A geochemical approach to avoid misinterpretation of analytical responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghesi, Fabrizio; Migani, Francesca; Andreotti, Alessandro; Baccetti, Nicola; Bianchi, Nicola; Birke, Manfred; Dinelli, Enrico

    2016-02-15

    Assessing trace metal pollution using feathers has long attracted the attention of ecotoxicologists as a cost-effective and non-invasive biomonitoring method. In order to interpret the concentrations in feathers considering the external contamination due to lithic residue particles, we adopted a novel geochemical approach. We analysed 58 element concentrations in feathers of wild Eurasian Greater Flamingo Phoenicopterus roseus fledglings, from 4 colonies in Western Europe (Spain, France, Sardinia, and North-eastern Italy) and one group of adults from zoo. In addition, 53 elements were assessed in soil collected close to the nesting islets. This enabled to compare a wide selection of metals among the colonies, highlighting environmental anomalies and tackling possible causes of misinterpretation of feather results. Most trace elements in feathers (Al, Ce, Co, Cs, Fe, Ga, Li, Mn, Nb, Pb, Rb, Ti, V, Zr, and REEs) were of external origin. Some elements could be constitutive (Cu, Zn) or significantly bioaccumulated (Hg, Se) in flamingos. For As, Cr, and to a lesser extent Pb, it seems that bioaccumulation potentially could be revealed by highly exposed birds, provided feathers are well cleaned. This comprehensive study provides a new dataset and confirms that Hg has been accumulated in feathers in all sites to some extent, with particular concern for the Sardinian colony, which should be studied further including Cr. The Spanish colony appears critical for As pollution and should be urgently investigated in depth. Feathers collected from North-eastern Italy were the hardest to clean, but our methods allowed biological interpretation of Cr and Pb. Our study highlights the importance of external contamination when analysing trace elements in feathers and advances methodological recommendations in order to reduce the presence of residual particles carrying elements of external origin. Geochemical data, when available, can represent a valuable tool for a correct

  14. Understanding heart rate alarm adjustment in the intensive care units through an analytical approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard L Fidler

    Full Text Available Heart rate (HR alarms are prevalent in ICU, and these parameters are configurable. Not much is known about nursing behavior associated with tailoring HR alarm parameters to individual patients to reduce clinical alarm fatigue.To understand the relationship between heart rate (HR alarms and adjustments to reduce unnecessary heart rate alarms.Retrospective, quantitative analysis of an adjudicated database using analytical approaches to understand behaviors surrounding parameter HR alarm adjustments. Patients were sampled from five adult ICUs (77 beds over one month at a quaternary care university medical center. A total of 337 of 461 ICU patients had HR alarms with 53.7% male, mean age 60.3 years, and 39% non-Caucasian. Default HR alarm parameters were 50 and 130 beats per minute (bpm. The occurrence of each alarm, vital signs, and physiologic waveforms was stored in a relational database (SQL server.There were 23,624 HR alarms for analysis, with 65.4% exceeding the upper heart rate limit. Only 51% of patients with HR alarms had parameters adjusted, with a median upper limit change of +5 bpm and -1 bpm lower limit. The median time to first HR parameter adjustment was 17.9 hours, without reduction in alarms occurrence (p = 0.57.HR alarms are prevalent in ICU, and half of HR alarm settings remain at default. There is a long delay between HR alarms and parameters changes, with insufficient changes to decrease HR alarms. Increasing frequency of HR alarms shortens the time to first adjustment. Best practice guidelines for HR alarm limits are needed to reduce alarm fatigue and improve monitoring precision.

  15. Communicable disease control programmes and health systems: an analytical approach to sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigayeva, Altynay; Coker, Richard J

    2015-04-01

    There is renewed concern over the sustainability of disease control programmes, and re-emergence of policy recommendations to integrate programmes with general health systems. However, the conceptualization of this issue has remarkably received little critical attention. Additionally, the study of programmatic sustainability presents methodological challenges. In this article, we propose a conceptual framework to support analyses of sustainability of communicable disease programmes. Through this work, we also aim to clarify a link between notions of integration and sustainability. As a part of development of the conceptual framework, we conducted a systematic literature review of peer-reviewed literature on concepts, definitions, analytical approaches and empirical studies on sustainability in health systems. Identified conceptual proposals for analysis of sustainability in health systems lack an explicit conceptualization of what a health system is. Drawing upon theoretical concepts originating in sustainability sciences and our review here, we conceptualize a communicable disease programme as a component of a health system which is viewed as a complex adaptive system. We propose five programmatic characteristics that may explain a potential for sustainability: leadership, capacity, interactions (notions of integration), flexibility/adaptability and performance. Though integration of elements of a programme with other system components is important, its role in sustainability is context specific and difficult to predict. The proposed framework might serve as a basis for further empirical evaluations in understanding complex interplay between programmes and broader health systems in the development of sustainable responses to communicable diseases. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine © The Author 2014; all rights reserved.

  16. Review: domestic animal forensic genetics - biological evidence, genetic markers, analytical approaches and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanthaswamy, S

    2015-10-01

    This review highlights the importance of domestic animal genetic evidence sources, genetic testing, markers and analytical approaches as well as the challenges this field is facing in view of the de facto 'gold standard' human DNA identification. Because of the genetic similarity between humans and domestic animals, genetic analysis of domestic animal hair, saliva, urine, blood and other biological material has generated vital investigative leads that have been admitted into a variety of court proceedings, including criminal and civil litigation. Information on validated short tandem repeat, single nucleotide polymorphism and mitochondrial DNA markers and public access to genetic databases for forensic DNA analysis is becoming readily available. Although the fundamental aspects of animal forensic genetic testing may be reliable and acceptable, animal forensic testing still lacks the standardized testing protocols that human genetic profiling requires, probably because of the absence of monetary support from government agencies and the difficulty in promoting cooperation among competing laboratories. Moreover, there is a lack in consensus about how to best present the results and expert opinion to comply with court standards and bear judicial scrutiny. This has been the single most persistent challenge ever since the earliest use of domestic animal forensic genetic testing in a criminal case in the mid-1990s. Crime laboratory accreditation ensures that genetic test results have the courts' confidence. Because accreditation requires significant commitments of effort, time and resources, the vast majority of animal forensic genetic laboratories are not accredited nor are their analysts certified forensic examiners. The relevance of domestic animal forensic genetics in the criminal justice system is undeniable. However, further improvements are needed in a wide range of supporting resources, including standardized quality assurance and control protocols for sample

  17. Problematic eating behaviors among bariatric surgical candidates: a psychometric investigation and factor analytic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelinas, Bethany L; Delparte, Chelsea A; Wright, Kristi D; Hart, Regan

    2015-01-01

    Psychological factors (e.g., anxiety, depression) are routinely assessed in bariatric pre-surgical programs, as high levels of psychopathology are consistently related to poor program outcomes (e.g., failure to lose significant weight pre-surgery, weight regain post-surgery). Behavioral factors related to poor program outcomes and ways in which behavioral and psychological factors interact, have received little attention in bariatric research and practice. Potentially problematic behavioral factors are queried by Section H of the Weight and Lifestyle Inventory (WALI-H), in which respondents indicate the relevance of certain eating behaviors to obesity. A factor analytic investigation of the WALI-H serves to improve the way in which this assessment tool is interpreted and used among bariatric surgical candidates, and subsequent moderation analyses serve to demonstrate potential compounding influences of psychopathology on eating behavior factors. Bariatric surgical candidates (n =362) completed several measures of psychopathology and the WALI-H. Item responses from the WALI-H were subjected to principal axis factoring with oblique rotation. Results revealed a three-factor model including: (1) eating in response to negative affect, (2) overeating/desirability of food, and (3) eating in response to positive affect/social cues. All three behavioral factors of the WALI-H were significantly associated with measures of depression and anxiety. Moderation analyses revealed that depression did not moderate the relationship between anxiety and any eating behavior factor. Although single forms of psychopathology are related to eating behaviors, the combination of psychopathology does not appear to influence these problematic behaviors. Recommendations for pre-surgical assessment and treatment of bariatric surgical candidates are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Modeling of Coaxial Slot Waveguides Using Analytical and Numerical Approaches: Revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kok Yeow You

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Our reviews of analytical methods and numerical methods for coaxial slot waveguides are presented. The theories, background, and physical principles related to frequency-domain electromagnetic equations for coaxial waveguides are reassessed. Comparisons of the accuracies of various types of admittance and impedance equations and numerical simulations are made, and the fringing field at the aperture sensor, which is represented by the lumped capacitance circuit, is evaluated. The accuracy and limitations of the analytical equations are explained in detail. The reasons for the replacement of analytical methods by numerical methods are outlined.

  19. An Analytical Study of the Nonsinglet Spin Structure Function g1NS(x,t) Up to NLO in the DGLAP Approach at Small x

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borah, Neelakshi N. K.; Choudhury, D. K.

    2014-01-01

    A next-to-leading order QCD calculation of nonsinglet spin structure function g 1 NS (x,t) at small x is presented using the analytical methods: Lagrange’s method and method of characteristics. The compatibility of these analytical approaches is tested by comparing the analytical solutions with the available polarized global fits

  20. Investigations of phosphate coatings of galvanized steel sheets by a surface-analytical multi-method approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bubert, H.; Garten, R.; Klockenkaemper, R.; Puderbach, H.

    1983-01-01

    Corrosion protective coatings on galvanized steel sheets have been studied by a combination of SEM, EDX, AES, ISS and SIMS. Analytical statements concerning such rough, poly-crystalline and contaminated surfaces of technical samples are quite difficult to obtain. The use of a surface-analytical multi-method approach overcomes, the intrinsic limitations of the individual method applied, thus resulting in a consistent picture of those technical surfaces. Such results can be used to examine technical faults and to optimize the technical process. (Author)

  1. Soft x-ray continuum radiation transmitted through metallic filters: An analytical approach to fast electron temperature measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delgado-Aparicio, L.; Hill, K.; Bitter, M.; Tritz, K.; Kramer, T.; Stutman, D.; Finkenthal, M.

    2010-01-01

    A new set of analytic formulas describes the transmission of soft x-ray continuum radiation through a metallic foil for its application to fast electron temperature measurements in fusion plasmas. This novel approach shows good agreement with numerical calculations over a wide range of plasma temperatures in contrast with the solutions obtained when using a transmission approximated by a single-Heaviside function [S. von Goeler et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 599 (1999)]. The new analytic formulas can improve the interpretation of the experimental results and thus contribute in obtaining fast temperature measurements in between intermittent Thomson scattering data.

  2. An analytical approach for predicting the energy capture and conversion by impulsively-excited bistable vibration energy harvesters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harne, R. L.; Zhang, Chunlin; Li, Bing; Wang, K. W.

    2016-07-01

    Impulsive energies are abundant throughout the natural and built environments, for instance as stimulated by wind gusts, foot-steps, or vehicle-road interactions. In the interest of maximizing the sustainability of society's technological developments, one idea is to capture these high-amplitude and abrupt energies and convert them into usable electrical power such as for sensors which otherwise rely on less sustainable power supplies. In this spirit, the considerable sensitivity to impulse-type events previously uncovered for bistable oscillators has motivated recent experimental and numerical studies on the power generation performance of bistable vibration energy harvesters. To lead to an effective and efficient predictive tool and design guide, this research develops a new analytical approach to estimate the electroelastic response and power generation of a bistable energy harvester when excited by an impulse. Comparison with values determined by direct simulation of the governing equations shows that the analytically predicted net converted energies are very accurate for a wide range of impulse strengths. Extensive experimental investigations are undertaken to validate the analytical approach and it is seen that the predicted estimates of the impulsive energy conversion are in excellent agreement with the measurements, and the detailed structural dynamics are correctly reproduced. As a result, the analytical approach represents a significant leap forward in the understanding of how to effectively leverage bistable structures as energy harvesting devices and introduces new means to elucidate the transient and far-from-equilibrium dynamics of nonlinear systems more generally.

  3. Analytical Approach to Polarization Mode Dispersion in Linearly Spun Fiber with Birefringence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinod K. Mishra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The behavior of Polarization Mode Dispersion (PMD in spun optical fiber is a topic of great interest in optical networking. Earlier work in this area has focused more on approximate or numerical solutions. In this paper we present analytical results for PMD in spun fibers with triangular spin profile function. It is found that in some parameter ranges the analytical results differ from the approximations.

  4. Strand Invasion Based Amplification (SIBA®): a novel isothermal DNA amplification technology demonstrating high specificity and sensitivity for a single molecule of target analyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoser, Mark J; Mansukoski, Hannu K; Morrical, Scott W; Eboigbodin, Kevin E

    2014-01-01

    Isothermal nucleic acid amplification technologies offer significant advantages over polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in that they do not require thermal cycling or sophisticated laboratory equipment. However, non-target-dependent amplification has limited the sensitivity of isothermal technologies and complex probes are usually required to distinguish between non-specific and target-dependent amplification. Here, we report a novel isothermal nucleic acid amplification technology, Strand Invasion Based Amplification (SIBA). SIBA technology is resistant to non-specific amplification, is able to detect a single molecule of target analyte, and does not require target-specific probes. The technology relies on the recombinase-dependent insertion of an invasion oligonucleotide (IO) into the double-stranded target nucleic acid. The duplex regions peripheral to the IO insertion site dissociate, thereby enabling target-specific primers to bind. A polymerase then extends the primers onto the target nucleic acid leading to exponential amplification of the target. The primers are not substrates for the recombinase and are, therefore unable to extend the target template in the absence of the IO. The inclusion of 2'-O-methyl RNA to the IO ensures that it is not extendible and that it does not take part in the extension of the target template. These characteristics ensure that the technology is resistant to non-specific amplification since primer dimers or mis-priming are unable to exponentially amplify. Consequently, SIBA is highly specific and able to distinguish closely-related species with single molecule sensitivity in the absence of complex probes or sophisticated laboratory equipment. Here, we describe this technology in detail and demonstrate its use for the detection of Salmonella.

  5. Strand Invasion Based Amplification (SIBA®: a novel isothermal DNA amplification technology demonstrating high specificity and sensitivity for a single molecule of target analyte.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark J Hoser

    Full Text Available Isothermal nucleic acid amplification technologies offer significant advantages over polymerase chain reaction (PCR in that they do not require thermal cycling or sophisticated laboratory equipment. However, non-target-dependent amplification has limited the sensitivity of isothermal technologies and complex probes are usually required to distinguish between non-specific and target-dependent amplification. Here, we report a novel isothermal nucleic acid amplification technology, Strand Invasion Based Amplification (SIBA. SIBA technology is resistant to non-specific amplification, is able to detect a single molecule of target analyte, and does not require target-specific probes. The technology relies on the recombinase-dependent insertion of an invasion oligonucleotide (IO into the double-stranded target nucleic acid. The duplex regions peripheral to the IO insertion site dissociate, thereby enabling target-specific primers to bind. A polymerase then extends the primers onto the target nucleic acid leading to exponential amplification of the target. The primers are not substrates for the recombinase and are, therefore unable to extend the target template in the absence of the IO. The inclusion of 2'-O-methyl RNA to the IO ensures that it is not extendible and that it does not take part in the extension of the target template. These characteristics ensure that the technology is resistant to non-specific amplification since primer dimers or mis-priming are unable to exponentially amplify. Consequently, SIBA is highly specific and able to distinguish closely-related species with single molecule sensitivity in the absence of complex probes or sophisticated laboratory equipment. Here, we describe this technology in detail and demonstrate its use for the detection of Salmonella.

  6. Power Users and Patchworking – an Analytical Approach to Critical Studies of Young People’s Learning with Digital Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryberg, Thomas; Dirckinck-Holmfeld, Lone

    2008-01-01

    This paper sets out to problematize generational categories such as ‘Power Users’ or ‘New Millennium Learners’ by discussing these in the light of recent research on youth and ICT. We then suggest analytic and conceptual pathways to engage in more critical and empirically founded studies of young...... people’s learning in technology and media-rich settings. Based on a study of a group of young ‘Power Users’ it is argued, that conceptualising and analysing learning as a process of patchworking can enhance our knowledge of young people’s learning in such settings. We argue that the analytical approach...... gives us ways of critically investigating young people’s learning in technology and media-rich settings, and study if these are processes of critical, reflexive enquiry where resources are creatively re-appropriated. With departure in an analytical example the paper presents the proposed metaphor...

  7. Photo-Ionization of Noble Gases: A Demonstration of Hybrid Coupled Channels Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinay Pramod Majety

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We present here an application of the recently developed hybrid coupled channels approach to study photo-ionization of noble gas atoms: Neon and Argon. We first compute multi-photon ionization rates and cross-sections for these inert gas atoms with our approach and compare them with reliable data available from R-matrix Floquet theory. The good agreement between coupled channels and R-matrix Floquet theory show that our method treats multi-electron systems on par with the well established R-matrix theory. We then apply the time dependent surface flux (tSURFF method with our approach to compute total and angle resolved photo-electron spectra from Argon with linearly and circularly polarized 12 nm wavelength laser fields, a typical wavelength available from Free Electron Lasers (FELs.

  8. An analytical approach to bistable biological circuit discrimination using real algebraic geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegal-Gaskins, Dan; Franco, Elisa; Zhou, Tiffany; Murray, Richard M

    2015-07-06

    Biomolecular circuits with two distinct and stable steady states have been identified as essential components in a wide range of biological networks, with a variety of mechanisms and topologies giving rise to their important bistable property. Understanding the differences between circuit implementations is an important question, particularly for the synthetic biologist faced with determining which bistable circuit design out of many is best for their specific application. In this work we explore the applicability of Sturm's theorem--a tool from nineteenth-century real algebraic geometry--to comparing 'functionally equivalent' bistable circuits without the need for numerical simulation. We first consider two genetic toggle variants and two different positive feedback circuits, and show how specific topological properties present in each type of circuit can serve to increase the size of the regions of parameter space in which they function as switches. We then demonstrate that a single competitive monomeric activator added to a purely monomeric (and otherwise monostable) mutual repressor circuit is sufficient for bistability. Finally, we compare our approach with the Routh-Hurwitz method and derive consistent, yet more powerful, parametric conditions. The predictive power and ease of use of Sturm's theorem demonstrated in this work suggest that algebraic geometric techniques may be underused in biomolecular circuit analysis.

  9. Demonstration of a geostatistical approach to physically consistent downscaling of climate modeling simulations

    KAUST Repository

    Jha, Sanjeev Kumar; Mariethoz, Gregoire; Evans, Jason P.; McCabe, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    A downscaling approach based on multiple-point geostatistics (MPS) is presented. The key concept underlying MPS is to sample spatial patterns from within training images, which can then be used in characterizing the relationship between different variables across multiple scales. The approach is used here to downscale climate variables including skin surface temperature (TSK), soil moisture (SMOIS), and latent heat flux (LH). The performance of the approach is assessed by applying it to data derived from a regional climate model of the Murray-Darling basin in southeast Australia, using model outputs at two spatial resolutions of 50 and 10 km. The data used in this study cover the period from 1985 to 2006, with 1985 to 2005 used for generating the training images that define the relationships of the variables across the different spatial scales. Subsequently, the spatial distributions for the variables in the year 2006 are determined at 10 km resolution using the 50 km resolution data as input. The MPS geostatistical downscaling approach reproduces the spatial distribution of TSK, SMOIS, and LH at 10 km resolution with the correct spatial patterns over different seasons, while providing uncertainty estimates through the use of multiple realizations. The technique has the potential to not only bridge issues of spatial resolution in regional and global climate model simulations but also in feature sharpening in remote sensing applications through image fusion, filling gaps in spatial data, evaluating downscaled variables with available remote sensing images, and aggregating/disaggregating hydrological and groundwater variables for catchment studies.

  10. An Analytic Approach to Developing Transport Threshold Models of Neoclassical Tearing Modes in Tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhailovskii, A.B.; Shirokov, M.S.; Konovalov, S.V.; Tsypin, V.S.

    2005-01-01

    Transport threshold models of neoclassical tearing modes in tokamaks are investigated analytically. An analysis is made of the competition between strong transverse heat transport, on the one hand, and longitudinal heat transport, longitudinal heat convection, longitudinal inertial transport, and rotational transport, on the other hand, which leads to the establishment of the perturbed temperature profile in magnetic islands. It is shown that, in all these cases, the temperature profile can be found analytically by using rigorous solutions to the heat conduction equation in the near and far regions of a chain of magnetic islands and then by matching these solutions. Analytic expressions for the temperature profile are used to calculate the contribution of the bootstrap current to the generalized Rutherford equation for the island width evolution with the aim of constructing particular transport threshold models of neoclassical tearing modes. Four transport threshold models, differing in the underlying competing mechanisms, are analyzed: collisional, convective, inertial, and rotational models. The collisional model constructed analytically is shown to coincide exactly with that calculated numerically; the reason is that the analytical temperature profile turns out to be the same as the numerical profile. The results obtained can be useful in developing the next generation of general threshold models. The first steps toward such models have already been made

  11. A Multi-analytical Approach for the Characterization of Marbles from Lesser Himalayas (Northwest Pakistan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahad, M.; Iqbal, Y.; Riaz, M.; Ubic, R.; Redfern, S. A. T.

    2015-12-01

    - 628oC. The multi-analytical approach applied in the present study allows the best possible discrimination. The detailed databank relating to the quarried material, created here for the first time, provides a solid basis for possible studies on the provenance and distribution of building stones from these areas.

  12. Three colossal neurons: a new approach to an old classroom demonstration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, Steven R

    2013-01-01

    Research suggests that the key to optimal student learning, regardless of class size, is engaging students in active learning. It is my contention that to truly understand neural processing, one must not only understand the activities of the neuron as a living cell, but also how that cell works within the context of a neural network. The demonstration exercise described herein combines techniques expressed in three previously published articles, with certain modifications, allowing as few as 15 and as many as about 200 students to actively participate in the endeavor. Moreover, test scores from 158 students were examined, showing that students who participated in the demonstration performed significantly better on exam questions than students who did not take part.

  13. On Direct Transformation Approach to Asymptotical Analytical Solutions of Perturbed Partial Differential Equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Hongzhun; Pan Zuliang; Li Peng

    2006-01-01

    In this article, we will derive an equality, where the Taylor series expansion around ε = 0 for any asymptotical analytical solution of the perturbed partial differential equation (PDE) with perturbing parameter ε must be admitted. By making use of the equality, we may obtain a transformation, which directly map the analytical solutions of a given unperturbed PDE to the asymptotical analytical solutions of the corresponding perturbed one. The notion of Lie-Baecklund symmetries is introduced in order to obtain more transformations. Hence, we can directly create more transformations in virtue of known Lie-Baecklund symmetries and recursion operators of corresponding unperturbed equation. The perturbed Burgers equation and the perturbed Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation are used as examples.

  14. A combined experimental and analytical approach for interface fracture parameters of dissimilar materials in electronic packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kay, N.R.; Ghosh, S.; Guven, I.; Madenci, E.

    2006-01-01

    This study concerns the development of a combined experimental and analytical technique to determine the critical values of fracture parameters for interfaces between dissimilar materials in electronic packages. This technique utilizes specimens from post-production electronic packages. The mechanical testing is performed inside a scanning electron microscope while the measurements are achieved by means of digital image correlation. The measured displacements around the crack tip are used as the boundary conditions for the analytical model to compute the energy release rate. The critical energy release rate values obtained from post-production package specimens are obtained to be lower than those laboratory specimens

  15. Analytical approaches used in stream benthic macroinvertebrate biomonitoring programs of State agencies in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, James L.; Resh, Vincent H.

    2013-01-01

    Biomonitoring programs based on benthic macroinvertebrates are well-established worldwide. Their value, however, depends on the appropriateness of the analytical techniques used. All United States State, benthic macroinvertebrate biomonitoring programs were surveyed regarding the purposes of their programs, quality-assurance and quality-control procedures used, habitat and water-chemistry data collected, treatment of macroinvertebrate data prior to analysis, statistical methods used, and data-storage considerations. State regulatory mandates (59 percent of programs), biotic index development (17 percent), and Federal requirements (15 percent) were the most frequently reported purposes of State programs, with the specific tasks of satisfying the requirements for 305b/303d reports (89 percent), establishment and monitoring of total maximum daily loads, and developing biocriteria being the purposes most often mentioned. Most states establish reference sites (81 percent), but classify them using State-specific methods. The most often used technique for determining the appropriateness of a reference site was Best Professional Judgment (86 percent of these states). Macroinvertebrate samples are almost always collected by using a D-frame net, and duplicate samples are collected from approximately 10 percent of sites for quality assurance and quality control purposes. Most programs have macroinvertebrate samples processed by contractors (53 percent) and have identifications confirmed by a second taxonomist (85 percent). All States collect habitat data, with most using the Rapid Bioassessment Protocol visual-assessment approach, which requires ~1 h/site. Dissolved oxygen, pH, and conductivity are measured in more than 90 percent of programs. Wide variation exists in which taxa are excluded from analyses and the level of taxonomic resolution used. Species traits, such as functional feeding groups, are commonly used (96 percent), as are tolerance values for organic pollution

  16. Analytical approaches for the detection of epoxides and hydroperoxides in active pharmaceutical ingredients, drug products and herbals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elder, D P; Snodin, D; Teasdale, A

    2010-04-06

    This review summarizes the analytical approaches reported in the literature relating to epoxide and hydroperoxide impurities. It is intended that it should provide guidance for analysts faced by the need to control such impurities, particularly where this is due to concerns relating to their potential genotoxicity. An extensive search of the literature relating to this class of impurities revealed a large number of references relating to analysis of epoxides/hydroperoxides associated with herbal remedies. Given the general applicability of the analytical methodology and due to the widespread use of herbal products the authors decided to include herbal medicines in this review. The review also reflects on the very different approaches taken in terms of the assessment/control of genotoxic impurities for such herbal remedies to that required for pharmaceutical products. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Towards a new analytical approach to the challenges of communication difficulties and aquired brain damage in everyday practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klemmensen, Charlotte Marie Bisgaard

    part of where the participants mainly are persons with acquired brain damage and occupational therapists. I will discuss how a new approach to sense-making practice may be designed in order to study more closely a participants’ perspective in unique situations as they arise. I am interested......The approach of language psychology is grounded in the persons communicating; where as the approach of discursive psychology is grounded in social interaction. There is a lack of scientific knowledge on the social/communicative/interactional challenges of communication difficulties and brain injury...... in everyday life. A sense-making-in-practice approach may help form a new discourse. How may a new analytical approach be designed? May ‘communication’ be described as ‘participation abilities’, using the framework from language psychology combined with discursive psychology and the conventions...

  18. Pion form factor in QCD sum rules, local duality approach, and O(A2) fractional analytic perturbation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakulev, Alexander P.

    2010-01-01

    Using the results on the electromagnetic pion Form Factor (FF) obtained in the O(α s ) QCD sum rules with non-local condensates [A.P. Bakulev, A.V. Pimikov, and N.G. Stefanis, Phys. Rev. D79 (2009) 093010] we determine the effective continuum threshold for the local duality approach. Then we apply it to construct the O(α s 2 ) estimation of the pion FF in the framework of the fractional analytic perturbation theory.

  19. A proposal framework for investigating website success in the context of e-banking:an analytic network process approach

    OpenAIRE

    Salehi, Mona; Keramati, Abbas

    2009-01-01

    This study proposes a framework to investigate website success factors, and their relative importance in selecting the most preferred e-banking website. For one thing, Updated Delone and Mclean IS success model is chosen to extract significant website success factors in the context of e-banking in Iran. Secondly, Updated Delone and McLean IS success model is extended through applying an analytic network process (ANP) approach in order to investigate the relative importance of each factor and ...

  20. New research at Paisley Caves:applying new integrated analytical approaches to understanding stratigraphy, taphonomy, and site formation processes

    OpenAIRE

    Shillito, Lisa-Marie; Blong, John C; Jenkins, Dennis L; Stafford Jr, Thomas W; Whelton, Helen; McDonough, Katelyn; Bull, Ian

    2018-01-01

    Paisley Caves in Oregon has become well known due to early dates, and human presence in the form of coprolites, found to contain ancient human DNA. Questions remain over whether the coprolites themselves are human, or whether the DNA is mobile in the sediments. This brief introduces new research applying an integrated analytical approach combining sediment micromorphology and lipid biomarker analysis, which aims to resolve these problems.

  1. Combined multi-analytical approach for study of pore system in bricks: How much porosity is there?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coletti, Chiara, E-mail: chiara.coletti@studenti.unipd.it [Department of Geosciences, University of Padova, Via G. Gradenigo 6, 35131 Padova (Italy); Department of Mineralogy and Petrology, Faculty of Science, University of Granada, Avda. Fuentenueva s/n, 18002 Granada (Spain); Cultrone, Giuseppe [Department of Mineralogy and Petrology, Faculty of Science, University of Granada, Avda. Fuentenueva s/n, 18002 Granada (Spain); Maritan, Lara; Mazzoli, Claudio [Department of Geosciences, University of Padova, Via G. Gradenigo 6, 35131 Padova (Italy)

    2016-11-15

    During the firing of bricks, mineralogical and textural transformations produce an artificial aggregate characterised by significant porosity. Particularly as regards pore-size distribution and the interconnection model, porosity is an important parameter to evaluate and predict the durability of bricks. The pore system is in fact the main element, which correlates building materials and their environment (especially in cases of aggressive weathering, e.g., salt crystallisation and freeze-thaw cycles) and determines their durability. Four industrial bricks with differing compositions and firing temperatures were analysed with “direct” and “indirect” techniques, traditional methods (mercury intrusion porosimetry, hydric tests, nitrogen adsorption) and new analytical approaches based on digital image reconstruction of 2D and 3D models (back-scattered electrons and computerised X-ray micro-Tomography, respectively). The comparison of results from different analytical methods in the “overlapping ranges” of porosity and the careful reconstruction of a cumulative curve, allowed overcoming their specific limitations and achieving better knowledge on the pore system of bricks. - Highlights: •Pore-size distribution and structure of the pore system in four commercial bricks •A multi-analytical approach combining “direct” and “indirect” techniques •Traditional methods vs. new approaches based on 2D/3D digital image reconstruction •The use of “overlapping ranges” to overcome the limitations of various techniques.

  2. Calculating the effective delayed neutron fraction in the Molten Salt Fast Reactor: Analytical, deterministic and Monte Carlo approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aufiero, Manuele; Brovchenko, Mariya; Cammi, Antonio; Clifford, Ivor; Geoffroy, Olivier; Heuer, Daniel; Laureau, Axel; Losa, Mario; Luzzi, Lelio; Merle-Lucotte, Elsa; Ricotti, Marco E.; Rouch, Hervé

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Calculation of effective delayed neutron fraction in circulating-fuel reactors. • Extension of the Monte Carlo SERPENT-2 code for delayed neutron precursor tracking. • Forward and adjoint multi-group diffusion eigenvalue problems in OpenFOAM. • Analytical approach for β eff calculation in simple geometries and flow conditions. • Good agreement among the three proposed approaches in the MSFR test-case. - Abstract: This paper deals with the calculation of the effective delayed neutron fraction (β eff ) in circulating-fuel nuclear reactors. The Molten Salt Fast Reactor is adopted as test case for the comparison of the analytical, deterministic and Monte Carlo methods presented. The Monte Carlo code SERPENT-2 has been extended to allow for delayed neutron precursors drift, according to the fuel velocity field. The forward and adjoint eigenvalue multi-group diffusion problems are implemented and solved adopting the multi-physics tool-kit OpenFOAM, by taking into account the convective and turbulent diffusive terms in the precursors balance. These two approaches show good agreement in the whole range of the MSFR operating conditions. An analytical formula for the circulating-to-static conditions β eff correction factor is also derived under simple hypotheses, which explicitly takes into account the spatial dependence of the neutron importance. Its accuracy is assessed against Monte Carlo and deterministic results. The effects of in-core recirculation vortex and turbulent diffusion are finally analysed and discussed

  3. Modal instability of rod fiber amplifiers: a semi-analytic approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Mette Marie; Hansen, Kristian Rymann; Laurila, Marko

    2013-01-01

    The modal instability (MI) threshold is estimated for four rod fiber designs by combining a semi-analytic model with the finite element method. The thermal load due to the quantum defect is calculated and used to numerically determine the mode distributions on which the expression for the onset o...

  4. An analytical approach to the CMB polarization in a spatially closed background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niazy, Pedram; Abbassi, Amir H.

    2018-03-01

    The scalar mode polarization of the cosmic microwave background is derived in a spatially closed universe from the Boltzmann equation using the line of sight integral method. The EE and TE multipole coefficients have been extracted analytically by considering some tolerable approximations such as considering the evolution of perturbation hydrodynamically and sudden transition from opacity to transparency at the time of last scattering. As the major advantage of analytic expressions, CEE,ℓS and CTE,ℓ explicitly show the dependencies on baryon density ΩB, matter density ΩM, curvature ΩK, primordial spectral index ns, primordial power spectrum amplitude As, Optical depth τreion, recombination width σt and recombination time tL. Using a realistic set of cosmological parameters taken from a fit to data from Planck, the closed universe EE and TE power spectrums in the scalar mode are compared with numerical results from the CAMB code and also latest observational data. The analytic results agree with the numerical ones on the big and moderate scales. The peak positions are in good agreement with the numerical result on these scales while the peak heights agree with that to within 20% due to the approximations have been considered for these derivations. Also, several interesting properties of CMB polarization are revealed by the analytic spectra.

  5. Assessment of Learning in Digital Interactive Social Networks: A Learning Analytics Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Mark; Gochyyev, Perman; Scalise, Kathleen

    2016-01-01

    This paper summarizes initial field-test results from data analytics used in the work of the Assessment and Teaching of 21st Century Skills (ATC21S) project, on the "ICT Literacy--Learning in digital networks" learning progression. This project, sponsored by Cisco, Intel and Microsoft, aims to help educators around the world enable…

  6. A Social Media Practicum: An Action-Learning Approach to Social Media Marketing and Analytics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwong, Catherine T.

    2015-01-01

    To prepare students for the rapidly evolving field of digital marketing, which requires more and more technical skills every year, a social media practicum creates a learning environment in which students can apply marketing principles and become ready for collaborative work in social media marketing and analytics. Using student newspapers as…

  7. Image Analytical Approach for Needle-Shaped Crystal Counting and Length Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Jian X.; Kucheryavskiy, Sergey V.; Jensen, Linda G.

    2015-01-01

    Estimation of nucleation and crystal growth rates from microscopic information is of critical importance. This can be an especially challenging task if needle growth of crystals is observed. To address this challenge, an image analytical method for counting of needle-shaped crystals and estimating...

  8. A Two-Stage Approach to Synthesizing Covariance Matrices in Meta-Analytic Structural Equation Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Mike W. L.; Chan, Wai

    2009-01-01

    Structural equation modeling (SEM) is widely used as a statistical framework to test complex models in behavioral and social sciences. When the number of publications increases, there is a need to systematically synthesize them. Methodology of synthesizing findings in the context of SEM is known as meta-analytic SEM (MASEM). Although correlation…

  9. Analytical approaches for the characterization and quantification of nanoparticles in food and beverages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mattarozzi, Monica; Suman, Michele; Cascio, Claudia; Calestani, Davide; Weigel, Stefan; Undas, Anna; Peters, Ruud

    2017-01-01

    Estimating consumer exposure to nanomaterials (NMs) in food products and predicting their toxicological properties are necessary steps in the assessment of the risks of this technology. To this end, analytical methods have to be available to detect, characterize and quantify NMs in food and

  10. New analytic approach to the theory of charge exchange in atom-multiply charged ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Presnyakov, L.P.; Uskov, D.B.; Janev, R.K.

    1981-01-01

    A new method is discussed for the solution of many-level charge-exchange problems. The results provide the distribution of the final electronic states over the angular quantum numbers in analytical form. The obtained Z oscillations (Z is the ion charge) of the cross sections are found to be in good agreement with recent experimental data. (orig.)

  11. Chemical clocks, oscillations, and other temporal effects in analytical chemistry: oddity or viable approach?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhu, Gurpur Rakesh D; Witek, Henryk A; Urban, Pawel L

    2018-05-31

    Most analytical methods are based on "analogue" inputs from sensors of light, electric potentials, or currents. The signals obtained by such sensors are processed using certain calibration functions to determine concentrations of the target analytes. The signal readouts are normally done after an optimised and fixed time period, during which an assay mixture is incubated. This minireview covers another-and somewhat unusual-analytical strategy, which relies on the measurement of time interval between the occurrences of two distinguishable states in the assay reaction. These states manifest themselves via abrupt changes in the properties of the assay mixture (e.g. change of colour, appearance or disappearance of luminescence, change in pH, variations in optical activity or mechanical properties). In some cases, a correlation between the time of appearance/disappearance of a given property and the analyte concentration can be also observed. An example of an assay based on time measurement is an oscillating reaction, in which the period of oscillations is linked to the concentration of the target analyte. A number of chemo-chronometric assays, relying on the existing (bio)transformations or artificially designed reactions, were disclosed in the past few years. They are very attractive from the fundamental point of view but-so far-only few of them have be validated and used to address real-world problems. Then, can chemo-chronometric assays become a practical tool for chemical analysis? Is there a need for further development of such assays? We are aiming to answer these questions.

  12. Magnetic exchange couplings from constrained density functional theory: an efficient approach utilizing analytic derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Jordan J; Peralta, Juan E

    2011-11-14

    We introduce a method for evaluating magnetic exchange couplings based on the constrained density functional theory (C-DFT) approach of Rudra, Wu, and Van Voorhis [J. Chem. Phys. 124, 024103 (2006)]. Our method shares the same physical principles as C-DFT but makes use of the fact that the electronic energy changes quadratically and bilinearly with respect to the constraints in the range of interest. This allows us to use coupled perturbed Kohn-Sham spin density functional theory to determine approximately the corrections to the energy of the different spin configurations and construct a priori the relevant energy-landscapes obtained by constrained spin density functional theory. We assess this methodology in a set of binuclear transition-metal complexes and show that it reproduces very closely the results of C-DFT. This demonstrates a proof-of-concept for this method as a potential tool for studying a number of other molecular phenomena. Additionally, routes to improving upon the limitations of this method are discussed. © 2011 American Institute of Physics

  13. Technical and administrative approach for the West Valley Demonstration Project Safety Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newsom, P.C.; Roberts, C.J.; Yuchien Yuan; Marchetti, S.

    1987-06-01

    The principal objective of the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) is to vitrify the 2.2 million liters of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) stored at the Western New York Nuclear Service Center (WNYNSC). This simple statement of purpose, however, does not convey a sense of the complexity of the undertaking. The vitrification task is not only complex in and of itself, but requires a myriad of other activities to be accomplished on an intricate and fast paced schedule in order to support it. The West Valley Demonstration Project Act (P.L 96-368), U.S. Department of Energy Order DOE-5481.1A, Idaho Operations Office Order ID-5481.1 and standard nuclear industry practice all require that proposed systems and operations involving hazards not routinely encountered by the general public be analyzed to identify potential hazards and consequences, and to assure that reasonable measures are taken to eliminate, control, or mitigate these potential consequences. Virtually every substantive aspect of the WVDP involves hazards beyond those routinely encountered and accepted by the general public. In order to assure the safety of the public and the workers at the WVDP, a system of hazard identification, categorization, analysis and review has been established. In parallel with this system, a procedure for developing the minimum design specifications and quality assurance requirements has been developed for Project systems, components, and structures which play a role in the safety of a specific major facility or the overall Project. 29 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs

  14. Analytical approach to cross-layer protocol optimization in wireless sensor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hortos, William S.

    2008-04-01

    In the distributed operations of route discovery and maintenance, strong interaction occurs across mobile ad hoc network (MANET) protocol layers. Quality of service (QoS) requirements of multimedia service classes must be satisfied by the cross-layer protocol, along with minimization of the distributed power consumption at nodes and along routes to battery-limited energy constraints. In previous work by the author, cross-layer interactions in the MANET protocol are modeled in terms of a set of concatenated design parameters and associated resource levels by multivariate point processes (MVPPs). Determination of the "best" cross-layer design is carried out using the optimal control of martingale representations of the MVPPs. In contrast to the competitive interaction among nodes in a MANET for multimedia services using limited resources, the interaction among the nodes of a wireless sensor network (WSN) is distributed and collaborative, based on the processing of data from a variety of sensors at nodes to satisfy common mission objectives. Sensor data originates at the nodes at the periphery of the WSN, is successively transported to other nodes for aggregation based on information-theoretic measures of correlation and ultimately sent as information to one or more destination (decision) nodes. The "multimedia services" in the MANET model are replaced by multiple types of sensors, e.g., audio, seismic, imaging, thermal, etc., at the nodes; the QoS metrics associated with MANETs become those associated with the quality of fused information flow, i.e., throughput, delay, packet error rate, data correlation, etc. Significantly, the essential analytical approach to MANET cross-layer optimization, now based on the MVPPs for discrete random events occurring in the WSN, can be applied to develop the stochastic characteristics and optimality conditions for cross-layer designs of sensor network protocols. Functional dependencies of WSN performance metrics are described in

  15. Comparative Demonstration of Active and Semi-Passive In Situ Bioremediation Approaches for Perchlorate Impacted Groundwater: Active In Situ Bioremediation Demonstration (Aerojet Facility)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    Project Manager 7440 Lincoln Garden CA 92841-1432 • TEL: ~ FAX: 894-7501 ~~~~!~ cience ANALYTICAL REPORT L GeoSyntec Consultants Date 1 Lane, Suite...Garden CA 92841-1432 "’ TEL: 894-7501 1 (.~f:!~~ cience « . !’Vironmental I aboratories, Lane, Suite 2 N1G 5G3 ANALYTICAL REPORT Guelph, Ontario...894-7501 L~C!t~ cience l:.~~.nlll llllf’r&""’lf"ir’I£~U’IIll"~ll L ........ ,.ll""l!.’i’,. ........ .,. GeoSyntec Consultants 130 Suite 2 N1G 5G3

  16. Learning robotic eye-arm-hand coordination from human demonstration: a coupled dynamical systems approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukic, Luka; Santos-Victor, José; Billard, Aude

    2014-04-01

    We investigate the role of obstacle avoidance in visually guided reaching and grasping movements. We report on a human study in which subjects performed prehensile motion with obstacle avoidance where the position of the obstacle was systematically varied across trials. These experiments suggest that reaching with obstacle avoidance is organized in a sequential manner, where the obstacle acts as an intermediary target. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the notion of workspace travelled by the hand is embedded explicitly in a forward planning scheme, which is actively involved in detecting obstacles on the way when performing reaching. We find that the gaze proactively coordinates the pattern of eye-arm motion during obstacle avoidance. This study provides also a quantitative assessment of the coupling between the eye-arm-hand motion. We show that the coupling follows regular phase dependencies and is unaltered during obstacle avoidance. These observations provide a basis for the design of a computational model. Our controller extends the coupled dynamical systems framework and provides fast and synchronous control of the eyes, the arm and the hand within a single and compact framework, mimicking similar control system found in humans. We validate our model for visuomotor control of a humanoid robot.

  17. Analytical approaches to optimizing system "Semiconductor converter-electric drive complex"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kormilicin, N. V.; Zhuravlev, A. M.; Khayatov, E. S.

    2018-03-01

    In the electric drives of the machine-building industry, the problem of optimizing the drive in terms of mass-size indicators is acute. The article offers analytical methods that ensure the minimization of the mass of a multiphase semiconductor converter. In multiphase electric drives, the form of the phase current at which the best possible use of the "semiconductor converter-electric drive complex" for active materials is different from the sinusoidal form. It is shown that under certain restrictions on the phase current form, it is possible to obtain an analytical solution. In particular, if one assumes the shape of the phase current to be rectangular, the optimal shape of the control actions will depend on the width of the interpolar gap. In the general case, the proposed algorithm can be used to solve the problem under consideration by numerical methods.

  18. Practical approach to a procedure for judging the results of analytical verification measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyrich, W.; Spannagel, G.

    1979-01-01

    For practical safeguards a particularly transparent procedure is described to judge analytical differences between declared and verified values based on experimental data relevant to the actual status of the measurement technique concerned. Essentially it consists of two parts: Derivation of distribution curves for the occurrence of interlaboratory differences from the results of analytical intercomparison programmes; and judging of observed differences using criteria established on the basis of these probability curves. By courtesy of the Euratom Safeguards Directorate, Luxembourg, the applicability of this judging procedure has been checked in practical data verification for safeguarding; the experience gained was encouraging and implementation of the method is intended. Its reliability might be improved further by evaluation of additional experimental data. (author)

  19. Analytical approach to linear fractional partial differential equations arising in fluid mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Momani, Shaher; Odibat, Zaid

    2006-01-01

    In this Letter, we implement relatively new analytical techniques, the variational iteration method and the Adomian decomposition method, for solving linear fractional partial differential equations arising in fluid mechanics. The fractional derivatives are described in the Caputo sense. The two methods in applied mathematics can be used as alternative methods for obtaining analytic and approximate solutions for different types of fractional differential equations. In these methods, the solution takes the form of a convergent series with easily computable components. The corresponding solutions of the integer order equations are found to follow as special cases of those of fractional order equations. Some numerical examples are presented to illustrate the efficiency and reliability of the two methods

  20. Annual banned-substance review: analytical approaches in human sports drug testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thevis, Mario; Kuuranne, Tiia; Geyer, Hans; Schänzer, Wilhelm

    2017-01-01

    There has been an immense amount of visibility of doping issues on the international stage over the past 12 months with the complexity of doping controls reiterated on various occasions. Hence, analytical test methods continuously being updated, expanded, and improved to provide specific, sensitive, and comprehensive test results in line with the World Anti-Doping Agency's (WADA) 2016 Prohibited List represent one of several critical cornerstones of doping controls. This enterprise necessitates expediting the (combined) exploitation of newly generated information on novel and/or superior target analytes for sports drug testing assays, drug elimination profiles, alternative test matrices, and recent advances in instrumental developments. This paper is a continuation of the series of annual banned-substance reviews appraising the literature published between October 2015 and September 2016 concerning human sports drug testing in the context of WADA's 2016 Prohibited List. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Analytical synthetic methods of solution of neutron transport equation with diffusion theory approaches energy multigroup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moraes, Pedro Gabriel B.; Leite, Michel C.A.; Barros, Ricardo C.

    2013-01-01

    In this work we developed a software to model and generate results in tables and graphs of one-dimensional neutron transport problems in multi-group formulation of energy. The numerical method we use to solve the problem of neutron diffusion is analytic, thus eliminating the truncation errors that appear in classical numerical methods, e.g., the method of finite differences. This numerical analytical method increases the computational efficiency, since they are not refined spatial discretization necessary because for any spatial discretization grids used, the numerical result generated for the same point of the domain remains unchanged unless the rounding errors of computational finite arithmetic. We chose to develop a computational application in MatLab platform for numerical computation and program interface is simple and easy with knobs. We consider important to model this neutron transport problem with a fixed source in the context of shielding calculations of radiation that protects the biosphere, and could be sensitive to ionizing radiation

  2. A Geovisual Analytic Approach to Understanding Geo-Social Relationships in the International Trade Network

    OpenAIRE

    Luo, Wei; Yin, Peifeng; Di, Qian; Hardisty, Frank; MacEachren, Alan M.

    2014-01-01

    The world has become a complex set of geo-social systems interconnected by networks, including transportation networks, telecommunications, and the internet. Understanding the interactions between spatial and social relationships within such geo-social systems is a challenge. This research aims to address this challenge through the framework of geovisual analytics. We present the GeoSocialApp which implements traditional network analysis methods in the context of explicitly spatial and social...

  3. Analytical approach and scaling laws in the design of disk-loaded travelling wave accelerating structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, J.

    1993-09-01

    Starting from a single resonant rf cavity, disk-loaded travelling (forward or backward) wave accelerating structures' properties are determined by rather simple analytical formulae. They include the coupling coefficient K in the dispersion relation, group velocity v g , shunt impedance R, wake potential W (longitudinal and transverse), the coupling coefficient β of the coupler cavity and the coupler cavity axis shift δ r which is introduced to compensate the asymmetry caused by the coupling aperture. (author) 12 refs., 18 figs

  4. Analytical approach to the investigation of Rayleigh-Taylor structures of the equatorial F region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komarov, V.N.; Sazonov, S.V.

    1991-01-01

    On the basis of approximation of a strong vertical extension the nonlinear dynamics of Rayleigh-Taylor structures in the equatorial F region is analytically studied. The successive approximation method, proposed herein, is true for structures having longitudinal symmetry. Using this method it is managed to describe the mushroom-shaped bubble with a shock wave profile in its head part. The nonlinearity leads to bubble formation under conditions with aggravation, limiting the growth of positive disturbances at the same time

  5. An analytical approach to the solution of in-itself strong focusing beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paulin, A.; Ticar, I.; Zoric, T.; Znidarsic, K.; Bezic, N.

    1981-01-01

    The aim of this paper is a description of the problem, how to represent the high current, high current density charged particle beam with straightforward analytical expressions. The principal difficulties in the solution of differential equation for stationary, axial and radial distribution of charged particles in the high current, high current density beam are mentioned. In all the derivations, an accomplished space charge effects compensation with suitable combined beam of oppositely charged particles is assumed. (author)

  6. The Usefulness of Analytical Procedures - An Empirical Approach in the Auditing Sector in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Pinho

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The conceptual conflict between the efficiency and efficacy on financial auditing arises from the fact that resources are scarce, both in terms of the time available to carry out the audit and the quality and timeliness of the information available to the external auditor. Audits tend to be more efficient, the lower the combination of inherent risk and control risk is assessed to be, allowing the auditor to carry out less extensive and less timely auditing tests, meaning that in some cases analytical audit procedures are a good tool to support the opinions formed by the auditor. This research, by means of an empirical study of financial auditing in Portugal, aims to evaluate the extent to which analytical procedures are used during a financial audit engagement in Portugal, throughout the different phases involved in auditing. The conclusions point to the fact that, in general terms and regardless of the size of the audit company and the way in which professionals work, Portuguese auditors use analytical procedures more frequently during the planning phase rather than during the phase of evidence gathering and the phase of opinion formation.

  7. Analytical methods in sphingolipidomics: Quantitative and profiling approaches in food analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canela, Núria; Herrero, Pol; Mariné, Sílvia; Nadal, Pedro; Ras, Maria Rosa; Rodríguez, Miguel Ángel; Arola, Lluís

    2016-01-08

    In recent years, sphingolipidomics has emerged as an interesting omic science that encompasses the study of the full sphingolipidome characterization, content, structure and activity in cells, tissues or organisms. Like other omics, it has the potential to impact biomarker discovery, drug development and systems biology knowledge. Concretely, dietary food sphingolipids have gained considerable importance due to their extensively reported bioactivity. Because of the complexity of this lipid family and their diversity among foods, powerful analytical methodologies are needed for their study. The analytical tools developed in the past have been improved with the enormous advances made in recent years in mass spectrometry (MS) and chromatography, which allow the convenient and sensitive identification and quantitation of sphingolipid classes and form the basis of current sphingolipidomics methodologies. In addition, novel hyphenated nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) strategies, new ionization strategies, and MS imaging are outlined as promising technologies to shape the future of sphingolipid analyses. This review traces the analytical methods of sphingolipidomics in food analysis concerning sample extraction, chromatographic separation, the identification and quantification of sphingolipids by MS and their structural elucidation by NMR. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Dual metal gate tunneling field effect transistors based on MOSFETs: A 2-D analytical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramezani, Zeinab; Orouji, Ali A.

    2018-01-01

    A novel 2-D analytical drain current model of novel Dual Metal Gate Tunnel Field Effect Transistors Based on MOSFETs (DMG-TFET) is presented in this paper. The proposed Tunneling FET is extracted from a MOSFET structure by employing an additional electrode in the source region with an appropriate work function to induce holes in the N+ source region and hence makes it as a P+ source region. The electric field is derived which is utilized to extract the expression of the drain current by analytically integrating the band to band tunneling generation rate in the tunneling region based on the potential profile by solving the Poisson's equation. Through this model, the effects of the thin film thickness and gate voltage on the potential, the electric field, and the effects of the thin film thickness on the tunneling current can be studied. To validate our present model we use SILVACO ATLAS device simulator and the analytical results have been compared with it and found a good agreement.

  9. Radiative heat transfer in honeycomb structures-New simple analytical and numerical approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baillis, D; Coquard, R; Randrianalisoa, J

    2012-01-01

    Porous Honeycomb Structures present the interest of combining, at the same time, high thermal insulating properties, low density and sufficient mechanical resistance. However, their thermal properties remain relatively unexplored. The aim of this study is the modelling of the combined heat transfer and especially radiative heat transfer through this type of anisotropic porous material. The equivalent radiative properties of the material are determined using ray-tracing procedures inside the honeycomb porous structure. From computational ray-tracing results, simple new analytical relations have been deduced. These useful analytical relations permit to determine radiative properties such as extinction, absorption and scattering coefficients and phase function functions of cell dimensions and optical properties of cell walls. The radiative properties of honeycomb material strongly depend on the direction of propagation. From the radiative properties computed, we have estimated the radiative heat flux passing through slabs of honeycomb core materials submitted to a 1-D temperature difference between a hot and a cold plate. We have compared numerical results obtained from Discrete Ordinate Method with analytical results obtained from Rosseland-Deissler approximation. This approximation is usually used in the case of isotropic materials. We have extended it to anisotropic honeycomb materials. Indeed a mean over incident directions of Rosseland extinction coefficient is proposed. Results tend to show that Rosseland-Deissler extended approximation can be used as a first approximation. Deviation on radiative conductivity obtained from Rosseland-Deissler approximation and from the Discrete Ordinated Method are lower than 6.7% for all the cases studied.

  10. Analytical approaches for the characterization and quantification of nanoparticles in food and beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattarozzi, Monica; Suman, Michele; Cascio, Claudia; Calestani, Davide; Weigel, Stefan; Undas, Anna; Peters, Ruud

    2017-01-01

    Estimating consumer exposure to nanomaterials (NMs) in food products and predicting their toxicological properties are necessary steps in the assessment of the risks of this technology. To this end, analytical methods have to be available to detect, characterize and quantify NMs in food and materials related to food, e.g. food packaging and biological samples following metabolization of food. The challenge for the analytical sciences is that the characterization of NMs requires chemical as well as physical information. This article offers a comprehensive analysis of methods available for the detection and characterization of NMs in food and related products. Special attention was paid to the crucial role of sample preparation methods since these have been partially neglected in the scientific literature so far. The currently available instrumental methods are grouped as fractionation, counting and ensemble methods, and their advantages and limitations are discussed. We conclude that much progress has been made over the last 5 years but that many challenges still exist. Future perspectives and priority research needs are pointed out. Graphical Abstract Two possible analytical strategies for the sizing and quantification of Nanoparticles: Asymmetric Flow Field-Flow Fractionation with multiple detectors (allows the determination of true size and mass-based particle size distribution); Single Particle Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (allows the determination of a spherical equivalent diameter of the particle and a number-based particle size distribution).

  11. Demonstrating a Market-Based Approach to the Reclamation of Mined Lands in West Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodrich-Mahoney, John; Donnelly, Ellen

    2009-12-31

    This project demonstrated that developing environmental credits on private land—including abandoned mined lands—is dependent on a number of factors, some of them beyond the control of the project team. In this project, acid mine drainage (AMD) was successfully remediated through the construction of a passive AMD treatment system. Extensive water quality sampling both before and after the installation of the passive AMD treatment system showed that the system achieved removal efficiencies and pollutant loading reductions for acidity, iron, aluminum and manganese that were consistent with systems of similar size and design. The success of the passive AMD treatment system should have resulted in water credits if the project had not been terminated. Developing carbon sequestration credits, however, was much more complex and was not achieved in this project. The primary challenge that the project team encountered in meeting the full project objectives was the unsuccessful attempt to have the landowner sign a conservation easement for his property. This would have allowed the project team to clear and reforest the site, monitor the progress of the newly planted trees, and eventually realize carbon sequestration credits once the forest was mature. The delays caused by the lack of a conservation easement, as well as other factors, eventually resulted in the reforestation portion of the project being cancelled. The information in this report will help the public make more informed decisions regarding the potential of using water and carbon, and other credits to support the remediation of minded lands through out the United States. The hope is that by using credits that more mined lands with be remediated.

  12. Fractal analytical approach of urban form based on spatial correlation function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Yanguang

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Many fractal parameter relations of cities can be derived by scaling analysis. ► The area-radius scaling of cities suggests a spatial correlation function. ► Spectral analysis can be used to estimate fractal dimension values of urban form. ► The valid range of fractal dimension of urban form comes between 1.5 and 2. ► The traditional scale concept will be replaced by scaling concept in geography. -- Abstract: Urban form has been empirically demonstrated to be of scaling invariance and can be described with fractal geometry. However, the rational range of fractal dimension value and the relationships between various fractal indicators of cities are not yet revealed in theory. By mathematical deduction and transform (e.g., Fourier transform), I find that scaling analysis, spectral analysis, and spatial correlation analysis are all associated with fractal concepts and can be integrated into a new approach to fractal analysis of cities. This method can be termed ‘3S analyses’ of urban form. Using the 3S analysis, I derived a set of fractal parameter equations, by which different fractal parameters of cities can be linked up with one another. Each fractal parameter has its own reasonable extent of values. According to the fractal parameter equations, the intersection of the rational ranges of different fractal parameters suggests the proper scale of the fractal dimension of urban patterns, which varies from 1.5 to 2. The fractal dimension equations based on the 3S analysis and the numerical relationships between different fractal parameters are useful for geographers to understand urban evolution and potentially helpful for future city planning

  13. Different Analytical Approaches in Assessing Antibacterial Activity and the Purity of Commercial Lysozyme Preparations for Dairy Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Pellegrino

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Hen egg-white lysozyme (LSZ is currently used in the food industry to limit the proliferation of lactic acid bacteria spoilage in the production of wine and beer, and to inhibit butyric acid fermentation in hard and extra hard cheeses (late blowing caused by the outgrowth of clostridial spores. The aim of this work was to evaluate how the enzyme activity in commercial preparations correlates to the enzyme concentration and can be affected by the presence of process-related impurities. Different analytical approaches, including turbidimetric assay, SDS-PAGE and HPLC were used to analyse 17 commercial preparations of LSZ marketed in different countries. The HPLC method adopted by ISO allowed the true LSZ concentration to be determined with accuracy. The turbidimetric assay was the most suitable method to evaluate LSZ activity, whereas SDS-PAGE allowed the presence of other egg proteins, which are potential allergens, to be detected. The analytical results showed that the purity of commercially available enzyme preparations can vary significantly, and evidenced the effectiveness of combining different analytical approaches in this type of control.

  14. Determinants of 25(OH)D sufficiency in obese minority children: selecting outcome measures and analytic approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ping; Schechter, Clyde; Cai, Ziyong; Markowitz, Morri

    2011-06-01

    To highlight complexities in defining vitamin D sufficiency in children. Serum 25-(OH) vitamin D [25(OH)D] levels from 140 healthy obese children age 6 to 21 years living in the inner city were compared with multiple health outcome measures, including bone biomarkers and cardiovascular risk factors. Several statistical analytic approaches were used, including Pearson correlation, analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), and "hockey stick" regression modeling. Potential threshold levels for vitamin D sufficiency varied by outcome variable and analytic approach. Only systolic blood pressure (SBP) was significantly correlated with 25(OH)D (r = -0.261; P = .038). ANCOVA revealed that SBP and triglyceride levels were statistically significant in the test groups [25(OH)D 25 ng/mL]. ANCOVA also showed that only children with severe vitamin D deficiency [25(OH)D model regression analyses found evidence of a threshold level in SBP, with a 25(OH)D breakpoint of 27 ng/mL, along with a 25(OH)D breakpoint of 18 ng/mL for triglycerides, but no relationship between 25(OH)D and parathyroid hormone. Defining vitamin D sufficiency should take into account different vitamin D-related health outcome measures and analytic methodologies. Copyright © 2011 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Gauge field geometry from complex and harmonic analyticities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gal'perin, A.S.; Ivanov, E.A.; Ogievetsky, V.I.; Sokatchev, E.

    1987-01-01

    The analyticity preservation principle is employed to demonstrate and impressive affinity between field theories with intrinsic analytic structure and superfield gauge theories. The defining constraints of the former theories are interpreted as the integrability conditions for the existence of appropriate analytic subspaces and are solved by passing to the basis with manifest analyticity. We prefer to work within the analytic basis. This allows, e.g., to replace the nonlinear splitting problem of twistor approach by solving a linear equation

  16. A Methodological Demonstration of Set-theoretical Approach to Social Media Maturity Models Using Necessary Condition Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lasrado, Lester Allan; Vatrapu, Ravi; Andersen, Kim Normann

    2016-01-01

    Despite being widely accepted and applied across research domains, maturity models have been criticized for lacking academic rigor, especially methodologically rigorous and empirically grounded or tested maturity models are quite rare. Attempting to close this gap, we adopt a set-theoretic approach...... and evaluate some of arguments presented by previous conceptual focused social media maturity models....... by applying the Necessary Condition Analysis (NCA) technique to derive maturity stages and stage boundaries conditions. The ontology is to view stages (boundaries) in maturity models as a collection of necessary condition. Using social media maturity data, we demonstrate the strength of our approach...

  17. Fluid-elastic instability in a confined annular flow: an experimental and analytical approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porcher, G.; Langre, E. de

    1996-12-31

    Self excitation of slender structures under axial flow have been reported in a large variety of local flow configurations. This paper reports the result of a research program, both experimental and analytical, aimed at the result of the basic phenomena leading to such instabilities. A cylindrical body with a diffuser is put in a confined annular flow of water. A case of flutter is observed and analysed with a classical potential flow method and with a friction based model. Closed-form solutions are proposed and the origin of the flutter instability is discussed. (authors). 25 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

  18. Fundamental (f) oscillations in a magnetically coupled solar interior-atmosphere system - An analytical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pintér, Balázs; Erdélyi, R.

    2018-01-01

    Solar fundamental (f) acoustic mode oscillations are investigated analytically in a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model. The model consists of three layers in planar geometry, representing the solar interior, the magnetic atmosphere, and a transitional layer sandwiched between them. Since we focus on the fundamental mode here, we assume the plasma is incompressible. A horizontal, canopy-like, magnetic field is introduced to the atmosphere, in which degenerated slow MHD waves can exist. The global (f-mode) oscillations can couple to local atmospheric Alfvén waves, resulting, e.g., in a frequency shift of the oscillations. The dispersion relation of the global oscillation mode is derived, and is solved analytically for the thin-transitional layer approximation and for the weak-field approximation. Analytical formulae are also provided for the frequency shifts due to the presence of a thin transitional layer and a weak atmospheric magnetic field. The analytical results generally indicate that, compared to the fundamental value (ω =√{ gk }), the mode frequency is reduced by the presence of an atmosphere by a few per cent. A thin transitional layer reduces the eigen-frequencies further by about an additional hundred microhertz. Finally, a weak atmospheric magnetic field can slightly, by a few percent, increase the frequency of the eigen-mode. Stronger magnetic fields, however, can increase the f-mode frequency by even up to ten per cent, which cannot be seen in observed data. The presence of a magnetic atmosphere in the three-layer model also introduces non-permitted propagation windows in the frequency spectrum; here, f-mode oscillations cannot exist with certain values of the harmonic degree. The eigen-frequencies can be sensitive to the background physical parameters, such as an atmospheric density scale-height or the rate of the plasma density drop at the photosphere. Such information, if ever observed with high-resolution instrumentation and inverted, could help to

  19. An analytical approach of thermodynamic behavior in a gas target system on a medical cyclotron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahangiri, Pouyan; Zacchia, Nicholas A; Buckley, Ken; Bénard, François; Schaffer, Paul; Martinez, D Mark; Hoehr, Cornelia

    2016-01-01

    An analytical model has been developed to study the thermo-mechanical behavior of gas targets used to produce medical isotopes, assuming that the system reaches steady-state. It is based on an integral analysis of the mass and energy balance of the gas-target system, the ideal gas law, and the deformation of the foil. The heat transfer coefficients for different target bodies and gases have been calculated. Excellent agreement is observed between experiments performed at TRIUMF's 13 MeV cyclotron and the model. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Optimization of solar assisted heat pump systems via a simple analytic approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrews, J W

    1980-01-01

    An analytic method for calculating the optimum operating temperature of the collector/storage subsystem in a solar assisted heat pump is presented. A tradeoff exists between rising heat pump coefficient of performance and falling collector efficiency as this temperature is increased, resulting in an optimum temperature whose value increases with increasing efficiency of the auxiliary energy source. Electric resistance is shown to be a poor backup to such systems. A number of options for thermally coupling the system to the ground are analyzed and compared.

  1. Analytical approaches for the approximate solution of a nonlinear fractional ordinary differential equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basak, K C; Ray, P C; Bera, R K

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present analysis is to apply the Adomian decomposition method and He's variational method for the approximate analytical solution of a nonlinear ordinary fractional differential equation. The solutions obtained by the above two methods have been numerically evaluated and presented in the form of tables and also compared with the exact solution. It was found that the results obtained by the above two methods are in excellent agreement with the exact solution. Finally, a surface plot of the approximate solutions of the fractional differential equation by the above two methods is drawn for 0≤t≤2 and 1<α≤2.

  2. An analytical approach to top predator interference on the dynamics of a food chain model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthamarai, R.; Vijayalakshmi, T.

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, a nonlinear mathematical model is proposed and analyzed to study of top predator interference on the dynamics of a food chain model. The mathematical model is formulated using the system of non-linear ordinary differential equations. In this model, there are three state dimensionless variables, viz, size of prey population x, size of intermediate predator y and size of top predator population z. The analytical results are compared with the numerical simulation using MATLAB software and satisfactory results are noticed.

  3. Application of Precipitate Free Zone Growth Kinetics to the β-Phase Depletion Behavior in a CoNiCrAlY Coating Alloy: An Analytical Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, H.

    2018-06-01

    This paper concerns the β-phase depletion kinetics of a thermally sprayed free-standing CoNiCrAlY (Co-31.7 pct Ni-20.8 pct Cr-8.1 pct Al-0.5 pct Y, all in wt pct) coating alloy. An analytical β-phase depletion model based on the precipitate free zone growth kinetics was developed to calculate the β-phase depletion kinetics during isothermal oxidation. This approach, which accounts for the molar volume of the alloy, the interfacial energy of the γ/ β interface, and the Al concentration at γ/ γ + β boundary, requires the Al concentrations in the β-phase depletion zone as the input rather than the oxidation kinetics at the oxide/coating interface. The calculated β-phase depletion zones derived from the current model were compared with experimental results. It is shown that the calculated β-phase depletion zones using the current model are in reasonable agreement with those obtained experimentally. The constant compositional terms used in the model are likely to cause the discrepancies between the model predictions and experimental results. This analytical approach, which shows a reasonable correlation with experimental results, demonstrates a good reliability in the fast evaluation on lifetime prediction of MCrAlY coatings.

  4. Application of Precipitate Free Zone Growth Kinetics to the β-Phase Depletion Behavior in a CoNiCrAlY Coating Alloy: An Analytical Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, H.

    2018-03-01

    This paper concerns the β-phase depletion kinetics of a thermally sprayed free-standing CoNiCrAlY (Co-31.7 pct Ni-20.8 pct Cr-8.1 pct Al-0.5 pct Y, all in wt pct) coating alloy. An analytical β-phase depletion model based on the precipitate free zone growth kinetics was developed to calculate the β-phase depletion kinetics during isothermal oxidation. This approach, which accounts for the molar volume of the alloy, the interfacial energy of the γ/β interface, and the Al concentration at γ/γ + β boundary, requires the Al concentrations in the β-phase depletion zone as the input rather than the oxidation kinetics at the oxide/coating interface. The calculated β-phase depletion zones derived from the current model were compared with experimental results. It is shown that the calculated β-phase depletion zones using the current model are in reasonable agreement with those obtained experimentally. The constant compositional terms used in the model are likely to cause the discrepancies between the model predictions and experimental results. This analytical approach, which shows a reasonable correlation with experimental results, demonstrates a good reliability in the fast evaluation on lifetime prediction of MCrAlY coatings.

  5. Natural phenolic antioxidants in human fluids: analytical approaches and antioxidant capacity studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, K.; Zuo, Y.

    2006-01-01

    Phenolic compounds are the most abundant natural antioxidants in our diet. Epidemiological studies have shown the possible prevention effects of consumption of fruits and vegetables rich in phenolic compounds on degenerative diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases and cancers. However, there is a serious lack of fundamental knowledge on the uptake and metabolism of phenolic compounds in humans. It is clear that phenolic molecules, only absorbed by humans, can exert biological effects. This review presents a current knowledge on the analytical methods, antioxidant capacity measurements, as well as research strategies related to natural phenolic antioxidants on human health. Both GC-MS and LC-MS have proved to be very useful analytical techniques that can be employed to identify and quantitate targeted phenolic antioxidants and their metabolites in biofluids. Free radical quenching tests provide a direct measurement of antioxidant capacity but lack specificity and may oversimplify the in vivo human physiological environment. Research strategies are diverse and mainly focused on positive health effect of antioxidants. In the future studies, multiple potential bioactivities, both positive and negative, should be considered. (author)

  6. An analysis of beam parameters on proton-acoustic waves through an analytic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipergil, Esra Aytac; Erkol, Hakan; Kaya, Serhat; Gulsen, Gultekin; Unlu, Mehmet Burcin

    2017-06-21

    It has been reported that acoustic waves are generated when a high-energy pulsed proton beam is deposited in a small volume within tissue. One possible application of proton-induced acoustics is to get real-time feedback for intra-treatment adjustments by monitoring such acoustic waves. A high spatial resolution in ultrasound imaging may reduce proton range uncertainty. Thus, it is crucial to understand the dependence of the acoustic waves on the proton beam characteristics. In this manuscript, firstly, an analytic solution for the proton-induced acoustic wave is presented to reveal the dependence of the signal on the beam parameters; then it is combined with an analytic approximation of the Bragg curve. The influence of the beam energy, pulse duration and beam diameter variation on the acoustic waveform are investigated. Further analysis is performed regarding the Fourier decomposition of the proton-acoustic signals. Our results show that the smaller spill time of the proton beam upsurges the amplitude of the acoustic wave for a constant number of protons, which is hence beneficial for dose monitoring. The increase in the energy of each individual proton in the beam leads to the spatial broadening of the Bragg curve, which also yields acoustic waves of greater amplitude. The pulse duration and the beam width of the proton beam do not affect the central frequency of the acoustic wave, but they change the amplitude of the spectral components.

  7. A Comparison of Two Approaches for the Ruggedness Testing of an Analytical Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maestroni, Britt

    2016-01-01

    As part of an initiative under the “Red Analitica de Latino America y el Caribe” (RALACA) network the FAO/IAEA Food and Environmental Protection Laboratory validated a multi-residue method for pesticides in potato. One of the parameters to be assessed was the intra laboratory robustness or ruggedness. The objective of this work was to implement a worked example for RALACA laboratories to test for the robustness (ruggedness) of an analytical method. As a conclusion to this study, it is evident that there is a need for harmonization of the definition of the terms robustness/ruggedness, the limits, the methodology and the statistical treatment of the generated data. A worked example for RALACA laboratories to test for the robustness (ruggedness) of an analytical method will soon be posted on the RALACA website (www.red-ralaca.net). This study was carried out with collaborators from LVA (Austria), University of Antwerp (Belgium), University of Leuwen (The Netherlands), Universidad de la Republica (Uruguay) and Agilent technologies.

  8. Determinants of Customers` Churn Decision in the Nigeria Telecommunication Industry: An Analytic Hierarchy Process Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulaimon Olanrewaju Adebiyi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the application of Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP for unraveling customers’ motivation for churn of telecommunication network in Nigeria. By identifying, modeling and measuring of customers` churn motivations across four mobile telecommunication service providers in Nigeria. AHP was used to design a hierarchical model of seven criteria for customers` churning of network and investigates the relative priorities of the criteria through a pairwise comparison. The questionnaire were administered through convenient sampling to 480 mobile telecommunication customers and was completed and returned by 438 mobile phone subscribers in Lagos state, Nigeria, but only 408 copies were useful for the analysis of this study. The result shows that six out of the seven criteria have weight above 10% in their individual contribution to motivating customer churn behavior in the Nigeria telecommunication industry. The inefficient data/ internet plan criterion has the highest weight of 18.81% relative to the churn decision. Thus, AHP effectively supported modeling and analyzing subscribers` motivation toward good marketing decision for both the individual and the organization. It helps in developing an analytic and intelligible framework of decision-making on complex problem of customer churn in an emerging market like Nigeria

  9. Micro-Crater Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy--an Analytical approach in metals samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piscitelli, Vincent [UCV- Laboratorio de Espectroscopia Laser, Caracas (Venezuela); Lawrence Berkeley National laboratory, Berkeley, US (United States); Gonzalez, Jhanis; Xianglei, Mao; Russo, Richard [Lawrence Berkeley National laboratory, Berkeley, US (United States); Fernandez, Alberto [UCV- Laboratorio de Espectroscopia Laser, Caracas (Venezuela)

    2008-04-15

    The laser ablation has been increasing its popularity like as technique of chemical analysis. This is due to its great potentiality in the analysis of solid samples. On the way to contributing to the development of the technique, we in this work studied the laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) in conditions of micro ablation for future studies of coverings and micro crates analysis. Craters between 2 and 7 micrometers of diameter were made using an Nd-YAG nanosecond laser in their fundamental emission of 1064 nm. In order to create these craters we use an objective lens of long distance work and 0.45 of numerical aperture. The atomic emission versus the energy of the laser and its effect on the size of craters was study. We found that below 3 micrometers although there was evidence of material removal by the formation of a crater, it was no detectable atomic emission for our instruments. In order to try to understand this, curves of size of crater versus plasma temperature using the Boltzmann distribution graphs taking the Copper emission lines in the visible region were made. In addition calibration curves for Copper and aluminum were made in two different matrices; one of it was a Cu/Zn alloy and the other a Zinc Matrix. The atomic lines Cu I (521.78 nm) and Al I (396.15 nm) was used. From the Calibration curve the analytical limit of detection and other analytical parameters were obtained.

  10. Accurate quantification of endogenous androgenic steroids in cattle's meat by gas chromatography mass spectrometry using a surrogate analyte approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmadkhaniha, Reza; Shafiee, Abbas; Rastkari, Noushin; Kobarfard, Farzad

    2009-01-01

    Determination of endogenous steroids in complex matrices such as cattle's meat is a challenging task. Since endogenous steroids always exist in animal tissues, no analyte-free matrices for constructing the standard calibration line will be available, which is crucial for accurate quantification specially at trace level. Although some methods have been proposed to solve the problem, none has offered a complete solution. To this aim, a new quantification strategy was developed in this study, which is named 'surrogate analyte approach' and is based on using isotope-labeled standards instead of natural form of endogenous steroids for preparing the calibration line. In comparison with the other methods, which are currently in use for the quantitation of endogenous steroids, this approach provides improved simplicity and speed for analysis on a routine basis. The accuracy of this method is better than other methods at low concentration and comparable to the standard addition at medium and high concentrations. The method was also found to be valid according to the ICH criteria for bioanalytical methods. The developed method could be a promising approach in the field of compounds residue analysis

  11. A methodological approach to studying resilience mechanisms: demonstration of utility in age and Alzheimer's disease-related brain pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Dominik; Fischer, Florian Udo; Fellgiebel, Andreas

    2018-05-01

    The present work aims at providing a methodological approach for the investigation of resilience factors and mechanisms in normal aging, Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other neurodegenerative disorders. By expanding and re-conceptualizing traditional regression approaches, we propose an approach that not only aims at identifying potential resilience factors but also allows for a differentiation between general and dynamic resilience factors in terms of their association with pathology. Dynamic resilience factors are characterized by an increasing relevance with increasing levels of pathology, while the relevance of general resilience factors is independent of the amount of pathology. Utility of the approach is demonstrated in age and AD-related brain pathology by investigating widely accepted resilience factors, including education and brain volume. Moreover, the approach is used to test hippocampal volume as potential resilience factor. Education and brain volume could be identified as general resilience factors against age and AD-related pathology. Beyond that, analyses highlighted that hippocampal volume may not only be disease target but also serve as a potential resilience factor in age and AD-related pathology, particularly at higher levels of tau-pathology (i.e. dynamic resilience factor). Given its unspecific and superordinate nature the approach is suitable for the investigation of a wide range of potential resilience factors in normal aging, AD and other neurodegenerative disorders. Consequently, it may find a wide application and thereby promote the comparability between studies.

  12. The earrings of Pancas treasure: Analytical study by X-ray based techniques – A first approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tissot, I.; Tissot, M.; Manso, M.; Alves, L.C.; Barreiros, M.A.; Marcelo, T.; Carvalho, M.L.; Corregidor, V.; Guerra, M.F.

    2013-01-01

    The development of new metallurgical technologies in the Iberian Peninsula during the Iron Age is well represented by the 10 gold earrings from the treasure of Pancas. This work presents a first approach to the analytical study of these earrings and contributes to the construction of a typological evolution of the Iberian earrings. The manufacture techniques and the alloys composition were studied with three complementary X-ray spectroscopy techniques: portable EDXRF, μ-PIXE and SEM–EDS. The results were compared with earrings from the same and previous periods

  13. The effect of inclined soil layers on surface vibration from underground railways using a semi-analytical approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, S; Hunt, H

    2009-01-01

    Ground vibration due to underground railways is a significant source of disturbance for people living or working near the subways. The numerical models used to predict vibration levels have inherent uncertainty which must be understood to give confidence in the predictions. A semi-analytical approach is developed herein to investigate the effect of soil layering on the surface vibration of a halfspace where both soil properties and layer inclination angles are varied. The study suggests that both material properties and inclination angle of the layers have significant effect (± 10dB) on the surface vibration response.

  14. Analytical and Algorithmic Approaches to Determine the Number of Sensor Nodes for Minimum Power Consumption in LWSNs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Soner Kilinc

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A Linear Wireless Sensor Network (LWSN is a kind of wireless sensor network where the nodes are deployed in a line. Since the sensor nodes are energy restricted, energy efficiency becomes one of the most significant design issues for LWSNs as well as wireless sensor networks. With the proper deployment, the power consumption could be minimized by adjusting the distance between the sensor nodes which is known as hop length. In this paper, analytical and algorithmic approaches are presented to determine the number of hops and sensor nodes for minimum power consumption in a linear wireless sensor network including equidistantly placed sensor nodes.

  15. X-37 Flight Demonstrator: A Building Block in NASA's Future Access to Space; X-37 Flight Demonstrator: Orbital Vehicle Technology Development Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, David

    2004-01-01

    Project management issues and subsystems development for the X-37 flight demonstrator are covered in this viewgraph presentation. Subsystems profiled include: thermal protection systems, hot structures, and lithium-ion batteries.

  16. The predictive accuracy of analytical formulas and semiclassical approaches for α decay half-lives of superheavy nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, T. L.; Bao, X. J.; Guo, S. Q.

    2018-02-01

    Systematic calculations on the α decay half-lives are performed by using three analytical formulas and two semiclassical approaches. For the three analytical formulas, the experimental α decay half-lives and {Q}α values of the 66 reference nuclei have been used to obtain the coefficients. We get only four adjustable parameters to describe α decay half-lives for even-even, odd-A, and odd-odd nuclei. By comparison between the calculated values from ten analytical formulas and experimental data, it is shown that the new universal decay law (NUDL) foumula is the most accurate one to reproduce the experimental α decay half-lives of the superheavy nuclei (SHN). Meanwhile it is found that the experimental α decay half-lives of SHN are well reproduced by the Royer formula although many parameters are contained. The results show that the NUDL formula and the generalized liquid drop model (GLDM2) with consideration of the preformation factor can give fairly equivalent results for the superheavy nuclei.

  17. Modeling the excitation of graphene plasmons in periodic grids of graphene ribbons: An analytical approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonçalves, P:A.D.; Dias, E. J. C.; Bludov, Yu V.

    2016-01-01

    We study electromagnetic scattering and subsequent plasmonic excitations in periodic grids of graphene ribbons. To address this problem, we develop an analytical method to describe the plasmon-assisted absorption of electromagnetic radiation by a periodic structure of graphene ribbons forming...... a diffraction grating for THz and mid-IR light. The major advantage of this method lies in its ability to accurately describe the excitation of graphene surface plasmons (GSPs) in one-dimensional (1D) graphene gratings without the use of both time-consuming, and computationally demanding full-wave numerical...... compare the theoretical data with spectra taken from experiments, for which we observe a very good agreement. These theoretical tools may therefore be applied to design new experiments and cutting-edge nanophotonic devices based on graphene plasmonics....

  18. A Highly Accurate and Efficient Analytical Approach to Bridge Deck Free Vibration Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.J. Gorman

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The superposition method is employed to obtain an accurate analytical type solution for the free vibration frequencies and mode shapes of multi-span bridge decks. Free edge conditions are imposed on the long edges running in the direction of the deck. Inter-span support is of the simple (knife-edge type. The analysis is valid regardless of the number of spans or their individual lengths. Exact agreement is found when computed results are compared with known eigenvalues for bridge decks with all spans of equal length. Mode shapes and eigenvalues are presented for typical bridge decks of three and four span lengths. In each case torsional and non-torsional modes are studied.

  19. Flow modeling in a porous cylinder with regressing walls using semi analytical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Azimi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the mathematical modeling of the flow in a porous cylinder with a focus on applications to solid rocket motors is presented. As usual, the cylindrical propellant grain of a solid rocket motor is modeled as a long tube with one end closed at the headwall, while the other remains open. The cylindrical wall is assumed to be permeable so as to simulate the propellant burning and normal gas injection. At first, the problem description and formulation are considered. The Navier-Stokes equations for the viscous flow in a porous cylinder with regressing walls are reduced to a nonlinear ODE by using a similarity transformation in time and space. Application of Differential Transformation Method (DTM as an approximate analytical method has been successfully applied. Finally the results have been presented for various cases.

  20. A Numerical-Analytical Approach Based on Canonical Transformations for Computing Optimal Low-Thrust Transfers

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Fernandes, S.; das Chagas Carvalho, F.; Bateli Romão, J. V.

    2018-04-01

    A numerical-analytical procedure based on infinitesimal canonical transformations is developed for computing optimal time-fixed low-thrust limited power transfers (no rendezvous) between coplanar orbits with small eccentricities in an inverse-square force field. The optimization problem is formulated as a Mayer problem with a set of non-singular orbital elements as state variables. Second order terms in eccentricity are considered in the development of the maximum Hamiltonian describing the optimal trajectories. The two-point boundary value problem of going from an initial orbit to a final orbit is solved by means of a two-stage Newton-Raphson algorithm which uses an infinitesimal canonical transformation. Numerical results are presented for some transfers between circular orbits with moderate radius ratio, including a preliminary analysis of Earth-Mars and Earth-Venus missions.

  1. An approach for environmental risk assessment of engineered nanomaterials using Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) and fuzzy inference rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topuz, Emel; van Gestel, Cornelis A M

    2016-01-01

    The usage of Engineered Nanoparticles (ENPs) in consumer products is relatively new and there is a need to conduct environmental risk assessment (ERA) to evaluate their impacts on the environment. However, alternative approaches are required for ERA of ENPs because of the huge gap in data and knowledge compared to conventional pollutants and their unique properties that make it difficult to apply existing approaches. This study aims to propose an ERA approach for ENPs by integrating Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) and fuzzy inference models which provide a systematic evaluation of risk factors and reducing uncertainty about the data and information, respectively. Risk is assumed to be the combination of occurrence likelihood, exposure potential and toxic effects in the environment. A hierarchy was established to evaluate the sub factors of these components. Evaluation was made with fuzzy numbers to reduce uncertainty and incorporate the expert judgements. Overall score of each component was combined with fuzzy inference rules by using expert judgements. Proposed approach reports the risk class and its membership degree such as Minor (0.7). Therefore, results are precise and helpful to determine the risk management strategies. Moreover, priority weights calculated by comparing the risk factors based on their importance for the risk enable users to understand which factor is effective on the risk. Proposed approach was applied for Ag (two nanoparticles with different coating) and TiO2 nanoparticles for different case studies. Results verified the proposed benefits of the approach. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A novel approach to delayed-start analyses for demonstrating disease-modifying effects in Alzheimer's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Liu-Seifert

    Full Text Available One method for demonstrating disease modification is a delayed-start design, consisting of a placebo-controlled period followed by a delayed-start period wherein all patients receive active treatment. To address methodological issues in previous delayed-start approaches, we propose a new method that is robust across conditions of drug effect, discontinuation rates, and missing data mechanisms. We propose a modeling approach and test procedure to test the hypothesis of noninferiority, comparing the treatment difference at the end of the delayed-start period with that at the end of the placebo-controlled period. We conducted simulations to identify the optimal noninferiority testing procedure to ensure the method was robust across scenarios and assumptions, and to evaluate the appropriate modeling approach for analyzing the delayed-start period. We then applied this methodology to Phase 3 solanezumab clinical trial data for mild Alzheimer's disease patients. Simulation results showed a testing procedure using a proportional noninferiority margin was robust for detecting disease-modifying effects; conditions of high and moderate discontinuations; and with various missing data mechanisms. Using all data from all randomized patients in a single model over both the placebo-controlled and delayed-start study periods demonstrated good statistical performance. In analysis of solanezumab data using this methodology, the noninferiority criterion was met, indicating the treatment difference at the end of the placebo-controlled studies was preserved at the end of the delayed-start period within a pre-defined margin. The proposed noninferiority method for delayed-start analysis controls Type I error rate well and addresses many challenges posed by previous approaches. Delayed-start studies employing the proposed analysis approach could be used to provide evidence of a disease-modifying effect. This method has been communicated with FDA and has been

  3. Analytic-Numerical Approach to Solving Singularly Perturbed Parabolic Equations with the Use of Dynamic Adapted Meshes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Lukyanenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the paper is to present a new analytic-numerical approach to singularly perturbed reaction-diffusion-advection models with solutions containing moving interior layers (fronts. We describe some methods to generate the dynamic adapted meshes for an efficient numerical solution of such problems. It is based on a priori information about the moving front properties provided by the asymptotic analysis. In particular, for the mesh construction we take into account a priori asymptotic evaluation of the location and speed of the moving front, its width and structure. Our algorithms significantly reduce the CPU time and enhance the stability of the numerical process compared with classical approaches.The article is published in the authors’ wording.

  4. Order statistics and energy-ordered histograms: an analytical approach to continuum gamma-ray spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urrego, J.P.; Cristancho, F.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Fusion-evaporation heavy ion collisions have enable us to explore new regions of phase space E - I, particularly high spin and excitation energy regions, where level densities are so high that modern detectors are unable to resolve individual gamma-ray transitions and consequently the resulting spectrum is continuous and undoubtedly contains a lot of new physics. In spite of that, very few experiments have been designed to extract conclusions about behavior of nuclei in continuum, thus in order to obtain a continuum spectroscopy it is necessary to apply to numerical simulations. In this sense GAMBLE a Monte Carlo based code- is a powerful tool that with some modifications allows us to test a new method to analyze the outcome of experiments focused on the properties of phase space regions in nuclear continuum: The use of Energy-Ordered Spectra (EOS) . Let's suppose that in a experiment is collected all gamma radiation emitted by a specific nucleus in a fixed intrinsic excitation energy range and that the different EOS are constructed. Although it has been shown that comparisons between such EOS and Monte Carlo simulations give information about the level density and the strength function their interpretation is not too clear because the large number of input values needed in a code like GAMBLE. On the other hand, if we could have an analytical description of EOS, the understanding of the underlying physics would be more simple because one could control exactly the involved variables and eventually simulation would be unnecessary. Promissory advances in that direction come from mathematical theory of Order Statistics (OS) In this work it is described the modified code GAMBLE and some simulated EOS for 170 Hf are shown. The simulations are made with different formulations for both level density (Fermi Gas at constant and variable temperature) and gamma strength function (GDR, single particle). Further it is described in detail how OS are employed in the

  5. AN ANALYTICAL FRAMEWORK FOR ASSESSING RELIABLE NUCLEAR FUEL SERVICE APPROACHES: ECONOMIC AND NON-PROLIFERATION MERITS OF NUCLEAR FUEL LEASING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreyling, Sean J.; Brothers, Alan J.; Short, Steven M.; Phillips, Jon R.; Weimar, Mark R.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of international nuclear policy since the dawn of nuclear power has been the peaceful expansion of nuclear energy while controlling the spread of enrichment and reprocessing technology. Numerous initiatives undertaken in the intervening decades to develop international agreements on providing nuclear fuel supply assurances, or reliable nuclear fuel services (RNFS) attempted to control the spread of sensitive nuclear materials and technology. In order to inform the international debate and the development of government policy, PNNL has been developing an analytical framework to holistically evaluate the economics and non-proliferation merits of alternative approaches to managing the nuclear fuel cycle (i.e., cradle-to-grave). This paper provides an overview of the analytical framework and discusses preliminary results of an economic assessment of one RNFS approach: full-service nuclear fuel leasing. The specific focus of this paper is the metrics under development to systematically evaluate the non-proliferation merits of fuel-cycle management alternatives. Also discussed is the utility of an integrated assessment of the economics and non-proliferation merits of nuclear fuel leasing.

  6. Investigation of eddy currents in the components of the dynamic ergodic divertor of TEXTOR using analytical and numerical approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giesen, B.; Neubauer, O.; Bondarchuk, E.; Doinikov, N.; Kitaev, B.; Obidenko, T.; Panin, A.

    2003-01-01

    Analytical and numerical approaches for the calculation of eddy currents in mechanical structures of the TEXTOR tokamak in view of operating the dynamic ergodic divertor (DED) coil system fed with the alternating current up to 15 kA at frequencies up to 10 kHz are described. The design of the in-vessel components located close to the DED coils requires detailed investigation of eddy current effects to avoid unacceptable heating and forces. Different approaches depending on skin-layer depths compared with the body dimensions are analyzed. The applied algorithms are based on analytical and simplified numerical methods. Precision and application range of these algorithms have been checked by a numerical code. The simplified technique is rather effective for first step engineering estimation and gives a good understanding for the problem. In a certain parameter range, it results in even precise values and can be used for design optimization of the structures without huge efforts in numerical modeling. After modification of the component's shape prototypes have been manufactured and successfully tested in a full-scale model under the real DED field. The design recommendations resulting from the eddy current studies contributed significantly to the optimized lay out of the DED in-vessel components

  7. Advances on a Decision Analytic Approach to Exposure-Based Chemical Prioritization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Matthew D; Plourde, Kenton; Larkin, Sabrina; Egeghy, Peter P; Williams, Antony J; Zemba, Valerie; Linkov, Igor; Vallero, Daniel A

    2018-05-11

    The volume and variety of manufactured chemicals is increasing, although little is known about the risks associated with the frequency and extent of human exposure to most chemicals. The EPA and the recent signing of the Lautenberg Act have both signaled the need for high-throughput methods to characterize and screen chemicals based on exposure potential, such that more comprehensive toxicity research can be informed. Prior work of Mitchell et al. using multicriteria decision analysis tools to prioritize chemicals for further research is enhanced here, resulting in a high-level chemical prioritization tool for risk-based screening. Reliable exposure information is a key gap in currently available engineering analytics to support predictive environmental and health risk assessments. An elicitation with 32 experts informed relative prioritization of risks from chemical properties and human use factors, and the values for each chemical associated with each metric were approximated with data from EPA's CP_CAT database. Three different versions of the model were evaluated using distinct weight profiles, resulting in three different ranked chemical prioritizations with only a small degree of variation across weight profiles. Future work will aim to include greater input from human factors experts and better define qualitative metrics. © 2018 Society for Risk Analysis.

  8. Ultrasound assisted nucleation and growth characteristics of glycine polymorphs--a combined experimental and analytical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renuka Devi, K; Raja, A; Srinivasan, K

    2015-05-01

    For the first time, the effect of ultrasound in the diagnostic frequency range of 1-10 MHz on the nucleation and growth characteristics of glycine has been explored. The investigation employing the ultrasonic interferometer was carried out at a constant insonation time over a wide range of relative supersaturation from σ=-0.09 to 0.76 in the solution. Ultrasound promotes only α nucleation and completely inhibits both the β and γ nucleation in the system. The propagation of ultrasound assisted mass transport facilitates nucleation even at very low supersaturation levels in the solution. The presence of ultrasound exhibits a profound effect on nucleation and growth characteristics in terms of decrease in induction period, increase in nucleation rate and decrease in crystal size than its absence in the solution. With an increase in the frequency of ultrasound, a further decrease in induction period, increase in nucleation rate and decrease in the size of the crystal is noticed even at the same relative supersaturation levels. The increase in the nucleation rate explains the combined dominating effects of both the ultrasound frequency and the supersaturation in the solution. Analytically, the nucleation parameters of the nucleated polymorph have been deduced at different ultrasonic frequencies based on the classical nucleation theory and correlations with the experimental results have been obtained. Structural affirmation of the nucleated polymorph has been ascertained by powder X-ray diffraction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Quantum confinement and heavy surface states of Dirac fermions in bismuth (111) films: An analytical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enaldiev, V. V.; Volkov, V. A.

    2018-03-01

    Recent high-resolution angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy experiments have given a reason to believe that pure bismuth is a topologically nontrivial semimetal. We derive an analytic theory of surface and size-quantized states of Dirac fermions in Bi(111) films taking into account the new data. The theory relies on a new phenomenological momentum-dependent boundary condition for the effective Dirac equation. The boundary condition is described by two real parameters that are expressed by a linear combination of the Dresselhaus and Rashba interface spin-orbit interaction parameters. In semi-infinite Bi(111), near the M ¯ point the surface states possess anisotropical parabolic dispersion with very heavy effective mass in the Γ ¯-M ¯ direction order of ten free electron masses and light effective mass in the M ¯-K ¯ direction order of one hundredth of free electron mass. In Bi(111) films with equivalent surfaces, the surface states from top and bottom surfaces are not split. In such a symmetric film with arbitrary thickness, the bottom of the lowest quantum confinement subband in the conduction band coincides with the bottom of the bulk conduction band in the M ¯ point.

  10. Cost utility analysis of endoscopic biliary stent in unresectable hilar cholangiocarcinoma: decision analytic modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangchan, Apichat; Chaiyakunapruk, Nathorn; Supakankunti, Siripen; Pugkhem, Ake; Mairiang, Pisaln

    2014-01-01

    Endoscopic biliary drainage using metal and plastic stent in unresectable hilar cholangiocarcinoma (HCA) is widely used but little is known about their cost-effectiveness. This study evaluated the cost-utility of endoscopic metal and plastic stent drainage in unresectable complex, Bismuth type II-IV, HCA patients. Decision analytic model, Markov model, was used to evaluate cost and quality-adjusted life year (QALY) of endoscopic biliary drainage in unresectable HCA. Costs of treatment and utilities of each Markov state were retrieved from hospital charges and unresectable HCA patients from tertiary care hospital in Thailand, respectively. Transition probabilities were derived from international literature. Base case analyses and sensitivity analyses were performed. Under the base-case analysis, metal stent is more effective but more expensive than plastic stent. An incremental cost per additional QALY gained is 192,650 baht (US$ 6,318). From probabilistic sensitivity analysis, at the willingness to pay threshold of one and three times GDP per capita or 158,000 baht (US$ 5,182) and 474,000 baht (US$ 15,546), the probability of metal stent being cost-effective is 26.4% and 99.8%, respectively. Based on the WHO recommendation regarding the cost-effectiveness threshold criteria, endoscopic metal stent drainage is cost-effective compared to plastic stent in unresectable complex HCA.

  11. Offshore drilling effects in Brazilian SE marine sediments: a meta-analytical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dore, Marina Pereira; Farias, Cássia; Hamacher, Cláudia

    2017-01-01

    The exploration and production of oil and gas reserves often result to drill cutting accumulations on the seafloor adjacent to drill locations. In this study, the detection of drilling influence on marine sediments was performed by meta-analytical comparison between data from pre- and post-drilling surveys undertaken in offshore Campos Basin, southeast of Brazil. Besides this overall appraisal on the geochemical variables, a multivariate assessment, considering only the post-drilling data, was performed. Among the variables, fines content, carbonates, total organic carbon, barium, chromium, copper, iron, manganese, nickel, lead, vanadium, zinc, and total petroleum hydrocarbons, only barium, copper, and hydrocarbons were related to drilling impacts. In relation to the point of discharge, relative elevated levels in the post-drilling campaigns were observed preferentially up to 500 m in the northeast and southwest directions, associated to the Brazil Current-predominant direction. Other distributed concentrations in the surroundings seem to indicate the dilution and dispersion of drilling waste promoted by meteoceanographic factors.

  12. Comparing bona fide psychotherapies of depression in adults with two meta-analytical approaches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah R Braun

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Despite numerous investigations, the question whether all bona fide treatments of depression are equally efficacious in adults has not been sufficiently answered. METHOD: We applied two different meta-analytical techniques (conventional meta-analysis and mixed treatment comparisons. Overall, 53 studies with 3,965 patients, which directly compared two or more bona fide psychotherapies in a randomized trial, were included. Meta-analyses were conducted regarding five different types of outcome measures. Additionally, the influence of possible moderators was examined. RESULTS: Direct comparisons of cognitive behavior therapy, behavior activation therapy, psychodynamic therapy, interpersonal therapy, and supportive therapies versus all other respective treatments indicated that at the end of treatment all treatments but supportive therapies were equally efficacious whereas there was some evidence that supportive therapies were somewhat less efficacious than all other treatments according to patient self-ratings and clinical significance. At follow-up no significant differences were present. Age, gender, comorbid mental disorders, and length of therapy session were found to moderate efficacy. Cognitive behavior therapy was superior in studies where therapy sessions lasted 90 minutes or longer, behavior activation therapy was more efficacious when therapy sessions lasted less than 90 minutes. Mixed treatment comparisons indicated no statistically significant differences in treatment efficacy but some interesting trends. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that there might be differential effects of bona fide psychotherapies which should be examined in detail.

  13. Analytical parametrization and shape classification of anomalous HH production in the EFT approach

    CERN Document Server

    Carvalho, Alexandra; Manzano, Pablo de Castro; Dorigo, Tommaso; Goertz, Florian; Gouzevich, Maxime; Tosi, Mia

    2016-01-01

    In this document we study the effect of anomalous Higgs boson couplings on non-resonant pair production of Higgs bosons ($HH$) at the LHC. We explore the space of the five parameters $\\kappa_{\\lambda}$, $\\kappa_{t}$, $c_2$, $c_g$, and $c_{2g}$ in terms of the corresponding kinematics of the final state, and describe a partition of the space into a limited number of regions featuring similar phenomenology in the kinematics of $HH$ final state. We call clusters the sets of points belonging to the same region; to each cluster corresponds a representative point which we call a benchmark. We discuss a possible technique to estimate the sensitivity of an experimental search to the kinematical differences between the phenomenology of the benchmark points and the rest of the parameter space contained in the corresponding cluster. We also provide an analytical parametrization of the cross-section modifications that the variation of anomalous couplings produces with respect to standard model $HH$ production along with ...

  14. Multi-model approach to petroleum resource appraisal using analytic methodologies for probabilistic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crovelli, R.A.

    1988-01-01

    The geologic appraisal model that is selected for a petroleum resource assessment depends upon purpose of the assessment, basic geologic assumptions of the area, type of available data, time available before deadlines, available human and financial resources, available computer facilities, and, most importantly, the available quantitative methodology with corresponding computer software and any new quantitative methodology that would have to be developed. Therefore, different resource assessment projects usually require different geologic models. Also, more than one geologic model might be needed in a single project for assessing different regions of the study or for cross-checking resource estimates of the area. Some geologic analyses used in the past for petroleum resource appraisal involved play analysis. The corresponding quantitative methodologies of these analyses usually consisted of Monte Carlo simulation techniques. A probabilistic system of petroleum resource appraisal for play analysis has been designed to meet the following requirements: (1) includes a variety of geologic models, (2) uses an analytic methodology instead of Monte Carlo simulation, (3) possesses the capacity to aggregate estimates from many areas that have been assessed by different geologic models, and (4) runs quickly on a microcomputer. Geologic models consist of four basic types: reservoir engineering, volumetric yield, field size, and direct assessment. Several case histories and present studies by the U.S. Geological Survey are discussed. ?? 1988 International Association for Mathematical Geology.

  15. Analytic approach to nonlinear hydrodynamic instabilities driven by time-dependent accelerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikaelian, K O

    2009-09-28

    We extend our earlier model for Rayleigh-Taylor and Richtmyer-Meshkov instabilities to the more general class of hydrodynamic instabilities driven by a time-dependent acceleration g(t) . Explicit analytic solutions for linear as well as nonlinear amplitudes are obtained for several g(t)'s by solving a Schroedinger-like equation d{sup 2}{eta}/dt{sup 2} - g(t)kA{eta} = 0 where A is the Atwood number and k is the wavenumber of the perturbation amplitude {eta}(t). In our model a simple transformation k {yields} k{sub L} and A {yields} A{sub L} connects the linear to the nonlinear amplitudes: {eta}{sup nonlinear} (k,A) {approx} (1/k{sub L})ln{eta}{sup linear} (k{sub L}, A{sub L}). The model is found to be in very good agreement with direct numerical simulations. Bubble amplitudes for a variety of accelerations are seen to scale with s defined by s = {integral} {radical}g(t)dt, while spike amplitudes prefer scaling with displacement {Delta}x = {integral}[{integral}g(t)dt]dt.

  16. A multi-analytical approach for the characterization of wall painting materials on contemporary buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magrini, Donata; Bracci, Susanna; Cantisani, Emma; Conti, Claudia; Rava, Antonio; Sansonetti, Antonio; Shank, Will; Colombini, MariaPerla

    2017-02-01

    Samples from Keith Haring's wall painting of the Necker Children Hospital in Paris were studied by a multi-analytical protocol. X-ray fluorescence (XRF), powder X-ray diffraction (XRDP), Electron microscope (SEM-EDS), Infrared and Raman spectroscopy (μ-FT-IR and μ-Raman) measurements were performed in order to characterize the materials and to identify the art technique used to produce this contemporary work. Materials from the mural suffered from severe detachments of materials and several fragments were found on the ground beneath. Some of these fragments, which were representative of the whole palette and stratigraphic sequence, were collected and studied. The fragments were sufficiently large to enable non-invasive measurements to be performed in order to characterize the materials. A comparison of the data of the techniques applied revealed that Haring's palette was composed of organic pigments such as Naphtol red, phthalocyanine blue and green and Hansa yellow, in accordance with those used previously by the artist in other painted murals.

  17. Service orientation and dynamic capabilities in Chinese companies : A macro-analytical approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fearon, C.; Yang, J.; McLaughlin, H.; Duijsters, G.M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to discuss and reflect upon some of the major (quality) issues concerning supply chain management (SCM) for Chinese companies. Design/methodology/approach – The authors draw upon the literature, especially the theoretical perspectives of service orientation and

  18. Purcell factor for a cylindrical nanocavity: ab initio analytical approach: reply

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bordo, V.

    2014-01-01

    The comment by Sun et al. [J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 31, 175 (2014)] on my paper [J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 29, 1799 (2012)] is shown here to be due to a lack of understanding of the approach developed in my papers. (C) 2014 Optical Society of America...

  19. Analytical Review of Universal Grammar (UG) Approach on Second Language Acquisition (SLA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwandy

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to explore the analysis of Universal Grammar (UG) approach on Second Language Acquisition (SLA). This paper is significant as the sources for teacher or researcher of the second language since this elaboration is deeply focusing on the use of UG on SLA. The method used in this academic writing is inductive method of…

  20. An Analytic Approach to Cascade Control Design for Hydraulic Valve-Cylinder Drives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Lasse; Hansen, Anders Hedegaard; Andersen, Torben O.

    2016-01-01

    , unfortunately not present in valve-operated hydraulic drives. This paper considers a cascade control approach for hydraulic valve-cylinder drives motivated by the fact that this may be applied to successfully suppress nonlinearities. The drive is pre-compensated utilizing a pressure updated inverse valve flow...

  1. A Soft OR Approach to Fostering Systems Thinking: SODA Maps plus Joint Analytical Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shouhong; Wang, Hai

    2016-01-01

    Higher order thinking skills are important for managers. Systems thinking is an important type of higher order thinking in business education. This article investigates a soft Operations Research approach to teaching and learning systems thinking. It outlines the integrative use of Strategic Options Development and Analysis maps for visualizing…

  2. Thought for food (safety) in the EU: a discourse-analytical approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paul, K.T.

    2008-01-01

    This paper seeks to explain the development of a transnational food safety policy approach in the context of the European Union (EU). The diverse reactions to the series of food scares over the past decade, such as the discovery of the link between BSE (Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy) and the

  3. A multi-analytical approach to gold in Ancient Egypt: Studies on provenance and corrosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tissot, I., E-mail: isabeltissot@gmail.com [LIBPhys – UNL, Faculty of Science and Technology, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, University of Lisbon, Campo Grande, 1649-004 Lisbon (Portugal); Troalen, L.G. [National Museums Scotland, Collections Services Department, 242 West Granton Road, Edinburgh EH5 1JA (United Kingdom); Manso, M. [LIBPhys – UNL, Faculty of Science and Technology, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Faculdade de Belas-Artes da Universidade de Lisboa, Largo da Academia Nacional de Belas-Artes, 1249-058 Lisbon (Portugal); Ponting, M. [Archaeology, Classics and Egyptology, University of Liverpool, 12-14 Abercromby Square, Liverpool L69 7WZ (United Kingdom); Radtke, M.; Reinholz, U. [BAM Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Richard-Willstaetter-Strasse 11, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Barreiros, M.A. [LNEG, I.P., Estrada do Paço do Lumiar, 22, 1649-038 Lisbon (Portugal); Shaw, I. [Archaeology, Classics and Egyptology, University of Liverpool, 12-14 Abercromby Square, Liverpool L69 7WZ (United Kingdom); Carvalho, M.L. [LIBPhys – UNL, Faculty of Science and Technology, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Guerra, M.F. [ArchAm, UMR 8096 CNRS - Université Paris Sorbonne, MAE, 21 allée de l' Université, 92023 Nanterre (France)

    2015-06-01

    Recent results from a three-year multi-disciplinary project on Ancient Egyptian gold jewellery revealed that items of jewellery from the Middle Kingdom to the New Kingdom were manufactured using a variety of alluvial gold alloys. These alloys cover a wide range of colours and the majority contain Platinum Group Elements inclusions. However, in all the gold foils analysed, these inclusions were found to be absent. In this work a selection of gilded wood and leather items and gold foil fragments, all from the excavations by John Garstang at Abydos (primarily from Middle Kingdom graves), were examined using Scanning Electron Microscopy-Energy Disperse Spectroscopy (SEM-EDS), X-Ray Fluorescence (μXRF), Particle Induced X-Ray Emission (µPIXE) and Double Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (D{sup 2}XRF). The work allowed us to characterise the composition of the base-alloys and also to reveal the presence of Pt at trace levels, confirming the use of alluvial gold deposits. Corrosion products were also investigated in the foils where surface tarnish was visually observed. Results showed that the differences in the colour of corrosion observed for the foils are related not only to the thickness of the corrosion layer but also to a multi-layer structure containing the various corrosion products. - Highlights: • Multi-analytical protocol based on techniques with different MDLs and spatial resolution • Application of D{sup 2}XRF developed at synchrotron BESSY II for determination of Pt in Au with a MDL of 1 ppm • Egyptian gold alloys have nanoporous corrosion layers where distinct corrosion phases could be identified. • Egyptian gold foils are made with different gold base alloys, but all containing alluvial gold.

  4. Xenon spatial oscillation in nuclear power reactors:an analytical approach through non linear modal analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez Antola, R.

    2005-01-01

    It was proponed recently to apply an extension of Lyapunov's first method to the non-linear regime, known as non-linear modal analysis (NMA), to the study of space-time problems in nuclear reactor kinetics, nuclear power plant dynamics and nuclear power plant instrumentation and control(1). The present communication shows how to apply NMA to the study of Xenon spatial oscillations in large nuclear reactors. The set of non-linear modal equations derived by J. Lewins(2) for neutron flux, Xenon concentration and Iodine concentration are discussed, and a modified version of these equations is taken as a starting point. Using the methods of singular perturbation theory a slow manifold is constructed in the space of mode amplitudes. This allows the reduction of the original high dimensional dynamics to a low dimensional one. It is shown how the amplitudes of the first mode for neutron flux field, temperature field and concentrations of Xenon and Iodine fields can have a stable steady state value while the corresponding amplitudes of the second mode oscillates in a stable limit cycle. The extrapolated dimensions of the reactor's core are used as bifurcation parameters. Approximate analytical formulae are obtained for the critical values of this parameters( below which the onset of oscillations is produced), for the period and for the amplitudes of the above mentioned oscillations. These results are applied to the discussion of neutron flux and temperature excursions in critical locations of the reactor's core. The results of NMA can be validated from the results obtained applying suitable computer codes, using homogenization theory(3) to link the complex heterogeneous model of the codes with the simplified mathematical model used for NMA

  5. A multi-analytical approach to gold in Ancient Egypt: Studies on provenance and corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tissot, I.; Troalen, L.G.; Manso, M.; Ponting, M.; Radtke, M.; Reinholz, U.; Barreiros, M.A.; Shaw, I.; Carvalho, M.L.; Guerra, M.F.

    2015-01-01

    Recent results from a three-year multi-disciplinary project on Ancient Egyptian gold jewellery revealed that items of jewellery from the Middle Kingdom to the New Kingdom were manufactured using a variety of alluvial gold alloys. These alloys cover a wide range of colours and the majority contain Platinum Group Elements inclusions. However, in all the gold foils analysed, these inclusions were found to be absent. In this work a selection of gilded wood and leather items and gold foil fragments, all from the excavations by John Garstang at Abydos (primarily from Middle Kingdom graves), were examined using Scanning Electron Microscopy-Energy Disperse Spectroscopy (SEM-EDS), X-Ray Fluorescence (μXRF), Particle Induced X-Ray Emission (µPIXE) and Double Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (D 2 XRF). The work allowed us to characterise the composition of the base-alloys and also to reveal the presence of Pt at trace levels, confirming the use of alluvial gold deposits. Corrosion products were also investigated in the foils where surface tarnish was visually observed. Results showed that the differences in the colour of corrosion observed for the foils are related not only to the thickness of the corrosion layer but also to a multi-layer structure containing the various corrosion products. - Highlights: • Multi-analytical protocol based on techniques with different MDLs and spatial resolution • Application of D 2 XRF developed at synchrotron BESSY II for determination of Pt in Au with a MDL of 1 ppm • Egyptian gold alloys have nanoporous corrosion layers where distinct corrosion phases could be identified. • Egyptian gold foils are made with different gold base alloys, but all containing alluvial gold

  6. Relationships between volatile compounds and sensory characteristics in virgin olive oil by analytical and chemometric approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procida, Giuseppe; Cichelli, Angelo; Lagazio, Corrado; Conte, Lanfranco S

    2016-01-15

    The volatile fraction of virgin olive oil is characterised by low molecular weight compounds that vaporise at room temperature. In order to obtain an aroma profile similar to natural olfactory perception, the composition of the volatile compounds was determined by applying dynamic headspace gas chromatography, performed at room temperature, with a cryogenic trap directly connected to a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer system. Samples were also evaluated according to European Union and International Olive Council official methods for sensory evaluation. In this paper, the composition of the volatile fraction of 25 extra virgin olive oils from different regions of Italy was analysed and some preliminary considerations on relationships between chemical composition of volatile fraction and sensory characteristics are reported. Forty-two compounds were identified by means of the particular analytical technique used. All the analysed samples, classified as extra virgin by the panel test, never present peaks whose magnitude is important enough in defected oils. The study was focused on the evaluation of volatile compounds responsible for the positive impact on olive odour properties ('green-fruity' and 'sweet') and olfactory perception. Chemometric evaluation of data, obtained through headspace analysis and the panel test evaluation, showed a correlation between chemical compounds and sensory properties. On the basis of the results, the positive attributes of virgin olive oil are divided into two separated groups: sweet types or green types. Sixteen volatile compounds with known positive impact on odour properties were extracted and identified. In particular, eight compounds seem correlated with sweet properties whereas the green sensation appears to be correlated with eight other different substances. The content of the compounds at six carbon atoms proves to be very important in defining positive attributes of extra virgin olive oils and sensory evaluation. © 2015

  7. A combined approach of simulation and analytic hierarchy process in assessing production facility layouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramli, Razamin; Cheng, Kok-Min

    2014-07-01

    One of the important areas of concern in order to obtain a competitive level of productivity in a manufacturing system is the layout design and material transportation system (conveyor system). However, changes in customers' requirements have triggered the need to design other alternatives of the manufacturing layout for existing production floor. Hence, this paper discusses effective alternatives of the process layout specifically, the conveyor system layout. Subsequently, two alternative designs for the conveyor system were proposed with the aims to increase the production output and minimize space allocation. The first proposed layout design includes the installation of conveyor oven in the particular manufacturing room based on priority, and the second one is the one without the conveyor oven in the layout. Simulation technique was employed to design the new facility layout. Eventually, simulation experiments were conducted to understand the performance of each conveyor layout design based on operational characteristics, which include predicting the output of layouts. Utilizing the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), the newly and improved layout designs were assessed before the final selection was done. As a comparison, the existing conveyor system layout was included in the assessment process. Relevant criteria involved in this layout design problem were identified as (i) usage of space of each design, (ii) operator's utilization rates, (iii) return of investment (ROI) of the layout, and (iv) output of the layout. In the final stage of AHP analysis, the overall priority of each alternative layout was obtained and thus, a selection for final use by the management was made based on the highest priority value. This efficient planning and designing of facility layout in a particular manufacturing setting is able to minimize material handling cost, minimize overall production time, minimize investment in equipment, and optimize utilization of space.

  8. Remote Internet access to advanced analytical facilities: a new approach with Web-based services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherry, N; Qin, J; Fuller, M Suominen; Xie, Y; Mola, O; Bauer, M; McIntyre, N S; Maxwell, D; Liu, D; Matias, E; Armstrong, C

    2012-09-04

    Over the past decade, the increasing availability of the World Wide Web has held out the possibility that the efficiency of scientific measurements could be enhanced in cases where experiments were being conducted at distant facilities. Examples of early successes have included X-ray diffraction (XRD) experimental measurements of protein crystal structures at synchrotrons and access to scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and NMR facilities by users from institutions that do not possess such advanced capabilities. Experimental control, visual contact, and receipt of results has used some form of X forwarding and/or VNC (virtual network computing) software that transfers the screen image of a server at the experimental site to that of the users' home site. A more recent development is a web services platform called Science Studio that provides teams of scientists with secure links to experiments at one or more advanced research facilities. The software provides a widely distributed team with a set of controls and screens to operate, observe, and record essential parts of the experiment. As well, Science Studio provides high speed network access to computing resources to process the large data sets that are often involved in complex experiments. The simple web browser and the rapid transfer of experimental data to a processing site allow efficient use of the facility and assist decision making during the acquisition of the experimental results. The software provides users with a comprehensive overview and record of all parts of the experimental process. A prototype network is described involving X-ray beamlines at two different synchrotrons and an SEM facility. An online parallel processing facility has been developed that analyzes the data in near-real time using stream processing. Science Studio and can be expanded to include many other analytical applications, providing teams of users with rapid access to processed results along with the means for detailed

  9. Continuation of Novel Analytical and Empircal Approaches to the Origin and Prediction of Pathogenicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-31

    influenza, collected avian tissues from targeted regions around the world, and deposited the samples into AMNH’s Ambrose Monell Cryo Collection (the...Investigator Dr. Ward Wheeler presented on whole genome phylogenetics with POY, and UNC Charlotte Project Director Dr. Daniel Janies presented on...have allowed them to be more infectious/successful in this “environment” of the human body , as well as how scientists are beginning to approach the

  10. Integrated assessment of the global warming problem. A decision-analytical approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Lenthe, J.; Hendrickx, L.; Vlek, C.A.J.

    1995-01-01

    The project on the title subject aims at developing a policy-oriented methodology for the integrated assessment of the global warming problem. Decision analysis in general and influence diagrams in particular appear to constitute an appropriate integrated assessment methodology. The influence-diagram approach is illustrated at a preliminary integrated modeling of the global warming problem. In next stages of the research, attention will be shifted from the methodology of integrated assessment to the contents of integrated models. 4 figs., 5 refs

  11. Analytical Approach to Target Detection and Localization at High-Frequency Bands Using Multipath Propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-25

    ElectroMagnetic, Multipath propagation, Reflection-diffraction, SAR signal processing 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT SAR 18...protection, and traffic surveillance, etc. With these above reasons, we are motivated to introduce a new approach to the target detection and...coherent integrating the backscattering signal , we propose a 3D propagation model that is useful not only in explaining the mechanisms of wave

  12. The interplay of elements affecting host community resident attitudes toward tourism : a path analytic approach

    OpenAIRE

    Jurowski, Claudia Anne

    1994-01-01

    Recent research in the field of tourism has demonstrated that the endorsement of the indigenous the population is essential for the development, successful operation and sustainability of tourism. Achieving the goal of favorable community support for the tourism industry will require an understanding of how residents formulate their perceptions of the impact of tourism and their attitudes toward tourism. The purpose of this study was to examine the interplay of elements that affect host co...

  13. Relationships among neurocognition, symptoms and functioning in patients with schizophrenia: a path-analytic approach for associations at baseline and following 24 weeks of antipsychotic drug therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keefe Richard SE

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neurocognitive impairment and psychiatric symptoms have been associated with deficits in psychosocial and occupational functioning in patients with schizophrenia. This post-hoc analysis evaluates the relationships among cognition, psychopathology, and psychosocial functioning in patients with schizophrenia at baseline and following sustained treatment with antipsychotic drugs. Methods Data were obtained from a clinical trial assessing the cognitive effects of selected antipsychotic drugs in patients with schizophrenia. Patients were randomly assigned to 24 weeks of treatment with olanzapine (n = 159, risperidone (n = 158, or haloperidol (n = 97. Psychosocial functioning was assessed with the Heinrichs-Carpenter Quality of Life Scale [QLS], cognition with a standard battery of neurocognitive tests; and psychiatric symptoms with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale [PANSS]. A path-analytic approach was used to evaluate the effects of changes in cognitive functioning on subdomains of quality of life, and to determine whether such effects were direct or mediated via changes in psychiatric symptoms. Results At baseline, processing speed affected functioning mainly indirectly via negative symptoms. Positive symptoms also affected functioning at baseline although independent of cognition. At 24 weeks, changes in processing speed affected changes in functioning both directly and indirectly via PANSS negative subscale scores. Positive symptoms no longer contributed to the path-analytic models. Although a consistent relationship was observed between processing speed and the 3 functional domains, variation existed as to whether the paths were direct and/or indirect. Working memory and verbal memory did not significantly contribute to any of the path-analytic models studied. Conclusion Processing speed demonstrated direct and indirect effects via negative symptoms on three domains of functioning as measured by the QLS at baseline and

  14. A new approach to predicting environmental transfer of radionuclides to wildlife: A demonstration for freshwater fish and caesium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beresford, N.A., E-mail: nab@ceh.ac.uk [NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Av. Bailrigg, Lancaster LA1 4AP (United Kingdom); Yankovich, T.L. [Saskatchewan Research Council, Environment and Forestry, 125, 15 Innovation Blvd., Saskatoon, SK S7N 2X8 (Canada); Wood, M.D. [School of Environment and Life Sciences, Room 323, Peel Building, University of Salford, Manchester, M5 4WT (United Kingdom); Fesenko, S. [International Atomic Energy Agency, 1400 Vienna (Austria); Andersson, P. [Strålsäkerhetsnymdigheten, Swedish Radiation Safety Authority, SE-171 16 Stockholm (Sweden); Muikku, M. [STUK, P.O. Box 14, 00881 Helsinki (Finland); Willey, N.J. [Centre for Research in Biosciences, University of the West of England, Coldharbour Lane, Frenchay, Bristol BS16 1QY (United Kingdom)

    2013-10-01

    The application of the concentration ratio (CR) to predict radionuclide activity concentrations in wildlife from those in soil or water has become the widely accepted approach for environmental assessments. Recently both the ICRP and IAEA have produced compilations of CR values for application in environmental assessment. However, the CR approach has many limitations, most notably, that the transfer of most radionuclides is largely determined by site-specific factors (e.g. water or soil chemistry). Furthermore, there are few, if any, CR values for many radionuclide-organism combinations. In this paper, we propose an alternative approach and, as an example, demonstrate and test this for caesium and freshwater fish. Using a Residual Maximum Likelihood (REML) mixed-model regression we analysed a dataset comprising 597 entries for 53 freshwater fish species from 67 sites. The REML analysis generated a mean value for each species on a common scale after REML adjustment taking account of the effect of the inter-site variation. Using an independent dataset, we subsequently test the hypothesis that the REML model outputs can be used to predict radionuclide, in this case radiocaesium, activity concentrations in unknown species from the results of a species which has been sampled at a specific site. The outputs of the REML analysis accurately predicted {sup 137}Cs activity concentrations in different species of fish from 27 Finnish lakes; these data had not been used in our initial analyses. We recommend that this alternative approach be further investigated for other radionuclides and ecosystems. - Highlights: • An alternative approach to estimating radionuclide transfer to wildlife is presented. • Analysed a dataset comprising 53 freshwater fish species collected from 67 sites. • Residual Maximum Likelihood mixed model regression is used. • Model output takes account of the effect of inter-site variation. • Successfully predicted {sup 137}Cs concentrations in

  15. Integrating bioassays and analytical chemistry as an improved approach to support safety assessment of food contact materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veyrand, Julien; Marin-Kuan, Maricel; Bezencon, Claudine; Frank, Nancy; Guérin, Violaine; Koster, Sander; Latado, Hélia; Mollergues, Julie; Patin, Amaury; Piguet, Dominique; Serrant, Patrick; Varela, Jesus; Schilter, Benoît

    2017-10-01

    Food contact materials (FCM) contain chemicals which can migrate into food and result in human exposure. Although it is mandatory to ensure that migration does not endanger human health, there is still no consensus on how to pragmatically assess the safety of FCM since traditional approaches would require extensive toxicological and analytical testing which are expensive and time consuming. Recently, the combination of bioassays, analytical chemistry and risk assessment has been promoted as a new paradigm to identify toxicologically relevant molecules and address safety issues. However, there has been debate on the actual value of bioassays in that framework. In the present work, a FCM anticipated to release the endocrine active chemical 4-nonyphenol (4NP) was used as a model. In a migration study, the leaching of 4NP was confirmed by LC-MS/MS and GC-MS. This was correlated with an increase in both estrogenic and anti-androgenic activities as measured with bioassays. A standard risk assessment indicated that according to the food intake scenario applied, the level of 4NP measured was lower, close or slightly above the acceptable daily intake. Altogether these results show that bioassays could reveal the presence of an endocrine active chemical in a real-case FCM migration study. The levels reported were relevant for safety assessment. In addition, this work also highlighted that bioactivity measured in migrate does not necessarily represent a safety issue. In conclusion, together with analytics, bioassays contribute to identify toxicologically relevant molecules leaching from FCM and enable improved safety assessment.

  16. The effect of different electrodes on the electronic transmission of benzene junctions: Analytical approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohebbi, Razie; Seyed-Yazdi, Jamileh, E-mail: j.seyedyazdi@vru.ac.ir

    2016-06-01

    In this paper we have investigated the electronic transmission of systems electrode–benzene–electrode using the Landauer approach. The effect of different electrodes made of metal (Au) and semiconductors (Si, TiO{sub 2}) is investigated. These three electrodes are compared between them and the results show that the electronic transmission of benzene junctions, when using semiconductor electrodes, is associated to a gap in transmission which is due to the electrodes band gap. As a consequence, a threshold voltage is necessary to obtain conducting channels.

  17. A Numerical-Analytical Approach to Modeling the Axial Rotation of the Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markov, Yu. G.; Perepelkin, V. V.; Rykhlova, L. V.; Filippova, A. S.

    2018-04-01

    A model for the non-uniform axial rotation of the Earth is studied using a celestial-mechanical approach and numerical simulations. The application of an approximate model containing a small number of parameters to predict variations of the axial rotation velocity of the Earth over short time intervals is justified. This approximate model is obtained by averaging variable parameters that are subject to small variations due to non-stationarity of the perturbing factors. The model is verified and compared with predictions over a long time interval published by the International Earth Rotation and Reference Systems Service (IERS).

  18. Effect of charged line defects on conductivity in graphene: Numerical Kubo and analytical Boltzmann approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Radchenko, T. M.; Shylau, A. A.; Zozoulenko, I. V.

    2013-01-01

    . A numerical study of electronic transport is performed by means of a time-dependent real-space Kubo approach in honeycomb lattices containing millions of carbon atoms, capturing the linear response of realistic size systems in the highly disordered regime. Our numerical calculations are complemented...... with the Kubo calculations. In the strong scattering regime, the conductivity is found to be a sublinear function of electronic density and weakly dependent on the Thomas-Fermi screening wavelength. We attribute this atypical behavior to the extended nature of one-dimensional charged defects. Our results...

  19. A novel four-dimensional analytical approach for analysis of complex samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, Susanne; Jakob, Cornelia; Hippler, Jörg; Schmitz, Oliver J

    2016-05-01

    A two-dimensional LC (2D-LC) method, based on the work of Erni and Frei in 1978, was developed and coupled to an ion mobility-high-resolution mass spectrometer (IM-MS), which enabled the separation of complex samples in four dimensions (2D-LC, ion mobility spectrometry (IMS), and mass spectrometry (MS)). This approach works as a continuous multiheart-cutting LC system, using a long modulation time of 4 min, which allows the complete transfer of most of the first - dimension peaks to the second - dimension column without fractionation, in comparison to comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography. Hence, each compound delivers only one peak in the second dimension, which simplifies the data handling even when ion mobility spectrometry as a third and mass spectrometry as a fourth dimension are introduced. The analysis of a plant extract from Ginkgo biloba shows the separation power of this four-dimensional separation method with a calculated total peak capacity of more than 8700. Furthermore, the advantage of ion mobility for characterizing unknown compounds by their collision cross section (CCS) and accurate mass in a non-target approach is shown for different matrices like plant extracts and coffee. Graphical abstract Principle of the four-dimensional separation.

  20. Semantic Enrichment of Movement Behavior with Foursquare--A Visual Analytics Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Robert; Thom, Dennis; Ertl, Thomas

    2015-08-01

    In recent years, many approaches have been developed that efficiently and effectively visualize movement data, e.g., by providing suitable aggregation strategies to reduce visual clutter. Analysts can use them to identify distinct movement patterns, such as trajectories with similar direction, form, length, and speed. However, less effort has been spent on finding the semantics behind movements, i.e. why somebody or something is moving. This can be of great value for different applications, such as product usage and consumer analysis, to better understand urban dynamics, and to improve situational awareness. Unfortunately, semantic information often gets lost when data is recorded. Thus, we suggest to enrich trajectory data with POI information using social media services and show how semantic insights can be gained. Furthermore, we show how to handle semantic uncertainties in time and space, which result from noisy, unprecise, and missing data, by introducing a POI decision model in combination with highly interactive visualizations. Finally, we evaluate our approach with two case studies on a large electric scooter data set and test our model on data with known ground truth.

  1. Food risk perceptions, gender, and individual differences in avoidance and approach motivation, intuitive and analytic thinking styles, and anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leikas, Sointu; Lindeman, Marjaana; Roininen, Katariina; Lähteenmäki, Liisa

    2007-03-01

    Risks appear to be perceived in two different ways, affectively and rationally. Finnish adult internet users were contacted via e-mail and asked to fill an internet questionnaire consisting of questions of food risks and measures of avoidance and approach motivation, analytic and intuitive information processing style, trait anxiety, and gender in order to find out (1) whether food risks are perceived two-dimensionally, (2) how individual differences in motivation, information processing, and anxiety are associated with the different dimensions of food risk perceptions, and (3) whether gender moderates these associations. The data were analyzed by factor, correlation and regression analyses. Three factors emerged: risk scariness, risk likelihood, and risks of cardiovascular disease. Personality and gender x personality interactions predicted food risk perceptions. Results showed that food risk perceptions generally form two dimensions; scariness and likelihood, but that this may depend on the nature of the risk. In addition, results imply that individuals with high avoidance motivation perceive food risks as scarier and more likely than others, and that individuals with an analytic information processing style perceive food risks as less likely than others. Trait anxiety seems to be associated with higher food risk perceptions only among men.

  2. Multi-analyte approach for the determination of ng L-1 levels of steroid hormones in unidentified aqueous samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noppe, H.; Verheyden, K.; Gillis, W.; Courtheyn, D.; Vanthemsche, P.; De Brabander, H.F.

    2007-01-01

    Since the 1970s, many analytical methods for the detection of illegal growth promoters, such as thyreostats, anabolics, β-agonists and corticosteroids have been developed for a wide range of matrices of animal origin, including meat, fat, organ tissue, urine and faeces. The aim of this study was to develop an analytical method for the determination of ng L -1 levels of estrogens, gestagens, androgens (EGAs) and corticosteroids in aqueous preparations (i.e. drinking water, drinking water supplements), commercially available on the 'black' market. For this, extraction was performed with Bakerbond C 18 speedisk, a technique commonly used in environmental analysis. After fractionation, four fractions were collected using a methanol:water gradient program. Gas chromatography coupled to electron impact multiple mass spectrometry (GC-EI-MS 2 ) screening for the EGAs was carried out on the derivatized extracts. For the detection of corticosteroids, gas chromatography coupled to negative chemical ionization mass spectrometry (GC-NCI-MS) was used after oxidation of the extracts. Confirmation was done by liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization multiple mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS 2 ). The combined use of GC and LC coupled to MS enabled the identification and quantification of anabolics and corticosteroids at the low ng L -1 level. This study demonstrated the occurrence of both androgens and corticosteroids in different commercial aqueous samples

  3. Investigating interactional competencies in Parkinson's disease: the potential benefits of a conversation analytic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Sarah; Barnes, Rebecca; Britten, Nicky; Wilkinson, Ray

    2011-01-01

    Around 70% of people who develop Parkinson's disease (PD) experience speech and voice changes. Clinicians often find that when asked about their primary communication concerns, PD clients will talk about the difficulties they have 'getting into' conversations. This is an important area for clients and it has implications for quality of life and clinical management. To review the extant literature on PD and communication impairments in order to reveal key topic areas, the range of methodologies applied, and any gaps in knowledge relating to PD and social interaction and how these might be usefully addressed. A systematic search of a number of key databases and available grey literatures regarding PD and communication impairment was conducted (including motor speech changes, intelligibility, cognitive/language changes) to obtain a sense of key areas and methodologies applied. Research applying conversation analysis in the field of communication disability was also reviewed to illustrate the value of this methodology in uncovering common interactional difficulties, and in revealing the use of strategic collaborative competencies in naturally occurring conversation. In addition, available speech and language therapy assessment and intervention approaches to PD were examined with a view to their effectiveness in promoting individualized intervention planning and advice-giving for everyday interaction. A great deal has been written about the deficits underpinning communication changes in PD and the impact of communication disability on the self and others as measured in a clinical setting. Less is known about what happens for this client group in everyday conversations outside of the clinic. Current speech and language therapy assessments and interventions focus on the individual and are largely impairment based or focused on compensatory speaker-oriented techniques. A conversation analysis approach would complement basic research on what actually happens in everyday

  4. The Role of Cations on the Performance of Lithium Ion Batteries: A Quantitative Analytical Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Sascha; Winter, Martin

    2018-02-20

    Lithium ion batteries are nowadays the state-of-the-art power sources for portable electronic devices and the most promising candidate for energy storage in large-size batteries, e.g., pure and hybrid vehicles. However, the degradation of the cell components minimizes both storage and operation lifetime (calendar and cycle life), which is called aging. Due to the numerous different aging effects, in either the single constituents or their interactions with each other, many reports about methodologies and techniques, both electrochemical and analytical, can be found in the literature. However, quantitative data about the degradation effects were seldom stated. One important effect is the cation distribution and migration during operation. Metal dissolution and metal migration of the cathode and the corresponding deposition of these metals on the graphitic anode are known harmful degradation effects, especially for the formed solid electrolyte interphase on the surface of the anode. Depending on the applied cell chemistries and therefore the cathode material, different mechanisms were reported so far. For lithium manganese oxide based cells, the acidification of the electrolyte due to composition of the conduction salt is attributed as the main source of metal migration. Due to subsequent loss of manganese from the cathode, the overall performance of the cell is seriously impaired. Based on the obtained observations, this degradation mechanism was adapted to lithium nickel cobalt manganese based cells as main cause of the capacity fading. However, with the help a developed total X-ray fluorescence method and additional surface and electrolyte investigations, the proposed HF based mechanism was disproven. Instead, the migration was directly associated with material defects or mechanical spalling of the particles. Furthermore, with the obtained quantitative data of the migrated transition metals on the anode and separator, the contribution on the capacity fade was

  5. Analytical Approaches to Understanding the Role of Non-carbohydrate Components in Wood Biorefinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leskinen, Timo Ensio

    This dissertation describes the production and analysis of wood subjected to a novel electron beam-steam explosion pretreatment (EB-SE) pretreatment with the aim to evaluate its suitability for the production of bioethanol. The goal of these studies was to: 1) develop analytical methods for the investigation of depolymerization of wood components under pretreatments, 2) analyze the effects of EB-SE pretreatment on the pretreated biomass, 3) define how lignin and extractive components affect the action of enzymes on cellulosic substrates, and 4) examine how changes in lignin structure impact its isolation and potential conversion into value added chemicals. The first section of the work describes the development of a size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) methodology for molecular weight analysis for native and pretreated wood. The selective analysis of carbohydrates and lignin from native wood was made possible by the combination of two selective derivatization methods, ionic liquid assisted benzoylation of the carbohydrate fraction and acetobromination of the lignin in acetic acid media. This method was then used to examine changes in softwood samples after the EB-SE pretreatment. The methodology was shown to be effective for monitoring changes in the molecular weight profiles of the pretreated wood. The second section of the work investigates synergistic effects of the EB-SE pretreatment on the molecular level structures of wood components and the significance of these alterations in terms of enzymatic digestibility. The two pretreatment steps depolymerized cell wall components in different fashion, while showing synergistic effects. Hardwood and softwood species responded differently to similar treatment conditions, which was attributed to the well-known differences in the structure of their lignin and hemicellulose fractions. The relatively crosslinked lignin in softwood appeared to limit swelling and subsequent depolymerization in comparison to hardwood

  6. Concept mapping and network analysis: an analytic approach to measure ties among constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Alyssa W; Kane, Mary

    2014-12-01

    Group concept mapping is a mixed-methods approach that helps a group visually represent its ideas on a topic of interest through a series of related maps. The maps and additional graphics are useful for planning, evaluation and theory development. Group concept maps are typically described, interpreted and utilized through points, clusters and distances, and the implications of these features in understanding how constructs relate to one another. This paper focuses on the application of network analysis to group concept mapping to quantify the strength and directionality of relationships among clusters. The authors outline the steps of this analysis, and illustrate its practical use through an organizational strategic planning example. Additional benefits of this analysis to evaluation projects are also discussed, supporting the overall utility of this supplemental technique to the standard concept mapping methodology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Can material matters and critique be dealt with at the same time? Discussion of analytical approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Nina Blom

    2016-01-01

    . Several theoretical traditions offer perspectives that take objects into account even though they approach the understanding of how material relations shape social life differently. This presentation discusses how the research area on disaster, social crisis and conflict can benefit and be widen up from......Material matters has to be dealt with in analysis of disasters, social crisis and conflicts since an important part of the unpredictability in these courses not only stems from human agency but as well from objects that are as well involved in complex webs of relations that shape the processes...... (e.g. Mol 2002) distances itself from the ANT-tradition by focusing on the practices where humans and materiality are gathered instead of focusing on the relations between these actants. Working with Clarke?s (2005) notion of situational analysis as well as Practice Theory (e.g. Reckwitz 2002...

  8. Can material matters and critique be dealt with at the same time? Discussion of analytical approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Nina Blom

    2013-01-01

    . Several theoretical traditions offer perspectives that take objects into account even though they approach the understanding of how material relations shape social life differently. This presentation discusses how the research area on disaster, social crisis and conflict can benefit and be widen up from......Material matters has to be dealt with in analysis of disasters, social crisis and conflicts since an important part of the unpredictability in these courses not only stems from human agency but as well from objects that are as well involved in complex webs of relations that shape the processes...... (e.g. Mol 2002) distances itself from the ANT-tradition by focusing on the practices where humans and materiality are gathered instead of focusing on the relations between these actants. Working with Clarke’s (2005) notion of situational analysis as well as Practice Theory (e.g. Reckwitz 2002...

  9. Critical infrastructures at risk: A need for a new conceptual approach and extended analytical tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroeger, Wolfgang

    2008-01-01

    Recent decades have witnessed on the one hand a much greater and tighter integration of goods or services supply systems and growing interconnectedness as well as changing organizational and operational factors, and on the other hand an increased social vulnerability in the face of accidental or intentional disruption. The work of the International Risk Governance Council (IRGC) in the field of critical infrastructures has focused on both the risks associated with five individual infrastructures and the issues associated with the increasing interdependence between them. This paper presents a selection of system weaknesses and a number of policy options that have been identified and highlights issues for further investigation and dialogue with stakeholders. Furthermore, the need to extend current modeling and simulation techniques in order to cope with the increasing system complexity is elaborated. An object-oriented, hybrid modeling approach promising to overcome some of the shortcomings of traditional methods is presented

  10. Analytical investigation of different mathematical approaches utilizing manipulation of ratio spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Essam Eldin A.

    2018-01-01

    This work represents a comparative study of different approaches of manipulating ratio spectra, applied on a binary mixture of ciprofloxacin HCl and dexamethasone sodium phosphate co-formulated as ear drops. The proposed new spectrophotometric methods are: ratio difference spectrophotometric method (RDSM), amplitude center method (ACM), first derivative of the ratio spectra (1DD) and mean centering of ratio spectra (MCR). The proposed methods were checked using laboratory-prepared mixtures and were successfully applied for the analysis of pharmaceutical formulation containing the cited drugs. The proposed methods were validated according to the ICH guidelines. A comparative study was conducted between those methods regarding simplicity, limitations and sensitivity. The obtained results were statistically compared with those obtained from the reported HPLC method, showing no significant difference with respect to accuracy and precision.

  11. Elders and patient participation revisited - a discourse analytic approach to older persons' reflections on patient participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foss, Christina

    2011-07-01

    This study focuses on how older persons' accounts of participation might be framed and constructed based on their social and historical situatedness. The picture emerging from contemporary research tends to portray older people as a group who prefer to leave decisions to the professionals during a hospital stay. Through an approach that sought to contextualise the respondents' accounts of participation, different features of patient participation became visible. The study is based on a postmodern framework using a discursive approach, informed by the works of Foucault and on works that have been developed in line with his main ideas. Eighteen individual in-depth interviews with older people (age 80+) were conducted between one to two weeks after discharge from hospital. Findings indicate that older people actively position themselves in relation to various discourses at play in the hospital, and display a wide variety of strategies aimed at gaining influence. To the older persons in this study, participation was practised in a subtle and discreet way, as a matter of choosing a good strategy to interact with the personnel. Participation was also seen as a matter of balancing their own needs against the needs of others and as a behaviour that required self-confidence. The accounts of patient participation given by the older persons differed from the dominant and taken-for-granted discourse of patient participation as a right. As the older persons' understanding and practice of patient participation do not 'fit' the contemporary idea of participation, it is in danger of being ignored or overlooked by care-givers as well as by researchers. To identify older patients' wish to participate, one must actively search for it. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Semi-analytical approach for guided mode resonance in high-index-contrast photonic crystal slab: TE polarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi; Peng, Chao; Li, Zhengbin

    2013-09-09

    In high-contrast (HC) photonic crystals (PC) slabs, the high-order coupling is so intense that it is indispensable for analyzing the guided mode resonance (GMR) effect. In this paper, a semi-analytical approach is proposed for analyzing GMR in HC PC slabs with TE-like polarization. The intense high-order coupling is included by using a convergent recursive procedure. The reflection of radiative waves at high-index-contrast interfaces is also considered by adopting a strict Green's function for multi-layer structures. Modal properties of interest like band structure, radiation constant, field profile are calculated, agreeing well with numerical finite-difference time-domain simulations. This analysis is promising for the design and optimization of various HC PC devices.

  13. Proposal of a risk-factor-based analytical approach for integrating occupational health and safety into project risk evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badri, Adel; Nadeau, Sylvie; Gbodossou, André

    2012-09-01

    Excluding occupational health and safety (OHS) from project management is no longer acceptable. Numerous industrial accidents have exposed the ineffectiveness of conventional risk evaluation methods as well as negligence of risk factors having major impact on the health and safety of workers and nearby residents. Lack of reliable and complete evaluations from the beginning of a project generates bad decisions that could end up threatening the very existence of an organization. This article supports a systematic approach to the evaluation of OHS risks and proposes a new procedure based on the number of risk factors identified and their relative significance. A new concept called risk factor concentration along with weighting of risk factor categories as contributors to undesirable events are used in the analytical hierarchy process multi-criteria comparison model with Expert Choice(©) software. A case study is used to illustrate the various steps of the risk evaluation approach and the quick and simple integration of OHS at an early stage of a project. The approach allows continual reassessment of criteria over the course of the project or when new data are acquired. It was thus possible to differentiate the OHS risks from the risk of drop in quality in the case of the factory expansion project. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. ANALYTICAL VIEW OF THE PERCEPTION OF SELECTED INNOVATIVE APPROACHES IN MARKETING COMMUNICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Dorčák

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present by means of thorough analysis of the selected market the perception of innovative approaches in marketing communication, both from the perspective of the companies on the supply side and from the perspective of their potential customers on the demand side. As regards the companies, it is in particular about their perception of relative benefits the use of electronic marketing instruments has given the degree of effort and resources spent on the establishment and maintenance of e-marketing infrastructure. As regards the customers, it is, in turn, about their perception of the particular aspects of use of virtual social networks by the companies for branding purposes or directly for promotion.Methodology/Approach: Object of the research were real companies active on the analysed market. The subject of the research were their actual and potential customers represented by the users of one of the local Internet portals long active on the analysed market. Both these groups were presented with questions by means of electronic questionnaires. The data were subsequently processed and interpreted through cluster analyses.Findings: Based on the confirmed aspects we came to the conclusion that perceived benefit of the Internet on business is closely related to on-line activity of the companies and to the number of instruments the company uses to promote its business. Last but not least, we have investigated whether economic status of the users (real or potential customers has an impact on their perception of the companies' use of social networks for promotional purposes. The similarity of behaviour of particular groups allows for more accurate targeting of on-line activity with respect to selected target markets.Research Limitation/implication: The biggest limitation is the territorial nature of the research. Research was targeted primarily at the Central European market.Originality/Value of paper: Presented

  15. Dual-domain mass-transfer parameters from electrical hysteresis: theory and analytical approach applied to laboratory, synthetic streambed, and groundwater experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Martin A.; Day-Lewis, Frederick D.; Ong, John B.; Harvey, Judson W.; Lane, John W.

    2014-01-01

    Models of dual-domain mass transfer (DDMT) are used to explain anomalous aquifer transport behavior such as the slow release of contamination and solute tracer tailing. Traditional tracer experiments to characterize DDMT are performed at the flow path scale (meters), which inherently incorporates heterogeneous exchange processes; hence, estimated “effective” parameters are sensitive to experimental design (i.e., duration and injection velocity). Recently, electrical geophysical methods have been used to aid in the inference of DDMT parameters because, unlike traditional fluid sampling, electrical methods can directly sense less-mobile solute dynamics and can target specific points along subsurface flow paths. Here we propose an analytical framework for graphical parameter inference based on a simple petrophysical model explaining the hysteretic relation between measurements of bulk and fluid conductivity arising in the presence of DDMT at the local scale. Analysis is graphical and involves visual inspection of hysteresis patterns to (1) determine the size of paired mobile and less-mobile porosities and (2) identify the exchange rate coefficient through simple curve fitting. We demonstrate the approach using laboratory column experimental data, synthetic streambed experimental data, and field tracer-test data. Results from the analytical approach compare favorably with results from calibration of numerical models and also independent measurements of mobile and less-mobile porosity. We show that localized electrical hysteresis patterns resulting from diffusive exchange are independent of injection velocity, indicating that repeatable parameters can be extracted under varied experimental designs, and these parameters represent the true intrinsic properties of specific volumes of porous media of aquifers and hyporheic zones.

  16. An integrated approach to human reliability analysis -- decision analytic dynamic reliability model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmberg, J.; Hukki, K.; Norros, L.; Pulkkinen, U.; Pyy, P.

    1999-01-01

    The reliability of human operators in process control is sensitive to the context. In many contemporary human reliability analysis (HRA) methods, this is not sufficiently taken into account. The aim of this article is that integration between probabilistic and psychological approaches in human reliability should be attempted. This is achieved first, by adopting such methods that adequately reflect the essential features of the process control activity, and secondly, by carrying out an interactive HRA process. Description of the activity context, probabilistic modeling, and psychological analysis form an iterative interdisciplinary sequence of analysis in which the results of one sub-task maybe input to another. The analysis of the context is carried out first with the help of a common set of conceptual tools. The resulting descriptions of the context promote the probabilistic modeling, through which new results regarding the probabilistic dynamics can be achieved. These can be incorporated in the context descriptions used as reference in the psychological analysis of actual performance. The results also provide new knowledge of the constraints of activity, by providing information of the premises of the operator's actions. Finally, the stochastic marked point process model gives a tool, by which psychological methodology may be interpreted and utilized for reliability analysis

  17. Identifying medication error chains from critical incident reports: a new analytic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huckels-Baumgart, Saskia; Manser, Tanja

    2014-10-01

    Research into the distribution of medication errors usually focuses on isolated stages within the medication use process. Our study aimed to provide a novel process-oriented approach to medication incident analysis focusing on medication error chains. Our study was conducted across a 900-bed teaching hospital in Switzerland. All reported 1,591 medication errors 2009-2012 were categorized using the Medication Error Index NCC MERP and the WHO Classification for Patient Safety Methodology. In order to identify medication error chains, each reported medication incident was allocated to the relevant stage of the hospital medication use process. Only 25.8% of the reported medication errors were detected before they propagated through the medication use process. The majority of medication errors (74.2%) formed an error chain encompassing two or more stages. The most frequent error chain comprised preparation up to and including medication administration (45.2%). "Non-consideration of documentation/prescribing" during the drug preparation was the most frequent contributor for "wrong dose" during the administration of medication. Medication error chains provide important insights for detecting and stopping medication errors before they reach the patient. Existing and new safety barriers need to be extended to interrupt error chains and to improve patient safety. © 2014, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  18. A multiplex degenerate PCR analytical approach targeting to eight genes for screening GMOs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jinchao; Chen, Lili; Liu, Xin; Gao, Ying; Zhang, Dabing; Yang, Litao

    2012-06-01

    Currently, the detection methods with lower cost and higher throughput are the major trend in screening genetically modified (GM) food or feed before specific identification. In this study, we developed a quadruplex degenerate PCR screening approach for more than 90 approved GMO events. This assay is consisted of four PCR systems targeting on nine DNA sequences from eight trait genes widely introduced into GMOs, such as CP4-EPSPS derived from Acetobacterium tumefaciens sp. strain CP4, phosphinothricin acetyltransferase gene derived from Streptomyceshygroscopicus (bar) and Streptomyces viridochromogenes (pat), and Cry1Ab, Cry1Ac, Cry1A(b/c), mCry3A, and Cry3Bb1 derived from Bacillus thuringiensis. The quadruplex degenerate PCR assay offers high specificity and sensitivity with the absolute limit of detection (LOD) of approximate 80targetcopies. Furthermore, the applicability of the quadruplex PCR assay was confirmed by screening either several artificially prepared samples or samples of Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration (GIPSA) proficiency program. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Shotgun proteomic analytical approach for studying proteins adsorbed onto liposome surface

    KAUST Repository

    Capriotti, Anna Laura

    2011-07-02

    The knowledge about the interaction between plasma proteins and nanocarriers employed for in vivo delivery is fundamental to understand their biodistribution. Protein adsorption onto nanoparticle surface (protein corona) is strongly affected by vector surface characteristics. In general, the primary interaction is thought to be electrostatic, thus surface charge of carrier is supposed to play a central role in protein adsorption. Because protein corona composition can be critical in modifying the interactive surface that is recognized by cells, characterizing its formation onto lipid particles may serve as a fundamental predictive model for the in vivo efficiency of a lipidic vector. In the present work, protein coronas adsorbed onto three differently charged cationic liposome formulations were compared by a shotgun proteomic approach based on nano-liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry. About 130 proteins were identified in each corona, with only small differences between the different cationic liposome formulations. However, this study could be useful for the future controlled design of colloidal drug carriers and possibly in the controlled creation of biocompatible surfaces of other devices that come into contact with proteins into body fluids. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

  20. A Visual Analytics Approach for Detecting and Understanding Anomalous Resident Behaviors in Smart Healthcare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhifang Liao

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available With the development of science and technology, it is possible to analyze residents’ daily behaviors for the purpose of smart healthcare in the smart home environment. Many researchers have begun to detect residents’ anomalous behaviors and assess their physical condition, but these approaches used by the researchers are often caught in plight caused by a lack of ground truth, one-sided analysis of behavior, and difficulty of understanding behaviors. In this paper, we put forward a smart home visual analysis system (SHVis to help analysts detect and comprehend unusual behaviors of residents, and predict the health information intelligently. Firstly, the system classifies daily activities recorded by sensor devices in smart home environment into different categories, and discovers unusual behavior patterns of residents living in this environment by using various characteristics extracted from those activities and appropriate unsupervised anomaly detection algorithm. Secondly, on the basis of figuring out the residents’ anomaly degree of every date, we explore the daily behavior patterns and details with the help of several visualization views, and compare and analyze residents’ activities of various dates to find the reasons why residents act unusually. In the case study of this paper, we analyze residents’ behaviors that happened over two months and find unusual indoor behaviors and give health advice to the residents.

  1. An analytical approach to the forensic identification of different classes of new psychoactive substances (NPSs) in seized materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strano Rossi, Sabina; Odoardi, Sara; Gregori, Adolfo; Peluso, Giuseppe; Ripani, Luigi; Ortar, Giorgio; Serpelloni, Giovanni; Romolo, Francesco Saverio

    2014-09-15

    New psychoactive substances (NPSs) are rapidly spreading worldwide, and forensic laboratories are often requested to identify new substances for which no reference standards or analytical data are available. This article describes an analytical approach that was adopted in Italy by a few collaborative centres of the Italian Early Warning System for Drugs, which has contributed many alerts for the identification of different classes of NPSs in the last 24 months. Seized crystals and powders were initially analysed via single quadrupole gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), followed by liquid chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC/HRMS) in the positive electrospray ionisation (ESI) mode at 100,000 full width at half maximum resolution (FWHM) without fragmentation to elucidate the elemental compositions of unknown molecules. Different fragmentation voltages during LC/HRMS were applied to study the accurate masses of the obtained characteristic fragments. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analyses were performed to identify specific isomers when necessary. Some interesting examples of unknown NPSs from seizures later identified in our laboratories are reported, with special focus on those cases where analytical standards were not available during analyses. These cases include cathinones, such as 3-methylmethcathinone (3-MMC), methylone, bk-MBDB (butylone), 4-methylethcathinone (4-MEC), flephedrone, methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) and pentedrone, methoxetamine, apinaca or AKB48, benzydamine, meta-chlorophenylpiperazine (m-CPP), 5-MeO-N,N-dialkyl tryptamines, such as 5-MeO-DALT and 5-MeOMIPT, benzofurans, such as 6-APB and 4-APB, and diphenidine (identified for the first time in Europe). The identification of NPSs in confiscated materials was successfully achieved via GC/MS coupled with LC/HRMS and, in a few cases, NMR analyses. The availability of GC/MS libraries is of great assistance in the identification of new drugs. Alternatively, the study

  2. Subtypes of borderline personality disorder patients: a cluster-analytic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smits, Maaike L; Feenstra, Dine J; Bales, Dawn L; de Vos, Jasmijn; Lucas, Zwaan; Verheul, Roel; Luyten, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    The borderline personality disorder (BPD) population is notably heterogeneous, and this has potentially important implications for intervention. Identifying distinct subtypes of patients may represent a first step in identifying which treatments work best for which individuals. A cluster-analysis on dimensional personality disorder (PD) features, as assessed with the SCID-II, was performed on a sample of carefully screened BPD patients ( N  = 187) referred for mentalization-based treatment. The optimal cluster solution was determined using multiple indices of fit. The validity of the clusters was explored by investigating their relationship with borderline pathology, symptom severity, interpersonal problems, quality of life, personality functioning, attachment, and trauma history, in addition to demographic and clinical features. A three-cluster solution was retained, which identified three clusters of BPD patients with distinct profiles. The largest cluster ( n  = 145) consisted of patients characterized by "core BPD" features, without marked elevations on other PD dimensions. A second "Extravert/externalizing" cluster of patients ( n  = 27) was characterized by high levels of histrionic, narcissistic, and antisocial features. A third, smaller "Schizotypal/paranoid" cluster ( n  = 15) consisted of patients with marked schizotypal and paranoid features. Patients in these clusters showed theoretically meaningful differences in terms of demographic and clinical features. Three meaningful subtypes of BPD patients were identified with distinct profiles. Differences were small, even when controlling for severity of PD pathology, suggesting a strong common factor underlying BPD. These results may represent a stepping stone toward research with larger samples aimed at replicating the findings and investigating differential trajectories of change, treatment outcomes, and treatment approaches for these subtypes. The study was retrospectively registered 16 April 2010

  3. Resilience thinking and a decision-analytic approach to conservation: strange bedfellows or essential partners?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Fred A.; Williams, Byron K.; Nichols, James D.

    2013-01-01

    There has been some tendency to view decision science and resilience theory as opposing approaches, or at least as contending perspectives, for natural resource management. Resilience proponents have been especially critical of optimization in decision science, at least for those cases where it is focused on the aggressive pursuit of efficiency. In general, optimization of resource systems is held to reduce spatial, temporal, or organizational heterogeneity that would otherwise limit efficiency, leading to homogenization of a system and making it less able to cope with unexpected changes or disturbances. For their part, decision analysts have been critical of resilience proponents for not providing much practical advice to decision makers. We believe a key source of tension between resilience thinking and application of decision science is the pursuit of efficiency in the latter (i.e., choosing the “best” management action or strategy option to maximize productivity of one or few resource components), vs. a desire in the former to keep options open (i.e., maintaining and enhancing diversity). It seems obvious, however, that with managed natural systems, there must be a principle by which to guide decision making, which at a minimumallows for a comparison of projected outcomes associated with decision alternatives. This is true even if the primary concern of decision making is the preservation of system resilience. We describe how a careful framing of conservation problems, especially in terms of management objectives and predictive models, can help reduce the purported tension between resiliencethinking and decision analysis. In particular, objective setting in conservation problems needs to be more attuned to the dynamics of ecological systems and to the possibility of deep uncertainties that underlie the risk of unintended, if not irreversible, outcomes. Resilience thinking also leads to the suggestion that model development should focus more on process

  4. Resilience Thinking and a Decision-Analytic Approach to Conservation: Strange Bedfellows or Essential Partners?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred A. Johnson

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available There has been some tendency to view decision science and resilience theory as opposing approaches, or at least as contending perspectives, for natural resource management. Resilience proponents have been especially critical of optimization in decision science, at least for those cases where it is focused on the aggressive pursuit of efficiency. In general, optimization of resource systems is held to reduce spatial, temporal, or organizational heterogeneity that would otherwise limit efficiency, leading to homogenization of a system and making it less able to cope with unexpected changes or disturbances. For their part, decision analysts have been critical of resilience proponents for not providing much practical advice to decision makers. We believe a key source of tension between resilience thinking and application of decision science is the pursuit of efficiency in the latter (i.e., choosing the "best" management action or strategy option to maximize productivity of one or few resource components, vs. a desire in the former to keep options open (i.e., maintaining and enhancing diversity. It seems obvious, however, that with managed natural systems, there must be a principle by which to guide decision making, which at a minimum allows for a comparison of projected outcomes associated with decision alternatives. This is true even if the primary concern of decision making is the preservation of system resilience. We describe how a careful framing of conservation problems, especially in terms of management objectives and predictive models, can help reduce the purported tension between resilience thinking and decision analysis. In particular, objective setting in conservation problems needs to be more attuned to the dynamics of ecological systems and to the possibility of deep uncertainties that underlie the risk of unintended, if not irreversible, outcomes. Resilience thinking also leads to the suggestion that model development should focus more

  5. Multidisciplinary Approach to Wilms’ Tumor: A Retrospective Analytical Study of 53 Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NAGUIB, S.F.; ZAGHLOUL, A.S.; EL HADDAD, A.; EL BADAWY, S.A.

    2008-01-01

    Aim of the Work: The aim of this work was to assess the epidemiologic aspects, clinico-pathological features and the results of multidisciplinary treatment of Wilms' tumor (WT) in pediatric patients treated at the National Cancer Institute (NCI), Cairo University, between January 2002 and December 2004. Patients and Methods: This study included 53 patients, all under the age of 16 years, with previously untreated WT. Initial evaluation of all patients comprised laboratory investigations and radiological assessment which included chest X-ray and CT, abdomin-opelvic ultrasonography and CT. Doppler study of the renal vein and vena cava and bone scan were done when needed. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy was given to patients suffering from poor general condition, extensive tumor thrombus in the renal vein, irresectable and bilateral (stage V) nephroblastoma. Otherwise, up-front nephrectomy was the standard therapeutic approach in this study. Results: The age of the patients ranged from 2 to 108 months with a mean of 39.9 months ( ± 22.56). Males and females were almost equal in number (50.9% and 49.1% respectively). Tumors were located in the left kidney in 52.8%, right kidney in 41.5% and bilaterally in only 5.7% of the cases. An abdominal mass was the most common clinical presentation (77.4%). Favorable histology was found in 86.3% while unfavorable histology was elicited in 13.7% of the cases. Congenital anomalies were recorded in 4 patients. Stage I and III were the most common (29.4% each), followed by stage II and IV (17.7% each), and finally by stage V (5.9%). Neoadjuvant chemotherapy was given to 27 cases while up-front nephrectomy was undertaken in 26 cases. Intra-operative spillage occurred in 12% of patients who had preoperative chemotherapy and 31% of those who had up front nephrectomy. Postoperative abdominal radiotherapy was given to 32 patients. Twenty five patients underwent renal bed irradiation only, while in the other 7 whole abdominal irradiation was

  6. An Analytic Network Process approach for the environmental aspect selection problem — A case study for a hand blender

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bereketli Zafeirakopoulos, Ilke, E-mail: ibereketli@gsu.edu.tr; Erol Genevois, Mujde, E-mail: merol@gsu.edu.tr

    2015-09-15

    Life Cycle Assessment is a tool to assess, in a systematic way, the environmental aspects and its potential environmental impacts and resources used throughout a product's life cycle. It is widely accepted and considered as one of the most powerful tools to support decision-making processes used in ecodesign and sustainable production in order to learn about the most problematic parts and life cycle phases of a product and to have a projection for future improvements. However, since Life Cycle Assessment is a cost and time intensive method, companies do not intend to carry out a full version of it, except for large corporate ones. Especially for small and medium sized enterprises, which do not have enough budget for and knowledge on sustainable production and ecodesign approaches, focusing only on the most important possible environmental aspect is unavoidable. In this direction, finding the right environmental aspect to work on is crucial for the companies. In this study, a multi-criteria decision-making methodology, Analytic Network Process is proposed to select the most relevant environmental aspect. The proposed methodology aims at providing a simplified environmental assessment to producers. It is applied for a hand blender, which is a member of the Electrical and Electronic Equipment family. The decision criteria for the environmental aspects and relations of dependence are defined. The evaluation is made by the Analytic Network Process in order to create a realistic approach to inter-dependencies among the criteria. The results are computed via the Super Decisions software. Finally, it is observed that the procedure is completed in less time, with less data, with less cost and in a less subjective way than conventional approaches. - Highlights: • We present a simplified environmental assessment methodology to support LCA. • ANP is proposed to select the most relevant environmental aspect. • ANP deals well with the interdependencies between aspects

  7. An Analytic Network Process approach for the environmental aspect selection problem — A case study for a hand blender

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bereketli Zafeirakopoulos, Ilke; Erol Genevois, Mujde

    2015-01-01

    Life Cycle Assessment is a tool to assess, in a systematic way, the environmental aspects and its potential environmental impacts and resources used throughout a product's life cycle. It is widely accepted and considered as one of the most powerful tools to support decision-making processes used in ecodesign and sustainable production in order to learn about the most problematic parts and life cycle phases of a product and to have a projection for future improvements. However, since Life Cycle Assessment is a cost and time intensive method, companies do not intend to carry out a full version of it, except for large corporate ones. Especially for small and medium sized enterprises, which do not have enough budget for and knowledge on sustainable production and ecodesign approaches, focusing only on the most important possible environmental aspect is unavoidable. In this direction, finding the right environmental aspect to work on is crucial for the companies. In this study, a multi-criteria decision-making methodology, Analytic Network Process is proposed to select the most relevant environmental aspect. The proposed methodology aims at providing a simplified environmental assessment to producers. It is applied for a hand blender, which is a member of the Electrical and Electronic Equipment family. The decision criteria for the environmental aspects and relations of dependence are defined. The evaluation is made by the Analytic Network Process in order to create a realistic approach to inter-dependencies among the criteria. The results are computed via the Super Decisions software. Finally, it is observed that the procedure is completed in less time, with less data, with less cost and in a less subjective way than conventional approaches. - Highlights: • We present a simplified environmental assessment methodology to support LCA. • ANP is proposed to select the most relevant environmental aspect. • ANP deals well with the interdependencies between aspects

  8. An analytic study of molybdenum disulfide nanofluids using the modern approach of Atangana-Baleanu fractional derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali Abro, Kashif; Hussain, Mukkarum; Mahmood Baig, Mirza

    2017-10-01

    The significance of the different shapes of molybdenum disulfide nanoparticles contained in ethylene glycol has recently attracted researchers, because of the numerical or experimental analyses on the shapes of molybdenum disulfide and the lack of fractionalized analytic approaches. This work is dedicated to examining the shape impacts of molybdenum disulfide nanofluids in the mixed convection flow with magnetic field and a porous medium. Ethylene glycol is chosen as the base fluid in which molybdenum disulfide nanoparticles are suspended. Non-spherically shaped molybdenum disulfide nanoparticles, namely, platelet, blade, cylinder and brick, are utilized in this analysis. The modeling of the problem is characterized by employing the modern approach of Atangana-Baleanu fractional derivatives and the governing partial differential equations are solved via Laplace transforms with inversion. Solutions are obtained for temperature distribution and velocity field and expressed in terms of compact form of M-function, Mba(T) . In the end, a figures are drawn to compare the different non-spherically shaped molybdenum disulfide nanoparticles. Furthermore, the Atangana-Baleanu fractional derivatives model has been compared with ordinary derivatives models and discussed graphically by setting various rheological parameters.

  9. Quality-by-Design (QbD): An integrated process analytical technology (PAT) approach for a dynamic pharmaceutical co-precipitation process characterization and process design space development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Huiquan; White, Maury; Khan, Mansoor A

    2011-02-28

    The aim of this work was to develop an integrated process analytical technology (PAT) approach for a dynamic pharmaceutical co-precipitation process characterization and design space development. A dynamic co-precipitation process by gradually introducing water to the ternary system of naproxen-Eudragit L100-alcohol was monitored at real-time in situ via Lasentec FBRM and PVM. 3D map of count-time-chord length revealed three distinguishable process stages: incubation, transition, and steady-state. The effects of high risk process variables (slurry temperature, stirring rate, and water addition rate) on both derived co-precipitation process rates and final chord-length-distribution were evaluated systematically using a 3(3) full factorial design. Critical process variables were identified via ANOVA for both transition and steady state. General linear models (GLM) were then used for parameter estimation for each critical variable. Clear trends about effects of each critical variable during transition and steady state were found by GLM and were interpreted using fundamental process principles and Nyvlt's transfer model. Neural network models were able to link process variables with response variables at transition and steady state with R(2) of 0.88-0.98. PVM images evidenced nucleation and crystal growth. Contour plots illustrated design space via critical process variables' ranges. It demonstrated the utility of integrated PAT approach for QbD development. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Steady-state groundwater recharge in trapezoidal-shaped aquifers: A semi-analytical approach based on variational calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdavi, Ali; Seyyedian, Hamid

    2014-05-01

    This study presents a semi-analytical solution for steady groundwater flow in trapezoidal-shaped aquifers in response to an areal diffusive recharge. The aquifer is homogeneous, anisotropic and interacts with four surrounding streams of constant-head. Flow field in this laterally bounded aquifer-system is efficiently constructed by means of variational calculus. This is accomplished by minimizing a properly defined penalty function for the associated boundary value problem. Simple yet demonstrative scenarios are defined to investigate anisotropy effects on the water table variation. Qualitative examination of the resulting equipotential contour maps and velocity vector field illustrates the validity of the method, especially in the vicinity of boundary lines. Extension to the case of triangular-shaped aquifer with or without an impervious boundary line is also demonstrated through a hypothetical example problem. The present solution benefits from an extremely simple mathematical expression and exhibits strictly close agreement with the numerical results obtained from Modflow. Overall, the solution may be used to conduct sensitivity analysis on various hydrogeological parameters that affect water table variation in aquifers defined in trapezoidal or triangular-shaped domains.

  11. Distinguished hyperbolic trajectories in time-dependent fluid flows: analytical and computational approach for velocity fields defined as data sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Ide

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we develop analytical and numerical methods for finding special hyperbolic trajectories that govern geometry of Lagrangian structures in time-dependent vector fields. The vector fields (or velocity fields may have arbitrary time dependence and be realized only as data sets over finite time intervals, where space and time are discretized. While the notion of a hyperbolic trajectory is central to dynamical systems theory, much of the theoretical developments for Lagrangian transport proceed under the assumption that such a special hyperbolic trajectory exists. This brings in new mathematical issues that must be addressed in order for Lagrangian transport theory to be applicable in practice, i.e. how to determine whether or not such a trajectory exists and, if it does exist, how to identify it in a sequence of instantaneous velocity fields. We address these issues by developing the notion of a distinguished hyperbolic trajectory (DHT. We develop an existence criteria for certain classes of DHTs in general time-dependent velocity fields, based on the time evolution of Eulerian structures that are observed in individual instantaneous fields over the entire time interval of the data set. We demonstrate the concept of DHTs in inhomogeneous (or "forced" time-dependent linear systems and develop a theory and analytical formula for computing DHTs. Throughout this work the notion of linearization is very important. This is not surprising since hyperbolicity is a "linearized" notion. To extend the analytical formula to more general nonlinear time-dependent velocity fields, we develop a series of coordinate transforms including a type of linearization that is not typically used in dynamical systems theory. We refer to it as Eulerian linearization, which is related to the frame independence of DHTs, as opposed to the Lagrangian linearization, which is typical in dynamical systems theory, which is used in the computation of Lyapunov exponents. We

  12. A Process Analytical Technology (PAT) approach to control a new API manufacturing process: development, validation and implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Cédric; Clicq, David; Lecomte, Clémence; Merschaert, Alain; Norrant, Edith; Fotiadu, Frédéric

    2014-03-01

    Pharmaceutical companies are progressively adopting and introducing Process Analytical Technology (PAT) and Quality-by-Design (QbD) concepts promoted by the regulatory agencies, aiming the building of the quality directly into the product by combining thorough scientific understanding and quality risk management. An analytical method based on near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy was developed as a PAT tool to control on-line an API (active pharmaceutical ingredient) manufacturing crystallization step during which the API and residual solvent contents need to be precisely determined to reach the predefined seeding point. An original methodology based on the QbD principles was designed to conduct the development and validation of the NIR method and to ensure that it is fitted for its intended use. On this basis, Partial least squares (PLS) models were developed and optimized using chemometrics methods. The method was fully validated according to the ICH Q2(R1) guideline and using the accuracy profile approach. The dosing ranges were evaluated to 9.0-12.0% w/w for the API and 0.18-1.50% w/w for the residual methanol. As by nature the variability of the sampling method and the reference method are included in the variability obtained for the NIR method during the validation phase, a real-time process monitoring exercise was performed to prove its fit for purpose. The implementation of this in-process control (IPC) method on the industrial plant from the launch of the new API synthesis process will enable automatic control of the final crystallization step in order to ensure a predefined quality level of the API. In addition, several valuable benefits are expected including reduction of the process time, suppression of a rather difficult sampling and tedious off-line analyses. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. An analytical approach for optimizing the leaf design of a multi-leaf collimator in a linear accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Topolnjak, R; Heide, U A van der

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we present an analytical approach for optimizing the leaf design of a multi-leaf collimator (MLC) in a linear accelerator. Because leaf designs vary between vendors, our goal is to characterize and quantify the effects of different compromises which have to be made between performance parameters. Subsequently, an optimal leaf design for an earlier proposed six-bank MLC which combines a high-resolution field-shaping ability with a large field size is determined. To this end a model of the linac is created that includes the following parameters: the source size, the maximum field size, the distance between source and isocenter, and the leaf's design parameters. First, the optimal radius of the leaf tip was found. This optimum was defined by the requirement that the fluence intensity should fall from 80% of the maximum value to 20% in a minimal distance, defining the width of the fluence penumbra. A second requirement was that this penumbra width should be constant when a leaf moves from one side of the field to the other. The geometric, transmission and total penumbra width (80-20%) were calculated depending on the design parameters. The analytical model is in agreement with Elekta, Varian and Siemens collimator designs. For leaves thinner than 4 cm, the transmission penumbra becomes dominant, and for leaves close to the source the geometric penumbra plays a role. Finally, by choosing the leaf thickness of 3.5 cm, 4 cm and 5 cm from the lowest to the highest bank, respectively, an optimal leaf design for a six-bank MLC is achieved

  14. Translational ethics: an analytical framework of translational movements between theory and practice and a sketch of a comprehensive approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bærøe, Kristine

    2014-09-30

    Translational research in medicine requires researchers to identify the steps to transfer basic scientific discoveries from laboratory benches to bedside decision-making, and eventually into clinical practice. On a parallel track, philosophical work in ethics has not been obliged to identify the steps to translate theoretical conclusions into adequate practice. The medical ethicist A. Cribb suggested some years ago that it is now time to debate 'the business of translational' in medical ethics. Despite the very interesting and useful perspective on the field of medical ethics launched by Cribb, the debate is still missing. In this paper, I take up Cribb's invitation and discuss further analytic distinctions needed to base an ethics aiming to translate between theory and practice. The analytic distinctions needed to base an ethics aiming to translate between theory and practice are identified as 'movements of translation'. I explore briefly what would constitute success and limitations to these intended translational movements by addressing the challenges of the epistemological gap between philosophical and practical ethics. The categories of translational movements I suggest can serve as a starting point for a systematic, collective self-inspection and discussion of the merits and limitations of the various academic and practical activities that bioethicists are engaged in. I further propose that translational ethics could be considered as a new discipline of ethical work constructively structured around compositions of translational movements. Breaking the idea of translational ethics into distinct translational movements provide us with a nuanced set of conditions to explore and discuss the justification and limitations of various efforts carried out in the field of bioethics. In this sense, the proposed framework could be a useful vehicle for augmented collective, self-reflexivity among both philosophers and practitioners who are 'doing bioethics'. Also

  15. Demonstration on endurance of ion exchange membrane immersed in high-concentration tritiated water under the Broader Approach Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwai, Yasunori, E-mail: iwai.yasunori@jaea.go.jp; Sato, Katsumi; Kawamura, Yoshinori; Yamanishi, Toshihiko

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • Endurance of Nafion ion exchange membrane immersed in 1.38 × 10{sup 12} Bq/kg of highly concentrated tritiated water was demonstrated. • Degradation of Nafion backbone structure by tritium beta was similar to that by gamma rays and electron beams at an equivalent dose. • Degradation directly by radiation was dominant at room temperature compared with that by reactions with radicals produced from water radiolysis. -- Abstract: The Nafion{sup ®} ion exchange membrane is a key material for electrolysis cells of the water detritiation system. Endurance of Nafion ion exchange membrane immersed in 1.38 × 10{sup 12} Bq/kg of highly concentrated tritiated water has been demonstrated at room temperature for up to 2 years under the Broader Approach Activities. The curves of percent elongation at break vs. dose and tensile strength vs. dose for the Nafion membranes immersed in tritiated water were well consistent with those for Nafion membranes irradiated to an equivalent dose with gamma rays and electron beams. This shows that the degradation of Nafion backbone structure by tritium beta is similar to that by gamma rays and electron beams. The results of ferric Fenton test indicated that the degradation directly by radiation was dominant at room temperature compared with that by reactions with radicals produced from water radiolysis. The curve of ion exchange capacity vs. dose for the Nafion membranes immersed in tritiated water was also well consistent with that for Nafion membranes irradiated to an equivalent dose with gamma rays and electron beams. These results showed irradiation tests with gamma rays and electron beams were alternative for predicting degradation of ion exchange membrane by tritium beta.

  16. A multi-analytical approach to better assess the keratan sulfate contamination in animal origin chondroitin sulfate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Restaino, Odile Francesca, E-mail: odilefrancesca.restaino@unina2.it [Department of Experimental Medicine, Section of Biotechnology and Molecular Biology, University of Campania-L.Vanvitelli, ex Second University of Naples, Via De Crecchio 7, 80138, Naples (Italy); Finamore, Rosario, E-mail: rosario.finamore@unina2.it [Department of Experimental Medicine, Section of Biotechnology and Molecular Biology, University of Campania-L.Vanvitelli, ex Second University of Naples, Via De Crecchio 7, 80138, Naples (Italy); Diana, Paola, E-mail: paola.diana@unina2.it [Department of Experimental Medicine, Section of Biotechnology and Molecular Biology, University of Campania-L.Vanvitelli, ex Second University of Naples, Via De Crecchio 7, 80138, Naples (Italy); Marseglia, Mariacarmela, E-mail: marimars84@hotmail.it [Department of Experimental Medicine, Section of Biotechnology and Molecular Biology, University of Campania-L.Vanvitelli, ex Second University of Naples, Via De Crecchio 7, 80138, Naples (Italy); Vitiello, Mario, E-mail: mariovitiello.ita@gmail.com [Department of Experimental Medicine, Section of Biotechnology and Molecular Biology, University of Campania-L.Vanvitelli, ex Second University of Naples, Via De Crecchio 7, 80138, Naples (Italy); Casillo, Angela, E-mail: angela.casillo@unina.it [Department of Chemical Sciences, University of Naples Federico II, Complesso Universitario Monte S. Angelo, Via Cintia 4, 80126, Naples (Italy); Bedini, Emiliano, E-mail: emiliano.bedini@unina.it [Department of Chemical Sciences, University of Naples Federico II, Complesso Universitario Monte S. Angelo, Via Cintia 4, 80126, Naples (Italy); Parrilli, Michelangelo, E-mail: michelangelo.parrilli@unina.it [Department of Biology, University of Naples Federico II, Complesso Universitario Monte S. Angelo, Via Cintia 4, 80126, Naples (Italy); and others

    2017-03-15

    Chondroitin sulfate is a glycosaminoglycan widely used as active principle of anti-osteoarthritis drugs and nutraceuticals, manufactured by extraction from animal cartilaginous tissues. During the manufacturing procedures, another glycosaminoglycan, the keratan sulfate, might be contemporarily withdrawn, thus eventually constituting a contaminant difficult to be determined because of its structural similarity. Considering the strict regulatory rules on the pureness of pharmaceutical grade chondrotin sulfate there is an urgent need and interest to determine the residual keratan sulfate with specific, sensitive and reliable methods. To pursue this aim, in this paper, for the first time, we set up a multi-analytical and preparative approach based on: i) a newly developed method by high performance anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection, ii) gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses, iii) size exclusion chromatography analyses coupled with triple detector array module and on iv) strong anion exchange chromatography separation. Varied KS percentages, in the range from 0.1 to 19.0% (w/w), were determined in seven pharmacopeia and commercial standards and nine commercial samples of different animal origin and manufacturers. Strong anion exchange chromatography profiles of the samples showed three or four different peaks. These peaks analyzed by high performance anion-exchange with pulsed amperometric detection and size exclusion chromatography with triple detector array, ion chromatography and by mono- or two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance revealed a heterogeneous composition of both glycosaminoglycans in terms of sulfation grade and molecular weight. High molecular weight species (>100 KDa) were also present in the samples that counted for chains still partially linked to a proteoglycan core. - Highlights: • A multi-analytical approach was set up, for the first time, for the determination of the residual keratan sulfate

  17. A multi-analytical approach to better assess the keratan sulfate contamination in animal origin chondroitin sulfate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Restaino, Odile Francesca; Finamore, Rosario; Diana, Paola; Marseglia, Mariacarmela; Vitiello, Mario; Casillo, Angela; Bedini, Emiliano; Parrilli, Michelangelo

    2017-01-01

    Chondroitin sulfate is a glycosaminoglycan widely used as active principle of anti-osteoarthritis drugs and nutraceuticals, manufactured by extraction from animal cartilaginous tissues. During the manufacturing procedures, another glycosaminoglycan, the keratan sulfate, might be contemporarily withdrawn, thus eventually constituting a contaminant difficult to be determined because of its structural similarity. Considering the strict regulatory rules on the pureness of pharmaceutical grade chondrotin sulfate there is an urgent need and interest to determine the residual keratan sulfate with specific, sensitive and reliable methods. To pursue this aim, in this paper, for the first time, we set up a multi-analytical and preparative approach based on: i) a newly developed method by high performance anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection, ii) gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses, iii) size exclusion chromatography analyses coupled with triple detector array module and on iv) strong anion exchange chromatography separation. Varied KS percentages, in the range from 0.1 to 19.0% (w/w), were determined in seven pharmacopeia and commercial standards and nine commercial samples of different animal origin and manufacturers. Strong anion exchange chromatography profiles of the samples showed three or four different peaks. These peaks analyzed by high performance anion-exchange with pulsed amperometric detection and size exclusion chromatography with triple detector array, ion chromatography and by mono- or two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance revealed a heterogeneous composition of both glycosaminoglycans in terms of sulfation grade and molecular weight. High molecular weight species (>100 KDa) were also present in the samples that counted for chains still partially linked to a proteoglycan core. - Highlights: • A multi-analytical approach was set up, for the first time, for the determination of the residual keratan sulfate

  18. Analytical study on leadership and demonstrated competencies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Amy Stambach

    difference between head teacher current school leadership practices and the .... terms of social and human capital, leaders are expected to provide access to new ... with other schools, to professional networks, systems authorities, university ..... Linking school-family-community partnerships in urban elementary schools to ...

  19. Grade 8 students' capability of analytical thinking and attitude toward science through teaching and learning about soil and its' pollution based on science technology and society (STS) approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonprasert, Lapisarin; Tupsai, Jiraporn; Yuenyong, Chokchai

    2018-01-01

    This study reported Grade 8 students' analytical thinking and attitude toward science in teaching and learning about soil and its' pollution through science technology and society (STS) approach. The participants were 36 Grade 8 students in Naklang, Nongbualumphu, Thailand. The teaching and learning about soil and its' pollution through STS approach had carried out for 6 weeks. The soil and its' pollution unit through STS approach was developed based on framework of Yuenyong (2006) that consisted of five stages including (1) identification of social issues, (2) identification of potential solutions, (3) need for knowledge, (4) decision-making, and (5) socialization stage. Students' analytical thinking and attitude toward science was collected during their learning by participant observation, analytical thinking test, students' tasks, and journal writing. The findings revealed that students could gain their capability of analytical thinking. They could give ideas or behave the characteristics of analytical thinking such as thinking for classifying, compare and contrast, reasoning, interpreting, collecting data and decision making. Students' journal writing reflected that the STS class of soil and its' pollution motivated students. The paper will discuss implications of these for science teaching and learning through STS in Thailand.

  20. Separating method factors and higher order traits of the Big Five: a meta-analytic multitrait-multimethod approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Luye; Connelly, Brian S; Geeza, Alexis A

    2012-02-01

    Though most personality researchers now recognize that ratings of the Big Five are not orthogonal, the field has been divided about whether these trait intercorrelations are substantive (i.e., driven by higher order factors) or artifactual (i.e., driven by correlated measurement error). We used a meta-analytic multitrait-multirater study to estimate trait correlations after common method variance was controlled. Our results indicated that common method variance substantially inflates trait correlations, and, once controlled, correlations among the Big Five became relatively modest. We then evaluated whether two different theories of higher order factors could account for the pattern of Big Five trait correlations. Our results did not support Rushton and colleagues' (Rushton & Irwing, 2008; Rushton et al., 2009) proposed general factor of personality, but Digman's (1997) α and β metatraits (relabeled by DeYoung, Peterson, and Higgins (2002) as Stability and Plasticity, respectively) produced viable fit. However, our models showed considerable overlap between Stability and Emotional Stability and between Plasticity and Extraversion, raising the question of whether these metatraits are redundant with their dominant Big Five traits. This pattern of findings was robust when we included only studies whose observers were intimately acquainted with targets. Our results underscore the importance of using a multirater approach to studying personality and the need to separate the causes and outcomes of higher order metatraits from those of the Big Five. We discussed the implications of these findings for the array of research fields in which personality is studied.

  1. Combined approach of grey relational analysis and analytic hierarchy process for ARCAL/IAEA strategic actions prioritization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Pedro Maffia da; Martins, Eduardo Ferraz; Rondinelli Junior, Francisco; Garcia, Pauli Adriano de Almada

    2015-01-01

    The IAEA technical cooperation (TC) programme is the main mechanism through which the IAEA delivers technical services to its Member States. Through the programme, the IAEA helps Member States to build, strengthen and maintain capacities in the safe, peaceful and secure use of nuclear technology in support of sustainable socioeconomic development. The Regional Cooperation Agreement for the Promotion of Nuclear Science and Technology in Latin America and the Caribbean (ARCAL) is a TC agreement between most IAEA member states in the Latin America and the Caribbean region for technical and economic cooperation to promote the use of nuclear techniques for peace and development. The present study aims to propose a combined approach to prioritize the needs and problems of ARCAL region. To do that, this paper considers the concept of Grey Relational Analysis and Analytic Hierarchy Process for data treatment, standardization and ranking of those needs and problems. In other words, the proposition intend to reduce the biases that may be introduced along the stage of the needs and problems assessment in the regional strategic profile formulation. (author)

  2. Combined approach of grey relational analysis and analytic hierarchy process for ARCAL/IAEA strategic actions prioritization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Pedro Maffia da; Martins, Eduardo Ferraz; Rondinelli Junior, Francisco, E-mail: pmsilva@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: efmartins@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: rondinel@cnen.gov.br [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Garcia, Pauli Adriano de Almada, E-mail: pauliadriano@id.uff.br [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Volta Redonda, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The IAEA technical cooperation (TC) programme is the main mechanism through which the IAEA delivers technical services to its Member States. Through the programme, the IAEA helps Member States to build, strengthen and maintain capacities in the safe, peaceful and secure use of nuclear technology in support of sustainable socioeconomic development. The Regional Cooperation Agreement for the Promotion of Nuclear Science and Technology in Latin America and the Caribbean (ARCAL) is a TC agreement between most IAEA member states in the Latin America and the Caribbean region for technical and economic cooperation to promote the use of nuclear techniques for peace and development. The present study aims to propose a combined approach to prioritize the needs and problems of ARCAL region. To do that, this paper considers the concept of Grey Relational Analysis and Analytic Hierarchy Process for data treatment, standardization and ranking of those needs and problems. In other words, the proposition intend to reduce the biases that may be introduced along the stage of the needs and problems assessment in the regional strategic profile formulation. (author)

  3. Evaluation of evaporation coefficient for micro-droplets exposed to low pressure: A semi-analytical approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakraborty, Prodyut R., E-mail: pchakraborty@iitj.ac.in [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Jodhpur, 342011 (India); Hiremath, Kirankumar R., E-mail: k.r.hiremath@iitj.ac.in [Department of Mathematics, Indian Institute of Technology Jodhpur, 342011 (India); Sharma, Manvendra, E-mail: PG201283003@iitj.ac.in [Defence Laboratory Jodhpur, Defence Research & Development Organisation, 342011 (India)

    2017-02-05

    Evaporation rate of water is strongly influenced by energy barrier due to molecular collision and heat transfer limitations. The evaporation coefficient, defined as the ratio of experimentally measured evaporation rate to that maximum possible theoretical limit, varies over a conflicting three orders of magnitude. In the present work, a semi-analytical transient heat diffusion model of droplet evaporation is developed considering the effect of change in droplet size due to evaporation from its surface, when the droplet is injected into vacuum. Negligible effect of droplet size reduction due to evaporation on cooling rate is found to be true. However, the evaporation coefficient is found to approach theoretical limit of unity, when the droplet radius is less than that of mean free path of vapor molecules on droplet surface contrary to the reported theoretical predictions. Evaporation coefficient was found to reduce rapidly when the droplet under consideration has a radius larger than the mean free path of evaporating molecules, confirming the molecular collision barrier to evaporation rate. The trend of change in evaporation coefficient with increasing droplet size predicted by the proposed model will facilitate obtaining functional relation of evaporation coefficient with droplet size, and can be used for benchmarking the interaction between multiple droplets during evaporation in vacuum.

  4. Evaluation of evaporation coefficient for micro-droplets exposed to low pressure: A semi-analytical approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakraborty, Prodyut R.; Hiremath, Kirankumar R.; Sharma, Manvendra

    2017-01-01

    Evaporation rate of water is strongly influenced by energy barrier due to molecular collision and heat transfer limitations. The evaporation coefficient, defined as the ratio of experimentally measured evaporation rate to that maximum possible theoretical limit, varies over a conflicting three orders of magnitude. In the present work, a semi-analytical transient heat diffusion model of droplet evaporation is developed considering the effect of change in droplet size due to evaporation from its surface, when the droplet is injected into vacuum. Negligible effect of droplet size reduction due to evaporation on cooling rate is found to be true. However, the evaporation coefficient is found to approach theoretical limit of unity, when the droplet radius is less than that of mean free path of vapor molecules on droplet surface contrary to the reported theoretical predictions. Evaporation coefficient was found to reduce rapidly when the droplet under consideration has a radius larger than the mean free path of evaporating molecules, confirming the molecular collision barrier to evaporation rate. The trend of change in evaporation coefficient with increasing droplet size predicted by the proposed model will facilitate obtaining functional relation of evaporation coefficient with droplet size, and can be used for benchmarking the interaction between multiple droplets during evaporation in vacuum.

  5. Analytical approaches for the determination of personal care products and evaluation of their occurrence in marine organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montesdeoca-Esponda, Sarah; Checchini, Leonardo; Del Bubba, Massimo; Sosa-Ferrera, Zoraida; Santana-Rodriguez, José Juan

    2018-03-23

    Contamination of the aquatic environment caused by multiple human activities may exert a negative impact on all living organisms. Several contaminants of emerging concern such as personal care products (PCPs) are continuously released into the aquatic environment where they are biologically active and persistent. This work reviews the current knowledge, provided by papers published after 2010 and indexed by SciFinder, Scopus, and Google search engines, about the determination and occurrence of PCPs in marine biota. Analytical methodologies have been critically reviewed, emphasizing the importance of green and high-throughput approaches and focusing the discussion on the complexity of the solute-matrix interaction in the extraction step, as well as the matrix effect in the instrumental determination. Finally, the worldwide distribution of PCPs is surveyed, taking into account the concentrations found in the same organism in different marine environments. Differences among various world areas have been highlighted, evidencing some critical aspects from an environmental point of view. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Using a matrix-analytical approach to synthesizing evidence solved incompatibility problem in the hierarchy of evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walach, Harald; Loef, Martin

    2015-11-01

    The hierarchy of evidence presupposes linearity and additivity of effects, as well as commutativity of knowledge structures. It thereby implicitly assumes a classical theoretical model. This is an argumentative article that uses theoretical analysis based on pertinent literature and known facts to examine the standard view of methodology. We show that the assumptions of the hierarchical model are wrong. The knowledge structures gained by various types of studies are not sequentially indifferent, that is, do not commute. External validity and internal validity are at least partially incompatible concepts. Therefore, one needs a different theoretical structure, typical of quantum-type theories, to model this situation. The consequence of this situation is that the implicit assumptions of the hierarchical model are wrong, if generalized to the concept of evidence in total. The problem can be solved by using a matrix-analytical approach to synthesizing evidence. Here, research methods that produce different types of evidence that complement each other are synthesized to yield the full knowledge. We show by an example how this might work. We conclude that the hierarchical model should be complemented by a broader reasoning in methodology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Characterisation of nano- and micron-sized airborne and collected subway particles, a multi-analytical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midander, Klara; Elihn, Karine; Wallén, Anna; Belova, Lyuba; Karlsson, Anna-Karin Borg; Wallinder, Inger Odnevall

    2012-06-15

    Continuous daily measurements of airborne particles were conducted during specific periods at an underground platform within the subway system of the city center of Stockholm, Sweden. Main emphasis was placed on number concentration, particle size distribution, soot content (analyzed as elemental and black carbon) and surface area concentration. Conventional measurements of mass concentrations were conducted in parallel as well as analysis of particle morphology, bulk- and surface composition. In addition, the presence of volatile and semi volatile organic compounds within freshly collected particle fractions of PM(10) and PM(2.5) were investigated and grouped according to functional groups. Similar periodic measurements were conducted at street level for comparison. The investigation clearly demonstrates a large dominance in number concentration of airborne nano-sized particles compared to coarse particles in the subway. Out of a mean particle number concentration of 12000 particles/cm(3) (7500 to 20000 particles/cm(3)), only 190 particles/cm(3) were larger than 250 nm. Soot particles from diesel exhaust, and metal-containing particles, primarily iron, were observed in the subway aerosol. Unique measurements on freshly collected subway particle size fractions of PM(10) and PM(2.5) identified several volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds, the presence of carcinogenic aromatic compounds and traces of flame retardants. This interdisciplinary and multi-analytical investigation aims to provide an improved understanding of reported adverse health effects induced by subway aerosols. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Reliable computation of roots in analytical waveguide modeling using an interval-Newton approach and algorithmic differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bause, Fabian; Walther, Andrea; Rautenberg, Jens; Henning, Bernd

    2013-12-01

    For the modeling and simulation of wave propagation in geometrically simple waveguides such as plates or rods, one may employ the analytical global matrix method. That is, a certain (global) matrix depending on the two parameters wavenumber and frequency is built. Subsequently, one must calculate all parameter pairs within the domain of interest where the global matrix becomes singular. For this purpose, one could compute all roots of the determinant of the global matrix when the two parameters vary in the given intervals. This requirement to calculate all roots is actually the method's most concerning restriction. Previous approaches are based on so-called mode-tracers, which use the physical phenomenon that solutions, i.e., roots of the determinant of the global matrix, appear in a certain pattern, the waveguide modes, to limit the root-finding algorithm's search space with respect to consecutive solutions. In some cases, these reductions of the search space yield only an incomplete set of solutions, because some roots may be missed as a result of uncertain predictions. Therefore, we propose replacement of the mode-tracer approach with a suitable version of an interval- Newton method. To apply this interval-based method, we extended the interval and derivative computation provided by a numerical computing environment such that corresponding information is also available for Bessel functions used in circular models of acoustic waveguides. We present numerical results for two different scenarios. First, a polymeric cylindrical waveguide is simulated, and second, we show simulation results of a one-sided fluid-loaded plate. For both scenarios, we compare results obtained with the proposed interval-Newton algorithm and commercial software.

  9. Biosensors: Future Analytical Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikas

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Biosensors offer considerable promises for attaining the analytic information in a faster, simpler and cheaper manner compared to conventional assays. Biosensing approach is rapidly advancing and applications ranging from metabolite, biological/ chemical warfare agent, food pathogens and adulterant detection to genetic screening and programmed drug delivery have been demonstrated. Innovative efforts, coupling micromachining and nanofabrication may lead to even more powerful devices that would accelerate the realization of large-scale and routine screening. With gradual increase in commercialization a wide range of new biosensors are thus expected to reach the market in the coming years.

  10. Study on analytical modelling approaches to the performance of thin film PV modules in sunny inland climates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres-Ramírez, M.; Nofuentes, G.; Silva, J.P.; Silvestre, S.; Muñoz, J.V.

    2014-01-01

    This work is aimed at verifying that analytical modelling approaches may provide an estimation of the outdoor performance of TF (thin film) PV (photovoltaic) technologies in inland sites with sunny climates with adequate accuracy for engineering purposes. Osterwald's and constant fill factor methods were tried to model the maximum power delivered and the annual energy produced by PV modules corresponding to four TF PV technologies. Only calibrated electrical parameters at STC (standard test conditions), on-plane global irradiance and module temperature are required as inputs. A 12-month experimental campaign carried out in Madrid and Jaén (Spain) provided the necessary data. Modelled maximum power and annual energy values obtained through both methods were statistically compared to the experimental ones. In power terms, the RMSE (root mean square error) stays below 3.8% and 4.5% for CdTe (cadmium telluride) and CIGS (copper indium gallium selenide sulfide) PV modules, respectively, while RMSE exceeds 5.4% for a-Si (amorphous silicon) or a-Si:H/μc-Si PV modules. Regarding energy terms, errors lie below 4.0% in all cases. Thus, the methods tried may be used to model the outdoor behaviour of the a-Si, a-Si:H/μc-Si, CIGS and CdTe PV modules tested – ordered from the lowest to the highest accuracy obtained – in sites with similar spectral characteristics to those of the two sites considered. - Highlights: • Simple analytical methods to model the outdoor behaviour of thin film PV (photovoltaic) technologies. • 8 PV modules were deployed outdoors over a 12-month period in two sunny inland sites. • RMSE (root mean square error) values stay below 3.8% and 4.5% in CdTe (cadmium telluride) and CIGS (copper indium gallium selenide sulfide) PV modules. • Errors remain below 4.0% for all the PV modules and sites in energy terms. • Simple methods: suitable estimation of PV outdoor behaviour for engineering purposes

  11. Enhancing the Interpretive Reading and Analytical Writing of Mainstreamed English Learners in Secondary School: Results from a Randomized Field Trial Using a Cognitive Strategies Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Carol Booth; Kim, James S.; Scarcella, Robin; Kramer, Jason; Pearson, Matthew; van Dyk, David A.; Collins, Penny; Land, Robert E.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, 72 secondary English teachers from the Santa Ana Unified School District were randomly assigned to participate in the Pathway Project, a cognitive strategies approach to teaching interpretive reading and analytical writing, or to a control condition involving typical district training focusing on teaching content from the textbook.…

  12. An Analytics-Based Approach to Managing Cognitive Load by Using Log Data of Learning Management Systems and Footprints of Social Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Cheng-Huang; Chen, I-Chuan; Lai, Su-Chun; Chuang, Yea-Ru

    2015-01-01

    Traces of learning behaviors generally provide insights into learners and the learning processes that they employ. In this article, a learning-analytics-based approach is proposed for managing cognitive load by adjusting the instructional strategies used in online courses. The technology-based learning environment examined in this study involved a…

  13. A decision-analytic approach to define poor prognosis patients: A case study for non-seminomatous germ cell cancer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.R. van Dijk (Merel); E.W. Steyerberg (Ewout); J.D.F. Habbema (Dik)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractBackground. Classification systems may be useful to direct more aggressive treatment to cancer patients with a relatively poor prognosis. The definition of 'poor prognosis' often lacks a formal basis. We propose a decision analytic approach to weigh benefits and harms explicitly to

  14. Conflicts versus analytical redundancy relations: a comparative analysis of the model based diagnosis approach from the artificial intelligence and automatic control perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordier, Marie-Odile; Dague, Philippe; Lévy, François; Montmain, Jacky; Staroswiecki, Marcel; Travé-Massuyès, Louise

    2004-10-01

    Two distinct and parallel research communities have been working along the lines of the model-based diagnosis approach: the fault detection and isolation (FDI) community and the diagnostic (DX) community that have evolved in the fields of automatic control and artificial intelligence, respectively. This paper clarifies and links the concepts and assumptions that underlie the FDI analytical redundancy approach and the DX consistency-based logical approach. A formal framework is proposed in order to compare the two approaches and the theoretical proof of their equivalence together with the necessary and sufficient conditions is provided.

  15. Quality assessment of Isfahan Medical Faculty web site electronic services and prioritizing solutions using analytic hierarchy process approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajrahimi, Nafiseh; Dehaghani, Sayed Mehdi Hejazi; Hajrahimi, Nargess; Sarmadi, Sima

    2014-01-01

    Implementing information technology in the best possible way can bring many advantages such as applying electronic services and facilitating tasks. Therefore, assessment of service providing systems is a way to improve the quality and elevate these systems including e-commerce, e-government, e-banking, and e-learning. This study was aimed to evaluate the electronic services in the website of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences in order to propose solutions to improve them. Furthermore, we aim to rank the solutions based on the factors that enhance the quality of electronic services by using analytic hierarchy process (AHP) method. Non-parametric test was used to assess the quality of electronic services. The assessment of propositions was based on Aqual model and they were prioritized using AHP approach. The AHP approach was used because it directly applies experts' deductions in the model, and lead to more objective results in the analysis and prioritizing the risks. After evaluating the quality of the electronic services, a multi-criteria decision making frame-work was used to prioritize the proposed solutions. Non-parametric tests and AHP approach using Expert Choice software. The results showed that students were satisfied in most of the indicators. Only a few indicators received low satisfaction from students including, design attractiveness, the amount of explanation and details of information, honesty and responsiveness of authorities, and the role of e-services in the user's relationship with university. After interviewing with Information and Communications Technology (ICT) experts at the university, measurement criteria, and solutions to improve the quality were collected. The best solutions were selected by EC software. According to the results, the solution "controlling and improving the process in handling users complaints" is of the utmost importance and authorities have to have it on the website and place great importance on updating this process

  16. Quality assessment of Isfahan Medical Faculty web site electronic services and prioritizing solutions using analytic hierarchy process approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajrahimi, Nafiseh; Dehaghani, Sayed Mehdi Hejazi; Hajrahimi, Nargess; Sarmadi, Sima

    2014-01-01

    Context: Implementing information technology in the best possible way can bring many advantages such as applying electronic services and facilitating tasks. Therefore, assessment of service providing systems is a way to improve the quality and elevate these systems including e-commerce, e-government, e-banking, and e-learning. Aims: This study was aimed to evaluate the electronic services in the website of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences in order to propose solutions to improve them. Furthermore, we aim to rank the solutions based on the factors that enhance the quality of electronic services by using analytic hierarchy process (AHP) method. Materials and Methods: Non-parametric test was used to assess the quality of electronic services. The assessment of propositions was based on Aqual model and they were prioritized using AHP approach. The AHP approach was used because it directly applies experts’ deductions in the model, and lead to more objective results in the analysis and prioritizing the risks. After evaluating the quality of the electronic services, a multi-criteria decision making frame-work was used to prioritize the proposed solutions. Statistical Analysis Used: Non-parametric tests and AHP approach using Expert Choice software. Results: The results showed that students were satisfied in most of the indicators. Only a few indicators received low satisfaction from students including, design attractiveness, the amount of explanation and details of information, honesty and responsiveness of authorities, and the role of e-services in the user's relationship with university. After interviewing with Information and Communications Technology (ICT) experts at the university, measurement criteria, and solutions to improve the quality were collected. The best solutions were selected by EC software. According to the results, the solution “controlling and improving the process in handling users complaints” is of the utmost importance and authorities

  17. Integration of fuzzy reasoning approach (FRA and fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (FAHP for risk assessment in mining industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shikha Verma

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Mining industry has always been known for its unsafe working environment. This industry is one of the most hazard prone industries. To maintain safety in workplace timely assessment of risk associated with different operations performed to extract ore from the ore body has become necessity. To serve the said purpose, present work demonstrates a robust hybrid risk assessment approach for mining industry.Design/Methodology: Accident data from 1995 to 2012 is reviewed to identify hazards contributed to negative outcomes. The FRA approach is implemented to evaluate the risk levels associated with identified hazard factors. Thereafter AHP pairwise comparison matrix is developed to obtain priority weights for the hazard factors. Final priority of hazards based on severity of level of risk associated with them is obtained considering the outcome of FRA approach in terms of risk score for the hazards, combined with the priority weights obtained from AHP technique.Findings: Defuzzified FAHP weight of hazard factors, this weight gives priority sequence of hazards to be considered for development of plan of mitigation.Originality/Value: Risk assessment is a requirement of the Occupational Health and Safety Act 2000 (Section 7& 8. The data required to assess the risk is uncertain, and in such case fuzzy approach is well suited to process the data and get the crisp output. The output of fuzzy approach is made robust with its integration to AHP. In this way FAHP can be used as robust technique for risk assessment in this industry and this technique develops an efficient safety management system for the achievement of goal to develop the workplace with zero accident, which many other countries have already achieved.

  18. Demonstration of statistical approaches to identify component's ageing by operational data analysis-A case study for the ageing PSA network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodionov, Andrei; Atwood, Corwin L.; Kirchsteiger, Christian; Patrik, Milan

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents some results of a case study on 'Demonstration of statistical approaches to identify the component's ageing by operational data analysis', which was done in the frame of the EC JRC Ageing PSA Network. Several techniques: visual evaluation, nonparametric and parametric hypothesis tests, were proposed and applied in order to demonstrate the capacity, advantages and limitations of statistical approaches to identify the component's ageing by operational data analysis. Engineering considerations are out of the scope of the present study

  19. Multiple analytical approaches reveal distinct gene-environment interactions in smokers and non smokers in lung cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakhshan Ihsan

    Full Text Available Complex disease such as cancer results from interactions of multiple genetic and environmental factors. Studying these factors singularly cannot explain the underlying pathogenetic mechanism of the disease. Multi-analytical approach, including logistic regression (LR, classification and regression tree (CART and multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR, was applied in 188 lung cancer cases and 290 controls to explore high order interactions among xenobiotic metabolizing genes and environmental risk factors. Smoking was identified as the predominant risk factor by all three analytical approaches. Individually, CYP1A1*2A polymorphism was significantly associated with increased lung cancer risk (OR = 1.69;95%CI = 1.11-2.59,p = 0.01, whereas EPHX1 Tyr113His and SULT1A1 Arg213His conferred reduced risk (OR = 0.40;95%CI = 0.25-0.65,p<0.001 and OR = 0.51;95%CI = 0.33-0.78,p = 0.002 respectively. In smokers, EPHX1 Tyr113His and SULT1A1 Arg213His polymorphisms reduced the risk of lung cancer, whereas CYP1A1*2A, CYP1A1*2C and GSTP1 Ile105Val imparted increased risk in non-smokers only. While exploring non-linear interactions through CART analysis, smokers carrying the combination of EPHX1 113TC (Tyr/His, SULT1A1 213GG (Arg/Arg or AA (His/His and GSTM1 null genotypes showed the highest risk for lung cancer (OR = 3.73;95%CI = 1.33-10.55,p = 0.006, whereas combined effect of CYP1A1*2A 6235CC or TC, SULT1A1 213GG (Arg/Arg and betel quid chewing showed maximum risk in non-smokers (OR = 2.93;95%CI = 1.15-7.51,p = 0.01. MDR analysis identified two distinct predictor models for the risk of lung cancer in smokers (tobacco chewing, EPHX1 Tyr113His, and SULT1A1 Arg213His and non-smokers (CYP1A1*2A, GSTP1 Ile105Val and SULT1A1 Arg213His with testing balance accuracy (TBA of 0.6436 and 0.6677 respectively. Interaction entropy interpretations of MDR results showed non-additive interactions of tobacco chewing with

  20. A Meta-Analytic Approach to Examining the Correlation Between Religion/Spirituality and Mental Health in Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salsman, John M.; Pustejovsky, James E.; Jim, Heather S.L.; Munoz, Alexis R.; Merluzzi, Thomas V.; George, Login; Park, Crystal L.; Danhauer, Suzanne C.; Sherman, Allen C.; Snyder, Mallory A.; Fitchett, George

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Religion and spirituality (R/S) are patient-centered factors and often resources for managing the emotional sequelae of the cancer experience. Studies investigating the relationship between R/S (e.g., beliefs, experiences, coping) and mental health (e.g., depression, anxiety, well-being) in cancer have used very heterogeneous measures, with correspondingly inconsistent results. A meaningful synthesis of these findings has been lacking; thus, the purpose of this study was to conduct a meta-analysis of the research on R/S and mental health. Methods Four electronic databases were systematically reviewed and 2,073 abstracts met initial selection criteria. Reviewer pairs applied standardized coding schemes to extract correlational indices of the relationship between R/S and mental health. A total of 617 effect sizes from 148 eligible studies were synthesized using meta-analytic generalized estimating equations; subgroup analyses were performed to examine moderators of effects. Results The estimated mean correlation (Fisher z) was 0.19 (95% CI 0.16–0.23), which varied as a function of R/S dimension: affective, z=0.38 (95% CI 0.33-0.43); behavioral, z=0.03 (95% CI -0.02-0.08); cognitive, z=0.10 (95% CI 0.06-0.14); and ‘other,’ z=0.08 (95% CI 0.03-0.13). Aggregate, study-level demographic and clinical factors were not predictive of the relationship between R/S and mental health. There was little indication of publication or reporting biases. Conclusions The relationship between R/S and mental health is generally a positive one. The strength of that relationship is modest and varies as a function of R/S dimensions and mental health domains assessed. Identification of optimal R/S measures and more sophisticated methodological approaches are needed to advance research. PMID:26258536

  1. A systematic review of factors associated with accidental falls in people with multiple sclerosis: a meta-analytic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannì, Costanza; Prosperini, Luca; Jonsdottir, Johanna; Cattaneo, Davide

    2014-07-01

    To determine whether there are demographic, clinical, and instrumental variables useful to detect fall status of patients with multiple sclerosis. PubMed and the Cochrane Library. Eligible studies were identified by two independent investigators. Only studies having a clear distinction between fallers and non-fallers were included and meta-analysed. Odds ratios (ORs) and standard mean differences (SMDs) were calculated and pooled using fixed effect models. Among 115 screened articles, 15 fulfilled criteria for meta-analyses, with a total of 2425 patients included. Proportion of fallers may vary from 30% to 63% in a time frame from 1 to 12 months. No significant publication bias was found, even though 12/15 studies relied on retrospective reports of falls, thus introducing recall biases. Risk factors for falls varied across studies, owing to heterogeneity of populations included and clinical instruments used. The meta-analytic approach found that, compared with non-fallers, fallers had longer disease duration (SMD = 0.14, p = 0.02), progressive course of disease (OR = 2.02, p < 0.0001), assistive device for walking (OR = 3.16, p < 0.0001), greater overall disability level (SMD = 0.74, p < 0.0001), slower walking speed (SMD = 0.45, p = 0.0005), and worse performances in balance tests (Berg Balance Scale: SMD = -0.48, p = 0.002; Timed up-and-go test, SMD = 0.31, p = 0.04), and force-platform measures (postural sway) with eyes opened (SMD = 0.71, p = 0.006) and closed (SMD = 0.83, p = 0.01), respectively. Elucidations regarding risk factors for accidental falls in patients with multiple sclerosis (PwMs) are provided here, with worse disability score, progressive course, use of walking aid, and poorer performances in static and dynamic balance tests strongly associated with fall status. © The Author(s) 2014.

  2. The increased cost of medical services for people diagnosed with primary open-angle glaucoma: a decision analytic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kymes, Steven M; Plotzke, Michael R; Li, Jim Z; Nichol, Michael B; Wu, Joanne; Fain, Joel

    2010-07-01

    Glaucoma accounts for more than 11% of all cases of blindness in the United States, but there have been few studies of economic impact. We examine incremental cost of primary open-angle glaucoma considering both visual and nonvisual medical costs over a lifetime of glaucoma. A decision analytic approach taking the payor's perspective with microsimulation estimation. We constructed a Markov model to replicate health events over the remaining lifetime of someone newly diagnosed with glaucoma. Costs of this group were compared with those estimated for a control group without glaucoma. The cost of management of glaucoma (including medications) before the onset of visual impairment was not considered. The model was populated with probability data estimated from Medicare claims data (1999 through 2005). Cost of nonocular medications and nursing home use was estimated from California Medicare claims, and all other costs were estimated from Medicare claims data. We found modest differences in the incidence of comorbid conditions and health service use between people with glaucoma and the control group. Over their expected lifetime, the cost of care for people with primary open-angle glaucoma was higher than that of people without primary open-angle glaucoma by $1688 or approximately $137 per year. Among Medicare beneficiaries, glaucoma diagnosis not found to be associated with significant risk of comorbidities before development of visual impairment. Further study is necessary to consider the impact of glaucoma on quality of life, as well as aspects of physical and visual function not captured in this claims-based analysis. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. A multi-analytical approach to better assess the keratan sulfate contamination in animal origin chondroitin sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restaino, Odile Francesca; Finamore, Rosario; Diana, Paola; Marseglia, Mariacarmela; Vitiello, Mario; Casillo, Angela; Bedini, Emiliano; Parrilli, Michelangelo; Corsaro, Maria Michela; Trifuoggi, Marco; De Rosa, Mario; Schiraldi, Chiara

    2017-03-15

    Chondroitin sulfate is a glycosaminoglycan widely used as active principle of anti-osteoarthritis drugs and nutraceuticals, manufactured by extraction from animal cartilaginous tissues. During the manufacturing procedures, another glycosaminoglycan, the keratan sulfate, might be contemporarily withdrawn, thus eventually constituting a contaminant difficult to be determined because of its structural similarity. Considering the strict regulatory rules on the pureness of pharmaceutical grade chondrotin sulfate there is an urgent need and interest to determine the residual keratan sulfate with specific, sensitive and reliable methods. To pursue this aim, in this paper, for the first time, we set up a multi-analytical and preparative approach based on: i) a newly developed method by high performance anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection, ii) gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses, iii) size exclusion chromatography analyses coupled with triple detector array module and on iv) strong anion exchange chromatography separation. Varied KS percentages, in the range from 0.1 to 19.0% (w/w), were determined in seven pharmacopeia and commercial standards and nine commercial samples of different animal origin and manufacturers. Strong anion exchange chromatography profiles of the samples showed three or four different peaks. These peaks analyzed by high performance anion-exchange with pulsed amperometric detection and size exclusion chromatography with triple detector array, ion chromatography and by mono- or two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance revealed a heterogeneous composition of both glycosaminoglycans in terms of sulfation grade and molecular weight. High molecular weight species (>100 KDa) were also present in the samples that counted for chains still partially linked to a proteoglycan core. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Analytical approach to entropy generation and heat transfer in CNT-nanofluid dynamics through a ciliated porous medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbar, Noreen Sher; Shoaib, M.; Tripathi, Dharmendra; Bhushan, Shashi; Bég, O. Anwar

    2018-03-01

    The transportation of biological and industrial nanofluids by natural propulsion like cilia movement and self-generated contraction-relaxation of flexible walls has significant applications in numerous emerging technologies. Inspired by multi-disciplinary progress and innovation in this direction, a thermo-fluid mechanical model is proposed to study the entropy generation and convective heat transfer of nanofluids fabricated by the dispersion of single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) nanoparticles in water as the base fluid. The regime studied comprises heat transfer and steady, viscous, incompressible flow, induced by metachronal wave propulsion due to beating cilia, through a cylindrical tube containing a sparse (i.e., high permeability) homogenous porous medium. The flow is of the creeping type and is restricted under the low Reynolds number and long wavelength approximations. Slip effects at the wall are incorporated and the generalized Darcy drag-force model is utilized to mimic porous media effects. Cilia boundary conditions for velocity components are employed to determine analytical solutions to the resulting non-dimensionalized boundary value problem. The influence of pertinent physical parameters on temperature, axial velocity, pressure rise and pressure gradient, entropy generation function, Bejan number and stream-line distributions are computed numerically. A comparative study between SWCNT-nanofluids and pure water is also computed. The computations demonstrate that axial flow is accelerated with increasing slip parameter and Darcy number and is greater for SWCNT-nanofluids than for pure water. Furthermore the size of the bolus for SWCNT-nanofluids is larger than that of the pure water. The study is applicable in designing and fabricating nanoscale and microfluidics devices, artificial cilia and biomimetic micro-pumps.

  5. Analytical approach to entropy generation and heat transfer in CNT-nanofluid dynamics through a ciliated porous medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbar, Noreen Sher; Shoaib, M.; Tripathi, Dharmendra; Bhushan, Shashi; Bég, O. Anwar

    2018-04-01

    The transportation of biological and industrial nanofluids by natural propulsion like cilia movement and self-generated contraction-relaxation of flexible walls has significant applications in numerous emerging technologies. Inspired by multi-disciplinary progress and innovation in this direction, a thermo-fluid mechanical model is proposed to study the entropy generation and convective heat transfer of nanofluids fabricated by the dispersion of single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) nanoparticles in water as the base fluid. The regime studied comprises heat transfer and steady, viscous, incompressible flow, induced by metachronal wave propulsion due to beating cilia, through a cylindrical tube containing a sparse (i.e., high permeability) homogenous porous medium. The flow is of the creeping type and is restricted under the low Reynolds number and long wavelength approximations. Slip effects at the wall are incorporated and the generalized Darcy drag-force model is utilized to mimic porous media effects. Cilia boundary conditions for velocity components are employed to determine analytical solutions to the resulting non-dimensionalized boundary value problem. The influence of pertinent physical parameters on temperature, axial velocity, pressure rise and pressure gradient, entropy generation function, Bejan number and stream-line distributions are computed numerically. A comparative study between SWCNT-nanofluids and pure water is also computed. The computations demonstrate that axial flow is accelerated with increasing slip parameter and Darcy number and is greater for SWCNT-nanofluids than for pure water. Furthermore the size of the bolus for SWCNT-nanofluids is larger than that of the pure water. The study is applicable in designing and fabricating nanoscale and microfluidics devices, artificial cilia and biomimetic micro-pumps.

  6. Comparison of different approaches applied in Analytic Hierarchy Process - an example of information needs of patients with rare diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauer, Frédéric; Schmidt, Katharina; Babac, Ana; Damm, Kathrin; Frank, Martin; von der Schulenburg, J-Matthias Graf

    2016-09-09

    The Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) is increasingly used to measure patient priorities. Studies have shown that there are several different approaches to data acquisition and data aggregation. The aim of this study was to measure the information needs of patients having a rare disease and to analyze the effects of these different AHP approaches. The ranking of information needs is then used to display information categories on a web-based information portal about rare diseases according to the patient's priorities. The information needs of patients suffering from rare diseases were identified by an Internet research study and a preliminary qualitative study. Hence, we designed a three-level hierarchy containing 13 criteria. For data acquisition, the differences in outcomes were investigated using individual versus group judgements separately. Furthermore, we analyzed the different effects when using the median and arithmetic and geometric means for data aggregation. A consistency ratio ≤0.2 was determined to represent an acceptable consistency level. Forty individual and three group judgements were collected from patients suffering from a rare disease and their close relatives. The consistency ratio of 31 individual and three group judgements was acceptable and thus these judgements were included in the study. To a large extent, the local ranks for individual and group judgements were similar. Interestingly, group judgements were in a significantly smaller range than individual judgements. According to our data, the ranks of the criteria differed slightly according to the data aggregation method used. It is important to explain and justify the choice of an appropriate method for data acquisition because response behaviors differ according to the method. We conclude that researchers should select a suitable method based on the thematic perspective or investigated topics in the study. Because the arithmetic mean is very vulnerable to outliers, the geometric mean

  7. Learning Analytics Considered Harmful

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dringus, Laurie P.

    2012-01-01

    This essay is written to present a prospective stance on how learning analytics, as a core evaluative approach, must help instructors uncover the important trends and evidence of quality learner data in the online course. A critique is presented of strategic and tactical issues of learning analytics. The approach to the critique is taken through…

  8. Aorta Balloon Occlusion in Trauma: Three Cases Demonstrating Multidisciplinary Approach Already on Patient’s Arrival to the Emergency Room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hörer, Tal M.; Hebron, Dan; Swaid, Forat; Korin, Alexander; Galili, Offer; Alfici, Ricardo; Kessel, Boris

    2016-01-01

    PurposeTo describe the usage of aortic balloon occlusion (ABO), based on a multidisciplinary approach in severe trauma patients, emphasizing the role of the interventional radiologist in primary trauma care.MethodsWe briefly discuss the relevant literature, the technical aspects of ABO in trauma, and a multidisciplinary approach to the bleeding trauma patient. We describe three severely injured trauma patients for whom ABO was part of initial trauma management.ResultsThree severely injured multi-trauma patients were treated by ABO as a bridge to surgery and embolization. The procedures were performed by an interventional radiologist in the early stages of trauma management.ConclusionsThe interventional radiologist and the multidisciplinary team approach can be activated already on severe trauma patient arrival. ABO usage and other endovascular methods are becoming more widely spread, and can be used early in trauma management, without delay, thus justifying the early activation of this multidisciplinary approach

  9. Aorta Balloon Occlusion in Trauma: Three Cases Demonstrating Multidisciplinary Approach Already on Patient’s Arrival to the Emergency Room

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hörer, Tal M., E-mail: tal.horer@orebroll.se [Örebro University, Department of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Surgery, Örebro University Hospital (Sweden); Hebron, Dan [Hillel Yaffe Medical Center, Department of Radiology (Israel); Swaid, Forat [Bnai-Zion Medical Center, Department of General Surgery (Israel); Korin, Alexander [Hillel Yaffe Medical Center, Trauma Unit (Israel); Galili, Offer [Hillel Yaffe Medical Center, Department of Vascular Surgery (Israel); Alfici, Ricardo [Hillel Yaffe Medical Center, Surgical Division (Israel); Kessel, Boris [Hillel Yaffe Medical Center, Trauma Unit (Israel)

    2016-02-15

    PurposeTo describe the usage of aortic balloon occlusion (ABO), based on a multidisciplinary approach in severe trauma patients, emphasizing the role of the interventional radiologist in primary trauma care.MethodsWe briefly discuss the relevant literature, the technical aspects of ABO in trauma, and a multidisciplinary approach to the bleeding trauma patient. We describe three severely injured trauma patients for whom ABO was part of initial trauma management.ResultsThree severely injured multi-trauma patients were treated by ABO as a bridge to surgery and embolization. The procedures were performed by an interventional radiologist in the early stages of trauma management.ConclusionsThe interventional radiologist and the multidisciplinary team approach can be activated already on severe trauma patient arrival. ABO usage and other endovascular methods are becoming more widely spread, and can be used early in trauma management, without delay, thus justifying the early activation of this multidisciplinary approach.

  10. The Demonstration Test Catchment Approach to Land and Water Management in the river Eden Watershed, UK. (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonczyk, J.; Quinn, P. F.; Haygarth, P.; Reaney, S.; Wilkinson, M.; Burke, S.; McGonigle, D.; Harris, B.

    2010-12-01

    The Demonstration Test Catchment (DTC) initiative is a five year project to address pollution issues in catchments. The initiative will study the wider environmental problems suffered by catchments which are under intense farming pressures and potential climate change impacts. The UK Department for Food, Agriculture and Rural Affairs (Defra) in partnership with the Environment Agency for England and Wales (EA) have funded this initiative to answer key policy concerns in catchments. The first key step has been the establishment of a ‘research platform’ at three catchments in the UK (The Eden, Wensum and Hampshire Avon) whereby funding of 9.3 million dollars has gone into funding new equipment and pollution sampling regimes have been established. Within each catchment between three and four, 8-10km2 sub-catchments have been established. The experimental design and thinking for DTCs will be explained fully in this paper. The next phase of the project will install an extensive suite of land management and pollution mitigation interventions. In parallel to this monitoring work, a full knowledge exchange package will seek to engage with farmers, the rural community and understand the governance regime at the broader catchment scale. There is also a need for a modelling component to upscale the findings to the whole of the UK. Whilst this is an ambitious goal, there is a very basic commitment of working with rural communities to come up with real solutions that will help underpin effective policy making for the future. The research platform covers a multi-scale approach to the monitoring strategy that will allow local grouping of mitigation measures to be studied local in terms of impact and propagated to the catchment scale. Even with high level of funding, the DTC can only fully instrument a catchment of 8-10km2. Beyond this scale, the EA and the standard catchment monitoring will continue as normal. The focus here is to prove that mitigation can be achieved within

  11. Web Analytics

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA’s Web Analytics Program collects, analyzes, and provides reports on traffic, quality assurance, and customer satisfaction metrics for EPA’s website. The program uses a variety of analytics tools, including Google Analytics and CrazyEgg.

  12. Analytical Sociology: A Bungean Appreciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Poe Yu-ze

    2012-10-01

    Analytical sociology, an intellectual project that has garnered considerable attention across a variety of disciplines in recent years, aims to explain complex social processes by dissecting them, accentuating their most important constituent parts, and constructing appropriate models to understand the emergence of what is observed. To achieve this goal, analytical sociologists demonstrate an unequivocal focus on the mechanism-based explanation grounded in action theory. In this article I attempt a critical appreciation of analytical sociology from the perspective of Mario Bunge's philosophical system, which I characterize as emergentist systemism. I submit that while the principles of analytical sociology and those of Bunge's approach share a lot in common, the latter brings to the fore the ontological status and explanatory importance of supra-individual actors (as concrete systems endowed with emergent causal powers) and macro-social mechanisms (as processes unfolding in and among social systems), and therefore it does not stipulate that every causal explanation of social facts has to include explicit references to individual-level actors and mechanisms. In this sense, Bunge's approach provides a reasonable middle course between the Scylla of sociological reification and the Charybdis of ontological individualism, and thus serves as an antidote to the untenable "strong program of microfoundations" to which some analytical sociologists are committed.

  13. A meta-analytic approach to examining the correlation between religion/spirituality and mental health in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salsman, John M; Pustejovsky, James E; Jim, Heather S L; Munoz, Alexis R; Merluzzi, Thomas V; George, Login; Park, Crystal L; Danhauer, Suzanne C; Sherman, Allen C; Snyder, Mallory A; Fitchett, George

    2015-11-01

    Religion and spirituality (R/S) are patient-centered factors and often are resources for managing the emotional sequelae of the cancer experience. Studies investigating the correlation between R/S (eg, beliefs, experiences, coping) and mental health (eg, depression, anxiety, well being) in cancer have used very heterogeneous measures and have produced correspondingly inconsistent results. A meaningful synthesis of these findings has been lacking; thus, the objective of this review was to conduct a meta-analysis of the research on R/S and mental health. Four electronic databases were systematically reviewed, and 2073 abstracts met initial selection criteria. Reviewer pairs applied standardized coding schemes to extract indices of the correlation between R/S and mental health. In total, 617 effect sizes from 148 eligible studies were synthesized using meta-analytic generalized estimating equations, and subgroup analyses were performed to examine moderators of effects. The estimated mean correlation (Fisher z) was 0.19 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.16-0.23), which varied as a function of R/S dimensions: affective R/S (z = 0.38; 95% CI, 0.33-0.43), behavioral R/S (z = 0.03; 95% CI, -0.02-0.08), cognitive R/S (z = 0.10; 95% CI, 0.06-0.14), and 'other' R/S (z = 0.08; 95% CI, 0.03-0.13). Aggregate, study-level demographic and clinical factors were not predictive of the relation between R/S and mental health. There was little indication of publication or reporting biases. The correlation between R/S and mental health generally was positive. The strength of that correlation was modest and varied as a function of the R/S dimensions and mental health domains assessed. The identification of optimal R/S measures and more sophisticated methodological approaches are needed to advance research. © 2015 American Cancer Society.

  14. Analytical method development of nifedipine and its degradants binary mixture using high performance liquid chromatography through a quality by design approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choiri, S.; Ainurofiq, A.; Ratri, R.; Zulmi, M. U.

    2018-03-01

    Nifedipin (NIF) is a photo-labile drug that easily degrades when it exposures a sunlight. This research aimed to develop of an analytical method using a high-performance liquid chromatography and implemented a quality by design approach to obtain effective, efficient, and validated analytical methods of NIF and its degradants. A 22 full factorial design approach with a curvature as a center point was applied to optimize of the analytical condition of NIF and its degradants. Mobile phase composition (MPC) and flow rate (FR) as factors determined on the system suitability parameters. The selected condition was validated by cross-validation using a leave one out technique. Alteration of MPC affected on time retention significantly. Furthermore, an increase of FR reduced the tailing factor. In addition, the interaction of both factors affected on an increase of the theoretical plates and resolution of NIF and its degradants. The selected analytical condition of NIF and its degradants has been validated at range 1 – 16 µg/mL that had good linearity, precision, accuration and efficient due to an analysis time within 10 min.

  15. SUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENT APPROACHES AND REVITALIZATION TOOLS-ELECTRONIC (SMARTE): OVERVIEW AND DEMONSTRATION FOR FINAL PHASE 3 CONFERENCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. contingent of the U.S.-German Bilateral Working Group is developing Sustainable Management Approaches and Revitalization Tools-electronic (SMARTe). SMARTe is a web-based, decision support system designed to assist stakeholders in developing and evaluating alternative reu...

  16. Poor man's NOTES: can it be a good approach for adhesiolysis? A first case report with video demonstration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baekelandt, Jan

    2015-01-01

    To show that in selected cases transvaginal NOTES can be a frugally innovative approach for adhesiolysis and that it can be performed in a low-cost setting. Step-by-step explanation of the technique using videos and pictures (educative video). A 51-year old (para 2, gravida 2) presented with meso- and hypogastric pain. Two years before, an umbilical hernia had been repaired using a Proceed Ventral Patch mesh. The diagnosis of pain caused by adhesions was made, and laparoscopic adhesiolysis was planned. On ultrasound, a small left ovarian fibroma was visualized. Because of the suspected umbilical location of the adhesions, we decided to use a transvaginal NOTES approach to perform adhesiolysis and left adnexectomy. Pathological examination confirmed a small benign papillary serous adenofibroma of the ovary. A transvaginal NOTES approach to perform adhesiolysis combined with left adnexectomy using only standard reusable laparoscopic instruments and a low-cost self-constructed NOTES port. The procedure and postoperative recovery were uneventful. No minor or major complications occurred. The patient has been cured of her pain. Transvaginal NOTES is a novel approach that requires further validation. This case report shows that transvaginal NOTES can be used to perform adhesiolysis for abdominal pain and that it can be performed in a low-cost setting without the need for expensive ports or disposable instruments. Copyright © 2015 AAGL. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Demonstration of isotope-mass balance approach for water budget analyses of El-burulus Lake, Nile Delta, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadek, M.A.

    2006-01-01

    The major elements of El-Burulus lake water system are rainfall, agricultural drainage discharge, groundwater, human activities, evaporation and water interaction between the lake and the Mediterranean sea. The principal input sources are agricultural drainage (8 drains at the southern borders of the lake), sea water as well as some contribution of precipitation, groundwater and human activities. Water is lost from the lake through evaporation and surface outflow. The present study has been conducted using isotopic / mass balance approach to investigate the water balance of El-Burulus lake and to emphasize the relative contribution of different input / output components which affect the environmental and hydrological terms of the system. An isotopic evaporation pan experiment was performed to estimate the parameters of relevance to water balance (isotopic composition of free air moisture and evaporating flux) and to simulate the isotopic enrichment of evaporation under atmospheric and hydraulic control. The isotopic mass balance approach employed herein facilitated the estimation of groundwater inflow to the lake, evaporated fraction of total lake inflow (E/I) and its fraction to outflow (E/O), ratio of surface inflow to surface outflow (I/O) as well as residence time of lake water. The isotopic mass balance approach has been validated by comparing the values of estimated parameters with the previous hydrological investigations; a quite good match has been indicated, the relevance of this approach is related to its integrative scale and the more simply implementation

  18. A Demonstration of the Universal Problem-Solving Approach to Address Children's Inappropriate Behavior in Head Start Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell, Martha E.; Voorhees, Mary D.; Walker, Virginia L.; Berlin, Rebecca A.; Jamison, Kristen Roorbach; Stanton-Chapman, Tina L.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this demonstration was to evaluate a universal intervention during teacher-identified routines that were characterized by significant classwide problem behavior. Six Head Start classrooms (seven groups of children, with one classroom divided into two groups) received two workshops and two coaching sessions on universal Positive…

  19. Material Characterization in the Electro-Analytic Approach for Applications in Chemical Mechanical Planarization and Electrochemical Energy Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rock, Simon E.

    of the ionic liquid electrolyte with the nonionic low-viscosity conventional solvent blend is presented. Charge recombination at the electrolyte-photoanode interface of a dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) is a major efficiency-limiting factor of the cell. To mitigate this recombination effect it is necessary to ensure that the effective electron lifetime in the DSSC is longer than the electron's transit time across the photoanode of mesoporous TiO2. While the efforts aimed at accomplishing this goal are often based on new materials/designs of photoanodes, a quantitative evaluation of these designs relies on the precision of the benchmarking measurements of electron lifetimes. The open circuit voltage decay (OCVD) technique offers an effective yet straightforward method for such measurements. The present work focuses on certain experimental criteria for ensuring the accuracy of these experiments, and probes the associated effects of temperature variations in the solar cell. The results demonstrate that, a high rate of data sampling is essential for adequately resolving the fast initial stages of charge recombination. The results also show the effects of nonlinear recombination where second order OCV variations are operative. The findings of the OCVD experiments are compared with a parallel set of tests carried out using impedance spectroscopy. The relative roles of the two sets of analytical measurements are examined.

  20. A semi-analytical approach towards plane wave analysis of local resonance metamaterials using a multiscale enriched continuum description

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sridhar, A.; Kouznetsova, V.; Geers, M.G.D.

    2017-01-01

    This work presents a novel multiscale semi-analytical technique for the acoustic plane wave analysis of (negative) dynamic mass density type local resonance metamaterials with complex micro-structural geometry. A two step solution strategy is adopted, in which the unit cell problem at the

  1. Efficient Analytical Approaches to the Optics of Compound Refractive Lenses for Use with Synchrotron X-rays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Stefan Othmar; Poulsen, Henning Friis

    2014-01-01

    The properties of compound refractive lenses (CRLs) of biconcave parabolic lenses for focusing and imaging synchrotron X-rays have been investigated theoretically by ray transfer matrix analysis and Gaussian beam propagation. We present approximate analytical expressions, that allow fast estimation...

  2. Formulation and demonstration of a robust mean variance optimization approach for concurrent airline network and aircraft design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davendralingam, Navindran

    Conceptual design of aircraft and the airline network (routes) on which aircraft fly on are inextricably linked to passenger driven demand. Many factors influence passenger demand for various Origin-Destination (O-D) city pairs including demographics, geographic location, seasonality, socio-economic factors and naturally, the operations of directly competing airlines. The expansion of airline operations involves the identificaion of appropriate aircraft to meet projected future demand. The decisions made in incorporating and subsequently allocating these new aircraft to serve air travel demand affects the inherent risk and profit potential as predicted through the airline revenue management systems. Competition between airlines then translates to latent passenger observations of the routes served between OD pairs and ticket pricing---this in effect reflexively drives future states of demand. This thesis addresses the integrated nature of aircraft design, airline operations and passenger demand, in order to maximize future expected profits as new aircraft are brought into service. The goal of this research is to develop an approach that utilizes aircraft design, airline network design and passenger demand as a unified framework to provide better integrated design solutions in order to maximize expexted profits of an airline. This is investigated through two approaches. The first is a static model that poses the concurrent engineering paradigm above as an investment portfolio problem. Modern financial portfolio optimization techniques are used to leverage risk of serving future projected demand using a 'yet to be introduced' aircraft against potentially generated future profits. Robust optimization methodologies are incorporated to mitigate model sensitivity and address estimation risks associated with such optimization techniques. The second extends the portfolio approach to include dynamic effects of an airline's operations. A dynamic programming approach is

  3. Surrogate analyte approach for quantitation of endogenous NAD(+) in human acidified blood samples using liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liling; Cui, Zhiyi; Deng, Yuzhong; Dean, Brian; Hop, Cornelis E C A; Liang, Xiaorong

    2016-02-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) assay for the quantitative determination of NAD(+) in human whole blood using a surrogate analyte approach was developed and validated. Human whole blood was acidified using 0.5N perchloric acid at a ratio of 1:3 (v:v, blood:perchloric acid) during sample collection. 25μL of acidified blood was extracted using a protein precipitation method and the resulting extracts were analyzed using reverse-phase chromatography and positive electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. (13)C5-NAD(+) was used as the surrogate analyte for authentic analyte, NAD(+). The standard curve ranging from 0.250 to 25.0μg/mL in acidified human blood for (13)C5-NAD(+) was fitted to a 1/x(2) weighted linear regression model. The LC-MS/MS response between surrogate analyte and authentic analyte at the same concentration was obtained before and after the batch run. This response factor was not applied when determining the NAD(+) concentration from the (13)C5-NAD(+) standard curve since the percent difference was less than 5%. The precision and accuracy of the LC-MS/MS assay based on the five analytical QC levels were well within the acceptance criteria from both FDA and EMA guidance for bioanalytical method validation. Average extraction recovery of (13)C5-NAD(+) was 94.6% across the curve range. Matrix factor was 0.99 for both high and low QC indicating minimal ion suppression or enhancement. The validated assay was used to measure the baseline level of NAD(+) in 29 male and 21 female human subjects. This assay was also used to study the circadian effect of endogenous level of NAD(+) in 10 human subjects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Assessment of economic instruments for countries with low municipal waste management performance: An approach based on the analytic hierarchy process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kling, Maximilian; Seyring, Nicole; Tzanova, Polia

    2016-09-01

    Economic instruments provide significant potential for countries with low municipal waste management performance in decreasing landfill rates and increasing recycling rates for municipal waste. In this research, strengths and weaknesses of landfill tax, pay-as-you-throw charging systems, deposit-refund systems and extended producer responsibility schemes are compared, focusing on conditions in countries with low waste management performance. In order to prioritise instruments for implementation in these countries, the analytic hierarchy process is applied using results of a literature review as input for the comparison. The assessment reveals that pay-as-you-throw is the most preferable instrument when utility-related criteria are regarded (wb = 0.35; analytic hierarchy process distributive mode; absolute comparison) mainly owing to its waste prevention effect, closely followed by landfill tax (wb = 0.32). Deposit-refund systems (wb = 0.17) and extended producer responsibility (wb = 0.16) rank third and fourth, with marginal differences owing to their similar nature. When cost-related criteria are additionally included in the comparison, landfill tax seems to provide the highest utility-cost ratio. Data from literature concerning cost (contrary to utility-related criteria) is currently not sufficiently available for a robust ranking according to the utility-cost ratio. In general, the analytic hierarchy process is seen as a suitable method for assessing economic instruments in waste management. Independent from the chosen analytic hierarchy process mode, results provide valuable indications for policy-makers on the application of economic instruments, as well as on their specific strengths and weaknesses. Nevertheless, the instruments need to be put in the country-specific context along with the results of this analytic hierarchy process application before practical decisions are made. © The Author(s) 2016.

  5. Understanding the contamination of food with mineral oil: the need for a confirmatory analytical and procedural approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spack, Lionel W; Leszczyk, Gabriela; Varela, Jesus; Simian, Hervé; Gude, Thomas; Stadler, Richard H

    2017-06-01

    The contamination of food by mineral oil hydrocarbons (MOHs) found in packaging is a long-running concern. A main source of MOHs in foods is the migration of mineral oil from recycled board into the packed food products. Consequently, the majority of food manufacturers have taken protective measures, e.g., by using virgin board instead of recycled fibres and, where feasible, introducing functional barriers to mitigate migration. Despite these protective measures, MOHs may still be observed in low amounts in certain food products, albeit due to different entry points across the food supply chain. In this study, we successfully apply gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to demonstrate, through marker compounds and the profile of the hydrocarbon response, the possible source of contamination using mainly chocolate and cereals as food matrices. The conventional liquid chromatography-one-dimensional GC coupled to a flame ionisation detector (LC-GC-FID) is a useful screening method, but in cases of positive samples it must be complemented by a confirmatory method such as, for example, GC-MS, allowing a verification of mineral oil contamination. The procedural approach proposed in this study entails profile analysis, marker identification, and interpretation and final quantification.

  6. Analytic nuclear scattering theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Marzio, F.; University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC

    1999-01-01

    A wide range of nuclear reactions are examined in an analytical version of the usual distorted wave Born approximation. This new approach provides either semi analytic or fully analytic descriptions of the nuclear scattering processes. The resulting computational simplifications, when used within the limits of validity, allow very detailed tests of both nuclear interaction models as well as large basis models of nuclear structure to be performed

  7. Validation of analytical methods in GMP: the disposable Fast Read 102® device, an alternative practical approach for cell counting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunetti, Monica; Castiglia, Sara; Rustichelli, Deborah; Mareschi, Katia; Sanavio, Fiorella; Muraro, Michela; Signorino, Elena; Castello, Laura; Ferrero, Ivana; Fagioli, Franca

    2012-05-31

    The quality and safety of advanced therapy products must be maintained throughout their production and quality control cycle to ensure their final use in patients. We validated the cell count method according to the International Conference on Harmonization of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use and European Pharmacopoeia, considering the tests' accuracy, precision, repeatability, linearity and range. As the cell count is a potency test, we checked accuracy, precision, and linearity, according to ICH Q2. Briefly our experimental approach was first to evaluate the accuracy of Fast Read 102® compared to the Bürker chamber. Once the accuracy of the alternative method was demonstrated, we checked the precision and linearity test only using Fast Read 102®. The data were statistically analyzed by average, standard deviation and coefficient of variation percentages inter and intra operator. All the tests performed met the established acceptance criteria of a coefficient of variation of less than ten percent. For the cell count, the precision reached by each operator had a coefficient of variation of less than ten percent (total cells) and under five percent (viable cells). The best range of dilution, to obtain a slope line value very similar to 1, was between 1:8 and 1:128. Our data demonstrated that the Fast Read 102® count method is accurate, precise and ensures the linearity of the results obtained in a range of cell dilution. Under our standard method procedures, this assay may thus be considered a good quality control method for the cell count as a batch release quality control test. Moreover, the Fast Read 102® chamber is a plastic, disposable device that allows a number of samples to be counted in the same chamber. Last but not least, it overcomes the problem of chamber washing after use and so allows a cell count in a clean environment such as that in a Cell Factory. In a good manufacturing practice setting the disposable

  8. Validation of analytical methods in GMP: the disposable Fast Read 102® device, an alternative practical approach for cell counting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunetti Monica

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The quality and safety of advanced therapy products must be maintained throughout their production and quality control cycle to ensure their final use in patients. We validated the cell count method according to the International Conference on Harmonization of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use and European Pharmacopoeia, considering the tests’ accuracy, precision, repeatability, linearity and range. Methods As the cell count is a potency test, we checked accuracy, precision, and linearity, according to ICH Q2. Briefly our experimental approach was first to evaluate the accuracy of Fast Read 102® compared to the Bürker chamber. Once the accuracy of the alternative method was demonstrated, we checked the precision and linearity test only using Fast Read 102®. The data were statistically analyzed by average, standard deviation and coefficient of variation percentages inter and intra operator. Results All the tests performed met the established acceptance criteria of a coefficient of variation of less than ten percent. For the cell count, the precision reached by each operator had a coefficient of variation of less than ten percent (total cells and under five percent (viable cells. The best range of dilution, to obtain a slope line value very similar to 1, was between 1:8 and 1:128. Conclusions Our data demonstrated that the Fast Read 102® count method is accurate, precise and ensures the linearity of the results obtained in a range of cell dilution. Under our standard method procedures, this assay may thus be considered a good quality control method for the cell count as a batch release quality control test. Moreover, the Fast Read 102® chamber is a plastic, disposable device that allows a number of samples to be counted in the same chamber. Last but not least, it overcomes the problem of chamber washing after use and so allows a cell count in a clean environment such as that in a

  9. The method of characteristic for nonlinear generalized Rayleigh-Taylor instability associated with equatorial spread F: An analytical approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekar, R.; Kherani, E.A.

    2002-01-01

    An analytical method is presented for the nonlinear generalized Rayleigh-Taylor instability occurring over the night-time equatorial F region of the terrestrial ionosphere. The time and spatial domain characteristic methods are adopted to describe the evolutions of plasma density and particle flux, respectively. The analysis efficiently describes the known nonlinear features of instability as suggested by many numerical simulations. The existence of shock or steepened structures and their dynamics are discussed by studying the evolution of the characteristics

  10. Analytical mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Helrich, Carl S

    2017-01-01

    This advanced undergraduate textbook begins with the Lagrangian formulation of Analytical Mechanics and then passes directly to the Hamiltonian formulation and the canonical equations, with constraints incorporated through Lagrange multipliers. Hamilton's Principle and the canonical equations remain the basis of the remainder of the text. Topics considered for applications include small oscillations, motion in electric and magnetic fields, and rigid body dynamics. The Hamilton-Jacobi approach is developed with special attention to the canonical transformation in order to provide a smooth and logical transition into the study of complex and chaotic systems. Finally the text has a careful treatment of relativistic mechanics and the requirement of Lorentz invariance. The text is enriched with an outline of the history of mechanics, which particularly outlines the importance of the work of Euler, Lagrange, Hamilton and Jacobi. Numerous exercises with solutions support the exceptionally clear and concise treatment...

  11. Demonstrating an Approach for Including Pesticide Use in Life Cycle Assessment: Estimating Human and Ecosystem Toxicity of Pesticide Use in Midwest Corn Farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purpose This study demonstrates an approach to assess human health and ecotoxicity impacts of pesticide use by including multiple environmental pathways and various exposure routes using the case of corn grown for bio-based fuel or chemical production in US Midwestern states.Meth...

  12. Demonstrating an approach for including pesticide use in life-cycle assessment: Estimating human and ecosystem toxicity of pesticide use in Midwest corn farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    PurposeThis study demonstrates an approach to assess human health and ecotoxicity impacts of pesticide use by including multiple environmental pathways and various exposure routes using the case of corn grown for bio-based fuel or chemical production in US Midwestern states.Metho...

  13. Quantitative meta-analytic approaches for the analysis of animal toxicology and epidemiologic data in human health risk assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Often, human health risk assessments have relied on qualitative approaches for hazard identification to integrate evidence across multiple studies to conclude whether particular hazards exist. However, quantitative approaches for evidence integration, including the application o...

  14. A grey relational analytical approach to orange peel filler particulates for tapped density experiments of green composite reinforcements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluwaseyi Ayodele Ajibade

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring density changes during transportation of composite fillers is the principal reason for composite industries implementing the tapped density concept. Till date, very sparse literature information exists on tapped density optimisation for orange peel particles (OPPs. A unique application of grey relational analysis (GRA in the optimisation of tapped process parameters for OPPs is contributed in this paper. Experimental results on the principal process parameters indicate G1H1I2J3 as the best experimental run, which translates to 257.956 g and 78.076 cm3 as well as 254.939 g and 72.94 cm3 for masses and volumes of the 0.425 and 0.600 mm OPPs, respectively. In addition, Taguchi method was applied to arrive at an optimal parametric setting of G2H2I1J1 for comparative purposes which translate to 257.723 g and 75.031 cm3 for mass and volume of the 0.425 OPPs, as well as 254.952 g and 77.982 cm3 for the mass and volume of 0.600 mm OPPs. By comparison, the GRA values produced positive percentage improvement over other optimal values. The unique contribution of this paper are principally the (i application of GRA in a novel manner, incorporating harmonic mean in factor-level determination and computation of S/N responses; (ii development of new indices of tapped density; and (iii introduction of economic factors in tapped density computations, incorporating inflation and interest factors. The practical utility of the demonstrated approach lies in reducing the uncertainties about density measurements in the transportation of green fillers for use as composite reinforcements.

  15. Transfer of analytical procedures: a panel of strategies selected for risk management, with emphasis on an integrated equivalence-based comparative testing approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agut, C; Caron, A; Giordano, C; Hoffman, D; Ségalini, A

    2011-09-10

    In 2001, a multidisciplinary team made of analytical scientists and statisticians at Sanofi-aventis has published a methodology which has governed, from that time, the transfers from R&D sites to Manufacturing sites of the release monographs. This article provides an overview of the recent adaptations brought to this original methodology taking advantage of our experience and the new regulatory framework, and, in particular, the risk management perspective introduced by ICH Q9. Although some alternate strategies have been introduced in our practices, the comparative testing one, based equivalence testing as statistical approach, remains the standard for assays lying on very critical quality attributes. This is conducted with the concern to control the most important consumer's risk involved at two levels in analytical decisions in the frame of transfer studies: risk, for the receiving laboratory, to take poor release decisions with the analytical method and risk, for the sending laboratory, to accredit such a receiving laboratory on account of its insufficient performances with the method. Among the enhancements to the comparative studies, the manuscript presents the process settled within our company for a better integration of the transfer study into the method life-cycle, just as proposals of generic acceptance criteria and designs for assay and related substances methods. While maintaining rigor and selectivity of the original approach, these improvements tend towards an increased efficiency in the transfer operations. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Dynamic behaviour of a planar micro-beam loaded by a fluid-gap: Analytical and numerical approach in a high frequency range, benchmark solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, A.; Honzik, P.; Bruneau, M.

    2017-08-01

    Miniaturized vibrating MEMS devices, active (receivers or emitters) or passive devices, and their use for either new applications (hearing, meta-materials, consumer devices,…) or metrological purposes under non-standard conditions, are involved today in several acoustic domains. More in-depth characterisation than the classical ones available until now are needed. In this context, the paper presents analytical and numerical approaches for describing the behaviour of three kinds of planar micro-beams of rectangular shape (suspended rigid or clamped elastic planar beam) loaded by a backing cavity or a fluid-gap, surrounded by very thin slits, and excited by an incident acoustic field. The analytical approach accounts for the coupling between the vibrating structure and the acoustic field in the backing cavity, the thermal and viscous diffusion processes in the boundary layers in the slits and the cavity, the modal behaviour for the vibrating structure, and the non-uniformity of the acoustic field in the backing cavity which is modelled in using an integral formulation with a suitable Green's function. Benchmark solutions are proposed in terms of beam motion (from which the sensitivity, input impedance, and pressure transfer function can be calculated). A numerical implementation (FEM) is handled against which the analytical results are tested.

  17. An approach to demonstrating cost-effectiveness of diagnostic imaging modalities in Australia illustrated by positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miles, K.A.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a framework in which the cost-effectiveness of new imaging technologies could be evaluated using data from other countries, while assessing the impact that any differences between the study populations and Australia may have upon the results. Publications reporting the cost-effectiveness or therapeutic impact of positron emission tomography (PET) were re-worked using Australian cost structures. PET was assigned a cost of $950. The effects of potential differences between the populations studied and the Australian population were evaluated by applying sensitivity analysis to those publications that describe decision tree methodology. The parameters included in the sensitivity analysis were disease prevalence and specificity of PET. The Australian cost savings per patient examined by PET were $505.50-$912.41 for investigation of solitary pulmonary nodules, $34.65-$360.03 for lung cancer staging, $550.08 for axillary staging of breast cancer, $230.75-$2301.27 for assessment of recurrent colorectal cancer and $300.24-$2069.65 for assessment of myocardial viability. Significant differences in disease prevalence and PET specificity could occur while the cost-effectiveness of PET was preserved. Decision tree sensitivity analysis can demonstrate the cost-effectiveness of diagnostic imaging modalities in Australia and provides indications that PET is cost-effective for a range of clinical indications. Copyright (2001) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  18. Impact of ambient air temperature and heat load variation on the performance of air-cooled heat exchangers in propane cycles in LNG plants – Analytical approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fahmy, M.F.M.; Nabih, H.I.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • An analytical method regulated the air flow rate in an air-cooled heat exchanger. • Performance of an ACHE in a propane cycle in an LNG plant was evaluated. • Summer inlet air temperature had higher impact on ACHE air flow rate requirement. - Abstract: An analytical method is presented to evaluate the air flow rate required in an air-cooled heat exchanger used in a propane pre-cooling cycle operating in an LNG (liquefied natural gas) plant. With variable ambient air inlet temperature, the air flow rate is to be increased or decreased so as to assure and maintain good performance of the operating air-cooled heat exchanger at the designed parameters and specifications. This analytical approach accounts for the variations in both heat load and ambient air inlet temperature. The ambient air inlet temperature is modeled analytically by simplified periodic relations. Thus, a complete analytical method is described so as to manage the problem of determining and accordingly regulate, either manually or automatically, the flow rate of air across the finned tubes of the air-cooled heat exchanger and thus, controls the process fluid outlet temperature required for the air-cooled heat exchangers for both cases of constant and varying heat loads and ambient air inlet temperatures. Numerical results are obtained showing the performance of the air-cooled heat exchanger of a propane cycle which cools both NG (natural gas) and MR (mixed refrigerant) streams in the LNG plant located at Damietta, Egypt. The inlet air temperature variation in the summer time has a considerable effect on the required air mass flow rate, while its influence becomes relatively less pronounced in winter.

  19. SU-C-204-01: A Fast Analytical Approach for Prompt Gamma and PET Predictions in a TPS for Proton Range Verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroniger, K; Herzog, M; Landry, G; Dedes, G; Parodi, K; Traneus, E

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: We describe and demonstrate a fast analytical tool for prompt-gamma emission prediction based on filter functions applied on the depth dose profile. We present the implementation in a treatment planning system (TPS) of the same algorithm for positron emitter distributions. Methods: The prediction of the desired observable is based on the convolution of filter functions with the depth dose profile. For both prompt-gammas and positron emitters, the results of Monte Carlo simulations (MC) are compared with those of the analytical tool. For prompt-gamma emission from inelastic proton-induced reactions, homogeneous and inhomogeneous phantoms alongside with patient data are used as irradiation targets of mono-energetic proton pencil beams. The accuracy of the tool is assessed in terms of the shape of the analytically calculated depth profiles and their absolute yields, compared to MC. For the positron emitters, the method is implemented in a research RayStation TPS and compared to MC predictions. Digital phantoms and patient data are used and positron emitter spatial density distributions are analyzed. Results: Calculated prompt-gamma profiles agree with MC within 3 % in terms of absolute yield and reproduce the correct shape. Based on an arbitrary reference material and by means of 6 filter functions (one per chemical element), profiles in any other material composed of those elements can be predicted. The TPS implemented algorithm is accurate enough to enable, via the analytically calculated positron emitters profiles, detection of range differences between the TPS and MC with errors of the order of 1–2 mm. Conclusion: The proposed analytical method predicts prompt-gamma and positron emitter profiles which generally agree with the distributions obtained by a full MC. The implementation of the tool in a TPS shows that reliable profiles can be obtained directly from the dose calculated by the TPS, without the need of full MC simulation

  20. Comparison of Electron Transmittance and Tunneling Current through a Trapezoidal Potential Barrier with Spin Polarization Consideration by using Analytical and Numerical Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabila, Ezra; Noor, Fatimah A.; Khairurrijal

    2017-07-01

    In this study, we report an analytical calculation of electron transmittance and polarized tunneling current in a single barrier heterostructure of a metal-GaSb-metal by considering the Dresselhaus spin orbit effect. Exponential function, WKB method and Airy function were used in calculating the electron transmittance and tunneling current. A Transfer Matrix Method, as a numerical method, was utilized as the benchmark to evaluate the analytical calculation. It was found that the transmittances calculated under exponential function and Airy function is the same as that calculated under TMM method at low electron energy. However, at high electron energy only the transmittance calculated under Airy function approach is the same as that calculated under TMM method. It was also shown that the transmittances both of spin-up and spin-down conditions increase as the electron energy increases for low energies. Furthermore, the tunneling current decreases with increasing the barrier width.