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Sample records for analytic nodal diffusion

  1. Three higher order analytical nodal methods for multigroup neutron diffusion equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guessous, Najib

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The highlight is to demonstrate efficiency of the three nodal methods developed in this work: PCANM-2, FANM-2 and RFANM-2. • It is proved that the third method is more competitive than the two others methods. • It is demonstrated that RFANM-2 can give very accurate results compared to others nodal methods from published works. - Abstract: This work presents three efficient higher order analytical nodal methods for the numerical solution of a two-dimensional multigroup neutron diffusion equation in Cartesian geometry based on the use of the successive polynomial-weighted transverse integrations technique to convert a one-group diffusion equation to a system of coupled one-dimensional ordinary differential equations. These equations are then solved analytically over each homogenized cell after adequate approximations of the resulting effective sources after transversal integrations. Coupling between the approximate transverse flux-moments is achieved by imposing uniqueness constraint on their moments values. Adjacent elements are coupled by enforcing continuity conditions on the flux and current moments at interfaces cells. The weighted cell-balance equations and current-continuity conditions are then used to derive the discrete equations. These methods are applied for solving numerically various 2D benchmark problems and theirs performances discussed. Numerical results demonstrates more efficiency for the third higher order analytical nodal method for which the alone unknowns considered are the transverse flux moments on the interfaces of the homogenized elements.

  2. SIRIUS - A one-dimensional multigroup analytic nodal diffusion theory code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forslund, P. [Westinghouse Atom AB, Vaesteraas (Sweden)

    2000-09-01

    In order to evaluate relative merits of some proposed intranodal cross sections models, a computer code called Sirius has been developed. Sirius is a one-dimensional, multigroup analytic nodal diffusion theory code with microscopic depletion capability. Sirius provides the possibility of performing a spatial homogenization and energy collapsing of cross sections. In addition a so called pin power reconstruction method is available for the purpose of reconstructing 'heterogeneous' pin qualities. consequently, Sirius has the capability of performing all the calculations (incl. depletion calculations) which are an integral part of the nodal calculation procedure. In this way, an unambiguous numerical analysis of intranodal cross section models is made possible. In this report, the theory of the nodal models implemented in sirius as well as the verification of the most important features of these models are addressed.

  3. The analytic nodal diffusion solver ANDES in multigroups for 3D rectangular geometry: Development and performance analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lozano, Juan-Andres; Garcia-Herranz, Nuria; Ahnert, Carol; Aragones, Jose-Maria

    2008-01-01

    In this work we address the development and implementation of the analytic coarse-mesh finite-difference (ACMFD) method in a nodal neutron diffusion solver called ANDES. The first version of the solver is implemented in any number of neutron energy groups, and in 3D Cartesian geometries; thus it mainly addresses PWR and BWR core simulations. The details about the generalization to multigroups and 3D, as well as the implementation of the method are given. The transverse integration procedure is the scheme chosen to extend the ACMFD formulation to multidimensional problems. The role of the transverse leakage treatment in the accuracy of the nodal solutions is analyzed in detail: the involved assumptions, the limitations of the method in terms of nodal width, the alternative approaches to implement the transverse leakage terms in nodal methods - implicit or explicit -, and the error assessment due to transverse integration. A new approach for solving the control rod 'cusping' problem, based on the direct application of the ACMFD method, is also developed and implemented in ANDES. The solver architecture turns ANDES into an user-friendly, modular and easily linkable tool, as required to be integrated into common software platforms for multi-scale and multi-physics simulations. ANDES can be used either as a stand-alone nodal code or as a solver to accelerate the convergence of whole core pin-by-pin code systems. The verification and performance of the solver are demonstrated using both proof-of-principle test cases and well-referenced international benchmarks

  4. Development of an Analytic Nodal Diffusion Solver in Multi-groups for 3D Reactor Cores with Rectangular or Hexagonal Assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lozano, Juan Andres; Aragones, Jose Maria; Garcia-Herranz, Nuria [Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, 28006 Jose Gutierrez Abascal 2, Madrid (Spain)

    2008-07-01

    More accurate modelling of physical phenomena involved in present and future nuclear reactors requires a multi-scale and multi-physics approach. This challenge can be accomplished by the coupling of best-estimate core-physics, thermal-hydraulics and multi-physics solvers. In order to make viable that coupling, the current trends in reactor simulations are along the development of a new generation of tools based on user-friendly, modular, easily linkable, faster and more accurate codes to be integrated in common platforms. These premises are in the origin of the NURESIM Integrated Project within the 6. European Framework Program, which is envisaged to provide the initial step towards a Common European Standard Software Platform for nuclear reactors simulations. In the frame of this project and to reach the above-mentioned goals, a 3-D multigroup nodal solver for neutron diffusion calculations called ANDES (Analytic Nodal Diffusion Equation Solver) has been developed and tested in-depth in this Thesis. ANDES solves the steady-state and time-dependent neutron diffusion equation in three-dimensions and any number of energy groups, utilizing the Analytic Coarse-Mesh Finite-Difference (ACMFD) scheme to yield the nodal coupling equations. It can be applied to both Cartesian and triangular-Z geometries, so that simulations of LWR as well as VVER, HTR and fast reactors can be performed. The solver has been implemented in a fully encapsulated way, enabling it as a module to be readily integrated in other codes and platforms. In fact, it can be used either as a stand-alone nodal code or as a solver to accelerate the convergence of whole core pin-by-pin code systems. Verification of performance has shown that ANDES is a code with high order definition for whole core realistic nodal simulations. In this paper, the methodology developed and involved in ANDES is presented. (authors)

  5. Applications of a systematic homogenization theory for nodal diffusion methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Hong-bin; Dorning, J.J.

    1992-01-01

    The authors recently have developed a self-consistent and systematic lattice cell and fuel bundle homogenization theory based on a multiple spatial scales asymptotic expansion of the transport equation in the ratio of the mean free path to the reactor characteristics dimension for use with nodal diffusion methods. The mathematical development leads naturally to self-consistent analytical expressions for homogenized diffusion coefficients and cross sections and flux discontinuity factors to be used in nodal diffusion calculations. The expressions for the homogenized nuclear parameters that follow from the systematic homogenization theory (SHT) are different from those for the traditional flux and volume-weighted (FVW) parameters. The calculations summarized here show that the systematic homogenization theory developed recently for nodal diffusion methods yields accurate values for k eff and assembly powers even when compared with the results of a fine mesh transport calculation. Thus, it provides a practical alternative to equivalence theory and GET (Ref. 3) and to simplified equivalence theory, which requires auxiliary fine-mesh calculations for assemblies embedded in a typical environment to determine the discontinuity factors and the equivalent diffusion coefficient for a homogenized assembly

  6. A nonlinear analytic function expansion nodal method for transient calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joo, Han Gyn; Park, Sang Yoon; Cho, Byung Oh; Zee, Sung Quun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-12-31

    The nonlinear analytic function expansion nodal (AFEN) method is applied to the solution of the time-dependent neutron diffusion equation. Since the AFEN method requires both the particular solution and the homogeneous solution to the transient fixed source problem, the derivation of the solution method is focused on finding the particular solution efficiently. To avoid complicated particular solutions, the source distribution is approximated by quadratic polynomials and the transient source is constructed such that the error due to the quadratic approximation is minimized, In addition, this paper presents a new two-node solution scheme that is derived by imposing the constraint of current continuity at the interface corner points. The method is verified through a series of application to the NEACRP PWR rod ejection benchmark problems. 6 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab. (Author)

  7. Nodal spectrum method for solving neutron diffusion equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, D.; Garcia, C. R.; Barros, R. C. de; Milian, D.E.

    1999-01-01

    Presented here is a new numerical nodal method for solving static multidimensional neutron diffusion equation in rectangular geometry. Our method is based on a spectral analysis of the nodal diffusion equations. These equations are obtained by integrating the diffusion equation in X, Y directions and then considering flat approximations for the current. These flat approximations are the only approximations that are considered in this method, as a result the numerical solutions are completely free from truncation errors. We show numerical results to illustrate the methods accuracy for coarse mesh calculations

  8. Real depletion in nodal diffusion codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petkov, P.T.

    2002-01-01

    The fuel depletion is described by more than one hundred fuel isotopes in the advanced lattice codes like HELIOS, but only a few fuel isotopes are accounted for even in the advanced steady-state diffusion codes. The general assumption that the number densities of the majority of the fuel isotopes depend only on the fuel burnup is seriously in error if high burnup is considered. The real depletion conditions in the reactor core differ from the asymptotic ones at the stage of lattice depletion calculations. This study reveals which fuel isotopes should be explicitly accounted for in the diffusion codes in order to predict adequately the real depletion effects in the core. A somewhat strange conclusion is that if the real number densities of the main fissionable isotopes are not explicitly accounted for in the diffusion code, then Sm-149 should not be accounted for either, because the net error in k-inf is smaller (Authors)

  9. A simplified presentation of the multigroup analytic nodal method in 2-D Cartesian geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hebert, Alain

    2008-01-01

    The nodal diffusion algorithms used in many production reactor simulation codes are originating from a common ancestry developed in the 1970s, the analytic nodal method (ANM) of the QUANDRY code. However, this original presentation of the ANM is complex and makes difficult the calculation of the nodal coupling matrices. Moreover, QUANDRY is limited to two-energy groups and its generalization to more groups appears laborious. We are presenting a simplified implementation of the ANM requiring only limited programming work. This formulation is consistent with the initial QUANDRY implementation and is easily generalizable to arbitrary G-group problems. A Matlab script is provided to highlight the simplicity of our presentation. For the sake of clarity, our implementation is limited to G-group, 2-D Cartesian geometry

  10. Multigroup, spatial kinetics for MOX-fueled LWRs based on harmonic analytical nodal method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Guobing

    2000-10-01

    There has been substantial evidence during the last several years that the core neutronics methods that have been developed for uranium fueled LWRs do not perform satisfactorily when applied to the same cores fueled with mixed oxide, or more generally to heterogeneous cores with very different neutron spectra. A two-dimensional, 97 group MOX benchmark problem was developed and applied to analyze deficiencies of the current generation of LWR analysis methods. The errors in the current two group, coarse mesh nodal diffusion methods were described in terms of four primary effects: (1) a homogenization effect, (2) a spatial discretization effect, (3) a group collapsing effect, and (4) a transport effect. The specific objective of the research here was to address the first three of these effects with the development of a four energy group advanced nodal method. Several methods have been proposed over the last several years for extending the current class of nodal methods to four energy groups. A Taylor series analysis was performed of the order of error in the various analytic nodal methods proposed. The analysis showed that the harmonic part of the error dominated in the Taylor expansion and it was therefore prudent to retain the harmonic solution in all four energy groups. A new nodal kernel referred to as the Harmonic Analytic Nodal Method (HANM) was developed and implemented within the framework of the nonlinear nodal method. HANM was applied to a MOX benchmark problem and results were compared to a 97 group reference solution. The errors in the two group solution were reduced by about 50% through the application of a four group HANM with minimal increase in the computational burden.

  11. SPANDOM - source projection analytic nodal discrete ordinates method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Tae Hyeong; Cho, Nam Zin

    1994-01-01

    We describe a new discrete ordinates nodal method for the two-dimensional transport equation. We solve the discrete ordinates equation analytically after the source term is projected and represented in polynomials. The method is applied to two fast reactor benchmark problems and compared with the TWOHEX code. The results indicate that the present method accurately predicts not only multiplication factor but also flux distribution

  12. An Adaptive Approach to Variational Nodal Diffusion Problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Hui; Lewis, E.E.

    2001-01-01

    An adaptive grid method is presented for the solution of neutron diffusion problems in two dimensions. The primal hybrid finite elements employed in the variational nodal method are used to reduce the diffusion equation to a coupled set of elemental response matrices. An a posteriori error estimator is developed to indicate the magnitude of local errors stemming from the low-order elemental interface approximations. An iterative procedure is implemented in which p refinement is applied locally by increasing the polynomial order of the interface approximations. The automated algorithm utilizes the a posteriori estimator to achieve local error reductions until an acceptable level of accuracy is reached throughout the problem domain. Application to a series of X-Y benchmark problems indicates the reduction of computational effort achievable by replacing uniform with adaptive refinement of the spatial approximations

  13. Two-dimensional analytical solution for nodal calculation of nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Adilson C.; Pessoa, Paulo O.; Silva, Fernando C.; Martinez, Aquilino S.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A proposal for a coarse mesh nodal method is presented. • The proposal uses the analytical solution of the two-dimensional neutrons diffusion equation. • The solution is performed homogeneous nodes with dimensions of the fuel assembly. • The solution uses four average fluxes on the node surfaces as boundary conditions. • The results show good accuracy and efficiency. - Abstract: In this paper, the two-dimensional (2D) neutron diffusion equation is analytically solved for two energy groups (2G). The spatial domain of reactor core is divided into a set of nodes with uniform nuclear parameters. To determine iteratively the multiplication factor and the neutron flux in the reactor we combine the analytical solution of the neutron diffusion equation with an iterative method known as power method. The analytical solution for different types of regions that compose the reactor is obtained, such as fuel and reflector regions. Four average fluxes in the node surfaces are used as boundary conditions for analytical solution. Discontinuity factors on the node surfaces derived from the homogenization process are applied to maintain averages reaction rates and the net current in the fuel assembly (FA). To validate the results obtained by the analytical solution a relative power density distribution in the FAs is determined from the neutron flux distribution and compared with the reference values. The results show good accuracy and efficiency.

  14. Undertreatment of patients with localized extranodal compared with nodal diffuse large B-cell lymphoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuper-Hommel, M.J.; Schans, S.A. van de; Vreugdenhil, G.; Krieken, J.H.J.M. van; Coebergh, J.W.W.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Population-based studies analyzing clinical implications of nodal versus extranodal (EN) presentation of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) are scarce. We studied clinical differences and trends in incidence, treatment and survival of nodal and EN DLBCL in a population-based cohort. All

  15. Five-point form of the nodal diffusion method and comparison with finite-difference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azmy, Y.Y.

    1988-01-01

    Nodal Methods have been derived, implemented and numerically tested for several problems in physics and engineering. In the field of nuclear engineering, many nodal formalisms have been used for the neutron diffusion equation, all yielding results which were far more computationally efficient than conventional Finite Difference (FD) and Finite Element (FE) methods. However, not much effort has been devoted to theoretically comparing nodal and FD methods in order to explain the very high accuracy of the former. In this summary we outline the derivation of a simple five-point form for the lowest order nodal method and compare it to the traditional five-point, edge-centered FD scheme. The effect of the observed differences on the accuracy of the respective methods is established by considering a simple test problem. It must be emphasized that the nodal five-point scheme derived here is mathematically equivalent to previously derived lowest order nodal methods. 7 refs., 1 tab

  16. MicroRNA expression in nodal and extranodal Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup, Charlotte; Petersen, Anders; Højfeldt, Anne Dirks

    MicroRNA expression in nodal and extranodal Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma   C. Mandrup1, A. Petersen1, A. D. Hoejfeldt1, H. F. Thomsen1, J. Madsen1, J. Dahlgaard1, P. Johansen2, A. Bukh1, K. Dybkaer1 and H. E Johnsen1. 1Department of Hematology, 2Pathological Institute, Aalborg Hospital, Aarhus...... University Hospital, Aalborg, Denmark Introduction: The aim of this project was to analyse microRNA (miRNA) expression in nodal and extranodal diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Manifestation at diagnosis may be nodal and/or extranodal. At present, there are no known determinants for none...... of the manifestations, and no way to predict the potential progression from nodal to extranodal disease. miRNA are small regulatory RNA molecules with core function to repress/cleave sequence complementary mRNA targets. Abnormalities in miRNA genetics and expression are known to affect initiation and development...

  17. Spectral nodal method for one-speed X,Y-geometry Eigenvalue diffusion problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominguez, Dany S.; Lorenzo, Daniel M.; Hernandez, Carlos G.; Barros, Ricardo C.; Silva, Fernando C. da

    2001-01-01

    Presented here is a new numerical nodal method for steady-state multidimensional neutron diffusion equation in rectangular geometry. Our method is based on a spectral analysis of the transverse-integrated nodal diffusion equations. These equations are obtained by integrating the diffusion equation in X and Y directions, and then considering flat approximations for the transverse leakage terms. These flat approximations are the only approximations that we consider in this method; as a result the numerical solutions are completely free from truncation errors in slab geometry. We show numerical results to illustrate the method's accuracy for coarse mesh calculations in a heterogeneous medium. (author)

  18. Error quantification of the axial nodal diffusion kernel of the DeCART code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, J. Y.; Kim, K. S.; Lee, C. C.

    2006-01-01

    This paper is to quantify the transport effects involved in the axial nodal diffusion kernel of the DeCART code. The transport effects are itemized into three effects, the homogenization, the diffusion, and the nodal effects. A five pin model consisting of four fuel pins and one non-fuel pin is demonstrated to quantify the transport effects. The transport effects are analyzed for three problems, the single pin (SP), guide tube (GT) and control rod (CR) problems by replacing the non-fuel pin with the fuel pin, a guide-tube and a control rod pins, respectively. The homogenization and diffusion effects are estimated to be about -4 and -50 pcm for the eigenvalue, and less than 2 % for the node power. The nodal effect on the eigenvalue is evaluated to be about -50 pcm in the SP and GT problems, and +350 pcm in the CR problem. Regarding the node power, this effect induces about a 3 % error in the SP and GT problems, and about a 20 % error in the CR problem. The large power error in the CR problem is due to the plane thickness, and it can be decreased by using the adaptive plane size. From the error quantification, it is concluded that the homogenization and the diffusion effects are not controllable if DeCART maintains the diffusion kernel for the axial solution, but the nodal effect is controllable by introducing the adaptive plane size scheme. (authors)

  19. Stability, accuracy and numerical diffusion analysis of nodal expansion method for steady convection diffusion equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Xiafeng, E-mail: zhou-xf11@mails.tsinghua.edu.cn; Guo, Jiong, E-mail: guojiong12@tsinghua.edu.cn; Li, Fu, E-mail: lifu@tsinghua.edu.cn

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • NEMs are innovatively applied to solve convection diffusion equation. • Stability, accuracy and numerical diffusion for NEM are analyzed for the first time. • Stability and numerical diffusion depend on the NEM expansion order and its parity. • NEMs have higher accuracy than both second order upwind and QUICK scheme. • NEMs with different expansion orders are integrated into a unified discrete form. - Abstract: The traditional finite difference method or finite volume method (FDM or FVM) is used for HTGR thermal-hydraulic calculation at present. However, both FDM and FVM require the fine mesh sizes to achieve the desired precision and thus result in a limited efficiency. Therefore, a more efficient and accurate numerical method needs to be developed. Nodal expansion method (NEM) can achieve high accuracy even on the coarse meshes in the reactor physics analysis so that the number of spatial meshes and computational cost can be largely decreased. Because of higher efficiency and accuracy, NEM can be innovatively applied to thermal-hydraulic calculation. In the paper, NEMs with different orders of basis functions are successfully developed and applied to multi-dimensional steady convection diffusion equation. Numerical results show that NEMs with three or higher order basis functions can track the reference solutions very well and are superior to second order upwind scheme and QUICK scheme. However, the false diffusion and unphysical oscillation behavior are discovered for NEMs. To explain the reasons for the above-mentioned behaviors, the stability, accuracy and numerical diffusion properties of NEM are analyzed by the Fourier analysis, and by comparing with exact solutions of difference and differential equation. The theoretical analysis results show that the accuracy of NEM increases with the expansion order. However, the stability and numerical diffusion properties depend not only on the order of basis functions but also on the parity of

  20. An analytical approach for a nodal scheme of two-dimensional neutron transport problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barichello, L.B.; Cabrera, L.C.; Prolo Filho, J.F.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Nodal equations for a two-dimensional neutron transport problem. → Analytical Discrete Ordinates Method. → Numerical results compared with the literature. - Abstract: In this work, a solution for a two-dimensional neutron transport problem, in cartesian geometry, is proposed, on the basis of nodal schemes. In this context, one-dimensional equations are generated by an integration process of the multidimensional problem. Here, the integration is performed for the whole domain such that no iterative procedure between nodes is needed. The ADO method is used to develop analytical discrete ordinates solution for the one-dimensional integrated equations, such that final solutions are analytical in terms of the spatial variables. The ADO approach along with a level symmetric quadrature scheme, lead to a significant order reduction of the associated eigenvalues problems. Relations between the averaged fluxes and the unknown fluxes at the boundary are introduced as the usually needed, in nodal schemes, auxiliary equations. Numerical results are presented and compared with test problems.

  1. Comparison of the calculated neutron noise using finite differences and the Analytical Nodal Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsson, Viktor; Demazière, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Numerical neutron noise calculations for a commercial PWR. ► Comparison using finite differences and the Analytical Nodal Method. ► Little gain for the higher cost of more advanced methods. ► Finite difference adequate for neutron noise calculations. - Abstract: In this paper, a comparison of the calculated neutron noise, i.e. the fluctuation of the neutron flux around its average value assuming that all processes are stationary, is conducted, where the neutron noise is calculated using finite differences alone and with finite differences where the Analytical Nodal Method is used to correct the neutron currents, respectively. It is seen that the lower the frequency of the noise source, the larger difference between the two solutions. The main conclusion from this work is that the gain of calculating the neutron noise using the more sophisticated Analytical Nodal Method compared to the increase of the corresponding computational burden is too little to motivate the use of the ANM.

  2. Application of nonlinear nodal diffusion method for a small research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaradat, Mustafa K.; Alawneh, Luay M.; Park, Chang Je; Lee, Byungchul

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We applied nonlinear unified nodal method for 10 MW IAEA MTR benchmark problem. • TRITION–NEWT system was used to obtain two-group burnup dependent cross sections. • The criticality and power distribution compared with reference (IAEA-TECDOC-233). • Comparison between different fuel materials was conducted. • Satisfactory results were provided using UNM for MTR core calculations. - Abstract: Nodal diffusion methods are usually used for LWR calculations and rarely used for research reactor calculations. A unified nodal method with an implementation of the coarse mesh finite difference acceleration was developed for use in plate type research reactor calculations. It was validated for two PWR benchmark problems and then applied for IAEA MTR benchmark problem for static calculations to check the validity and accuracy of the method. This work was conducted to investigate the unified nodal method capability to treat material testing reactor cores. A 10 MW research reactor core is considered with three calculation cases for low enriched uranium fuel depending on the core burnup status of fresh, beginning-of-life, and end-of-life cores. The validation work included criticality calculations, flux distribution, and power distribution; in addition, a comparison between different fuel materials with the same uranium content was conducted. The homogenized two-group cross sections were generated using the TRITON–NEWT system. The results were compared with a reference, which was taken from IAEA-TECDOC-233. The unified nodal method provides satisfactory results for an all-rod out case, and the three-dimensional, two-group diffusion model can be considered accurate enough for MTR core calculations

  3. A least squares principle unifying finite element, finite difference and nodal methods for diffusion theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ackroyd, R.T.

    1987-01-01

    A least squares principle is described which uses a penalty function treatment of boundary and interface conditions. Appropriate choices of the trial functions and vectors employed in a dual representation of an approximate solution established complementary principles for the diffusion equation. A geometrical interpretation of the principles provides weighted residual methods for diffusion theory, thus establishing a unification of least squares, variational and weighted residual methods. The complementary principles are used with either a trial function for the flux or a trial vector for the current to establish for regular meshes a connection between finite element, finite difference and nodal methods, which can be exact if the mesh pitches are chosen appropriately. Whereas the coefficients in the usual nodal equations have to be determined iteratively, those derived via the complementary principles are given explicitly in terms of the data. For the further development of the connection between finite element, finite difference and nodal methods, some hybrid variational methods are described which employ both a trial function and a trial vector. (author)

  4. Hybrid nodal methods in the solution of the diffusion equations in X Y geometry; Metodos nodales hibridos en la solucion de las ecuaciones de difusion en geometria XY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez M, N. [CFE, Carretera Cardel-Nautla Km. 43.5, 91680 Veracruz (Mexico); Alonso V, G.; Valle G, E. del [IPN-ESFM, 07738 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)]. e-mail: nhmiranda@mexico.com

    2003-07-01

    In 1979, Hennart and collaborators applied several schemes of classic finite element in the numerical solution of the diffusion equations in X Y geometry and stationary state. Almost two decades then, in 1996, himself and other collaborators carried out a similar work but using nodal schemes type finite element. Continuing in this last direction, in this work a group it is described a set of several Hybrid Nodal schemes denominated (NH) as well as their application to solve the diffusion equations in multigroup in stationary state and X Y geometry. The term hybrid nodal it means that such schemes interpolate not only Legendre moments of face and of cell but also the values of the scalar flow of neutrons in the four corners of each cell or element of the spatial discretization of the domain of interest. All the schemes here considered are polynomials like they were it their predecessors. Particularly, its have developed and applied eight different hybrid nodal schemes that its are very nearby related with those developed by Hennart and collaborators in the past. It is treated of schemes in those that nevertheless that decreases the number of interpolation parameters it is conserved the accurate in relation to the bi-quadratic and bi-cubic schemes. Of these eight, three were described and applied in a previous work. It is the bi-lineal classic scheme as well as the hybrid nodal schemes, bi-quadratic and bi-cubic for that here only are described the other 5 hybrid nodal schemes although they are provided numerical results for several test problems with all them. (Author)

  5. A coarse-mesh nodal method-diffusive-mesh finite difference method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joo, H.; Nichols, W.R.

    1994-01-01

    Modern nodal methods have been successfully used for conventional light water reactor core analyses where the homogenized, node average cross sections (XSs) and the flux discontinuity factors (DFs) based on equivalence theory can reliably predict core behavior. For other types of cores and other geometries characterized by tightly-coupled, heterogeneous core configurations, the intranodal flux shapes obtained from a homogenized nodal problem may not accurately portray steep flux gradients near fuel assembly interfaces or various reactivity control elements. This may require extreme values of DFs (either very large, very small, or even negative) to achieve a desired solution accuracy. Extreme values of DFs, however, can disrupt the convergence of the iterative methods used to solve for the node average fluxes, and can lead to a difficulty in interpolating adjacent DF values. Several attempts to remedy the problem have been made, but nothing has been satisfactory. A new coarse-mesh nodal scheme called the Diffusive-Mesh Finite Difference (DMFD) technique, as contrasted with the coarse-mesh finite difference (CMFD) technique, has been developed to resolve this problem. This new technique and the development of a few-group, multidimensional kinetics computer program are described in this paper

  6. Wielandt method applied to the diffusion equations discretized by finite element nodal methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mugica R, A.; Valle G, E. del

    2003-01-01

    Nowadays the numerical methods of solution to the diffusion equation by means of algorithms and computer programs result so extensive due to the great number of routines and calculations that should carry out, this rebounds directly in the execution times of this programs, being obtained results in relatively long times. This work shows the application of an acceleration method of the convergence of the classic method of those powers that it reduces notably the number of necessary iterations for to obtain reliable results, what means that the compute times they see reduced in great measure. This method is known in the literature like Wielandt method and it has incorporated to a computer program that is based on the discretization of the neutron diffusion equations in plate geometry and stationary state by polynomial nodal methods. In this work the neutron diffusion equations are described for several energy groups and their discretization by means of those called physical nodal methods, being illustrated in particular the quadratic case. It is described a model problem widely described in the literature which is solved for the physical nodal grade schemes 1, 2, 3 and 4 in three different ways: to) with the classic method of the powers, b) method of the powers with the Wielandt acceleration and c) method of the powers with the Wielandt modified acceleration. The results for the model problem as well as for two additional problems known as benchmark problems are reported. Such acceleration method can also be implemented to problems of different geometry to the proposal in this work, besides being possible to extend their application to problems in 2 or 3 dimensions. (Author)

  7. Application of nonlinear nodal diffusion generalized perturbation theory to nuclear fuel reload optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maldonado, G.I.; Turinsky, P.J.

    1995-01-01

    The determination of the family of optimum core loading patterns for pressurized water reactors (PWRs) involves the assessment of the core attributes for thousands of candidate loading patterns. For this reason, the computational capability to efficiently and accurately evaluate a reactor core's eigenvalue and power distribution versus burnup using a nodal diffusion generalized perturbation theory (GPT) model is developed. The GPT model is derived from the forward nonlinear iterative nodal expansion method (NEM) to explicitly enable the preservation of the finite difference matrix structure. This key feature considerably simplifies the mathematical formulation of NEM GPT and results in reduced memory storage and CPU time requirements versus the traditional response-matrix approach to NEM. In addition, a treatment within NEM GPT can account for localized nonlinear feedbacks, such as that due to fission product buildup and thermal-hydraulic effects. When compared with a standard nonlinear iterative NEM forward flux solve with feedbacks, the NEM GPT model can execute between 8 and 12 times faster. These developments are implemented within the PWR in-core nuclear fuel management optimization code FORMOSA-P, combining the robustness of its adaptive simulated annealing stochastic optimization algorithm with an NEM GPT neutronics model that efficiently and accurately evaluates core attributes associated with objective functions and constraints of candidate loading patterns

  8. An iterative algorithm for solving the multidimensional neutron diffusion nodal method equations on parallel computers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirk, B.L.; Azmy, Y.Y.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper the one-group, steady-state neutron diffusion equation in two-dimensional Cartesian geometry is solved using the nodal integral method. The discrete variable equations comprise loosely coupled sets of equations representing the nodal balance of neutrons, as well as neutron current continuity along rows or columns of computational cells. An iterative algorithm that is more suitable for solving large problems concurrently is derived based on the decomposition of the spatial domain and is accelerated using successive overrelaxation. This algorithm is very well suited for parallel computers, especially since the spatial domain decomposition occurs naturally, so that the number of iterations required for convergence does not depend on the number of processors participating in the calculation. Implementation of the authors' algorithm on the Intel iPSC/2 hypercube and Sequent Balance 8000 parallel computer is presented, and measured speedup and efficiency for test problems are reported. The results suggest that the efficiency of the hypercube quickly deteriorates when many processors are used, while the Sequent Balance retains very high efficiency for a comparable number of participating processors. This leads to the conjecture that message-passing parallel computers are not as well suited for this algorithm as shared-memory machines

  9. DIF3D nodal neutronics option for two- and three-dimensional diffusion theory calculations in hexagonal geometry. [LMFBR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence, R.D.

    1983-03-01

    A nodal method is developed for the solution of the neutron-diffusion equation in two- and three-dimensional hexagonal geometries. The nodal scheme has been incorporated as an option in the finite-difference diffusion-theory code DIF3D, and is intended for use in the analysis of current LMFBR designs. The nodal equations are derived using higher-order polynomial approximations to the spatial dependence of the flux within the hexagonal-z node. The final equations, which are cast in the form of inhomogeneous response-matrix equations for each energy group, involved spatial moments of the node-interior flux distribution plus surface-averaged partial currents across the faces of the node. These equations are solved using a conventional fission-source iteration accelerated by coarse-mesh rebalance and asymptotic source extrapolation. This report describes the mathematical development and numerical solution of the nodal equations, as well as the use of the nodal option and details concerning its programming structure. This latter information is intended to supplement the information provided in the separate documentation of the DIF3D code.

  10. An analytical discrete ordinates solution for a nodal model of a two-dimensional neutron transport problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filho, J. F. P. [Institute de Matematica, Estatistica e Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Av. Italia, s/n, 96203-900 Rio Grande, RS (Brazil); Barichello, L. B. [Institute de Matematica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Goncalves, 9500, 91509-900 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    In this work, an analytical discrete ordinates method is used to solve a nodal formulation of a neutron transport problem in x, y-geometry. The proposed approach leads to an important reduction in the order of the associated eigenvalue systems, when combined with the classical level symmetric quadrature scheme. Auxiliary equations are proposed, as usually required for nodal methods, to express the unknown fluxes at the boundary introduced as additional unknowns in the integrated equations. Numerical results, for the problem defined by a two-dimensional region with a spatially constant and isotropically emitting source, are presented and compared with those available in the literature. (authors)

  11. Neutron transport in hexagonal reactor cores modeled by trigonal-geometry diffusion and simplified P{sub 3} nodal methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duerigen, Susan

    2013-05-15

    The superior advantage of a nodal method for reactor cores with hexagonal fuel assemblies discretized as cells consisting of equilateral triangles is its mesh refinement capability. In this thesis, a diffusion and a simplified P{sub 3} (or SP{sub 3}) neutron transport nodal method are developed based on trigonal geometry. Both models are implemented in the reactor dynamics code DYN3D. As yet, no other well-established nodal core analysis code comprises an SP{sub 3} transport theory model based on trigonal meshes. The development of two methods based on different neutron transport approximations but using identical underlying spatial trigonal discretization allows a profound comparative analysis of both methods with regard to their mathematical derivations, nodal expansion approaches, solution procedures, and their physical performance. The developed nodal approaches can be regarded as a hybrid NEM/AFEN form. They are based on the transverse-integration procedure, which renders them computationally efficient, and they use a combination of polynomial and exponential functions to represent the neutron flux moments of the SP{sub 3} and diffusion equations, which guarantees high accuracy. The SP{sub 3} equations are derived in within-group form thus being of diffusion type. On this basis, the conventional diffusion solver structure can be retained also for the solution of the SP{sub 3} transport problem. The verification analysis provides proof of the methodological reliability of both trigonal DYN3D models. By means of diverse hexagonal academic benchmark and realistic detailed-geometry full-transport-theory problems, the superiority of the SP{sub 3} transport over the diffusion model is demonstrated in cases with pronounced anisotropy effects, which is, e.g., highly relevant to the modeling of fuel assemblies comprising absorber material.

  12. Development of a code in three-dimensional cylindrical geometry based on analytic function expansion nodal (AFEN) method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Joo Hee

    2006-02-01

    There is growing interest in developing pebble bed reactors (PBRs) as a candidate of very high temperature gas-cooled reactors (VHTRs). Until now, most existing methods of nuclear design analysis for this type of reactors are base on old finite-difference solvers or on statistical methods. But for realistic analysis of PBRs, there is strong desire of making available high fidelity nodal codes in three-dimensional (r,θ,z) cylindrical geometry. Recently, the Analytic Function Expansion Nodal (AFEN) method developed quite extensively in Cartesian (x,y,z) geometry and in hexagonal-z geometry was extended to two-group (r,z) cylindrical geometry, and gave very accurate results. In this thesis, we develop a method for the full three-dimensional cylindrical (r,θ,z) geometry and implement the method into a code named TOPS. The AFEN methodology in this geometry as in hexagonal geometry is 'robus' (e.g., no occurrence of singularity), due to the unique feature of the AFEN method that it does not use the transverse integration. The transverse integration in the usual nodal methods, however, leads to an impasse, that is, failure of the azimuthal term to be transverse-integrated over r-z surface. We use 13 nodal unknowns in an outer node and 7 nodal unknowns in an innermost node. The general solution of the node can be expressed in terms of that nodal unknowns, and can be updated using the nodal balance equation and the current continuity condition. For more realistic analysis of PBRs, we implemented em Marshak boundary condition to treat the incoming current zero boundary condition and the partial current translation (PCT) method to treat voids in the core. The TOPS code was verified in the various numerical tests derived from Dodds problem and PBMR-400 benchmark problem. The results of the TOPS code show high accuracy and fast computing time than the VENTURE code that is based on finite difference method (FDM)

  13. Numerical nodal simulation of the axial power distribution within nuclear reactors using a kinetics diffusion model. I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barros, R.C. de.

    1992-05-01

    Presented here is a new numerical nodal method for the simulation of the axial power distribution within nuclear reactors using the one-dimensional one speed kinetics diffusion model with one group of delayed neutron precursors. Our method is based on a spectral analysis of the nodal kinetics equations. These equations are obtained by integrating the original kinetics equations separately over a time step and over a spatial node, and then considering flat approximations for the forward difference terms. These flat approximations are the only approximations that are considered in the method. As a result, the spectral nodal method for space - time reactor kinetics generates numerical solutions for space independent problems or for time independent problems that are completely free from truncation errors. We show numerical results to illustrate the method's accuracy for coarse mesh calculations. (author)

  14. Convergence properties of iterative algorithms for solving the nodal diffusion equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azmy, Y.Y.; Kirk, B.L.

    1990-01-01

    We drive the five point form of the nodal diffusion equations in two-dimensional Cartesian geometry and develop three iterative schemes to solve the discrete-variable equations: the unaccelerated, partial Successive Over Relaxation (SOR), and the full SOR methods. By decomposing the iteration error into its Fourier modes, we determine the spectral radius of each method for infinite medium, uniform model problems, and for the unaccelerated and partial SOR methods for finite medium, uniform model problems. Also for the two variants of the SOR method we determine the optimal relaxation factor that results in the smallest number of iterations required for convergence. Our results indicate that the number of iterations for the unaccelerated and partial SOR methods is second order in the number of nodes per dimension, while, for the full SOR this behavior is first order, resulting in much faster convergence for very large problems. We successfully verify the results of the spectral analysis against those of numerical experiments, and we show that for the full SOR method the linear dependence of the number of iterations on the number of nodes per dimension is relatively insensitive to the value of the relaxation parameter, and that it remains linear even for heterogenous problems. 14 refs., 1 fig

  15. De Novo Nodal Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma: Identification of Biologic Prognostic Factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd El-Hameed, A.

    2005-01-01

    Diffuse large B-cell Lymphoma (DLBCL) represents the most frequent type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Although combination chemotherapy has improved the outcome, long-term cure is now possible for approximately 50% of all patients. making the search for parameters identifying patients at high risk particularly needed. The presence of bcl-2 gene rearrangement in de novo DLBCL suggests a possible follicle center cell origin and perhaps a distinct clinical behavior. This study investigated the frequency and prognostic significance of t( 14; 18) translocation and bcl-2 protein overexpression in a cohort of patients with de novo nodal DLBCL who where uniformly evaluated and treated. Material and Methods: A total of 40 patients with de novo nodal DLBCL treated at National Cancer Institute (NCI), Cairo University were investigated. Formal infixed, paraffin-embedded sections were analyzed for: I) bcl-2 gene rearrangement including major break point region (mbr) and minor cluster region (mcr) by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). and 2) bcl-2 protein expression by immunohistochemistry using Dako 124 clone. Results were correlated with the clinical features and subsequent clinical course. Bcl-2 gene rearrangement was detected in 8 cases (20%). 2 cases at mbr, and 6 cases at mcr. Bcl-2 protein (> I 0%) was expressed in 24 cases (60%), irrespective of the presence of t( 14; 18) translocation. The t( 14; 18), and bcl-2 protein overexpression were more frequently associated with failure to achieve a complete response to therapy (ρ=0.008. and 0.04. respectively). DLBCL patients with t(14;18), and bcl-2 protein expression had a significantly reduced 5-year disease free survival (ρ=0.04, and 0.01, respectively). The t( 14; 18) translocation, and bcl-2 protein expression define a group of DLBCL patients with a poor prognosis, and could be used to tailor treatment, and to identify candidates for therapeutic approaches. Geographic differences in t(14;18) may be related to the

  16. NESTLE, Few-Group Neutron Diffusion for Steady-State and Transient Problems by Nodal Expansion Method (NEM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    restructuring was implemented to increase computational performance and coding clarity. Details of all code changes can be found within subroutine main.f. 2 - Method of solution: The few-group neutron diffusion equation is spatially discretized utilizing the Nodal Expansion Method (NEM). Quartic or quadratic polynomial expansions for the transverse integrated fluxes are employed for Cartesian or hexagonal geometries, respectively. Transverse leakage terms are represented by a quadratic polynomial or constant for Cartesian or hexagonal geometries, respectively. Discontinuity factors are utilized to correct for homogenization errors. Transient problems utilize a user-specified number of delayed-neutron precursor groups. Time-dependent inputs include coolant inlet temperature and flow, soluble poison concentration, and control bank positions. Time discretization is done in a fully implicit manner utilizing a first-order difference operator for the diffusion equation. The precursor equations are analytically solved, assuming the fission rate behaves linearly over a time step. Independent of problem type, an outer-inner iterative strategy is employed to solve the resulting matrix system. Outer iterations can employ Chebyshev acceleration and the fixed-source scaling technique to accelerate convergence. Inner iterations employ either color line or point successive over-relaxation iteration schemes, dependent upon problem geometry. Values of the energy group-dependent optimum relaxation parameter and the number of inner iterations per outer iteration to achieve a specified L2 relative error reduction are determined a priori. The nonlinear iterative strategy associated with the NEM method is employed. An advantage of the non-linear iterative strategy is that NESTLE can be utilized to solve either the nodal or finite difference method representation of the few-group neutron diffusion equation. Thermal-hydraulic feedback is modeled employing a homogeneous equilibrium mixture (HEM) model

  17. On the relationship between some nodal schemes and the finite element method in static diffusion calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedon-Magnaud, C.; Hennart, J.P.; Lautard, J.J.

    1983-03-01

    An unified formulation of non conforming finite elements with quadrature formula and simple nodal scheme is presented. The theoretical convergence is obtained for the previous scheme when the mesh is refined. Numerical tests are provided in order to bear out the theorical results

  18. A nodal method for solving the time-depending diffusion equation in the IQS approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vidovsky, I.; Kereszturi, A.

    1991-11-01

    The fast and slow variation of the neutron flux shape needed for the dynamical description of nuclear reactor cores can be described advantageously in the Improved Quasistatic (IQS) model where the flux is factorized by a fast changing space-independent amplitude and a slow changing shape function. The basic equations of a time-dependent nodal approximation using the IQS method is presented.The calculational procedure of the response matrices is also described. (R.P.) 2 refs

  19. Analytical approximation formulae for hydrogen diffusion in a metal slab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pohl, F.; Bohdansky, J.

    1984-12-01

    This report treats hydrogen diffusion in the first wall of a fusion machine (INTOR, reactor, etc.), taking the thermal load into account. Analytical approximation formulae are given for the concentration and flux density of hydrogen diffusing through a plane metal slab. The re-emission flux, particularly during the dwell time(s) of machine operation, is also described with analytical formulae. The analytical formulae are compared with numerical calculations for steel as first wall material. (orig.)

  20. An analytical spatial reconstruction algorithm for the SD-SGF-CN hybrid nodal method for one-speed X,Y-geometry SN eigenvalue problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menezes, Welton Alves; Alves Filho, Hermes; Barros, Ricardo C.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper the X,Y-geometry SD-SGF-CN spectral nodal method, cf. spectral diamond-spectral Green's function-constant nodal, is used to determine the one-speed node-edge average angular fluxes in heterogeneous domains. This hybrid spectral nodal method uses the spectral diamond (SD) auxiliary equation for the multiplying regions and the spectral Green's function (SGF) auxiliary equation for the non-multiplying regions of the domain. Moreover, we consider constant approximations for the transverse-leakage terms in the transverse integrated S N nodal equations. We solve the SD-SGF-CN equations using the one-node block inversion (NBI) iterative scheme, which uses the most recent estimates available for the node-entering fluxes to evaluate the node-exiting fluxes in the directions that constitute the incoming fluxes for the adjacent node. Using these results, we offer an algorithm for analytical reconstruction of the coarse-mesh nodal solution within each spatial node, as localized numerical solutions are not generated by usual accurate nodal methods. Numerical results are presented to illustrate the accuracy of the present algorithm. (author)

  1. Analytical boron diffusivity model in silicon for thermal diffusion from boron silicate glass film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurachi, Ikuo; Yoshioka, Kentaro

    2015-09-01

    An analytical boron diffusivity model in silicon for thermal diffusion from a boron silicate glass (BSG) film has been proposed in terms of enhanced diffusion due to boron-silicon interstitial pair formation. The silicon interstitial generation is considered to be a result of the silicon kick-out mechanism by the diffused boron at the surface. The additional silicon interstitial generation in the bulk silicon is considered to be the dissociation of the diffused pairs. The former one causes the surface boron concentration dependent diffusion. The latter one causes the local boron concentration dependent diffusion. The calculated boron profiles based on the diffusivity model are confirmed to agree with the actual diffusion profiles measured by secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) for a wide range of the BSG boron concentration. This analytical diffusivity model is a helpful tool for p+ boron diffusion process optimization of n-type solar cell manufacturing.

  2. Feasibility of whole-body diffusion-weighted MRI for detection of primary tumour, nodal and distant metastases in women with cancer during pregnancy: a pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Han, Sileny N.; Amant, Frédéric; Michielsen, Katrijn; de Keyzer, Frederik; Fieuws, Steffen; van Calsteren, Kristel; Dresen, Raphaëla C.; Gziri, Mina Mhallem; Vandecaveye, Vincent

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of whole-body diffusion-weighted MRI (WB-DWI/MRI) for detecting primary tumour, nodal and distant metastases in pregnant women with cancer. Twenty pregnant patients underwent WB-DWI/MRI in additional to conventional imaging. Reproducibility of WB-DWI/MRI between two

  3. Analytical reconstruction schemes for coarse-mesh spectral nodal solution of slab-geometry SN transport problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barros, R. C.; Filho, H. A.; Platt, G. M.; Oliveira, F. B. S.; Militao, D. S.

    2009-01-01

    Coarse-mesh numerical methods are very efficient in the sense that they generate accurate results in short computational time, as the number of floating point operations generally decrease, as a result of the reduced number of mesh points. On the other hand, they generate numerical solutions that do not give detailed information on the problem solution profile, as the grid points can be located considerably away from each other. In this paper we describe two analytical reconstruction schemes for the coarse-mesh solution generated by the spectral nodal method for neutral particle discrete ordinates (S N ) transport model in slab geometry. The first scheme we describe is based on the analytical reconstruction of the coarse-mesh solution within each discretization cell of the spatial grid set up on the slab. The second scheme is based on the angular reconstruction of the discrete ordinates solution between two contiguous ordinates of the angular quadrature set used in the S N model. Numerical results are given so we can illustrate the accuracy of the two reconstruction schemes, as described in this paper. (authors)

  4. A highly efficient parallel algorithm for solving the neutron diffusion nodal equations on shared-memory computers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azmy, Y.Y.; Kirk, B.L.

    1990-01-01

    Modern parallel computer architectures offer an enormous potential for reducing CPU and wall-clock execution times of large-scale computations commonly performed in various applications in science and engineering. Recently, several authors have reported their efforts in developing and implementing parallel algorithms for solving the neutron diffusion equation on a variety of shared- and distributed-memory parallel computers. Testing of these algorithms for a variety of two- and three-dimensional meshes showed significant speedup of the computation. Even for very large problems (i.e., three-dimensional fine meshes) executed concurrently on a few nodes in serial (nonvector) mode, however, the measured computational efficiency is very low (40 to 86%). In this paper, the authors present a highly efficient (∼85 to 99.9%) algorithm for solving the two-dimensional nodal diffusion equations on the Sequent Balance 8000 parallel computer. Also presented is a model for the performance, represented by the efficiency, as a function of problem size and the number of participating processors. The model is validated through several tests and then extrapolated to larger problems and more processors to predict the performance of the algorithm in more computationally demanding situations

  5. Analytically solvable models of reaction-diffusion systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zemskov, E P; Kassner, K [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Otto-von-Guericke-Universitaet, Universitaetsplatz 2, 39106 Magdeburg (Germany)

    2004-05-01

    We consider a class of analytically solvable models of reaction-diffusion systems. An analytical treatment is possible because the nonlinear reaction term is approximated by a piecewise linear function. As particular examples we choose front and pulse solutions to illustrate the matching procedure in the one-dimensional case.

  6. A refinement of the analytic function expansion nodal method with interface flux moments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, S. W.; Cho, N. Z.; Noh, J. M.

    1999-01-01

    A refinement of the AFEN method has been performed by increasing the number of flux expansion terms in the manner that the original basis functions are combined with the transverse-direction linear functions. In this manner, the added terms can be kept to still satisfy the diffusion equation. The additional constraints required are provided by the interface flux moments defined as the weighted-average fluxes at the interface. The refined AFEN method was tested against the OECD-L336 benchmark problem. The results show that the method improves the accuracy in predicting the flux distribution and that it can replace the corner-point fluxes with the interface moments without accuracy degradation. Excluding the corner-point flux increases the flexibility in implementing this method into the existing codes that do not have the corner-point flux scheme and may make it fit better for the non-linear scheme based on two-node problems

  7. Wielandt method applied to the diffusion equations discretized by finite element nodal methods; Metodo de Wielandt aplicado a las ecuaciones de difusion discretizadas por metodos nodales de elemento finito

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mugica R, A.; Valle G, E. del [IPN, ESFM, 07738 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)]. e-mail: mugica@esfm.ipn.mx

    2003-07-01

    Nowadays the numerical methods of solution to the diffusion equation by means of algorithms and computer programs result so extensive due to the great number of routines and calculations that should carry out, this rebounds directly in the execution times of this programs, being obtained results in relatively long times. This work shows the application of an acceleration method of the convergence of the classic method of those powers that it reduces notably the number of necessary iterations for to obtain reliable results, what means that the compute times they see reduced in great measure. This method is known in the literature like Wielandt method and it has incorporated to a computer program that is based on the discretization of the neutron diffusion equations in plate geometry and stationary state by polynomial nodal methods. In this work the neutron diffusion equations are described for several energy groups and their discretization by means of those called physical nodal methods, being illustrated in particular the quadratic case. It is described a model problem widely described in the literature which is solved for the physical nodal grade schemes 1, 2, 3 and 4 in three different ways: to) with the classic method of the powers, b) method of the powers with the Wielandt acceleration and c) method of the powers with the Wielandt modified acceleration. The results for the model problem as well as for two additional problems known as benchmark problems are reported. Such acceleration method can also be implemented to problems of different geometry to the proposal in this work, besides being possible to extend their application to problems in 2 or 3 dimensions. (Author)

  8. Calculation of accurate albedo boundary conditions for three-dimensional nodal diffusion codes by the method of characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petkov, Petko T.

    2000-01-01

    Most of the few-group three-dimensional nodal diffusion codes used for neutronics calculations of the WWER reactors use albedo type boundary conditions on the core-reflector boundary. The conventional albedo are group-to-group reflection probabilities, defined on each outer node face. The method of characteristics is used to calculate accurate albedo by the following procedure. A many-group two-dimensional heterogeneous core-reflector problem, including a sufficient part of the core and detailed description of the adjacent reflector, is solved first. From this solution the angular flux on the core-reflector boundary is calculated in all groups for all traced neutron directions. Accurate boundary conditions can be calculated for the radial, top and bottom reflectors as well as for the absorber part of the WWER-440 reactor control assemblies. The algorithm can be used to estimate also albedo, coupling outer node faces on the radial reflector in the axial direction. Numerical results for the WWER-440 reactor are presented. (Authors)

  9. An analytical approach for a nodal formulation of a two-dimensional fixed-source neutron transport problem in heterogeneous medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basso Barichello, Liliane; Dias da Cunha, Rudnei [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Inst. de Matematica; Becker Picoloto, Camila [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Mecanica; Tres, Anderson [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Matematica Aplicada

    2015-05-15

    A nodal formulation of a fixed-source two-dimensional neutron transport problem, in Cartesian geometry, defined in a heterogeneous medium, is solved by an analytical approach. Explicit expressions, in terms of the spatial variables, are derived for averaged fluxes in each region in which the domain is subdivided. The procedure is an extension of an analytical discrete ordinates method, the ADO method, for the solution of the two-dimensional homogeneous medium case. The scheme is developed from the discrete ordinates version of the two-dimensional transport equation along with the level symmetric quadrature scheme. As usual for nodal schemes, relations between the averaged fluxes and the unknown angular fluxes at the contours are introduced as auxiliary equations. Numerical results are in agreement with results available in the literature.

  10. An extended analytical approach for diffuse optical imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkol, H; Nouizi, F; Unlu, M B; Gulsen, G

    2015-07-07

    In this work, we introduce an analytical method to solve the diffusion equation in a cylindrical geometry. This method is based on an integral approach to derive the Green's function for specific boundary conditions. Using our approach, we obtain comprehensive analytical solutions with the Robin boundary condition for diffuse optical imaging in both two and three dimensions. The solutions are expressed in terms of the optical properties of tissue and the amplitude and position of the light source. Our method not only works well inside the tissue but provides very accurate results near the tissue boundaries as well. The results obtained by our method are first compared with those obtained by a conventional analytical method then validated using numerical simulations. Our new analytical method allows not only implementation of any boundary condition for a specific problem but also fast simulation of light propagation making it very suitable for iterative image reconstruction algorithms.

  11. NESTLE: Few-group neutron diffusion equation solver utilizing the nodal expansion method for eigenvalue, adjoint, fixed-source steady-state and transient problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turinsky, P.J.; Al-Chalabi, R.M.K.; Engrand, P.; Sarsour, H.N.; Faure, F.X.; Guo, W.

    1994-06-01

    NESTLE is a FORTRAN77 code that solves the few-group neutron diffusion equation utilizing the Nodal Expansion Method (NEM). NESTLE can solve the eigenvalue (criticality); eigenvalue adjoint; external fixed-source steady-state; or external fixed-source. or eigenvalue initiated transient problems. The code name NESTLE originates from the multi-problem solution capability, abbreviating Nodal Eigenvalue, Steady-state, Transient, Le core Evaluator. The eigenvalue problem allows criticality searches to be completed, and the external fixed-source steady-state problem can search to achieve a specified power level. Transient problems model delayed neutrons via precursor groups. Several core properties can be input as time dependent. Two or four energy groups can be utilized, with all energy groups being thermal groups (i.e. upscatter exits) if desired. Core geometries modelled include Cartesian and Hexagonal. Three, two and one dimensional models can be utilized with various symmetries. The non-linear iterative strategy associated with the NEM method is employed. An advantage of the non-linear iterative strategy is that NSTLE can be utilized to solve either the nodal or Finite Difference Method representation of the few-group neutron diffusion equation

  12. New aspects in the implementation of the quasi-static method for the solution of neutron diffusion problems in the framework of a nodal method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caron, D.; Dulla, S.; Ravetto, P.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The implementation of the quasi-static method in 3D nodal diffusion theory model in hexagonal-z geometry is described. • Different formulations of the quasi-static technique are discussed. • The results presented illustrate the features of the various formulations, highlighting advantages and drawbacks. • A novel adaptive procedure for the selection of the time interval between shape recalculations is presented. - Abstract: The ability to accurately model the dynamic behaviour of the neutron distribution in a nuclear system is a fundamental aspect of reactor design and safety assessment. Due to the heavy computational burden associated to the direct time inversion of the full model, the quasi-static method has become a standard approach to the numerical solution of the nuclear reactor dynamic equations on the full phase space. The present paper is opened by an introductory critical review of the basics of the quasi-static scheme for the general neutron kinetic problem. Afterwards, the implementation of the quasi-static method in the context of a three-dimensional nodal diffusion theory model in hexagonal-z geometry is described, including some peculiar aspects of the adjoint nodal equations and the explicit formulation of the quasi-static nodal equations. The presentation includes the discussion of different formulations of the quasi-static technique. The results presented illustrate the features of the various formulations, highlighting the corresponding advantages and drawbacks. An adaptive procedure for the selection of the time interval between shape recalculations is also presented, showing its usefulness in practical applications.

  13. Application of the nodal method RTN-0 for the solution of the neutron diffusion equation dependent of time in hexagonal-Z geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esquivel E, J.; Alonso V, G.; Del Valle G, E.

    2015-09-01

    The solution of the neutron diffusion equation either for reactors in steady state or time dependent, is obtained through approximations generated by implementing of nodal methods such as RTN-0 (Raviart-Thomas-Nedelec of zero index), which is used in this study. Since the nodal methods are applied in quadrangular geometries, in this paper a technique in which the hexagonal geometry through the transfinite interpolation of Gordon-Hall becomes the appropriate geometry to make use of the nodal method RTN-0 is presented. As a result, a computer program was developed, whereby is possible to obtain among other results the neutron multiplication effective factor (k eff ), and the distribution of radial and/or axial power. To verify the operation of the code, was applied to three benchmark problems: in the first two reactors VVER and FBR, results k eff and power distribution are obtained, considering the steady state case of reactor; while the third problem a type VVER is analyzed, in its case dependent of time, which qualitative results are presented on the behavior of the reactor power. (Author)

  14. Linear-scaling fixed-node diffusion quantum Monte Carlo: accounting for the nodal information in a density matrix-based scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kussmann, Jörg; Ochsenfeld, Christian

    2008-04-07

    A reformulation of the fixed-node diffusion quantum Monte Carlo method (FN-DQMC) in terms of the N-particle density matrix is presented, which allows us to reduce the computational effort to linear for the evaluation of the local energy. The reformulation is based on our recently introduced density matrix-based approach for a linear-scaling variational QMC method [J. Kussmann et al., Phys. Rev. B. 75, 165107 (2007)]. However, within the latter approach of using the positive semi-definite N-particle trial density (rhoN T(R)=mid R:Psi(T)(R)mid R:(2)), the nodal information of the trial function is lost. Therefore, a straightforward application to the FN-DQMC method is not possible, in which the sign of the trial function is usually traced in order to confine the random walkers to their nodal pockets. As a solution, we reformulate the FN-DQMC approach in terms of off-diagonal elements of the N-particle density matrix rhoN T(R;R'), so that the nodal information of the trial density matrix is obtained. Besides all-electron moves, a scheme to perform single-electron moves within N-PDM QMC is described in detail. The efficiency of our method is illustrated for exemplary calculations.

  15. Analytical solutions for the fractional diffusion-advection equation describing super-diffusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gómez Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the alternative construction of the diffusion-advection equation in the range (1; 2. The fractional derivative of the Liouville-Caputo type is applied. Analytical solutions are obtained in terms of Mittag-Leffler functions. In the range (1; 2 the concentration exhibits the superdiffusion phenomena and when the order of the derivative is equal to 2 ballistic diffusion can be observed, these behaviors occur in many physical systems such as semiconductors, quantum optics, or turbulent diffusion. This mathematical representation can be applied in the description of anomalous complex processes.

  16. Analytical method to estimate resin cement diffusion into dentin

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Ferraz, Larissa Cristina; Ubaldini, Adriana Lemos Mori; de Oliveira, Bruna Medeiros Bertol; Neto, Antonio Medina; Sato, Fracielle; Baesso, Mauro Luciano; Pascotto, Renata Corrêa

    2016-05-01

    This study analyzed the diffusion of two resin luting agents (resin cements) into dentin, with the aim of presenting an analytical method for estimating the thickness of the diffusion zone. Class V cavities were prepared in the buccal and lingual surfaces of molars (n=9). Indirect composite inlays were luted into the cavities with either a self-adhesive or a self-etch resin cement. The teeth were sectioned bucco-lingually and the cement-dentin interface was analyzed by using micro-Raman spectroscopy (MRS) and scanning electron microscopy. Evolution of peak intensities of the Raman bands, collected from the functional groups corresponding to the resin monomer (C-O-C, 1113 cm-1) present in the cements, and the mineral content (P-O, 961 cm-1) in dentin were sigmoid shaped functions. A Boltzmann function (BF) was then fitted to the peaks encountered at 1113 cm-1 to estimate the resin cement diffusion into dentin. The BF identified a resin cement-dentin diffusion zone of 1.8±0.4 μm for the self-adhesive cement and 2.5±0.3 μm for the self-etch cement. This analysis allowed the authors to estimate the diffusion of the resin cements into the dentin. Fitting the MRS data to the BF contributed to and is relevant for future studies of the adhesive interface.

  17. Analytical model of diffuse reflectance spectrum of skin tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisenko, S A; Kugeiko, M M; Firago, V A [Belarusian State University, Minsk (Belarus); Sobchuk, A N [B.I. Stepanov Institute of Physics, National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Minsk (Belarus)

    2014-01-31

    We have derived simple analytical expressions that enable highly accurate calculation of diffusely reflected light signals of skin in the spectral range from 450 to 800 nm at a distance from the region of delivery of exciting radiation. The expressions, taking into account the dependence of the detected signals on the refractive index, transport scattering coefficient, absorption coefficient and anisotropy factor of the medium, have been obtained in the approximation of a two-layer medium model (epidermis and dermis) for the same parameters of light scattering but different absorption coefficients of layers. Numerical experiments on the retrieval of the skin biophysical parameters from the diffuse reflectance spectra simulated by the Monte Carlo method show that commercially available fibre-optic spectrophotometers with a fixed distance between the radiation source and detector can reliably determine the concentration of bilirubin, oxy- and deoxyhaemoglobin in the dermis tissues and the tissue structure parameter characterising the size of its effective scatterers. We present the examples of quantitative analysis of the experimental data, confirming the correctness of estimates of biophysical parameters of skin using the obtained analytical expressions. (biophotonics)

  18. Analytic study of 1D diffusive relativistic shock acceleration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keshet, Uri, E-mail: ukeshet@bgu.ac.il [Physics Department, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, POB 653, Be' er-Sheva 84105 (Israel)

    2017-10-01

    Diffusive shock acceleration (DSA) by relativistic shocks is thought to generate the dN / dE ∝ E{sup −p} spectra of charged particles in various astronomical relativistic flows. We show that for test particles in one dimension (1D), p {sup −1}=1−ln[γ{sub d}(1+β{sub d})]/ln[γ{sub u}(1+β{sub u})], where β{sub u}(β{sub d}) is the upstream (downstream) normalized velocity, and γ is the respective Lorentz factor. This analytically captures the main properties of relativistic DSA in higher dimensions, with no assumptions on the diffusion mechanism. Unlike 2D and 3D, here the spectrum is sensitive to the equation of state even in the ultra-relativistic limit, and (for a J(üttner-Synge equation of state) noticeably hardens with increasing 1<γ{sub u}<57, before logarithmically converging back to p (γ{sub u→∞})=2. The 1D spectrum is sensitive to drifts, but only in the downstream, and not in the ultra-relativistic limit.

  19. Analytical reconstruction scheme for the coarse-mesh solution generated by the spectral nodal method for neutral particle discrete ordinates transport model in slab geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barros, Ricardo C.; Filho, Hermes Alves; Platt, Gustavo M.; Oliveira, Francisco Bruno S.; Militao, Damiano S.

    2010-01-01

    Coarse-mesh numerical methods are very efficient in the sense that they generate accurate results in short computational time, as the number of floating point operations generally decrease, as a result of the reduced number of mesh points. On the other hand, they generate numerical solutions that do not give detailed information on the problem solution profile, as the grid points can be located considerably away from each other. In this paper we describe two steps for the analytical reconstruction of the coarse-mesh solution generated by the spectral nodal method for neutral particle discrete ordinates (S N ) transport model in slab geometry. The first step of the algorithm is based on the analytical reconstruction of the coarse-mesh solution within each discretization cell of the grid set up on the spatial domain. The second step is based on the angular reconstruction of the discrete ordinates solution between two contiguous ordinates of the angular quadrature set used in the S N model. Numerical results are given so we can illustrate the accuracy of the two reconstruction techniques, as described in this paper.

  20. Facing Challenges for Monte Carlo Analysis of Full PWR Cores : Towards Optimal Detail Level for Coupled Neutronics and Proper Diffusion Data for Nodal Kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuttin, A.; Capellan, N.; David, S.; Doligez, X.; El Mhari, C.; Méplan, O.

    2014-06-01

    Safety analysis of innovative reactor designs requires three dimensional modeling to ensure a sufficiently realistic description, starting from steady state. Actual Monte Carlo (MC) neutron transport codes are suitable candidates to simulate large complex geometries, with eventual innovative fuel. But if local values such as power densities over small regions are needed, reliable results get more difficult to obtain within an acceptable computation time. In this scope, NEA has proposed a performance test of full PWR core calculations based on Monte Carlo neutron transport, which we have used to define an optimal detail level for convergence of steady state coupled neutronics. Coupling between MCNP for neutronics and the subchannel code COBRA for thermal-hydraulics has been performed using the C++ tool MURE, developed for about ten years at LPSC and IPNO. In parallel with this study and within the same MURE framework, a simplified code of nodal kinetics based on two-group and few-point diffusion equations has been developed and validated on a typical CANDU LOCA. Methods for the computation of necessary diffusion data have been defined and applied to NU (Nat. U) and Th fuel CANDU after assembly evolutions by MURE. Simplicity of CANDU LOCA model has made possible a comparison of these two fuel behaviours during such a transient.

  1. Computational methods and modeling. 3. Adaptive Mesh Refinement for the Nodal Integral Method and Application to the Convection-Diffusion Equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torej, Allen J.; Rizwan-Uddin

    2001-01-01

    The nodal integral method (NIM) has been developed for several problems, including the Navier-Stokes equations, the convection-diffusion equation, and the multigroup neutron diffusion equations. The coarse-mesh efficiency of the NIM is not fully realized in problems characterized by a wide range of spatial scales. However, the combination of adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) capability with the NIM can recover the coarse mesh efficiency by allowing high degrees of resolution in specific localized areas where it is needed and by using a lower resolution everywhere else. Furthermore, certain features of the NIM can be fruitfully exploited in the application of the AMR process. In this paper, we outline a general approach to couple nodal schemes with AMR and then apply it to the convection-diffusion (energy) equation. The development of the NIM with AMR capability (NIMAMR) is based on the well-known Berger-Oliger method for structured AMR. In general, the main components of all AMR schemes are 1. the solver; 2. the level-grid hierarchy; 3. the selection algorithm; 4. the communication procedures; 5. the governing algorithm. The first component, the solver, consists of the numerical scheme for the governing partial differential equations and the algorithm used to solve the resulting system of discrete algebraic equations. In the case of the NIM-AMR, the solver is the iterative approach to the solution of the set of discrete equations obtained by applying the NIM. Furthermore, in the NIM-AMR, the level-grid hierarchy (the second component) is based on the Hierarchical Adaptive Mesh Refinement (HAMR) system,6 and hence, the details of the hierarchy are omitted here. In the selection algorithm, regions of the domain that require mesh refinement are identified. The criterion to select regions for mesh refinement can be based on the magnitude of the gradient or on the Richardson truncation error estimate. Although an excellent choice for the selection criterion, the Richardson

  2. Nodal-knot semimetals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Ren; Yan, Zhongbo; Lu, Ling; Wang, Zhong

    2017-11-01

    Topological nodal-line semimetals are characterized by one-dimensional lines of band crossing in the Brillouin zone. In contrast to nodal points, nodal lines can be in topologically nontrivial configurations. In this Rapid Communication, we introduce the concept of "nodal-knot semimetals," whose nodal lines form topologically nontrivial knots in the Brillouin zone. We introduce a generic construction of nodal-knot semimetals, which yields the simplest trefoil nodal knot and other more complicated nodal knots. The knotted-unknotted transitions by nodal-line reconnections are also studied. Our work brings the knot theory to the subject of topological semimetals.

  3. Development and Validation of a Three-Dimensional Diffusion Code Based on a High Order Nodal Expansion Method for Hexagonal-z Geometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daogang Lu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A three-dimensional, multigroup, diffusion code based on a high order nodal expansion method for hexagonal-z geometry (HNHEX was developed to perform the neutronic analysis of hexagonal-z geometry. In this method, one-dimensional radial and axial spatially flux of each node and energy group are defined as quadratic polynomial expansion and four-order polynomial expansion, respectively. The approximations for one-dimensional radial and axial spatially flux both have second-order accuracy. Moment weighting is used to obtain high order expansion coefficients of the polynomials of one-dimensional radial and axial spatially flux. The partially integrated radial and axial leakages are both approximated by the quadratic polynomial. The coarse-mesh rebalance method with the asymptotic source extrapolation is applied to accelerate the calculation. This code is used for calculation of effective multiplication factor, neutron flux distribution, and power distribution. The numerical calculation in this paper for three-dimensional SNR and VVER 440 benchmark problems demonstrates the accuracy of the code. In addition, the results show that the accuracy of the code is improved by applying quadratic approximation for partially integrated axial leakage and four-order approximation for one-dimensional axial spatially flux in comparison to flat approximation for partially integrated axial leakage and quadratic approximation for one-dimensional axial spatially flux.

  4. A new analytical solution to the diffusion problem: Fourier series ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reviews briefly the origin of Fourier Series Method. The paper then gives a vivid description of how the method can be applied to solve a diffusion problem, subject to some boundary conditions. The result obtained is quite appealing as it can be used to solve similar examples of diffusion equations. JONAMP Vol.

  5. Analytical solutions of one-dimensional advection– diffusion ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Advection–diffusion equation describes the solute transport due to combined effect of diffusion and convection in a medium. It is a partial differen- tial equation of parabolic type, derived on the principle of conservation of mass using Fick's law. Due to the growing surface and subsurface hydro- environment degradation and ...

  6. Analytic Method for Pressure Recovery in Truncated Diffusers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A prediction method is presented for the static pressure recovery in subsonic axisymmetric truncated conical diffusers. In the analysis, a turbulent boundary layer is assumed at the diffuser inlet and a potential core exists throughout the flow. When flow separation occurs, this approach cannot be used to predict the maximum ...

  7. Analytical solution of advection–diffusion equation in heterogeneous ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    derived on the principle of conservation of mass, known as advection–diffusion equation (ADE). In one dimension, it has ... ADE with or without accounting for zero-order production and first order decay was presented ...... financial and academic assistance in the form of. Senior Research Fellowship. The authors express.

  8. A model of modulated diffusion. I. Analytical results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazzani, A.; Turcchetti, G.; Vaienti, S.

    1994-01-01

    We introduce an integrable isochronous system and perturb its frequency by an external-deterministic or purely random-noise. Under the perturbation the action variable evolves in time: the corresponding diffusion coefficient is exactly computed and its dependence on the magnitude of the perturbation is carefully investigated. Different behaviors are found and justified: the quasilinear approximation, the superlinear regime, and the ballistic motion

  9. Analytical solution of advection–diffusion equation in heterogeneous ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    (33 and 34) become the respective solutions for instantaneous source and continuous source given by Basha and El-Habel (1993). The para- meter k = 0 in above form leads to constant diffusion coefficient discussed in case (i). The integral (38) may not be evaluated directly, hence numerical integration is carried out.

  10. Analytical approach for collective diffusion: one-dimensional heterogeneous lattice

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tarasenko, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 144, č. 14 (2016), 1-11, č. článku 144105. ISSN 0021-9606 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : diffusion * Monte Carlo simulations * one-dimensional heterogeneous lattice Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 2.965, year: 2016

  11. Application of the nodal method RTN-0 for the solution of the neutron diffusion equation dependent of time in hexagonal-Z geometry; Aplicacion del metodo nodal RTN-0 para la solucion de la ecuacion de difusion de neutrones dependiente del tiempo en geometria hexagonal-Z

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esquivel E, J.; Alonso V, G. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Del Valle G, E., E-mail: jaime.esquivel@inin.gob.mx [IPN, Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas, Av. IPN s/n, Col. Lindavista, 07738 Ciudad de Mexico (Mexico)

    2015-09-15

    The solution of the neutron diffusion equation either for reactors in steady state or time dependent, is obtained through approximations generated by implementing of nodal methods such as RTN-0 (Raviart-Thomas-Nedelec of zero index), which is used in this study. Since the nodal methods are applied in quadrangular geometries, in this paper a technique in which the hexagonal geometry through the transfinite interpolation of Gordon-Hall becomes the appropriate geometry to make use of the nodal method RTN-0 is presented. As a result, a computer program was developed, whereby is possible to obtain among other results the neutron multiplication effective factor (k{sub eff}), and the distribution of radial and/or axial power. To verify the operation of the code, was applied to three benchmark problems: in the first two reactors VVER and FBR, results k{sub eff} and power distribution are obtained, considering the steady state case of reactor; while the third problem a type VVER is analyzed, in its case dependent of time, which qualitative results are presented on the behavior of the reactor power. (Author)

  12. A development of simulation and analytical program for through-diffusion experiments for a single layer of diffusion media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Haruo

    2001-01-01

    A program (TDROCK1. FOR) for simulation and analysis of through-diffusion experiments for a single layer of diffusion media was developed. This program was made by Pro-Fortran language, which was suitable for scientific and technical calculations, and relatively easy explicit difference method was adopted for an analysis. In the analysis, solute concentration in the tracer cell as a function of time that we could not treat to date can be input and the decrease in the solute concentration as a function of time by diffusion from the tracer cell to the measurement cell, the solute concentration distribution in the porewater of diffusion media and the solute concentration in the measurement cell as a function of time can be calculated. In addition, solution volume in both cells and diameter and thickness of the diffusion media are also variable as an input condition. This simulation program could well explain measured result by simulating solute concentration in the measurement cell as a function of time for case which apparent and effective diffusion coefficients were already known. Based on this, the availability and applicability of this program to actual analysis and simulation were confirmed. This report describes the theoretical treatment for the through-diffusion experiments for a single layer of diffusion media, analytical model, an example of source program and the manual. (author)

  13. Heterogeneous treatment in the variational nodal method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fanning, T.H.

    1995-01-01

    The variational nodal transport method is reduced to its diffusion form and generalized for the treatment of heterogeneous nodes while maintaining nodal balances. Adapting variational methods to heterogeneous nodes requires the ability to integrate over a node with discontinuous cross sections. In this work, integrals are evaluated using composite gaussian quadrature rules, which permit accurate integration while minimizing computing time. Allowing structure within a nodal solution scheme avoids some of the necessity of cross section homogenization, and more accurately defines the intra-nodal flux shape. Ideally, any desired heterogeneity can be constructed within the node; but in reality, the finite set of basis functions limits the practical resolution to which fine detail can be defined within the node. Preliminary comparison tests show that the heterogeneous variational nodal method provides satisfactory results even if some improvements are needed for very difficult, configurations

  14. A family of analytical solutions of a nonlinear diffusion-convection equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayek, Mohamed

    2018-01-01

    Despite its popularity in many engineering fields, the nonlinear diffusion-convection equation has no general analytical solutions. This work presents a family of closed-form analytical traveling wave solutions for the nonlinear diffusion-convection equation with power law nonlinearities. This kind of equations typically appears in nonlinear problems of flow and transport in porous media. The solutions that are addressed are simple and fully analytical. Three classes of analytical solutions are presented depending on the type of the nonlinear diffusion coefficient (increasing, decreasing or constant). It has shown that the structure of the traveling wave solution is strongly related to the diffusion term. The main advantage of the proposed solutions is that they are presented in a unified form contrary to existing solutions in the literature where the derivation of each solution depends on the specific values of the diffusion and convection parameters. The proposed closed-form solutions are simple to use, do not require any numerical implementation, and may be implemented in a simple spreadsheet. The analytical expressions are also useful to mathematically analyze the structure and properties of the solutions.

  15. A semi-analytical method for simulating matrix diffusion in numerical transport models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falta, Ronald W; Wang, Wenwen

    2017-02-01

    A semi-analytical approximation for transient matrix diffusion is developed for use in numerical contaminant transport simulators. This method is an adaptation and extension of the heat conduction method of Vinsome and Westerveld (1980) used to simulate heat losses during thermally enhanced oil recovery. The semi-analytical method is used in place of discretization of the low permeability materials, and it represents the concentration profile in the low permeability materials with a fitting function that is adjusted in each element at each time-step. The resulting matrix diffusion fluxes are added to the numerical model as linear concentration-dependent source/sink terms. Since only the high permeability zones need to be discretized, the numerical formulation is extremely efficient compared to traditional approaches that require discretization of both the high and low permeability zones. The semi-analytical method compares favorably with the analytical solution for transient one-dimensional diffusion with first order decay, with a two-layer aquifer/aquitard solution, with the solution for transport in a fracture with matrix diffusion and decay, and with a fully numerical solution for transport in a thin sand zone bounded by clay with variable decay rates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Analytical approximate solutions of the time-domain diffusion equation in layered slabs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martelli, Fabrizio; Sassaroli, Angelo; Yamada, Yukio; Zaccanti, Giovanni

    2002-01-01

    Time-domain analytical solutions of the diffusion equation for photon migration through highly scattering two- and three-layered slabs have been obtained. The effect of the refractive-index mismatch with the external medium is taken into account, and approximate boundary conditions at the interface between the diffusive layers have been considered. A Monte Carlo code for photon migration through a layered slab has also been developed. Comparisons with the results of Monte Carlo simulations showed that the analytical solutions correctly describe the mean path length followed by photons inside each diffusive layer and the shape of the temporal profile of received photons, while discrepancies are observed for the continuous-wave reflectance or transmittance.

  17. An analytical solution of the one-dimensional neutron diffusion kinetic equation in cartesian geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceolin, Celina; Vilhena, Marco T.; Petersen, Claudio Z.

    2009-01-01

    In this work we report an analytical solution for the monoenergetic neutron diffusion kinetic equation in cartesian geometry. Bearing in mind that the equation for the delayed neutron precursor concentration is a first order linear differential equation in the time variable, to make possible the application of the GITT approach to the kinetic equation, we introduce a fictitious diffusion term multiplied by a positive small value ε. By this procedure, we are able to solve this set of equations. Indeed, applying the GITT technique to the modified diffusion kinetic equation, we come out with a matrix differential equation which has a well known analytical solution when ε goes to zero. We report numerical simulations as well study of numerical convergence of the results attained. (author)

  18. Weyl nodal surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türker, Oǧuz; Moroz, Sergej

    2018-02-01

    We consider three-dimensional fermionic band theories that exhibit Weyl nodal surfaces defined as two-band degeneracies that form closed surfaces in the Brillouin zone. We demonstrate that topology ensures robustness of these objects under small perturbations of a Hamiltonian. This topological robustness is illustrated in several four-band models that exhibit nodal surfaces protected by unitary or antiunitary symmetries. Surface states and Nielsen-Ninomiya doubling of nodal surfaces are also investigated.

  19. The Analytical Solution of the Transient Radial Diffusion Equation with a Nonuniform Loss Term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loridan, V.; Ripoll, J. F.; De Vuyst, F.

    2017-12-01

    Many works have been done during the past 40 years to perform the analytical solution of the radial diffusion equation that models the transport and loss of electrons in the magnetosphere, considering a diffusion coefficient proportional to a power law in shell and a constant loss term. Here, we propose an original analytical method to address this challenge with a nonuniform loss term. The strategy is to match any L-dependent electron losses with a piecewise constant function on M subintervals, i.e., dealing with a constant lifetime on each subinterval. Applying an eigenfunction expansion method, the eigenvalue problem becomes presently a Sturm-Liouville problem with M interfaces. Assuming the continuity of both the distribution function and its first spatial derivatives, we are able to deal with a well-posed problem and to find the full analytical solution. We further show an excellent agreement between both the analytical solutions and the solutions obtained directly from numerical simulations for different loss terms of various shapes and with a diffusion coefficient DLL L6. We also give two expressions for the required number of eigenmodes N to get an accurate snapshot of the analytical solution, highlighting that N is proportional to 1/√t0, where t0 is a time of interest, and that N increases with the diffusion power. Finally, the equilibrium time, defined as the time to nearly reach the steady solution, is estimated by a closed-form expression and discussed. Applications to Earth and also Jupiter and Saturn are discussed.

  20. On the analytical solution of the multigroup neutron kinetics diffusion equation in homogeneous parallelepiped

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersen, Claudio Z.; Vilhena, Marco Tullio; Bodmann, Bardo; Dulla, Sandra; Ravetto, Piero

    2011-01-01

    The three-dimensions multigroup neutron kinetics diffusion equations is considered to predict the behavior of neutrons in a nuclear reactor. In this work we develop a method that allows to construct an analytical solution to the equations of kinetic space. The spatial kinetic model has a crucial problem for a quasi real-time prediction of reactor power, especially at start-up, shut-down or change in power, by virtue of the stiff character of the equations. In order to circumvent problems that typically occur in numerical approaches, we solve the neutron kinetics diffusion equation in a homogeneous parallelepiped analytically, considering two energy groups and six group of delayed neutrons. Applying the GITT (generalized integral transform technique) in the vertical direction, we cast the original problem into a two-dimensional one with known solution. We report on numerical results, and comparisons against the ones of the literature. (author)

  1. assessment of concentration of air pollutants using analytical and numerical solution of the atmospheric diffusion equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esmail, S.F.H.

    2011-01-01

    The mathematical formulation of numerous physical problems a results in differential equations actually partial or ordinary differential equations.In our study we are interested in solutions of partial differential equations.The aim of this work is to calculate the concentrations of the pollution, by solving the atmospheric diffusion equation(ADE) using different mathematical methods of solution. It is difficult to solve the general form of ADE analytically, so we use some assumptions to get its solution.The solutions of it depend on the eddy diffusivity profiles(k) and the wind speed u. We use some physical assumptions to simplify its formula and solve it. In the present work, we solve the ADE analytically in three dimensions using Green's function method, Laplace transform method, normal mode method and these separation of variables method. Also, we use ADM as a numerical method. Finally, comparisons are made with the results predicted by the previous methods and the observed data.

  2. An analytical method for determining the temperature dependent moisture diffusivities of pumpkin seeds during drying process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Can, Ahmet [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Trakya, 22030 Edirne (Turkey)

    2007-02-15

    This paper presents an analytical method, which determines the moisture diffusion coefficients for the natural and forced convection hot air drying of pumpkin seeds and their temperature dependence. In order to obtain scientific data, the pumpkin seed drying process was investigated under both natural and forced hot air convection regimes. This paper presents the experimental results in which the drying air was heated by solar energy. (author)

  3. Analytical theory of diffuse scattering from distributions of non-overlapping structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uimin, G. [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Lindgaard, P.-A. [Risoe Nat. Lab., Roskilde (Denmark). Dept. of Condensed Matter Phys.

    1997-01-01

    The diffuse scattering for X-rays or neutrons is derived analytically for equilibrium or non-equilibrium nanoscale structures distributed according to any set of suitable distribution functions. A disordered lattice gas model has been used basically for one dimension but for objects that may have higher dimensions. The results for multilayers, phase separation, domain patterns, surface roughness and `hut` clusters are discussed and explicit formulae are given. (orig.).

  4. An analytical multigroup benchmark for (n, γ) and (n, n', γ) verification of diffusion theory algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganapol, B.D.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Coupled neutron and gamma transport is considered in the multigroup diffusion approximation. → The model accommodates fission, up- and down-scattering and common neutron-gamma interactions. → The exact solution to the diffusion equation in a heterogeneous media of any number of regions is found. → The solution is shown to parallel the one-group case in a homogeneous medium. → The discussion concludes with a heterogeneous, 2 fuel-plate 93.2% enriched reactor fuel benchmark demonstration. - Abstract: The angular flux for the 'rod model' describing coupled neutron/gamma (n, γ) diffusion has a particularly straightforward analytical representation when viewed from the perspective of a one-group homogeneous medium. Cast in the form of matrix functions of a diagonalizable matrix, the solution to the multigroup equations in heterogeneous media is greatly simplified. We shall show exactly how the one-group homogeneous medium solution leads to the multigroup solution.

  5. On the non-uniqueness of the nodal mathematical adjoint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Müller, Erwin

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We evaluate three CMFD schemes for computing the nodal mathematical adjoint. • The nodal mathematical adjoint is not unique and can be non-positive (nonphysical). • Adjoint and forward eigenmodes are compatible if produced by the same CMFD method. • In nodal applications the excited eigenmodes are purely mathematical entities. - Abstract: Computation of the neutron adjoint flux within the framework of modern nodal diffusion methods is often facilitated by reducing the nodal equation system for the forward flux into a simpler coarse-mesh finite-difference form and then transposing the resultant matrix equations. The solution to the transposed problem is known as the nodal mathematical adjoint. Since the coarse-mesh finite-difference reduction of a given nodal formulation can be obtained in a number of ways, different nodal mathematical adjoint solutions can be computed. This non-uniqueness of the nodal mathematical adjoint challenges the credibility of the reduction strategy and demands a verdict as to its suitability in practical applications. This is the matter under consideration in this paper. A selected number of coarse-mesh finite-difference reduction schemes are described and compared. Numerical calculations are utilised to illustrate the differences in the adjoint solutions as well as to appraise the impact on such common applications as the computation of core point kinetics parameters. Recommendations are made for the proper application of the coarse-mesh finite-difference reduction approach to the nodal mathematical adjoint problem

  6. Diffusion weighted MRI by spatiotemporal encoding: Analytical description and in vivo validations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Eddy; Shemesh, Noam; Frydman, Lucio

    2013-07-01

    Diffusion-weighted (DW) MRI is a powerful modality for studying microstructure in normal and pathological tissues. The accuracy derived from DW MRI depends on the acquisition of quality images, and on a precise assessment of the b-values involved. Conventional DW MRI tends to be of limited use in regions suffering from large magnetic field or chemical shift heterogeneities, which severely distort the MR images. In this study we propose novel sequences based on SPatio-temporal ENcoding (SPEN), which overcome such shortcomings owing to SPEN's inherent robustness to offsets. SPEN, however, relies on the simultaneous application of gradients and radiofrequency-swept pulses, which may impart different diffusion weightings along the spatial axes. These will be further complicated in DW measurements by the diffusion-sensitizing gradients, and will in general lead to complex, spatially-dependent b-values. This study presents a formalism for analyzing these diffusion-weighted SPEN (dSPEN) data, which takes into account the concomitant effects of adiabatic pulses, of the imaging as well as diffusion gradients, and of the cross-terms between them. These analytical b-values derivations are subject to experimental validations in phantom systems and ex vivo spinal cords. Excellent agreement is found between the theoretical predictions and these dSPEN experiments. The ensuing methodology is then demonstrated by in vivo mapping of diffusion in human breast - organs where conventional k-space DW acquisition methods are challenged by both field and chemical shift heterogeneities. These studies demonstrate the increased robustness of dSPEN vis-à-vis comparable DW echo planar imaging, and demonstrate the value of this new methodology for medium- or high-field diffusion measurements in heterogeneous systems.

  7. Recent advances in computational-analytical integral transforms for convection-diffusion problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotta, R. M.; Naveira-Cotta, C. P.; Knupp, D. C.; Zotin, J. L. Z.; Pontes, P. C.; Almeida, A. P.

    2017-10-01

    An unifying overview of the Generalized Integral Transform Technique (GITT) as a computational-analytical approach for solving convection-diffusion problems is presented. This work is aimed at bringing together some of the most recent developments on both accuracy and convergence improvements on this well-established hybrid numerical-analytical methodology for partial differential equations. Special emphasis is given to novel algorithm implementations, all directly connected to enhancing the eigenfunction expansion basis, such as a single domain reformulation strategy for handling complex geometries, an integral balance scheme in dealing with multiscale problems, the adoption of convective eigenvalue problems in formulations with significant convection effects, and the direct integral transformation of nonlinear convection-diffusion problems based on nonlinear eigenvalue problems. Then, selected examples are presented that illustrate the improvement achieved in each class of extension, in terms of convergence acceleration and accuracy gain, which are related to conjugated heat transfer in complex or multiscale microchannel-substrate geometries, multidimensional Burgers equation model, and diffusive metal extraction through polymeric hollow fiber membranes. Numerical results are reported for each application and, where appropriate, critically compared against the traditional GITT scheme without convergence enhancement schemes and commercial or dedicated purely numerical approaches.

  8. Parametric validations of analytical lifetime estimates for radiation belt electron diffusion by whistler waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Artemyev

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The lifetimes of electrons trapped in Earth's radiation belts can be calculated from quasi-linear pitch-angle diffusion by whistler-mode waves, provided that their frequency spectrum is broad enough and/or their average amplitude is not too large. Extensive comparisons between improved analytical lifetime estimates and full numerical calculations have been performed in a broad parameter range representative of a large part of the magnetosphere from L ~ 2 to 6. The effects of observed very oblique whistler waves are taken into account in both numerical and analytical calculations. Analytical lifetimes (and pitch-angle diffusion coefficients are found to be in good agreement with full numerical calculations based on CRRES and Cluster hiss and lightning-generated wave measurements inside the plasmasphere and Cluster lower-band chorus waves measurements in the outer belt for electron energies ranging from 100 keV to 5 MeV. Comparisons with lifetimes recently obtained from electron flux measurements on SAMPEX, SCATHA, SAC-C and DEMETER also show reasonable agreement.

  9. Analytical-numerical method for treatment of turbulent diffusion of particles in the air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arsov, L.J.

    1976-01-01

    This work deals with the problem of air pollution around a stationary punctual source. For description of air pollution from a punctual source a mathematical model is suggested, and for calculation of effluents concentration an analytical-numerical algorithm is given. In addition to the analitical treatment the mathematical model is far more flexible and complete. Eddy diffusivity is represented by an arbitrary function, and an arbitrary wind velocity profile ahs been proposed. The apsorption of the ground is introduced through a variable apsorption coefficient, and the sedimentation through the mean velocity of deposition. To determine the movement of particles a parabolic equation of diffusion is used. The method has been tested through calculation of effluents concentration for different values of physical parameters

  10. Analytical modeling for fractional multi-dimensional diffusion equations by using Laplace transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devendra Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a simple numerical algorithm for solving multi-dimensional diffusion equations of fractional order which describes density dynamics in a material undergoing diffusion by using homotopy analysis transform method. The fractional derivative is described in the Caputo sense. This homotopy analysis transform method is an innovative adjustment in Laplace transform method and makes the calculation much simpler. The technique is not limited to the small parameter, such as in the classical perturbation method. The scheme gives an analytical solution in the form of a convergent series with easily computable components, requiring no linearization or small perturbation. The numerical solutions obtained by the proposed method indicate that the approach is easy to implement and computationally very attractive.

  11. Approximate analytical solution of diffusion equation with fractional time derivative using optimal homotopy analysis method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Das

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article, optimal homotopy-analysis method is used to obtain approximate analytic solution of the time-fractional diffusion equation with a given initial condition. The fractional derivatives are considered in the Caputo sense. Unlike usual Homotopy analysis method, this method contains at the most three convergence control parameters which describe the faster convergence of the solution. Effects of parameters on the convergence of the approximate series solution by minimizing the averaged residual error with the proper choices of parameters are calculated numerically and presented through graphs and tables for different particular cases.

  12. Analytical synthetic methods of solution of neutron transport equation with diffusion theory approaches energy multigroup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moraes, Pedro Gabriel B.; Leite, Michel C.A.; Barros, Ricardo C.

    2013-01-01

    In this work we developed a software to model and generate results in tables and graphs of one-dimensional neutron transport problems in multi-group formulation of energy. The numerical method we use to solve the problem of neutron diffusion is analytic, thus eliminating the truncation errors that appear in classical numerical methods, e.g., the method of finite differences. This numerical analytical method increases the computational efficiency, since they are not refined spatial discretization necessary because for any spatial discretization grids used, the numerical result generated for the same point of the domain remains unchanged unless the rounding errors of computational finite arithmetic. We chose to develop a computational application in MatLab platform for numerical computation and program interface is simple and easy with knobs. We consider important to model this neutron transport problem with a fixed source in the context of shielding calculations of radiation that protects the biosphere, and could be sensitive to ionizing radiation

  13. Analytical solution for the diffusion of a capacitor discharge generated magnetic field pulse in a conductor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilmārs Grants

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Powerful forces arise when a pulse of a magnetic field in the order of a few tesla diffuses into a conductor. Such pulses are used in electromagnetic forming, impact welding of dissimilar materials and grain refinement of solidifying alloys. Strong magnetic field pulses are generated by the discharge current of a capacitor bank. We consider analytically the penetration of such pulse into a conducting half-space. Besides the exact solution we obtain two simple self-similar approximate solutions for two sequential stages of the initial transient. Furthermore, a general solution is provided for the external field given as a power series of time. Each term of this solution represents a self-similar function for which we obtain an explicit expression. The validity range of various approximate analytical solutions is evaluated by comparison to the exact solution.

  14. Analytical solution for the diffusion of a capacitor discharge generated magnetic field pulse in a conductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grants, Ilmārs; Bojarevičs, Andris; Gerbeth, Gunter

    2016-06-01

    Powerful forces arise when a pulse of a magnetic field in the order of a few tesla diffuses into a conductor. Such pulses are used in electromagnetic forming, impact welding of dissimilar materials and grain refinement of solidifying alloys. Strong magnetic field pulses are generated by the discharge current of a capacitor bank. We consider analytically the penetration of such pulse into a conducting half-space. Besides the exact solution we obtain two simple self-similar approximate solutions for two sequential stages of the initial transient. Furthermore, a general solution is provided for the external field given as a power series of time. Each term of this solution represents a self-similar function for which we obtain an explicit expression. The validity range of various approximate analytical solutions is evaluated by comparison to the exact solution.

  15. Human Cerberus prevents nodal-receptor binding, inhibits nodal signaling, and suppresses nodal-mediated phenotypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senem Aykul

    Full Text Available The Transforming Growth Factor-ß (TGFß family ligand Nodal is an essential embryonic morphogen that is associated with progression of breast and other cancers. It has therefore been suggested that Nodal inhibitors could be used to treat breast cancers where Nodal plays a defined role. As secreted antagonists, such as Cerberus, tightly regulate Nodal signaling during embryonic development, we undertook to produce human Cerberus, characterize its biochemical activities, and determine its effect on human breast cancer cells. Using quantitative methods, we investigated the mechanism of Nodal signaling, we evaluated binding of human Cerberus to Nodal and other TGFß family ligands, and we characterized the mechanism of Nodal inhibition by Cerberus. Using cancer cell assays, we examined the ability of Cerberus to suppress aggressive breast cancer cell phenotypes. We found that human Cerberus binds Nodal with high affinity and specificity, blocks binding of Nodal to its signaling partners, and inhibits Nodal signaling. Moreover, we showed that Cerberus profoundly suppresses migration, invasion, and colony forming ability of Nodal expressing and Nodal supplemented breast cancer cells. Taken together, our studies provide mechanistic insights into Nodal signaling and Nodal inhibition with Cerberus and highlight the potential value of Cerberus as anti-Nodal therapeutic.

  16. Nodal methods in numerical reactor calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hennart, J.P. [UNAM, IIMAS, A.P. 20-726, 01000 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)]. e-mail: jean_hennart@hotmail.com; Valle, E. del [National Polytechnic Institute, School of Physics and Mathematics, Department of Nuclear Engineering, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    The present work describes the antecedents, developments and applications started in 1972 with Prof. Hennart who was invited to be part of the staff of the Nuclear Engineering Department at the School of Physics and Mathematics of the National Polytechnic Institute. Since that time and up to 1981, several master theses based on classical finite element methods were developed with applications in point kinetics and in the steady state as well as the time dependent multigroup diffusion equations. After this period the emphasis moved to nodal finite elements in 1, 2 and 3D cartesian geometries. All the thesis were devoted to the numerical solution of the neutron multigroup diffusion and transport equations, few of them including the time dependence, most of them related with steady state diffusion equations. The main contributions were as follows: high order nodal schemes for the primal and mixed forms of the diffusion equations, block-centered finite-differences methods, post-processing, composite nodal finite elements for hexagons, and weakly and strongly discontinuous schemes for the transport equation. Some of these are now being used by several researchers involved in nuclear fuel management. (Author)

  17. Nodal methods in numerical reactor calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hennart, J.P.; Valle, E. del

    2004-01-01

    The present work describes the antecedents, developments and applications started in 1972 with Prof. Hennart who was invited to be part of the staff of the Nuclear Engineering Department at the School of Physics and Mathematics of the National Polytechnic Institute. Since that time and up to 1981, several master theses based on classical finite element methods were developed with applications in point kinetics and in the steady state as well as the time dependent multigroup diffusion equations. After this period the emphasis moved to nodal finite elements in 1, 2 and 3D cartesian geometries. All the thesis were devoted to the numerical solution of the neutron multigroup diffusion and transport equations, few of them including the time dependence, most of them related with steady state diffusion equations. The main contributions were as follows: high order nodal schemes for the primal and mixed forms of the diffusion equations, block-centered finite-differences methods, post-processing, composite nodal finite elements for hexagons, and weakly and strongly discontinuous schemes for the transport equation. Some of these are now being used by several researchers involved in nuclear fuel management. (Author)

  18. An Analytical Model for Adsorption and Diffusion of Atoms/Ions on Graphene Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Zi Yu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical investigations are made on adsorption and diffusion of atoms/ions on graphene surface based on an analytical continuous model. An atom/ion interacts with every carbon atom of graphene through a pairwise potential which can be approximated by the Lennard-Jones (L-J potential. Using the Fourier expansion of the interaction potential, the total interaction energy between the adsorption atom/ion and a monolayer graphene is derived. The energy-distance relationships in the normal and lateral directions for varied atoms/ions, including gold atom (Au, platinum atom (Pt, manganese ion (Mn2+, sodium ion (Na1+, and lithium-ion (Li1+, on monolayer graphene surface are analyzed. The equilibrium position and binding energy of the atoms/ions at three particular adsorption sites (hollow, bridge, and top are calculated, and the adsorption stability is discussed. The results show that H-site is the most stable adsorption site, which is in agreement with the results of other literatures. What is more, the periodic interaction energy and interaction forces of lithium-ion diffusing along specific paths on graphene surface are also obtained and analyzed. The minimum energy barrier for diffusion is calculated. The possible applications of present study include drug delivery system (DDS, atomic scale friction, rechargeable lithium-ion graphene battery, and energy storage in carbon materials.

  19. Analytical solution of reaction-diffusion equations for calcium wave propagation in a starburst amacrine cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poznanski, R R

    2010-09-01

    A reaction-diffusion model is presented to encapsulate calcium-induced calcium release (CICR) as a potential mechanism for somatofugal bias of dendritic calcium movement in starburst amacrine cells. Calcium dynamics involves a simple calcium extrusion (pump) and a buffering mechanism of calcium binding proteins homogeneously distributed over the plasma membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum within starburst amacrine cells. The system of reaction-diffusion equations in the excess buffer (or low calcium concentration) approximation are reformulated as a nonlinear Volterra integral equation which is solved analytically via a regular perturbation series expansion in response to calcium feedback from a continuously and uniformly distributed calcium sources. Calculation of luminal calcium diffusion in the absence of buffering enables a wave to travel at distances of 120 μm from the soma to distal tips of a starburst amacrine cell dendrite in 100 msec, yet in the presence of discretely distributed calcium-binding proteins it is unknown whether the propagating calcium wave-front in the somatofugal direction is further impeded by endogenous buffers. If so, this would indicate CICR to be an unlikely mechanism of retinal direction selectivity in starburst amacrine cells.

  20. Sound energy decay in coupled spaces using a parametric analytical solution of a diffusion equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luizard, Paul; Polack, Jean-Dominique; Katz, Brian F G

    2014-05-01

    Sound field behavior in performance spaces is a complex phenomenon. Issues regarding coupled spaces present additional concerns due to sound energy exchanges. Coupled volume concert halls have been of increasing interest in recent decades because this architectural principle offers the possibility to modify the hall's acoustical environment in a passive way by modifying the coupling area. Under specific conditions, the use of coupled reverberation chambers can provide non-exponential sound energy decay in the main room, resulting in both high clarity and long reverberation which are antagonistic parameters in a single volume room. Previous studies have proposed various sound energy decay models based on statistical acoustics and diffusion theory. Statistical acoustics assumes a perfectly uniform sound field within a given room whereas measurements show an attenuation of energy with increasing source-receiver distance. While previously proposed models based on diffusion theory use numerical solvers, the present study proposes a heuristic model of sound energy behavior based on an analytical solution of the commonly used diffusion equation and physically justified approximations. This model is validated by means of comparisons to scale model measurements and numerical geometrical acoustics simulations, both applied to the same simple concert hall geometry.

  1. A nodal collocation method for the calculation of the lambda modes of the P L equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capilla, M.; Talavera, C.F.; Ginestar, D.; Verdu, G.

    2005-01-01

    P L equations are classical approximations to the neutron transport equation admitting a diffusive form. Using this property, a nodal collocation method is developed for the P L approximations, which is based on the expansion of the flux in terms of orthonormal Legendre polynomials. This method approximates the differential lambda modes problem by an algebraic eigenvalue problem from which the fundamental and the subcritical modes of the system can be calculated. To test the performance of this method, two problems have been considered, a homogeneous slab, which admits an analytical solution, and a seven-region slab corresponding to a more realistic problem

  2. Response matrix properties and convergence implications for an interface-current nodal formulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, W.S.

    1995-01-01

    An analytic study was performed of the properties and the associated convergence implications of the response matrix equations derived via the widely used nodal expansion method. By using the DIF3D nodal formulation in hexagonal-z geometry as a concrete example, an analytic expression for the response matrix is first derived by using the hexagonal prism symmetry transformations. The spectral radius of the local response matrix is shown to be always 2 -norm of the response matrix is shown to be ∞ -norm is not always 2 - and l ∞ -norms of the response matrix are found to increase as the removal cross section decreases. On the other hand, for a given removal cross section, each of these matrix norms takes its minimum at a certain diffusion coefficient and increases as the diffusion coefficient deviates from this value. Based on these matrix norms, sufficient conditions for the convergence of the iteration schemes for solving the response matrix equations are discussed. The range of node-height-to-hexagon-pitch ratios that guarantees a positive solution is derived as a function of the diffusion coefficient and the removal cross section

  3. Cavitary pulmonary involvement of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma transformed from extra nodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma MALT type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamane, Hiromichi; Ohsawa, Masahiro; Shiote, Yasuhiro; Umemura, Shigeki; Suwaki, Toshimitsu; Shirakawa, Atsuko; Kamei, Haruhito; Takigawa, Nagio; Kiura, Katsuyuki

    2011-12-01

    We describe a case of pulmonary diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), which was thought to arise from extranodal marginal zone lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma). A 68-year-old woman presented with a 2-month history of cough and bloody sputum. The chest X-ray and computed tomography revealed a mass with cavitation in the right lower lobe. Transbronchial biopsy specimens revealed a granulomatous infiltration without malignant cells. However, diagnosis of MALT lymphoma was established from gastric biopsy specimen. Subsequently, a right lower lobectomy was performed because of hemoptysis. Examination of the resected specimen revealed a diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, which was considered to have transformed from MALT lymphoma, because both lung and stomach lesions had the chromosomal translocation t(11;18)(q21;q21) in common. In addition, there were no nodules, masses, alveolar or interstitial infiltrates in the lung fields, which are usually observed in the case of marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of bronchial mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue. These findings indicate that involvement of DLBCL have to be considered in patients with MALT lymphoma and cavitary lesion of the lung.

  4. Numerical Test of Analytical Theories for Perpendicular Diffusion in Small Kubo Number Turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heusen, M.; Shalchi, A.

    2017-01-01

    In the literature, one can find various analytical theories for perpendicular diffusion of energetic particles interacting with magnetic turbulence. Besides quasi-linear theory, there are different versions of the nonlinear guiding center (NLGC) theory and the unified nonlinear transport (UNLT) theory. For turbulence with high Kubo numbers, such as two-dimensional turbulence or noisy reduced magnetohydrodynamic turbulence, the aforementioned nonlinear theories provide similar results. For slab and small Kubo number turbulence, however, this is not the case. In the current paper, we compare different linear and nonlinear theories with each other and test-particle simulations for a noisy slab model corresponding to small Kubo number turbulence. We show that UNLT theory agrees very well with all performed test-particle simulations. In the limit of long parallel mean free paths, the perpendicular mean free path approaches asymptotically the quasi-linear limit as predicted by the UNLT theory. For short parallel mean free paths we find a Rechester and Rosenbluth type of scaling as predicted by UNLT theory as well. The original NLGC theory disagrees with all performed simulations regardless what the parallel mean free path is. The random ballistic interpretation of the NLGC theory agrees much better with the simulations, but compared to UNLT theory the agreement is inferior. We conclude that for this type of small Kubo number turbulence, only the latter theory allows for an accurate description of perpendicular diffusion.

  5. Numerical Test of Analytical Theories for Perpendicular Diffusion in Small Kubo Number Turbulence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heusen, M.; Shalchi, A., E-mail: husseinm@myumanitoba.ca, E-mail: andreasm4@yahoo.com [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB R3T 2N2 (Canada)

    2017-04-20

    In the literature, one can find various analytical theories for perpendicular diffusion of energetic particles interacting with magnetic turbulence. Besides quasi-linear theory, there are different versions of the nonlinear guiding center (NLGC) theory and the unified nonlinear transport (UNLT) theory. For turbulence with high Kubo numbers, such as two-dimensional turbulence or noisy reduced magnetohydrodynamic turbulence, the aforementioned nonlinear theories provide similar results. For slab and small Kubo number turbulence, however, this is not the case. In the current paper, we compare different linear and nonlinear theories with each other and test-particle simulations for a noisy slab model corresponding to small Kubo number turbulence. We show that UNLT theory agrees very well with all performed test-particle simulations. In the limit of long parallel mean free paths, the perpendicular mean free path approaches asymptotically the quasi-linear limit as predicted by the UNLT theory. For short parallel mean free paths we find a Rechester and Rosenbluth type of scaling as predicted by UNLT theory as well. The original NLGC theory disagrees with all performed simulations regardless what the parallel mean free path is. The random ballistic interpretation of the NLGC theory agrees much better with the simulations, but compared to UNLT theory the agreement is inferior. We conclude that for this type of small Kubo number turbulence, only the latter theory allows for an accurate description of perpendicular diffusion.

  6. The Analytical Diffusion-Expansion Model for Forbush Decreases Caused by Flux Ropes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumbovic, M.; Temmer, M.

    2017-12-01

    Identification and tracking of interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) throughout the heliosphere is a growingly important aspect of space weather research. One of the "signatures" of ICME passage is the corresponding Forbush decrease (FD), a short term decrease in the galactic cosmic ray flux. These depressions are observed at the surface of the Earth for over 50 years, by several spacecraft in interplanetary space in the past couple of decades, and recently also on Mars' surface with Curiosity rover. In order to use FDs as ICME signatures efficiently, it is important to model ICME interaction with energetic particles by taking into account ICME evolution and constraining the model with observational data. We present an analytical diffusion-expansion FD model ForbMod which is based on the widely used approach of the initially empty, closed magnetic structure (i.e. flux rope) which fills up slowly with particles by perpendicular diffusion. The model is restricted to explain only the depression caused by the magnetic structure of the ICME and not of the associated shock. We use remote CME observations and a 3D reconstruction method (the Graduated Cylindrical Shell method) to constrain initial and boundary conditions of the FD model and take into account CME evolutionary properties by incorporating flux rope expansion. Several options of flux rope expansion are regarded as the competing mechanism to diffusion which can lead to different FD characteristics. This project has received funding from the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under the Marie Skłodowska-Curie grant agreement No 745782.

  7. A Manifesto of Nodalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monty Adkins

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes the notion of Nodalism as a means describing contemporary culture and of understanding my own creative practice in electronic music composition. It draws on theories and ideas from Kirby, Bauman, Bourriaud, Deleuze, Guatarri, and Gochenour, to demonstrate how networks of ideas or connectionist neural models of cognitive behaviour can be used to contextualize, understand and become a creative tool for the creation of contemporary electronic music.

  8. Bilinear nodal transport method in weighted diamond difference form

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azmy, Y.Y.

    1987-01-01

    Nodal methods have been developed and implemented for the numerical solution of the discrete ordinates neutron transport equation. Numerical testing of these methods and comparison of their results to those obtained by conventional methods have established the high accuracy of nodal methods. Furthermore, it has been suggested that the linear-linear approximation is the most computationally efficient, practical nodal approximation. Indeed, this claim has been substantiated by comparing the accuracy in the solution, and the CPU time required to achieve convergence to that solution by several nodal approximations, as well as the diamond difference scheme. Two types of linear-linear nodal methods have been developed in the literature: analytic linear-linear (NLL) methods, in which the transverse-leakage terms are derived analytically, and approximate linear-linear (PLL) methods, in which these terms are approximated. In spite of their higher accuracy, NLL methods result in very complicated discrete-variable equations that exhibit a high degree of coupling, thus requiring special solution algorithms. On the other hand, the sacrificed accuracy in PLL methods is compensated for by the simple discrete-variable equations and diamond-difference-like solution algorithm. In this paper the authors outline the development of an NLL nodal method, the bilinear method, which can be written in a weighted diamond difference form with one spatial weight per dimension that is analytically derived rather than preassigned in an ad hoc fashion

  9. A new analytical formulation of retention effects on particle diffusion processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Bevilacqua

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The ultimate purpose of this paper is to present a new analytical formulation to simulate diffusion with retention in a reactive medium under stable thermodynamic conditions. The analysis of diffusion with retention in a continuum medium is developed after the solution of an equivalent problem using a discrete approach. The new law may be interpreted as the reduction of all diffusion processes with retention to a unifying phenomenon that can adequately simulate the retention effect namely a circulatory motion. It is remarkable that the governing equation requires a fourth order differential term as suggested by the discrete approach. The relative fraction of diffusion particles β is introduced as a control parameter in the diffusion-retention law as suggested by the discrete approach. This control parameter is essential to avoid retention isolated from the diffusion process. Two matrices referring to material properties are introduced and related to the real phenomenon through the circulation hypothesis. The governing equation may be highly non-linear even if the material properties are constant, but the retention effect is a function of the concentration level, that is, β is a function of the concentration.O objetivo último desse trabalho é apresentar uma nova formulação analítica para simular difusão com retenção em um meio reativo sob condições termodinamicamente estáveis. A análise da difusão com retenção em um meio contínuo é desenvolvida a partir da solução de um problema equivalente usando uma abordagem discreta. A nova lei pode ser interpretada como a redução de todos os processos de difusão com retenção a um fenômeno unificador que pode simular adequadamente a retenção. O propósito principal desse trabalho é apresentar uma nova formulação analítica para simular difusão com retenção em meio reativo termodinamicamente estável. A análise da difusão com retenção em um meio contínuo é desenvolvido

  10. Analytical Solution of Nonlinear Dynamics of a Self-Igniting Reaction-Diffusion System Using Modified Adomian Decomposition Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicia Shirly Peace

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical model of the dynamics of the self-ignition of a reaction-diffusion system is studied in this paper. An approximate analytical method (modified Adomian decomposition method is used to solve nonlinear differential equations under steady-state condition. Analytical expressions for concentrations of the gas reactant and the temperature have been derived for Lewis number (Le and parameters β, γ, and ϕ2. Furthermore, in this work, the numerical simulation of the problem is also reported using MATLAB program. An agreement between analytical and numerical results is noted.

  11. Derivation of an Analytical Solution to a Reaction-Diffusion Model for Autocatalytic Degradation and Erosion in Polymer Microspheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford Versypt, Ashlee N; Arendt, Paul D; Pack, Daniel W; Braatz, Richard D

    2015-01-01

    A mathematical reaction-diffusion model is defined to describe the gradual decomposition of polymer microspheres composed of poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) that are used for pharmaceutical drug delivery over extended periods of time. The partial differential equation (PDE) model treats simultaneous first-order generation due to chemical reaction and diffusion of reaction products in spherical geometry to capture the microsphere-size-dependent effects of autocatalysis on PLGA erosion that occurs when the microspheres are exposed to aqueous media such as biological fluids. The model is solved analytically for the concentration of the autocatalytic carboxylic acid end groups of the polymer chains that comprise the microspheres as a function of radial position and time. The analytical solution for the reaction and transport of the autocatalytic chemical species is useful for predicting the conditions under which drug release from PLGA microspheres transitions from diffusion-controlled to erosion-controlled release, for understanding the dynamic coupling between the PLGA degradation and erosion mechanisms, and for designing drug release particles. The model is the first to provide an analytical prediction for the dynamics and spatial heterogeneities of PLGA degradation and erosion within a spherical particle. The analytical solution is applicable to other spherical systems with simultaneous diffusive transport and first-order generation by reaction.

  12. Avoided intersections of nodal lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monastra, Alejandro G; Smilansky, Uzy; Gnutzmann, Sven

    2003-01-01

    We consider real eigenfunctions of the Schroedinger operator in 2D. The nodal lines of separable systems form a regular grid, and the number of nodal crossings equals the number of nodal domains. In contrast, for wavefunctions of non-integrable systems nodal intersections are rare, and for random waves, the expected number of intersections in any finite area vanishes. However, nodal lines display characteristic avoided crossings which we study in this work. We define a measure for the avoidance range and compute its distribution for the random wave ensemble. We show that the avoidance range distribution of wavefunctions of chaotic systems follows the expected random wave distributions, whereas for wavefunctions of classically integrable but quantum non-separable systems, the distribution is quite different. Thus, the study of the avoidance distribution provides more support to the conjecture that nodal structures of chaotic systems are reproduced by the predictions of the random wave ensemble

  13. Quantitative characterization of organic diffusion using an analytical diffusion-reaction model and its application to assessing BOD removal when treating municipal wastewater in a plug flow reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Chihhao; Kao, Chen-Fei; Liu, Yu-Hsi

    2017-09-15

    The present study aimed to derive an analytical formula to quantify the diffusion of organic contaminant in a biofilm. The experiments were conducted to investigate the BOD degradation under the conditions of influent COD concentration from 50 to 300 mg/L, COD:N:P ratios of 100:5:1 and 100:15:3, with and without auxiliary aeration. The BOD removal rate was around 73% for non-aerated influent COD of 50 mg/L with 1-h hydraulic retention time. The BOD removal rate increased as the influent loading and hydraulic retention time increased while the influent COD was no more than 150 mg/L. Without aeration, the removal rate dropped significantly when influent COD increased to the range no less than 200 mg/L, due to the fact that the BOD diffusive flux driven by the biomass uptake was not further enhanced by higher ambient organic loading. The diffusion coefficient was calculated to be 1.12 × 10 -6  m 2 /d with influent COD of 50 mg/L at COD:N:P ratio of 100:5:1 and 1 h hydraulic retention time and aeration, and the coefficient increased to 3.35 × 10 -6  m 2 /d as the influent COD concentration increased to 300 mg/L. The diffusion coefficient decreased to 4.09 × 10 -7  m 2 /d as the retention time increased to 3 h. The overall diffusion coefficients showed an increasing trend as the influent organic loading increased. The difference in diffusion coefficients between 1 and 2 h was apparently greater than that between 2 and 3 h, indicating a smaller overall diffusive flux due to a longer retention time. Further analysis revealed that BOD diffusion activity exhibited a declining trend as the wastewater travelled through the system. An analytical diffusion-reaction model was developed to characterize the diffusion behaviour, and applied to estimating the treatment efficiency for real domestic sewage. The result showed that the estimated effluent BOD concentrations were quite comparable to those from experimental measurements. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd

  14. Bessel Fourier Orientation Reconstruction (BFOR): An Analytical Diffusion Propagator Reconstruction for Hybrid Diffusion Imaging and Computation of q-Space Indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinbor, A. Pasha; Chung, Moo K.; Wu, Yu-Chien; Alexander, Andrew L.

    2012-01-01

    The ensemble average propagator (EAP) describes the 3D average diffusion process of water molecules, capturing both its radial and angular contents. The EAP can thus provide richer information about complex tissue microstructure properties than the orientation distribution function (ODF), an angular feature of the EAP. Recently, several analytical EAP reconstruction schemes for multiple q-shell acquisitions have been proposed, such as diffusion propagator imaging (DPI) and spherical polar Fourier imaging (SPFI). In this study, a new analytical EAP reconstruction method is proposed, called Bessel Fourier orientation reconstruction (BFOR), whose solution is based on heat equation estimation of the diffusion signal for each shell acquisition, and is validated on both synthetic and real datasets. A significant portion of the paper is dedicated to comparing BFOR, SPFI, and DPI using hybrid, non-Cartesian sampling for multiple b-value acquisitions. Ways to mitigate the effects of Gibbs ringing on EAP reconstruction are also explored. In addition to analytical EAP reconstruction, the aforementioned modeling bases can be used to obtain rotationally invariant q-space indices of potential clinical value, an avenue which has not yet been thoroughly explored. Three such measures are computed: zero-displacement probability (Po), mean squared displacement (MSD), and generalized fractional anisotropy (GFA). PMID:22963853

  15. Nodal algorithm derived from a new variational principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, Fernando V.

    1995-01-01

    As a by-product of the research being carried on by the author on methods of recovering pin power distribution of PWR cores, a nodal algorithm based on a modified variational principle for the two group diffusion equations has been obtained. The main feature of the new algorithm is the low dimensionality achieved by the reduction of the original diffusion equations to a system of algebraic Eigen equations involving the average sources only, instead of sources and interface group currents used in conventional nodal methods. The advantage of this procedure is discussed and results generated by the new algorithm and by a finite difference code are compared. (author). 2 refs, 7 tabs

  16. Development and validation of a nodal code for core calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowakowski, Pedro Mariano

    2004-01-01

    The code RHENO solves the multigroup three-dimensional diffusion equation using a nodal method of polynomial expansion.A comparative study has been made between this code and present internationals nodal diffusion codes, resulting that the RHENO is up to date.The RHENO has been integrated to a calculation line and has been extend to make burnup calculations.Two methods for pin power reconstruction were developed: modulation and imbedded. The modulation method has been implemented in a program, while the implementation of the imbedded method will be concluded shortly.The validation carried out (that includes experimental data of a MPR) show very good results and calculation efficiency

  17. Numerical solution of the equation of neutrons transport on plane geometry by analytical schemes using acceleration by synthetic diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso-Vargas, G.

    1991-01-01

    A computer program has been developed which uses a technique of synthetic acceleration by diffusion by analytical schemes. Both in the diffusion equation as in that of transport, analytical schemes were used which allowed a substantial time saving in the number of iterations required by source iteration method to obtain the K e ff. The program developed ASD (Synthetic Diffusion Acceleration) by diffusion was written in FORTRAN and can be executed on a personal computer with a hard disc and mathematical O-processor. The program is unlimited as to the number of regions and energy groups. The results obtained by the ASD program for K e ff is nearly completely concordant with those of obtained utilizing the ANISN-PC code for different analytical type problems in this work. The ASD program allowed obtention of an approximate solution of the neutron transport equation with a relatively low number of internal reiterations with good precision. One of its applications would be in the direct determinations of axial distribution neutronic flow in a fuel assembly as well as in the obtention of the effective multiplication factor. (Author)

  18. Nodal approximations in space and time for neutron kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grossman, L.M.; Hennart, J.P.

    2005-01-01

    A general formalism is described of the nodal type in time and space for the neutron kinetics equations. In space, several nodal methods are given of the Raviart-Thomas type (RT0 and RT1), of the Brezzi-Douglas-Marini type (BDM0 and BDM1) and of the Brezzi-Douglas-Fortin-Marini type (BDFM 1). In time, polynomial and analytical approximations are derived. In the analytical case, they are based on the inclusion of an exponential term in the basis function. They can be continuous or discontinuous in time, leading in particular to the well-known Crank-Nicolson, Backward Euler and θ schemes

  19. Nodal approximations in space and time for neutron kinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grossman, L.M. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Hennart, J.P. [Department of Mathematical and Numerical Methods, Institute for Research in Applied Mathematics and Systems, National Autonomous University of Mexico, A.P. 20-726, 01000 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    A general formalism is described of the nodal type in time and space for the neutron kinetics equations. In space, several nodal methods are given of the Raviart-Thomas type (RT0 and RT1), of the Brezzi-Douglas-Marini type (BDM0 and BDM1) and of the Brezzi-Douglas-Fortin-Marini type (BDFM 1). In time, polynomial and analytical approximations are derived. In the analytical case, they are based on the inclusion of an exponential term in the basis function. They can be continuous or discontinuous in time, leading in particular to the well-known Crank-Nicolson, Backward Euler and {theta} schemes.

  20. The PLUS family: A set of computer programs to evaluate analytical solutions of the diffusion equation and thermoelasticity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montan, D.N.

    1987-02-01

    This report is intended to describe, document and provide instructions for the use of new versions of a set of computer programs commonly referred to as the PLUS family. These programs were originally designed to numerically evaluate simple analytical solutions of the diffusion equation. The new versions include linear thermo-elastic effects from thermal fields calculated by the diffusion equation. After the older versions of the PLUS family were documented a year ago, it was realized that the techniques employed in the programs were well suited to the addition of linear thermo-elastic phenomena. This has been implemented and this report describes the additions. 3 refs., 14 figs

  1. The SINTRAN III NODAL system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skaali, T.B.

    1980-10-01

    NODAL is a high level programming language based on FOCAL and SNOBOL4, with some influence from BASIC. The language was developed to operate on the computer network controlling the SPS accelerator at CERN. NODAL is an interpretive language designed for interactive use. This is the most important aspect of the language, and is reflected in its structure. The interactive facilities make it possible to write, debug and modify programs much faster than with compiler based languages like FORTRAN and ALGOL. Apart from a few minor modifications, the basic part of the Oslo University NODAL system does not differ from the CERN version. However, the Oslo University implementation has been expanded with new functions which enable the user to execute many of the SINTRAN III monitor calls from the NODAL level. In particular the most important RT monitor calls have been implemented in this way, a property which renders possible the use of NODAL as a RT program administrator. (JIW)

  2. LOLA SYSTEM: A code block for nodal PWR simulation. Part. I - Simula-3 Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aragones, J. M.; Ahnert, C.; Gomez Santamaria, J.; Rodriguez Olabarria, I.

    1985-07-01

    Description of the theory and users manual of the SIMULA-3 code, which is part of the core calculation system by nodal theory in one group, called LOLA SYSTEM. SIMULA-3 is the main module of the system, it uses a modified nodal theory, with interface leakages equivalent to the diffusion theory. (Author) 4 refs.

  3. LOLA SYSTEM: A code block for nodal PWR simulation. Part. I - Simula-3 Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aragones, J. M.; Ahnert, C.; Gomez Santamaria, J.; Rodriguez Olabarria, I.

    1985-01-01

    Description of the theory and users manual of the SIMULA-3 code, which is part of the core calculation system by nodal theory in one group, called LOLA SYSTEM. SIMULA-3 is the main module of the system, it uses a modified nodal theory, with interface leakages equivalent to the diffusion theory. (Author) 4 refs

  4. Determination of neutron buildup factor using analytical solution of one-dimensional neutron diffusion equation in cylindrical geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, Julio Cesar L.; Vilhena, Marco Tullio; Borges, Volnei; Bodmann, Bardo Ernest

    2011-01-01

    The principal idea of this work, consist on formulate an analytical method to solved problems for diffusion of neutrons with isotropic scattering in one-dimensional cylindrical geometry. In this area were develop many works that study the same problem in different system of coordinates as well as cartesian system, nevertheless using numerical methods to solve the shielding problem. In view of good results in this works, we starting with the idea that we can represent a source in the origin of the cylindrical system by a Delta Dirac distribution, we describe the physical modeling and solved the neutron diffusion equation inside of cylinder of radius R. For the case of transport equation, the formulation of discrete ordinates S N consists in discretize the angular variables in N directions and in using a quadrature angular set for approximate the sources of scattering, where the Diffusion equation consist on S 2 approximated transport equation in discrete ordinates. We solved the neutron diffusion equation with an analytical form by the finite Hankel transform. Was presented also the build-up factor for the case that we have neutron flux inside the cylinder. (author)

  5. Determination of neutron buildup factor using analytical solution of one-dimensional neutron diffusion equation in cylindrical geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, Julio Cesar L.; Vilhena, Marco Tullio, E-mail: julio.lombaldo@ufrgs.b, E-mail: vilhena@pq.cnpq.b [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (DMPA/UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Dept. de Matematica Pura e Aplicada. Programa de Pos Graduacao em Matematica Aplicada; Borges, Volnei; Bodmann, Bardo Ernest, E-mail: bardo.bodmann@ufrgs.b, E-mail: borges@ufrgs.b [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (PROMEC/UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Mecanica

    2011-07-01

    The principal idea of this work, consist on formulate an analytical method to solved problems for diffusion of neutrons with isotropic scattering in one-dimensional cylindrical geometry. In this area were develop many works that study the same problem in different system of coordinates as well as cartesian system, nevertheless using numerical methods to solve the shielding problem. In view of good results in this works, we starting with the idea that we can represent a source in the origin of the cylindrical system by a Delta Dirac distribution, we describe the physical modeling and solved the neutron diffusion equation inside of cylinder of radius R. For the case of transport equation, the formulation of discrete ordinates S{sub N} consists in discretize the angular variables in N directions and in using a quadrature angular set for approximate the sources of scattering, where the Diffusion equation consist on S{sub 2} approximated transport equation in discrete ordinates. We solved the neutron diffusion equation with an analytical form by the finite Hankel transform. Was presented also the build-up factor for the case that we have neutron flux inside the cylinder. (author)

  6. Analytical solution of spatial kinetics of the diffusion model for subcritical homogeneous systems driven by external source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Fernando Luiz de

    2008-01-01

    This work describes an analytical solution obtained by the expansion method for the spatial kinetics using the diffusion model with delayed emission for source transients in homogeneous media. In particular, starting from simple models, and increasing the complexity, numerical results were obtained for different types of source transients. An analytical solution of the one group without precursors was solved, followed by considering one precursors family. The general case of G-groups with R families of precursor although having a closed form solution, cannot be solved analytically, since there are no explicit formulae for the eigenvalues, and numerical methods must be used to solve such problem. To illustrate the general solution, the multi-group (three groups) time-dependent problem without precursors was solved and the numerical results of a finite difference code were compared with the exact results for different transients. (author)

  7. A comparison between nodal expansion method and nodal Green's function method - 038

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Deng-ying; Li Fu; Hu, Yong-ming; Guo, Jiong; Wei, Jin-Feng; Zhang, Jing-yu

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a unified formulation of the Nodal Expansion Method (NEM) and Nodal Green's Function Method (NGFM) in Cartesian geometry although there is a significant difference between them. Both methods employ the same inner iterative scheme namely Row-Column iteration strategy to solve the interface current equation. It's generally believed that the NEM is somewhat faster than the NGFM. However, calculations of IAEA3D benchmark problem carried out by newly implemented NGFM and NEM show that not only the accuracy but also the performance of the NGFM are better than that of the NEM in Cartesian geometry. Both the NGFM and NEM are extended to solve neutron diffusion equation in cylindrical geometry. Since the traditional transverse integration fails to produce a 1-D transverse integrated equation in Θ-direction, a simple approach is introduced to obtain this equation in Θ-direction. The 1-D transverse integrated equations in r-direction are solved by the NEM using the special polynomials and by the NGFM using Green's function based on modified Bessel function respectively. The same iterative scheme employed for Cartesian geometry can be readily applied to the cylindrical geometry case. The Cylindrical Nodal Expansion Method (CNEM) and the Cylindrical Nodal Green's Function Method (CNGFM) codes are developed and applied to Dodd's r-z benchmark problem. The results show that both the CNEM and CNGFM are capable of very high performance and accuracy in cylindrical geometry. Meanwhile this paper demonstrates that nodal methods have prominent advantages over traditional finite difference method in both Cartesian geometry and cylindrical geometry. (authors)

  8. Low-coverage surface diffusion in complex periodic energy landscapes. II. Analytical solution for systems with asymmetric hops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosálvez, Miguel A.; Otrokov, Mikhail M.; Ferrando, Nestor; Ryabishchenkova, Anastasia G.; Ayuela, Andres; Echenique, Pedro M.; Chulkov, Evgueni V.

    2016-05-01

    This is part II in a series of two papers that introduce a general expression for the tracer diffusivity in complex, periodic energy landscapes with M distinct hop rates in one-, two-, and three-dimensional diluted systems (low coverage, single-tracer limit). While Part I [Gosálvez et al., Phys. Rev. B 93, 075429 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevB.93.075429] focuses on the analysis of diffusion in systems where the end sites of the hops are located symmetrically with respect to the hop origins (symmetric hops), as encountered in many ideal surfaces and bulk materials, this report (Part II) presents a more general approach to determining the tracer diffusivity in systems where the end sites can be located asymmetrically with respect to the hop origins (asymmetric hops), as observed in reconstructed and/or chemically modified surfaces and/or bulk materials. The obtained diffusivity formulas for numerous systems are validated against kinetic Monte Carlo simulations and previously reported analytical expressions based on the continuous-time random walk (CTRW) method. The proposed method corrects some of the CTRW formulas and provides new expressions for difficult cases that have not been solved earlier. This demonstrates the ability of the proposed formalism to describe tracer diffusion.

  9. Nodal Statistics on Quantum Graphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alon, Lior; Band, Ram; Berkolaiko, Gregory

    2018-03-01

    It has been suggested that the distribution of the suitably normalized number of zeros of Laplacian eigenfunctions contains information about the geometry of the underlying domain. We study this distribution (more precisely, the distribution of the "nodal surplus") for Laplacian eigenfunctions of a metric graph. The existence of the distribution is established, along with its symmetry. One consequence of the symmetry is that the graph's first Betti number can be recovered as twice the average nodal surplus of its eigenfunctions. Furthermore, for graphs with disjoint cycles it is proven that the distribution has a universal form—it is binomial over the allowed range of values of the surplus. To prove the latter result, we introduce the notion of a local nodal surplus and study its symmetry and dependence properties, establishing that the local nodal surpluses of disjoint cycles behave like independent Bernoulli variables.

  10. Approximate Analytic Solutions of Transient Nonlinear Heat Conduction with Temperature-Dependent Thermal Diffusivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. T. Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A new approach for generating approximate analytic solutions of transient nonlinear heat conduction problems is presented. It is based on an effective combination of Lie symmetry method, homotopy perturbation method, finite element method, and simulation based error reduction techniques. Implementation of the proposed approach is demonstrated by applying it to determine approximate analytic solutions of real life problems consisting of transient nonlinear heat conduction in semi-infinite bars made of stainless steel AISI 304 and mild steel. The results from the approximate analytical solutions and the numerical solution are compared indicating good agreement.

  11. NODAL interpreter for CP/M

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oide, Katsunobu.

    1982-11-01

    A NODAL interpreter which works under CP/M operating system is made for microcomputers. This interpreter language named NODAL-80 has a similar structure to the NODAL of SPS, but its commands, variables, and expressions are modified to increase the flexibility of programming. NODAL-80 also uses a simple intermediate code to make the execution speed fast without imposing any restriction on the dynamic feature of NODAL language. (author)

  12. Considerations of particle vaporization and analyte diffusion in single-particle inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, Koon-Sing; Lui, Kwok-On; Lee, Kin-Ho; Chan, Wing-Tat, E-mail: wtchan@hku.hk

    2013-11-01

    The intensity of individual gold nanoparticles with nominal diameters of 80, 100, 150, and 200 nm was measured using single-particle inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Since the particles are not perfectly monodisperse, a distribution of ICP-MS intensity was obtained for each nominal diameter. The distribution of particle mass was determined from the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) image of the particles. The distribution of ICP-MS intensity and the distribution of particle mass for each nominal diameter were correlated to give a calibration curve. The calibration curves are linear, but the slope decreases as the nominal diameter increases. The reduced slope is probably due to a smaller degree of vaporization of the large particles. In addition to the degree of particle vaporization, the rate of analyte diffusion in the ICP is an important factor that determines the measured ICP-MS intensity. Simulated ICP-MS intensity versus particle size was calculated using a simple computer program that accounts for the vaporization rate of the gold nanoparticles and the diffusion rate and degree of ionization of the gold atoms. The curvature of the simulated calibration curves changes with sampling depth because the effects of particle vaporization and analyte diffusion on the ICP-MS intensity are dependent on the residence time of the particle in the ICP. Calibration curves of four hypothetical particles representing the four combinations of high and low boiling points (2000 and 4000 K) and high and low analyte diffusion rates (atomic masses of 10 and 200 Da) were calculated to further illustrate the relative effects of particle vaporization and analyte diffusion. The simulated calibration curves show that the sensitivity of single-particle ICP-MS is smaller than that of the ICP-MS measurement of continuous flow of standard solutions by a factor of 2 or more. Calibration using continuous flow of standard solution is semi-quantitative at best. An

  13. Ionization statistics and diffusion: analytical estimate of their contribution to spatial resolution of drift chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarnopolsky, G.J.

    1983-01-01

    The spatial resolution of a drift chamber often is the foremost design parameter. The calculation described here - a design tool - permits us to estimate the contributions of ionization statistics and diffusion to the spatial resolution when actually sampling the drift pulse waveform. Useful formulae are derived for the cylindrical and jet-chamber cell geometries

  14. The application of isogeometric analysis to the neutron diffusion equation for a pincell problem with an analytic benchmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, S.K.; Eaton, M.D.; Williams, M.M.R.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Isogeometric analysis used to obtain solutions to the neutron diffusion equation. ► Exact geometry captured for a circular fuel pin within a square moderator. ► Comparisons are made between the finite element method and isogeometric analysis. ► Error and observed order of convergence found using an analytic solution. -- Abstract: In this paper the neutron diffusion equation is solved using Isogeometric Analysis (IGA), which is an attempt to generalise Finite Element Analysis (FEA) to include exact geometries. In contrast to FEA, the basis functions are rational functions instead of polynomials. These rational functions, called non-uniform rational B-splines, are used to capture both the geometry and approximate the solution. The method of manufactured solutions is used to verify a MatLab implementation of IGA, which is then applied to a pincell problem. This is a circular uranium fuel pin within a square block of graphite moderator. A new method is used to compute an analytic solution to a simplified version of this problem, and is then used to observe the order of convergence of the numerical scheme. Comparisons are made against quadratic finite elements for the pincell problem, and it is found that the disadvantage factor computed using IGA is less accurate. This is due to a cancellation of errors in the FEA solution. A modified pincell problem with vacuum boundary conditions is then considered. IGA is shown to outperform FEA in this situation.

  15. Nodal metastasis in thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samuel, A.M.

    1999-01-01

    The biological behavior and hence the prognosis of thyroid cancer (TC) depends among other factors on the extent of spread of the disease outside the thyroid bed. This effect is controversial, especially for nodal metastasis of well differentiated thyroid carcinoma (WDC). Nodal metastasis at the time of initial diagnosis behaves differently depending on the histology, age of the patient, presence of extrathyroidal extension, and the sex of the individual. The type of the surgery, administration of 131 I and thyroxin suppression also to some extent influence the rate of recurrence and mortality. Experience has shown that it is not as innocuous as a small intrathyroidal tumor without any invasion outside the thyroid bed and due consideration should be accorded to the management strategies for handling patients with nodal metastasis

  16. Double Helix Nodal Line Superconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiao-Qi; Lian, Biao; Zhang, Shou-Cheng

    2017-10-01

    Time-reversal invariant superconductors in three dimensions may contain nodal lines in the Brillouin zone, which behave as Wilson loops of 3D momentum-space Chern-Simons theory of the Berry connection. Here we study the conditions of realizing linked nodal lines (Wilson loops), which yield a topological contribution to the thermal magnetoelectric coefficient that is given by the Chern-Simons action. We find the essential conditions are the existence of torus or higher genus Fermi surfaces and spiral spin textures. We construct such a model with two torus Fermi surfaces, where a generic spin-dependent interaction leads to double-helix-like linked nodal lines as the superconductivity is developed.

  17. Analytical study on the fractional anomalous diffusion in a half-plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xicheng; Chen, Wen

    2010-12-01

    In this study, anomalous diffusion in a half-plane with a constant source and a perfect sink at each half of the boundary is considered. The discontinuity of the boundary condition is erased by decomposing the solution into two parts—a symmetric part and an antisymmetric part. The symmetric part which has been studied extensively can be solved by an integral transform method, Green's function method or others. To obtain the solution of the antisymmetric part, a separable similarity solution is assumed and the Erdélyi-Kober-type fractional derivative is used. By doing so, the partial differential equation reduces to an ordinary one. Using the Mellin transform method, the solution of the antisymmetric part in terms of a Fox-H function is obtained. Some figures are given to show the characters of the diffusion process and the influences of different orders of fractional derivatives.

  18. Analytical study on the fractional anomalous diffusion in a half-plane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xicheng; Chen Wen

    2010-01-01

    In this study, anomalous diffusion in a half-plane with a constant source and a perfect sink at each half of the boundary is considered. The discontinuity of the boundary condition is erased by decomposing the solution into two parts-a symmetric part and an antisymmetric part. The symmetric part which has been studied extensively can be solved by an integral transform method, Green's function method or others. To obtain the solution of the antisymmetric part, a separable similarity solution is assumed and the Erdelyi-Kober-type fractional derivative is used. By doing so, the partial differential equation reduces to an ordinary one. Using the Mellin transform method, the solution of the antisymmetric part in terms of a Fox-H function is obtained. Some figures are given to show the characters of the diffusion process and the influences of different orders of fractional derivatives.

  19. Analytical solutions of convection–diffusion problems by combining Laplace transform method and homotopy perturbation method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit Gupta

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to present a user friendly numerical algorithm based on homotopy perturbation transform method for solving various linear and nonlinear convection-diffusion problems arising in physical phenomena where particles, energy, or other physical quantities are transferred inside a physical system due to two processes: diffusion and convection. The homotopy perturbation transform method is a combined form of the homotopy perturbation method and Laplace transform method. The nonlinear terms can be easily obtained by the use of He’s polynomials. The technique presents an accurate methodology to solve many types of partial differential equations The approximate solutions obtained by proposed scheme in a wide range of the problem’s domain were compared with those results obtained from the actual solutions. The comparison shows a precise agreement between the results.

  20. An analytic algorithm for the space-time fractional reaction-diffusion equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. G. Brikaa

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we solve the space-time fractional reaction-diffusion equation by the fractional homotopy analysis method. Solutions of different examples of the reaction term will be computed and investigated. The approximation solutions of the studied models will be put in the form of convergent series to be easily computed and simulated. Comparison with the approximation solution of the classical case of the studied modeled with their approximation errors will also be studied.

  1. Distance Diffusion of Home Bias for Crowdfunding Campaigns between Categories: Insights from Data Analytics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihuan Guo

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available As the information communication and investment of crowdfunding campaigns are usually accomplished online, online crowdfunding theoretically breaks the limitation of space. However, investors’ behaviors still show significant home bias; furthermore, from a dynamic view, the changes in home bias during the funding duration reflect the investment preference. This paper studies the dynamics of home bias in crowdfunding investment as well as the distance diffusion of home bias in the crowdfunding market through data mining and econometric models. The distance between investors and founders gradually increases from 3605 km to 4229 km as the funding progresses, and home bias shows different diffusion patterns between categories. For most of the campaigns, the distance between backers and founders of the successful campaigns is always greater than that of the failed ones; thus, the distance diffusion impacts the pledge results. However, the study also finds that for some categories, home bias does not play a positive role in investment or that it even shows negative impacts, among which food and technology are two extreme categories. The study provides a theoretical basis from the perspective of user behavior to analyze online investment and to improve the promotion of crowdfunding campaigns.

  2. DIANA Code: Design and implementation of an analytic core calculus code by two group, two zone diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mochi, Ignacio

    2005-01-01

    The principal parameters of nuclear reactors are determined in the conceptual design stage.For that purpose, it is necessary to have flexible calculation tools that represent the principal dependencies of such parameters.This capability is of critical importance in the design of innovative nuclear reactors.In order to have a proper tool that could assist the conceptual design of innovative nuclear reactors, we developed and implemented a neutronic core calculus code: DIANA (Diffusion Integral Analytic Neutron Analysis).To calculate the required parameters, this code generates its own cross sections using an analytic two group, two zones diffusion scheme based only on a minimal set of data (i.e. 2200 m/s and fission averaged microscopic cross sections, Wescott factors and Effective Resonance Integrals).Both to calculate cross sections and core parameters, DIANA takes into account heterogeneity effects that are included when it evaluates each zone.Among them lays the disadvantage factor of each energy group.DIANA was totally implemented through Object Oriented Programming using C++ language. This eases source code understanding and would allow a quick expansion of its capabilities if needed.The final product is a versatile and easy-to-use code that allows core calculations with a minimal amount of data.It also contains the required tools needed to perform many variational calculations such as the parameterisation of effective multiplication factors for different radii of the core.The diffusion scheme s simplicity allows an easy following of the involved phenomena, making DIANA the most suitable tool to design reactors whose physics lays beyond the parameters of present reactors.All this reasons make DIANA a good candidate for future innovative reactor analysis

  3. "AV nodal" reentry: Part I: "AV nodal" reentry revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janse, M. J.; Anderson, R. H.; McGuire, M. A.; Ho, S. Y.

    1993-01-01

    This review is the first of a two-part series of articles on "atrioventricular [AV] nodal reentry." The early clinical literature as well as the experimental studies are reviewed, and more recent morphologic data are presented, with the aim of clarifying whether the reentrant circuit is confined to

  4. Nodal kinetics model upgrade in the Penn State coupled TRAC/NEM codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beam, Tara M.; Ivanov, Kostadin N.; Baratta, Anthony J.; Finnemann, Herbert

    1999-01-01

    The Pennsylvania State University currently maintains and does development and verification work for its own versions of the coupled three-dimensional kinetics/thermal-hydraulics codes TRAC-PF1/NEM and TRAC-BF1/NEM. The subject of this paper is nodal model enhancements in the above mentioned codes. Because of the numerous validation studies that have been performed on almost every aspect of these codes, this upgrade is done without a major code rewrite. The upgrade consists of four steps. The first two steps are designed to improve the accuracy of the kinetics model, based on the nodal expansion method. The polynomial expansion solution of 1D transverse integrated diffusion equation is replaced with a solution, which uses a semi-analytic expansion. Further the standard parabolic polynomial representation of the transverse leakage in the above 1D equations is replaced with an improved approximation. The last two steps of the upgrade address the code efficiency by improving the solution of the time-dependent NEM equations and implementing a multi-grid solver. These four improvements are implemented into the standalone NEM kinetics code. Verification of this code was accomplished based on the original verification studies. The results show that the new methods improve the accuracy and efficiency of the code. The verification of the upgraded NEM model in the TRAC-PF1/NEM and TRAC-BF1/NEM coupled codes is underway

  5. Investigation on generalized Variational Nodal Methods for heterogeneous nodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yongping; Wu, Hongchun; Li, Yunzhao; Cao, Liangzhi; Shen, Wei

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • We developed two heterogeneous nodal methods based on the Variational Nodal Method. • Four problems were solved to evaluate the two heterogeneous nodal methods. • The function expansion method is good at treating continuous-changing heterogeneity. • The finite sub-element method is good at treating discontinuous-changing heterogeneity. - Abstract: The Variational Nodal Method (VNM) is generalized for heterogeneous nodes and applied to four kinds of problems including Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) core problem with continuous cross section profile, Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) control rod cusping effect problem, PWR whole-core pin-by-pin problem, and heterogeneous PWR core problem without fuel-coolant homogenization in each pin cell. Two approaches have been investigated for the treatment of the nodal heterogeneity in this paper. To concentrate on spatial heterogeneity, diffusion approximation was adopted for the angular variable in neutron transport equation. To provide demonstrative numerical results, the codes in this paper were developed in slab geometry. The first method, named as function expansion (FE) method, expands nodal flux by orthogonal polynomials and the nodal cross sections are also expressed as spatial depended functions. The second path, named as finite sub-element (FS) method, takes advantage of the finite-element method by dividing each node into numbers of homogeneous sub-elements and expanding nodal flux into the combination of linear sub-element trial functions. Numerical tests have been carried out to evaluate the ability of the two nodal (coarse-mesh) heterogeneous VNMs by comparing with the fine-mesh homogeneous VNM. It has been demonstrated that both heterogeneous approaches can handle heterogeneous nodes. The FE method is good at continuous-changing heterogeneity as in the MSR core problem, while the FS method is good at discontinuous-changing heterogeneity such as the PWR pin-by-pin problem and heterogeneous PWR core

  6. Nodal in computerized control systems of accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kagarmanov, A.A.; Koval'tsov, V.I.; Korobov, S.A.

    1994-01-01

    Brief description of the Nodal language programming structure is presented. Its possibilities as high-level programming language for accelerator control systems are considered. The status of the Nodal language in the HEPI is discussed. 3 refs

  7. A variational synthesis nodal discrete ordinates method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Favorite, J.A.; Stacey, W.M.

    1999-01-01

    A self-consistent nodal approximation method for computing discrete ordinates neutron flux distributions has been developed from a variational functional for neutron transport theory. The advantage of the new nodal method formulation is that it is self-consistent in its definition of the homogenized nodal parameters, the construction of the global nodal equations, and the reconstruction of the detailed flux distribution. The efficacy of the method is demonstrated by two-dimensional test problems

  8. Development of an analytical diffusion model for modeling hydrogen isotope exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, J. L.; Wang, Y. Q.; Doerner, R. P.; Tynan, G. R.

    2015-08-01

    We create a model for H retention depth profiles in W and subsequently model how this profile changes after isotope exchange. This is accomplished by calculating how trapping defects in W accumulate D (or H) inventory as W is being exposed to plasma. Each trapping site is characterized by a trapping rate and a release rate, where the only free parameters are the distribution of these trapping sites in the material. The filled trap concentrations for each trap type are modeled as a diffusion process because post-mortem deuterium depth profiles indicate that traps are filled well beyond the ion implantation zone (2-5 nm). Using this retention model, an isotope exchange rate is formulated. The retention model and isotope exchange rate are compared to low temperature isotope exchange experiments in tungsten with good agreement. The limitations of the current model highlight important physics and motivate future work.

  9. Diffusive transport of organic vapors in the unsaturated zone with kinetically-controlled volatilization and dissolution: analytical model and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidel, Jacob; Russo, David

    1994-12-01

    Kinetically-controlled volatilization and dissolution of nonaqueous-phase liquids (NAPL's) in the unsaturated (vadose) zone are a more general model as compared to the usually used local equilibrium model of mass transfer. This paper presents a one-dimensional vertical model of kinetically-controlled diffusive transport of organic vapors pertinent to pollution caused by a relatively long, ground surface-originating, mainly horizontally-spread leak of NAPL, the volatile compound of which undergoes sorption and degradation in the soil. Analytical solutions of this model are applicable to homogeneous soils with ground surface fully open to the atmosphere. Application of the solutions to several examples demonstrates the role of kinetically-controlled volatilization and dissolution at both early and advanced stages of the transport process. Asymptotic analysis of the outlined solutions is employed in order to examine the depletion of the contaminant source.

  10. On the analytical solution of the multigroup neutron diffusion kinetic equation in a multilayered slab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceolin, Celina; Vilhena, Marco T.; Bodmann, Bardo E.J.; Alvim, Antonio Carlos Marques

    2011-01-01

    The authors solved analytically the neutron kinetic equations in a homogeneous slab, assuming the multi group energy model and six delayed neutron precursor groups by the Generalized Integral Laplace Transform Technique (GILTT) for a multi-layered slab. To this end, averaged values for the nuclear parameters in the multi-layered slab are used and the solution is constructed following the idea of Adomian's decomposition method upon reducing the heterogeneous problem to a set of recursive problems with constant parameters in the multi-layered slab. More specifically, the corrections that render the initially homogeneous problem into a heterogeneous one are plugged into the equation as successive source terms. To the best of our knowledge this sort of solution is novel and not found in literature. We further present some numerical simulations. (author)

  11. The diffusion of renewable energy technology: an analytical framework and key issues for research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobsson, S.; Johnson, A.

    2000-01-01

    During the last two decades there has been a great deal of research on renewable energy technologies. It is commonly thought that very little has come out of this research in terms of commercially interesting technologies. The first objective of this paper is to demonstrate that this perception is no longer correct; in the 1990s there has been a double-digit growth rate in the market for some renewable energy technologies. The consequent alteration in the energy system, is, however, a slow, painful and highly uncertain process. This process, we argue, needs to be studied using an innovation system perspective where the focus is on networks, institutions and firms' perceptions, competencies and strategies. The second objective of the paper is therefore to present the bare bones of such an analytical framework. A third objective is to identify a set of key issues related to the speed and direction of that transformation process which needs to be studied further. (author)

  12. Numerical and analytical approaches to an advection-diffusion problem at small Reynolds number and large Péclet number

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Nathaniel J.; Licata, Nicholas A.

    2018-05-01

    Obtaining a detailed understanding of the physical interactions between a cell and its environment often requires information about the flow of fluid surrounding the cell. Cells must be able to effectively absorb and discard material in order to survive. Strategies for nutrient acquisition and toxin disposal, which have been evolutionarily selected for their efficacy, should reflect knowledge of the physics underlying this mass transport problem. Motivated by these considerations, in this paper we discuss the results from an undergraduate research project on the advection-diffusion equation at small Reynolds number and large Péclet number. In particular, we consider the problem of mass transport for a Stokesian spherical swimmer. We approach the problem numerically and analytically through a rescaling of the concentration boundary layer. A biophysically motivated first-passage problem for the absorption of material by the swimming cell demonstrates quantitative agreement between the numerical and analytical approaches. We conclude by discussing the connections between our results and the design of smart toxin disposal systems.

  13. The application of modern nodal methods to PWR reactor physics analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knight, M.P.

    1988-06-01

    The objective of this research is to develop efficient computational procedures for PWR reactor calculations, based on modern nodal methods. The analytic nodal method, which is characterised by the use of exact exponential expansions in transverse-integrated equations, is implemented within an existing finite-difference code. This shows considerable accuracy and efficiency on standard benchmark problems, very much in line with existing experience with nodal methods., Assembly powers can be calculated to within 2.0% with just one mesh per assembly. (author)

  14. Nodal surface semimetals: Theory and material realization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Weikang; Liu, Ying; Li, Si; Zhong, Chengyong; Yu, Zhi-Ming; Sheng, Xian-Lei; Zhao, Y. X.; Yang, Shengyuan A.

    2018-03-01

    We theoretically study the three-dimensional topological semimetals with nodal surfaces protected by crystalline symmetries. Different from the well-known nodal-point and nodal-line semimetals, in these materials, the conduction and valence bands cross on closed nodal surfaces in the Brillouin zone. We propose different classes of nodal surfaces, both in the absence and in the presence of spin-orbit coupling (SOC). In the absence of SOC, a class of nodal surfaces can be protected by space-time inversion symmetry and sublattice symmetry and characterized by a Z2 index, while another class of nodal surfaces are guaranteed by a combination of nonsymmorphic twofold screw-rotational symmetry and time-reversal symmetry. We show that the inclusion of SOC will destroy the former class of nodal surfaces but may preserve the latter provided that the inversion symmetry is broken. We further generalize the result to magnetically ordered systems and show that protected nodal surfaces can also exist in magnetic materials without and with SOC, given that certain magnetic group symmetry requirements are satisfied. Several concrete nodal-surface material examples are predicted via the first-principles calculations. The possibility of multi-nodal-surface materials is discussed.

  15. NESTLE: A nodal kinetics code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Chalabi, R.M.; Turinsky, P.J.; Faure, F.-X.; Sarsour, H.N.; Engrand, P.R.

    1993-01-01

    The NESTLE nodal kinetics code has been developed for utilization as a stand-alone code for steady-state and transient reactor neutronic analysis and for incorporation into system transient codes, such as TRAC and RELAP. The latter is desirable to increase the simulation fidelity over that obtained from currently employed zero- and one-dimensional neutronic models and now feasible due to advances in computer performance and efficiency of nodal methods. As a stand-alone code, requirements are that it operate on a range of computing platforms from memory-limited personal computers (PCs) to supercomputers with vector processors. This paper summarizes the features of NESTLE that reflect the utilization and requirements just noted

  16. Variational nodal transport perturbation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurin-Kovitz, K.F.; Lewis, E.E.

    1996-01-01

    A perturbation method based on the variational nodal method for solving the neutron transport equation is developed for multidimensional geometries. The method utilizes the solution of the corresponding adjoint transport equation to calculate changes in the critical eigenvalue due to cross-section changes. Both first-order and exact perturbation theory expressions are derived. The adjoint solution algorithm has been formulated and incorporated into the variational nodal option of the Argonne National Laboratory DIF3D production code. To demonstrate the efficacy of the methods, perturbation calculations are performed on the three-dimensional Takeda benchmark problems in both Cartesian and hexagonal geometries. The resulting changes in eigenvalue are also obtained by direct calculation with the variational nodal method and compared with the change approximated by the first-order and exact theory expressions from the perturbation method. Exact perturbation results are in excellent agreement with the actual eigenvalue differences calculated in VARIANT. First-order theory holds well for sufficiently small perturbations. The times required for the perturbation calculations are small compared with those expended for the base-forward and adjoint calculations

  17. An Analytical Solution for Exciton Generation, Reaction, and Diffusion in Nanotube and Nanowire-Based Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellisario, Darin O; Paulson, Joel A; Braatz, Richard D; Strano, Michael S

    2016-07-21

    Excitonic solar cells based on aligned or unaligned networks of nanotubes or nanowires offer advantages with respect of optical absorption, and control of excition and electrical carrier transport; however, there is a lack of predictive models of the optimal orientation and packing density of such devices to maximize efficiency. Here-in, we develop a concise analytical framework that describes the orientation and density trade-off on exciton collection computed from a deterministic model of a carbon nanotube (CNT) photovoltaic device under steady-state operation that incorporates single- and aggregate-nanotube photophysics published earlier (Energy Environ Sci, 2014, 7, 3769). We show that the maximal film efficiency is determined by a parameter grouping, α, representing the product of the network density and the effective exciton diffusion length, reflecting a cooperativity between the rate of exciton generation and the rate of exciton transport. This allows for a simple, master plot of EQE versus film thickness, parametric in α allowing for optimal design. This analysis extends to any excitonic solar cell with anisotropic transport elements, including polymer, nanowire, quantum dot, and nanocarbon photovoltaics.

  18. Impacts of Contingency Reserve on Nodal Price and Nodal Reliability Risk in Deregulated Power Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Qian; Wang, Peng; Goel, Lalit

    2013-01-01

    The deregulation of power systems allows customers to participate in power market operation. In deregulated power systems, nodal price and nodal reliability are adopted to represent locational operation cost and reliability performance. Since contingency reserve (CR) plays an important role...... and CR allocation. Customers' nodal unit commitment risk and nodal energy interruption have been evaluated through contingency analysis. Customers' reliability cost including reserve service cost and energy interruption cost have also been evaluated....

  19. Final Report, Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (NERI) Project: An Innovative Reactor Analysis Methodology Based on a Quasidiffusion Nodal Core Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anistratov, Dmitriy Y.; Adams, Marvin L.; Palmer, Todd S.; Smith, Kord S.; Clarno, Kevin; Hikaru Hiruta; Razvan Nes

    2003-01-01

    OAK (B204) Final Report, NERI Project: ''An Innovative Reactor Analysis Methodology Based on a Quasidiffusion Nodal Core Model'' The present generation of reactor analysis methods uses few-group nodal diffusion approximations to calculate full-core eigenvalues and power distributions. The cross sections, diffusion coefficients, and discontinuity factors (collectively called ''group constants'') in the nodal diffusion equations are parameterized as functions of many variables, ranging from the obvious (temperature, boron concentration, etc.) to the more obscure (spectral index, moderator temperature history, etc.). These group constants, and their variations as functions of the many variables, are calculated by assembly-level transport codes. The current methodology has two main weaknesses that this project addressed. The first weakness is the diffusion approximation in the full-core calculation; this can be significantly inaccurate at interfaces between different assemblies. This project used the nodal diffusion framework to implement nodal quasidiffusion equations, which can capture transport effects to an arbitrary degree of accuracy. The second weakness is in the parameterization of the group constants; current models do not always perform well, especially at interfaces between unlike assemblies. The project developed a theoretical foundation for parameterization and homogenization models and used that theory to devise improved models. The new models were extended to tabulate information that the nodal quasidiffusion equations can use to capture transport effects in full-core calculations

  20. Energy dependence of the radial diffusion coefficient and spectra of inner radiation belt particles: analytic solutions and comparison with numerical results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westphalen, H.; Spjeldvik, W.N.

    1982-01-01

    We present a theoretical method by which the energy dependence of the radial diffusion coefficient D/sub L/L may be deducted from spectral observations of the particle population at the inner edge of the earth's radiation belts. This region has previously been analyzed with numerical techniques (for a review see, e.g., Walt (1971)); in this report we give an analytical treatment that illustrates characteristic limiting cases in the L shell range where the time scale of Coulomb losses is substantially shorter than that of radial diffusion (Lapprox.1--2). We demonstrate both analytically and numerically that the particle spectra there are shaped by the energy dependence of D/sub L/L regardless of the spectral shapes of the particle populations diffusing inward from the outer radiation zone, so that from observed spectra the energy dependence of the diffusion coefficient can be determined. To insure realistic simulations, inner zone data obtained from experiments on the DIAL, AZUR, and ESRO 2 spacecraft have been used as boundary conditions. We report excellent agreement between analytic and numerical results

  1. Relationship Between Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) Findings and Cognition Following Pediatric TBI: A Meta-Analytic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, Rachel M.; Mathias, Jane L.; Rose, Stephen E.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study meta-analyzed research examining relationships between diffusion tensor imaging and cognition following pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI). Data from 14 studies that correlated fractional anisotropy (FA) or apparent diffusion coefficient/mean diffusivity with cognition were analyzed. Short-term (

  2. The Nudo, Rollo, Melon codes and nodal correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perlado, J.M.; Aragones, J.M.; Minguez, E.; Pena, J.

    1975-01-01

    Analysis of nodal calculation and checking results by the reference reactor experimental data. Nudo code description, adapting experimental data to nodal calculations. Rollo, Melon codes as improvement in the cycle life calculations of albedos, mixing parameters and nodal correlations. (author)

  3. Group-decoupled multi-group pin power reconstruction utilizing nodal solution 1D flux profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Lulin; Lu, Dong; Zhang, Shaohong; Wang, Dezhong

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A direct fitting multi-group pin power reconstruction method is developed. • The 1D nodal solution flux profiles are used as the condition. • The least square fit problem is analytically solved. • A slowing down source improvement method is applied. • The method shows good accuracy for even challenging problems. - Abstract: A group-decoupled direct fitting method is developed for multi-group pin power reconstruction, which avoids both the complication of obtaining 2D analytic multi-group flux solution and any group-coupled iteration. A unique feature of the method is that in addition to nodal volume and surface average fluxes and corner fluxes, transversely-integrated 1D nodal solution flux profiles are also used as the condition to determine the 2D intra-nodal flux distribution. For each energy group, a two-dimensional expansion with a nine-term polynomial and eight hyperbolic functions is used to perform a constrained least square fit to the 1D intra-nodal flux solution profiles. The constraints are on the conservation of nodal volume and surface average fluxes and corner fluxes. Instead of solving the constrained least square fit problem numerically, we solve it analytically by fully utilizing the symmetry property of the expansion functions. Each of the 17 unknown expansion coefficients is expressed in terms of nodal volume and surface average fluxes, corner fluxes and transversely-integrated flux values. To determine the unknown corner fluxes, a set of linear algebraic equations involving corner fluxes is established via using the current conservation condition on all corners. Moreover, an optional slowing down source improvement method is also developed to further enhance the accuracy of the reconstructed flux distribution if needed. Two test examples are shown with very good results. One is a four-group BWR mini-core problem with all control blades inserted and the other is the seven-group OECD NEA MOX benchmark, C5G7

  4. Nodal equivalence theory for hexagonal geometry, thermal reactor analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zika, M.; Downar, T.

    1992-01-01

    An important aspect of advanced nodal methods is the determination of equivalent few-group parameters for the relatively large homogenized regions used in the nodal flux solution. The theoretical foundation for light water reactor (LWR) assembly homogenization methods has been clearly established, and during the last several years, its successes have secured its position in the stable of dependable LWR analysis methods. Groupwise discontinuity factors that correct for assembly homogenization errors are routinely generated along with the group constants during lattice physics analysis. During the last several years, there has been interest in applying equivalence theory to other reactor types and other geometries. A notable effort has been the work at Argonne National Laboratory to incorporate nodal equivalence theory (NET) for hexagonal lattices into the nodal diffusion option of the DIF3D code. This work was originally intended to improve the neutronics methods used for the analysis of the Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II), and Ref. 4 discusses the success of that application. More recently, however, attempts were made to apply NET to advanced, thermal reactor designs such as the modular high-temperature gas reactor (MHTGR) and the new production heavy water reactor (NPR/HWR). The same methods that were successful for EBR-II have encountered problems for these reactors. Our preliminary analysis indicates that the sharp global flux gradients in these cores requires large discontinuity factors (greater than 4 or 5) to reproduce the reference solution. This disrupts the convergence of the iterative methods used to solve for the node-wise flux moments and partial currents. Several attempts to remedy the problem have been made over the last few years, including bounding the discontinuity factors and providing improved initial guesses for the flux solution, but nothing has been satisfactory

  5. A quasi-static polynomial nodal method for nuclear reactor analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gehin, J.C.

    1992-09-01

    Modern nodal methods are currently available which can accurately and efficiently solve the static and transient neutron diffusion equations. Most of the methods, however, are limited to two energy groups for practical application. The objective of this research is the development of a static and transient, multidimensional nodal method which allows more than two energy groups and uses a non-linear iterative method for efficient solution of the nodal equations. For both the static and transient methods, finite-difference equations which are corrected by the use of discontinuity factors are derived. The discontinuity factors are computed from a polynomial nodal method using a non-linear iteration technique. The polynomial nodal method is based upon a quartic approximation and utilizes a quadratic transverse-leakage approximation. The solution of the time-dependent equations is performed by the use of a quasi-static method in which the node-averaged fluxes are factored into shape and amplitude functions. The application of the quasi-static polynomial method to several benchmark problems demonstrates that the accuracy is consistent with that of other nodal methods. The use of the quasi-static method is shown to substantially reduce the computation time over the traditional fully-implicit time-integration method. Problems involving thermal-hydraulic feedback are accurately, and efficiently, solved by performing several reactivity/thermal-hydraulic updates per shape calculation

  6. A quasi-static polynomial nodal method for nuclear reactor analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gehin, Jess C. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1992-09-01

    Modern nodal methods are currently available which can accurately and efficiently solve the static and transient neutron diffusion equations. Most of the methods, however, are limited to two energy groups for practical application. The objective of this research is the development of a static and transient, multidimensional nodal method which allows more than two energy groups and uses a non-linear iterative method for efficient solution of the nodal equations. For both the static and transient methods, finite-difference equations which are corrected by the use of discontinuity factors are derived. The discontinuity factors are computed from a polynomial nodal method using a non-linear iteration technique. The polynomial nodal method is based upon a quartic approximation and utilizes a quadratic transverse-leakage approximation. The solution of the time-dependent equations is performed by the use of a quasi-static method in which the node-averaged fluxes are factored into shape and amplitude functions. The application of the quasi-static polynomial method to several benchmark problems demonstrates that the accuracy is consistent with that of other nodal methods. The use of the quasi-static method is shown to substantially reduce the computation time over the traditional fully-implicit time-integration method. Problems involving thermal-hydraulic feedback are accurately, and efficiently, solved by performing several reactivity/thermal-hydraulic updates per shape calculation.

  7. Twisted vector bundles on pointed nodal curves

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Motivated by the quest for a good compactification of the moduli space of -bundles on a nodal curve we establish a striking relationship between Abramovich's and Vistoli's twisted bundles and Gieseker vector bundles.

  8. Sensitivity of SBLOCA analysis to model nodalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, C.; Ito, T.; Abramson, P.B.

    1983-01-01

    The recent Semiscale test S-UT-8 indicates the possibility for primary liquid to hang up in the steam generators during a SBLOCA, permitting core uncovery prior to loop-seal clearance. In analysis of Small Break Loss of Coolant Accidents with RELAP5, it is found that resultant transient behavior is quite sensitive to the selection of nodalization for the steam generators. Although global parameters such as integrated mass loss, primary inventory and primary pressure are relatively insensitive to the nodalization, it is found that the predicted distribution of inventory around the primary is significantly affected by nodalization. More detailed nodalization predicts that more of the inventory tends to remain in the steam generators, resulting in less inventory in the reactor vessel and therefore causing earlier and more severe core uncovery

  9. Twisted Vector Bundles on Pointed Nodal Curves

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Motivated by the quest for a good compactification of the moduli space of -bundles on a nodal curve we establish a striking relationship between Abramovich's and Vistoli's twisted bundles and Gieseker vector bundles.

  10. Aircraft Nodal Data Acquisition System (ANDAS) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Development of an Aircraft Nodal Data Acquisition System (ANDAS) based upon the short haul Zigbee networking standard is proposed. It employs a very thin (135 um)...

  11. Aircraft Nodal Data Acquisition System (ANDAS) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Development of an Aircraft Nodal Data Acquisition System (ANDAS) is proposed. The proposed methodology employs the development of a very thin (135m) hybrid...

  12. Origins and fundamentals of nodal aberration theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, John R.

    2017-11-01

    Nodal Aberration Theory, developed by Kevin Thompson and Roland Shack, predicts several important aberration phenomena but remains poorly understood. To de-mystify the theory, we describe the origins and fundamental concepts of the theory.

  13. Nodal coupling by response matrix principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ancona, A.; Becker, M.; Beg, M.D.; Harris, D.R.; Menezes, A.D.; VerPlanck, D.M.; Pilat, E.

    1977-01-01

    The response matrix approach has been used in viewing a reactor node in isolation and in characterizing the node by reflection and trans-emission factors. These are then used to generate invariant imbedding parameters, which in turn are used in a nodal reactor simulator code to compute core power distributions in two and three dimensions. Various nodal techniques are analyzed and converted into a single invariant imbedding formalism

  14. The NODAL system for the SPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowley-Milling, M.C.; Shering, G.C.

    1978-01-01

    A comprehensive description is given of the NODAL system used for computer control of the CERN Super-Proton Synchrotron. Details are given of NODAL, a high-level programming language based on FOCAL and SNOBOL4, designed for interactive use. It is shown how this interpretive language is used with a network of computers and how it can be extended by adding machine-code modules. The report updates and replaces an earlier one published in 1974. (Auth.)

  15. Nodal signalling determines biradial asymmetry in Hydra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Hiroshi; Schmidt, Heiko A; Kuhn, Anne; Höger, Stefanie K; Kocagöz, Yigit; Laumann-Lipp, Nico; Ozbek, Suat; Holstein, Thomas W

    2014-11-06

    In bilaterians, three orthogonal body axes define the animal form, with distinct anterior-posterior, dorsal-ventral and left-right asymmetries. The key signalling factors are Wnt family proteins for the anterior-posterior axis, Bmp family proteins for the dorsal-ventral axis and Nodal for the left-right axis. Cnidarians, the sister group to bilaterians, are characterized by one oral-aboral body axis, which exhibits a distinct biradiality of unknown molecular nature. Here we analysed the biradial growth pattern in the radially symmetrical cnidarian polyp Hydra, and we report evidence of Nodal in a pre-bilaterian clade. We identified a Nodal-related gene (Ndr) in Hydra magnipapillata, and this gene is essential for setting up an axial asymmetry along the main body axis. This asymmetry defines a lateral signalling centre, inducing a new body axis of a budding polyp orthogonal to the mother polyp's axis. Ndr is expressed exclusively in the lateral bud anlage and induces Pitx, which encodes an evolutionarily conserved transcription factor that functions downstream of Nodal. Reminiscent of its function in vertebrates, Nodal acts downstream of β-Catenin signalling. Our data support an evolutionary scenario in which a 'core-signalling cassette' consisting of β-Catenin, Nodal and Pitx pre-dated the cnidarian-bilaterian split. We presume that this cassette was co-opted for various modes of axial patterning: for example, for lateral branching in cnidarians and left-right patterning in bilaterians.

  16. Magnonic triply-degenerate nodal points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owerre, S. A.

    2017-12-01

    We generalize the concept of triply-degenerate nodal points to non-collinear antiferromagnets. Here, we introduce this concept to insulating quantum antiferromagnets on the decorated honeycomb lattice, with spin-1 bosonic quasiparticle excitations known as magnons. We demonstrate the existence of magnonic surface states with constant energy contours that form pairs of magnonic arcs connecting the surface projection of the magnonic triple nodal points. The quasiparticle excitations near the triple nodal points represent three-component bosons beyond that of magnonic Dirac, Weyl, and nodal-line cases. They can be regarded as a direct reflection of the intrinsic spin carried by magnons. Furthermore, we show that the magnonic triple nodal points can split into magnonic Weyl points, as the system transits from a non-collinear spin structure to a non-coplanar one with a non-zero scalar spin chirality. Our results not only apply to insulating antiferromagnets, but also provide a platform to seek for triple nodal points in metallic antiferromagnets.

  17. "AV nodal" reentry: Part II: AV nodal, AV junctional, or atrionodal reentry?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McGuire, M. A.; Janse, M. J.; Ross, D. L.

    1993-01-01

    The classical model of "atrioventricular (AV) nodal" reentrant tachycardia suggests that the reentrant circuit is entirely within the compact AV node and that AV nodal tissue is present proximal and distal to the circuit. Recent evidence from mapping studies and from examination of the effects of

  18. Design of an analytical aggregation of rules of a diffuse controller and its application in the model of a nuclear research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Najera H, M.C.

    2003-01-01

    As they have gone being managed complex systems that fulfill tasks inside industrial or nuclear processes, it becomes necessary the development of technical novel of control, in which can incorporate heuristic knowledge of operation without to necessarily use the theories of classic control based mainly in mathematical models. One of the control techniques that allows to carry out this is the control based on diffuse logic. For the case of a model of the nuclear research reactor Triga Mark III of the National Institute of Nuclear Research have been developed diverse algorithms of diffuse control that have as objective the regulation of the neutron power in the nucleus. The aggregation stages and desdifussification in these algorithms discretize the universe of values of the control variable, being required a high number of operations for their execution. With the purpose of reducing this number of operations and to obtain results more exact in the generation of the aggregated group in each cycle of control and in the determination of the center of gravity of this added group, it is presented the development of an analytical method for these calculations. The main objectives outlined in this entitled thesis D esign of an analytical aggregate of a diffuse controller rules and their application in the pattern of a nuclear research reactor , they are: to improve the behavior of control systems in closed knot based on diffuse logic by means of the development of an analytical method that determines an aggregated group resultant of the activation of rules in the diffuse controller and the obtaining of the exit variable using an exact solution of the technique of the center of gravity; and to compare the operation of these methods with those traditionally used ones that consider the discretization of the universe of the exit variable so much for the aggregation like for the desdiffusification. The chapters 1 and 2 present an introduction at two fundamental themes of the

  19. Counting nodal domains on surfaces of revolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karageorge, Panos D; Smilansky, Uzy

    2008-01-01

    We consider eigenfunctions of the Laplace-Beltrami operator on special surfaces of revolution. For this separable system, the nodal domains of the (real) eigenfunctions form a checkerboard pattern, and their number ν n is proportional to the product of the angular and the 'surface' quantum numbers. Arranging the wavefunctions by increasing values of the Laplace-Beltrami spectrum, we obtain the nodal sequence, whose statistical properties we study. In particular, we investigate the distribution of the normalized counts ν n /n for sequences of eigenfunctions with K ≤ n ≤ K + ΔK, where K, ΔK element of N. We show that the distribution approaches a limit as K, ΔK → ∞ (the classical limit), and study the leading corrections in the semi-classical limit. With this information, we derive the central result of this work: the nodal sequence of a mirror-symmetric surface is sufficient to uniquely determine its shape (modulo scaling)

  20. Analytical solutions of linear diffusion and wave equations in semi-infinite domains by using a new integral transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Lin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, a new integral transform similar to Sumudu transform has been proposed by Yang [1]. Some of the properties of the integral transform are expanded in the present article. Meanwhile, new applications to the linear wave and diffusion equations in semi-infinite domains are discussed in detail. The proposed method provides an alternative approach to solve the partial differential equations in mathematical physics.

  1. Modeling diffusion on heterogeneous lattices: Derivation of general analytical expressions and verification for a two-dimensional square lattice

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tarasenko, Alexander; Jastrabík, Lubomír; Müller, T.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 75, č. 8 (2007), 085401/1-085401/10 ISSN 1098-0121 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1QS100100563; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06002 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100522 Keywords : surface diffusion * heterogeneous lattices * RSRG method * Monte Carlo simulations Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.172, year: 2007

  2. Analytical approach for collective diffusion: one-dimensional lattice with the nearest neighbor and the next nearest neighbor lateral interactions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tarasenko, Alexander

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 95, Jan (2018), s. 37-40 ISSN 1386-9477 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LO1409; GA MŠk LM2015088 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : lattice gas systems * kinetic Monte Carlo simulations * diffusion and migration Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics OBOR OECD: Atomic, molecular and chemical physics (physics of atoms and molecules including collision, interaction with radiation, magnetic resonances, Mössbauer effect) Impact factor: 2.221, year: 2016

  3. Resection of thymoma should include nodal sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weksler, Benny; Pennathur, Arjun; Sullivan, Jennifer L; Nason, Katie S

    2015-03-01

    Thymoma is best treated by surgical resection; however, no clear guidelines have been created regarding lymph node sampling at the time of resection. Additionally, the prognostic implications of nodal metastases are unclear. The aim of this study was to analyze the prognostic implications of nodal metastases in thymoma. The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database was queried for patients who underwent surgical resection of thymoma with documented pathologic examination of lymph nodes. The impact of nodal status on survival and thymoma staging was examined. We identified 442 patients who underwent thymoma resection with pathologic evaluation of 1 or more lymph nodes. A median of 2 nodes were sampled per patient. Fifty-nine patients (59 of 442, 13.3%) had ≥ 1 positive node. Patients with positive nodes were younger and had smaller tumors than node-negative patients. Median survival in the node-positive patients was 98 months, compared with 144 months in node-negative patients (P = .013). In multivariable analysis, the presence of positive nodes had a significant, independent, adverse impact on survival (hazard ratio 1.945, 95% confidence interval 1.296-2.919, P = .001). The presence of nodal metastases resulted in a change in classification to a higher stage in 80% of patients, the majority from Masaoka-Koga stage III to stage IV. Nodal status seems to be an important prognostic factor in patients with thymoma. Until the prognostic significance of nodal metastases is better understood, surgical therapy for thymoma should include sampling of regional lymph nodes. Copyright © 2015 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Analytical modelling of hydrogen transport in reactor containments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manno, V.P.

    1983-09-01

    A versatile computational model of hydrogen transport in nuclear plant containment buildings is developed. The background and significance of hydrogen-related nuclear safety issues are discussed. A computer program is constructed that embodies the analytical models. The thermofluid dynamic formulation spans a wide applicability range from rapid two-phase blowdown transients to slow incompressible hydrogen injection. Detailed ancillary models of molecular and turbulent diffusion, mixture transport properties, multi-phase multicomponent thermodynamics and heat sink modelling are addressed. The numerical solution of the continuum equations emphasizes both accuracy and efficiency in the employment of relatively coarse discretization and long time steps. Reducing undesirable numerical diffusion is addressed. Problem geometry options include lumped parameter zones, one dimensional meshs, two dimensional Cartesian or axisymmetric coordinate systems and three dimensional Cartesian or cylindrical regions. An efficient lumped nodal model is included for simulation of events in which spatial resolution is not significant. Several validation calculations are reported

  5. Nodal Structure of the Electronic Wigner Function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmider, Hartmut; Dahl, Jens Peder

    1996-01-01

    On the example of several atomic and small molecular systems, the regular behavior of nodal patterns in the electronic one-particle reduced Wigner function is demonstrated. An expression found earlier relates the nodal pattern solely to the dot-product of the position and the momentum vector......, if both arguments are large. An argument analogous to the ``bond-oscillatory principle'' for momentum densities links the nuclear framework in a molecule to an additional oscillatory term in momenta parallel to bonds. It is shown that these are visible in the Wigner function in terms of characteristic...

  6. Approximate Analytical Solutions of Fractional Perturbed Diffusion Equation by Reduced Differential Transform Method and the Homotopy Perturbation Method

    OpenAIRE

    Zhoujin Cui; Zisen Mao; Sujuan Yang; Pinneng Yu

    2013-01-01

    The approximate analytical solutions of differential equations with fractional time derivative are obtained with the help of a general framework of the reduced differential transform method (RDTM) and the homotopy perturbation method (HPM). RDTM technique does not require any discretization, linearization, or small perturbations and therefore it reduces significantly the numerical computation. Comparing the methodology (RDTM) with some known technique (HPM) shows that the present approach is ...

  7. Static benchmarking of the NESTLE advanced nodal code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosteller, R.D.

    1997-01-01

    Results from the NESTLE advanced nodal code are presented for multidimensional numerical benchmarks representing four different types of reactors, and predictions from NESTLE are compared with measured data from pressurized water reactors (PWRs). The numerical benchmarks include cases representative of PWRs, boiling water reactors (BWRs), CANDU heavy water reactors (HWRs), and high-temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs). The measured PWR data include critical soluble boron concentrations and isothermal temperature coefficients of reactivity. The results demonstrate that NESTLE correctly solves the multigroup diffusion equations for both Cartesian and hexagonal geometries, that it reliably calculates k eff and reactivity coefficients for PWRs, and that--subsequent to the incorporation of additional thermal-hydraulic models--it will be able to perform accurate calculations for the corresponding parameters in BWRs, HWRs, and HTGRs as well

  8. Nodal-line semimetals from Weyl superlattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrends, Jan; Rhim, Jun-Won; Liu, Shang; Grushin, Adolfo G.; Bardarson, Jens H.

    2017-12-01

    The existence and topological classification of lower-dimensional Fermi surfaces is often tied to the crystal symmetries of the underlying lattice systems. Artificially engineered lattices, such as heterostructures and other superlattices, provide promising avenues to realize desired crystal symmetries that protect lower-dimensional Fermi surfaces, such as nodal lines. In this work, we investigate a Weyl semimetal subjected to spatially periodic onsite potential, giving rise to several phases, including a nodal-line semimetal phase. In contrast to proposals that purely focus on lattice symmetries, the emergence of the nodal line in this setup does not require small spin-orbit coupling, but rather relies on its presence. We show that the stability of the nodal line is understood from reflection symmetry and a combination of a fractional lattice translation and charge-conjugation symmetry. Depending on the choice of parameters, this model exhibits drumhead surface states that are exponentially localized at the surface, or weakly localized surface states that decay into the bulk at all energies.

  9. Nodal yield in selective neck dissection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norling, Rikke; Therkildsen, Marianne H; Bradley, Patrick J

    2013-01-01

    The total lymph node yield in neck dissection is highly variable and depends on anatomical, surgical and pathological parameters. A minimum yield of six lymph nodes for a selective neck dissection (SND) as recommended in guidelines lies in the lower range of the reported clinical nodal yields...

  10. Analytical evaluation of neutron diffusion equation for the geometry of very intense continuous high flux pulsed reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narain, Rajendra

    1995-01-01

    Using the concept of Very Intense Continuous High Flux Pulsed Reactor to obtain a rotating high flux pulse in an annular core an analytical treatment for the quasi-static solution with a moving reflector is presented. Under quasi-static situation, time averaged values for important parameters like multiplication factor, flux, leakage do not change with time. As a result the instantaneous solution can be considered to be separable in time and space after correcting for the coordinates for the motion of the pulser. The space behaviour of the pulser is considered as exp(-αx 2 ). Movement of delayed neutron precursors is also taken into account. (author). 4 refs

  11. Comparison of neutronic transport equation resolution nodal methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamonsky, O.M.; Gho, C.J.

    1990-01-01

    In this work, some transport equation resolution nodal methods are comparatively studied: the constant-constant (CC), linear-nodal (LN) and the constant-quadratic (CQ). A nodal scheme equivalent to finite differences has been used for its programming, permitting its inclusion in existing codes. Some bidimensional problems have been solved, showing that linear-nodal (LN) are, in general, obtained with accuracy in CPU shorter times. (Author) [es

  12. Analysis of NEA-NSC PWR Uncontrolled Control Rod Withdrawal at Zero Power Benchmark Cases with NODAL3 Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tagor Malem Sembiring

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The in-house coupled neutronic and thermal-hydraulic (N/T-H code of BATAN (National Nuclear Energy Agency of Indonesia, NODAL3, based on the few-group neutron diffusion equation in 3-dimensional geometry using the polynomial nodal method, has been verified with static and transient PWR benchmark cases. This paper reports the verification of NODAL3 code in the NEA-NSC PWR uncontrolled control rods withdrawal at zero power benchmark. The objective of this paper is to determine the accuracy of NODAL3 code in solving the continuously slow and fast reactivity insertions due to single and group of control rod bank withdrawn while the power and temperature increment are limited by the Doppler coefficient. The benchmark is chosen since many organizations participated using various methods and approximations, so the calculation results of NODAL3 can be compared to other codes’ results. The calculated parameters are performed for the steady-state, transient core averaged, and transient hot pellet results. The influence of radial and axial nodes number was investigated for all cases. The results of NODAL3 code are in very good agreement with the reference solutions if the radial and axial nodes number is 2 × 2 and 2 × 18 (total axial layers, respectively.

  13. Using the apparent diffusion coefficient to identifying MGMT promoter methylation status early in glioblastoma: importance of analytical method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rundle-Thiele, Dayle [Centre for Clinical Research, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland (Australia); Day, Bryan; Stringer, Brett [Brain Cancer Research Unit, Queensland Institute of Medical Research, Brisbane, Queensland (Australia); Fay, Michael [Department of Radiation Oncology, Royal Brisbane and Women' s Hospital, Brisbane, Queensland (Australia); Martin, Jennifer [Discipline of Clinical Pharmacology, School of Medicine and Public Health, University of Newcastle, Newcastle, New South Wales (Australia); Jeffree, Rosalind L [Department of Neurosurgery, Royal Brisbane and Women' s Hospital, Brisbane, Queensland (Australia); Thomas, Paul [Queensland PET Service, Royal Brisbane and Women' s Hospital, Brisbane, Queensland (Australia); Bell, Christopher [Centre for Clinical Research, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland (Australia); Salvado, Olivier [CSIRO Digital Productivity Flagship, CSIRO, Herston, Queensland (Australia); Gal, Yaniv [Centre for Medical Diagnostic Technologies in Queensland, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland (Australia); Coulthard, Alan [Discipline of Medical Imaging, University of Queensland, St Lucia, Queensland (Australia); Department of Medical Imaging, Royal Brisbane and Women' s Hospital, Brisbane, Queensland (Australia); Crozier, Stuart [Centre for Medical Diagnostic Technologies in Queensland, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland (Australia); Rose, Stephen, E-mail: stephen.rose@csiro.au [CSIRO Digital Productivity Flagship, CSIRO, Herston, Queensland (Australia); Centre for Clinical Research, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland (Australia)

    2015-06-15

    Accurate knowledge of O{sup 6}-methylguanine methyltransferase (MGMT) gene promoter subtype in patients with glioblastoma (GBM) is important for treatment. However, this test is not always available. Pre-operative diffusion MRI (dMRI) can be used to probe tumour biology using the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC); however, its ability to act as a surrogate to predict MGMT status has shown mixed results. We investigated whether this was due to variations in the method used to analyse ADC. We undertook a retrospective study of 32 patients with GBM who had MGMT status measured. Matching pre-operative MRI data were used to calculate the ADC within contrast enhancing regions of tumour. The relationship between ADC and MGMT was examined using two published ADC methods. A strong trend between a measure of ‘minimum ADC’ and methylation status was seen. An elevated minimum ADC was more likely in the methylated compared to the unmethylated MGMT group (U = 56, P = 0.0561). In contrast, utilising a two-mixture model histogram approach, a significant reduction in mean measure of the ‘low ADC’ component within the histogram was associated with an MGMT promoter methylation subtype (P < 0.0246). This study shows that within the same patient cohort, the method selected to analyse ADC measures has a significant bearing on the use of that metric as a surrogate marker of MGMT status. Thus for dMRI data to be clinically useful, consistent methods of data analysis need to be established prior to establishing any relationship with genetic or epigenetic profiling.

  14. A geometrically exact beam element based on the absolute nodal coordinate formulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerstmayr, Johannes [Linz Center of Mechatronics GmbH (Austria)], E-mail: Johannes.gerstmayr@jku.at; Matikainen, Marko K., E-mail: marko.matikainen@lut.fi; Mikkola, Aki M. [Lappeenranta University of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Institute of Mechatronics and Virtual Engineering (Finland)], E-mail: aki.mikkola@lut.fi

    2008-11-15

    In this study, Reissner's classical nonlinear rod formulation, as implemented by Simo and Vu-Quoc by means of the large rotation vector approach, is implemented into the framework of the absolute nodal coordinate formulation. The implementation is accomplished in the planar case accounting for coupled axial, bending, and shear deformation. By employing the virtual work of elastic forces similarly to Simo and Vu-Quoc in the absolute nodal coordinate formulation, the numerical results of the formulation are identical to those of the large rotation vector formulation. It is noteworthy, however, that the material definition in the absolute nodal coordinate formulation can differ from the material definition used in Reissner's beam formulation. Based on an analytical eigenvalue analysis, it turns out that the high frequencies of cross section deformation modes in the absolute nodal coordinate formulation are only slightly higher than frequencies of common shear modes, which are present in the classical large rotation vector formulation of Simo and Vu-Quoc, as well. Thus, previous claims that the absolute nodal coordinate formulation is inefficient or would lead to ill-conditioned finite element matrices, as compared to classical approaches, could be refuted. In the introduced beam element, locking is prevented by means of reduced integration of certain parts of the elastic forces. Several classical large deformation static and dynamic examples as well as an eigenvalue analysis document the equivalence of classical nonlinear rod theories and the absolute nodal coordinate formulation for the case of appropriate material definitions. The results also agree highly with those computed in commercial finite element codes.

  15. A geometrically exact beam element based on the absolute nodal coordinate formulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerstmayr, Johannes; Matikainen, Marko K.; Mikkola, Aki M.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, Reissner's classical nonlinear rod formulation, as implemented by Simo and Vu-Quoc by means of the large rotation vector approach, is implemented into the framework of the absolute nodal coordinate formulation. The implementation is accomplished in the planar case accounting for coupled axial, bending, and shear deformation. By employing the virtual work of elastic forces similarly to Simo and Vu-Quoc in the absolute nodal coordinate formulation, the numerical results of the formulation are identical to those of the large rotation vector formulation. It is noteworthy, however, that the material definition in the absolute nodal coordinate formulation can differ from the material definition used in Reissner's beam formulation. Based on an analytical eigenvalue analysis, it turns out that the high frequencies of cross section deformation modes in the absolute nodal coordinate formulation are only slightly higher than frequencies of common shear modes, which are present in the classical large rotation vector formulation of Simo and Vu-Quoc, as well. Thus, previous claims that the absolute nodal coordinate formulation is inefficient or would lead to ill-conditioned finite element matrices, as compared to classical approaches, could be refuted. In the introduced beam element, locking is prevented by means of reduced integration of certain parts of the elastic forces. Several classical large deformation static and dynamic examples as well as an eigenvalue analysis document the equivalence of classical nonlinear rod theories and the absolute nodal coordinate formulation for the case of appropriate material definitions. The results also agree highly with those computed in commercial finite element codes

  16. On an analytical evaluation of the flux and dominant eigenvalue problem for the steady state multi-group multi-layer neutron diffusion equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceolin, Celina; Schramm, Marcelo; Bodmann, Bardo Ernst Josef; Vilhena, Marco Tullio Mena Barreto de

    2014-01-01

    In this work the authors solved the steady state neutron diffusion equation for a multi-layer slab assuming the multi-group energy model. The method to solve the equation system is based on an expansion in Taylor Series resulting in an analytical expression. The results obtained can be used as initial condition for neutron space kinetics problems. The neutron scalar flux was expanded in a power series, and the coefficients were found by using the ordinary differential equation and the boundary and interface conditions. The effective multiplication factor k was evaluated using the power method. We divided the domain into several slabs to guarantee the convergence with a low truncation order. We present the formalism together with some numerical simulations.

  17. On an analytical evaluation of the flux and dominant eigenvalue problem for the steady state multi-group multi-layer neutron diffusion equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ceolin, Celina; Schramm, Marcelo; Bodmann, Bardo Ernst Josef; Vilhena, Marco Tullio Mena Barreto de [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Mecanica; Bogado Leite, Sergio de Queiroz [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2014-11-15

    In this work the authors solved the steady state neutron diffusion equation for a multi-layer slab assuming the multi-group energy model. The method to solve the equation system is based on an expansion in Taylor Series resulting in an analytical expression. The results obtained can be used as initial condition for neutron space kinetics problems. The neutron scalar flux was expanded in a power series, and the coefficients were found by using the ordinary differential equation and the boundary and interface conditions. The effective multiplication factor k was evaluated using the power method. We divided the domain into several slabs to guarantee the convergence with a low truncation order. We present the formalism together with some numerical simulations.

  18. Approximate Analytical Solutions of Fractional Perturbed Diffusion Equation by Reduced Differential Transform Method and the Homotopy Perturbation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhoujin Cui

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The approximate analytical solutions of differential equations with fractional time derivative are obtained with the help of a general framework of the reduced differential transform method (RDTM and the homotopy perturbation method (HPM. RDTM technique does not require any discretization, linearization, or small perturbations and therefore it reduces significantly the numerical computation. Comparing the methodology (RDTM with some known technique (HPM shows that the present approach is effective and powerful. The numerical calculations are carried out when the initial conditions in the form of periodic functions and the results are depicted through graphs. The two different cases have studied and proved that the method is extremely effective due to its simplistic approach and performance.

  19. Impact of Different Analytic Approaches on the Analysis of the Breast Fibroglandular Tissue Using Diffusion Weighted Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon Jung Choi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. This study investigated the impact of the different region of interest (ROI approaches on measurement of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC values in the breast firbroglandular tissue (FT. Methods. Breast MR images of 38 women diagnosed with unilateral breast cancer were studied. Percent density (PD and ADC were measured from the contralateral normal breast. Four different ROIs were used for ADC measurement. The measured PD and ADC were correlated. Results. Among the four ROIs, the manually placed small ROI on FT gave the highest mean ADC (ADC = 1839 ± 343 [×10−6 mm2/s], while measurement from the whole breast gave the lowest mean ADC (ADC = 933 ± 383 [×10−6 mm2/s]. The ADC measured from the whole breast was highly correlated with PD with r=0.95. In slice-to-slice comparison, the central slices with more FT had higher ADC values than the peripheral slices did, presumably due to less partial volume effect from fat. Conclusions. Our results indicated that the measured ADC heavily depends on the composition of breast tissue contained in the ROI used for the ADC measurements. Women with low breast density showing lower ADC values were most likely due to the partial volume effect of fatty tissues.

  20. Analytical representation of the solution of the space kinetic diffusion equation in a one-dimensional and homogeneous domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tumelero, Fernanda; Bodmann, Bardo E. J.; Vilhena, Marco T.

    2017-01-01

    In this work we solve the space kinetic diffusion equation in a one-dimensional geometry considering a homogeneous domain, for two energy groups and six groups of delayed neutron precursors. The proposed methodology makes use of a Taylor expansion in the space variable of the scalar neutron flux (fast and thermal) and the concentration of delayed neutron precursors, allocating the time dependence to the coefficients. Upon truncating the Taylor series at quadratic order, one obtains a set of recursive systems of ordinary differential equations, where a modified decomposition method is applied. The coefficient matrix is split into two, one constant diagonal matrix and the second one with the remaining time dependent and off-diagonal terms. Moreover, the equation system is reorganized such that the terms containing the latter matrix are treated as source terms. Note, that the homogeneous equation system has a well known solution, since the matrix is diagonal and constant. This solution plays the role of the recursion initialization of the decomposition method. The recursion scheme is set up in a fashion where the solutions of the previous recursion steps determine the source terms of the subsequent steps. A second feature of the method is the choice of the initial and boundary conditions, which are satisfied by the recursion initialization, while from the rst recursion step onward the initial and boundary conditions are homogeneous. The recursion depth is then governed by a prescribed accuracy for the solution. (author)

  1. Analytical representation of the solution of the space kinetic diffusion equation in a one-dimensional and homogeneous domain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tumelero, Fernanda; Bodmann, Bardo E. J.; Vilhena, Marco T. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (PROMEC/UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Programa de Pos Graduacao em Engenharia Mecanica; Lapa, Celso M.F., E-mail: fernanda.tumelero@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: bardo.bodmann@ufrgs.br, E-mail: mtmbvilhena@gmail.com, E-mail: lapa@ien.gov.br [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    In this work we solve the space kinetic diffusion equation in a one-dimensional geometry considering a homogeneous domain, for two energy groups and six groups of delayed neutron precursors. The proposed methodology makes use of a Taylor expansion in the space variable of the scalar neutron flux (fast and thermal) and the concentration of delayed neutron precursors, allocating the time dependence to the coefficients. Upon truncating the Taylor series at quadratic order, one obtains a set of recursive systems of ordinary differential equations, where a modified decomposition method is applied. The coefficient matrix is split into two, one constant diagonal matrix and the second one with the remaining time dependent and off-diagonal terms. Moreover, the equation system is reorganized such that the terms containing the latter matrix are treated as source terms. Note, that the homogeneous equation system has a well known solution, since the matrix is diagonal and constant. This solution plays the role of the recursion initialization of the decomposition method. The recursion scheme is set up in a fashion where the solutions of the previous recursion steps determine the source terms of the subsequent steps. A second feature of the method is the choice of the initial and boundary conditions, which are satisfied by the recursion initialization, while from the rst recursion step onward the initial and boundary conditions are homogeneous. The recursion depth is then governed by a prescribed accuracy for the solution. (author)

  2. Analytical method for reconstruction pin to pin of the nuclear power density distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pessoa, Paulo O.; Silva, Fernando C.; Martinez, Aquilino S.

    2013-01-01

    An accurate and efficient method for reconstructing pin to pin of the nuclear power density distribution, involving the analytical solution of the diffusion equation for two-dimensional neutron energy groups in homogeneous nodes, is presented. The boundary conditions used for analytic as solution are the four currents or fluxes on the surface of the node, which are obtained by Nodal Expansion Method (known as NEM) and four fluxes at the vertices of a node calculated using the finite difference method. The analytical solution found is the homogeneous distribution of neutron flux. Detailed distributions pin to pin inside a fuel assembly are estimated by the product of homogeneous flux distribution by local heterogeneous form function. Furthermore, the form functions of flux and power are used. The results obtained with this method have a good accuracy when compared with reference values. (author)

  3. Analytical method for reconstruction pin to pin of the nuclear power density distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pessoa, Paulo O.; Silva, Fernando C.; Martinez, Aquilino S., E-mail: ppessoa@con.ufrj.br, E-mail: fernando@con.ufrj.br, E-mail: aquilino@imp.ufrj.br [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    An accurate and efficient method for reconstructing pin to pin of the nuclear power density distribution, involving the analytical solution of the diffusion equation for two-dimensional neutron energy groups in homogeneous nodes, is presented. The boundary conditions used for analytic as solution are the four currents or fluxes on the surface of the node, which are obtained by Nodal Expansion Method (known as NEM) and four fluxes at the vertices of a node calculated using the finite difference method. The analytical solution found is the homogeneous distribution of neutron flux. Detailed distributions pin to pin inside a fuel assembly are estimated by the product of homogeneous flux distribution by local heterogeneous form function. Furthermore, the form functions of flux and power are used. The results obtained with this method have a good accuracy when compared with reference values. (author)

  4. Quantum anomalies in nodal line semimetals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkov, A. A.

    2018-04-01

    Topological semimetals are a new class of condensed matter systems with nontrivial electronic structure topology. Their unusual observable properties may often be understood in terms of quantum anomalies. In particular, Weyl and Dirac semimetals, which have point band-touching nodes, are characterized by the chiral anomaly, which leads to the Fermi arc surface states, anomalous Hall effect, negative longitudinal magnetoresistance, and planar Hall effect. In this paper, we explore analogous phenomena in nodal line semimetals. We demonstrate that such semimetals realize a three-dimensional analog of the parity anomaly, which is a known property of two-dimensional Dirac semimetals arising, for example, on the surface of a three-dimensional topological insulator. We relate one of the characteristic properties of nodal line semimetals, namely, the drumhead surface states, to this anomaly, and derive the field theory, which encodes the corresponding anomalous response.

  5. Lunar nodal tide in the Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Wróblewski

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available The nodal tide in the Baltic Sea was studied on the basis of the Stockholm tide-gauge readings for 1825-1984; data from the tide gauge at Swinoujscie for the same period provided comparative material. The Stockholm readings are highly accurate and are considered representative of sea levels in the whole Baltic; hence, the final computations were performed for the readings from this particular tide gauge for the period 1888-1980. The tidal amplitude obtained from measurements uncorrected for atmospheric pressure or wind field was compared with that forced only by atmospheric effects. The amplitude of the recorded nodal tide was the same as the equilibrium tide amplitude calculated for Stockholm. Calculations for equilibrium tide amplitudes were also performed for the extreme latitudes of the Baltic basin.

  6. Symmorphic Intersecting Nodal Rings in Semiconducting Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Cheng; Xie, Yuee; Chen, Yuanping; Kim, Heung-Sik; Vanderbilt, David

    2018-03-01

    The unique properties of topological semimetals have strongly driven efforts to seek for new topological phases and related materials. Here, we identify a critical condition for the existence of intersecting nodal rings (INRs) in symmorphic crystals, and further classify all possible kinds of INRs which can be obtained in the layered semiconductors with Amm2 and Cmmm space group symmetries. Several honeycomb structures are suggested to be topological INR semimetals, including layered and "hidden" layered structures. Transitions between the three types of INRs, named as α , β , and γ type, can be driven by external strains in these structures. The resulting surface states and Landau-level structures, more complicated than those resulting from a simple nodal loop, are also discussed.

  7. Twisted vector bundles on pointed nodal curves

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    is an element different from the identity and u is a geometric point of U fixed by γ, then the automorphism of the fiber ηu induced by γ is not trivial. 3. An essential action of a finite group on (η,U) is called tame, if the action of on. (U → S, i) is tame. DEFINITION 2.3. Let S be a k-scheme. Let C → S be an n-pointed nodal curve ...

  8. Acceleration of the nodal program FERM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakata, H.

    1985-01-01

    Acceleration of the nodal FERM was tried by three acceleration schemes. Results of the calculations showed the best acceleration with the Tchebyshev method where the savings in the computing time were of the order of 50%. Acceleration with the Assymptotic Source Extrapoltation Method and with the Coarse-Mesh Rebalancing Method did not result in any improvement on the global computational time, although a reduction in the number of outer iterations was observed. (Author) [pt

  9. Acceleration of the FERM nodal program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakata, H.

    1985-01-01

    It was tested three acceleration methods trying to reduce the number of outer iterations in the FERM nodal program. The results obtained indicated that the Chebychev polynomial acceleration method with variable degree results in a economy of 50% in the computer time. Otherwise, the acceleration method by source asymptotic extrapolation or by zonal rebalance did not result in economy of the global computer time, however some acceleration had been verified in outer iterations. (M.C.K.) [pt

  10. Current trends in methods for neutron diffusion calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, C.H.

    1977-01-01

    Current work and trends in the application of neutron diffusion theory to reactor design and analysis are reviewed. Specific topics covered include finite-difference methods, synthesis methods, nodal calculations, finite-elements and perturbation theory

  11. Primary extra nodal non Hodgkin lymphoma: a 5 year retrospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padhi, Somanath; Paul, Tara Roshni; Challa, Sundaram; Prayaga, Aruna K; Rajappa, Senthil; Raghunadharao, D; Sarangi, Rajlaxmi

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of extra nodal non Hodgkin lymphoma (ENL) is rising throughout the world. However, data regarding ENL as a group is limited. The aim was to study the epidemiological and histomorphological trends of primary ENL (pENL) in India. The biopsy materials from sixty eight patients with pENL (45 male, 23 female, M:F= 1.9:1), diagnosed over a five year period (2005-2009), were analysed and pathologically reclassified according to the World Health Organization (WHO) classification, 2008 criteria. Primary extra nodal non Hodgkin lymphomas constituted 22.0% (68/308) of all non Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL). The mean age at presentation for pENL and primary nodal NHL was 43 years and 58 years, respectively with a male predilection (M: F=2:1). Central nervous system (CNS) constituted the most common extranodal site (20/68, 29.5%) followed by gastrointestinal tract (17/68, 25%), and nose/nasopharynx (8/68, 11.8%). Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL, not otherwise specified), extranodal marginal lymphoma of mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) type, and B cell NHL unclassified (U) were the three most common histological types observed. T-cell phenotype was rarely noted (4%). Follicular lymphomas and anaplastic large cell lymphoma, seen among nodal NHL, were absent at extra nodal sites. Majority (41/68, 60%) of the patients with pENL were immunocompetent and 55% were in stage I-II with favorable prognosis. Central nervous system was the most common site of ENL, followed by gastrointestinal tract. Majority of pENL occurred in immunocompetent hosts with a favorable prognosis.

  12. An adaptive mesh refinement approach for average current nodal expansion method in 2-D rectangular geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poursalehi, N.; Zolfaghari, A.; Minuchehr, A.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► A new adaptive h-refinement approach has been developed for a class of nodal method. ► The resulting system of nodal equations is more amenable to efficient numerical solution. ► The benefit of the approach is reducing computational efforts relative to the uniform fine mesh modeling. ► Spatially adaptive approach greatly enhances the accuracy of the solution. - Abstract: The aim of this work is to develop a spatially adaptive coarse mesh strategy that progressively refines the nodes in appropriate regions of domain to solve the neutron balance equation by zeroth order nodal expansion method. A flux gradient based a posteriori estimation scheme has been utilized for checking the approximate solutions for various nodes. The relative surface net leakage of nodes has been considered as an assessment criterion. In this approach, the core module is called in by adaptive mesh generator to determine gradients of node surfaces flux to explore the possibility of node refinements in appropriate regions and directions of the problem. The benefit of the approach is reducing computational efforts relative to the uniform fine mesh modeling. For this purpose, a computer program ANRNE-2D, Adaptive Node Refinement Nodal Expansion, has been developed to solve neutron diffusion equation using average current nodal expansion method for 2D rectangular geometries. Implementing the adaptive algorithm confirms its superiority in enhancing the accuracy of the solution without using fine nodes throughout the domain and increasing the number of unknown solution. Some well-known benchmarks have been investigated and improvements are reported

  13. An upscaled approach for transport in media with extended tailing due to back-diffusion using analytical and numerical solutions of the advection dispersion equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Jack C; Kim, Ungtae

    2015-11-01

    The mono-continuum advection-dispersion equation (mADE) is commonly regarded as unsuitable for application to media that exhibit rapid breakthrough and extended tailing associated with diffusion between high and low permeability regions. This paper demonstrates that the mADE can be successfully used to model such conditions if certain issues are addressed. First, since hydrodynamic dispersion, unlike molecular diffusion, cannot occur upstream of the contaminant source, models must be formulated to prevent "back-dispersion." Second, large variations in aquifer permeability will result in differences between volume-weighted average concentration (resident concentration) and flow-weighted average concentration (flux concentration). Water samples taken from wells may be regarded as flux concentrations, while soil samples may be analyzed to determine resident concentrations. While the mADE is usually derived in terms of resident concentration, it is known that a mADE of the same mathematical form may be written in terms of flux concentration. However, when solving the latter, the mathematical transformation of a flux boundary condition applied to the resident mADE becomes a concentration type boundary condition for the flux mADE. Initial conditions must also be consistent with the form of the mADE that is to be solved. Thus, careful attention must be given to the type of concentration data that is available, whether resident or flux concentrations are to be simulated, and to boundary and initial conditions. We present 3-D analytical solutions for resident and flux concentrations, discuss methods of solving numerical models to obtain resident and flux concentrations, and compare results for hypothetical problems. We also present an upscaling method for computing "effective" dispersivities and other mADE model parameters in terms of physically meaningful parameters in a diffusion-limited mobile-immobile model. Application of the latter to previously published studies of

  14. Reconstruction of pin burnup characteristics from nodal calculations in hexagonal geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, W.S.; Finck, P.J.; Khalil, H.S.

    1990-01-01

    A reconstruction method has been developed for recovering pin burnup characteristics from fuel cycle calculations performed in hexagonal-z geometry using the nodal diffusion option of the DIF3D/REBUS-3 code system. Intra-modal distributions of group fluxes, nuclide densities, power density, burnup, and fluence are efficiently computed using polynomial shapes constrained to satisfy nodal information. The accuracy of the method has been tested by performing several numerical benchmark calculations and by comparing predicted local burnups to values measured for experimental assemblies in EBR-11. The results indicate that the reconstruction methods are quite accurate, yielding maximum errors in power and nuclide densities that are less than 2% for driver assemblies and typically less than 5% for blanket assemblies. 14 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs

  15. Discrete nodal integral transport-theory method for multidimensional reactor physics and shielding calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence, R.D.; Dorning, J.J.

    1980-01-01

    A coarse-mesh discrete nodal integral transport theory method has been developed for the efficient numerical solution of multidimensional transport problems of interest in reactor physics and shielding applications. The method, which is the discrete transport theory analogue and logical extension of the nodal Green's function method previously developed for multidimensional neutron diffusion problems, utilizes the same transverse integration procedure to reduce the multidimensional equations to coupled one-dimensional equations. This is followed by the conversion of the differential equations to local, one-dimensional, in-node integral equations by integrating back along neutron flight paths. One-dimensional and two-dimensional transport theory test problems have been systematically studied to verify the superior computational efficiency of the new method

  16. The Verification of Coupled Neutronics Thermal-Hydraulics Code NODAL3 in the PWR Rod Ejection Benchmark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surian Pinem

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A coupled neutronics thermal-hydraulics code NODAL3 has been developed based on the few-group neutron diffusion equation in 3-dimensional geometry for typical PWR static and transient analyses. The spatial variables are treated by using a polynomial nodal method while for the neutron dynamic solver the adiabatic and improved quasistatic methods are adopted. In this paper we report the benchmark calculation results of the code against the OECD/NEA CRP PWR rod ejection cases. The objective of this work is to determine the accuracy of NODAL3 code in analysing the reactivity initiated accident due to the control rod ejection. The NEACRP PWR rod ejection cases are chosen since many organizations participated in the NEA project using various methods as well as approximations, so that, in addition to the reference solutions, the calculation results of NODAL3 code can also be compared to other codes’ results. The transient parameters to be verified are time of power peak, power peak, final power, final average Doppler temperature, maximum fuel temperature, and final coolant temperature. The results of NODAL3 code agree well with the PHANTHER reference solutions in 1993 and 1997 (revised. Comparison with other validated codes, DYN3D/R and ANCK, shows also a satisfactory agreement.

  17. Robust doubly charged nodal lines and nodal surfaces in centrosymmetric systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bzdušek, Tomáš; Sigrist, Manfred

    2017-10-01

    Weyl points in three spatial dimensions are characterized by a Z -valued charge—the Chern number—which makes them stable against a wide range of perturbations. A set of Weyl points can mutually annihilate only if their net charge vanishes, a property we refer to as robustness. While nodal loops are usually not robust in this sense, it has recently been shown using homotopy arguments that in the centrosymmetric extension of the AI symmetry class they nevertheless develop a Z2 charge analogous to the Chern number. Nodal loops carrying a nontrivial value of this Z2 charge are robust, i.e., they can be gapped out only by a pairwise annihilation and not on their own. As this is an additional charge independent of the Berry π -phase flowing along the band degeneracy, such nodal loops are, in fact, doubly charged. In this manuscript, we generalize the homotopy discussion to the centrosymmetric extensions of all Atland-Zirnbauer classes. We develop a tailored mathematical framework dubbed the AZ +I classification and show that in three spatial dimensions such robust and multiply charged nodes appear in four of such centrosymmetric extensions, namely, AZ +I classes CI and AI lead to doubly charged nodal lines, while D and BDI support doubly charged nodal surfaces. We remark that no further crystalline symmetries apart from the spatial inversion are necessary for their stability. We provide a description of the corresponding topological charges, and develop simple tight-binding models of various semimetallic and superconducting phases that exhibit these nodes. We also indicate how the concept of robust and multiply charged nodes generalizes to other spatial dimensions.

  18. Atrial tachycardia mimicking atrioventricular nodal reentry tachycardia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eilbert, Wesley P; Patel, Neal

    2013-07-01

    The term supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) is used to describe tachydysrhythmias that require atrial or atrioventricular nodal tissue for their initiation and maintenance. SVT can be used to describe atrioventricular nodal reentry tachycardia, atrioventricular reentry tachycardia, and atrial tachycardia (AT). AT is the least common of these SVT subtypes, accounting for only 10% of cases. Although the suggested initial management of each SVT subtype is different, they all can present with similar symptoms and electrocardiographic findings. Discuss the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of AT as compared with other types of SVT. We report a 56-year-old woman with symptoms and electrocardiographic findings consistent with SVT. Although standard treatment with intravenous adenosine failed to convert the SVT, it revealed AT as the cause of the tachydysrhythmia. The AT was successfully terminated with beta-blockade and the patient eventually underwent successful radioablation of three separate AT foci. AT frequently mimics other more common forms of SVT. AT might be recognized only when standard treatment of SVT has failed. Identification of AT in this setting is crucial to allow for more definitive therapy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Radiotherapy of adult nodal non Hodgkin's lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamen, G.; Thirion, P.

    1999-01-01

    The role of radiotherapy in the treatment of nodal non-Hodgkin's lymphoma has been modified by the introduction of efficient chemotherapy and the development of different pathological classifications. The recommended treatment of early-stage aggressive lymphomas is primarily a combination chemotherapy. The interest of adjuvant radiotherapy remains unclear and has to be established through large prospective trials. If radiation therapy has to be delivered, the historical results of exclusive radiation therapy showed that involved-fields and a dose of 35-40 Gy (daily fraction of 1.8 Gy, 5 days a week) are the optimal schedule. The interest of radiotherapy in the treatment of advanced-stage aggressive lymphoma is yet to be proven. Further studies had to stratify localized stages according to the factors of the International Prognostic Index. For easy-stage low-grade lymphoma, radiotherapy remains the standard treatment. However, the appropriate technique to use is controversial. Involved-field irradiation at a dose of 35 Gy seems to be the optimal schedule, providing a 10 year disease-free survival rate of 50 % and no major toxicity. There is no standard indication of radiotherapy in the treatment advanced-stage low-grade lymphoma. For 'new' nodal lymphoma's types, the indication of radiotherapy cannot be established (mantle-zone lymphoma, marginal zone B-cell lymphoma) or must take into account the natural history (Burkitt's lymphoma, peripheral T-cell lymphoma) and the sensibility to others therapeutic methods. (authors)

  20. Solution of the isotopic depletion equation using decomposition method and analytical solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prata, Fabiano S.; Silva, Fernando C.; Martinez, Aquilino S., E-mail: fprata@con.ufrj.br, E-mail: fernando@con.ufrj.br, E-mail: aquilino@lmp.ufrj.br [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (PEN/COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear

    2011-07-01

    In this paper an analytical calculation of the isotopic depletion equations is proposed, featuring a chain of major isotopes found in a typical PWR reactor. Part of this chain allows feedback reactions of (n,2n) type. The method is based on decoupling the equations describing feedback from the rest of the chain by using the decomposition method, with analytical solutions for the other isotopes present in the chain. The method was implemented in a PWR reactor simulation code, that makes use of the nodal expansion method (NEM) to solve the neutron diffusion equation, describing the spatial distribution of neutron flux inside the reactor core. Because isotopic depletion calculation module is the most computationally intensive process within simulation systems of nuclear reactor core, it is justified to look for a method that is both efficient and fast, with the objective of evaluating a larger number of core configurations in a short amount of time. (author)

  1. Solution of the isotopic depletion equation using decomposition method and analytical solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prata, Fabiano S.; Silva, Fernando C.; Martinez, Aquilino S.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper an analytical calculation of the isotopic depletion equations is proposed, featuring a chain of major isotopes found in a typical PWR reactor. Part of this chain allows feedback reactions of (n,2n) type. The method is based on decoupling the equations describing feedback from the rest of the chain by using the decomposition method, with analytical solutions for the other isotopes present in the chain. The method was implemented in a PWR reactor simulation code, that makes use of the nodal expansion method (NEM) to solve the neutron diffusion equation, describing the spatial distribution of neutron flux inside the reactor core. Because isotopic depletion calculation module is the most computationally intensive process within simulation systems of nuclear reactor core, it is justified to look for a method that is both efficient and fast, with the objective of evaluating a larger number of core configurations in a short amount of time. (author)

  2. Torsionfree sheaves over a nodal curve of arithmetic genus one

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We classify all isomorphism classes of stable torsionfree sheaves on an irreducible nodal curve of arithmetic genus one defined over C C . Let be a nodal curve of arithmetic genus one defined over R R , with exactly one node, such that does not have any real points apart from the node. We classify all isomorphism ...

  3. In vitro Plant Regeneration of Cyphomandra betacea through Nodal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In vitro Plant Regeneration of Cyphomandra betacea through Nodal Culture. ... This study was conducted to develop an efficient, rapid propagation protocol for C. betacea through in vitro nodal culture. The effect of phytohormones on bud ... Keywords: Tissue culture, Cyphomandra betacea, Tamarillo, microshoot. Rwanda ...

  4. Efficient in vitro Chrysanthemum morifolium L.) plantlets from nodal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Efficient plant regeneration system has been developed from the nodal segments of chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium L). Nodal segments, after being sterilized with 1.0% mercuric chloride for three minutes, were inoculated in Murashige and Skoog (MS) media with varied concentrations of indole acetic acid ...

  5. Nodal portraits of quantum billiards: Domains, lines, and statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Sudhir Ranjan; Samajdar, Rhine

    2017-10-01

    This is a comprehensive review of the nodal domains and lines of quantum billiards, emphasizing a quantitative comparison of theoretical findings to experiments. The nodal statistics are shown to distinguish not only between regular and chaotic classical dynamics but also between different geometric shapes of the billiard system itself. How a random superposition of plane waves can model chaotic eigenfunctions is discussed and the connections of the complex morphology of the nodal lines thereof to percolation theory and Schramm-Loewner evolution are highlighted. Various approaches to counting the nodal domains—using trace formulas, graph theory, and difference equations—are also illustrated with examples. The nodal patterns addressed pertain to waves on vibrating plates and membranes, acoustic and electromagnetic modes, wave functions of a "particle in a box" as well as to percolating clusters, and domains in ferromagnets, thus underlining the diversity and far-reaching implications of the problem.

  6. Topological nodal line semimetals predicted from first-principles calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Rui; Fang, Zhong; Dai, Xi; Weng, Hongming

    2017-06-01

    Topological semimetals are newly discovered states of quantum matter, which have extended the concept of topological states from insulators to metals and attracted great research interest in recent years. In general, there are three kinds of topological semimetals, namely Dirac semimetals, Weyl semimetals, and nodal line semimetals. Nodal line semimetals can be considered as precursor states for other topological states. For example, starting from such nodal line states, the nodal line structure might evolve into Weyl points, convert into Dirac points, or become a topological insulator by introducing the spin-orbit coupling (SOC) or mass term. In this review paper, we introduce theoretical materials that show the nodal line semimetal state, including the all-carbon Mackay-Terrones crystal (MTC), anti-perovskite Cu3PdN, pressed black phosphorus, and the CaP3 family of materials, and we present the design principles for obtaining such novel states of matter.

  7. Three-dimensional static and dynamic reactor calculations by the nodal expansion method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, B.

    1985-05-01

    This report reviews various method for the calculation of the neutron-flux- and power distribution in an nuclear reactor. The nodal expansion method (NEM) is especially described in much detail. The nodal expansion method solves the diffusion equation. In this method the reactor core is divided into nodes, typically 10 to 20 cm in each direction, and the average flux in each node is calculated. To obtain the coupling between the nodes the local flux inside each node is expressed by use of a polynomial expansion. The expansion is one-dimensional, so inside each node such three expansions occur. To calculate the expansion coefficients it is necessary that the polynomial expansion is a solution to the one-dimensional diffusion equation. When the one-dimensional diffusion equation is established a term with the transversal leakage occur, and this term is expanded after the same polynomials. The resulting equation system with the expansion coefficients as the unknowns is solved with weigthed residual technique. The nodal expansion method is built into a computer program (also called NEM), which is divided into two parts, one part for steady-state calculations and one part for dynamic calculations. It is possible to take advantage of symmetry properties of the reactor core. The program is very flexible with regard to the number of energy groups, the node size, the flux expansion order and the transverse leakage expansion order. The boundary of the core is described by albedos. The program and input to it are described. The program is tested on a number of examples extending from small theoretical one up to realistic reactor cores. Many calculations are done on the wellknown IAEA benchmark case. The calculations have tested the accuracy and the computing time for various node sizes and polynomial expansions. In the dynamic examples various strategies for variation of the time step-length have been tested. (author)

  8. A nodalization study of steam separator in real time simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horugshyang, Lein; Luh, R.T.J.; Zen-Yow, Wang

    1999-01-01

    The motive of this paper is to investigate the influence of steam separator nodalization on reactor thermohydraulics in terms of stability and level response. Three different nodalizations of steam separator are studied by using THEATRE and REMARK Code in a BWR simulator. The first nodalization is the traditional one with two nodes for steam separator. In this nodalization, the steam separation is modeled in the outer node, i.e., upper downcomer. Separated steam enters the Steen dome node and the liquid goes to the feedwater node. The second nodalization is similar to the first one with the steam separation modeled in the inner node. There is one additional junction connecting steam dome node and the inner node. The liquid fallback junction connects the inner node and feedwater node. The third nodalization is a combination of the former two with an integrated node for steam separator. Boundary conditions in this study are provided by a simplified feedwater and main steam driver. For comparison purpose, three tests including full power steady state initialisation, recirculation pumps runback and reactor scram are conducted. Major parameters such as reactor pressure, reactor level, void fractions, neutronic power and junction flows are recorded for analysis. Test results clearly show that the first nodalization is stable for steady state initialisation. However it has too responsive level performance in core flow reduction transients. The second nodalization is the closest representation of real plant structure, but not the performance. Test results show that an instability occurs in the separator region for both steady state initialisation and transients. This instability is caused by an unbalanced momentum in the dual loop configuration. The magnitude of the oscillation reduces as the power decreases. No superiority to the other nodalizations is shown in the test results. The third nodalization shows both stability and responsiveness in the tests. (author)

  9. Nodal aberration theory applied to freeform surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuerschbach, Kyle; Rolland, Jannick P.; Thompson, Kevin P.

    2014-12-01

    When new three-dimensional packages are developed for imaging optical systems, the rotational symmetry of the optical system is often broken, changing its imaging behavior and making the optical performance worse. A method to restore the performance is to use freeform optical surfaces that compensate directly the aberrations introduced from tilting and decentering the optical surfaces. In order to effectively optimize the shape of a freeform surface to restore optical functionality, it is helpful to understand the aberration effect the surface may induce. Using nodal aberration theory the aberration fields induced by a freeform surface in an optical system are explored. These theoretical predications are experimentally validated with the design and implementation of an aberration generating telescope.

  10. Local Nodal Cooper Pairs in Multiorbital Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Kazumasa; Nomoto, Takuya; Hotta, Takashi; Ikeda, Hiroaki

    2017-11-01

    We show the occurrence of a new class of superconductivity in multiorbital systems, focusing on non-Kramers f2 states. The Cooper pairs in this class of superconductivity are mainly local pairs with the same symmetry as the local f2 ground states. When the local ground state is an anisotropic representation, the superconducting gap has nodes on the Fermi surface. This nodal superconductivity is mediated by the strong on-site interorbital attractions arising from the negative-U physics, generalized in multiorbital systems. We show that this is realized in a simple two-orbital model with antiferro Hund's coupling and enhanced inter-orbital interactions derived via a systematic local down folding. Finally, we briefly discuss superconductivity in Pr-1-2-20 compounds, UBe13, and PrOs4Sb12, in view of the present mechanism.

  11. Systematic assembly homogenization and local flux reconstruction for nodal method calculations of fast reactor power distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorning, J.J.

    1991-01-01

    A simultaneous pin lattice cell and fuel bundle homogenization theory has been developed for use with nodal diffusion calculations of practical reactors. The theoretical development of the homogenization theory, which is based on multiple-scales asymptotic expansion methods carried out through fourth order in a small parameter, starts from the transport equation and systematically yields: a cell-homogenized bundled diffusion equation with self-consistent expressions for the cell-homogenized cross sections and diffusion tensor elements; and a bundle-homogenized global reactor diffusion equation with self-consistent expressions for the bundle-homogenized cross sections and diffusion tensor elements. The continuity of the angular flux at cell and bundle interfaces also systematically yields jump conditions for the scaler flux or so-called flux discontinuity factors on the cell and bundle interfaces in terms of the two adjacent cell or bundle eigenfunctions. The expressions required for the reconstruction of the angular flux or the 'de-homogenization' theory were obtained as an integral part of the development; hence the leading order transport theory angular flux is easily reconstructed throughout the reactor including the regions in the interior of the fuel bundles or computational nodes and in the interiors of the pin lattice cells. The theoretical development shows that the exact transport theory angular flux is obtained to first order from the whole-reactor nodal diffusion calculations, done using the homogenized nuclear data and discontinuity factors, is a product of three computed quantities: a ''cell shape function''; a ''bundle shape function''; and a ''global shape function''. 10 refs

  12. Disrupted nodal and hub organization account for brain network abnormalities in Parkinson’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuko Koshimori

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The recent application of graph theory to brain networks promises to shed light on complex diseases such as Parkinson’s disease. This study aimed to investigate functional changes in sensorimotor and cognitive networks in parkinsonian patients, with a focus on inter- and intra-connectivity organization in the disease-associated nodal and hub regions using the graph theoretical analyses. Resting-state functional MRI data of a total of 65 participants, including 23 healthy controls and 42 patients, were investigated in 120 nodes for local efficiency, betweenness centrality, and degree. Hub regions were identified in the healthy control and patient groups. We found nodal and hub changes in patients compared with healthy controls, including the right pre-supplementary motor area, left anterior insula, bilateral mid-insula, bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and right caudate nucleus. In general, nodal regions within the sensorimotor network (i.e. right pre-supplementary motor area and right mid-insula displayed weakened connectivity, with the former node associated with more severe bradykinesia, and impaired integration with default mode network regions. The left mid-insula also lost its hub properties in patients. Within the executive networks, the left anterior insular cortex lost its hub properties in patients, while a new hub region was identified in the right caudate nucleus, paralleled by an increased level of inter- and intra-connectivity in the bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex possibly representing compensatory mechanisms. These findings highlight the diffuse changes in nodal organization and regional hub disruption accounting for the distributed abnormalities across brain networks and the clinical manifestations of Parkinson’s disease.

  13. Analytical solution of spatial kinetics of the diffusion model for subcritical homogeneous systems driven by external source; Solucao analitica da cinetica espacial do modelo de difusao para sistemas homogeneos subcriticos acionados por fonte externa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Fernando Luiz de

    2008-07-01

    This work describes an analytical solution obtained by the expansion method for the spatial kinetics using the diffusion model with delayed emission for source transients in homogeneous media. In particular, starting from simple models, and increasing the complexity, numerical results were obtained for different types of source transients. An analytical solution of the one group without precursors was solved, followed by considering one precursors family. The general case of G-groups with R families of precursor although having a closed form solution, cannot be solved analytically, since there are no explicit formulae for the eigenvalues, and numerical methods must be used to solve such problem. To illustrate the general solution, the multi-group (three groups) time-dependent problem without precursors was solved and the numerical results of a finite difference code were compared with the exact results for different transients. (author)

  14. Embryonic morphogen nodal promotes breast cancer growth and progression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela F Quail

    Full Text Available Breast cancers expressing human embryonic stem cell (hESC-associated genes are more likely to progress than well-differentiated cancers and are thus associated with poor patient prognosis. Elevated proliferation and evasion of growth control are similarly associated with disease progression, and are classical hallmarks of cancer. In the current study we demonstrate that the hESC-associated factor Nodal promotes breast cancer growth. Specifically, we show that Nodal is elevated in aggressive MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-468 and Hs578t human breast cancer cell lines, compared to poorly aggressive MCF-7 and T47D breast cancer cell lines. Nodal knockdown in aggressive breast cancer cells via shRNA reduces tumour incidence and significantly blunts tumour growth at primary sites. In vitro, using Trypan Blue exclusion assays, Western blot analysis of phosphorylated histone H3 and cleaved caspase-9, and real time RT-PCR analysis of BAX and BCL2 gene expression, we demonstrate that Nodal promotes expansion of breast cancer cells, likely via a combinatorial mechanism involving increased proliferation and decreased apopotosis. In an experimental model of metastasis using beta-glucuronidase (GUSB-deficient NOD/SCID/mucopolysaccharidosis type VII (MPSVII mice, we show that although Nodal is not required for the formation of small (<100 cells micrometastases at secondary sites, it supports an elevated proliferation:apoptosis ratio (Ki67:TUNEL in micrometastatic lesions. Indeed, at longer time points (8 weeks, we determined that Nodal is necessary for the subsequent development of macrometastatic lesions. Our findings demonstrate that Nodal supports tumour growth at primary and secondary sites by increasing the ratio of proliferation:apoptosis in breast cancer cells. As Nodal expression is relatively limited to embryonic systems and cancer, this study establishes Nodal as a potential tumour-specific target for the treatment of breast cancer.

  15. Embryonic morphogen nodal promotes breast cancer growth and progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quail, Daniela F; Zhang, Guihua; Walsh, Logan A; Siegers, Gabrielle M; Dieters-Castator, Dylan Z; Findlay, Scott D; Broughton, Heather; Putman, David M; Hess, David A; Postovit, Lynne-Marie

    2012-01-01

    Breast cancers expressing human embryonic stem cell (hESC)-associated genes are more likely to progress than well-differentiated cancers and are thus associated with poor patient prognosis. Elevated proliferation and evasion of growth control are similarly associated with disease progression, and are classical hallmarks of cancer. In the current study we demonstrate that the hESC-associated factor Nodal promotes breast cancer growth. Specifically, we show that Nodal is elevated in aggressive MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-468 and Hs578t human breast cancer cell lines, compared to poorly aggressive MCF-7 and T47D breast cancer cell lines. Nodal knockdown in aggressive breast cancer cells via shRNA reduces tumour incidence and significantly blunts tumour growth at primary sites. In vitro, using Trypan Blue exclusion assays, Western blot analysis of phosphorylated histone H3 and cleaved caspase-9, and real time RT-PCR analysis of BAX and BCL2 gene expression, we demonstrate that Nodal promotes expansion of breast cancer cells, likely via a combinatorial mechanism involving increased proliferation and decreased apopotosis. In an experimental model of metastasis using beta-glucuronidase (GUSB)-deficient NOD/SCID/mucopolysaccharidosis type VII (MPSVII) mice, we show that although Nodal is not required for the formation of small (apoptosis ratio (Ki67:TUNEL) in micrometastatic lesions. Indeed, at longer time points (8 weeks), we determined that Nodal is necessary for the subsequent development of macrometastatic lesions. Our findings demonstrate that Nodal supports tumour growth at primary and secondary sites by increasing the ratio of proliferation:apoptosis in breast cancer cells. As Nodal expression is relatively limited to embryonic systems and cancer, this study establishes Nodal as a potential tumour-specific target for the treatment of breast cancer.

  16. Modifying nodal pricing method considering market participants optimality and reliability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Soofiabadi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops a method for nodal pricing and market clearing mechanism considering reliability of the system. The effects of components reliability on electricity price, market participants’ profit and system social welfare is considered. This paper considers reliability both for evaluation of market participant’s optimality as well as for fair pricing and market clearing mechanism. To achieve fair pricing, nodal price has been obtained through a two stage optimization problem and to achieve fair market clearing mechanism, comprehensive criteria has been introduced for optimality evaluation of market participant. Social welfare of the system and system efficiency are increased under proposed modified nodal pricing method.

  17. Finite analytic numerical solution axisymmetric Navier-Stokes and energy equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C.; Yoon, Y.H.

    1983-01-01

    Convective heat transfer for steady-state laminar flow in axisymmetric coordinates is considered. Numerical solutions for flow pattern and temperature distribution are obtained by the finite analytic numerical method applied to the Navier-Stokes equations expressed in terms of vorticity and stream function, and the energy equation. The finite analytic numerical method differs from other numerical methods in that it utilizes a local analytic solution in an element of the problem to construct the total numerical solution. Finite analytic solutions of vorticity, stream function, temperature, and heat transfer coefficients for flow with Reynolds numbers of 5, 100, 1000, and 2000, and Prandtl numbers of 0.1, 1.0, and 10.0 with uniform grid sizes, are reported for an axisymmetric pipe with a sudden expansion and contraction. The wall temperature is considered to be isothermal and differs from the inlet temperature. It is shown that the finite analytic is stable converges rapidly, and simulates the convection of fluid flow accurately, since the local analytic solution is capable of simulating automatically the influence of skewed convection through the element boundary on the interior nodal values, thereby minimizing the false numerical diffusion

  18. Primary nodal hemangiosarcoma in four dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Catherine M; Zwahlen, Courtney H; de Lorimier, Louis-Philippe; Yeomans, Stephen M; Hoffmann, Karon L; Moore, Antony S

    2016-11-01

    CASE DESCRIPTION 4 dogs with a slow-growing mass in the cervical region were evaluated. CLINICAL FINDINGS All dogs had no clinical signs at the time of the evaluation. There was no apparent evidence of visceral metastases or other primary tumor based on available CT or MRI data for any dog. TREATMENT AND OUTCOME For each dog, surgery to remove the mass was performed. Histologic examination of the excised tissue revealed a completely excised grade 1 or 2 lymph node hemangiosarcoma. All dogs received adjuvant chemotherapy; 2 dogs underwent curative intent chemotherapy, 1 dog underwent metronomic treatment with cyclophosphamide, and 1 dog underwent metronomic treatment with chlorambucil. The survival time was 259 days in 1 dog; 3 dogs were still alive 615, 399, and 365 days after surgery. CLINICAL RELEVANCE Primary nodal hemangiosarcoma in dogs is a rare and, to the authors' knowledge, previously undescribed disease that appears to develop in the cervical lymph nodes as a slow-growing mass or masses. Surgical excision and adjunct treatment resulted in long survival times for 3 of the 4 dogs of the present report. Given the aggressive biologic behavior of hemangiosarcomas in other body locations, adjunct chemotherapy should be considered for affected dogs, although its role in the cases described in this report was unclear. Additional clinical information is required to further characterize the biologic behavior of this tumor type and determine the expected survival times and associated risk factors in dogs.

  19. Present Status of GNF New Nodal Simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwamoto, T.; Tamitani, M.; Moore, B.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents core simulator consolidation work done at Global Nuclear Fuel (GNF). The unified simulator needs to supercede the capabilities of past simulator packages from the original GNF partners: GE, Hitachi, and Toshiba. At the same time, an effort is being made to produce a simulation package that will be a state-of-the-art analysis tool when released, in terms of the physics solution methodology and functionality. The core simulator will be capable and qualified for (a) high-energy cycles in the U.S. markets, (b) mixed-oxide (MOX) introduction in Japan, and (c) high-power density plants in Europe, etc. The unification of the lattice physics code is also in progress based on a transport model with collision probability methods. The AETNA core simulator is built upon the PANAC11 software base. The goal is to essentially replace the 1.5-energy-group model with a higher-order multigroup nonlinear nodal solution capable of the required modeling fidelity, while keeping highly automated library generation as well as functionality. All required interfaces to PANAC11 will be preserved, which minimizes the impact on users and process automation. Preliminary results show statistical accuracy improvement over the 1.5-group model

  20. Adaptive Nodal Transport Methods for Reactor Transient Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas Downar; E. Lewis

    2005-08-31

    Develop methods for adaptively treating the angular, spatial, and time dependence of the neutron flux in reactor transient analysis. These methods were demonstrated in the DOE transport nodal code VARIANT and the US NRC spatial kinetics code, PARCS.

  1. Aircraft Nodal Data Acquisition System (ANDAS), Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Development of an Aircraft Nodal Data Acquisition System (ANDAS) based upon the short haul Zigbee networking standard is proposed. It employs a very thin (135 um)...

  2. Nodal mantle cell lymphoma: A descriptive study from a tertiary care center in South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Roy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL is a type of B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL with distinctive morphologic, immunophenotypic and a characteristic cytogenetic abnormality, the t(11;14(q13;q32 and overexpression of cyclin D1. The common histologic features include effaced lymphoid architecture by a monomorphic lymphoid population with a vaguely nodular, diffuse or mantle zone growth pattern. The classic cytomorphologic features include small to medium sized lymphoid cells with irregular nuclear contours and scanty cytoplasm, closely resembling centrocytes. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study comprises 13 cases of MCL over a period of 5½ years in our department, comprising 4% of all nodal NHL diagnosed. All cases were diagnosed on lymph node biopsy. Results: The mean age of the presentation was 57 years. There was a male preponderance (M:F = 2.25:1. The disease was nodal in all cases. Most patients (84.5% had generalized lymphadenopathy and/or hepatosplenomegaly. Bone marrow involvement was seen in 81.8% of cases. Three cases showed a nodular pattern on lymph node biopsy while remaining ten had a diffuse pattern. Immunophenotyping showed positivity for CD20, CD5 and cyclin D1 and CD23 negativity. Conclusion: Despite certain morphological similarity to other low-grade/intermediate-grade lymphomas, MCL has a characteristic appearance of its own. Since it is more aggressive than other low-grade lymphomas it needs to be accurately diagnosed.

  3. Nodally Integrated Finite Element Formulation for Mindlin-Reissner Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoes, D. A.; Jadhav, T. A.

    2014-01-01

    This work describes a nodally integrated finite element formulation for plates under the Mindlin-Reissner theory. The formulation makes use of the weighted residual method and nodal integration to derive the assumed strain relations. An element formulation for four-node quadrilateral elements is implemented in the nonlinear finite element solver Abaqus using the UEL user element subroutine. Numerical tests are carried out on the new element and the results are presented.

  4. The ADO-nodal method for solving two-dimensional discrete ordinates transport problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barichello, L.B.; Picoloto, C.B.; Cunha, R.D. da

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Two-dimensional discrete ordinates neutron transport. • Analytical Discrete Ordinates (ADO) nodal method. • Heterogeneous media fixed source problems. • Local solutions. - Abstract: In this work, recent results on the solution of fixed-source two-dimensional transport problems, in Cartesian geometry, are reported. Homogeneous and heterogeneous media problems are considered in order to incorporate the idea of arbitrary number of domain division into regions (nodes) when applying the ADO method, which is a method of analytical features, to those problems. The ADO-nodal formulation is developed, for each node, following previous work devoted to heterogeneous media problem. Here, however, the numerical procedure is extended to higher number of domain divisions. Such extension leads, in some cases, to the use of an iterative method for solving the general linear system which defines the arbitrary constants of the general solution. In addition to solve alternative heterogeneous media configurations than reported in previous works, the present approach allows comparisons with results provided by other metodologies generated with refined meshes. Numerical results indicate the ADO solution may achieve a prescribed accuracy using coarser meshes than other schemes.

  5. Nodal signaling from the visceral endoderm is required to maintain Nodal gene expression in the epiblast and drive AVE migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Amit; Lualdi, Margaret; Lyozin, George T.; Sharma, Prashant; Loncarek, Jadranka; Fu, Xin-Yuan; Kuehn, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    In the early mouse embryo, a specialized population of extraembryonic visceral endoderm (VE) cells called the anterior VE (AVE) establishes the anterior posterior (AP) axis by restricting gastrulation-inducing signals to the opposite pole. These cells arise at the distal tip of the egg cylinder stage embryo and then asymmetrically migrate to the prospective anterior following the path of an earlier arising and migrating population called the distal VE (DVE). The Nodal-signaling pathway has been shown to have a critical role in the generation of the DVE and AVE and in their migration. The Nodal gene is expressed in both the VE and in the pluripotent epiblast, which gives rise to the germ layers. Previous findings have provided conflicting evidence as to the relative importance of Nodal signaling from the epiblast vs. VE for AP patterning. Here we show that conditional mutagenesis of the Nodal gene specifically within the VE leads to reduced Nodal expression levels in the epiblast and incomplete or failed AVE migration. These results support a required role for VE Nodal to maintain normal levels of expression in the epiblast, and suggest signaling from both VE and epiblast is important for AVE migration. PMID:25536399

  6. Analytical synthetic methods of solution of neutron transport equation with diffusion theory approaches energy multigroup; Metodos sinteticos analiticos de solucao da equacao de transporte de neutrons com aproximacoes da teoria da difusao multigrupo de energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moraes, Pedro Gabriel B.; Leite, Michel C.A.; Barros, Ricardo C., E-mail: pgbmoraes@gmail.com, E-mail: chell_leite@hotmail.com, E-mail: rcbarros@pq.cnpq.br [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Nova Friburgo, RJ (Brazil). Instituto Politecnico. Departamento de Modelagem Computacional

    2013-07-01

    In this work we developed a software to model and generate results in tables and graphs of one-dimensional neutron transport problems in multi-group formulation of energy. The numerical method we use to solve the problem of neutron diffusion is analytic, thus eliminating the truncation errors that appear in classical numerical methods, e.g., the method of finite differences. This numerical analytical method increases the computational efficiency, since they are not refined spatial discretization necessary because for any spatial discretization grids used, the numerical result generated for the same point of the domain remains unchanged unless the rounding errors of computational finite arithmetic. We chose to develop a computational application in MatLab platform for numerical computation and program interface is simple and easy with knobs. We consider important to model this neutron transport problem with a fixed source in the context of shielding calculations of radiation that protects the biosphere, and could be sensitive to ionizing radiation.

  7. Intercomparison of the finite difference and nodal discrete ordinates and surface flux transport methods for a LWR pool-reactor benchmark problem in X-Y geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Dell, R.D.; Stepanek, J.; Wagner, M.R.

    1983-01-01

    The aim of the present work is to compare and discuss the three of the most advanced two dimensional transport methods, the finite difference and nodal discrete ordinates and surface flux method, incorporated into the transport codes TWODANT, TWOTRAN-NODAL, MULTIMEDIUM and SURCU. For intercomparison the eigenvalue and the neutron flux distribution are calculated using these codes in the LWR pool reactor benchmark problem. Additionally the results are compared with some results obtained by French collision probability transport codes MARSYAS and TRIDENT. Because the transport solution of this benchmark problem is close to its diffusion solution some results obtained by the finite element diffusion code FINELM and the finite difference diffusion code DIFF-2D are included

  8. Determination of dynamic metal complexes and their diffusion coefficients in the presence of different humic substances by combining two analytical techniques.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chakraborty, P.; Manek, A; Niyogi, S.; Hudson, J.

    The combined use of a competing ligand exchange (CLE) method and a diffusive gradient in thin films (DGT) technique in a quasi-labile system provides a better understanding of dynamic metal (Cu and Ni) complexes in the presence of humic substances...

  9. Development of a computer code for neutronic calculations of a hexagonal lattice of nuclear reactor using the flux expansion nodal method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadnia Meysam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The flux expansion nodal method is a suitable method for considering nodalization effects in node corners. In this paper we used this method to solve the intra-nodal flux analytically. Then, a computer code, named MA.CODE, was developed using the C# programming language. The code is capable of reactor core calculations for hexagonal geometries in two energy groups and three dimensions. The MA.CODE imports two group constants from the WIMS code and calculates the effective multiplication factor, thermal and fast neutron flux in three dimensions, power density, reactivity, and the power peaking factor of each fuel assembly. Some of the code's merits are low calculation time and a user friendly interface. MA.CODE results showed good agreement with IAEA benchmarks, i. e. AER-FCM-101 and AER-FCM-001.

  10. Functional mathematical model of dual pathway AV nodal conduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climent, A M; Guillem, M S; Zhang, Y; Millet, J; Mazgalev, T N

    2011-04-01

    Dual atrioventricular (AV) nodal pathway physiology is described as two different wave fronts that propagate from the atria to the His bundle: one with a longer effective refractory period [fast pathway (FP)] and a second with a shorter effective refractory period [slow pathway (SP)]. By using His electrogram alternance, we have developed a mathematical model of AV conduction that incorporates dual AV nodal pathway physiology. Experiments were performed on five rabbit atrial-AV nodal preparations to develop and test the presented model. His electrogram alternances from the inferior margin of the His bundle were used to identify fast and slow wave front propagations. The ability to predict AV conduction time and the interaction between FP and SP wave fronts have been analyzed during regular and irregular atrial rhythms (e.g., atrial fibrillation). In addition, the role of dual AV nodal pathway wave fronts in the generation of Wenckebach periodicities has been illustrated. Finally, AV node ablative modifications have been evaluated. The model accurately reproduced interactions between FP and SP during regular and irregular atrial pacing protocols. In all experiments, specificity and sensitivity higher than 85% were obtained in the prediction of the pathway responsible for conduction. It has been shown that, during atrial fibrillation, the SP ablation significantly increased the mean HH interval (204 ± 39 vs. 274 ± 50 ms, P AV node mechanisms and should be considered as a step forward in the studies of AV nodal conduction.

  11. AV nodal dual pathway electrophysiology and Wenckebach periodicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Youhua; Mazgalev, Todor N

    2011-11-01

    The precise mechanism(s) governing the phenomenon of AV nodal Wenckebach periodicity is not fully elucidated. Currently 2 hypotheses, the decremental conduction and the Rosenbluethian step-delay, are most frequently used. We have provided new evidence that, in addition, dual pathway (DPW) electrophysiology is directly involved in the manifestation of AV nodal Wenckebach phenomenon. AV nodal cellular action potentials (APs) were recorded from 6 rabbit AV node preparations during standard A1A2 and incremental pacing protocols. His electrogram alternans, a validated index of DPW electrophysiology, was used to monitor fast (FP) and slow (SP) pathway conduction. The data were collected in intact AV nodes, as well as after SP ablation. In all studied hearts the Wenckebach cycle started with FP propagation, followed by transition to SP until its ultimate block. During this process complex cellular APs were observed, with decremental foot formations reflecting the fading FP and second depolarizations produced by the SP. In addition, the AV node cells exhibited a progressive loss in maximal diastolic membrane potential (MDP) due to incomplete repolarization. The pause created with the blocked Wenckebach beat was associated with restoration of MDP and reinitiation of the conduction cycle via the FP wavefront. DPW electrophysiology is dynamically involved in the development of AV nodal Wenckebach periodicity. In the intact AV node, the cycle starts with FP that is progressively weakened and then replaced by SP propagation, until block occurs. AV nodal SP modification did not eliminate Wenckebach periodicity but strongly affected its paradigm. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Implications of inaccurate clinical nodal staging in pancreatic adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swords, Douglas S; Firpo, Matthew A; Johnson, Kirsten M; Boucher, Kenneth M; Scaife, Courtney L; Mulvihill, Sean J

    2017-07-01

    Many patients with stage I-II pancreatic adenocarcinoma do not undergo resection. We hypothesized that (1) clinical staging underestimates nodal involvement, causing stage IIB to have a greater percent of resected patients and (2) this stage-shift causes discrepancies in observed survival. The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) research database was used to evaluate cause-specific survival in patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma from 2004-2012. Survival was compared using the log-rank test. Single-center data on 105 patients who underwent resection of pancreatic adenocarcinoma without neoadjuvant treatment were used to compare clinical and pathologic nodal staging. In SEER data, medium-term survival in stage IIB was superior to IB and IIA, with median cause-specific survival of 14, 9, and 11 months, respectively (P < .001). Seventy-two percent of stage IIB patients underwent resection vs 28% in IB and 36% in IIA (P < .001). In our institutional data, 12.4% of patients had clinical evidence of nodal involvement vs 69.5% by pathologic staging (P < .001). Among clinical stage IA-IIA patients, 71.6% had nodal involvement by pathologic staging. Both SEER and institutional data support substantial underestimation of nodal involvement by clinical staging. This finding has implications in decisions regarding neoadjuvant therapy and analysis of outcomes in the absence of pathologic staging. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Development of depletion perturbation theory for a reactor nodal code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowman, S.M.

    1981-09-01

    A generalized depletion perturbation (DPT) theory formulation for light water reactor (LWR) depletion problems is developed and implemented into the three-dimensional LWR nodal code SIMULATE. This development applies the principles of the original derivation by M.L. Williams to the nodal equations solved by SIMULATE. The present formulation is first described in detail, and the nodal coupling methodology in SIMULATE is used to determine partial derivatives of the coupling coefficients. The modifications to the original code and the new DPT options available to the user are discussed. Finally, the accuracy and the applicability of the new DPT capability to LWR design analysis are examined for several LWR depletion test cases. The cases range from simple static cases to a realistic PWR model for an entire fuel cycle. Responses of interest included K/sub eff/, nodal peaking, and peak nodal exposure. The nonlinear behavior of responses with respect to perturbations of the various types of cross sections was also investigated. The time-dependence of the sensitivity coefficients for different responses was examined and compared. Comparison of DPT results for these examples to direct calculations reveals the limited applicability of depletion perturbation theory to LWR design calculations at the present. The reasons for these restrictions are discussed, and several methods which might improve the computational accuracy of DPT are proposed for future research.

  14. Development of the finite element method of body fit nodalization for mixed convection analysis in rod bundles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, G.J.; Chang, S.H.

    1990-01-01

    In the reactor rod bundle analysis, mixed convection phenomena are very important after the reactor shutdown. In this paper, the finite element method based on the body fit nodalization are developed to analyze the mixed convection phenomena in a complex geometry. The velocity distribution and the temperature distribution in the reactor rod bundles are obtained using the above two methods. To validate the developed methods, a comparison of the present results with the analytic solutions for a concentric tube is taken. The results show that the mixed convection in a complex geometry can be treated very well with these two methods, and that the finite element method with the body fit nodalization is more efficient than the finite difference method with the body-fitted coordinate system. (orig.)

  15. Analytical solution of the multigroup neutron diffusion kinetic equation in one-dimensional cartesian geometry by the integral transform technique; Solucao analitica da equacao cinetica de difusao multigrupo de neutrons em geometria cartesiana unidimensional pela tecnica da transformada integral

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ceolin, Celina

    2010-07-01

    The objective of this work is to obtain an analytical solution of the neutron diffusion kinetic equation in one-dimensional cartesian geometry, to monoenergetic and multigroup problems. These equations are of the type stiff, due to large differences in the orders of magnitude of the time scales of the physical phenomena involved, which make them difficult to solve. The basic idea of the proposed method is applying the spectral expansion in the scalar flux and in the precursor concentration, taking moments and solving the resulting matrix problem by the Laplace transform technique. Bearing in mind that the equation for the precursor concentration is a first order linear differential equation in the time variable, to enable the application of the spectral method we introduce a fictitious diffusion term multiplied by a positive value which tends to zero. This procedure opened the possibility to find an analytical solution to the problem studied. We report numerical simulations and analysis of the results obtained with the precision controlled by the truncation order of the series. (author)

  16. Integrated rate-dependent and dual pathway AV nodal functions: principles and assessment framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billette, Jacques; Tadros, Rafik

    2014-01-15

    The atrioventricular (AV) node conducts slowly and has a long refractory period. These features sustain the filtering of atrial impulses and hence are often modulated to optimize ventricular rate during supraventricular tachyarrhythmias. The AV node is also the site of a clinically common reentrant arrhythmia. Its function is assessed for a variety of purposes from its responses to a premature protocol (S1S2, test beats introduced at different cycle lengths) repeatedly performed at different basic rates and/or to an incremental pacing protocol (increasingly faster rates). Puzzlingly, resulting data and interpretation differ with protocols as well as with chosen recovery and refractory indexes, and are further complicated by the presence of built-in fast and slow pathways. This problem applies to endocavitary investigations of arrhythmias as well as to many experimental functional studies. This review supports an integrated framework of rate-dependent and dual pathway AV nodal function that can account for these puzzling characteristics. The framework was established from AV nodal responses to S1S2S3 protocols that, compared with standard S1S2 protocols, allow for an orderly quantitative dissociation of the different factors involved in changes in AV nodal conduction and refractory indexes under rate-dependent and dual pathway function. Although largely based on data from experimental studies, the proposed framework may well apply to the human AV node. In conclusion, the rate-dependent and dual pathway properties of the AV node can be integrated within a common functional framework the contribution of which to individual responses can be quantitatively determined with properly designed protocols and analytic tools.

  17. A computational study of nodal-based tetrahedral element behavior.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gullerud, Arne S.

    2010-09-01

    This report explores the behavior of nodal-based tetrahedral elements on six sample problems, and compares their solution to that of a corresponding hexahedral mesh. The problems demonstrate that while certain aspects of the solution field for the nodal-based tetrahedrons provide good quality results, the pressure field tends to be of poor quality. Results appear to be strongly affected by the connectivity of the tetrahedral elements. Simulations that rely on the pressure field, such as those which use material models that are dependent on the pressure (e.g. equation-of-state models), can generate erroneous results. Remeshing can also be strongly affected by these issues. The nodal-based test elements as they currently stand need to be used with caution to ensure that their numerical deficiencies do not adversely affect critical values of interest.

  18. A one-dimensional lattice-gas model for simulating diffusion in channel pores with side pockets: The analytical approach and kinetic Monte Carlo technique

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tarasenko, Alexander; Jastrabík, Lubomír

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 152, APR (2012), s. 134-140 ISSN 1387-1811 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TA01010517 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100522 Keywords : lattice-gas systems * diffusion * Monte Carlo simulations Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.365, year: 2012 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.micromeso.2011.11.046

  19. Nodal Structure of Unconventional Superconductors Determined by Thermal Conductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Y.; Izawa, K.

    2003-01-01

    The superconducting gap structure, especially the direction of the nodes, is an unresolved issue in most of unconventional superconductors. Recently it has been demonstrated that the thermal conductivity κ is a powerful tool for probing the nodal structure. Here measuring κ in H rotating within the basal plane, we discuss the nodal structure of the unconventional superconductors, spin-triplet Sr 2 RuO 4 , heavy fermion CeCoIn 5 , organic κ -(BEDT-TTF) 2 Cu(NCS) 2 , and borocarbide YNi 2 B 2 C. (author)

  20. Oddness of least energy nodal solutions on radial domains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Grumiau

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we consider the Lane-Emden problem $$displaylines{ Delta u(x + |{u(x}mathclose|^{p-2}u(x=0, quad hbox{for } xinOmega,cr u(x=0, quad hbox{for } xinpartialOmega, }$$ where $2 < p < 2^{*}$ and $Omega$ is a ball or an annulus in $mathbb{R}^{N}$, $Ngeq 2$. We show that, for p close to 2, least energy nodal solutions are odd with respect to an hyperplane -- which is their nodal surface. The proof ingredients are a constrained implicit function theorem and the fact that the second eigenvalue is simple up to rotations.

  1. Iterative Transport-Diffusion Methodology For LWR Core Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colameco, David; Ivanov, Boyan D.; Beacon, Daniel; Ivanov, Kostadin N.

    2014-06-01

    This paper presents an update on the development of an advanced methodology for core calculations that uses local heterogeneous solutions for on-the-fly nodal cross-section generation. The Iterative Transport-Diffusion Method is an embedded transport approach that is expected to provide results with near 3D transport accuracy for a fraction of the time required by a full 3D transport method. In this methodology, the infinite environment used for homogenized nodal cross-section generation is replaced with a simulated 3D environment of the diffusion calculation. This update focuses on burnup methodology, axial leakage and 3D modeling.

  2. Analytical and Numerical Study of Soret and Dufour Effects on Double Diffusive Convection in a Shallow Horizontal Binary Fluid Layer Submitted to Uniform Fluxes of Heat and Mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Lagra

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Combined Soret and Dufour effects on thermosolutal convection induced in a horizontal layer filled with a binary fluid and subject to constant heat and mass fluxes are investigated analytically and numerically. The thresholds marking the onset of supercritical and subcritical convection are predicted analytically and explicitly versus the governing parameters. The present investigation shows that different regions exist in the N-Du plane corresponding to different parallel flow regimes. The number, the extent, and the locations of these regions depend on whether SrDu>-(1+Le2/2Le2=f(Le or SrDu<-(1+Le2/2Le2. Conjugate effects of cross-phenomena on thresholds of fluid flow and heat and mass transfer characteristics are illustrated and discussed.

  3. Development of a New core/reflector model for coarse-mesh nodal methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pogosbekyan, Leonid; Cho, Jin Young; Kim, Young Il; Kim, Young Jin; Joo, Hyung Kuk; Chang, Moon Hee.

    1997-10-01

    This work presents two approaches for reflector simulation in coarse-mesh nodal methods. The first approach is called Interface Matrix Technique (IMT), which simulates the baffle as a banishingly thin layer having the property of reflection and transmission. We applied this technique within the frame of AFEN (Analytic Function Expansion Nodal) method, and developed the AFEN-IM (Interface Matrix) method. AFEN-IM method shows 1.24% and 0.42 % in maximum and RMS (Root Mean Square) assemblywise power error for ZION-1 benchmark problem. The second approach is L-shaped reflector homogenization method. This method is based on the integral response conservation along the L-shaped core-reflector interface. The reference reflector response is calculated from 2-dimensional spectral calculation and the response of the homogenized reflector is derived from the one-node 2-dimensional AFEN problem solution. This method shows 5 times better accuracy than the 1-dimensional homogenization technique in the assemblywise power. Also, the concept of shroud/reflector homogenization for hexagonal core have been developed. The 1-dimensional spectral calculation was used for the determination of 2 group cross sections. The essence of homogenization concept consists in the calculation of equivalent shroud width, which preserve albedo for the fast neutrons in 2-dimensional reflector. This method shows a relative error less than 0.42% in assemblywise power and a difference of 9x10 -5 in multiplication factor for full-core model. (author). 9 refs., 3 tabs., 28 figs

  4. Rationale of chemotherapy for Nodal Disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zwelling, L.A.; Silberman, L.; Estey, E.

    1987-01-01

    Defining biochemical differences between malignant and normal cells or between drug-sensitive and drug-resistant cells may lead to the discovery of pharmacologically exploitable pathways by which to treat human cancer. Systems in which active antineoplastic agents display different cytotoxic effects allow biochemical study of the basis for these differences. The interaction between topoisomerase II and active, anti-neoplastic DNA intercalating agents may be the way these active drugs kill cells. Details of the biochemical mechanisms and their effects on cellular events await precise description, but the principles learned in studies of this unique drug-protein-DNA interaction may be applicable to the treatment of locally advanced and diffusely disseminated human malignancies

  5. Extension of the linear nodal method to large concrete building calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Childs, R.L.; Rhoades, W.A.

    1985-01-01

    The implementation of the linear nodal method in the TORT code is described, and the results of a mesh refinement study to test the effectiveness of the linear nodal and weighted diamond difference methods available in TORT are presented

  6. Diffusion of energy-saving innovations in industry and the built environment: Dutch studies as inputs for a more integrated analytical framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dieperink, C.; Brand, I.; Vermeulen, W.

    2004-01-01

    The need to improve eco-efficiency is indisputable, and the way forward is through widespread application of environmental innovations. Yet research into the dissemination of such innovations in the Netherlands has been limited in scope. Most studies tend to focus on the feasibility of a particular technology. Few try to explain how technology spreads throughout society. The explanatory factors discerned in these studies are often not related to each other. In this contribution the authors try to integrate different partial explanations for the diffusion of energy-saving technologies in industry and the built environment into one conceptual framework. This integration is based on a secondary analysis of relatively well-elaborated studies dealing with the diffusion of heat pumps, combined heat and power and condensing boilers in industry and the built environment. Core of the framework is the decision-making process of the potentially adapting actor. Characteristics of the actor and the networks in which the actor participates (government, market, society) could have impact on this decision-making process. Technological and economic characteristics of the innovation and more general context factors are also relevant as factors that influence the considerations made in the decision-making process. This conceptual framework can be used both in more elaborate research projects and in brainstorming projects to improve policymaking

  7. Note on the nodal line of the p-Laplacian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel R. El Amrouss

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we prove that the length of the nodal line of the eigenfunctions associated to the second eigenvalue of the problem $$ -Delta_p u = lambda ho (x |u|^{p-2}u quad hbox{in } Omega $$ with the Dirichlet conditions is not bounded uniformly with respect to the weight.

  8. CRY 1AB trangenic cowpea obtained by nodal electroporation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Electroporation-mediated genetic transformation was used to introduce Cry 1 Ab insecticidal gene into cowpea. Nodal buds were electroporated in planta with a plasmid carrying the Cry 1Ab and antibiotic resistance npt II genes driven by a 35S CaMV promoter. T1 seeds derived from electroporated branches were selected ...

  9. In vitro mass multiplication of pomegranate from cotyledonary nodal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For surface sterilization of explants, treatment involving HgCl2 (0.1 %) for 3 min gave better sterilization of cotyledonary nodal explants. The maximum percentage establishment of cotyledonary node explants was observed on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium + 1.0 mg/l 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) + 0.5 mg/l ...

  10. Exploitation of petiole, nodal segment, bulbil and tuber anatomy for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All slides were examined under the light microscope at x100 and x400 magnifications and photos were taken using digital camera mounted on Zenith Ultra-500 A light microscope. Petiole and nodal segments anatomy showed six and nine vascular bundles, respectively in D. hirtiflora, whereas eight and eleven bundles ...

  11. Nodal prices determination with wind integration for radial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    bus test system. Keywords: Distribution system, electricity market; nodal prices, wind power integration. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ijest.v9i3.2. 1. Introduction. Competitive ... generated real power, generated reactive power, real power demand and reactive power demand are represented by. , ,. , and . is the angle at node ...

  12. In vitro basal and nodal microtuberization in yam shoot cultures ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In vitro basal and nodal microtuberization in yam shoot cultures ( Discorea rotundata poir, cv. Obiaoturugo) under nutritional stress conditions. ... The shoot cultures began to produce excessive roots at the nodes apart from the shoot tip. Subsequently microtubers developed at the position of the axiliary buds subtended by ...

  13. Nodal prices determination with wind integration for radial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Like transmission pricing, distribution network pricing must also be transparent and must include tile variations based on the change in the operating state of the system, integration of renewable sources and must be real time. In this paper, a distribution system nodal pricing scheme is proposed for radial distribution system ...

  14. 47 CFR 101.503 - Digital Electronic Message Service Nodal Stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Service § 101.503 Digital Electronic Message Service Nodal Stations. 10.6 GHz DEMS Nodal Stations may be... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Digital Electronic Message Service Nodal Stations. 101.503 Section 101.503 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY...

  15. Iterative transport-diffusion methodology for LWR core analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colameco, D.; Beacon, D.; Ivanov, K.N.; Inanov, B.D.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an update on the development of an advanced methodology for Light Water Reactor core calculations that uses local heterogeneous solutions for on-the-fly nodal cross-section generation. The Iterative Transport-Diffusion Method (ITDM) is an embedded transport approach that is expected to provide results with near 3D transport accuracy for a fraction of the time required by a full 3D transport method. In this methodology, the infinite environment used for homogenized nodal cross-section generation is replaced with a simulated 3D environment of the diffusion calculation. It is shown that the ITDM methodology provides very promising results when using partial currents as boundary conditions for loosely coupling a 2D lattice transport code to a 3D core nodal solver. The use of partial currents is a major improvement over the albedo concept: the solutions converged in a smoother manner

  16. Impurity scattering and magnetic field influence on a nodal surface of a d-wave superconductor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zare, Aida

    2012-02-17

    In the present work the surface of d-wave superconductors is studied. In such superconductors zero-energy Andreev bound states (ABSs) may appear at the surface depending on the orientation of the d-wave with respect to the surface normal. Existence of these states influences the properties of the superconductor on the length scale of the coherence length, the spatial extension of the bound states. Surface roughness, surface disorder, or diffuse scattering as well as an external magnetic field at the surface may affect the bound states and consequently the surface properties. Based on Eilenberger equations we perform self-consistent calculations in three different cases: in the presence of impurities, in the presence of an external magnetic field, and a combination of these two cases. We focus on the influence of bulk impurity scattering in the Born approximation limit. We show that the impurity scattering around zero energy is significantly increased near the surface as compared to the bulk due to the presence of ABSs. This leads to a larger broadening of the ABSs than expected from the scattering rate in the bulk and consequently a decrease of the peak height of the local density of states at zero energy. Due to the anomalous Meissner current flowing at the nodal surface, the magnetic field initially increases before the normal Meissner screening sets in and eventually screens out the magnetic field exponentially. The field increase is stronger at low temperatures and leads to an increase in the modulus of the vector potential towards low temperatures. The result is a nonmonotonous temperature dependence of the vector potential at the surface. Since the vector potential is proportional to the superfluid velocity, the size of the peak splitting in the local density of states is directly influenced by such a behavior of the vector potential. We observe that the splitting is large both for low temperatures and close to the critical temperature. As a result also the

  17. Anomalous contagion and renormalization in networks with nodal mobility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manrique, Pedro D.; Qi, Hong; Zheng, Minzhang; Xu, Chen; Hui, Pak Ming; Johnson, Neil F.

    2016-07-01

    A common occurrence in everyday human activity is where people join, leave and possibly rejoin clusters of other individuals —whether this be online (e.g. social media communities) or in real space (e.g. popular meeting places such as cafes). In the steady state, the resulting interaction network would appear static over time if the identities of the nodes are ignored. Here we show that even in this static steady-state limit, a non-zero nodal mobility leads to a diverse set of outbreak profiles that is dramatically different from known forms, and yet matches well with recent real-world social outbreaks. We show how this complication of nodal mobility can be renormalized away for a particular class of networks.

  18. The variational nodal method: history and recent accomplishments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, E.E.

    2004-01-01

    The variational nodal method combines spherical harmonics expansions in angle with hybrid finite element techniques is space to obtain multigroup transport response matrix algorithms applicable to both deep penetration and reactor core physics problems. This survey briefly recounts the method's history and reviews its capabilities. The variational basis for the approach is presented and two methods for obtaining discretized equations in the form of response matrices are detailed. The first is that contained the widely used VARIANT code, while the second incorporates newly developed integral transport techniques into the variational nodal framework. The two approaches are combined with a finite sub element formulation to treat heterogeneous nodes. Applications are presented for both a deep penetration problem and to an OECD benchmark consisting of LWR MOX fuel assemblies. Ongoing work is discussed. (Author)

  19. New procedure for criticality search using coarse mesh nodal methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Wanderson F.; Silva, Fernando C. da; Martinez, Aquilino S.

    2011-01-01

    The coarse mesh nodal methods have as their primary goal to calculate the neutron flux inside the reactor core. Many computer systems use a specific form of calculation, which is called nodal method. In classical computing systems that use the criticality search is made after the complete convergence of the iterative process of calculating the neutron flux. In this paper, we proposed a new method for the calculation of criticality, condition which will be over very iterative process of calculating the neutron flux. Thus, the processing time for calculating the neutron flux was reduced by half compared with the procedure developed by the Nuclear Engineering Program of COPPE/UFRJ (PEN/COPPE/UFRJ). (author)

  20. New procedure for criticality search using coarse mesh nodal methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Wanderson F.; Silva, Fernando C. da; Martinez, Aquilino S., E-mail: wneto@con.ufrj.b, E-mail: fernando@con.ufrj.b, E-mail: Aquilino@lmp.ufrj.b [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (PEN/COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear

    2011-07-01

    The coarse mesh nodal methods have as their primary goal to calculate the neutron flux inside the reactor core. Many computer systems use a specific form of calculation, which is called nodal method. In classical computing systems that use the criticality search is made after the complete convergence of the iterative process of calculating the neutron flux. In this paper, we proposed a new method for the calculation of criticality, condition which will be over very iterative process of calculating the neutron flux. Thus, the processing time for calculating the neutron flux was reduced by half compared with the procedure developed by the Nuclear Engineering Program of COPPE/UFRJ (PEN/COPPE/UFRJ). (author)

  1. Torsionfree sheaves over a nodal curve of arithmetic genus one

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    (n, d) is empty. Let X be a geometrically irreducible nodal curve of arithmetic genus one defined over R. We assume that X does not have any other real points apart from the node. Let UX(n, d) denote the moduli space of semistable torsionfree sheaves of rank n and degree d on X, and let U. X. (n, d) ⊂ UX(n, d) be the open ...

  2. Web Analytics

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA’s Web Analytics Program collects, analyzes, and provides reports on traffic, quality assurance, and customer satisfaction metrics for EPA’s website. The program uses a variety of analytics tools, including Google Analytics and CrazyEgg.

  3. Flow-based market coupling. Stepping stone towards nodal pricing?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Welle, A.J.

    2012-07-01

    For achieving one internal energy market for electricity by 2014, market coupling is deployed to integrate national markets into regional markets and ultimately one European electricity market. The extent to which markets can be coupled depends on the available transmission capacities between countries. Since interconnections are congested from time to time, congestion management methods are deployed to divide the scarce available transmission capacities over market participants. For further optimization of the use of available transmission capacities while maintaining current security of supply levels, flow-based market coupling (FBMC) will be implemented in the CWE region by 2013. Although this is an important step forward, important hurdles for efficient congestion management remain. Hence, flow based market coupling is compared to nodal pricing, which is often considered as the most optimal solution from theoretical perspective. In the context of decarbonised power systems it is concluded that advantages of nodal pricing are likely to exceed its disadvantages, warranting further development of FBMC in the direction of nodal pricing.

  4. Topological nodal loop semimetals and insulators in alkaline earth triarsenides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickett, Warren E.; Quan, Yundi; Dong, Lianyang; Siegrist, Theo; Trinh, Jennifer; Ramirez, Arthur J.; Li, Haoxiang; Zhou, Xiaoqing; Dessau, Daniel S.

    The XAs3 class of semimetals has remained unexplored since their discovery in the 1980s by Bauhofer and von Schnering. We have discovered that this class, with X=Ca, Sr, Ba, Eu, are nodal loop semimetals (NLS), having a single loop of accidental degeneracies crossing the Fermi energy and a gap elsewhere in the zone: the nodal loop region dominates the transport Large single crystals of monoclinic SrAs3 have been synthesized, allowing studies of its magnetotransport properties andits ARPES spectrum. Density functional calculations reveal that monoclinic CaAs3, the sole insulating member of this class, would be a NLS in the absence of spin-orbit coupling (SOC). The position and characters of the nodal Fermi surfaces and associated boundard states will be discussed. The stark low symmetry of monoclinic CaAs3 (with only inversion symmetry) makes it the ``hydrogen atom'' of NLSs; unlike all other classes, space group symmetry does not provide any ``protection'' of its loop of accidental degeneracies. Supported by the NSF DMREF program.

  5. BETHSY nodalization study during MID-LOOP operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segon, V.; Bajs, T.; Debrecin, N.; Cavlina, N.

    2001-01-01

    The RELAP5/MOD3.2.2gamma thermal-hydraulic code has been used to simulate the International Standard Problem (ISP) 38 experiment performed at the BETHSY integral test facility. The experiment simulates a loss of residual heat removal system during mid-loop operation transient at 0.5 % (138 kW) of nominal core power value, with the pressurizer and steam generator outlet plenum manways open. The secondary side is full of air and isolated. Two calculations of the ISP38 experiment were performed, the first using a BETHSY nodalization developed for the RELAP5/MOD2 code modified for the RELAP5/MOD3.2.2gamma and the second using a more detailed BETHSY nodalization (sliced) developed for the RELAP5/MOD3.2.2gamma code at the University of Zagreb. The results of the two calculations were compared with the experimental data, and conclusions were drawn about the effect of the more detailed nodalization on the calculation results. Several sensitivity studies were performed to evaluate the effects of changing the selected parameters on the calculated results.(author)

  6. Patterns of practice of regional nodal irradiation in breast cancer: results of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) NOdal Radiotherapy (NORA) survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belkacemi, Y.; Kaidar-Person, O.; Poortmans, P.; Ozsahin, M.; Valli, M.-C.; Russell, N.; Kunkler, I.; Hermans, J.; Kuten, A.; van Tienhoven, G.; Westenberg, H.

    2015-01-01

    Predicting outcome of breast cancer (BC) patients based on sentinel lymph node (SLN) status without axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) is an area of uncertainty. It influences the decision-making for regional nodal irradiation (RNI). The aim of the NORA (NOdal RAdiotherapy) survey was to examine

  7. Patterns of practice of regional nodal irradiation in breast cancer: results of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) NOdal Radiotherapy (NORA) survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belkacemi, Y.; Kaidar-Person, O.; Poortmans, P.M.P.; Ozsahin, M.; Valli, M.C.; Russell, N.; Kunkler, I.; Hermans, J.J.; Kuten, A.; Tienhoven, G. van; Westenberg, H.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Predicting outcome of breast cancer (BC) patients based on sentinel lymph node (SLN) status without axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) is an area of uncertainty. It influences the decision-making for regional nodal irradiation (RNI). The aim of the NORA (NOdal RAdiotherapy) survey was

  8. Immunoarchitectural patterns in nodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma: a study of 51 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salama, Mohamed E; Lossos, Izidore S; Warnke, Roger A; Natkunam, Yasodha

    2009-07-01

    Nodal marginal zone lymphoma (NMZL) represents a rare and heterogeneous group that lacks markers specific for the diagnosis. We evaluated morphologic and immunoarchitectural features of 51 NMZLs, and the following immunostains were performed: CD20, CD21, CD23, CD5, CD3, CD43, CD10, Ki-67, BCL1, BCL2, BCL6, HGAL, and LMO2. Four immunoarchitectural patterns were evident: diffuse (38 [75%]), well-formed nodular/follicular (5 [10%]), interfollicular (7 [14%]), and perifollicular (1 [2%]). Additional features included a monocytoid component (36 [71%]), admixed large cells (20 [39%]), plasma cells (24 [47%]), compartmentalizing stromal sclerosis (13 [25%]), and prominent blood vessel sclerosis (10 [20%]). CD21 highlighted disrupted follicular dendritic cell meshwork in 35 (71%) of 49 cases, and CD43 coexpression was present in 10 (24%) of 42 cases. A panel of germinal center-associated markers was helpful in eliminating cases of diffuse follicle center lymphoma. Our results highlight the histologic and immunoarchitectural spectrum of NMZL and the usefulness of immunohistochemical analysis for CD43, CD23, CD21, BCL6, HGAL, and LMO2 in the diagnosis of NMZL.

  9. Elsevier Trophoblast Research Award lecture: The multifaceted role of Nodal signaling during mammalian reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, C B; Dufort, D

    2011-03-01

    Nodal, a secreted signaling protein in the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) superfamily, has established roles in vertebrate development. However, components of the Nodal signaling pathway are also expressed at the maternal-fetal interface and have been implicated in many processes of mammalian reproduction. Emerging evidence indicates that Nodal and its extracellular inhibitor Lefty are expressed in the uterus and complex interactions between the two proteins mediate menstruation, decidualization and embryo implantation. Furthermore, several studies have shown that Nodal from both fetal and maternal sources may regulate trophoblast cell fate and facilitate placentation as both embryonic and uterine-specific Nodal knockout mouse strains exhibit disrupted placenta morphology. Here we review the established and prospective roles of Nodal signaling in facilitating successful pregnancy, including recent evidence supporting a potential link to parturition and preterm birth. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Solution and study of nodal neutron transport equation applying the LTSN-DiagExp method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauser, Eliete Biasotto; Pazos, Ruben Panta; Vilhena, Marco Tullio de; Barros, Ricardo Carvalho de

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we report advances about the three-dimensional nodal discrete-ordinates approximations of neutron transport equation for Cartesian geometry. We use the combined collocation method of the angular variables and nodal approach for the spatial variables. By nodal approach we mean the iterated transverse integration of the S N equations. This procedure leads to the set of one-dimensional averages angular fluxes in each spatial variable. The resulting system of equations is solved with the LTS N method, first applying the Laplace transform to the set of the nodal S N equations and then obtained the solution by symbolic computation. We include the LTS N method by diagonalization to solve the nodal neutron transport equation and then we outline the convergence of these nodal-LTS N approximations with the help of a norm associated to the quadrature formula used to approximate the integral term of the neutron transport equation. (author)

  11. Regional nodal relapse in surgically staged Merkel cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoeller, Ulrike; Mueller, Thomas; Schubert, Tina; Budach, Volker; Ghadjar, Pirus; Brenner, Winfried; Kiecker, Felix; Schicke, Bernd; Haase, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    The nodal relapse pattern of surgically staged Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) with/without elective nodal radiotherapy (RT) was studied in a single institution. A total of 51 patients with MCC, 33 % UICC stage I, 14 % II, 53 % III (4 lymph node metastases of unknown primary) were eligible. All patients had surgical staging: 23 patients sentinel node biopsy (SNB), 22 patients SNB followed by lymphadenectomy (LAD) and 6 patients LAD. In all, 94 % of the primary tumors (PT) were completely resected; 57 % of patients received RT, 51 % of known PT sites, 33 % (8/24 patients) regional RT to snN0 nodes and 68 % (17/27 patients) to pN+ nodes, mean reference dose 51.5 and 50 Gy, respectively. Mean follow-up was 6 years (range 2-14 years). A total of 22 % (11/51) patients developed regional relapses (RR); the 5-year RR rate was 27 %. In snN0 sites (stage I/II), relapse occurred in 5 of 14 nonirradiated vs. none of 8 irradiated sites (p = 0.054), resulting in a 5-year RR rate of 33 % versus 0 % (p = 0.16). The crude RR rate was lower in stage I (12 %, 2/17 patients) than for stage II (43 %, 3/7 patients). In stage III (pN+), RR appeared to be less frequent in irradiated sites (18 %, 3/14 patients) compared with nonirradiated sites (33 %, 3/10 patients, p = 0.45) with 5-year RR rates of 23 % vs. 34 %, respectively. Our data suggest that adjuvant nodal RT plays a major role even if the sentinel nodes were negative. Adjuvant RT of the lymph nodes in patients with stage IIa tumors and RT after LAD in stage III tumors is proposed and should be evaluated prospectively. (orig.) [de

  12. Equilibrium Wall Model Implementation in a Nodal Finite Element Flow Solver JENRE for Large Eddy Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-13

    Naval Research Laboratory Washington, DC 20375-5320 NRL/MR/6040--17-9760 Equilibrium Wall-Model Implementation in a Nodal Finite Element Flow...DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Equilibrium Wall-Model Implementation in a Nodal Finite Element Flow Solver...Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT The equilibrium wall model is implemented in a nodal

  13. Approximate Schur complement preconditioning of the lowest order nodal discretizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moulton, J.D.; Ascher, U.M. [Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Morel, J.E. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Particular classes of nodal methods and mixed hybrid finite element methods lead to equivalent, robust and accurate discretizations of 2nd order elliptic PDEs. However, widespread popularity of these discretizations has been hindered by the awkward linear systems which result. The present work exploits this awkwardness, which provides a natural partitioning of the linear system, by defining two optimal preconditioners based on approximate Schur complements. Central to the optimal performance of these preconditioners is their sparsity structure which is compatible with Dendy`s black box multigrid code.

  14. Nodal line optimization and its application to violin top plate design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yonggyun; Jang, In Gwun; Kim, In Kyum; Kwak, Byung Man

    2010-10-01

    In the literature, most problems of structural vibration have been formulated to adjust a specific natural frequency: for example, to maximize the first natural frequency. In musical instruments like a violin; however, mode shapes are equally important because they are related to sound quality in the way that natural frequencies are related to the octave. The shapes of nodal lines, which represent the natural mode shapes, are generally known to have a unique feature for good violins. Among the few studies on mode shape optimization, one typical study addresses the optimization of nodal point location for reducing vibration in a one-dimensional beam structure. However, nodal line optimization, which is required in violin plate design, has not yet been considered. In this paper, the central idea of controlling the shape of the nodal lines is proposed and then applied to violin top plate design. Finite element model for a violin top plate was constructed using shell elements. Then, optimization was performed to minimize the square sum of the displacement of selected nodes located along the target nodal lines by varying the thicknesses of the top plate. We conducted nodal line optimization for the second and the fifth modes together at the same time, and the results showed that the nodal lines obtained match well with the target nodal lines. The information on plate thickness distribution from nodal line optimization would be valuable for tailored trimming of a violin top plate for the given performances.

  15. Radiotherapy studies and extra-nodal non-Hodgkin lymphomas, progress and challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Specht, L

    2012-01-01

    not been carried out, and treatment decisions are made on small patient series and extrapolations from nodal lymphomas. Hopefully, wide international collaboration will make controlled clinical trials possible in the less common extra-nodal lymphomas. Modern highly conformal radiotherapy allows better...... coverage of extra-nodal lymphomatous involvement with better sparing of normal tissues. The necessary radiation doses and volumes need to be defined for the different extra-nodal lymphoma entities. The challenge is to optimise the use of radiotherapy in the modern multimodality treatment of extra...

  16. The impact of audit and feedback on nodal harvest in colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bu Jingyu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adequate nodal harvest (≥ 12 lymph nodes in colorectal cancer has been shown to optimize staging and proposed as a quality indicator of colorectal cancer care. An audit within a single health district in Nova Scotia, Canada presented and published in 2002, revealed that adequate nodal harvest occurred in only 22% of patients. The goal of this current study was to identify factors associated with adequate nodal harvest, and specifically to examine the impact of the audit and feedback strategy on nodal harvest. Methods This population-based study included all patients undergoing resection for primary colorectal cancer in Nova Scotia, Canada, from 01 January 2001 to 31 December 2005. Linkage of the provincial cancer registry with other databases (hospital discharge, physician claims data, and national census data provided clinicodemographic, diagnostic, and treatment-event data. Factors associated with adequate nodal harvest were examined using multivariate logistic regression. The specific interaction between year and health district was examined to identify any potential effect of dissemination of the previously-performed audit. Results Among the 2,322 patients, the median nodal harvest was 8; overall, 719 (31% had an adequate nodal harvest. On multivariate analysis, audited health district (p Conclusions Improvements in colorectal cancer nodal harvest did occur over time. A published audit demonstrating suboptimal nodal harvest appeared to be an effective knowledge translation tool, though more so for the audited health district, suggesting a potentially beneficial effect of audit and feedback strategies.

  17. Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Regional Nodal Metastasis in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma: Correlation with Nodal Staging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingsheng Huang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine if the perfusion parameters by dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI of regional nodal metastasis are helpful in characterizing nodal status and to understand the relationship with those of primary tumor of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC. Materials and Methods. Newly diagnosed patients imaged between August 2010 and January 2014 and who were found to have enlarged retropharyngeal/cervical lymph nodes suggestive of nodal disease were recruited. DCE-MRI was performed. Three quantitative parameters, Ktrans, ve, and kep, were calculated for the largest node in each patient. Kruskal-Wallis test was used to evaluate the difference in the parameters of the selected nodes of different N stages. Spearman’s correlation was used to evaluate the relationship between the DCE-MRI parameters in nodes and in primary tumors. Results. Twenty-six patients (7 females; 25~67 years old were enrolled. Ktrans was significantly different among the patients of N stages (N1, n=3; N2, n=17; N3, n=6, P=0.015. Median values (range for N1, N2, and N3 were 0.24 min−1 (0.17~0.26 min−1, 0.29 min−1 (0.17~0.46 min−1, and 0.46 min−1 (0.29~0.70 min−1, respectively. There was no significant correlation between the parameters in nodes and primary tumors. Conclusion. DCE-MRI may play a distinct role in characterizing the metastatic cervical lymph nodes of NPC.

  18. Computational modelling for diffusion of neutrons problems inside nuclear multiplying medium on bidimensional cartesian rectangular geometry; Modelagem computacional de problemas de difusao de neutrons em meios multiplicativos em geometria retangular cartesiana bi-dimensional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Couto, Nozimar do

    2003-07-01

    Diffusion theory is traditionally applied to nuclear reactor global calculations. Based on the good results generated by the one-dimensional spectral nodal diffusion (SND) method for benchmark problems, we offer the SND method for nuclear reactor global calculations in X,Y geometry. In this method, the continuity equation and Flick law are transverse integrated in each spatial direction leading to a system of two 'one-dimensional' equations coupled by the transverse leakage terms. We then apply the SND method to numerically solve this system with constant approximations for the transverse leakage terms. We perform a spectral analysis to determine the local general solution of each 'one-dimensional' nodal equation with flat approximation for the transverse leakages. We used special auxiliary equations with parameters that are to be determined in order to preserve the analytical general solutions in the numerical algorithm. By considering continuity conditions at the node interfaces and appropriate boundary conditions, we obtain a solvable system of discretized equations involving the node-edge average scalar fluxes at each estimate of the dominant eigenvalue (k{sub eff}) in the outer power iterations. As we considered approximations to the transverse leakages, the SND method is not free of spatial truncation errors. Nevertheless, it generated good results for the typical model problems that we considered. (author)

  19. Hereditary bone dysplasia with pathological fractures and nodal osteoarthropathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arendse, Regan [University of Stellenbosch, Department of Medicine, Tygerberg Hospital, Stellenbosch (South Africa); University of Cape Town, Division of Rheumatology, Groote Schuur Hospital, Cape Town (South Africa); Brink, Paul [University of Stellenbosch, Department of Medicine, Tygerberg Hospital, Stellenbosch (South Africa); Beighton, Peter [University of Cape Town, Division of Human Genetics, Faculty of Health Sciences, Cape Town (South Africa)

    2009-12-15

    A father and daughter both had multiple pathological fractures and nodal osteoarthropathy. The father, aged 50 years, had at least 20 healed fractures of the axial and appendicular skeleton, sustained by minor trauma over his 50-year lifespan, many of which had been surgically fixed prior to his first presentation to us. Fractures of the clavicles, thoracic cage and long bones of the arms and legs, had healed with malalignment and deformity. Healed fractures were complicated by ankylosis of the cervical vertebrae and both elbows. He also had osteoarthritis of the hands, with exuberant osteophytosis, and profound perceptive deafness. His general health was good, his intellect and facies were normal, and his sclerae were white. The daughter, aged 27 years, had sustained at least seven fractures of the axial and appendicular skeleton following trivial injuries, in distribution similar to those of the father. She had also experienced painful swelling of the fingers, which preceded progressive development of nodal osteoarthropathy. Her hearing was normal. In both individuals, biochemical and immunological investigations yielded normal results. It was not possible for molecular studies to be undertaken. Pedigree data were consistent with autosomal dominant transmission, and this disorder appeared to be a previously undocumented heritable skeletal dysplasia. (orig.)

  20. Correlation and transport phenomena in topological nodal-loop semimetals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianpeng; Balents, Leon

    We theoretically study the unique physical properties of topological nodal-loop semimetals protected by the coexistence of time-reversal and inversion symmetries with negligible spin-orbit coupling. We argue that strong correlation effects occur at the surface of such systems for relatively small Hubbard interaction U, due to the narrow bandwidth of the ``drumhead'' surface states. Our Hartree-Fock and RPA calculations indicate that surface ferromagnetic and surface charge-ordered phases appear at small interactions, whose order parameters are exponentially localized at the surface. The transition from a non-ordered to a surface ferromagnetic phase is characterized by the surface-mode divergence of spin susceptibility. The quantum critical behavior of the surface ferromagnetic transition is nontrivial in the sense that the surface spin order parameter couple to Fermi-surface excitations from both surface and bulk states, leading to unconventional Landau damping and consequently a naive dynamical critical exponent z 1 . We also show that, quantum oscillations arise due to bulk states. The bulk magnetic susceptibility diverges logarithmically whenever the nodal loop exactly overlaps with a quantized magnetic orbit in the bulk Brillouin zone. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant NSF DMR1506119.

  1. The impact of audit and feedback on nodal harvest in colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Geoffrey A; Urquhart, Robin; Bu, Jingyu; Johnson, Paul; Grunfeld, Eva

    2011-01-03

    Adequate nodal harvest (≥ 12 lymph nodes) in colorectal cancer has been shown to optimize staging and proposed as a quality indicator of colorectal cancer care. An audit within a single health district in Nova Scotia, Canada presented and published in 2002, revealed that adequate nodal harvest occurred in only 22% of patients. The goal of this current study was to identify factors associated with adequate nodal harvest, and specifically to examine the impact of the audit and feedback strategy on nodal harvest. This population-based study included all patients undergoing resection for primary colorectal cancer in Nova Scotia, Canada, from 01 January 2001 to 31 December 2005. Linkage of the provincial cancer registry with other databases (hospital discharge, physician claims data, and national census data) provided clinicodemographic, diagnostic, and treatment-event data. Factors associated with adequate nodal harvest were examined using multivariate logistic regression. The specific interaction between year and health district was examined to identify any potential effect of dissemination of the previously-performed audit. Among the 2,322 patients, the median nodal harvest was 8; overall, 719 (31%) had an adequate nodal harvest. On multivariate analysis, audited health district (p advanced stage (p = 0.008), and previous cancer history (p = 0.03) were associated with an increased likelihood of an adequate nodal harvest. Interaction between year and audited health district was identified (p = 0.006) such that the increase in adequate nodal harvest over time was significantly greater in the audited health district. Improvements in colorectal cancer nodal harvest did occur over time. A published audit demonstrating suboptimal nodal harvest appeared to be an effective knowledge translation tool, though more so for the audited health district, suggesting a potentially beneficial effect of audit and feedback strategies.

  2. The accuracy of several difference schemes for the numerical solution of the two-dimensional convection-diffusion equation, a numerical test using an example with known analytical solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guenther, C.

    1988-08-01

    This report describes numerical tests with various difference schemes to solve the convection-diffusion equation. Starting point of this investigation has been a scheme proposed by the author, the so-called 'LECUSSO-scheme', which is of order O(Δx 2 ) and avoids unphysical spatial oscillations meaning that this scheme does not suffer from any mesh-Reynolds-number-restriction. To test this scheme a previously described example introduced by Beier et al. with known analytical solution was adoptd and numerically solved using a variety of difference schemes. This is done for a wide range of Reynolds-numbers (20 ≤ Re' ≤ 5000) and equidistant meshes of different size, the comparison being done with respect to the space-dependent error and to the maximum spatial error of the numerical solution. The results of the numerical tests may be summarized as follows: Flows with boundary layers, as the most interesting case are very favourably calculated using upwind methods of second or higher order in conservation form with respect to the absolute value of the maximum spatial error. The amount of this error is near 1/3 of the error obtained with standard schemes unless these schemes not yet produced obsolete results since a mesh-Reynolds-number condition had been violated. As to the increased amount of work (additional 5th point, two different additional types of modified difference approximations with fewer points near the boundary), LSUDS-C (in conservation form) is not better than LECUSSO-C and QUICK-PLUS. The reduced errors of the upwind methods of higher order enable us to proceed to the numerical calculation of flows with higher Reynolds-numbers than before. (orig./GL [de

  3. Explicit formulation of a nodal transport method for discrete ordinates calculations in two-dimensional fixed-source problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tres, Anderson [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Matematica Aplicada; Becker Picoloto, Camila [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Mecanica; Prolo Filho, Joao Francisco [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Inst de Matematica, Estatistica e Fisica; Dias da Cunha, Rudnei; Basso Barichello, Liliane [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Inst de Matematica

    2014-04-15

    In this work a study of two-dimensional fixed-source neutron transport problems, in Cartesian geometry, is reported. The approach reduces the complexity of the multidimensional problem using a combination of nodal schemes and the Analytical Discrete Ordinates Method (ADO). The unknown leakage terms on the boundaries that appear from the use of the derivation of the nodal scheme are incorporated to the problem source term, such as to couple the one-dimensional integrated solutions, made explicit in terms of the x and y spatial variables. The formulation leads to a considerable reduction of the order of the associated eigenvalue problems when combined with the usual symmetric quadratures, thereby providing solutions that have a higher degree of computational efficiency. Reflective-type boundary conditions are introduced to represent the domain on a simpler form than that previously considered in connection with the ADO method. Numerical results obtained with the technique are provided and compared to those present in the literature. (orig.)

  4. Reactivity Coefficient Calculation for AP1000 Reactor Using the NODAL3 Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinem, Surian; Malem Sembiring, Tagor; Tukiran; Deswandri; Sunaryo, Geni Rina

    2018-02-01

    The reactivity coefficient is a very important parameter for inherent safety and stability of nuclear reactors operation. To provide the safety analysis of the reactor, the calculation of changes in reactivity caused by temperature is necessary because it is related to the reactor operation. In this paper, the temperature reactivity coefficients of fuel and moderator of the AP1000 core are calculated, as well as the moderator density and boron concentration. All of these coefficients are calculated at the hot full power condition (HFP). All neutron diffusion constant as a function of temperature, water density and boron concentration were generated by the SRAC2006 code. The core calculations for determination of the reactivity coefficient parameter are done by using NODAL3 code. The calculation results show that the fuel temperature, moderator temperature and boron reactivity coefficients are in the range between -2.613 pcm/°C to -4.657pcm/°C, -1.00518 pcm/°C to 1.00649 pcm/°C and -9.11361 pcm/ppm to -8.0751 pcm/ppm, respectively. For the water density reactivity coefficients, the positive reactivity occurs at the water temperature less than 190 °C. The calculation results show that the reactivity coefficients are accurate because the results have a very good agreement with the design value.

  5. Assessment of Effect on LBLOCA PCT for Change in Upper Head Nodalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Dong Gu; Huh, Byung Gil; Yoo, Seung Hun; Bang, Youngseok; Seul, Kwangwon; Cho, Daehyung

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the best estimate plus uncertainty (BEPU) analysis of LBLOCA for original and modified nodalizations was performed, and the effect on LBLOCA PCT for change in upper head nodalization was assessed. In this study, the best estimate plus uncertainty (BEPU) analysis of LBLOCA for original and modified nodalizations was performed, and the effect on LBLOCA PCT for change in upper head nodalization was assessed. It is confirmed that modification of upper head nodalization influences PCT behavior, especially in the reflood phase. In conclusions, the modification of nodalization to reflect design characteristic of upper head temperature should be done to predict PCT behavior accurately in LBLOCA analysis. In the best estimate (BE) method with the uncertainty evaluation, the system nodalization is determined by the comparative studies of the experimental data. Up to now, it was assumed that the temperature of the upper dome in OPR-1000 was close to that of the cold leg. However, it was found that the temperature of the upper head/dome might be a little lower than or similar to that of the hot leg through the evaluation of the detailed design data. Since the higher upper head temperature affects blowdown quenching and peak cladding temperature in the reflood phase, the nodalization for upper head should be modified

  6. Nodal free geometric phases: Concept and application to geometric quantum computation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ericsson, Marie; Kult, David; Sjoeqvist, Erik; Aberg, Johan

    2008-01-01

    Nodal free geometric phases are the eigenvalues of the final member of a parallel transporting family of unitary operators. These phases are gauge invariant, always well defined, and can be measured interferometrically. Nodal free geometric phases can be used to construct various types of quantum phase gates

  7. Nodal signaling from the visceral endoderm is required to maintain Nodal gene expression in the epiblast and drive DVE/AVE migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Amit; Lualdi, Margaret; Lyozin, George T; Sharma, Prashant; Loncarek, Jadranka; Fu, Xin-Yuan; Kuehn, Michael R

    2015-04-01

    In the early mouse embryo, a specialized population of extraembryonic visceral endoderm (VE) cells called the distal VE (DVE) arises at the tip of the egg cylinder stage embryo and then asymmetrically migrates to the prospective anterior, recruiting additional distal cells. Upon migration these cells, called the anterior VE (AVE), establish the anterior posterior (AP) axis by restricting gastrulation-inducing signals to the opposite pole. The Nodal-signaling pathway has been shown to have a critical role in the generation and migration of the DVE/AVE. The Nodal gene is expressed in both the VE and in the pluripotent epiblast, which gives rise to the germ layers. Previous findings have provided conflicting evidence as to the relative importance of Nodal signaling from the epiblast vs. VE for AP patterning. Here we show that conditional mutagenesis of the Nodal gene specifically within the VE leads to reduced Nodal expression levels in the epiblast and incomplete or failed DVE/AVE migration. These results support a required role for VE Nodal to maintain normal levels of expression in the epiblast, and suggest signaling from both VE and epiblast is important for DVE/AVE migration. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Nodal metastases of nasopharyngeal carcinoma: patterns of disease on MRI and FDG PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng Shu-Hang; Ko Sheung-Fat [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital Linkou Medical Center (Taiwan); Chang Joseph Tung-Chieh [Department of Radiation Oncology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital Linkou Medical Center (Taiwan); Chan Sheng-Chieh; Chang Yu-Chen; Yen Tzu-Chen [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital Linkou Medical Center, 5 Fu-Shin St, 333, Kueishan, Taoyuan (Taiwan); Wang Hung-Ming [Department of Medical Oncology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital Linkou Medical Center (Taiwan); Liao Chun-Ta [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital Linkou Medical Center (Taiwan)

    2004-08-01

    The patterns of nodal spread of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) have an important influence on treatment planning, but have not yet been fully addressed. We prospectively used MRI and FDG PET to document the patterns of nodal spread in NPC. One hundred and one patients with newly diagnosed NPC were studied with MRI and FDG PET. On MRI, nodes were considered as metastatic according to criteria regarding size, the presence of nodal necrosis, and extracapsular spread. FDG PET images were interpreted visually, and nodes were considered metastatic if they showed prominent FDG uptake against the background. Nodal metastases were found in 89 of our 101 patients. Analysis of the distributions of nodal metastases in these 89 patients showed that retropharyngeal nodes were less frequently involved than cervical nodes (82.0% vs 95.5%). The vast majority of cervical nodal metastases were to the internal jugular chain, including nodes at levels II, III, and IV, with decreasing incidences of 95.5%, 60.7%, and 34.8%, respectively. Level V nodal involvement was found in 27% of patients. Supraclavicular fossa nodal metastases were not uncommon and occurred in 22.5% of patients. Skip metastases in the lower-level nodes or supraclavicular fossa nodes occurred in 7.9% of patients. Mediastinal and abdominal metastatic adenopathy was present in 4.5% and 3.4% of patients, respectively, and was associated with advanced nodal metastasis in the supraclavicular fossa. Level VI (2.2%), level VII (1.1%), submandibular (2.2%), and parotid (3.4%) nodal metastases were uncommon and were always associated with advanced ipsilateral nodal metastases of the neck. We conclude that the combined use of FDG PET and MRI can comprehensively depict the pattern of nodal metastasis in NPC patients. Nodal metastases principally affected level II nodes, from which lymphatic spread extended down in an orderly manner to involve level III, level IV, and the supraclavicular fossa nodes, or extended posteriorly to

  9. Dual Atrioventricular Nodal Pathways Physiology: A Review of Relevant Anatomy, Electrophysiology, and Electrocardiographic Manifestations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhalaghuru Chokkalingam Mani, MD

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available More than half a century has passed since the concept of dual atrioventricular (AV nodal pathways physiology was conceived. Dual AV nodal pathways have been shown to be responsible for many clinical arrhythmia syndromes, most notably AV nodal reentrant tachycardia. Although there has been a considerable amount of research on this topic, the subject of dual AV nodal pathways physiology remains heavily debated and discussed. Despite advances in understanding arrhythmia mechanisms and the widespread use of invasive electrophysiologic studies, there is still disagreement on the anatomy and physiology of the AV node that is the basis of discontinuous antegrade AV conduction. The purpose of this paper is to review the concept of dual AV nodal pathways physiology and its varied electrocardiographic manifestations.

  10. Opposing nodal and BMP signals regulate left-right asymmetry in the sea urchin larva.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Jyun Luo

    Full Text Available Nodal and BMP signals are important for establishing left-right (LR asymmetry in vertebrates. In sea urchins, Nodal signaling prevents the formation of the rudiment on the right side. However, the opposing pathway to Nodal signaling during LR axis establishment is not clear. Here, we revealed that BMP signaling is activated in the left coelomic pouch, specifically in the veg2 lineage, but not in the small micromeres. By perturbing BMP activities, we demonstrated that BMP signaling is required for activating the expression of the left-sided genes and the formation of the left-sided structures. On the other hand, Nodal signals on the right side inhibit BMP signaling and control LR asymmetric separation and apoptosis of the small micromeres. Our findings show that BMP signaling is the positive signal for left-sided development in sea urchins, suggesting that the opposing roles of Nodal and BMP signals in establishing LR asymmetry are conserved in deuterostomes.

  11. A nodal discontinuous Galerkin finite element method for nonlinear elastic wave propagation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bou Matar, Olivier; Guerder, Pierre-Yves; Li, YiFeng; Vandewoestyne, Bart; Van Den Abeele, Koen

    2012-05-01

    A nodal discontinuous Galerkin finite element method (DG-FEM) to solve the linear and nonlinear elastic wave equation in heterogeneous media with arbitrary high order accuracy in space on unstructured triangular or quadrilateral meshes is presented. This DG-FEM method combines the geometrical flexibility of the finite element method, and the high parallelization potentiality and strongly nonlinear wave phenomena simulation capability of the finite volume method, required for nonlinear elastodynamics simulations. In order to facilitate the implementation based on a numerical scheme developed for electromagnetic applications, the equations of nonlinear elastodynamics have been written in a conservative form. The adopted formalism allows the introduction of different kinds of elastic nonlinearities, such as the classical quadratic and cubic nonlinearities, or the quadratic hysteretic nonlinearities. Absorbing layers perfectly matched to the calculation domain of the nearly perfectly matched layers type have been introduced to simulate, when needed, semi-infinite or infinite media. The developed DG-FEM scheme has been verified by means of a comparison with analytical solutions and numerical results already published in the literature for simple geometrical configurations: Lamb's problem and plane wave nonlinear propagation.

  12. A nodal discontinuous Galerkin approach to 3-D viscoelastic wave propagation in complex geological media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambrecht, L.; Lamert, A.; Friederich, W.; Möller, T.; Boxberg, M. S.

    2018-03-01

    A nodal discontinuous Galerkin (NDG) approach is developed and implemented for the computation of viscoelastic wavefields in complex geological media. The NDG approach combines unstructured tetrahedral meshes with an element-wise, high-order spatial interpolation of the wavefield based on Lagrange polynomials. Numerical fluxes are computed from an exact solution of the heterogeneous Riemann problem. Our implementation offers capabilities for modelling viscoelastic wave propagation in 1-D, 2-D and 3-D settings of very different spatial scale with little logistical overhead. It allows the import of external tetrahedral meshes provided by independent meshing software and can be run in a parallel computing environment. Computation of adjoint wavefields and an interface for the computation of waveform sensitivity kernels are offered. The method is validated in 2-D and 3-D by comparison to analytical solutions and results from a spectral element method. The capabilities of the NDG method are demonstrated through a 3-D example case taken from tunnel seismics which considers high-frequency elastic wave propagation around a curved underground tunnel cutting through inclined and faulted sedimentary strata. The NDG method was coded into the open-source software package NEXD and is available from GitHub.

  13. Space-angle approximations in the variational nodal method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, E. E.; Palmiotti, G.; Taiwo, T.

    1999-01-01

    The variational nodal method is formulated such that the angular and spatial approximations maybe examined separately. Spherical harmonic, simplified spherical harmonic, and discrete ordinate approximations are coupled to the primal hybrid finite element treatment of the spatial variables. Within this framework, two classes of spatial trial functions are presented: (1) orthogonal polynomials for the treatment of homogeneous nodes and (2) bilinear finite subelement trial functions for the treatment of fuel assembly sized nodes in which fuel-pin cell cross sections are represented explicitly. Polynomial and subelement trial functions are applied to benchmark water-reactor problems containing MOX fuel using spherical harmonic and simplified spherical harmonic approximations. The resulting accuracy and computing costs are compared

  14. Nodal domains on isospectral quantum graphs: the resolution of isospectrality?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Band, Ram; Shapira, Talia; Smilansky, Uzy

    2006-01-01

    We present and discuss isospectral quantum graphs which are not isometric. These graphs are the analogues of the isospectral domains in R 2 which were introduced recently in Gordon et al (1992 Bull. Am. Math. Soc. 27 134-8), Chapman (1995 Am. Math. Mon. 102 124), Buser et al (1994 Int. Math. Res. Not. 9 391-400), Okada and Shudo (2001 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 34 5911-22), Jakobson et al (2006 J. Comput. Appl. Math. 194 141-55) and Levitin et al (2006 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 39 2073-82)) all based on Sunada's construction of isospectral domains (Sunada T 1985 Ann. Math. 121 196-86). After presenting some of the properties of these graphs, we discuss a few examples which support the conjecture that by counting the nodal domains of the corresponding eigenfunctions one can resolve the isospectral ambiguity

  15. Contemporary Management of Recurrent Nodal Disease in Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na’ara, Shorook; Amit, Moran; Fridman, Eran; Gil, Ziv

    2016-01-01

    Differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) comprises over 90% of thyroid tumors and includes papillary and follicular carcinomas. Patients with DTC have an excellent prognosis, with a 10-year survival rate of over 90%. However, the risk of recurrent tumor ranges between 5% and 30% within 10 years of the initial diagnosis. Cervical lymph node disease accounts for the majority of recurrences and in most cases is detected during follow-up by ultrasound or elevated levels of serum thyroglobulin. Recurrent disease is accompanied by increased morbidity. The mainstay of treatment of nodal recurrence is surgical management. We provide an overview of the literature addressing surgical management of recurrent or persistent lymph node disease in patients with DTC. PMID:26886954

  16. Error Estimation and Accuracy Improvements in Nodal Transport Methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamonsky, O.M.

    2000-01-01

    The accuracy of the solutions produced by the Discrete Ordinates neutron transport nodal methods is analyzed.The obtained new numerical methodologies increase the accuracy of the analyzed scheems and give a POSTERIORI error estimators. The accuracy improvement is obtained with new equations that make the numerical procedure free of truncation errors and proposing spatial reconstructions of the angular fluxes that are more accurate than those used until present. An a POSTERIORI error estimator is rigurously obtained for one dimensional systems that, in certain type of problems, allows to quantify the accuracy of the solutions. From comparisons with the one dimensional results, an a POSTERIORI error estimator is also obtained for multidimensional systems. LOCAL indicators, which quantify the spatial distribution of the errors, are obtained by the decomposition of the menctioned estimators. This makes the proposed methodology suitable to perform adaptive calculations. Some numerical examples are presented to validate the theoretical developements and to illustrate the ranges where the proposed approximations are valid

  17. INTERMITTENT ANTIARYTHMIC THERAPY OF ARIOVENTICULAR NODAL REENTRY TACHYCARDIA IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Djindjic

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Until recent advances in pharmacology and clinical cardiology regarding farmacodynamics of antiarrhythmic drugs and their efficiency in patients with refractory paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia, chronic prophylactic therapy was the only treatment option for patients refusing catheter ablation. Another treatment option, also known by eponym “pill in pocket” have been shown to be equally useful and efficacious.The aim of our study was prospective examination of children with refractory atrioventricular nodal reentry tachycardia (AVNRT who were withdrawn from chronic antiarrhythmic prophylactic therapy and started with intermittent oral beta blocker treatment (propranolol at dosage 1 mg/kg - max 80 mg.Twelve children (8 boys and 4 girls with AVNRT were included in the study. Four children did not have arrhythmia during first six months after withdrawal and 7 were successfully treated without complication.Intermittent antiarrhythmic therapy in children with AVNRT could be very efficacious and useful treatment option which significantly improves their quality of life.

  18. Analytical chemistry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Křivánková, Ludmila

    -, č. 22 (2011), s. 718-719 ISSN 1472-3395 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : analytical chemistry * analytical methods * nanotechnologies Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation http://edition.pagesuite-professional.co.uk/launch.aspx?referral=other&pnum=&refresh=M0j83N1cQa91&EID=82bccec1-b05f-46f9-b085-701afc238b42&skip=

  19. Analytic trigonometry

    CERN Document Server

    Bruce, William J; Maxwell, E A; Sneddon, I N

    1963-01-01

    Analytic Trigonometry details the fundamental concepts and underlying principle of analytic geometry. The title aims to address the shortcomings in the instruction of trigonometry by considering basic theories of learning and pedagogy. The text first covers the essential elements from elementary algebra, plane geometry, and analytic geometry. Next, the selection tackles the trigonometric functions of angles in general, basic identities, and solutions of equations. The text also deals with the trigonometric functions of real numbers. The fifth chapter details the inverse trigonometric functions

  20. Nodal wear model: corrosion in carbon blast furnace hearths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verdeja, L. F.

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Criterions developed for the Nodal Wear Model (NWM were applied to estimate the shape of the corrosion profiles that a blast furnace hearth may acquire during its campaign. Taking into account design of the hearth, the boundary conditions, the characteristics of the refractory materials used and the operation conditions of the blast furnace, simulation of wear profiles with central well, mushroom and elephant foot shape were accomplished. The foundations of the NWM are constructed considering that the corrosion of the refractory is a function of the temperature present at each point (node of the liquid metal-refractory interface and the corresponding physical and chemical characteristics of the corrosive fluid.

    Se aplican los criterios del Modelo de Desgaste Nodal (MDN para la estimación de los perfiles de corrosión que podría ir adquiriendo el crisol de un homo alto durante su campaña. Atendiendo al propio diseño del crisol, a las condiciones límites de contorno, a las características del material refractario utilizado y a las condiciones de operación del horno, se consiguen simular perfiles de desgaste con "pozo central", con "forma de seta" ó de "pie de elefante". Los fundamentos del MDN se apoyan en la idea de considerar que la corrosión del refractario es función de la temperatura que el sistema pueda presentar en cada punto (nodo de la intercara refractario-fundido y de las correspondientes características físico-químicas del fluido corrosivo.

  1. Value of ADC measurements for nodal staging after chemoradiation in locally advanced rectal cancer - a per lesion validation study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambregts, Doenja M.J.; Maas, Monique [Maastricht University Medical Centre, Department of Radiology, P.O. Box 5800, Maastricht (Netherlands); Maastricht University Medical Centre, Department of Surgery, P.O. Box 5800, Maastricht (Netherlands); GROW School for Oncology and Developmental Biology, P.O. Box 616, Maastricht (Netherlands); Riedl, Robert G. [GROW School for Oncology and Developmental Biology, P.O. Box 616, Maastricht (Netherlands); Maastricht University Medical Centre, Department of Pathology, P.O. Box 5800, Maastricht (Netherlands); Bakers, Frans C.H.; Boetes, Carla; Beets-Tan, Regina G.H. [Maastricht University Medical Centre, Department of Radiology, P.O. Box 5800, Maastricht (Netherlands); GROW School for Oncology and Developmental Biology, P.O. Box 616, Maastricht (Netherlands); Verwoerd, Jan L. [MR Clinical Science Department, Philips Healthcare Benelux, P.O. Box 90050, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Kessels, Alfons G.H. [GROW School for Oncology and Developmental Biology, P.O. Box 616, Maastricht (Netherlands); Maastricht University Medical Centre, Department of Epidemiology, P.O. Box 5800, Maastricht (Netherlands); Lammering, Guido [GROW School for Oncology and Developmental Biology, P.O. Box 616, Maastricht (Netherlands); Maastro Clinic Maastricht, Radiation Oncology, P.O. Box 1588, Maastricht (Netherlands); Beets, Geerard L. [Maastricht University Medical Centre, Department of Surgery, P.O. Box 5800, Maastricht (Netherlands); GROW School for Oncology and Developmental Biology, P.O. Box 616, Maastricht (Netherlands)

    2011-02-15

    To evaluate the performance of diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI) in addition to T2-weighted (T2W) MRI for nodal restaging after chemoradiation in rectal cancer. Thirty patients underwent chemoradiation followed by MRI (1.5 T) and surgery. Imaging consisted of T2W-MRI and DWI (b0, 500, 1000). On T2W-MRI, nodes were scored as benign/malignant by two independent readers (R1, R2). Mean apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) was measured for each node. Diagnostic performance was compared for T2W-MRI, ADC and T2W+ADC, using a per lesion histological validation. ADC was higher for the malignant nodes (1.43 {+-} 0.38 vs 1.19 {+-} 0.27 *10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s, p < 0.001). Area under the ROC curve/sensitivity/specificity were 0.88/65%/93% (R1) and 0.95/71%/91% (R2) using T2W-MRI; 0.66/53%/82% using ADC (mean of two readers); and 0.91/56%/98% (R1) and 0.96/56%/99% (R2) using T2W+ADC. There was no significant difference between T2W-MRI and T2W+ADC. Interobserver reproducibility was good for T2W-MRI ({kappa}0.73) and ADC (intraclass correlation coefficient 0.77). After chemoradiation, ADC measurements may have potential for nodal characterisation, but DWI on its own is not reliable. Addition of DWI to T2W-MRI does not improve accuracy and T2W-MRI is already sufficiently accurate. (orig.)

  2. Analytical Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Analytical Labspecializes in Oil and Hydraulic Fluid Analysis, Identification of Unknown Materials, Engineering Investigations, Qualification Testing (to support...

  3. Type-I and type-II topological nodal superconductors with s -wave interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Beibing; Yang, Xiaosen; Xu, Ning; Gong, Ming

    2018-01-01

    Topological nodal superconductors with protected gapless points in momentum space are generally realized based on unconventional pairings. In this work we propose a minimal model to realize these topological nodal phases with only s -wave interaction. In our model the linear and quadratic spin-orbit couplings along the two orthogonal directions introduce anisotropic effective unconventional pairings in momentum space. This model may support different nodal superconducting phases characterized by either an integer winding number in BDI class or a Z2 index in D class at the particle-hole invariant axes. In the vicinity of the nodal points the effective Hamiltonian can be described by either type-I or type-II Dirac equations, and the Lifshitz transition from type-I nodal phases to type-II nodal phases can be driven by external in-plane magnetic fields. We show that these nodal phases are robust against weak impurities, which only slightly renormalizes the momentum-independent parameters in the impurity-averaged Hamiltonian, thus these phases are possible to be realized in experiments with real semi-Dirac materials. The smoking-gun evidences to verify these phases based on scanning tunneling spectroscopy method are also briefly discussed.

  4. A simple nodal force distribution method in refined finite element meshes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jai Hak; Shin, Kyu In; Lee, Dong Won; Cho, Seungyon

    2017-01-01

    In finite element analyses, mesh refinement is frequently performed to obtain accurate stress or strain values or to accurately define the geometry. After mesh refinement, equivalent nodal forces should be calculated at the nodes in the refined mesh. If field variables and material properties are available at the integration points in each element, then the accurate equivalent nodal forces can be calculated using an adequate numerical integration. However, in certain circumstances, equivalent nodal forces cannot be calculated because field variable data are not available. In this study, a very simple nodal force distribution method was proposed. Nodal forces of the original finite element mesh are distributed to the nodes of refined meshes to satisfy the equilibrium conditions. The effect of element size should also be considered in determining the magnitude of the distributing nodal forces. A program was developed based on the proposed method, and several example problems were solved to verify the accuracy and effectiveness of the proposed method. From the results, accurate stress field can be recognized to be obtained from refined meshes using the proposed nodal force distribution method. In example problems, the difference between the obtained maximum stress and target stress value was less than 6 % in models with 8-node hexahedral elements and less than 1 % in models with 20-node hexahedral elements or 10-node tetrahedral elements.

  5. Prognostic value of nodal ratios in node-positive breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, Wendy A; Vinh-Hung, Vincent; Ueno, Naoto T; Cheng, Yee Chung; Royce, Melanie; Tai, Patricia; Vlastos, Georges; Wallace, Anne Marie; Hortobagyi, Gabriel N; Nieto, Yago

    2006-06-20

    The American Joint Committee on Cancer staging system for breast cancer was recently updated to reflect the impact of increasing the absolute number of positive lymph nodes on prognosis. However, numerous studies suggest that nodal ratios (absolute number of involved nodes-number of nodes resected) may have greater prognostic value than absolute numbers of involved nodes. Here we examine the data supporting the use of nodal ratios in breast cancer prognosis and consider the potential advantages and disadvantages of including nodal ratios in breast cancer staging. A systematic review of the literature was conducted using the following search engines: http://www.google.com; Thomson's ISI Web of Science; PubMed. In multiple reports from both prospective and retrospectively collected data sets, nodal ratios have been shown to be significant predictors of outcome, including locoregional recurrence and overall survival. These studies span all stages of breast cancer and include various treatments as well as various statistical approaches. There is considerable data supporting the use of nodal ratios in breast cancer prognosis. A thorough and methodological evaluation of the potential prognostic importance of nodal ratios in large multicenter data sets is merited and is currently being undertaken by the International Nodal Ratio Working Group.

  6. Nodal price volatility reduction and reliability enhancement of restructured power systems considering demand-price elasticity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goel, L.; Wu, Qiuwei; Wang, Peng

    2008-01-01

    With the development of restructured power systems, the conventional 'same for all customers' electricity price is getting replaced by nodal prices. Electricity prices will fluctuate with time and nodes. In restructured power systems, electricity demands will interact mutually with prices. Customers may shift some of their electricity consumption from time slots of high electricity prices to those of low electricity prices if there is a commensurate price incentive. The demand side load shift will influence nodal prices in return. This interaction between demand and price can be depicted using demand-price elasticity. This paper proposes an evaluation technique incorporating the impact of the demand-price elasticity on nodal prices, system reliability and nodal reliabilities of restructured power systems. In this technique, demand and price correlations are represented using the demand-price elasticity matrix which consists of self/cross-elasticity coefficients. Nodal prices are determined using optimal power flow (OPF). The OPF and customer damage functions (CDFs) are combined in the proposed reliability evaluation technique to assess the reliability enhancement of restructured power systems considering demand-price elasticity. The IEEE reliability test system (RTS) is simulated to illustrate the developed techniques. The simulation results show that demand-price elasticity reduces the nodal price volatility and improves both the system reliability and nodal reliabilities of restructured power systems. Demand-price elasticity can therefore be utilized as a possible efficient tool to reduce price volatility and to enhance the reliability of restructured power systems. (author)

  7. Cerberus-Nodal-Lefty-Pitx signaling cascade controls left-right asymmetry in amphioxus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guang; Liu, Xian; Xing, Chaofan; Zhang, Huayang; Shimeld, Sebastian M; Wang, Yiquan

    2017-04-04

    Many bilaterally symmetrical animals develop genetically programmed left-right asymmetries. In vertebrates, this process is under the control of Nodal signaling, which is restricted to the left side by Nodal antagonists Cerberus and Lefty. Amphioxus, the earliest diverging chordate lineage, has profound left-right asymmetry as a larva. We show that Cerberus , Nodal , Lefty , and their target transcription factor Pitx are sequentially activated in amphioxus embryos. We then address their function by transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALEN)-based knockout and heat-shock promoter (HSP)-driven overexpression. Knockout of Cerberus leads to ectopic right-sided expression of Nodal , Lefty , and Pitx , whereas overexpression of Cerberus represses their left-sided expression. Overexpression of Nodal in turn represses Cerberus and activates Lefty and Pitx ectopically on the right side. We also show Lefty represses Nodal , whereas Pitx activates Nodal These data combine in a model in which Cerberus determines whether the left-sided gene expression cassette is activated or repressed. These regulatory steps are essential for normal left-right asymmetry to develop, as when they are disrupted embryos may instead form two phenotypic left sides or two phenotypic right sides. Our study shows the regulatory cassette controlling left-right asymmetry was in place in the ancestor of amphioxus and vertebrates. This includes the Nodal inhibitors Cerberus and Lefty, both of which operate in feedback loops with Nodal and combine to establish asymmetric Pitx expression. Cerberus and Lefty are missing from most invertebrate lineages, marking this mechanism as an innovation in the lineage leading to modern chordates.

  8. Converting Multi-Shell and Diffusion Spectrum Imaging to High Angular Resolution Diffusion Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Fang-Cheng; Verstynen, Timothy D

    2016-01-01

    Multi-shell and diffusion spectrum imaging (DSI) are becoming increasingly popular methods of acquiring diffusion MRI data in a research context. However, single-shell acquisitions, such as diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and high angular resolution diffusion imaging (HARDI), still remain the most common acquisition schemes in practice. Here we tested whether multi-shell and DSI data have conversion flexibility to be interpolated into corresponding HARDI data. We acquired multi-shell and DSI data on both a phantom and in vivo human tissue and converted them to HARDI. The correlation and difference between their diffusion signals, anisotropy values, diffusivity measurements, fiber orientations, connectivity matrices, and network measures were examined. Our analysis result showed that the diffusion signals, anisotropy, diffusivity, and connectivity matrix of the HARDI converted from multi-shell and DSI were highly correlated with those of the HARDI acquired on the MR scanner, with correlation coefficients around 0.8~0.9. The average angular error between converted and original HARDI was 20.7° at voxels with signal-to-noise ratios greater than 5. The network topology measures had less than 2% difference, whereas the average nodal measures had a percentage difference around 4~7%. In general, multi-shell and DSI acquisitions can be converted to their corresponding single-shell HARDI with high fidelity. This supports multi-shell and DSI acquisitions over HARDI acquisition as the scheme of choice for diffusion acquisitions.

  9. Regional nodal relapse in surgically staged Merkel cell carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeller, Ulrike; Mueller, Thomas; Schubert, Tina; Budach, Volker; Ghadjar, Pirus [Charite Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Department of Radiation Oncology, Berlin (Germany); Brenner, Winfried [Charite Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Berlin (Germany); Kiecker, Felix [Charite Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Department of Dermatology, Berlin (Germany); Schicke, Bernd [Tumor Center Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Haase, Oliver [Charite Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Department of Surgery, Berlin (Germany)

    2014-10-08

    The nodal relapse pattern of surgically staged Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) with/without elective nodal radiotherapy (RT) was studied in a single institution. A total of 51 patients with MCC, 33 % UICC stage I, 14 % II, 53 % III (4 lymph node metastases of unknown primary) were eligible. All patients had surgical staging: 23 patients sentinel node biopsy (SNB), 22 patients SNB followed by lymphadenectomy (LAD) and 6 patients LAD. In all, 94 % of the primary tumors (PT) were completely resected; 57 % of patients received RT, 51 % of known PT sites, 33 % (8/24 patients) regional RT to snN0 nodes and 68 % (17/27 patients) to pN+ nodes, mean reference dose 51.5 and 50 Gy, respectively. Mean follow-up was 6 years (range 2-14 years). A total of 22 % (11/51) patients developed regional relapses (RR); the 5-year RR rate was 27 %. In snN0 sites (stage I/II), relapse occurred in 5 of 14 nonirradiated vs. none of 8 irradiated sites (p = 0.054), resulting in a 5-year RR rate of 33 % versus 0 % (p = 0.16). The crude RR rate was lower in stage I (12 %, 2/17 patients) than for stage II (43 %, 3/7 patients). In stage III (pN+), RR appeared to be less frequent in irradiated sites (18 %, 3/14 patients) compared with nonirradiated sites (33 %, 3/10 patients, p = 0.45) with 5-year RR rates of 23 % vs. 34 %, respectively. Our data suggest that adjuvant nodal RT plays a major role even if the sentinel nodes were negative. Adjuvant RT of the lymph nodes in patients with stage IIa tumors and RT after LAD in stage III tumors is proposed and should be evaluated prospectively. (orig.) [German] Untersucht wurde das regionaere Rezidivmuster des Merkelzell-Karzinoms (MCC) nach chirurgischem Staging und stadienadaptierter Therapie. Eingeschlossen wurden 51 Patienten mit lokalisiertem MCC: 33 % hatten UICC-Stadium-I-, 14 % -II-, 53 % -III-Tumoren (davon 4 Lymphknotenmetastasen eines unbekannten Primaertumors). Alle Patienten erhielten ein chirurgisches Staging: 23 Waechterlymphknotenbiopsien (SNB

  10. [Method for optimal sensor placement in water distribution systems with nodal demand uncertainties].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shu-Ming; Wu, Xue; Ouyang, Le-Yan

    2013-08-01

    The notion of identification fitness was proposed for optimizing sensor placement in water distribution systems. Nondominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm II was used to find the Pareto front between minimum overlap of possible detection times of two events and the best probability of detection, taking nodal demand uncertainties into account. This methodology was applied to an example network. The solutions show that the probability of detection and the number of possible locations are not remarkably affected by nodal demand uncertainties, but the sources identification accuracy declines with nodal demand uncertainties.

  11. Electrostatic and magnetostatic numerical analysis using nodal and edge finite element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nascimento, Francisco Rogerio T. do; Jospin, Reinaldo Jacques

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of this work is to simulate electromagnetic fields using the Finite Element Method. Even in the easiest case of electrostatic and magnetostatic numerical simulation some problems appear when the nodal finite element is used. It is difficult to model vector fields with scalar functions mainly in non-homogeneous materials. With the aim to solve these problems two types of techniques are tried: the nodal elements and the edge finite element that ensure the continuity of tangential components. Some simple electromagnetic numerical analysis problems like waveguides, with homogeneous and non-homogeneous materials, are performed using first the nodal finite elements and then the edge finite elements. (author)

  12. Analytic geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Burdette, A C

    1971-01-01

    Analytic Geometry covers several fundamental aspects of analytic geometry needed for advanced subjects, including calculus.This book is composed of 12 chapters that review the principles, concepts, and analytic proofs of geometric theorems, families of lines, the normal equation of the line, and related matters. Other chapters highlight the application of graphing, foci, directrices, eccentricity, and conic-related topics. The remaining chapters deal with the concept polar and rectangular coordinates, surfaces and curves, and planes.This book will prove useful to undergraduate trigonometric st

  13. Clinical and pathological features of testicular diffuse large B-cell lymphoma : a heterogeneous disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuper-Hommel, Marion J. J.; Janssen-Heijnen, Maryska L. G.; Vreugdenhil, Gerard; Krol, Augustinus D. G.; Kluin-Nelemans, Hanneke C.; Coebergh, Jan-Willem W.; van Krieken, J. Han J. M.

    Most testicular lymphomas are of diffuse large B-cell (DLBCL) type with an outcome inferior to nodal DLBCL. Within an apparently homogeneous group of testicular DLBCLs, small cell components, plasmacytoid differentiation and lymphoepithelial lesions (LELs), features of extranodal marginal zone

  14. A semi-experimental nodal synthesis method for the on-line reconstruction of three-dimensional neutron flux-shapes and reactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacqmin, R.P.

    1991-01-01

    The safety and optimal performance of large, commercial, light-water reactors require the knowledge at all time of the neutron-flux distribution in the core. In principle, this information can be obtained by solving the time-dependent neutron diffusion equations. However, this approach is complicated and very expensive. Sufficiently accurate, real-time calculations (time scale of approximately one second) are not yet possible on desktop computers, even with fast-running, nodal kinetics codes. A semi-experimental, nodal synthesis method which avoids the solution of the time-dependent, neutron diffusion equations is described. The essential idea of this method is to approximate instantaneous nodal group-fluxes by a linear combination of K, precomputed, three-dimensional, static expansion-functions. The time-dependent coefficients of the combination are found from the requirement that the reconstructed flux-distribution agree in a least-squares sense with the readings of J (≥K) fixed, prompt-responding neutron-detectors. Possible numerical difficulties with the least-squares solution of the ill-conditioned, J-by-K system of equations are brought under complete control by the use of a singular-value-decomposition technique. This procedure amounts to the rearrangement of the original, linear combination of K expansion functions into an equivalent more convenient, linear combination of R (≤K) orthogonalized ''modes'' of decreasing magnitude. Exceedingly small modes are zeroed to eliminate any risk of roundoff-error amplification, and to assure consistency with the limited accuracy of the data. Additional modes are zeroed when it is desirable to limit the sensitivity of the results to measurement noise

  15. A semi-experimental nodal synthesis method for the on-line reconstruction of three-dimensional neutron flux-shapes and reactivity. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacqmin, Robert P. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1991-12-10

    The safety and optimal performance of large, commercial, light-water reactors require the knowledge at all time of the neutron-flux distribution in the core. In principle, this information can be obtained by solving the time-dependent neutron diffusion equations. However, this approach is complicated and very expensive. Sufficiently accurate, real-time calculations (time scale of approximately one second) are not yet possible on desktop computers, even with fast-running, nodal kinetics codes. A semi-experimental, nodal synthesis method which avoids the solution of the time-dependent, neutron diffusion equations is described. The essential idea of this method is to approximate instantaneous nodal group-fluxes by a linear combination of K, precomputed, three-dimensional, static expansion-functions. The time-dependent coefficients of the combination are found from the requirement that the reconstructed flux-distribution agree in a least-squares sense with the readings of J (≥K) fixed, prompt-responding neutron-detectors. Possible numerical difficulties with the least-squares solution of the ill-conditioned, J-by-K system of equations are brought under complete control by the use of a singular-value-decomposition technique. This procedure amounts to the rearrangement of the original, linear combination of K expansion functions into an equivalent more convenient, linear combination of R (≤K) orthogonalized ``modes`` of decreasing magnitude. Exceedingly small modes are zeroed to eliminate any risk of roundoff-error amplification, and to assure consistency with the limited accuracy of the data. Additional modes are zeroed when it is desirable to limit the sensitivity of the results to measurement noise.

  16. A semi-experimental nodal synthesis method for the on-line reconstruction of three-dimensional neutron flux-shapes and reactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacqmin, R.P.

    1991-12-10

    The safety and optimal performance of large, commercial, light-water reactors require the knowledge at all time of the neutron-flux distribution in the core. In principle, this information can be obtained by solving the time-dependent neutron diffusion equations. However, this approach is complicated and very expensive. Sufficiently accurate, real-time calculations (time scale of approximately one second) are not yet possible on desktop computers, even with fast-running, nodal kinetics codes. A semi-experimental, nodal synthesis method which avoids the solution of the time-dependent, neutron diffusion equations is described. The essential idea of this method is to approximate instantaneous nodal group-fluxes by a linear combination of K, precomputed, three-dimensional, static expansion-functions. The time-dependent coefficients of the combination are found from the requirement that the reconstructed flux-distribution agree in a least-squares sense with the readings of J ({ge}K) fixed, prompt-responding neutron-detectors. Possible numerical difficulties with the least-squares solution of the ill-conditioned, J-by-K system of equations are brought under complete control by the use of a singular-value-decomposition technique. This procedure amounts to the rearrangement of the original, linear combination of K expansion functions into an equivalent more convenient, linear combination of R ({le}K) orthogonalized modes'' of decreasing magnitude. Exceedingly small modes are zeroed to eliminate any risk of roundoff-error amplification, and to assure consistency with the limited accuracy of the data. Additional modes are zeroed when it is desirable to limit the sensitivity of the results to measurement noise.

  17. Mapping patterns of nodal metastases in seminoma: Rethinking radiotherapy fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paly, Jonathan J.; Efstathiou, Jason A.; Hedgire, Sandeep S.; Chung, Peter W.M.; O’Malley, Martin; Shah, Anand; Bekelman, Justin E.; Harisinghani, Mukesh; Shipley, William U.; Zietman, Anthony L.; Beard, Clair

    2013-01-01

    Background and purpose: To analyze the location of metastatic lymph nodes in seminoma patients relative to vascular and bony anatomy and conventional radiation fields. Materials and methods: Cross-sectional scans of 90 seminoma patients with infradiaphragmatic adenopathy were analyzed. The position of each node respective to vascular anatomy was transferred to a standardized template. Conventional radiation fields were overlaid on the template and locations of metastatic nodes were assessed. Results: One hundred and forty-five nodes were radiographically positive. Eighty-four percent, 9%, and 7% of nodes were located in the para-aortic, common iliac, and pelvic regions, respectively. Ninety-nine percent of nodes were within a 2.5 cm lateral and 2.1 cm anterior expansion of the aorta inferior to T12/L1. No radiographically positive nodes were identified within the renal hilum or superior to L1 in left-sided seminomas. For right-sided seminomas, no radiographically positive nodes were superior to L2. Three percent of all radiographically positive nodes would have been located outside of conventional and modified fields. Conclusions: Infradiaphragmatic nodal metastases from a contemporary cohort of seminoma patients localized to a smaller area than is targeted by conventional radiation fields. Modified treatment fields based on vascular, rather than bony, anatomy are smaller and may allow for a significant decrease in normal tissue irradiation and toxicity

  18. Topological Nodal Cooper Pairing in Doped Weyl Metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi; Haldane, F. D. M.

    2018-02-01

    We generalize the concept of Berry connection of the single-electron band structure to that of a two-particle Cooper pairing state between two Fermi surfaces with opposite Chern numbers. Because of underlying Fermi surface topology, the pairing Berry phase acquires nontrivial monopole structure. Consequently, pairing gap functions have topologically protected nodal structure as vortices in the momentum space with the total vorticity solely determined by the pair monopole charge qp. The nodes of gap function behave as the Weyl-Majorana points of the Bogoliubov-de Gennes pairing Hamiltonian. Their relation with the connection patterns of the surface modes from the Weyl band structure and the Majorana surface modes inside the pairing gap is also discussed. Under the approximation of spherical Fermi surfaces, the pairing symmetry are represented by monopole harmonic functions. The lowest possible pairing channel carries angular momentum number j =|qp|, and the corresponding gap functions are holomorphic or antiholomorphic functions on Fermi surfaces. After projected on the Fermi surfaces with nontrivial topology, all the partial-wave channels of pairing interactions acquire the monopole charge qp independent of concrete pairing mechanism.

  19. Nodal basin recurrence following lymph node dissection for melanoma: implications for adjuvant radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, R J; Gibbs, J F; Proulx, G M; Kollmorgen, D R; Jia, C; Kraybill, W G

    2000-01-15

    To analyze patterns of failure in malignant melanoma patients with lymph node involvement who underwent complete lymph node dissection (LND) of the nodal basin. To determine prognostic factors predictive of local recurrence in the lymph node basin in order to select patients who may benefit from adjuvant radiotherapy. A retrospective analysis of 338 patients undergoing complete LND for melanoma between 1970 and 1996 who had pathologically involved lymph nodes was performed. Mean follow-up from the time of LND was 54 months (range: 12-306 months). Lymph node basins dissected included the neck (56 patients), axilla (160 patients), and groin (122 patients). Two hundred fifty-three patients (75%) underwent therapeutic LND for clinically involved nodes, while 85 patients (25%) had elective dissections. Forty-four percent of patients received adjuvant systemic therapy. No patients received adjuvant radiotherapy to the lymph node basin. Overall and disease-specific survival for all patients at 10 years was 30% and 36%, respectively. Overall nodal basin recurrence was 30% at 10 years. Mean time to nodal basin recurrence was 12 months (range: 2-78 months). Site of nodal involvement was prognostic with 43%, 28%, and 23% nodal basin recurrence at 10 years with cervical, axillary, and inguinal involvement, respectively (p = 0.008). Extracapsular extension (ECE) led to a 10-year nodal basin failure rate of 63% vs. 23% without ECE (p basin at 10 years, compared to 16% for patients found to have involved nodes after elective dissection (p = 0.002). Lymph nodes larger than 6 cm led to a failure rate of 80% compared to 42% for nodes 3-6 cm and 24% for nodes less than 3 cm (p basin failure with 25%, 46%, and 63% failure rates at 10 years for 1-3, 4-10, and > 10 nodes involved (p = 0.0001). There was no significant difference in nodal basin control in patients with synchronous or metachronous lymph node metastases, nor in patients receiving or not receiving adjuvant systemic therapy

  20. Concomitant occurrence of sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy and nodal marginal zone lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Changlee S; Grier, David D; Beaty, Michael W

    2011-03-01

    Sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy (SHML), also known as Rosai-Dorfman disease, is a rare self-limiting disorder of histiocytes with unknown etiology. Sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy is most common in children and young adults and is characterized by painless lymphadenopathy. Histologically there is a proliferation of sinus histiocytes with lymphophagocytosis or emperipolesis. On rare occasions, SHML has been associated with lymphoma, usually involving different anatomic sites and developing at different times. We report a case of concomitant SHML and nodal marginal zone lymphoma involving the same lymph node without involvement of other nodal or extranodal sites. The presence of concomitant SHML within the lymph node involved by nodal marginal zone lymphoma may represent the responsiveness of SHML histiocytes to B-cell-derived cytokines in lymphoproliferative disorders. To our knowledge, this is the first description of concomitant occurrence of SHML and nodal marginal zone lymphoma.

  1. Nodal-line dynamics via exact polynomial solutions for coherent waves traversing aberrated imaging systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paganin, David M.; Beltran, Mario A.; Petersen, Timothy C.

    2018-03-01

    We obtain exact polynomial solutions for two-dimensional coherent complex scalar fields propagating through arbitrary aberrated shift-invariant linear imaging systems. These are used to model nodal-line dynamics of coherent fields output by such systems.

  2. Intra nodal reconstruction of the numerical solution generated by the spectro nodal constant for Sn problems of eigenvalues in two-dimensional rectangular geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menezes, Welton Alves de

    2009-01-01

    In this dissertation the spectral nodal method SD-SGF-CN, cf. spectral diamond - spectral Green's function - constant nodal, is used to determine the angular fluxes averaged along the edges of the homogenized nodes in heterogeneous domains. Using these results, we developed an algorithm for the reconstruction of the node-edge average angular fluxes within the nodes of the spatial grid set up on the domain, since more localized numerical solutions are not generated by coarse-mesh numerical methods. Numerical results are presented to illustrate the accuracy of the algorithm we offer. (author)

  3. Radial distribution of power starting from the reactivity using nodal schemes of second and third order

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delfin L, A.; Alonso V, G.; Valle G, E. del

    2003-01-01

    In this work two nodal schemes of finite element are presented, one of second and the other of third order of accurate that allow to determine the radial distribution of power starting from the corresponding reactivities.The schemes here developed were obtained taking as starting point the equation developed by Driscoll et al, the one which is based on the diffusion approach of 1-1/2 energy groups. This equation relates the power fraction of an assemble with their reactivity and with the power fractions and reactivities of the assemblies that its surround it. Driscoll and collaborators they solve in form approximate such equation supposing that the reactivity of each assemble it is but a lineal function of the burnt one of the fuel. The spatial approach carries out it with the classic technique of finite differences centered in mesh. Nevertheless that the algebraic system to which its arrive it can be solved without more considerations introduce some additional suppositions and adjustment parameters that it allows them to predict results comparable to those contributed by three dimensions analysis and this way to reduce the one obtained error when its compare their results with those of a production code like CASMO. Also in the two schemes that here are presented the same approaches of Driscoll were used being obtained errors of the one 10% and of 5% for the second schemes and third order respectively for a test case that it was built starting from data of the Cycle 1 of the Unit 1 of the Laguna Verde Nucleo electric plant. These errors its were obtained when comparing with a computer program based on the matrix response method. It is sought to have this way a quick and efficient tool for the multicycle analysis in the fuel management. However, this model presents problems in the appropriate prediction of the average burnt of the nucleus and of the burnt one by lot. (Author)

  4. Familial occurrence of atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia in a mother and her son.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namgung, June; Kwak, Jae-Jin; Choe, Hyunmin; Kwon, Sung Uk; Doh, Joon Hyung; Lee, Sung Yun; Lee, Won Ro

    2012-10-01

    Atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia (AVNRT), caused by a reentry circuit involving fast and slow atrioventricular nodal pathways, is one of the most common types of paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardias. While familial Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome has been well recognized, familial AVNRT has been rarely reported. We report a familial occurrence of AVNRT in a mother and her son, who were symptomatic and successfully treated with radiofrequency catheter ablation of slow pathway.

  5. A study of the literature on nodal methods in reactor physics calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van de Wetering, T.F.H.

    1993-01-01

    During the last few decades several calculation methods have been developed for the three-dimensional analysis of a reactor core. A literature survey was carried out to gain insights in the starting points and method of operation of the advanced nodal methods. These methods are applied in reactor core analyses of large nuclear power reactors, because of their high computing speed. The so-called Nodal-Expansion method is described in detail

  6. Cilia are required for asymmetric nodal induction in the sea urchin embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tisler, Matthias; Wetzel, Franziska; Mantino, Sabrina; Kremnyov, Stanislav; Thumberger, Thomas; Schweickert, Axel; Blum, Martin; Vick, Philipp

    2016-08-23

    Left-right (LR) organ asymmetries are a common feature of metazoan animals. In many cases, laterality is established by a conserved asymmetric Nodal signaling cascade during embryogenesis. In most vertebrates, asymmetric nodal induction results from a cilia-driven leftward fluid flow at the left-right organizer (LRO), a ciliated epithelium present during gastrula/neurula stages. Conservation of LRO and flow beyond the vertebrates has not been reported yet. Here we study sea urchin embryos, which use nodal to establish larval LR asymmetry as well. Cilia were found in the archenteron of embryos undergoing gastrulation. Expression of foxj1 and dnah9 suggested that archenteron cilia were motile. Cilia were polarized to the posterior pole of cells, a prerequisite of directed flow. High-speed videography revealed rotating cilia in the archenteron slightly before asymmetric nodal induction. Removal of cilia through brief high salt treatments resulted in aberrant patterns of nodal expression. Our data demonstrate that cilia - like in vertebrates - are required for asymmetric nodal induction in sea urchin embryos. Based on these results we argue that the anterior archenteron represents a bona fide LRO and propose that cilia-based symmetry breakage is a synapomorphy of the deuterostomes.

  7. Nodal Topological Phases in s-wave Superfluid of Ultracold Fermionic Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Bei-Bing; Yang, Xiao-Sen

    2018-02-01

    The gapless Weyl superfluid has been widely studied in the three-dimensional ultracold fermionic superfluid. In contrast to Weyl superfluid, there exists another kind of gapless superfluid with topologically protected nodal lines, which can be regarded as the superfluid counterpart of nodal line semimetal in the condensed matter physics, just as Weyl superfluid with Weyl semimetal. In this paper we study the ground states of the cold fermionic gases in cubic optical lattices with one-dimensional spin-orbit coupling and transverse Zeeman field and map out the topological phase diagram of the system. We demonstrate that in addition to a fully gapped topologically trivial phase, some different nodal line superfluid phases appear when the Zeeman field is adjusted. The presence of topologically stable nodal lines implies the dispersionless zero-energy flat band in a finite region of the surface Brillouin zone. Experimentally these nodal line superfluid states can be detected via the momentum-resolved radio-frequency spectroscopy. The nodal line topological superfluid provide fertile grounds for exploring exotic quantum matters in the context of ultracold atoms. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos. 11547047 and 11504143

  8. Topological crystalline superconductivity and second-order topological superconductivity in nodal-loop materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapourian, Hassan; Wang, Yuxuan; Ryu, Shinsei

    2018-03-01

    We study the intrinsic fully gapped odd-parity superconducting order in doped nodal-loop materials with a torus-shaped Fermi surface. We show that the mirror symmetry, which protects the nodal loop in the normal state, also protects the superconducting state as a topological crystalline superconductor. As a result, the surfaces preserving the mirror symmetry host gapless Majorana cones. Moreover, for a Weyl-loop system (twofold degenerate at the nodal loop), the surfaces that break the mirror symmetry (those parallel to the bulk nodal loop) contribute a Chern (winding) number to the quasi-two-dimensional system in a slab geometry, which leads to a quantized thermal Hall effect and a single Majorana zero mode bound at a vortex line penetrating the system. This Chern number can be viewed as a higher-order topological invariant, which supports hinge modes in a cubic sample when mirror symmetry is broken. For a Dirac-loop system (fourfold degenerate at the nodal loop), the fully gapped odd-parity state can be either time-reversal symmetry-breaking or symmetric, similar to the A and B phases of 3He. In a slab geometry, the A phase has a Chern number two, while the B phase carries a nontrivial Z2 invariant. We discuss the experimental relevance of our results to nodal-loop materials such as CaAgAs.

  9. Spin diffusion in Fermi gases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Georg

    2011-01-01

    We examine spin diffusion in a two-component homogeneous Fermi gas in the normal phase. Using a variational approach, analytical results are presented for the spin diffusion coefficient and the related spin relaxation time as a function of temperature and interaction strength. For low temperatures......, strong correlation effects are included through the Landau parameters which we extract from Monte Carlo results. We show that the spin diffusion coefficient has a minimum for a temperature somewhat below the Fermi temperature with a value that approaches the quantum limit ~/m in the unitarity regime...

  10. Analytical quadrics

    CERN Document Server

    Spain, Barry; Ulam, S; Stark, M

    1960-01-01

    Analytical Quadrics focuses on the analytical geometry of three dimensions. The book first discusses the theory of the plane, sphere, cone, cylinder, straight line, and central quadrics in their standard forms. The idea of the plane at infinity is introduced through the homogenous Cartesian coordinates and applied to the nature of the intersection of three planes and to the circular sections of quadrics. The text also focuses on paraboloid, including polar properties, center of a section, axes of plane section, and generators of hyperbolic paraboloid. The book also touches on homogenous coordi

  11. TGF-β promotes glioma cell growth via activating Nodal expression through Smad and ERK1/2 pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Jing [Department of Neurology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou 325000, Zhejiang (China); Liu, Su-zhi [Department of Neurology, The Affiliated Taizhou Hospital, Wenzhou Medical University, Taizhou 317000, Zhejiang (China); Lin, Yan; Cao, Xiao-pan [Department of Neurology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou 325000, Zhejiang (China); Liu, Jia-ming, E-mail: wzljm@126.com [School of Environmental Science and Public Health, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou 325035, Zhejiang (China)

    2014-01-17

    Highlights: •TGF-β promoted Nodal expression in glioma cells. •TGF-β promoted Nodal expression via activating Smad and ERK1/2 pathways. •TGF-β promotes glioma cell growth via activating Nodal expression. -- Abstract: While there were certain studies focusing on the mechanism of TGF-β promoting the growth of glioma cells, the present work revealed another novel mechanism that TGF-β may promote glioma cell growth via enhancing Nodal expression. Our results showed that Nodal expression was significantly upregulated in glioma cells when TGF-β was added, whereas the TGF-β-induced Nodal expression was evidently inhibited by transfection Smad2 or Smad3 siRNAs, and the suppression was especially significant when the Smad3 was downregulated. Another, the attenuation of TGF-β-induced Nodal expression was observed with blockade of the ERK1/2 pathway also. Further detection of the proliferation, apoptosis, and invasion of glioma cells indicated that Nodal overexpression promoted the proliferation and invasion of tumor cells and inhibited their apoptosis, resembling the effect of TGF-β addition. Downregulation of Nodal expression via transfection Nodal-specific siRNA in the presence of TGF-β weakened the promoting effect of the latter on glioma cells growth, and transfecting Nodal siRNA alone in the absence of exogenous TGF-β more profoundly inhibited the growth of glioma cells. These results demonstrated that while both TGF-β and Nodal promoted glioma cells growth, the former might exert such effect by enhancing Nodal expression, which may form a new target for glioma therapy.

  12. A clinical perspective on regional nodal irradiation for breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Amy C; Shaitelman, Simona F; Buchholz, Thomas A

    2017-08-01

    The goal of regional treatments in breast cancer should be to eradicate any disease within lymph nodes, avoid regional recurrences, minimize the risk of distant metastases, and improve survival. In addition, regional treatments should focus on reducing potential morbidities and optimizing the long-term quality of life of breast cancer survivors. While data from recent surgical and radiation trials have helped clarify many issues regarding regional treatment, there still remains controversy as to the optimal approach for patients with "intermediate risk" disease. Two large radiation oncology studies (MA.20 and EORTC2292-10925) evaluated whether more extensive lymphatic treatment benefited patients with higher-risk lymph node-negative, or lower risk lymph node-positive disease. A meta-analysis of these two studies suggested that the addition of regional nodal irradiation (RNI) to the level III axillary, supraclavicular and upper internal mammary lymph nodes conferred an improvement in disease free survival and distant metastasis free survival as well as a 1-2% overall survival advantage. However, other studies have suggested that many patients with positive sentinel lymph nodes who are treated with breast conservation including breast irradiation may safely avoid the morbidity and costs of further axillary treatment (whether surgical or radiotherapy-based). In general, patients with 1-3 positive lymph nodes or high-risk, node negative stage II breast cancer represent a diverse population who require individualized, rather than group-based, risk assessment when considering RNI. This article will propose a strategic methodology to assess the modern day breast cancer patient's need for RNI in the setting of changing surgical, radiation, and systemic therapies. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Mathematical embryology: the fluid mechanics of nodal cilia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D. J.; Smith, A. A.; Blake, J. R.

    2011-07-01

    Left-right symmetry breaking is critical to vertebrate embryonic development; in many species this process begins with cilia-driven flow in a structure termed the `node'. Primary `whirling' cilia, tilted towards the posterior, transport morphogen-containing vesicles towards the left, initiating left-right asymmetric development. We review recent theoretical models based on the point-force stokeslet and point-torque rotlet singularities, explaining how rotation and surface-tilt produce directional flow. Analysis of image singularity systems enforcing the no-slip condition shows how tilted rotation produces a far-field `stresslet' directional flow, and how time-dependent point-force and time-independent point-torque models are in this respect equivalent. Associated slender body theory analysis is reviewed; this approach enables efficient and accurate simulation of three-dimensional time-dependent flow, time-dependence being essential in predicting features of the flow such as chaotic advection, which have subsequently been determined experimentally. A new model for the nodal flow utilising the regularized stokeslet method is developed, to model the effect of the overlying Reichert's membrane. Velocity fields and particle paths within the enclosed domain are computed and compared with the flow profiles predicted by previous `membrane-less' models. Computations confirm that the presence of the membrane produces flow-reversal in the upper region, but no continuous region of reverse flow close to the epithelium. The stresslet far-field is no longer evident in the membrane model, due to the depth of the cavity being of similar magnitude to the cilium length. Simulations predict that vesicles released within one cilium length of the epithelium are generally transported to the left via a `loopy drift' motion, sometimes involving highly unpredictable detours around leftward cilia [truncated

  14. Postmastectomy internal mammary nodal irradiation: a long-term outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleknavičius, Eduardas; Atkočius, Vydmantas; Kuzmickienė, Irena; Steponavičienė, Rita

    2014-01-01

    The internal mammary lymph nodes (IMN) have been recognized as a potential site of regional breast cancer spread. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of internal mammary node radiotherapy (RT) to on clinical outcomes in breast cancer patients treated with mastectomy and postoperative radiation therapy. This cohort study included 588 patients with breast cancers located in the central and medial quadrants. IMN RT was applied to 320 patients and 268 patients did not receive it IMN RT. Inside the IMN RT group, 165 patients received external beam IMN irradiation (IMN-EB). Mastectomy combined with using Californium-252 neutron source implantation was applied to 155 patients (IMN-BT). Cox proportional hazards modeling was used to determine the influence of IMN RT on clinical outcome. Age, tumor size, lymph nodal status, adjuvant radiotherapy, chemotherapy and hormonal therapy were assessed. IMN-EB resulted in a significant improvement of distant metastasis-free survival, breast cancer-specific survival and overall survival (P=0.033, P=0.037 and P=0.011, respectively). The IMN-EB radiotherapy has a significant impact on event-free survival (HR, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.46-0.91; P=0.043) and breast cancer-specific survival (HR, 0.64; 95% CI, 45-0.91; P=0.013) in patients with moderate-risk (stage T1-2N1). There was no association between IMN RT and clinical outcomes of patients with high-risk disease (stage T3-4N2-3) in any of the study end points. The effects of IMN-EB radiotherapy on event-free survival and breast cancer-specific survival were benefit for women with moderate-risk breast cancer. Copyright © 2014 Lithuanian University of Health Sciences. Production and hosting by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  15. Unilateral submandibular gland aplasia masquerading as cancer nodal metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipchandler, Taha Z; Lorenz, Robert R

    2008-01-01

    Five reports have examined unilateral submandibular gland aplasia. The purposes of this report are to demonstrate submandibular gland aplasia leading to contralateral gland hypertrophy in the setting of oral cavity cancer and to discuss the corresponding diagnostic and management challenges. This study is a case report of a 60-year-old male who presented with pain on the right side of the mobile tongue. This report uses literature review. A 60-year-old male presented with pain on the right side of the mobile tongue. Subsequent results of punch biopsy revealed squamous cell carcinoma in situ with foci of microinvasion of the tongue. Head and neck examination revealed no abnormalities. The patient underwent a wide-local excision of the tongue lesion. Postoperative computed tomographic (CT) scan showed an asymmetric mass on the ipsilateral side of the cancer in the region of the submandibular gland. The gland was noted to be abnormally large. A diagnosis of contralateral submandibular gland aplasia was made. The patient is cancer-free at 2 years postlocal excision. Salivary gland aplasia is an extremely rare disorder and is often associated with various congenital syndromes. Unilateral submandibular gland aplasia is even rarer with ours representing the sixth reported case. Aplasia is believed to stem from a regional disturbance in early fetal development. Common symptoms can include dysphagia, dry mouth, decreased taste, and tooth decay. In the presence of a history of oral cavity cancer, unilateral submandibular gland aplasia poses a challenge during postoperative cancer follow-up. Unilateral submandibular gland aplasia in the setting of oral cavity cancer poses a unique challenge for cancer follow-up. Hypertrophy of the submandibular gland on the other side can masquerade as nodal metastasis. Head and neck examination as well as CT scan can be inconclusive. Regular confirmatory tests such as fine needle aspiration biopsy and positron emission tomography/CT for

  16. Drug diffusion across skin with diffusivity spatially modulated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya Arroyave, Isabel

    2014-05-01

    A diffusion and delivery model of a drug across the skin with diffusivity spatially modulated is formulated and solved analytically using computer algebra. The model is developed using one-dimensional diffusion equation with a diffusivity which is a function of position in the skin; with an initial condition which is describing that the drug is initially contained inside a therapeutic patch; with a boundary condition according to which the change in concentration in the patch is minimal, such that assumption of zero flux at the patch-skin interface is valid; and with other boundary condition according to which the microcirculation in the capillaries just below the dermis carries the drug molecules away from the site at a very fast rate, maintaining the inner concentration at 0. The model is solved analytically by the method of the Laplace transform, with Bromwich integral and residue theorem. The concentration profile of the drug in the skin is expressed as an infinite series of Bessel functions. The corresponding total amount of delivered drug is expressed as an infinite series of decreasing exponentials. Also, the corresponding effective time for the therapeutic patch is determined. All computations were performed using computer algebra software, specifically Maple. The analytical results obtained are important for understanding and improving currentapplications of therapeutic patches. For future research it is interesting to consider more general models of spatial modulation of the diffusivity and the possible application of other computer algebra software such as Mathematica and Maxima.

  17. Extra-nodal extension is a significant prognostic factor in lymph node positive breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sura Aziz

    Full Text Available Presence of lymph node (LN metastasis is a strong prognostic factor in breast cancer, whereas the importance of extra-nodal extension and other nodal tumor features have not yet been fully recognized. Here, we examined microscopic features of lymph node metastases and their prognostic value in a population-based cohort of node positive breast cancer (n = 218, as part of the prospective Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program NBCSP (1996-2009. Sections were reviewed for the largest metastatic tumor diameter (TD-MET, nodal afferent and efferent vascular invasion (AVI and EVI, extra-nodal extension (ENE, number of ENE foci, as well as circumferential (CD-ENE and perpendicular (PD-ENE diameter of extra-nodal growth. Number of positive lymph nodes, EVI, and PD-ENE were significantly increased with larger primary tumor (PT diameter. Univariate survival analysis showed that several features of nodal metastases were associated with disease-free (DFS or breast cancer specific survival (BCSS. Multivariate analysis demonstrated an independent prognostic value of PD-ENE (with 3 mm as cut-off value in predicting DFS and BCSS, along with number of positive nodes and histologic grade of the primary tumor (for DFS: P = 0.01, P = 0.02, P = 0.01, respectively; for BCSS: P = 0.02, P = 0.008, P = 0.02, respectively. To conclude, the extent of ENE by its perpendicular diameter was independently prognostic and should be considered in line with nodal tumor burden in treatment decisions of node positive breast cancer.

  18. Patterns of failure after the reduced volume approach for elective nodal irradiation in nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seol, Ki Ho; Lee, Jeong Eun [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Kyungpook National University School of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    To evaluate the patterns of nodal failure after radiotherapy (RT) with the reduced volume approach for elective neck nodal irradiation (ENI) in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Fifty-six NPC patients who underwent definitive chemoradiotherapy with the reduced volume approach for ENI were reviewed. The ENI included retropharyngeal and level II lymph nodes, and only encompassed the echelon inferior to the involved level to eliminate the entire neck irradiation. Patients received either moderate hypofractionated intensity-modulated RT for a total of 72.6 Gy (49.5 Gy to elective nodal areas) or a conventional fractionated three-dimensional conformal RT for a total of 68.4-72 Gy (39.6-45 Gy to elective nodal areas). Patterns of failure, locoregional control, and survival were analyzed. The median follow-up was 38 months (range, 3 to 80 months). The out-of-field nodal failure when omitting ENI was none. Three patients developed neck recurrences (one in-field recurrence in the 72.6 Gy irradiated nodal area and two in the elective irradiated region of 39.6 Gy). Overall disease failure at any site developed in 11 patients (19.6%). Among these, there were six local failures (10.7%), three regional failures (5.4%), and five distant metastases (8.9%). The 3-year locoregional control rate was 87.1%, and the distant failure-free rate was 90.4%; disease-free survival and overall survival at 3 years was 80% and 86.8%, respectively. No patient developed nodal failure in the omitted ENI site. Our investigation has demonstrated that the reduced volume approach for ENI appears to be a safe treatment approach in NPC.

  19. Ultrasound-guided core biopsy: an effective method of detecting axillary nodal metastases.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Solon, Jacqueline G

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Axillary nodal status is an important prognostic predictor in patients with breast cancer. This study evaluated the sensitivity and specificity of ultrasound-guided core biopsy (Ax US-CB) at detecting axillary nodal metastases in patients with primary breast cancer, thereby determining how often sentinel lymph node biopsy could be avoided in node positive patients. STUDY DESIGN: Records of patients presenting to a breast unit between January 2007 and June 2010 were reviewed retrospectively. Patients who underwent axillary ultrasonography with or without preoperative core biopsy were identified. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value for ultrasonography and percutaneous biopsy were evaluated. RESULTS: Records of 718 patients were reviewed, with 445 fulfilling inclusion criteria. Forty-seven percent (n = 210\\/445) had nodal metastases, with 110 detected by Ax US-CB (sensitivity 52.4%, specificity 100%, positive predictive value 100%, negative predictive value 70.1%). Axillary ultrasonography without biopsy had sensitivity and specificity of 54.3% and 97%, respectively. Lymphovascular invasion was an independent predictor of nodal metastases (sensitivity 60.8%, specificity 80%). Ultrasound-guided core biopsy detected more than half of all nodal metastases, sparing more than one-quarter of all breast cancer patients an unnecessary sentinel lymph node biopsy. CONCLUSIONS: Axillary ultrasonography, when combined with core biopsy, is a valuable component of the management of patients with primary breast cancer. Its ability to definitively identify nodal metastases before surgical intervention can greatly facilitate a patient\\'s preoperative integrated treatment plan. In this regard, we believe our study adds considerably to the increasing data, which indicate the benefit of Ax US-CB in the preoperative detection of nodal metastases.

  20. Heavy fermions: From nodal metals to super-spins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramires Neves de Oliveira, Aline

    Condensed matter physics is an area of research which lies at a sweet spot between two complementary perspectives: the atomistic point of view which takes into account all the details of the system of interest; and the framework of universality and emergent phenomena, which allows us to make drastic simplifications to the microscopic description of materials while still being able to explain much of the experimentally observed phenomena. This thesis addresses problems from both perspectives, focusing on heavy fermion systems. Heavy fermion systems are prototype materials for the study of strongly correlations and quantum criticality. Theoretical understanding of these systems is important for the design of new materials and for the fundamental understanding of quantum critical phenomena. This thesis is strongly motivated by recent experiments in an intrinsically quantum critical material, beta-YbAlB 4. This system shows anomalous critical exponents in transport and thermodynamics. In Chapter 2 we construct a phenomenological theory for the heavy fermion metal beta-YbAlB4 based on the Anderson model, taking into account the peculiarities of this specific material. We analyze the consequences of a non-trivial, momentum-dependent, hybridization matrix between f-electrons and conduction electrons, which gives rise to a nodal metal with unusual dispersion and singular thermodynamic properties, in accordance with experiments. In Chapter 3 we analyze the Electron Spin Resonance experiments in this same material and propose a theory including spin-orbit coupling, crystal electric fields and hyperfine coupling which can account for many of the features of the experimentally observed signal. Within a broader perspective on heavy fermion systems, the absence of a single unified theoretical description which can account for the plethora of phenomena observed in this class of materials also motivates us to consider new theoretical approaches. In Chapter 4 we generalize the

  1. Analytical chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jae Seong

    1993-02-01

    This book is comprised of nineteen chapters, which describes introduction of analytical chemistry, experimental error and statistics, chemistry equilibrium and solubility, gravimetric analysis with mechanism of precipitation, range and calculation of the result, volume analysis on general principle, sedimentation method on types and titration curve, acid base balance, acid base titration curve, complex and firing reaction, introduction of chemical electro analysis, acid-base titration curve, electrode and potentiometry, electrolysis and conductometry, voltammetry and polarographic spectrophotometry, atomic spectrometry, solvent extraction, chromatograph and experiments.

  2. Analytical chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    The division for Analytical Chemistry continued to try and develope an accurate method for the separation of trace amounts from mixtures which, contain various other elements. Ion exchange chromatography is of special importance in this regard. New separation techniques were tried on certain trace amounts in South African standard rock materials and special ceramics. Methods were also tested for the separation of carrier-free radioisotopes from irradiated cyclotron discs

  3. Prediction of nodal involvement in primary rectal carcinoma without invasion to pelvic structures: accuracy of preoperative CT, MR, and DWIBS assessments relative to histopathologic findings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Zhou

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the accuracy of preoperative computed tomography (CT, magnetic resonance (MR imaging and diffusion-weighted imaging with background body signal suppression (DWIBS in the prediction of nodal involvement in primary rectal carcinoma patients in the absence of tumor invasion into pelvic structures. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Fifty-two subjects with primary rectal cancer were preoperatively assessed by CT and MRI at 1.5 T with a phased-array coil. Preoperative lymph node staging with imaging modalities (CT, MRI, and DWIBS were compared with the final histological findings. RESULTS: The accuracy of CT, MRI, and DWIBS were 57.7%, 63.5%, and 40.4%. The accuracy of DWIBS with higher sensitivity and negative predictive value for evaluating primary rectal cancer patients was lower than that of CT and MRI. Nodal staging agreement between imaging and pathology was fairly strong for CT and MRI (Kappa value = 0.331 and 0.348, P<0.01 but was relatively weaker for DWIBS (Kappa value = 0.174, P<0.05. The accuracy was 57.7% and 59.6%, respectively, for CT and MRI when the lymph node border information was used as the criteria, and was 57.7% and 61.5%, respectively, for enhanced CT and MRI when the lymph node enhancement pattern was used as the criteria. CONCLUSION: MRI is more accurate than CT in predicting nodal involvement in primary rectal carcinoma patients in the absence of tumor invasion into pelvic structures. DWIBS has a great diagnostic value in differentiating small malignant from benign lymph nodes.

  4. Comparison of nodal metastasis between BRCA mutation carriers and non-BRCA mutation carriers with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noori, Shahrbanoo F; Gangi, Alexandra; Nelson, Maria E; Choi, Michael; Mirzadehgan, Parisa; Bonk, Alison K; Mirocha, James; Amersi, Farin; Giuliano, Armando E

    2014-10-01

    This study evaluates whether nodal status differs between breast cancer patients with BRCA mutations and those confirmed not to harbor mutations. A prospective database identified patients with breast cancer who underwent genetic testing and axillary staging. Comparative variables included age, as well as tumor characteristics such as size, grade, lymphovascular invasion (LVI), estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2-neu), and nodal status. Overall, 235 patients with breast cancer underwent genetic testing for BRCA mutations from June 2000 to May 2012. Of these patients, 74 (31.4 %) were found to express BRCA 1 and/or 2 mutations, and 161 (68.5 %) patients were verified to have no detectable BRCA mutation. Among the entire 235 patients tested, 92 (39.1 %) were found to have nodal disease. In univariable analysis, only LVI and tumor size correlated with presence of nodal metastasis. Of the 74 BRCA mutation carriers, 34 (45.9 %) had nodal metastasis compared with 58 of the 161 (36 %; p = 0.15) patients without a BRCA mutation. BRCA mutation carriers with nodal disease were more likely to have poorly differentiated tumors than those without mutations who had nodal disease (24/33 [72.7 %] vs. 27/57 [47.4 %]; p = 0.027). BRCA mutations are not themselves predictive of nodal metastasis. Patients with BRCA mutations did not have a statistically significant higher prevalence of nodal metastasis than those without mutations.

  5. Inhibitory effect of Nodal on the expression of aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 in endometrioid adenocarcinoma of uterus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi; Jiang, Yang; Tian, Tian; Hori, Yumiko; Wada, Naoki; Ikeda, Jun-ichiro; Morii, Eiichi

    2013-11-01

    Cancers consist of heterogeneous populations. Recently, it has been demonstrated that cells with tumorigenic potential are limited to a small population, called cancer-initiating cells (CICs). Aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1) is one of the markers of CICs. We previously reported that ALDH1-high cases of uterine endometrioid adenocarcinoma showed poor prognosis, and ALDH1-high population of endometrioid adenocarcinoma cell line was more tumorigenic, resistant to anti-cancer drugs, and invasive than ALDH1-low population. Here, the regulatory signaling for ALDH1 was examined. The inhibition of TGF-β signaling increased ALDH1-high population. Among TGF-β family members, Nodal expression and ALDH1 expression levels were mutually exclusive. Immunohistochemical analysis on clinical samples revealed Nodal-high tumor cells to be ALDH-low and vise versa, suggesting that Nodal may inhibit ALDH1 expression via stimulating TGF-β signaling in uterine endometrioid adenocarcinoma. In fact, the addition of Nodal to endometrioid adenocarcinoma cell line reduced ALDH1-high population. Although ALDH1 mRNA level was not affected, the amount of ALDH1 protein appeared to be reduce by Nodal through ubiquitine-proteasome pathway. The regulation of TGF-β signaling might be a novel therapeutic target of CICs in endometrioid adenocarcinoma. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Role of Nodal-PITX2C signaling pathway in glucose-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Dongmei; Jing, Sun; Guan, Lina; Li, Qian; Zhang, Huiling; Gao, Xiaobo; Ma, Xu

    2014-06-01

    Pathological cardiac hypertrophy is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in cardiovascular disease. Recent studies have shown that cardiomyocytes, in response to high glucose (HG) stimuli, undergo hypertrophic growth. While much work still needs to be done to elucidate this important mechanism of hypertrophy, previous works have showed that some pathways or genes play important roles in hypertrophy. In this study, we showed that sublethal concentrations of glucose (25 mmol/L) could induce cardiomyocyte hypertrophy with an increase in the cellular surface area and the upregulation of the atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) gene, a hypertrophic marker. High glucose (HG) treatments resulted in the upregulation of the Nodal gene, which is under-expressed in cardiomyocytes. We also determined that the knockdown of the Nodal gene resisted HG-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. The overexpression of Nodal was able to induce hypertrophy in cardiomyocytes, which was associated with the upregulation of the PITX2C gene. We also showed that increases in the PITX2C expression, in response to Nodal, were mediated by the Smad4 signaling pathway. This study is highly relevant to the understanding of the effects of the Nodal-PITX2C pathway on HG-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, as well as the related molecular mechanisms.

  7. Nodalization effects on RELAP5 results related to MTR research reactor transient scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khedr Ahmed

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work deals with the anal y sis of RELAP5 results obtained from the evaluation study of the total loss of flow transient with the deficiency of the heat removal system in a research reactor using two different nodalizations. It focuses on the effect of nodalization on the thermal-hydraulic evaluation of the re search reactor. The analysis of RELAP5 results has shown that nodalization has a big effect on the predicted scenario of the postulated transient. There fore, great care should be taken during the nodalization of the reactor, especially when the avail able experimental or measured data are insufficient for making a complete qualification of the nodalization. Our analysis also shows that the research reactor pool simulation has a great effect on the evaluation of natural circulation flow and on other thermal-hydraulic parameters during the loss of flow transient. For example, the on set time of core boiling changes from less than 2000 s to 15000 s, starting from the beginning of the transient. This occurs if the pool is simulated by two vertical volumes in stead of one vertical volume.

  8. Diffuse scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostorz, G. [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule, Angewandte Physik, Zurich (Switzerland)

    1996-12-31

    While Bragg scattering is characteristic for the average structure of crystals, static local deviations from the average lattice lead to diffuse elastic scattering around and between Bragg peaks. This scattering thus contains information on the occupation of lattice sites by different atomic species and on static local displacements, even in a macroscopically homogeneous crystalline sample. The various diffuse scattering effects, including those around the incident beam (small-angle scattering), are introduced and illustrated by typical results obtained for some Ni alloys. (author) 7 figs., 41 refs.

  9. Protected nodal electron pocket from multiple-Q ordering in underdoped high temperature superconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, N; Sebastian, S E

    2011-06-03

    A multiple wave vector (Q) reconstruction of the Fermi surface is shown to yield a profoundly different electronic structure to that characteristic of single wave vector reconstruction, despite their proximity in energy. We consider the specific case in which ordering is generated by Q(x)=[2πa,0] and Q(y)=[0,2πb] (in which a=b=1/4)-similar to those identified in neutron diffraction and scanning tunneling microscopy experiments-and more generally show that an isolated pocket adjacent to the nodal point k(nodal)=[±π/2,±π/2] is a protected feature of such a multiple-Q model, potentially corresponding to the nodal "Fermi arcs" observed in photoemission and the small size of the electronic heat capacity found in high magnetic fields-importantly, containing electron carriers which can yield negative Hall and Seebeck coefficients observed in high magnetic fields.

  10. Video Analytics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nasrollahi, Kamal; Distante, Cosimo; Hua, Gang

    2017-01-01

    This book collects the papers presented at two workshops during the 23rd International Conference on Pattern Recognition (ICPR): the Third Workshop on Video Analytics for Audience Measurement (VAAM) and the Second International Workshop on Face and Facial Expression Recognition (FFER) from Real...... World Videos. The workshops were run on December 4, 2016, in Cancun in Mexico. The two workshops together received 13 papers. Each paper was then reviewed by at least two expert reviewers in the field. In all, 11 papers were accepted to be presented at the workshops. The topics covered in the papers...

  11. Video Analytics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book collects the papers presented at two workshops during the 23rd International Conference on Pattern Recognition (ICPR): the Third Workshop on Video Analytics for Audience Measurement (VAAM) and the Second International Workshop on Face and Facial Expression Recognition (FFER) from Real...... World Videos. The workshops were run on December 4, 2016, in Cancun in Mexico. The two workshops together received 13 papers. Each paper was then reviewed by at least two expert reviewers in the field. In all, 11 papers were accepted to be presented at the workshops. The topics covered in the papers...

  12. A two-dimensional nodal model with turbulent effects for the synthesis of Si nano-particles by inductively coupled thermal plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colombo, V; Ghedini, E; Gherardi, M; Sanibondi, P; Shigeta, M

    2012-01-01

    Nano-particle synthesis by means of inductively coupled plasma torches is a material process of large technological interest. Numerous parameters are involved in the optimization of this process; hence the development of numerical models for the prediction of thermal and magneto-fluid dynamics fields, precursor powder trajectories and thermal history, as well as nano-particle formation and growth, is necessary for the up-scaling of these devices from laboratory batch production to an industrial continuous process. In this work, a two-dimensional (2D) discrete-type model (nodal model) for the analysis of nano-powder nucleation and growth is presented, taking into account convection, diffusion and turbulent effects on particle formation. Discrete-type models feature high precision and reveal a great deal of information useful for clarifying the nano-particle formation process. Using Si as the precursor material, 2D simulations of a nano-particle synthesis RF plasma apparatus with a reaction chamber are carried out. Good agreement is found when comparing results obtained with this model with those coming from a well-established nucleation-coupled moment method. Moreover, the extended amount of obtainable information that characterizes the nodal model is underlined. (paper)

  13. Outcomes of routine ilioinguinal lymph node dissection for palpable inguinal melanoma nodal metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, A R; Allan, C P; Wilkinson, M J; Strauss, D C; Thomas, J M; Hayes, A J

    2014-06-01

    Patients who present with palpable inguinal melanoma nodal metastasis have two surgical options: inguinal or ilioinguinal lymph node dissection. Indications for either operation remain controversial. This study examined survival and recurrence outcomes following ilioinguinal dissection for patients with palpable inguinal nodal metastasis, and assessed the incidence and preoperative predictors of pelvic nodal metastasis. This was a retrospective clinicopathological analysis of consecutive surgical patients with stage III malignant melanoma. All patients underwent a standardized ilioinguinal dissection at a specialist tertiary oncology hospital over a 12-year period (1998-2010). Some 38.9 per cent of 113 patients had metastatic pelvic nodes. Over a median follow-up of 31 months, the 5-year overall survival rate was 28 per cent for patients with metastatic inguinal and pelvic nodes, and 51 per cent for those with inguinal nodal metastasis only (P = 0.002). The nodal basin control rate was 88.5 per cent. Despite no evidence of pelvic node involvement on preoperative computed tomography (CT), six patients (5.3 per cent) with a single metastatic inguinal lymph node had metastatic pelvic lymph nodes. Logistic regression analysis showed that the number of metastatic inguinal nodes (odds ratio 1.56; P = 0.021) and suspicious CT findings (odds ratio 9.89; P = 0.001) were both significantly associated with metastatic pelvic nodes. The specificity of CT was good (89.2 per cent) in detecting metastatic pelvic nodes, but the sensitivity was limited (57.9 per cent). Metastatic pelvic nodes are common when palpable metastatic inguinal nodes are present. Long-term survival can be achieved following their resection by ilioinguinal dissection. As metastatic pelvic nodes cannot be diagnosed reliably by preoperative CT, patients presenting with palpable inguinal nodal metastasis should be considered for ilioinguinal dissection. © 2014 BJS Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons

  14. A transient, Hex-Z nodal code corrected by discontinuity factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shatilla, Y.A.M.; Henry, A.F.

    1993-01-01

    This document constitutes Volume 1 of the Final Report of a three-year study supported by the special Research Grant Program for Nuclear Energy Research set up by the US Department of Energy. The original motivation for the work was to provide a fast and accurate computer program for the analysis of transients in heavy water or graphite-moderated reactors being considered as candidates for the New Production Reactor. Thus, part of the funding was by way of pass-through money from the Savannah River Laboratory. With this intent in mind, a three-dimensional (Hex-Z), general-energy-group transient, nodal code was created, programmed, and tested. In order to improve accuracy, correction terms, called open-quotes discontinuity factors,close quotes were incorporated into the nodal equations. Ideal values of these factors force the nodal equations to provide node-integrated reaction rates and leakage rates across nodal surfaces that match exactly those edited from a more exact reference calculation. Since the exact reference solution is needed to compute the ideal discontinuity factors, the fact that they result in exact nodal equations would be of little practical interest were it not that approximate discontinuity factors, found at a greatly reduced cost, often yield very accurate results. For example, for light-water reactors, discontinuity factors found from two-dimensional, fine-mesh, multigroup transport solutions for two-dimensional cuts of a fuel assembly provide very accurate predictions of three-dimensional, full-core power distributions. The present document (volume 1) deals primarily with the specification, programming and testing of the three-dimensional, Hex-Z computer program. The program solves both the static (eigenvalue) and transient, general-energy-group, nodal equations corrected by user-supplied discontinuity factors

  15. Relativistic diffusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haba, Z

    2009-02-01

    We discuss relativistic diffusion in proper time in the approach of Schay (Ph.D. thesis, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ, 1961) and Dudley [Ark. Mat. 6, 241 (1965)]. We derive (Langevin) stochastic differential equations in various coordinates. We show that in some coordinates the stochastic differential equations become linear. We obtain momentum probability distribution in an explicit form. We discuss a relativistic particle diffusing in an external electromagnetic field. We solve the Langevin equations in the case of parallel electric and magnetic fields. We derive a kinetic equation for the evolution of the probability distribution. We discuss drag terms leading to an equilibrium distribution. The relativistic analog of the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process is not unique. We show that if the drag comes from a diffusion approximation to the master equation then its form is strongly restricted. The drag leading to the Tsallis equilibrium distribution satisfies this restriction whereas the one of the Jüttner distribution does not. We show that any function of the relativistic energy can be the equilibrium distribution for a particle in a static electric field. A preliminary study of the time evolution with friction is presented. It is shown that the problem is equivalent to quantum mechanics of a particle moving on a hyperboloid with a potential determined by the drag. A relation to diffusions appearing in heavy ion collisions is briefly discussed.

  16. On the treatment of nonlinear local feedbacks within advanced nodal generalized perturbation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maldonado, G.I.; Turinsky, P.J.; Kropaczek, D.J.

    1993-01-01

    Recent efforts to upgrade the underlying neutronics formulations within the in-core nuclear fuel management optimization code FORMOSA (Ref. 1) have produced two important developments; first, a computationally efficient and second-order-accurate advanced nodal generalized perturbation theory (GPT) model [derived from the nonlinear iterative nodal expansion method (NEM)] for evaluating core attributes (i.e., k eff and power distribution versus cycle burnup), and second, an equally efficient and accurate treatment of local thermal-hydraulic and fission product feedbacks embedded within NEM GPT. The latter development is the focus of this paper

  17. [Does nodal irradiation (clavicular and internal mammary chains) increase the toxicity of adjuvant breast radiotherapy?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riou, O; Bourgier, C; Fenoglietto, P; Azria, D

    2015-06-01

    Treatment volume is a major risk factor of radiation-induced toxicity. As nodal irradiation increases treatment volume, radiation toxicity should be greater. Nevertheless, scientific randomised data do not support this fact. However, a radiation-induced toxicity is possible outside tangential fields in the nodal volumes not related to breast-only treatment. Treatment should not be adapted only to the disease but personalized to the individual risk of toxicity for each patient. Copyright © 2015 Société française de radiothérapie oncologique (SFRO). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Dual AV Nodal Nonreentrant Tachycardia Resulting in Inappropriate ICD Therapy in a Patient with Cardiac Sarcoidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankur A. Karnik, MD

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dual atrioventricular nodal nonreentrant tachycardia (DAVNNT occurs due to concurrent antegrade conduction over fast and slow atrioventricular nodal pathways and is treated by slow pathway modification. We describe a unique case of a patient with cardiac sarcoidosis who received inappropriate ICD shocks for DAVNNT. Atrial and ventricular device electrograms satisfied both rate and V>A criteria for ventricular tachycardia. We postulate that alterations in refractoriness and conduction as is seen in cardiac sarcoidosis (CS may have contributed to occurrence of DAVNNT.

  19. Incidental Prophylactic Nodal Irradiation and Patterns of Nodal Relapse in Inoperable Early Stage NSCLC Patients Treated With SBRT: A Case-Matched Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lao, Louis [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, Auckland City Hospital, Auckland (New Zealand); Hope, Andrew J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Maganti, Manjula [Department of Biostatistics, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Brade, Anthony; Bezjak, Andrea; Saibishkumar, Elantholi P.; Giuliani, Meredith; Sun, Alexander [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Cho, B. C. John, E-mail: john.cho@rmp.uhn.on.ca [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2014-09-01

    Purpose: Reported rates of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) nodal failure following stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) are lower than those reported in the surgical series when matched for stage. We hypothesized that this effect was due to incidental prophylactic nodal irradiation. Methods and Materials: A prospectively collected group of medically inoperable early stage NSCLC patients from 2004 to 2010 was used to identify cases with nodal relapses. Controls were matched to cases, 2:1, controlling for tumor volume (ie, same or greater) and tumor location (ie, same lobe). Reference (normalized to equivalent dose for 2-Gy fractions [EQD2]) point doses at the ipsilateral hilum and carina, demographic data, and clinical outcomes were extracted from the medical records. Univariate conditional logistical regression analyses were performed with variables of interest. Results: Cases and controls were well matched except for size. The controls, as expected, had larger gross tumor volumes (P=.02). The mean ipsilateral hilar doses were 9.6 Gy and 22.4 Gy for cases and controls, respectively (P=.014). The mean carinal doses were 7.0 Gy and 9.2 Gy, respectively (P=.13). Mediastinal nodal relapses, with and without ipsilateral hilar relapse, were associated with mean ipsilateral hilar doses of 3.6 Gy and 19.8 Gy, respectively (P=.01). The conditional density plot appears to demonstrate an inverse dose-effect relationship between ipsilateral hilar normalized total dose and risk of ipsilateral hilar relapse. Conclusions: Incidental hilar dose greater than 20 Gy is significantly associated with fewer ipsilateral hilar relapses in inoperable early stage NSCLC patients treated with SBRT.

  20. Amplification and protein overexpression of cyclin D1: Predictor of occult nodal metastasis in early oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noorlag, Rob; Boeve, Koos; Witjes, Max J H; Koole, Ronald; Peeters, Ton L M; Schuuring, Ed; Willems, Stefan M; van Es, Robert J J

    2017-02-01

    Accurate nodal staging is pivotal for treatment planning in early (stage I-II) oral cancer. Unfortunately, current imaging modalities lack sensitivity to detect occult nodal metastases. Chromosomal region 11q13, including genes CCND1, Fas-associated death domain (FADD), and CTTN, is often amplified in oral cancer with nodal metastases. However, evidence in predicting occult nodal metastases is limited. In 158 patients with early tongue and floor of mouth (FOM) squamous cell carcinomas, both CCND1 amplification and cyclin D1, FADD, and cortactin protein expression were correlated with occult nodal metastases. CCND1 amplification and cyclin D1 expression correlated with occult nodal metastases. Cyclin D1 expression was validated in an independent multicenter cohort, confirming the correlation with occult nodal metastases in early FOM cancers. Cyclin D1 is a predictive biomarker for occult nodal metastases in early FOM cancers. Prospective research on biopsy material should confirm these results before implementing its use in routine clinical practice. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 39: 326-333, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Analytical mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Helrich, Carl S

    2017-01-01

    This advanced undergraduate textbook begins with the Lagrangian formulation of Analytical Mechanics and then passes directly to the Hamiltonian formulation and the canonical equations, with constraints incorporated through Lagrange multipliers. Hamilton's Principle and the canonical equations remain the basis of the remainder of the text. Topics considered for applications include small oscillations, motion in electric and magnetic fields, and rigid body dynamics. The Hamilton-Jacobi approach is developed with special attention to the canonical transformation in order to provide a smooth and logical transition into the study of complex and chaotic systems. Finally the text has a careful treatment of relativistic mechanics and the requirement of Lorentz invariance. The text is enriched with an outline of the history of mechanics, which particularly outlines the importance of the work of Euler, Lagrange, Hamilton and Jacobi. Numerous exercises with solutions support the exceptionally clear and concise treatment...

  2. Diffusion bonding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, R.C.

    1976-01-01

    A method is described for joining beryllium to beryllium by diffusion bonding. At least one surface portion of at least two beryllium pieces is coated with nickel. A coated surface portion is positioned in a contiguous relationship with another surface portion and subjected to an environment having an atmosphere at a pressure lower than ambient pressure. A force is applied on the beryllium pieces for causing the contiguous surface portions to abut against each other. The contiguous surface portions are heated to a maximum temperature less than the melting temperature of the beryllium, and the applied force is decreased while increasing the temperature after attaining a temperature substantially above room temperature. A portion of the applied force is maintained at a temperature corresponding to about maximum temperature for a duration sufficient to effect the diffusion bond between the contiguous surface portions

  3. Solutions of fractional diffusion equations by variation of parameters method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohyud-Din Syed Tauseef

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to establish a novel analytical solution scheme for the fractional diffusion equations. Caputo’s formulation followed by the variation of parameters method has been employed to obtain the analytical solutions. Following the derived analytical scheme, solution of the fractional diffusion equation for several initial functions has been obtained. Graphs are plotted to see the physical behavior of obtained solutions.

  4. Multipassage diffuser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lalis, A.; Rouviere, R.; Simon, G.

    1976-01-01

    A multipassage diffuser having 2p passages comprises a leak-tight cylindrical enclosure closed by a top cover and a bottom end-wall, parallel porous tubes which are rigidly assembled in sectors between tube plates and through which the gas mixture flows, the tube sectors being disposed at uniform intervals on the periphery of the enclosure. The top tube plates are rigidly fixed to an annular header having the shape of a half-torus and adapted to communicate with the tubes of the corresponding sector. Each passage is constituted by a plurality of juxtaposed sectors in which the mixture circulates in the same direction, the header being divided into p portions limited by radial partition-walls and each constituting two adjacent passages. The diffuser is provided beneath the bottom end-wall with p-1 leak-tight chambers each adapted to open into two different portions of the header, and with two collector-chambers each fitted with a nozzle for introducing the gas mixture and discharging the fraction of the undiffused mixture. By means of a central orifice formed in the bottom end-wall the enclosure communicates with a shaft for discharging the diffused fraction of the gas mixture

  5. Spectral nodal methodology for multigroup slab-geometry discrete ordinates neutron transport problems with linearly anisotropic scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliva, Amaury M.; Filho, Hermes A.; Silva, Davi M.; Garcia, Carlos R., E-mail: aoliva@iprj.uerj.br, E-mail: halves@iprj.uerj.br, E-mail: davijmsilva@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: cgh@instec.cu [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Nova Friburgo, RJ (Brazil). Instituto Politecnico. Departamento de Modelagem Computacional; Instituto Superior de Tecnologias y Ciencias Aplicadas (InSTEC), La Habana (Cuba)

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, we propose a numerical methodology for the development of a method of the spectral nodal class that will generate numerical solutions free from spatial truncation errors. This method, denominated Spectral Deterministic Method (SDM), is tested as an initial study of the solutions (spectral analysis) of neutron transport equations in the discrete ordinates (S{sub N}) formulation, in one-dimensional slab geometry, multigroup approximation, with linearly anisotropic scattering, considering homogeneous and heterogeneous domains with fixed source. The unknowns in the methodology are the cell-edge, and cell average angular fluxes, the numerical values calculated for these quantities coincide with the analytic solution of the equations. These numerical results are shown and compared with the traditional ne- mesh method Diamond Difference (DD) and the coarse-mesh method spectral Green's function (SGF) to illustrate the method's accuracy and stability. The solution algorithms problems are implemented in a computer simulator made in C++ language, the same that was used to generate the results of the reference work. (author)

  6. Status of the Regional Nodal Basin Remains Highly Prognostic in Melanoma Patients with In-Transit Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Alexandra B; Jakub, James W; Harmsen, William S; Suman, Vera J; Markovic, Svetomir N

    2016-07-01

    The role of SLNB for in-transit (IT) melanoma is controversial. The objective of this study was to determine the rate and prognostic significance of occult nodal disease in patients undergoing surgical nodal staging for IT disease. We conducted a retrospective review of patients with IT melanoma from May 2005 through September 2014. Analysis was limited to patients with a first-time IT event who underwent surgical excision. Associations between clinicopathologic characteristics, patterns of recurrence, and survival were analyzed. A total of 261 patients treated at our center were identified and 157 met inclusion criteria, of which 135 (86%) presented with no evidence of nodal disease. At the time of surgical excision of the IT lesion, 80 (58%) clinically node-negative patients underwent observation of the nodal basin and 55 (41%) surgical nodal staging. Twenty (36%) clinically node-negative but surgically staged patients were found to have nodal disease. Distant metastasis-free survival was 70.8 months for surgically staged node-negative patients, 19.2 months for surgically staged node-positive patients, 22.8 months for those staged node-negative by clinical examination only and 4.8 months for those with clinical nodal disease (p = 0.01). The regional nodal basin was the first site of failure in 14 of 66 (21%) clinically staged patients, 5 of 50 (10%) for those surgically staged, and 6 of 16 (38%) for those with clinical nodal disease. Patients with IT disease are at high risk for occult nodal metastasis. Because clinical staging is unreliable, SLNB should be considered. For patients with IT recurrence, the status of the regional basin is strongly prognostic and stratifies patients into low-, intermediate-, and high-risk groups. Copyright © 2016 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Analytical Chemistry of Nitric Oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetrick, Evan M.

    2013-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is the focus of intense research, owing primarily to its wide-ranging biological and physiological actions. A requirement for understanding its origin, activity, and regulation is the need for accurate and precise measurement techniques. Unfortunately, analytical assays for monitoring NO are challenged by NO’s unique chemical and physical properties, including its reactivity, rapid diffusion, and short half-life. Moreover, NO concentrations may span pM to µM in physiological milieu, requiring techniques with wide dynamic response ranges. Despite such challenges, many analytical techniques have emerged for the detection of NO. Herein, we review the most common spectroscopic and electrochemical methods, with special focus on the fundamentals behind each technique and approaches that have been coupled with modern analytical measurement tools or exploited to create novel NO sensors. PMID:20636069

  8. 5-Hydroxymethylcytosine expression in metastatic melanoma versus nodal nevus in sentinel lymph node biopsies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jonathan J; Granter, Scott R; Laga, Alvaro C; Saavedra, Arturo P; Zhan, Qian; Guo, Weimin; Xu, Shuyun; Murphy, George F; Lian, Christine G

    2015-02-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsies are conducted to stage patients with newly diagnosed melanomas that have histopathological attributes conferring defined levels of metastatic potential. Because benign nevic cells may also form 'deposits' in lymph nodes (nodal nevus), the pathological evaluation for metastatic melanoma within sentinel lymph nodes can be challenging. Twenty-eight sentinel lymph node biopsy cases containing either metastatic melanoma (N=18) or nodal nevi (N=10) were retrieved from the archives of the Brigham and Women's Hospital, Department of Pathology (2011-2014). In addition, two sentinel lymph node cases that were favored to represent metastatic disease but whose histopathological features were viewed as equivocal, with melanoma favored, were also included. Dual labeling for the melanocyte lineage marker, MART-1, and the epigenetic marker, 5-hydroxymethylcytosine, a functionally significant indicator that has been shown to distinguish benign nevi from melanoma, was performed on all cases using immunohistochemistry and/or direct immunofluorescence. All (18 of 18) metastatic melanoma cases showed complete loss of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine nuclear staining in MART-1-positive cells, and all (10 of 10) nodal nevus cases demonstrated 5-hydroxymethylcytosine nuclear staining in MART-1-positive cells. In addition, 5-hydroxymethylcytosine staining confirmed the favored diagnoses of metastatic melanoma in the two 'equivocal' cases. Thus, 5-hydroxymethylcytosine may be a useful adjunctive marker to distinguish between benign nodal nevi and metastatic melanoma during the evaluation of sentinel lymph node biopsies for metastatic melanoma.

  9. Clinical implementation of coverage probability planning for nodal boosting in locally advanced cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramlov, Anne; Assenholt, Marianne S; Jensen, Maria F

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: To implement coverage probability (CovP) for dose planning of simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) of pathologic lymph nodes in locally advanced cervical cancer (LACC). MATERIAL AND METHODS: CovP constraints for SIB of the pathological nodal target (PTV-N) with a central dose peak...

  10. Analysis of nodal aberration properties in off-axis freeform system design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Haodong; Jiang, Huilin; Zhang, Xin; Wang, Chao; Liu, Tao

    2016-08-20

    Freeform surfaces have the advantage of balancing off-axis aberration. In this paper, based on the framework of nodal aberration theory (NAT) applied to the coaxial system, the third-order astigmatism and coma wave aberration expressions of an off-axis system with Zernike polynomial surfaces are derived. The relationship between the off-axis and surface shape acting on the nodal distributions is revealed. The nodal aberration properties of the off-axis freeform system are analyzed and validated by using full-field displays (FFDs). It has been demonstrated that adding Zernike terms, up to nine, to the off-axis system modifies the nodal locations, but the field dependence of the third-order aberration does not change. On this basis, an off-axis two-mirror freeform system with 500 mm effective focal length (EFL) and 300 mm entrance pupil diameter (EPD) working in long-wave infrared is designed. The field constant aberrations induced by surface tilting are corrected by selecting specific Zernike terms. The design results show that the nodes of third-order astigmatism and coma move back into the field of view (FOV). The modulation transfer function (MTF) curves are above 0.4 at 20 line pairs per millimeter (lp/mm) which meets the infrared reconnaissance requirement. This work provides essential insight and guidance for aberration correction in off-axis freeform system design.

  11. Unbounded planar domains whose second nodal line does not touch the boundary

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Freitas, P.; Krejčiřík, David

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 1 (2007), s. 107-111 ISSN 1073-2780 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06002 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : Dirichlet Laplacian * eigenfunctions * nodal line Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.702, year: 2007

  12. Bifurcation from infinity and nodal solutions of quasilinear elliptic differential equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bian-Xia Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we establish a unilateral global bifurcation theorem from infinity for a class of $N$-dimensional p-Laplacian problems. As an application, we study the global behavior of the components of nodal solutions of the problem $$\\displaylines{ \\operatorname{div}(\\varphi_p(\

  13. The Nodal signaling pathway controls left-right asymmetric development in amphioxus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Soukup, Vladimír; Yong, L.W.; Lu, T.M.; Huang, S.W.; Kozmik, Zbyněk; Yu, J.K.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 6, Feb 17 (2015) ISSN 2041-9139 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP14-20839P; GA MŠk LH12047 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : Nodal signaling * Amphioxus * Left-right asymmetry * Mouth opening * Embryonic development Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.177, year: 2015

  14. Nodal-line entanglement entropy: Generalized Widom formula from entanglement Hamiltonians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretko, Michael

    2017-06-01

    A system of fermions forming a Fermi surface exhibits a large degree of quantum entanglement, even in the absence of interactions. In particular, the usual case of a codimension one Fermi surface leads to a logarithmic violation of the area law for entanglement entropy as dictated by the Widom formula. We here generalize this formula to the case of arbitrary codimension, which is of particular interest for nodal lines in three dimensions. We first re-derive the standard Widom formula by calculating an entanglement Hamiltonian for Fermi-surface systems, obtained by repurposing a trick commonly applied to relativistic theories. The entanglement Hamiltonian will take a local form in terms of a low-energy patch theory for the Fermi surface, although it is nonlocal with respect to the microscopic fermions. This entanglement Hamiltonian can then be used to derive the entanglement entropy, yielding a result in agreement with the Widom formula. The method is then generalized to arbitrary codimension. For nodal lines, the area law is obeyed, and the magnitude of the coefficient for a particular partition is nonuniversal. However, the coefficient has a universal dependence on the shape and orientation of the nodal line relative to the partitioning surface. By comparing the relative magnitude of the area law for different partitioning cuts, entanglement entropy can be used as a tool for diagnosing the presence and shape of a nodal line in a ground-state wave function.

  15. Photoacoustic intra-operative nodal staging using clinically approved superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grootendorst, Diederik; Fratila, R.M.; Visscher, M.; ten Haken, Bernard; van Wezel, Richard Jack Anton; Steenbergen, Wiendelt; Manohar, Srirang; Ruers, Theo J.M.; Oraevsky, Alexander A.; Wang, Lihong V.

    2013-01-01

    Detection of tumor metastases in the lymphatic system is essential for accurate staging of various malignancies, however fast, accurate and cost-effective intra-operative evaluation of the nodal status remains difficult to perform with common available medical imaging techniques. In recent years,

  16. Computation of Steady State Nodal Voltages for Fast Security Assessment in Power Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jakob Glarbo; Jóhannsson, Hjörtur; Østergaard, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    Development of a method for real-time assess-ment of post-contingency nodal voltages is introduced. Linear network theory is applied in an algorithm that utilizes Thevenin equivalent representation of power systems as seen from every voltage-controlled node in a network. The method is evaluated...

  17. Influence of asymmetry and nodal structures on high-harmonic generation in heteronuclear molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Augstein, B B; Figueira De Morisson Faria, C [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)

    2011-03-14

    The relation between high-harmonic spectra and the geometry of the molecular orbital in position and momentum space is investigated. In particular we choose two isoelectronic pairs of homonuclear and heteronuclear molecules, such that the highest occupied molecular orbital of the former exhibits at least one nodal plane. The imprint of such planes is a strong suppression in the harmonic spectra, for particular alignment angles. We are able to identify two distinct types of nodal structures. If, for homonuclear molecules, the nodal planes are determined by the atomic wavefunctions only, the angle for which the yield is suppressed will remain the same for both types of molecules. In contrast, if they are determined by the linear combination of atomic orbitals at different centers of the molecule, there will be a shift in the angle at which the suppression occurs and a distortion in the nodal structure for the heteronuclear molecule, with respect to its homonuclear counterpart. This shows that, in principle, molecular imaging, in which a homonuclear molecule is used as a reference while observing the wavefunction distortions in its heteronuclear counterpart, is possible.

  18. Theory of nodal s ± -wave pairing symmetry in the Pu-based 115 superconductor family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Tanmoy; Zhu, Jian-Xin; Graf, Matthias J

    2015-02-27

    The spin-fluctuation mechanism of superconductivity usually results in the presence of gapless or nodal quasiparticle states in the excitation spectrum. Nodal quasiparticle states are well established in copper-oxide, and heavy-fermion superconductors, but not in iron-based superconductors. Here, we study the pairing symmetry and mechanism of a new class of plutonium-based high-Tc superconductors and predict the presence of a nodal s(±) wave pairing symmetry in this family. Starting from a density-functional theory (DFT) based electronic structure calculation we predict several three-dimensional (3D) Fermi surfaces in this 115 superconductor family. We identify the dominant Fermi surface "hot-spots" in the inter-band scattering channel, which are aligned along the wavevector Q = (π, π, π), where degeneracy could induce sign-reversal of the pairing symmetry. Our calculation demonstrates that the s(±) wave pairing strength is stronger than the previously thought d-wave pairing; and more importantly, this pairing state allows for the existence of nodal quasiparticles. Finally, we predict the shape of the momentum- and energy-dependent magnetic resonance spectrum for the identification of this pairing symmetry.

  19. Vector bundles with a fixed determinant on an irreducible nodal curve

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Using the correspondence between GPBs on and torsion-free sheaves on a nodal curve of which is a desingularization, we show that M L ¯ can be regarded as the compactified moduli scheme of vector bundles on with fixed determinant. We get a natural scheme structure on the closure of the subset consisting of ...

  20. Vector bundles with a fixed determinant on an irreducible nodal curve

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    sheaves with a fixed determinant in the moduli space of torsion-free sheaves on Y. The relation to Seshadri–Nagaraj conjecture is studied. Keywords. Nodal curves; torsion-free sheaves; fixed determinant. 1. Introduction. Generalized parabolic vector bundles (GPBs) on a smooth curve X are vector bundles on. X together ...

  1. Atrial activation during atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia: studies on retrograde fast pathway conduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katritsis, Demosthenes G.; Ellenbogen, Kenneth A.; Becker, Anton E.

    2006-01-01

    Detailed right and left septal mapping of retrograde atrial activation during typical atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia (AVNRT) has not been undertaken and may provide insight into the complex physiology of AVNRT, especially the anatomic localization of the fast and slow pathways. The

  2. VALIDATION OF FULL CORE GEOMETRY MODEL OF THE NODAL3 CODE IN THE PWR TRANSIENT BENCHMARK PROBLEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tagor Malem Sembiring

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT VALIDATION OF FULL CORE GEOMETRY MODEL OF THE NODAL3 CODE IN THE PWR TRANSIENT BENCHMARK PROBLEMS. The coupled neutronic and thermal-hydraulic (T/H code, NODAL3 code, has been validated in some PWR static benchmark and the NEACRP PWR transient benchmark cases. However, the NODAL3 code have not yet validated in the transient benchmark cases of a control rod assembly (CR ejection at peripheral core using a full core geometry model, the C1 and C2 cases.  By this research work, the accuracy of the NODAL3 code for one CR ejection or the unsymmetrical group of CRs ejection case can be validated. The calculations by the NODAL3 code have been carried out by the adiabatic method (AM and the improved quasistatic method (IQS. All calculated transient parameters by the NODAL3 code were compared with the reference results by the PANTHER code. The maximum relative difference of 16% occurs in the calculated time of power maximum parameter by using the IQS method, while the relative difference of the AM method is 4% for C2 case.  All calculation results by the NODAL3 code shows there is no systematic difference, it means the neutronic and T/H modules are adopted in the code are considered correct. Therefore, all calculation results by using the NODAL3 code are very good agreement with the reference results. Keywords: nodal method, coupled neutronic and thermal-hydraulic code, PWR, transient case, control rod ejection.   ABSTRAK VALIDASI MODEL GEOMETRI TERAS PENUH PAKET PROGRAM NODAL3 DALAM PROBLEM BENCHMARK GAYUT WAKTU PWR. Paket program kopel neutronik dan termohidraulika (T/H, NODAL3, telah divalidasi dengan beberapa kasus benchmark statis PWR dan kasus benchmark gayut waktu PWR NEACRP.  Akan tetapi, paket program NODAL3 belum divalidasi dalam kasus benchmark gayut waktu akibat penarikan sebuah perangkat batang kendali (CR di tepi teras menggunakan model geometri teras penuh, yaitu kasus C1 dan C2. Dengan penelitian ini, akurasi paket program

  3. Effect of system variables involved in packed column SFC of nevirapine as model analyte using response surface methodology: application to retention thermodynamics, solute transfer kinetic study and binary diffusion coefficient determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaul, Neerej; Agrawal, Himani; Paradkar, A R; Mahadik, K R

    2005-08-31

    A multifactor optimization technique is successfully applied to study the effect of simultaneously varying the system variables on feasibility of nevirapine analysis by packed column supercritical fluid chromatography (PC-SFC). The optimal conditions were determined with the aid of the response surface methodology using 3(3) factorial designs. The method is based on methanol-modified carbon dioxide as the mobile phase at flow rate of 3.0 ml/min with elution through a JASCO Finepak SIL-5, [C18 (5-micron, 25 cm x 4.6 mm, i.d.)] column using photodiode array detection. The method has been successfully used to analyze commercial solid dosage form to assess the chromatographic performance of SFC system. The present work briefs the thermodynamic applications of PC-SFC with an emphasis on the results of nevirapine. The foremost of such applications is the determination of solute diffusion coefficient in supercritical mobile phase by Taylor-Aris peak broadening technique.

  4. An axisymmetric diffusion experiment for the determination of diffusion and sorption coefficients of rock samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, M; Hiratsuka, T; Ito, K; Finsterle, S

    2011-04-25

    Diffusion anisotropy is a critical property in predicting migration of substances in sedimentary formations with very low permeability. The diffusion anisotropy of sedimentary rocks has been evaluated mainly from laboratory diffusion experiments, in which the directional diffusivities are separately estimated by through-diffusion experiments using different rock samples, or concurrently by in-diffusion experiments in which only the tracer profile in a rock block is measured. To estimate the diffusion anisotropy from a single rock sample, this study proposes an axisymmetric diffusion test, in which tracer diffuses between a cylindrical rock sample and a surrounding solution reservoir. The tracer diffusion between the sample and reservoir can be monitored from the reservoir tracer concentrations, and the tracer profile could also be obtained after dismantling the sample. Semi-analytical solutions are derived for tracer concentrations in both the reservoir and sample, accounting for an anisotropic diffusion tensor of rank two as well as the dilution effects from sampling and replacement of reservoir solution. The transient and steady-state analyses were examined experimentally and numerically for different experimental configurations, but without the need for tracer profiling. These experimental configurations are tested for in- and out-diffusion experiments using Koetoi and Wakkanai mudstones and Shirahama sandstone, and are scrutinized by a numerical approach to identify favorable conditions for parameter estimation. The analysis reveals the difficulty in estimating diffusion anisotropy; test configurations are proposed for enhanced identifiability of diffusion anisotropy. Moreover, it is demonstrated that the axisymmetric diffusion test is efficient in obtaining the sorption parameter from both steady-state and transient data, and in determining the effective diffusion coefficient if isotropic diffusion is assumed. Moreover, measuring reservoir concentrations in an

  5. An asixymmetric diffusion experiment for the determination of diffusion and sorption coefficients of rock samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, M.; Hiratsuka, T.; Ito, K.; Finsterle, S.

    2011-02-01

    Diffusion anisotropy is a critical property in predicting migration of substances in sedimentary formations with very low permeability. The diffusion anisotropy of sedimentary rocks has been evaluated mainly from laboratory diffusion experiments, in which the directional diffusivities are separately estimated by through-diffusion experiments using different rock samples, or concurrently by in-diffusion experiments in which only the tracer profile in a rock block is measured. To estimate the diffusion anisotropy from a single rock sample, this study proposes an axisymmetric diffusion test, in which tracer diffuses between a cylindrical rock sample and a surrounding solution reservoir. The tracer diffusion between the sample and reservoir can be monitored from the reservoir tracer concentrations, and the tracer profile could also be obtained after dismantling the sample. Semi-analytical solutions are derived for tracer concentrations in both the reservoir and sample, accounting for an anisotropic diffusion tensor of rank two as well as the dilution effects from sampling and replacement of reservoir solution. The transient and steady-state analyses were examined experimentally and numerically for different experimental configurations, but without the need for tracer profiling. These experimental configurations are tested for in- and out-diffusion experiments using Koetoi and Wakkanai mudstones and Shirahama sandstone, and are scrutinized by a numerical approach to identify favorable conditions for parameter estimation. The analysis reveals the difficulty in estimating diffusion anisotropy; test configurations are proposed for enhanced identifiability of diffusion anisotropy. Moreover, it is demonstrated that the axisymmetric diffusion test is efficient in obtaining the sorption parameter from both steady-state and transient data, and in determining the effective diffusion coefficient if isotropic diffusion is assumed. Moreover, measuring reservoir concentrations in an

  6. Role of CT/PET in predicting nodal disease in head and neck cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singham, S.; Iyer, G.; Clark, J.

    2009-01-01

    Full text:Introduction: Pre-treatment evaluation of the presence of cervical nodal metastases is important in head and neck cancers and has major prognostic implications. In this study, we aim to determine the accuracy of CT/PET as a tool for identifying such metastases. Methods: All patients from Royal Prince Alfred and Liverpool Hospitals, who underwent CT/PET for any cancer arising from the head and neck, and who underwent subsequent surgery (which included a neck dissection) within 8 weeks of the CT/PET were included. Nodal staging was undertaken by utilising imaging-based nodal classification, and comparison with pathologic data from the surgical specimen was made. PET was considered positive if the SUV was greater than 2. Results: We identified 111 patients from the above criteria. 80 of such patients were treated for squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). CT/PET identified unsuspected metastatic disease in 6 patients. Correlation of CT/PET findings and the presence of disease at the primary site: sensitivity: 98%, specificity: 93%, positive predictive value (PPV): 98% and negative predictive value (NPV): 93%. Correlating CT/PET findings with the presence of nodal disease at any level: sensitivity: 95%, specificity: 88%, PPV: 95% and NPV: 88%. CT/PET was anatomically accurate in predicting the site of metastases in 62/74 (84%). Conclusion: PET is accurate in predicting both presence of nodal metastases and the level of involvement. CT/PET should be undertaken as a pre-operative tool to assist in planning the extent of surgery required in head and neck cancers.

  7. An approach to model reactor core nodalization for deterministic safety analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salim, Mohd Faiz, E-mail: mohdfaizs@tnb.com.my; Samsudin, Mohd Rafie, E-mail: rafies@tnb.com.my [Nuclear Energy Department, Regulatory Economics & Planning Division, Tenaga Nasional Berhad (Malaysia); Mamat Ibrahim, Mohd Rizal, E-mail: m-rizal@nuclearmalaysia.gov.my [Prototypes & Plant Development Center, Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Malaysia); Roslan, Ridha, E-mail: ridha@aelb.gov.my; Sadri, Abd Aziz [Nuclear Installation Divisions, Atomic Energy Licensing Board (Malaysia); Farid, Mohd Fairus Abd [Reactor Technology Center, Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Malaysia)

    2016-01-22

    Adopting good nodalization strategy is essential to produce an accurate and high quality input model for Deterministic Safety Analysis (DSA) using System Thermal-Hydraulic (SYS-TH) computer code. The purpose of such analysis is to demonstrate the compliance against regulatory requirements and to verify the behavior of the reactor during normal and accident conditions as it was originally designed. Numerous studies in the past have been devoted to the development of the nodalization strategy for small research reactor (e.g. 250kW) up to the bigger research reactor (e.g. 30MW). As such, this paper aims to discuss the state-of-arts thermal hydraulics channel to be employed in the nodalization for RTP-TRIGA Research Reactor specifically for the reactor core. At present, the required thermal-hydraulic parameters for reactor core, such as core geometrical data (length, coolant flow area, hydraulic diameters, and axial power profile) and material properties (including the UZrH{sub 1.6}, stainless steel clad, graphite reflector) have been collected, analyzed and consolidated in the Reference Database of RTP using standardized methodology, mainly derived from the available technical documentations. Based on the available information in the database, assumptions made on the nodalization approach and calculations performed will be discussed and presented. The development and identification of the thermal hydraulics channel for the reactor core will be implemented during the SYS-TH calculation using RELAP5-3D{sup ®} computer code. This activity presented in this paper is part of the development of overall nodalization description for RTP-TRIGA Research Reactor under the IAEA Norwegian Extra-Budgetary Programme (NOKEBP) mentoring project on Expertise Development through the Analysis of Reactor Thermal-Hydraulics for Malaysia, denoted as EARTH-M.

  8. The impact of nodal tumour burden on lymphoscintigraphic imaging in patients with melanomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kretschmer, Lutz; Bertsch, Hans Peter; Hellriegel, Simin; Thoms, Kai-Martin; Schoen, Michael Peter [Georg August University of Goettingen, Department of Dermatology, Venereology and Allergology, Goettingen (Germany); Bardzik, Pawel; Meller, Johannes; Sahlmann, Carsten Oliver [Georg-August-University of Goettingen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Goettingen (Germany)

    2014-10-15

    To retrospectively study the influence of nodal tumour burden on lymphoscintigraphic imaging in 509 consecutive patients with melanomas. Bidirectional lymphatic drainage, the clear depiction of an afferent lymphatic vessel, time to depiction of the first sentinel lymph node (SLN) and number of depicted and excised nodes were recorded. Nodal tumour load was classified as SLN-negative, SLN micrometastases or macrometastases. In the overall population, using multivariate regression analysis, a short SLN depiction time was significantly associated with the depiction of a greater number of radioactive nodes, a short distance between the primary tumour site and the nodal basin, younger age and lower nodal tumour burden. The proportion of patients with clear depiction of an afferent lymphatic vessel depended on the nodal tumour load (46 % in SLN-negative patients, 57 % in SLN positive patients, and 69 % in patients with macrometastases; P = 0.009). Macrometastasis was significantly associated with delayed depiction of the first radioactive node and a greater number of depicted hotspots. In patients with clinically nonsuspicious nodes, i.e. the classical target group for SLN biopsy, clear depiction of an afferent vessel was significantly associated with a higher number of SLNs during dynamic acquisition, SLN micrometastasis and a higher overall number of metastatic lymph nodes after SLN biopsy plus completion lymphadenectomy. The excision of more than two SLNs did not increase the metastasis detection rate. In patients with bidirectional or tridirectional lymphatic drainage, the SLN positivity rates for the first, second and third basin were 25.4 %, 11.7 % and 0.0 %, respectively (P = 0.002). In patients with clinically nonsuspicious lymph nodes, clear depiction of an afferent lymph vessel may be a sign of micrometastasis. Macrometastasis is associated with prominent afferent vessels, delayed depiction of the first radioactive node and a higher number of depicted hotspots

  9. Radiotherapy for Esthesioneuroblastoma: Is Elective Nodal Irradiation Warranted in the Multimodality Treatment Approach?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noh, O Kyu; Lee, Sang-wook; Yoon, Sang Min; Kim, Sung Bae; Kim, Sang Yoon; Kim, Chang Jin; Jo, Kyung Ja; Choi, Eun Kyung; Song, Si Yeol; Kim, Jong Hoon; Ahn, Seung Do

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The role of elective nodal irradiation (ENI) in radiotherapy for esthesioneuroblastoma (ENB) has not been clearly defined. We analyzed treatment outcomes of patients with ENB and the frequency of cervical nodal failure in the absence of ENI. Methods and Materials: Between August 1996 and December 2007, we consulted with 19 patients with ENB regarding radiotherapy. Initial treatment consisted of surgery alone in 2 patients; surgery and postoperative radiotherapy in 4; surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy in 1; surgery, postoperative radiotherapy, and chemotherapy in 3; and chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy or concurrent chemoradiotherapy in 5. Five patients did not receive planned radiotherapy because of disease progression. Including 2 patients who received salvage radiotherapy, 14 patients were treated with radiotherapy. Elective nodal irradiation was performed in 4 patients with high-risk factors, including 3 with cervical lymph node metastasis at presentation. Results: Fourteen patients were analyzable, with a median follow-up of 27 months (range, 7-64 months). The overall 3-year survival rate was 73.4%. Local failure occurred in 3 patients (21.4%), regional cervical failure in 3 (21.4%), and distant failure in 2 (14.3%). No cervical nodal failure occurred in patients treated with combined systemic chemotherapy regardless of ENI. Three cervical failures occurred in the 4 patients treated with ENI or neck dissection (75%), none of whom received systemic chemotherapy. Conclusions: ENI during radiotherapy for ENB seems to play a limited role in preventing cervical nodal failure. Omitting ENI may be an option if patients are treated with a combination of radiotherapy and chemotherapy.

  10. Nodal involvement evaluation in advanced cervical cancer: a single institutional experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Benitez, C; Zapardiel, I; Salas, P I; Diestro, M D; Hernandez, A; De Santiago, J

    2013-01-01

    To assess the usefulness of different imaging techniques in the detection of nodal involvement in patients with advanced cervical carcinoma. Moreover, to analyze the correlation between the presurgical (FIGO) and postsurgical (pTNM) staging classifications. All patients diagnosed with advanced cervical cancer (FIGO Stages IIB-IV) from 2005 to 2012 were selected. The medical charts of 51 patients that underwent presurgical assessment with posterior surgical staging by means of para-aortic lymphadenectomy, were reviewed. Nodal status assessment by computed tomography scan (CT scan), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), positron emission tomography (PET), and sonography was compared, as well as the size given in imaging techniques compared to the final pathologic report information. Presurgical analysis by CT scan, MRI, PET, and sonography showed pelvic nodal involvement in 51.3% of patients, and para-aortic involvement in 30.8% of cases. CT scan showed positive pelvic nodes in 35% of cases, but pathologic confirmation was observed in just 17.6% of cases. However, MRI resulted in higher rates of up to 48.8% of cases. Concerning para-aortic nodal involvement, CT scan showed positive nodes in 25% of cases, MRI in 3.2% of cases, and the pathologic report in 15.6% of cases. The authors found significant differences between staging groups among both classifications (FIGO vs. pTNM; p < 0.001). Eight cases (15.7%) were understaged by FIGO classification. Despite all imaging techniques available, none has demonstrated to be efficient enough to avoid the systematic study of para-aortic nodal status by means of surgical evaluation.

  11. Solution methods for the diffusion equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montagnini, B.

    1998-01-01

    The neutron diffusion equation is presented as the Lagrange equation of the Vladimirov functional for the even parity transport equation, when the trial functions are assumed to be angle-independent. The Ritz and Galerkin procedures and the principles of the finite element method are then introduced. After a short survey of the standard finite difference methods and the basic iterative solution techniques for large linear systems, a simple nodal method (a variant of the well known CUBBOX method) is presented in detail, both in the version for the steady state problems and, in the second part of the paper, for the time-dependent problems. A short introduction to code parallelization is also given. The paper includes a review of recent developments such as the mixed elements and the transverse integration method. (author)

  12. Calculation of the power factor using the neutron diffusion hybrid equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa da Silva, Adilson; Carvalho da Silva, Fernando; Senra Martinez, Aquilino

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► A neutron diffusion hybrid equation with an external neutron source was used. ► Nodal expansion method to obtain the neutron flux was used. ► Nuclear power factors in each fuel element in the reactor core were calculated. ► The results obtained were very accurate. -- Abstract: In this paper, we used a neutron diffusion hybrid equation with an external neutron source to calculate nuclear power factors in each fuel element in the reactor core. We used the nodal expansion method to obtain the neutron flux for a given control rods bank position. The results were compared with results obtained for eigenvalue problem near criticality condition and fixed source problem during the start-up of the reactor, where external neutron sources are extremely important for the stabilization of external neutron detectors.

  13. Transport phenomena in sharply contrasting media with a diffusion barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dvoretskaya, O A; Kondratenko, P S

    2011-01-01

    Using the advection–diffusion equation, we analytically study contaminant transport in a sharply contrasting medium with a diffusion barrier due to localization of a contaminant source in a low-permeability medium. Anomalous diffusion behavior and a crossover between different transport regimes are observed. The diffusion barrier results in exponential attenuation of the source power, retardation of the contaminant plume growth and modification of the concentration distribution at large distances. (paper)

  14. Stochastic and collisional diffusion in two-dimensional periodic flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doxas, I.; Horton, W.; Berk, H.L.

    1990-05-01

    The global effective diffusion coefficient D* for a two-dimensional system of convective rolls with a time dependent perturbation added, is calculated. The perturbation produces a background diffusion coefficient D, which is calculated analytically using the Menlikov-Arnold integral. This intrinsic diffusion coefficient is then enhanced by the unperturbed flow, to produce the global effective diffusion coefficient D*, which we can calculate theoretically for a certain range of parameters. The theoretical value agrees well with numerical simulations. 23 refs., 4 figs

  15. Application of the RT-0 nodal methods and NRMPO matrix-response to the cycles 1 and 2 of the LVC; Aplicacion de los metodos nodal RT-0 y matriz respuesta NRMPO a los ciclos 1 y 2 de la CLV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delfin L, A.; Hernandez L, H.; Alonso V, G. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    The nodal methods the same as that of matrix-response are used to develop numeric calculations, so much in static as dynamics of reactors, in one, two and three dimensions. The topic of this work is to apply the equations modeled in the RPM0 program, obtained when using the nodal scheme RT-0 (Raviart-Thomas index zero) in the neutron diffusion equation in stationary state X Y geometry, applying finite differences centered in mesh and lineal reactivity; also, to use those equations captured in the NRMPO program developed by E. Malambu that uses the matrix-response method in X Y geometry. The numeric results of the radial distribution of power by fuel assembly of the unit 1, in the cycles 1 and 2 of the CLV obtained by both methods, they are compared with the calculations obtained with the CM-PRESTO code that is a neutronic-thermo hydraulic simulator in three dimensions. The comparison of the radial distribution of power in the cycles 1 and 2 of the CLV with the CM-PRESTO code, it presents for RPM0 maximum errors of 8.2% and 12.4% and for NRMPO 31.2% and 61.3% respectively. The results show that it can be feasible to use the program RPM0 like a quick and efficient tool in the multicycle analysis in the fuel management. (Author)

  16. Patterns of practice of regional nodal irradiation in breast cancer: results of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) NOdal Radiotherapy (NORA) survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkacemi, Y; Kaidar-Person, O; Poortmans, P; Ozsahin, M; Valli, M-C; Russell, N; Kunkler, I; Hermans, J; Kuten, A; van Tienhoven, G; Westenberg, H

    2015-03-01

    Predicting outcome of breast cancer (BC) patients based on sentinel lymph node (SLN) status without axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) is an area of uncertainty. It influences the decision-making for regional nodal irradiation (RNI). The aim of the NORA (NOdal RAdiotherapy) survey was to examine the patterns of RNI. A web-questionnaire, including several clinical scenarios, was distributed to 88 EORTC-affiliated centers. Responses were received between July 2013 and January 2014. A total of 84 responses were analyzed. While three-dimensional (3D) radiotherapy (RT) planning is carried out in 81 (96%) centers, nodal areas are delineated in only 51 (61%) centers. Only 14 (17%) centers routinely link internal mammary chain (IMC) and supraclavicular node (SCN) RT indications. In patients undergoing total mastectomy (TM) with ALND, SCN-RT is recommend by 5 (6%), 53 (63%) and 51 (61%) centers for patients with pN0(i+), pN(mi) and pN1, respectively. Extra-capsular extension (ECE) is the main factor influencing decision-making RNI after breast conserving surgery (BCS) and TM. After primary systemic therapy (PST), 49 (58%) centers take into account nodal fibrotic changes in ypN0 patients for RNI indications. In ypN0 patients with inner/central tumors, 23 (27%) centers indicate SCN-RT and IMC-RT. In ypN1 patients, SCN-RT is delivered by less than half of the centers in patients with ypN(i+) and ypN(mi). Twenty-one (25%) of the centers recommend ALN-RT in patients with ypN(mi) or 1-2N+ after ALND. Seventy-five (90%) centers state that age is not considered a limiting factor for RNI. The NORA survey is unique in evaluating the impact of SLNB/ALND status on adjuvant RNI decision-making and volumes after BCS/TM with or without PST. ALN-RT is often indicated in pN1 patients, particularly in the case of ECE. Besides the ongoing NSABP-B51/RTOG and ALLIANCE trials, NORA could help to design future specific RNI trials in the SLNB era without ALND in patients receiving or not PST.

  17. Accidente cerebrovascular isquémico asociado con ablación por radiofrecuencia de reentrada nodal Ischemic stroke associated with radio frequency ablation for nodal reentry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan C Díaz Martínez

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available La taquicardia por reentrada nodal es la causa más común de taquicardia supraventricular paroxística; en aquellos pacientes en quienes el manejo farmacológico no es efectivo o deseado la ablación por radiofrecuencia es un excelente método terapéutico dada su alta tasa de curación. Aunque en términos generales dichos procedimientos son rápidos y seguros, se han descrito varias complicaciones entre las que sobresale el accidente cerebrovascular isquémico. Se presenta el caso de una paciente de 41 años con episodios de taquicardia por reentrada nodal a repetición, que fue llevada a ablación por radiofrecuencia. En el post-operatorio inmediato se evidenció déficit neurológico focal con isquemia en el territorio de la arteria cerebral media derecha, tras lo cual se realizó angiografía con intento de angioplastia y abxicimab y posteriormente infusión local de activador de plasminógeno tisular (rtPA con adecuado resultado clínico y angiográfico.Atrioventricular nodal reentry tachycardia is the most common type of paroxismal supraventricular tachycardia. In those patients in whom drug therapy is not effective or not desired, radio frequency ablation is an excellent therapeutic method. Although overall these procedures are fast and safe, several complications among which ischemic stroke stands out, have been reported. We present the case of a 41 year old female patient with repetitive episodes of tachycardia due to nodal reentry who was treated with radiofrequency ablation. Immediately after the procedure she presented focal neurologic deficit consistent with ischemic stroke in the right medial cerebral artery territory. Angiography with angioplastia and abxicimab was performed and then tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA was locally infused, with appropriate clinical and angiographic outcome.

  18. Development and qualification of a thermal-hydraulic nodalization for modeling station blackout accident in PSB-VVER test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saghafi, Mahdi; Ghofrani, Mohammad Bagher; D’Auria, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A thermal-hydraulic nodalization for PSB-VVER test facility has been developed. • Station blackout accident is modeled with the developed nodalization in MELCOR code. • The developed nodalization is qualified at both steady state and transient levels. • MELCOR predictions are qualitatively and quantitatively in acceptable range. • Fast Fourier Transform Base Method is used to quantify accuracy of code predictions. - Abstract: This paper deals with the development of a qualified thermal-hydraulic nodalization for modeling Station Black-Out (SBO) accident in PSB-VVER Integral Test Facility (ITF). This study has been performed in the framework of a research project, aiming to develop an appropriate accident management support tool for Bushehr nuclear power plant. In this regard, a nodalization has been developed for thermal-hydraulic modeling of the PSB-VVER ITF by MELCOR integrated code. The nodalization is qualitatively and quantitatively qualified at both steady-state and transient levels. The accuracy of the MELCOR predictions is quantified in the transient level using the Fast Fourier Transform Base Method (FFTBM). FFTBM provides an integral representation for quantification of the code accuracy in the frequency domain. It was observed that MELCOR predictions are qualitatively and quantitatively in the acceptable range. In addition, the influence of different nodalizations on MELCOR predictions was evaluated and quantified using FFTBM by developing 8 sensitivity cases with different numbers of control volumes and heat structures in the core region and steam generator U-tubes. The most appropriate case, which provided results with minimum deviations from the experimental data, was then considered as the qualified nodalization for analysis of SBO accident in the PSB-VVER ITF. This qualified nodalization can be used for modeling of VVER-1000 nuclear power plants when performing SBO accident analysis by MELCOR code.

  19. Nonlinear Diffusion and Transient Osmosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igarashi, Akira; Rondoni, Lamberto; Botrugno, Antonio; Pizzi, Marco

    2011-01-01

    We investigate both analytically and numerically the concentration dynamics of a solution in two containers connected by a narrow and short channel, in which diffusion obeys a porous medium equation. We also consider the variation of the pressure in the containers due to the flow of matter in the channel. In particular, we identify a phenomenon, which depends on the transport of matter across nano-porous membranes, which we call ''transient osmosis . We find that nonlinear diffusion of the porous medium equation type allows numerous different osmotic-like phenomena, which are not present in the case of ordinary Fickian diffusion. Experimental results suggest one possible candidate for transiently osmotic processes. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  20. Diffusion coefficient in photon diffusion theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaff, R; Ten Bosch, JJ

    2000-01-01

    The choice of the diffusion coefficient to be used in photon diffusion theory has been a subject of discussion in recent publications on tissue optics. We compared several diffusion coefficients with the apparent diffusion coefficient from the more fundamental transport theory, D-app. Application to

  1. Mapping of selected markets with Nodal pricing or similar systems. Australia, New Zealand and North American power markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathiesen, Vivi (ed.)

    2011-07-01

    This report shows that the principals of nodal pricing can be implemented in different ways. A common denominator for markets with nodal pricing is a central market based nodal dispatch, where prices and flows are determined simultaneously close to real time. This stands apart from the European market design, which is based on a highly simplified version of the grid, and a physical point auction day ahead. Congestion management is handled by the TSO during the operational hour and not through the market as is the case in nodal pricing systems. Nodal pricing yields optimal dispatch and congestion management through the market, and as such an optimal utilisation of energy generation and network. However, whether this short term optimisation delivers the highest overall efficiency for the market in terms of competition in the wholesale and retail market, price discovery, possibilities for hedging, long term price signals etc. is difficult to determine. The markets investigated handle issues such as market power, risk management, investment signals and retail markets in very different ways. New Zealand and PJM are examples of markets with full nodal pricing, i.e. both generators and the demand side are exposed to nodal prices. The PJM market has more 'additional features' than the New Zealand market. Examples of these are separate capacity market to trigger investments in generation and generator price caps to deal with situations of market power. In addition PJM offers liquid and mature markets for risk management, such as aggregates of nodes where market participant can chose to be settled (rather than to be settled directly at the node). A general finding though, seems to be that risk management at peripheral nodes is challenging in nodal markets, particularly for independent retailers. In New Zealand generators and retailers were permitted to 'reintegrate' in order to cope with the nodal prices. The Australian market has central market based

  2. A spectral nodal method for the solution of the Sn equations in x,y geometry for highly absorbing deep penetration problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barros, R.C. de.

    1991-09-01

    Presented here is an attempt to improve the accuracy of transport nodal methods applied to deep penetration transport problems in x, y-geometry. The resulting nodal method uses the Spectral Green's Function (SGF) scheme for solving the one-dimensional transverse-integrated S N exponential nodal equations with no spatial truncation error. Based on the physics of deep penetration problems, we approximate the transverse leakage terms by approximate exponential shape functions. We show in numerical calculation that the SGF-Exponential Nodal (SGF-Exp N) method is much more accurate than other transport nodal methods for coarse-mesh deep penetration problems, specially in highly absorbing media. (author)

  3. Regeneration of three sweet potato (Ipomea batatas (L.)) accessions via meristem, Nodal and callus induction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Addae-Frimpomaah, F.

    2012-11-01

    In vitro regeneration of three sweet potato accessions UE007, UK-BNARI and SA-BNARI using meristem, nodal cuttings or callus induction was studied. Meristematic explants cultured on Murashige and Skoog (1962) basal medium supplemented with low concentration of benzylaminopurine (BAP) or kinetin resulted in callus with or without shoot development which delayed shoot emergence. The degree of callus development increased as the concentration of the cytokinin in the culture medium increased. Although, callus development was comparatively lower on kinetin amended medium than BAP amended medium, Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with 0.25mg/1BAP had the highest shoot induction (80%). For further differentiation of callus or shoots into distinct stem and leaves, the culture were transferred into fresh MS medium supplemented with 0.25mg/1 BAP, 0.1 mg/1 NAA and 0.1 mg/1 Gibberellic acid (GA 3 . To overcome the delay in shoot initiation using meristem culture, nodal cuttings of sweet potato were used as explants and cultured on MS medium amended with 0.3 - 0.9mg/1 BAP. All explants cultured on 0.3 or 0.6mg/1 BAP developed shoots. Furthermore, liquid MS medium amended with 0.25mg/1 BAP, 0.1mg/I NAA, and 0.1mg/1 GA 3 also enhanced early shoot development from nodal cutting explants compared to solid culture. Post flask acclimatisation of meristem or nodal cutting-derived plantlets showed that meristem derived plantlets were better acclimatised than nodal cutting plants due to vigorous root development leading to higher percentage survival in pots and subsequent tuber production. Callusogenesis was achieved when leaf lobe explants were cultured on CLC/ Ipomoea medium supplemented with 1.0 - 4.0mg/1 2,4-D with 4.0mg/1 2,4-D being the optimal concentration. However, the calli were non-embryogenic and therefore could not produce embryos when transferred to 0.1mg/1 BAP amended medium but rather produced either single or multiple shoots. The highest percentage shoot (83

  4. Pattern of Progression after Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy for Oligometastatic Prostate Cancer Nodal Recurrences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ost, P; Jereczek-Fossa, B A; Van As, N; Zilli, T; Tree, A; Henderson, D; Orecchia, R; Casamassima, F; Surgo, A; Miralbell, R; De Meerleer, G

    2016-09-01

    To report the relapse pattern of stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for oligorecurrent nodal prostate cancer (PCa). PCa patients with ≤3 lymph nodes (N1/M1a) at the time of recurrence were treated with SBRT. SBRT was defined as a radiotherapy dose of at least 5 Gy per fraction to a biological effective dose of at least 80 Gy to all metastatic sites. Distant progression-free survival was defined as the time interval between the first day of SBRT and appearance of new metastatic lesions, outside the high-dose region. Relapses after SBRT were recorded and compared with the initially treated site. Secondary end points were local control, time to palliative androgen deprivation therapy and toxicity scored using the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v4.0. Overall, 89 metastases were treated in 72 patients. The median distant progression-free survival was 21 months (95% confidence interval 16-25 months) with 88% of patients having ≤3 metastases at the time of progression. The median time from first SBRT to the start of palliative androgen deprivation therapy was 44 months (95% confidence interval 17-70 months). Most relapses (68%) occurred in nodal regions. Relapses after pelvic nodal SBRT (n = 36) were located in the pelvis (n = 14), retroperitoneum (n = 1), pelvis and retroperitoneum (n = 8) or in non-nodal regions (n = 13). Relapses after SBRT for extrapelvic nodes (n = 5) were located in the pelvis (n = 1) or the pelvis and retroperitoneum (n = 4). Late grade 1 and 2 toxicity was observed in 17% (n = 12) and 4% of patients (n = 3). SBRT for oligometastatic PCa nodal recurrences is safe. Most subsequent relapses are again nodal and oligometastatic. Copyright © 2016 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Radial distribution of power starting from the reactivity using nodal schemes of second and third order; Distribucion radial de potencia a partir de la reactividad usando esquemas nodales de segundo y tercer orden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delfin L, A.; Alonso V, G. [ININ, Km. 36.5 Carretera Mexico-Toluca, 52045 Ocoyocac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Valle G, E. del [IPN-ESFM, 07738 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)]. e-mail: adl@nuclear.inin.mx

    2003-07-01

    In this work two nodal schemes of finite element are presented, one of second and the other of third order of accurate that allow to determine the radial distribution of power starting from the corresponding reactivities.The schemes here developed were obtained taking as starting point the equation developed by Driscoll et al, the one which is based on the diffusion approach of 1-1/2 energy groups. This equation relates the power fraction of an assemble with their reactivity and with the power fractions and reactivities of the assemblies that its surround it. Driscoll and collaborators they solve in form approximate such equation supposing that the reactivity of each assemble it is but a lineal function of the burnt one of the fuel. The spatial approach carries out it with the classic technique of finite differences centered in mesh. Nevertheless that the algebraic system to which its arrive it can be solved without more considerations introduce some additional suppositions and adjustment parameters that it allows them to predict results comparable to those contributed by three dimensions analysis and this way to reduce the one obtained error when its compare their results with those of a production code like CASMO. Also in the two schemes that here are presented the same approaches of Driscoll were used being obtained errors of the one 10% and of 5% for the second schemes and third order respectively for a test case that it was built starting from data of the Cycle 1 of the Unit 1 of the Laguna Verde Nucleo electric plant. These errors its were obtained when comparing with a computer program based on the matrix response method. It is sought to have this way a quick and efficient tool for the multicycle analysis in the fuel management. However, this model presents problems in the appropriate prediction of the average burnt of the nucleus and of the burnt one by lot. (Author)

  6. Engineering topological phases with a three-dimensional nodal-loop semimetal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Linhu; Yap, Han Hoe; Araújo, Miguel A. N.; Gong, Jiangbin

    2017-12-01

    A three-dimensional (3D) nodal-loop semimetal phase is exploited to engineer a number of intriguing phases featuring different peculiar topological surface states. In particular, by introducing various two-dimensional gap terms to a 3D tight-binding model of a nodal-loop semimetal, we obtain a rich variety of topological phases of great interest to ongoing theoretical and experimental studies, including a chiral insulator, degenerate-surface-loop insulator, and second-order topological insulator, as well as a Weyl semimetal with tunable Fermi arc profiles. The unique concept underlying our approach is to engineer topological surface states that inherit their dispersion relations from a gap term. The results provide one rather unified principle for the creation of novel topological phases and can guide the search for new topological materials. Two-terminal transport studies are also carried out to distinguish the engineered topological phases.

  7. The General-Use Nodal Network Solver (GUNNS) Modeling Package for Space Vehicle Flow System Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Jason; Moore, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The General-Use Nodal Network Solver (GUNNS) is a modeling software package that combines nodal analysis and the hydraulic-electric analogy to simulate fluid, electrical, and thermal flow systems. GUNNS is developed by L-3 Communications under the TS21 (Training Systems for the 21st Century) project for NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC), primarily for use in space vehicle training simulators at JSC. It has sufficient compactness and fidelity to model the fluid, electrical, and thermal aspects of space vehicles in real-time simulations running on commodity workstations, for vehicle crew and flight controller training. It has a reusable and flexible component and system design, and a Graphical User Interface (GUI), providing capability for rapid GUI-based simulator development, ease of maintenance, and associated cost savings. GUNNS is optimized for NASA's Trick simulation environment, but can be run independently of Trick.

  8. Traumatic Neuroma around the Celiac Trunk after Gastrectomy Mimicking a Nodal Metastasis: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Jung Hyeok; Ryu, Seung Wan; Kang, Yu Na [Keimyung University School of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-06-15

    Traumatic neuroma is a well-known disorder that occurs after trauma or surgery involving the peripheral nerve and develops from a nonneoplastic proliferation of the proximal end of a severed, partially transected, or injured nerve. However, in the abdomen, traumatic neuromas have been sporadically reported to occur in the bile duct. We present here a case of traumatic neuroma around the celiac trunk after gastrectomy that mimicks a nodal metastasis. In conclusion, the imaging finding of traumatic neuroma around the celiac trunk was a homogeneous hypovascular mass without narrowing or irregularity of encased arteries and without increased uptake on PET-CT. Although from a clinical standpoint, establishing an accurate preoperative diagnosis is difficult to perform, the presence of a traumatic neuroma should be included in the differential diagnosis of a mass around the celiac trunk in a patient that has undergone celiac nodal dissection.

  9. Building the nodal nuclear data dependences in a many-dimensional state-variable space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dufek, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The Abstract and Introduction are revised to reflect reviewers' comments. → Section is revised and simplified. → The third paragraph in Section is revised. → All typos are fixed. - Abstract: We present new methods for building the polynomial-regression based nodal nuclear data models. The data models can reflect dependences on a large number of state variables, and they can consider various history effects. Suitable multivariate polynomials that approximate the nodal data dependences are identified efficiently in an iterative manner. The history effects are analysed using a new sampling scheme for lattice calculations where the traditional base burnup and branch calculations are replaced by a large number of diverse burnup histories. The total number of lattice calculations is controlled so that the data models are built to a required accuracy.

  10. Probabilistic modeling of nodal electric vehicle load due to fast charging stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Difei; Wang, Peng; Wu, Qiuwei

    2016-01-01

    operation of both traffic and power systems. This paper proposes a probabilistic approach to model the nodal EV load at fast charging stations in integrated power and transport systems. Following the introduction of the spatial-temporal model of moving EV loads, we extended the model by taking fast charging...... station into consideration. Fuzzy logic inference system is applied to simulate the charging decision of EV drivers at fast charging station. Due to increasing EV loads in power system, the potential traffic congestion in fast charging stations is modeled and evaluated by queuing theory with spatial......-temporal varying arrival and service rates. The time-varying nodal EV loads are obtained by the number of operating fast chargers at each node of the power system. System studies demonstrate that the combination of AC normal and DC charging may share the EV charging demand and alleviate the impact to power system...

  11. Radiofrequency Catheter Ablation of Coexistent Idiopathic Left Ventricular Tachycardia and Atrioventricular Nodal Reentrant Tachycardia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken-Pen Weng

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available A healthy 15-year-old male patient presented with a 6-month history of recurrent attacks of palpitations. On multiple emergency room visits, a sustained wide QRS complex tachycardia with a right bundle branch block and northwest axis deviation was documented. The tachycardia was not terminated by intravenous adenosine, but was suppressed with intravenous verapamil. There was no evidence of structural heart disease, myocarditis, long QT syndrome, or electrolyte imbalance after a series of standard examinations. Idiopathic left ventricular tachycardia (ILVT was suspected. Electrophysiologic studies revealed 2 inducible tachycardias, which were shown to represent atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia (AVNRT and ILVT. Transformation from AVNRT to ILVT occurred spontaneously following atrial pacing. Successful ablation of ILVT and the slow atrioventricular nodal pathway resulted in cure of the double tachycardia.

  12. Characterization of supersonic radiation diffusion waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, Alastair S.; Guymer, Thomas M.; Morton, John; Williams, Benjamin; Kline, John L.; Bazin, Nicholas; Bentley, Christopher; Allan, Shelly; Brent, Katie; Comley, Andrew J.; Flippo, Kirk; Cowan, Joseph; Taccetti, J. Martin; Mussack-Tamashiro, Katie; Schmidt, Derek W.; Hamilton, Christopher E.; Obrey, Kimberly; Lanier, Nicholas E.; Workman, Jonathan B.; Stevenson, R. Mark

    2015-01-01

    Supersonic and diffusive radiation flow is an important test problem for the radiative transfer models used in radiation-hydrodynamics computer codes owing to solutions being accessible via analytic and numeric methods. We present experimental results with which we compare these solutions by studying supersonic and diffusive flow in the laboratory. We present results of higher-accuracy experiments than previously possible studying radiation flow through up to 7 high-temperature mean free paths of low-density, chlorine-doped polystyrene foam and silicon dioxide aerogel contained by an Au tube. Measurements of the heat front position and absolute measurements of the x-ray emission arrival at the end of the tube are used to test numerical and analytical models. We find excellent absolute agreement with simulations provided that the opacity and the equation of state are adjusted within expected uncertainties; analytical models provide a good phenomenological match to measurements but are not in quantitative agreement due to their limited scope. - Highlights: • The supersonic, diffusion of x-rays through sub-solid density materials is studied. • The data are more diffusive and of higher velocity than any prior work. • Scaled 1D analytic diffusion models reproduce the heat front evolution. • Refined radiation transport approximations are tested in numerical simulations. • Simulations match the data if material properties are adjusted within uncertainties

  13. Nodal imaging in the neck: recent advances in US, CT and MR imaging of metastatic nodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Takashi; Sumi, Misa

    2007-01-01

    The presence of lymph node metastasis in the neck in patients with head and neck cancer is an important prognostic determinant in staging cancers and in planning surgery and chemo- and radiotherapy for the cancer patients. Therefore, metastatic nodes should be effectively differentiated from benign lymphadenopathies and nodal lymphomas. Here, we review recent advances in the diagnostic imaging of metastatic nodes in the neck, with emphasis placed on the diagnostic performance of MR imaging, Doppler sonography, and CT. (orig.)

  14. Determination of the local heterogeneous power distribution in nodal coarse-mesh methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koebke, K.

    1978-01-01

    In the last few years, methods have been developed which enable the power of single fuel rods and the activation rates at the location of the spherical measuring positions to be determined with high accuracy on the basis of the converged nodal coarse-mesh solution. The new programme PINPOW has been established as an evaluation programme for the 2- and 3-dimensional coarse-mesh programmes MEDIUM-2, BOXER, IQSBOX, (orig./RW) [de

  15. Implementation of generalized perturbation theory into the 3-D nodal code SIMULATE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowman, S.M.; Williams, M.L.; Dodds, H.L.

    1980-01-01

    Determining the effects of changes in design and data parameters upon reactor performance can be very expensive when many perturbations must be considered for a complex system. In order to substantially reduce the cost involved in calculations such as these, generalized perturbation theory (GPT) capability has been implemented into the 3-D LWR nodal reactor analysis code SIMULATE. This capability makes 3-D sensitivity analysis of a realistic LWR practical for the first time. Applications to design analysis will be discussed

  16. The BWR core simulator COSIMA with 2 group nodal flux expansion and control rod history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoejerup, C.F.

    1989-08-01

    The boiling water simulator NOTAM has been modified and improved in several aspects: - The ''1 1/2'' energy group TRILUX nodal flux solution method has been exchanged with a 2 group modal expansion method. - Control rod ''history'' has been introduced. - Precalculated instrument factors have been introduced. The paper describes these improvements, which were considered sufficiently large to justify a new name to the programme: COSIMA. (author)

  17. VA-Index: Quantifying Assortativity Patterns in Networks with Multidimensional Nodal Attributes (Open Access)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-27

    RESEARCH ARTICLE VA- Index : Quantifying Assortativity Patterns in Networks with Multidimensional Nodal Attributes Konstantinos Pelechrinis*, DongWei...treatment of this problem. In this study we develop a metric, the vector assortativity index (VA- index for short), based on network randomization and...extensive experimental results on synthetic network data show that the VA- index outperforms a baseline extension of the assortativity coeffi- cient, which

  18. Nodal soliton solutions for quasilinear Schrödinger equations with critical exponent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yinbin; Peng, Shuangjie; Wang, Jixiu

    2013-01-01

    This paper is concerned with constructing nodal radial solutions for quasilinear Schrödinger equations in {R}^N with critical growth which have appeared as several models in mathematical physics. For any given integer k ⩾ 0, by using a change of variables and minimization argument, we obtain a sign-changing minimizer with k nodes of a minimization problem. Since the critical exponent appears and the lower order term may change sign, we should use more delicate arguments.

  19. Nodal soliton solutions for generalized quasilinear Schrödinger equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Yinbin, E-mail: ybdeng@mail.ccnu.edu.cn; Peng, Shuangjie, E-mail: sjpeng@mail.ccnu.edu.cn [School of Mathematics and Statistics, Huazhong Normal University, Wuhan 430079 (China); Wang, Jixiu, E-mail: wangjixiu127@aliyun.com [School of Mathematics and Computer Science, Hubei University of Arts and Science, Xiangyang 441053 (China)

    2014-05-15

    This paper is concerned with constructing nodal radial solutions for generalized quasilinear Schrödinger equations in R{sup N} which arise from plasma physics, fluid mechanics, as well as high-power ultashort laser in matter. For any given integer k ⩾ 0, by using a change of variables and minimization argument, we obtain a sign-changing minimizer with k nodes of a minimization problem.

  20. The sensitivity analysis for APR1400 nodalization under Large Break LOCA condition based on mars code

    OpenAIRE

    Jang Hyung-Wook; Lee Sang-Yong; Oh Seung-Jong; Kim Woong-Bae

    2017-01-01

    The phenomena of loss of coolant accident have been investigated for long time and the result of experiment shows that the flow condition in the downcomer during the end-of-blowdown were highly multi-dimensional at full-scale. However, the downcomer nodalization of input deck for large break loss of coolant accident used in advanced power reactor 1400 analyses are made up with 1-D model and improperly designed to describe realistic coolant phenomena during ...

  1. Dynamic Analysis of Offshore Oil Pipe Installation Using the Absolute Nodal Coordinate Formulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jimmy D; Madsen, Søren B; Hyldahl, Per Christian

    2013-01-01

    The Absolute Nodal Coordinate Formulation (ANCF) has shown promising results in dynamic analysis of structures that undergo large deformation. The method relaxes the assumption of infinitesimal rotations. Being based in a fixed inertial reference frame leads to a constant mass matrix and zero......, are included to mimic the external forces acting on the pipe during installation. The scope of this investigation is to demonstrate the ability using the ANCF to analyze the dynamic behavior of an offshore oil pipe during installation...

  2. Numerical divergence effects of equivalence theory in the nodal expansion method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zika, M.R.; Downar, T.J.

    1993-01-01

    Accurate solutions of the advanced nodal equations require the use of discontinuity factors (DFs) to account for the homogenization errors that are inherent in all coarse-mesh nodal methods. During the last several years, nodal equivalence theory (NET) has successfully been implemented for the Cartesian geometry and has received widespread acceptance in the light water reactor industry. The extension of NET to other reactor types has had limited success. Recent efforts to implement NET within the framework of the nodal expansion method have successfully been applied to the fast breeder reactor. However, attempts to apply the same methods to thermal reactors such as the Modular High-Temperature Gas Reactor (MHTGR) have led to numerical divergence problems that can be attributed directly to the magnitude of the DFs. In the work performed here, it was found that the numerical problems occur in the inner and upscatter iterations of the solution algorithm. These iterations use a Gauss-Seidel iterative technique that is always convergent for problems with unity DFs. However, for an MHTGR model that requires large DFs, both the inner and upscatter iterations were divergent. Initial investigations into methods for bounding the DFs have proven unsatisfactory as a means of remedying the convergence problems. Although the DFs could be bounded to yield a convergent solution, several cases were encountered where the resulting flux solution was less accurate than the solution without DFs. For the specific case of problems without upscattering, an alternate numerical method for the inner iteration, an LU decomposition, was identified and shown to be feasible

  3. Moderator feedback effects in two-dimensional nodal methods for pressurized water reactor analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Downar, T.J.

    1987-01-01

    A method was developed for incorporating moderator feedback effects in two-dimensional nodal codes used for pressurized water reactor (PWR) neutronic analysis. Equations for the assembly average quality and density are developed in terms of the assembly power calculated in two dimensions. The method is validated with a Westinghouse PWR using the Electric Power Research Institute code SIMULATE-E. Results show a several percent improvement is achieved in the two-dimensional power distribution prediction compared to methods without moderator feedback

  4. The nodal discrete-ordinate transport calculation of anisotropy scattering problem in three-dimensional cartesian geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Hongchun; Xie Zhongsheng; Zhu Xuehua

    1994-01-01

    The nodal discrete-ordinate transport calculating model of anisotropy scattering problem in three-dimensional cartesian geometry is given. The computing code NOTRAN/3D has been encoded and the satisfied conclusion is gained

  5. A national study of nodal upstaging after thoracoscopic versus open lobectomy for clinical stage I lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Licht, Peter B; Jørgensen, Ole Dan; Ladegaard, Lars

    2013-01-01

    upstaging after thoracoscopic (VATS) lobectomy than after thoracotomy. STS data, however, may be biased from voluntary reporting, and survival was not investigated. We used a complete national registry to compare nodal upstaging and survival after lobectomy by VATS or thoracotomy....

  6. Disappearance of nodal gap across the insulator-superconductor transition in a copper-oxide superconductor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yingying; Meng, Jianqiao; Mou, Daixiang; He, Junfeng; Zhao, Lin; Wu, Yue; Liu, Guodong; Dong, Xiaoli; He, Shaolong; Zhang, Jun; Wang, Xiaoyang; Peng, Qinjun; Wang, Zhimin; Zhang, Shenjin; Yang, Feng; Chen, Chuangtian; Xu, Zuyan; Lee, T K; Zhou, X J

    2013-01-01

    The parent compound of the copper-oxide high-temperature superconductors is a Mott insulator. Superconductivity is realized by doping an appropriate amount of charge carriers. How a Mott insulator transforms into a superconductor is crucial in understanding the unusual physical properties of high-temperature superconductors and the superconductivity mechanism. Here we report high-resolution angle-resolved photoemission measurement on heavily underdoped Bi₂Sr₂-xLaxCuO(₆+δ) system. The electronic structure of the lightly doped samples exhibit a number of characteristics: existence of an energy gap along the nodal direction, d-wave-like anisotropic energy gap along the underlying Fermi surface, and coexistence of a coherence peak and a broad hump in the photoemission spectra. Our results reveal a clear insulator-superconductor transition at a critical doping level of ~0.10 where the nodal energy gap approaches zero, the three-dimensional antiferromagnetic order disappears, and superconductivity starts to emerge. These observations clearly signal a close connection between the nodal gap, antiferromagnetism and superconductivity.

  7. Theoretical and experimental evidence for a nodal energy gap in MgB2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agassi, Y. Dan; Oates, Daniel E.

    2017-11-01

    We present a phenomenological model that strongly suggests that the smaller of the two energy gaps in MgB2, the so-called π gap, contains nodal lines with a six-fold symmetry (i-wave). The model also indicates that the larger gap, the so-called σ gap, is conventional s-wave. The model is an extension of the BCS gap equation that accounts for the elastic anisotropy in MgB2 and the Coulomb repulsion. It is based on a phononic pairing mechanism and assumes no coupling between the two energy gaps in MgB2 at zero temperature. All of the parameters of the model, such as sound velocities and masses, are independently determined material constants. The results agree with a previous ad-hoc hypothesis that the π energy gap has six nodal lines. That hypothesis was motivated by low-temperature measurements of the surface impedance and intermodulation distortion in high-quality thin films. We briefly review experimental evidence in the literature that is relevant to the energy-gap symmetry. We find that the evidence from the literature for s-wave is inconclusive. Our finding is that the π gap has six nodal lines.

  8. Sensitivity analysis to a RELAP5 nodalization developed for a typical TRIGA research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reis, Patrícia A.L.; Costa, Antonella L.; Pereira, Claubia; Silva, Clarysson A.M.; Veloso, Maria Auxiliadora F.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We investigated how much the code results are affected by the code user. ► Two essential modifications were made on a previously validated nodalization. ► We used the RELAP5 code to predict the results. ► Results highlight the necessity of sensitivity analysis to have the ideal modeling. - Abstract: The main aim of this work is to identify how much the code results are affected by the code user in the choice of, for example, the number of thermal hydraulic channels in a nuclear reactor nodalization. To perform this, two essential modifications were made on a previously validated nodalization for analysis of steady-state and forced recirculation off transient in the IPR-R1 TRIGA research reactor. Experimental data were taken as reference to compare the behavior of the reactor for two different types of modeling. The results highlight the necessity of sensitivity analysis to obtain the ideal modeling to simulate a specific system.

  9. Some topics on safety analysis and accident nodalization of CAREM-25

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gimenez, Marcelo O.; Zanocco, Pablo; Schlamp, Miguel A.; Ottaviani, Anahi; Garcia, Alicia

    2000-01-01

    The main goal of nuclear safety area in the CAREM Project Phase I, carried out during 1999, was to consolidate the safety systems design through an integral analysis of the reactor and the safety systems response to different accidental sequences. A primary circuit nodalization, including the steam generators, was done with RELAP5 code. The modeling of System 230 (absorber rods drive feed water system), System 1400 (purification and control volume system) and steam condensation on the absorber rods drive system and on RPV wall is implemented through boundary conditions. Also the Residual Heat Removal System and the Second Shutdown system are modeled. The reactor steady state at full power was calculated. The results agree quite well with design values. It can be said from the accident analysis that the nodalization responds properly. Further analysis should be done in order to qualify the nodalization and to compare benchmarks with other codes and experimental data. On the other hand, the steam dome model should be improved with more precise data about absorber rods drive system condensation, loss of heat and inner components layout. (author)

  10. A block-iterative nodal integral method for forced convection problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decker, W.J.; Dorning, J.J.

    1992-01-01

    A new efficient iterative nodal integral method for the time-dependent two- and three-dimensional incompressible Navier-Stokes equations has been developed. Using the approach introduced by Azmy and Droning to develop nodal mehtods with high accuracy on coarse spatial grids for two-dimensional steady-state problems and extended to coarse two-dimensional space-time grids by Wilson et al. for thermal convection problems, we have developed a new iterative nodal integral method for the time-dependent Navier-Stokes equations for mechanically forced convection. A new, extremely efficient block iterative scheme is employed to invert the Jacobian within each of the Newton-Raphson iterations used to solve the final nonlinear discrete-variable equations. By taking advantage of the special structure of the Jacobian, this scheme greatly reduces memory requirements. The accuracy of the overall method is illustrated by appliying it to the time-dependent version of the classic two-dimensional driven cavity problem of computational fluid dynamics

  11. The sensitivity analysis for APR1400 nodalization under Large Break LOCA condition based on mars code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jang Hyung-Wook

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The phenomena of loss of coolant accident have been investigated for long time and the result of experiment shows that the flow condition in the downcomer during the end-of-blowdown were highly multi-dimensional at full-scale. However, the downcomer nodalization of input deck for large break loss of coolant accident used in advanced power reactor 1400 analyses are made up with 1-D model and improperly designed to describe realistic coolant phenomena during loss of coolant accident analysis. In this paper, the authors modified the nodalization of MARS code LBLOCA input deck and performed LBLOCA analysis with new input deck. From original LBLOCA input deck file, the nodalization of downcomer and junction connections with 4 cold legs and direct vessel injection lines are modified for reflecting the realistic cross-flow effect and real downcomer structure. The analysis results show that the peak cladding temperature of new input deck decreases more rapidly than previous result and that the drop of peak cladding temperature was advanced by application of momentum flux term in cross-flow. Additionally, the authors developed a new input deck with multi-dimensional downcomer model and ran MARS code with multi-dimensional input deck as well. By using the modified input deck, the Emergency core cooling system by-pass flow phenomena is better characterized and found to be consistent with both experimental report and regulatory guide.

  12. On the spectral nodal methods applied to discrete ordinates eigenvalue problems in Cartesian geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abreu, Marcos P. de; Alves Filho, Hermes; Barros, Ricardo C.

    2001-01-01

    We describe hybrid spectral nodal methods for discrete ordinates (SN) eigenvalue problems in Cartesian geometry. These coarse-mesh methods are based on three ingredients: the use of the standard discretized spatial balance SN equations; the use of the non-standard spectral diamond (SD) auxiliary equations in the multiplying regions of the domain, e.g. fuel assemblies; and the use of the non-standard spectral Green's function (SGF) auxiliary equations in the non-multiplying regions of the domain, e.g., the reflector. In slab-geometry the hybrid SD-SGF method generates numerical results that are completely free of spatial truncation errors. In X,Y-geometry, we obtain a system of two 'slab-geometry' SN equations for the node-edge average angular fluxes by transverse-integrating the X,Y-geometry SN equations separately in the y- and then in the x-directions within an arbitrary node of the spatial grid set up on the domain. In this paper, we approximate the transverse leakage terms by constants. These are the only approximations considered in the SD-SGF-constant nodal method, as the source terms, that include scattering and eventually fission events, are treated exactly. We show numerical results to typical model problems to illustrate the accuracy of spectral nodal methods for coarse-mesh SN criticality calculations. (author)

  13. Clinical investigation: Regional nodal failure patterns in breast cancer patients treated with mastectomy without radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strom, Eric A.; Woodward, Wendy A.; Katz, Angela; Buchholz, Thomas A.; Perkins, George H.; Jhingran, Anuja; Theriault, Richard; Singletary, Eva; Sahin, Aysegul; McNeese, Marsha D.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to describe regional nodal failure patterns in patients who had undergone mastectomy with axillary dissection to define subgroups of patients who might benefit from supplemental regional nodal radiation to the axilla or supraclavicular fossa/axillary apex. Methods and Materials: The cohort consisted of 1031 patients treated with mastectomy (including a level I-II axillary dissection) and doxorubicin-based systemic therapy without radiation on five clinical trials at M.D. Anderson Cancer Center. Patient records, including pathology reports, were retrospectively reviewed. All regional recurrences (with or without distant metastasis) were recorded. Median follow-up was 116 months (range, 6-262 months). Results: Twenty-one patients recurred within the low-mid axilla (10-year actuarial rate 3%). Of these, 16 were isolated regional failures (no chest wall failure). The risk of failure in the low-mid axilla was not significantly higher for patients with increasing numbers of involved nodes, increasing percentage of involved nodes, larger nodal size or gross extranodal extension. Only 3 of 100 patients with 20% involved axillary nodes, and the presence of gross extranodal extension (10-year actuarial rates 15%, 14%, and 19%, respectively, p 20% involved axillary nodes, or gross extranodal extension are at increased risk of failure in the supraclavicular fossa/axillary apex and should receive radiation to undissected regions in addition to the chest wall

  14. Identification of a proliferation signature related to survival in nodal peripheral T-cell lymphomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuadros, Marta; Dave, Sandeep S; Jaffe, Elaine S; Honrado, Emiliano; Milne, Roger; Alves, Javier; Rodríguez, Jose; Zajac, Magdalena; Benitez, Javier; Staudt, Louis M; Martinez-Delgado, Beatriz

    2007-08-01

    Nodal peripheral T-cell lymphomas (PTCLs) constitute a heterogeneous group of neoplasms, suggesting the existence of molecular differences contributing to their histologic and clinical variability. Initial expression profiling studies of T-cell lymphomas have been inconclusive in yielding clinically relevant insights. We applied DNA microarrays to gain insight into the molecular signatures associated with prognosis. We analyzed the expression profiles of 35 nodal PTCLs (23 PTCLs unspecified and 12 angioimmunoblastic) using two different microarray platforms, the cDNA microarray developed at the Spanish National Cancer Centre and an oligonucleotide microarray. We identified five clusters of genes, the expression of which varied significantly among the samples. Genes in these clusters seemed to be functionally related to different cellular processes such as proliferation, inflammatory response, and T-cell or B-cell lineages. Regardless of the microarray platform used, overexpression of genes in the proliferation signature was associated significantly with shorter survival of patients. This proliferation signature included genes commonly associated with the cell cycle, such as CCNA, CCNB, TOP2A, and PCNA. Moreover the PTCL proliferation signature showed a statistically significant inverse correlation with clusters of the inflammatory response (P < .0001), as well as with the percentage of CD68(+) cells. Our findings indicate that proliferation could be an important factor in evaluating nodal PTCL outcome and may help to define a more aggressive phenotype.

  15. Numerical solution of the Neutron Transport Equation using discontinuous nodal methods at X-Y geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delfin L, A.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to solve the neutron transport equation in discrete-ordinates and X-Y geometry by developing and using the strong discontinuous and strong modified discontinuous nodal finite element schemes. The strong discontinuous and modified strong discontinuous nodal finite element schemes go from two to ten interpolation parameters per cell. They are describing giving a set D c and polynomial space S c corresponding for each scheme BDMO, RTO, BL, BDM1, HdV, BDFM1, RT1, BQ and BDM2. The solution is obtained solving the neutron transport equation moments for each nodal scheme by developing the basis functions defined by Pascal triangle and the Legendre moments giving in the polynomial space S c and, finally, looking for the non singularity of the resulting linear system. The linear system is numerically solved using a computer program for each scheme mentioned . It uses the LU method and forward and backward substitution and makes a partition of the domain in cells. The source terms and angular flux are calculated, using the directions and weights associated to the S N approximation and solving the angular flux moments to find the effective multiplication constant. The programs are written in Fortran language, using the dynamic allocation of memory to increase efficiently the available memory of the computing equipment. (Author)

  16. Nodal Stage: Is It a Prognostic Factor for Submandibular Gland Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanbin; Qin, Lizheng; Zhuang, RunTao; Huang, Xin; Su, Ming; Han, Zhengxue

    2017-11-21

    Submandibular gland cancer is relatively rare. The purpose of this study was to estimate 5-year overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) and to identify prognostic factors associated with OS and DFS for submandibular cancer. The authors implemented a retrospective cohort study and enrolled a sample of patients with submandibular gland cancer. The predictor variables were age, gender, tumor stage, nodal stage, margin status, and extracapsular spread. The outcome variables were 5-year OS and 5-year DFS. Kaplan-Meier methods were used to estimate survival and Cox hazards models were used to identify prognostic variables. The sample was composed of 52 patients with submandibular gland cancer (mean age, 47.4 yr; 51.9% men). The median follow-up was 81 months (range, 11 to 159 months). The 5-year OS and DFS rates were 76.9 and 67.3%, respectively. Fixed mass, positive neck node, and positive margin status were relevant predictors of OS and DFS. Nodal stage was the relevant independent predictor affecting the disease outcome of submandibular gland cancer. These results identified several important prognostic factors associated with survival rate in patients with submandibular gland cancer. These prognostic variables include symptoms at presentation, pathologic nodal status, and margin status. These outcomes suggest that heightening vigilance of clinical characteristics for this disease might provide the impetus for improving the survival rate. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Comparison of treatment outcomes between involved-field and elective nodal irradiation in limited-stage small cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Tae-Jin; Kim, Hak-Jae; Wu, Hong-Gyun; Heo, Dae-Seog; Kim, Young-Whan; Lee, Se-Hoon

    2012-01-01

    The present study was performed to assess the usefulness of involved-field irradiation and the impact of 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography-based staging on treatment outcomes in limited-stage small cell lung cancer. Eighty patients who received definitive chemoradiotherapy for limited-stage small cell lung cancer were retrospectively analyzed. Fifty patients were treated with involved-field irradiation, which means that the radiotherapy portal includes only clinically identifiable tumors. The other 30 patients were irradiated with a comprehensive portal, including uninvolved mediastinal and/or supraclavicular lymph nodes, so-called elective nodal irradiation. No significant difference was seen in clinical factors between the two groups. At a median follow-up of 27 months (range, 5-75 months), no significant differences were observed in 3 year overall survival (44.6 vs. 54.1%, P=0.220) and 3 year progression-free survival (24.4 vs. 42.8%, P=0.133) between the involved-field irradiation group and the elective nodal irradiation group, respectively. For patients who did not undergo positron emission tomography scans, 3 year overall survival (29.3 vs. 56.3%, P=0.022) and 3 year progression-free survival (11.0 vs. 50.0%, P=0.040) were significantly longer in the elective nodal irradiation group. Crude incidences of isolated nodal failure were 6.0% in the involved-field irradiation group and 0% in the elective nodal irradiation group, respectively. All isolated nodal failures were developed in patients who had not undergone positron emission tomography scans in their initial work-ups. If patients did not undergo positron emission tomography-based staging, the omission of elective nodal irradiation resulted in impaired survival outcomes and raised the risk of isolated nodal failure. Therefore, involved-field irradiation for limited-stage small cell lung cancer might be reasonable only with positron emission tomography scan implementation. (author)

  18. Diffusion archeology for diffusion progression history reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sefer, Emre; Kingsford, Carl

    2016-11-01

    Diffusion through graphs can be used to model many real-world processes, such as the spread of diseases, social network memes, computer viruses, or water contaminants. Often, a real-world diffusion cannot be directly observed while it is occurring - perhaps it is not noticed until some time has passed, continuous monitoring is too costly, or privacy concerns limit data access. This leads to the need to reconstruct how the present state of the diffusion came to be from partial diffusion data. Here, we tackle the problem of reconstructing a diffusion history from one or more snapshots of the diffusion state. This ability can be invaluable to learn when certain computer nodes are infected or which people are the initial disease spreaders to control future diffusions. We formulate this problem over discrete-time SEIRS-type diffusion models in terms of maximum likelihood. We design methods that are based on submodularity and a novel prize-collecting dominating-set vertex cover (PCDSVC) relaxation that can identify likely diffusion steps with some provable performance guarantees. Our methods are the first to be able to reconstruct complete diffusion histories accurately in real and simulated situations. As a special case, they can also identify the initial spreaders better than the existing methods for that problem. Our results for both meme and contaminant diffusion show that the partial diffusion data problem can be overcome with proper modeling and methods, and that hidden temporal characteristics of diffusion can be predicted from limited data.

  19. The Use of System Codes in Scaling Studies: Relevant Techniques for Qualifying NPP Nodalizations for Particular Scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Martinez-Quiroga

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available System codes along with necessary nodalizations are valuable tools for thermal hydraulic safety analysis. Qualifying both codes and nodalizations is an essential step prior to their use in any significant study involving code calculations. Since most existing experimental data come from tests performed on the small scale, any qualification process must therefore address scale considerations. This paper describes the methodology developed at the Technical University of Catalonia in order to contribute to the qualification of Nuclear Power Plant nodalizations by means of scale disquisitions. The techniques that are presented include the so-called Kv-scaled calculation approach as well as the use of “hybrid nodalizations” and “scaled-up nodalizations.” These methods have revealed themselves to be very helpful in producing the required qualification and in promoting further improvements in nodalization. The paper explains both the concepts and the general guidelines of the method, while an accompanying paper will complete the presentation of the methodology as well as showing the results of the analysis of scaling discrepancies that appeared during the posttest simulations of PKL-LSTF counterpart tests performed on the PKL-III and ROSA-2 OECD/NEA Projects. Both articles together produce the complete description of the methodology that has been developed in the framework of the use of NPP nodalizations in the support to plant operation and control.

  20. Solution and study of nodal neutron transport equation applying the LTS{sub N}-DiagExp method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauser, Eliete Biasotto; Pazos, Ruben Panta [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Faculdade de Matematica]. E-mail: eliete@pucrs.br; rpp@mat.pucrs.br; Vilhena, Marco Tullio de [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Instituto de Matematica]. E-mail: vilhena@mat.ufrgs.br; Barros, Ricardo Carvalho de [Universidade do Estado, Nova Friburgo, RJ (Brazil). Instituto Politecnico]. E-mail: ricardo@iprj.uerj.br

    2003-07-01

    In this paper we report advances about the three-dimensional nodal discrete-ordinates approximations of neutron transport equation for Cartesian geometry. We use the combined collocation method of the angular variables and nodal approach for the spatial variables. By nodal approach we mean the iterated transverse integration of the S{sub N} equations. This procedure leads to the set of one-dimensional averages angular fluxes in each spatial variable. The resulting system of equations is solved with the LTS{sub N} method, first applying the Laplace transform to the set of the nodal S{sub N} equations and then obtained the solution by symbolic computation. We include the LTS{sub N} method by diagonalization to solve the nodal neutron transport equation and then we outline the convergence of these nodal-LTS{sub N} approximations with the help of a norm associated to the quadrature formula used to approximate the integral term of the neutron transport equation. (author)

  1. Tumour thickness as a predictor of nodal metastases in oral cancer: comparison between tongue and floor of mouth subsites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, Deepak; Ebrahimi, Ardalan; Gupta, Ruta; Gao, Kan; Elliott, Michael; Palme, Carsten E; Clark, Jonathan R

    2014-12-01

    To identify whether tumour thickness as a predictor of nodal metastases in oral squamous cell carcinoma differs between tongue and floor of mouth (FOM) subsites. Retrospective review of 343 patients treated between 1987 and 2012. The neck was considered positive in the presence of pathologically proven nodal metastases on neck dissection or during follow-up. There were 222 oral tongue and 121 FOM tumours. In patients with FOM tumours 2.1-4mm thick, the rate of nodal metastases was 41.7%. In contrast, for tongue cancers of a similar thickness the rate was only 11.2%. This increased to 38.5% in patients with tongue cancers that were 4.1-6mm thick. Comparing these two subsites, FOM cancers cross the critical 20% threshold of probability for nodal metastases between 1 and 2mm whereas tongue cancers cross the 20% threshold just under 4mm thickness. On logistic regression adjusting for relevant covariates, there was a significant difference in the propensity for nodal metastases based on tumour thickness according to subsite (p=0.028). Thin FOM tumours (2.1-4mm) have a high rate of nodal metastases. Elective neck dissection is appropriate in FOM tumours ⩾2mm thick and in tongue tumours ⩾4mm thick. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Performance of a fine-grained parallel model for multi-group nodal-transport calculations in three-dimensional pin-by-pin reactor geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masahiro, Tatsumi; Akio, Yamamoto

    2003-01-01

    A production code SCOPE2 was developed based on the fine-grained parallel algorithm by the red/black iterative method targeting parallel computing environments such as a PC-cluster. It can perform a depletion calculation in a few hours using a PC-cluster with the model based on a 9-group nodal-SP3 transport method in 3-dimensional pin-by-pin geometry for in-core fuel management of commercial PWRs. The present algorithm guarantees the identical convergence process as that in serial execution, which is very important from the viewpoint of quality management. The fine-mesh geometry is constructed by hierarchical decomposition with introduction of intermediate management layer as a block that is a quarter piece of a fuel assembly in radial direction. A combination of a mesh division scheme forcing even meshes on each edge and a latency-hidden communication algorithm provided simplicity and efficiency to message passing to enhance parallel performance. Inter-processor communication and parallel I/O access were realized using the MPI functions. Parallel performance was measured for depletion calculations by the 9-group nodal-SP3 transport method in 3-dimensional pin-by-pin geometry with 340 x 340 x 26 meshes for full core geometry and 170 x 170 x 26 for quarter core geometry. A PC cluster that consists of 24 Pentium-4 processors connected by the Fast Ethernet was used for the performance measurement. Calculations in full core geometry gave better speedups compared to those in quarter core geometry because of larger granularity. Fine-mesh sweep and feedback calculation parts gave almost perfect scalability since granularity is large enough, while 1-group coarse-mesh diffusion acceleration gave only around 80%. The speedup and parallel efficiency for total computation time were 22.6 and 94%, respectively, for the calculation in full core geometry with 24 processors. (authors)

  3. Phase space diffusion in turbulent plasmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pécseli, Hans

    1990-01-01

    Turbulent diffusion of charged test particles in electrostatic plasma turbulence is reviewed. Two different types of test particles can be distinguished. First passive particles which are subject to the fluctuating electric fields without themselves contributing to the local space charge....... In terms of these test particle types, two basically different problems can be formulated. One deals with the diffusion of a particle with respect to its point of release in phase space. Alternatively the relative diffusion between many, or just two, particles can be analyzed. Analytical expressions...

  4. Diffusion in the special theory of relativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Joachim

    2009-11-01

    The Markovian diffusion theory is generalized within the framework of the special theory of relativity. Since the velocity space in relativity is a hyperboloid, the mathematical stochastic calculus on Riemanian manifolds can be applied but adopted here to the velocity space. A generalized Langevin equation in the fiber space of position, velocity, and orthonormal velocity frames is defined from which the generalized relativistic Kramers equation in the phase space in external force fields is derived. The obtained diffusion equation is invariant under Lorentz transformations and its stationary solution is given by the Jüttner distribution. Besides, a nonstationary analytical solution is derived for the example of force-free relativistic diffusion.

  5. Nodal involvement pattern in resectable lung cancer according to tumor location

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeteng S

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Somcharoen Saeteng,1 Apichat Tantraworasin,1 Juntima Euathrongchit,2 Nirush Lertprasertsuke,3 Yutthaphun Wannasopha21Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 2Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 3Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, ThailandAbstract: The aim in this study was to define the pattern of lymph node metastasis according to the primary tumor location. In this retrospective cohort study, each of the operable patients diagnosed with lung cancer was grouped by tumor mass location. The International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer nodal chart with stations and zones, established in 2009, was used to define lymph node levels. From 2006 to 2010, 197 patients underwent a lobectomy with systematic nodal resection for primary lung cancer at Chiang Mai University Hospital. There were 123 male and 74 female patients, with ages ranging from 16–85 years old and an average age of 61.31. Analyses of tumor location, histology type, and nodal metastasis were performed. The locations were the right upper lobe in 63 patients (31.98%, the right middle lobe in 18 patients (9.14%, the right lower lobe in 30 patients (15.23%, the left upper lobe in 55 patients (27.92%, the left lower lobe in 16 patients (8.12%, and mixed lobes (more than one lobe in 15 patients (7.61%. The mean tumor size was 4.45 cm in diameter (range 1.2–16.5 cm. Adenocarcinoma was the most common histological type, which occurred in 132 cases (67.01%, followed by squamous cell carcinoma in 41 cases (20.81%, bronchiolo alveolar cell carcinoma in nine cases (4.57%, and large cell carcinoma in seven cases (3.55%. Eighteen cases (9.6% had skip metastasis (mediastinal lymph node metastasis without hilar node metastasis. Adenocarcinoma and intratumoral lymphatic invasion were the predictors of mediastinal lymph node metastases. There were statistically significant

  6. Analysis of the asymmetrically expressed Ablim1 locus reveals existence of a lateral plate Nodal-independent left sided signal and an early, left-right independent role for nodal flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilton Helen

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vertebrates show clear asymmetry in left-right (L-R patterning of their organs and associated vasculature. During mammalian development a cilia driven leftwards flow of liquid leads to the left-sided expression of Nodal, which in turn activates asymmetric expression of the transcription factor Pitx2. While Pitx2 asymmetry drives many aspects of asymmetric morphogenesis, it is clear from published data that additional asymmetrically expressed loci must exist. Results A L-R expression screen identified the cytoskeletally-associated gene, actin binding lim protein 1 (Ablim1, as asymmetrically expressed in both the node and left lateral plate mesoderm (LPM. LPM expression closely mirrors that of Nodal. Significantly, Ablim1 LPM asymmetry was detected in the absence of detectable Nodal. In the node, Ablim1 was initially expressed symmetrically across the entire structure, resolving to give a peri-nodal ring at the headfold stage in a flow and Pkd2-dependent manner. The peri-nodal ring of Ablim1 expression became asymmetric by the mid-headfold stage, showing stronger right than left-sided expression. Node asymmetry became more apparent as development proceeded; expression retreated in an anticlockwise direction, disappearing first from the left anterior node. Indeed, at early somite stages Ablim1 shows a unique asymmetric expression pattern, in the left lateral plate and to the right side of the node. Conclusion Left LPM Ablim1 is expressed in the absence of detectable LPM Nodal, clearly revealing existence of a Pitx2 and Nodal-independent left-sided signal in mammals. At the node, a previously unrecognised action of early nodal flow and Pkd2 activity, within the pit of the node, influences gene expression in a symmetric manner. Subsequent Ablim1 expression in the peri-nodal ring reveals a very early indication of L-R asymmetry. Ablim1 expression analysis at the node acts as an indicator of nodal flow. Together these results make

  7. Linear circuit transfer functions an introduction to fast analytical techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Basso, Christophe P

    2016-01-01

    Linear Circuit Transfer Functions: An introduction to Fast Analytical Techniques teaches readers how to determine transfer functions of linear passive and active circuits by applying Fast Analytical Circuits Techniques. Building on their existing knowledge of classical loop/nodal analysis, the book improves and expands their skills to unveil transfer functions in a swift and efficient manner. Starting with simple examples, the author explains step-by-step how expressing circuits time constants in different configurations leads to writing transfer functions in a compact and insightful way. By learning how to organize numerators and denominators in the fastest possible way, readers will speed-up analysis and predict the frequency resp nse of simple to complex circuits. In some cases, they will be able to derive the final expression by inspection, without writing a line of algebra. Key features: * Emphasizes analysis through employing time constant-based methods discussed in other text books but not widely us...

  8. Solution of the Boltzmann-Fokker-Planck transport equation using exponential nodal schemes; Solucion de la ecuacion de transporte de Boltzmann-Fokker-Planck usando esquemas nodales exponenciales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortega J, R.; Valle G, E. del [IPN-ESFM, 07738 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)]. e-mail: roj@correo.azc.uam.mx

    2003-07-01

    There are carried out charge and energy calculations deposited due to the interaction of electrons with a plate of a certain material, solving numerically the electron transport equation for the Boltzmann-Fokker-Planck approach of first order in plate geometry with a computer program denominated TEOD-NodExp (Transport of Electrons in Discreet Ordinates, Nodal Exponentials), using the proposed method by the Dr. J. E. Morel to carry out the discretization of the variable energy and several spatial discretization schemes, denominated exponentials nodal. It is used the Fokker-Planck equation since it represents an approach of the Boltzmann transport equation that is been worth whenever it is predominant the dispersion of small angles, that is to say, resulting dispersion in small dispersion angles and small losses of energy in the transport of charged particles. Such electrons could be those that they face with a braking plate in a device of thermonuclear fusion. In the present work its are considered electrons of 1 MeV that impact isotropically on an aluminum plate. They were considered three different thickness of plate that its were designated as problems 1, 2 and 3. In the calculations it was used the discrete ordinate method S{sub 4} with expansions of the dispersion cross sections until P{sub 3} order. They were considered 25 energy groups of uniform size between the minimum energy of 0.1 MeV and the maximum of 1.0 MeV; the one spatial intervals number it was considered variable and it was assigned the values of 10, 20 and 30. (Author)

  9. Excess Entropy and Diffusivity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Graphics. Excess Entropy and Diffusivity. Excess entropy scaling of diffusivity (Rosenfeld,1977). Analogous relationships also exist for viscosity and thermal conductivity.

  10. Analytics for Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacNeill, Sheila; Campbell, Lorna M.; Hawksey, Martin

    2014-01-01

    This article presents an overview of the development and use of analytics in the context of education. Using Buckingham Shum's three levels of analytics, the authors present a critical analysis of current developments in the domain of learning analytics, and contrast the potential value of analytics research and development with real world…

  11. Analytical chemistry instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laing, W.R.

    1986-01-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for 48 papers in these conference proceedings. The topics covered include: analytical chemistry and the environment; environmental radiochemistry; automated instrumentation; advances in analytical mass spectrometry; Fourier transform spectroscopy; analytical chemistry of plutonium; nuclear analytical chemistry; chemometrics; and nuclear fuel technology

  12. Analytical chemistry instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laing, W.R.

    1986-01-01

    In nine sections, 48 chapters cover 1) analytical chemistry and the environment 2) environmental radiochemistry 3) automated instrumentation 4) advances in analytical mass spectrometry 5) fourier transform spectroscopy 6) analytical chemistry of plutonium 7) nuclear analytical chemistry 8) chemometrics and 9) nuclear fuel technology

  13. Field theory of propagating reaction-diffusion fronts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escudero, C.

    2004-01-01

    The problem of velocity selection of reaction-diffusion fronts has been widely investigated. While the mean-field limit results are well known theoretically, there is a lack of analytic progress in those cases in which fluctuations are to be taken into account. Here, we construct an analytic theory connecting the first principles of the reaction-diffusion process to an effective equation of motion via field-theoretic arguments, and we arrive at results already confirmed by numerical simulations

  14. Características morfológicas y posibles implicaciones clínicas de las arterias nodales Morphological characteristics and potential clinical implications of nodal arteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis E Ballesteros

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available La expresión morfológica de las arterias nodales es relevante en el diagnóstico y manejo de eventos clínicos y en abordajes quirúrgicos del corazón. Se estudiaron 88 arterias nodales de corazones obtenidos como material de autopsia. Las arterias coronarias se inyectaron con resina poliéster pigmentada de color rojo. Se registraron las formas de presentación de las arterias nodales y sus características morfométricas. La arteria del nodo sinoatrial se originó de la coronaria derecha en 52 casos (59,1%, de la circunfleja en 33 corazones (37,35% y de ambas en 3 (3,4%. Su calibre proximal fue de 1,31 mm (± 0,3, correspondiente a las arterias originadas de la coronaria derecha de 1,25 mm (± 0,3 mientras que las que se originaron de la arteria circunfleja obtuvieron un calibre de 1,42 mm (± 0,3, siendo esta diferencia significativa (p= 0,01. Se originó con mayor frecuencia en el tercio anteromedial, tanto de la coronaria derecha como de la circunfleja (54,6% y 61,2% respectivamente. En su segmento final cruzó por delante de la desembocadura de la vena cava superior en la mayoría de los casos (44%, mientras que en 22 corazones (24,5% cursó alrededor de la cava. Se observó arteria en forma de «S» en 14 casos (15,9% del total de la muestra y 42,4% de las originadas de la arteria circunfleja. La arteria del nodo atrioventricular se originó del segmento en «U» invertida de la coronaria derecha, al nivel de la cruz cardiaca, en 81 corazones (92%, y presentó un calibre proximal de 1,06 mm (± 0,22. Con relación al calibre y al origen se evidencian hallazgos que coinciden con estudios previos. Se destaca la alta prevalencia de la arteria en forma de «S» y de la trayectoria de la arteria sinoatrial alrededor de la vena cava superior.The morphological expression of nodal arteries is important in the diagnosis and management of cardiac clinical events and surgical approaches. 88 nodal arteries of hearts obtained from autopsies were

  15. Strong-coupling diffusion in relativistic systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    FPE) in rapidity space analytically for the case of a time-dependent diffusion coefficient. The solutions represent SPS data for 158 A•GeV/c Pb+Pb very well. With the dependence of the rapidity relaxation coeffi- cients on the available relativistic ...

  16. Oxygen diffusion in bilayer polymer films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Lars; Zebger, Ingo; Tofte, Jannik Pentti

    2004-01-01

    through the film of poly(ethylene-co-norbornene) and into the polystyrene film was monitored using the phosphorescence of singlet oxygen as a spectroscopic probe. To analyze the data, it was necessary to solve Fick's second law of diffusion for both polymer films. Tractable analytical and numerical...

  17. Sound field in long rooms with diffusely reflecting boundaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Picaut, Judicaël; Simon, Laurent; Polack, Jean-Dominique

    1999-01-01

    A diffusion equation is used to predict the sound propagation in long rooms with diffusely reflecting boundaries. The model is defined by two parameters, the coefficient of diffusion depending on the mean free path, and an exchange coefficient expressing wall absorption. The diffusion equation...... is solved for time-varying sources and in stationary state. Analytical expressions of the sound attenuation and reverberation in infinite, semi-infinite and finite long rooms are quite in accordance with numerical simulations of diffuse sound field. It is also shown that the diffusion model allows...... to predict experimental observations: the decay curves are not linear, the reverberation time increases with the source-receiver distance, and sound attenuation is linear along corridors. The dependence of the coefficient of diffusion with the degree of wall diffusion is also discussed....

  18. Diffusion-weighted MRI in cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McVeigh, Patrick Z.; Haider, Masoom A.; Syed, Aejaz M.; Milosevic, Michael; Fyles, Anthony

    2008-01-01

    The purpose was to investigate the potential value of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measurement with MRI in the assessment of cervix cancer. Diffusion-weighted MRI was performed in 47 patients with cervical carcinoma undergoing chemoradiation therapy and 26 normal controls on a 1.5-T system with a b-value of 600 s/mm 2 . FIGO stage, tumor volume, nodal status, interstitial fluid pressure (IFP) and oxygen measurements were recorded. Response was defined as no visible tumor 3-6 months following completion of therapy. The average median ADC (mADC) of cervical carcinomas (1.09±0.20 x 10 -3 mm 2 /s) was significantly lower than normal cervix (2.09±0.46 x 10 -3 mm 2 /s) (P -3 mm 2 /s) compared to T2b (1.21 x 10 -3 mm 2 /s) and T3/T4 (1.10 x 10 -3 mm 2 /s) (P<0.001). In patients with squamous carcinomas the 90th percentile of ADC values was lower in responders than non-responders (P<0.05). Median ADC in cervix carcinoma is significantly lower compared to normal cervix. ADC may have predictive value in squamous tumors, but further long-term study will determine the ultimate clinical utility. (orig.)

  19. In vivo facilitated diffusion model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximilian Bauer

    Full Text Available Under dilute in vitro conditions transcription factors rapidly locate their target sequence on DNA by using the facilitated diffusion mechanism. However, whether this strategy of alternating between three-dimensional bulk diffusion and one-dimensional sliding along the DNA contour is still beneficial in the crowded interior of cells is highly disputed. Here we use a simple model for the bacterial genome inside the cell and present a semi-analytical model for the in vivo target search of transcription factors within the facilitated diffusion framework. Without having to resort to extensive simulations we determine the mean search time of a lac repressor in a living E. coli cell by including parameters deduced from experimental measurements. The results agree very well with experimental findings, and thus the facilitated diffusion picture emerges as a quantitative approach to gene regulation in living bacteria cells. Furthermore we see that the search time is not very sensitive to the parameters characterizing the DNA configuration and that the cell seems to operate very close to optimal conditions for target localization. Local searches as implied by the colocalization mechanism are only found to mildly accelerate the mean search time within our model.

  20. Analytical pervaporation: a key technique in the enological laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luque de Castro, Maria D; Luque-García, Jose L; Mataix, Eva

    2003-01-01

    This paper reviews the use of analytical pervaporation (defined as the integration of 2 different analytical separation principles, evaporation and gas diffusion, in a single micromodule) coupled to flow-injection manifolds for the determination of analytes of interest in enology; the review discusses the advantages that these techniques can provide in wine analytical laboratories. Special attention is given to methods that enable the determination of either of 2 volatile analytes, or of one volatile analyte and one nonvolatile analyte by taking advantage of the versatility of the designed approaches. In a comparison of these methods with the official and/or standard methods, the results showed good agreement. In addition, the new methods offer improvements in linear determination range, quantitation limit, precision, rapidity, and potential for full automation. Thus, this review demonstrates that although the old technologies used in wine analytical laboratories may be supported by official and standard methods, they should be replaced by properly validated, new, and automated technologies.

  1. Are neck nodal volumes drawn on CT slices covered by standard three-field technique?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanguineti, Giuseppe; Culp, Laura R; Endres, Eugene J; Bayouth, John E

    2004-07-01

    Several definitions have been proposed in the past few years on how to contour the various neck nodal levels on CT slices. However, whether the resulting nodal volumes would have been covered by standard techniques is unknown. The purpose of this study was to clarify this issue. Eight patients (N0-N1) with head-and-neck cancer from various primary sites referred to us for definitive radiotherapy were included in this study. Two observers contoured the level Ib-V neck nodal volumes on planning CT according to seven reported definitions. Each observer also drew blocks on digitally reconstructed radiographs for the initial (on-cord) phase of a standard three-field technique (parallel opposed lateral fields and AP supraclavicular field) for three different clinical settings: "medium" larynx (to cover upper, mid, and low jugular nodes), "big" larynx (same as for medium, plus posterior cervical nodes), and "tonsil" (same as for big plus retropharyngeal nodes). Fields blocks were concentrically reduced 5 mm in all directions as a surrogate for the clinical target volume to planning target volume expansion. A plan was created for each of the clinical settings, delivering 2 Gy to the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements reference point. The coverage of the nodal levels according to the various definitions was investigated throughout the analysis of the volume receiving 50%, 80%, and 95% of the prescribed dose (V(50), V(80), and V(95), respectively) and dose covering at least 95% of the volume (D(95)) values extracted from their cumulative dose-volume histograms in the three clinical settings. The V(50) coverage of levels III and IV was adequate for all definitions and trials. For level V, about 3-5% of the volume was outside the 50% isodose of those trials that targeted the posterior cervical chain. Coverage of level Ib was highly dependent on the definition, with up to 21% of the volume outside the standard tonsillar fields. For level II, although

  2. Ambient Noise Tomography Applied to Nodal Data Sets in Induced Seismicity Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sufri, O.; DeShon, H. R.; Ogwari, P.; Hayward, C.; Magnani, M. B.

    2017-12-01

    We present results of ambient noise tomography performed using nodal datasets with different array apertures and geometries deployed in northern Texas and northern Oklahoma to capture induced earthquakes. We show that ambient noise tomography techniques can be performed on small aperture, oddly shaped array datasets. In northern Texas, the nodal data was collected on 10 Hz single-component vertical sensors that were deployed from the collaboration between SMU and Nodal Seismic. The data was acquired between 25 February and 8 March 2014. First, we compute the cross-correlation between the geophone pairs, which are used as Green's functions to perform ambient noise tomography, and find acceptable results between 0.3-1.0 seconds. We compute the phase velocities for these periods and invert the phase velocities to obtain shear wave velocity structure for up to depths of 200 meters underneath the array. The small aperture of the array (2.6 km x 2.92 km) limits depth resolution. The resulting shear wave velocity model is then used as a shallow velocity constraint to improve double-difference local earthquake tomography using the earthquake data from a co-located local seismic network. We present tomography results aimed at resolving 3D velocity heterogeneity associated with the 2013-2015 Azle-Reno induced earthquake sequence. These techniques are also applied to conduct ambient noise tomography in northern Oklahoma using the IRIS Wavefield Community Experiment data. This data was acquired between 23 June and 20 July 2016 from a larger (6 km x 14 km) aperture array consisting of 5 Hz 3-component nodes. Because the aperture of Wavefield network was larger than the north Texas array, we expect to resolve shear velocity to greater depth and provide 3D information on near surface velocity heterogeneity, and possibly resolve faulting associated with earthquakes beneath the array.

  3. Advances in Spectral Nodal Methods applied to SN Nuclear Reactor Global calculations in Cartesian Geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barros, R.C.; Filho, H.A.; Oliveira, F.B.S.; Silva, F.C. da

    2004-01-01

    Presented here are the advances in spectral nodal methods for discrete ordinates (SN) eigenvalue problems in Cartesian geometry. These coarse-mesh methods are based on three ingredients: (i) the use of the standard discretized spatial balance SN equations; (ii) the use of the non-standard spectral diamond (SD) auxiliary equations in the multiplying regions of the domain, e.g. fuel assemblies; and (iii) the use of the non-standard spectral Green's function (SGF) auxiliary equations in the non-multiplying regions of the domain, e.g., the reflector. In slab-geometry the hybrid SD-SGF method generates numerical results that are completely free of spatial truncation errors. In X,Y-geometry, we obtain a system of two 'slab-geometry' SN equations for the node-edge average angular fluxes by transverse-integrating the X,Y-geometry SN equations separately in the y- and then in the x-directions within an arbitrary node of the spatial grid set up on the domain. In this paper, we approximate the transverse leakage terms by constants. These are the only approximations considered in the SD-SGF-constant nodal method, as the source terms, that include scattering and eventually fission events, are treated exactly. Moreover, we describe in this paper the progress of the approximate SN albedo boundary conditions for substituting the non-multiplying regions around the nuclear reactor core. We show numerical results to typical model problems to illustrate the accuracy of spectral nodal methods for coarse-mesh SN criticality calculations. (Author)

  4. Delineation of Internal Mammary Nodal Target Volumes in Breast Cancer Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jethwa, Krishan R.; Kahila, Mohamed M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Hunt, Katie N. [Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Brown, Lindsay C.; Corbin, Kimberly S.; Park, Sean S.; Yan, Elizabeth S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Boughey, Judy C. [Department of Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Mutter, Robert W., E-mail: mutter.robert@mayo.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States)

    2017-03-15

    Purpose: The optimal clinical target volume for internal mammary (IM) node irradiation is uncertain in an era of increasingly conformal volume-based treatment planning for breast cancer. We mapped the location of gross internal mammary lymph node (IMN) metastases to identify areas at highest risk of harboring occult disease. Methods and Materials: Patients with axial imaging of IMN disease were identified from a breast cancer registry. The IMN location was transferred onto the corresponding anatomic position on representative axial computed tomography images of a patient in the treatment position and compared with consensus group guidelines of IMN target delineation. Results: The IMN location in 67 patients with 130 IMN metastases was mapped. The location was in the first 3 intercostal spaces in 102 of 130 nodal metastases (78%), whereas 18 of 130 IMNs (14%) were located caudal to the third intercostal space and 10 of 130 IMNs (8%) were located cranial to the first intercostal space. Of the 102 nodal metastases within the first 3 intercostal spaces, 54 (53%) were located within the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group consensus volume. Relative to the IM vessels, 19 nodal metastases (19%) were located medially with a mean distance of 2.2 mm (SD, 2.9 mm) whereas 29 (28%) were located laterally with a mean distance of 3.6 mm (SD, 2.5 mm). Ninety percent of lymph nodes within the first 3 intercostal spaces would have been encompassed within a 4-mm medial and lateral expansion on the IM vessels. Conclusions: In women with indications for elective IMN irradiation, a 4-mm medial and lateral expansion on the IM vessels may be appropriate. In women with known IMN involvement, cranial extension to the confluence of the IM vein with the brachiocephalic vein with or without caudal extension to the fourth or fifth interspace may be considered provided that normal tissue constraints are met.

  5. Delineation of Internal Mammary Nodal Target Volumes in Breast Cancer Radiation Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jethwa, Krishan R; Kahila, Mohamed M; Hunt, Katie N; Brown, Lindsay C; Corbin, Kimberly S; Park, Sean S; Yan, Elizabeth S; Boughey, Judy C; Mutter, Robert W

    2017-03-15

    The optimal clinical target volume for internal mammary (IM) node irradiation is uncertain in an era of increasingly conformal volume-based treatment planning for breast cancer. We mapped the location of gross internal mammary lymph node (IMN) metastases to identify areas at highest risk of harboring occult disease. Patients with axial imaging of IMN disease were identified from a breast cancer registry. The IMN location was transferred onto the corresponding anatomic position on representative axial computed tomography images of a patient in the treatment position and compared with consensus group guidelines of IMN target delineation. The IMN location in 67 patients with 130 IMN metastases was mapped. The location was in the first 3 intercostal spaces in 102 of 130 nodal metastases (78%), whereas 18 of 130 IMNs (14%) were located caudal to the third intercostal space and 10 of 130 IMNs (8%) were located cranial to the first intercostal space. Of the 102 nodal metastases within the first 3 intercostal spaces, 54 (53%) were located within the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group consensus volume. Relative to the IM vessels, 19 nodal metastases (19%) were located medially with a mean distance of 2.2 mm (SD, 2.9 mm) whereas 29 (28%) were located laterally with a mean distance of 3.6 mm (SD, 2.5 mm). Ninety percent of lymph nodes within the first 3 intercostal spaces would have been encompassed within a 4-mm medial and lateral expansion on the IM vessels. In women with indications for elective IMN irradiation, a 4-mm medial and lateral expansion on the IM vessels may be appropriate. In women with known IMN involvement, cranial extension to the confluence of the IM vein with the brachiocephalic vein with or without caudal extension to the fourth or fifth interspace may be considered provided that normal tissue constraints are met. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Patterns of nodal failure after intensity modulated radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jin-Gao; Venigalla, Praveen; Leeman, Jonathan E; LaPlant, Quincey; Setton, Jeremy; Sherman, Eric; Tsai, Jillian; McBride, Sean; Riaz, Nadeem; Lee, Nancy

    2017-02-01

    To evaluate the sites of nodal failure (NF) of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) treated with intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Retrospective chart review. We reviewed the records of 165 patients with nonmetastatic NPC treated with IMRT between July 1998 and April 2011 at our institution. Recurrent nodes were delineated on imaging and coregistered with the original treatment planning computed tomography. Failures were assessed as in-field, out-field, or marginal based on the relative volumes of the recurrent nodes covered by the original dose distribution. Ten patients had NF at a median follow-up of 70.4 months for surviving patients. The 3- and 5-year overall survival and NF rates were 88.7%, 76.0% and 5.8%, 7.7%, respectively. Six of the nodal failures were in-field, of which five occurred in level II; whereas four had out-field failures, all of which were in the protected parotid gland area. There were no recurrences in level 1b despite this region being protected. The cumulative 3- and 5-year failure rates in the parotid gland area were 2.2% and 3.1%, respectively. Three patients with parotid failure initially had subcentimeter, nonspecific nodules in the same locations of the parotid gland as the recurrent nodes. Nodal failure is uncommon after IMRT in NPC. Recurrence in the parotid gland region accounts for all of the out-field failures and 40% of NF in our study. Comprehensive assessment of nodules in or around the parotid gland is therefore a key aspect of treatment planning and follow-up. 4. Laryngoscope, 2016 127:377-382, 2017. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  7. Motion deficit in nodal interphalangeal joint osteoarthritis by digital goniometer in housewives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura-Ríos, L; Hayes-Salinas, M; Ferrusquia-Toriz, D; Cariño-Escobar, R I; Cruz-Arenas, E; Gutiérrez-Martínez, J; González-Ramírez, L; Hernández-Díaz, C

    2018-01-19

    Range of motion (ROM) measured objectively in nodal hand osteoarthritis (NHOA) is missing. Evaluation of collateral ligaments by ultrasound (US) is unknown in NHOA also. To compare ROM in interphalangeal joints in housewives with nodal OA, with a control group by a digital system using angle to voltage (Multielgon). The second objective was to assess correlation between collateral radial and ulnar ligaments thickness and ROM. For this cross-sectional observational study, we assessed 60 hands with symptomatic NHOA and 30 hands of healthy housewives matched for age. We obtained clinical and demographic characteristics (a complete standardized physical examination of hand joints, DASH questionnaire, pain surveys, gross grasp hand goniometer, and ROM measurements by Multielgon. Presence of synovitis, power Doppler signal, osteophytes, and collateral ligaments thickness was evaluated by US. We used descriptive statistics, Spearman correlation, X 2 test, t test and odds ratio. Significant less gross grasp and ROM in the right hand were observed in NHOA (p = 0.01 for both). Presence of OA, painful joints, disease duration, and score DASH were significant correlated with reduced ROM (OR 4.12, 4.12, 1.04 and 1.09, respectively). Reduced ROM was statistical significant in thumb MCP and IP joints, second and third DIP in dominant hand. There was no association between collateral radial and ulnar ligaments and reduced ROM. Synovitis and osteophytes were more prevalent in OA group. Multielgon demonstrated the pattern of reduced ROM in nodal OA of housewives particularly in MCP and IP thumb joints, second and third distal interphalangeal joints.

  8. Comparison between 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography and Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy for Regional Lymph Nodal Staging in Patients with Melanoma: A Review of the Literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirk, Paoletta; Treglia, Giorgio; Salsano, Marco; Basile, Pietro; Giordano, Alessandro; Bonomo, Lorenzo

    2011-01-01

    Aim. to compare 18 F-Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) to sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) for regional lymph nodal staging in patients with melanoma. Methods. We performed a literature review discussing original articles which compared FDG-PET to SLNB for regional lymph nodal staging in patients with melanoma. Results and Conclusions. There is consensus in the literature that FDG-PET cannot replace SLNB for regional lymph nodal staging in patients with melanoma

  9. Self-healing diffusion quantum Monte Carlo algorithms: direct reduction of the fermion sign error in electronic structure calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reboredo, Fernando A.; Hood, Randolph Q.; Kent, Paul R.

    2009-01-01

    We develop a formalism and present an algorithm for optimization of the trial wave-function used in fixed-node diffusion quantum Monte Carlo (DMC) methods. The formalism is based on the DMC mixed estimator of the ground state probability density. We take advantage of a basic property of the walker configuration distribution function generated in a DMC calculation, to (i) project-out a multi-determinant expansion of the fixed node ground state wave-function and (ii) to define a cost function that relates the interacting-ground-state-fixed-node and the non-interacting-trial wave-functions. We argue in favor of the conjecture that removing the kink of the fixed-node ground-state wave-function at the node improves the resulting wave-function nodal structure. If this conjecture is valid, then the noise in the fixed-noded wave function resulting from finite sampling would play a beneficial role, allowing the nodes to adjust towards the ones of the exact many-body ground state in a simulated annealing-like process. Based on these conjectures, we propose a method to improve both single determinant and multi-determinant expressions of the trial wave-function that can be generalized to other wave-function forms such as pfaffians. We test the method in a model system where a near analytical solution can be found. Comparing the DMC calculations with the exact solutions, we find that the trial wave-function is systematically improved. The overlap of the optimized trial wave-function and the exact ground state converges to 100% even starting from wave-functions orthogonal to the exact ground state. Similarly, the DMC total energy and density converges to the exact solutions for the model. In the optimization process we find an approximation optimal effective non-interacting density-functional-like nodal potential whose existence was predicted in a previous publication (Phys. Rev. B 77 245110 (2008)). Tests of the method are extended to a model system with a full Coulomb

  10. Charge diffusion and the butterfly effect in striped holographic matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucas, Andrew [Department of Physics, Harvard University,Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Department of Physics, Stanford University,Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Steinberg, Julia [Department of Physics, Harvard University,Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2016-10-26

    Recently, it has been proposed that the butterfly velocity — a speed at which quantum information propagates — may provide a fundamental bound on diffusion constants in dirty incoherent metals. We analytically compute the charge diffusion constant and the butterfly velocity in charge-neutral holographic matter with long wavelength “hydrodynamic' disorder in a single spatial direction. In this limit, we find that the butterfly velocity does not set a sharp lower bound for the charge diffusion constant.

  11. Nodal DG-FEM solution of high-order Boussinesq-type equations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engsig-Karup, Allan Peter; Hesthaven, Jan S.; Bingham, Harry B.

    2006-01-01

    We present a discontinuous Galerkin finite element method (DG-FEM) solution to a set of high-order Boussinesq-type equations for modelling highly nonlinear and dispersive water waves in one and two horizontal dimensions. The continuous equations are discretized using nodal polynomial basis...... functions of arbitrary order in space on each element of an unstructured computational domain. A fourth order explicit Runge-Kutta scheme is used to advance the solution in time. Methods for introducing artificial damping to control mild nonlinear instabilities are also discussed. The accuracy...

  12. Direct Load Control (DLC) Considering Nodal Interrupted Energy Assessment Rate (NIEAR) in Restructured Power Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Qiuwei; Wang, Peng; Goel, Lalit

    2010-01-01

    is used as the bids from the ACL customers, is utilized to determine the direct monetary compensation to the ACL customers. The proposed scheme was investigated for the PoolCo electricity market. The optimal DLC scheme is determined based on the minimum system operating cost which is comprised......A direct load control (DLC) scheme of air conditioning loads (ACL) considering direct monetary compensation to ACL customers for the service interruption caused by the DLC program is proposed in this paper for restructured power systems. The nodal interrupted energy assessment rate (NIEAR), which...

  13. Spectral Method with the Tensor-Product Nodal Basis for the Steklov Eigenvalue Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuqing Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses spectral method with the tensor-product nodal basis at the Legendre-Gauss-Lobatto points for solving the Steklov eigenvalue problem. A priori error estimates of spectral method are discussed, and based on the work of Melenk and Wohlmuth (2001, a posterior error estimator of the residual type is given and analyzed. In addition, this paper combines the shifted-inverse iterative method and spectral method to establish an efficient scheme. Finally, numerical experiments with MATLAB program are reported.

  14. A GPU Parallelization of the Absolute Nodal Coordinate Formulation for Applications in Flexible Multibody Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-17

    virtual work for the continuum, the element equation of motion is obtained as: s e Me Q Q (3) where sQ is the vector of generalized element elastic...derived using the virtual work of the inertia forces. Note that the element mass matrix is not a function of the time-dependent nodal coordinates...element external force vector ( 12e Q ) in this case is obtained using the principle of virtual work as Te Q S f (6) where f is an external

  15. Influence of the upper head nodalization on the ''Bethsy'' 6.2 TC test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petelin, S.; Koncar, B.; Hrvatin, S.

    1999-01-01

    The analysis of improvements of RELAP5/MOD3.2 model of the Bethsy facility was performed. In our previous calculations some deviations from experimental data occurred, especially in the core region. Thus the core upper head nodalization was changed in order to obtain better agreement with experimental data. The problems with the flow stagnation were resolved, but all attempts to adjust the core level behavior during transient were unsuccessful. The main reason for this could be an incomplete loop-seal clearance. Thus the RELAP5/MOD3.2 capability to predict the transient correctly was suspected.(author)

  16. Atrioventricular Nodal Re-entry Tachycardia in Identical Twins: A Case Report and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walid Barake, MD MBBCh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This report details the case of 17 year old identical twins who both presented with paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia (PSVT. Electrophysiological studies revealed atrioventricular nodal reentry tachycardia (AVNRT in both twins. Successful but technically challenging slow pathway ablation was performed in both twins. This is the first reported case of confirmed AVNRT in identical twins which adds strong evidence to heritability of the dual AV node physiology and AVNRT. A review of the current literature regarding PSVT in monozygotic twins is provided.

  17. The top-level global research system, 1997-99: Centres, networks and nodality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matthiessen, C. W.; Schwarz, Annette Winkel; Find, Søren

    2002-01-01

    The importance of the knowledge-base in regional and urban competition is generally recognised, although causal relations between urban and regional economic growth and knowledge level are far from clear. This paper presents the first analysis of the strength, interrelations and nodality...... of the global research centres. The data are records in the Science Catation Index 1997-99 of papers produced by authors from the 40 largest `greater' urban regions of the world as measured by research output. The network of research co-operation depends on nationality, distance and other factors. The top...

  18. Nodal quasi-particles of the high-Tc superconductors as carriers of heat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Behnia

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available   In the quest for understanding correlated electrons, high-temperature superconductivity remains a formidable challenge and a source of insight. This paper briefly recalls the central achievement by the study of heat transport at low temperatures. At very low temperatures, nodal quasi-particles of the d-wave superconducting gap become the main carriers of heat. Their thermal conductivity is unaffected by disorder and reflects the fine structure of the superconducting gap. This finding had led to new openings in the exploration of other unconventional superconductors

  19. Rosai-Dorfman Disease with nodal and extranodal involvements: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehri Najafi-Sani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Rosai-Dorfman disease (RDD is a rare lymphoproliferative disorder with nodal and extranodal involvements. Here we report a case of RDD in a 15-year-old female who presented with epigastric pain, fatigue, Raynaud phenomenon in fingers, submandibular lymphadenopathy, proptosis, hepatosplenomegaly, and round shape painless patches on the extensor surfaces. Histological examination of the submandibular lymph nodes and skin biopsy demonstrated evidences of RDD. Patient was treated with prednisone and thereafter, with azathioprine. After one year, prednisone was discontinued and all of the symptoms and signs, except proptosis, were resolved. This report highlights the extranodal manifestations of RDD. The presentation, differential diagnosis, and treatment are discussed.

  20. Analytical study in 1D nuclear waste migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez Guerrero, Jesus S.; Heilbron Filho, Paulo L.; Romani, Zrinka V.

    1999-01-01

    The simulation of the nuclear waste migration phenomena are governed mainly by diffusive-convective equation that includes the effects of hydrodynamic dispersion (mechanical dispersion and molecular diffusion), radioactive decay and chemical interaction. For some special problems (depending on the boundary conditions and when the domain is considered infinite or semi-infinite) an analytical solution may be obtained using classical analytical methods such as Laplace Transform or variable separation. The hybrid Generalized Integral Transform Technique (GITT) is a powerful tool that can be applied to solve diffusive-convective linear problems to obtain formal analytical solutions. The aim of this work is to illustrate that the GITT may be used to obtain an analytical formal solution for the study of migration of radioactive waste in saturated flow porous media. A case test considering 241 Am radionuclide is presented. (author)