WorldWideScience

Sample records for analysis yields potential

  1. Analysis on Wheat Yield in China Based on the Prediction of Yield Potential

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The maximum yield growth range of wheat yield per unit in China is analyzed from three aspects including photosynthesis production potential of wheat,the changing trend of per unit wheat in the previous years and potential of distribution area agricultural crops.In the paper,the potential of using light,the external potential of historical yield evolution tend and AEZ (agricultural ecological zone) are applied to calculate the per unit yield potential of Chinese wheat.The results assume that the maximum growth range of per unit yield in different stages was different:before 1991,the growth range was 10%;before 1996,the growth range was 9%;before 2000,the growth range was 8%.Any variety of wheat and planting technology higher than the above growth range can only be promoted in restricted area and has the statistical error.The results are of reference significance to Chinese wheat production.

  2. Optimal yield-related attributes of irrigated rice for high yield potential based on path analysis and stability analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganghua Li

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Improvement of yield in rice (Oryza sativa L. is vital for ensuring food security in China. Both rice breeders and growers need an improved understanding of the relationship between yield and yield-related traits. New indica cultivars (53 in 2007 and 48 in 2008 were grown in Taoyuan, Yunnan province, to identify important components contributing to yield. Additionally, two standard indica rice cultivars with similar yield potentials, II You 107 (a large-panicle type and Xieyou 107 (a heavy-panicle type, were planted in Taoyuan, Yunnan province and Nanjing, Jiangsu province, from 2006 to 2008 to evaluate the stability of yield and yield-related attributes. Growth duration (GD, leaf area index (LAI, panicles per m2 (PN, and spikelets per m2 (SM were significantly and positively correlated with grain yield (GY over all years. Sequential path analysis identified PN and panicle weight (PW as important first-order traits that influenced grain yield. All direct effects were significant, as indicated by bootstrap analysis. Yield potential varied greatly across locations but not across years. Plant height (PH, days from heading to maturity (HM, and grain weight (GW were stable traits that showed little variation across sites or years, whereas GD (mainly the pre-heading period, PHP and PN varied significantly across locations. To achieve a yield of 15 t ha− 1, a cultivar should have a PH of 110–125 cm, a long GD with HM of approximately 40 days, a PN of 300–400 m− 2, and a GW of 29–31 mg.

  3. A multi-model analysis of change in potential yield of major crops in China under climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Y.; Tang, Q.; Liu, X.

    2015-02-01

    Climate change may affect crop growth and yield, which consequently casts a shadow of doubt over China's food self-sufficiency efforts. In this study, we used the projections derived from four global gridded crop models (GGCropMs) to assess the effects of future climate change on the yields of the major crops (i.e., maize, rice, soybean and wheat) in China. The GGCropMs were forced with the bias-corrected climate data from five global climate models (GCMs) under Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 8.5, which were made available through the Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project (ISI-MIP). The results show that the potential yields of the crops would decrease in the 21st century without carbon dioxide (CO2) fertilization effect. With the CO2 effect, the potential yields of rice and soybean would increase, while the potential yields of maize and wheat would decrease. The uncertainty in yields resulting from the GGCropMs is larger than the uncertainty derived from GCMs in the greater part of China. Climate change may benefit rice and soybean yields in high-altitude and cold regions which are not in the current main agricultural area. However, the potential yields of maize, soybean and wheat may decrease in the major food production area. Development of new agronomic management strategies may be useful for coping with climate change in the areas with a high risk of yield reduction.

  4. Yield potential of pigeon pea cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yield potential of twelve vegetable pigeon pea (Cajanus cajun) cultivars was evaluated at two locations in eastern Kenya during 2012 and 2013 cropping years. Pigeon pea pod numbers, seeds per pod, seed mass, grain yield and shelling percentage were quantified in three replicated plots, arranged in a...

  5. Do soil organic carbon levels affect potential yields and nitrogen use efficiency? An analysis of winter wheat and spring barley field trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oelofse, Myles; Markussen, Bo; Knudsen, Leif;

    2015-01-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) is broadly recognised as an important parameter affecting soil quality, and can therefore contribute to improving a number of soil properties that influence crop yield. Previous research generally indicates that soil organic carbon has positive effects on crop yields, but...... in many studies it is difficult to separate the effect of nutrients from the effect of SOC in itself. The aim of this study was to analyze whether the SOC content, in itself, has a significant effect on potential yields of commonly grown cereals across a wider range of soil types in Denmark. The...... yield, the yield with no fertiliser N application and the N use efficiency would be positively affected by SOC level. A statistical model was developed to explore relationships between SOC and potential yield, yields at zero N application and N use efficiency (NUE). The model included a variety of...

  6. Yield Potential of Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) Cultivars in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, Lise Christina; Flengmark, Poul Kristiansen

    2005-01-01

    In order to determine the yield potential of fibre hemp in Denmark, defined as seed yield, biomass, stem and fibre production, five cultivars were evaluated in field trials at two sites during 1998-2000. The total dry matter yield, stem yield, fibre yield, fibre percent, plant height, and seed...

  7. Simulating potential growth and yield of oil palm with PALMSIM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoffmann, M.P.; Vera, A.C.; Wijk, van M.T.; Giller, K.E.; Oberthur, R.; Donough, C.; Whitbread, A.M.; Fisher, M.J.

    2014-01-01

    The growing demand for palm oil can be met by reducing the gap between potential yield and actual yield. Simulation models can quantify potential yield, and therefore indicate the scope for intensification. A relatively simple physiological approach was used to develop PALMSIM, which is a model that

  8. Analysis of methane potentials of steam-exploded wheat straw and estimation of energy yields of combined ethanol and methane production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Alexander; Bösch, Peter; Friedl, Anton; Amon, Thomas

    2009-06-01

    Agrarian biomass as a renewable energy source can contribute to a considerable CO(2) reduction. The overriding goal of the European Union is to cut energy consumption related greenhouse gas emission in the EU by 20% until the year 2020. This publication aims at optimising the methane production from steam-exploded wheat straw and presents a theoretical estimation of the ethanol and methane potential of straw. For this purpose, wheat straw was pretreated by steam explosion using different time/temperature combinations. Specific methane yields were analyzed according to VDI 4630. Pretreatment of wheat straw by steam explosion significantly increased the methane yield from anaerobic digestion by up to 20% or a maximum of 331 l(N)kg(-1) VS compared to untreated wheat straw. Furthermore, the residual anaerobic digestion potential of methane after ethanol fermentation was determined by enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated wheat straw using cellulase. Based on the resulting glucose concentration the ethanol yield and the residual sugar available for methane production were calculated. The theoretical maximum ethanol yield of wheat straw was estimated to be 0.249 kg kg(-1) dry matter. The achievable maximum ethanol yield per kg wheat straw dry matter pretreated by steam explosion and enzymatic hydrolysis was estimated to be 0.200 kg under pretreatment conditions of 200 degrees C and 10 min corresponding to 80% of the theoretical maximum. The residual methane yield from straw stillage was estimated to be 183 l(N)kg(-1) wheat straw dry matter. Based on the presented experimental data, a concept is proposed that processes wheat straw for ethanol and methane production. The concept of an energy supply system that provides more than two forms of energy is met by (1) upgrading obtained ethanol to fuel-grade quality and providing methane to CHP plants for the production of (2) electric energy and (3) utility steam that in turn can be used to operate distillation columns in the

  9. Zero tillage: A potential technology to improve cotton yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Hafiz Ghazanfar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Zero tillage technology revealed with no use of any soil inverting technique to grow crops. The crop plant seed is planted in the soil directly after irrigation to make the soil soft without any replenishing in soil layers. A study was conducted to evaluate cotton genotypes FH-114 and FH-142 for the consecutive three years of growing seasons from 2013-15. The seed of both genotypes was sown with two date of sowing, 1 March and 1 May of each three years of sowing under three tillage treatments (zero tillage, minimum tillage and conventional tillage in triplicate completely randomized split-split plot design. It was found from results that significant differences were recorded for tillage treatments, date of sowing, genotypes and their interactions. Multivariate analysis was performed to evaluate the yield and it attributed traits for potential of FH-114 and FH-142 cotton genotypes. The genotype FH-142 was found with higher and batter performance as compared to FH-114 under zero tillage, minimum tillage and conventional tillage techniques. The traits bolls per plant, boll weight, fibre fineness, fibre strength, plant height, cotton yield per plant and sympodial branches per plant were found as most contributing traits towards cotton yield and production. It was also found that FH-142 gives higher output in terms of economic gain under zero tillage with 54% increase as compared to conventional tillage technique. It was suggested that zero tillage technology should be adopted to improve cotton yield and quality. It was also recommended that further study to evaluate zero tillage as potential technology should be performed with different regions, climate and timing throughout the world.

  10. Optimizing rice yields while minimizing yield-scaled global warming potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittelkow, Cameron M; Adviento-Borbe, Maria A; van Kessel, Chris; Hill, James E; Linquist, Bruce A

    2014-05-01

    To meet growing global food demand with limited land and reduced environmental impact, agricultural greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are increasingly evaluated with respect to crop productivity, i.e., on a yield-scaled as opposed to area basis. Here, we compiled available field data on CH4 and N2 O emissions from rice production systems to test the hypothesis that in response to fertilizer nitrogen (N) addition, yield-scaled global warming potential (GWP) will be minimized at N rates that maximize yields. Within each study, yield N surplus was calculated to estimate deficit or excess N application rates with respect to the optimal N rate (defined as the N rate at which maximum yield was achieved). Relationships between yield N surplus and GHG emissions were assessed using linear and nonlinear mixed-effects models. Results indicate that yields increased in response to increasing N surplus when moving from deficit to optimal N rates. At N rates contributing to a yield N surplus, N2 O and yield-scaled N2 O emissions increased exponentially. In contrast, CH4 emissions were not impacted by N inputs. Accordingly, yield-scaled CH4 emissions decreased with N addition. Overall, yield-scaled GWP was minimized at optimal N rates, decreasing by 21% compared to treatments without N addition. These results are unique compared to aerobic cropping systems in which N2 O emissions are the primary contributor to GWP, meaning yield-scaled GWP may not necessarily decrease for aerobic crops when yields are optimized by N fertilizer addition. Balancing gains in agricultural productivity with climate change concerns, this work supports the concept that high rice yields can be achieved with minimal yield-scaled GWP through optimal N application rates. Moreover, additional improvements in N use efficiency may further reduce yield-scaled GWP, thereby strengthening the economic and environmental sustainability of rice systems. PMID:24115565

  11. Increasing yield potential of hybrid rice through molecular breeding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Deng Qiyun; Yuan Longping; Liang Fengshan; Zhuang Wen; Li Jiming; Wang Yueguang; Duan Meijuan; Xiong Yuedong; Wang Bin

    2005-01-01

    @@ Rice is the staple food for more than half of the world population. The utilization of the wild abortive cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) in 1970s has significantly raised rice yield potential. But the world's annual rice production will have to increase 70 percent over the next 30 years, to keep up with the demends of the growing population.

  12. Bird communities and biomass yields in potential bioenergy grasslands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, Peter J; Sample, David W; Williams, Carol L; Turner, Monica G

    2014-01-01

    Demand for bioenergy is increasing, but the ecological consequences of bioenergy crop production on working lands remain unresolved. Corn is currently a dominant bioenergy crop, but perennial grasslands could produce renewable bioenergy resources and enhance biodiversity. Grassland bird populations have declined in recent decades and may particularly benefit from perennial grasslands grown for bioenergy. We asked how breeding bird community assemblages, vegetation characteristics, and biomass yields varied among three types of potential bioenergy grassland fields (grass monocultures, grass-dominated fields, and forb-dominated fields), and assessed tradeoffs between grassland biomass production and bird habitat. We also compared the bird communities in grassland fields to nearby cornfields. Cornfields had few birds compared to perennial grassland fields. Ten bird Species of Greatest Conservation Need (SGCN) were observed in perennial grassland fields. Bird species richness and total bird density increased with forb cover and were greater in forb-dominated fields than grass monocultures. SGCN density declined with increasing vertical vegetation density, indicating that tall, dense grassland fields managed for maximum biomass yield would be of lesser value to imperiled grassland bird species. The proportion of grassland habitat within 1 km of study sites was positively associated with bird species richness and the density of total birds and SGCNs, suggesting that grassland bioenergy fields may be more beneficial for grassland birds if they are established near other grassland parcels. Predicted total bird density peaked below maximum biomass yields and predicted SGCN density was negatively related to biomass yields. Our results indicate that perennial grassland fields could produce bioenergy feedstocks while providing bird habitat. Bioenergy grasslands promote agricultural multifunctionality and conservation of biodiversity in working landscapes.

  13. Bird communities and biomass yields in potential bioenergy grasslands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J Blank

    Full Text Available Demand for bioenergy is increasing, but the ecological consequences of bioenergy crop production on working lands remain unresolved. Corn is currently a dominant bioenergy crop, but perennial grasslands could produce renewable bioenergy resources and enhance biodiversity. Grassland bird populations have declined in recent decades and may particularly benefit from perennial grasslands grown for bioenergy. We asked how breeding bird community assemblages, vegetation characteristics, and biomass yields varied among three types of potential bioenergy grassland fields (grass monocultures, grass-dominated fields, and forb-dominated fields, and assessed tradeoffs between grassland biomass production and bird habitat. We also compared the bird communities in grassland fields to nearby cornfields. Cornfields had few birds compared to perennial grassland fields. Ten bird Species of Greatest Conservation Need (SGCN were observed in perennial grassland fields. Bird species richness and total bird density increased with forb cover and were greater in forb-dominated fields than grass monocultures. SGCN density declined with increasing vertical vegetation density, indicating that tall, dense grassland fields managed for maximum biomass yield would be of lesser value to imperiled grassland bird species. The proportion of grassland habitat within 1 km of study sites was positively associated with bird species richness and the density of total birds and SGCNs, suggesting that grassland bioenergy fields may be more beneficial for grassland birds if they are established near other grassland parcels. Predicted total bird density peaked below maximum biomass yields and predicted SGCN density was negatively related to biomass yields. Our results indicate that perennial grassland fields could produce bioenergy feedstocks while providing bird habitat. Bioenergy grasslands promote agricultural multifunctionality and conservation of biodiversity in working landscapes.

  14. Analysis of yield advantage in mixed cropping.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Radha Ranganathan,

    1993-01-01

    It has long been recognized that mixed cropping can give yield advantages over sole cropping, but methods that can identify such yield benefits are still being developed. This thesis presents a method that combines physiological and economic principles in the evaluation of yield advantage. A product

  15. Production yield analysis - a new systematic method for improvement of raw material yield

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Somsen, D.J.; Capelle, A.; Tramper, J.

    2004-01-01

    Production Yield Analysis (PYA) is a structured system approach to optimize the production yield of production processes. The paper outlines the developed method and the 10 basic steps of the PYA. The PYA-method makes it possible to calculate the Yield Index of a process. This dimensionless figure c

  16. Oil palm natural diversity and the potential for yield improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcelos, Edson; Rios, Sara de Almeida; Cunha, Raimundo N V; Lopes, Ricardo; Motoike, Sérgio Y; Babiychuk, Elena; Skirycz, Aleksandra; Kushnir, Sergei

    2015-01-01

    African oil palm has the highest productivity amongst cultivated oleaginous crops. Species can constitute a single crop capable to fulfill the growing global demand for vegetable oils, which is estimated to reach 240 million tons by 2050. Two types of vegetable oil are extracted from the palm fruit on commercial scale. The crude palm oil and kernel palm oil have different fatty acid profiles, which increases versatility of the crop in industrial applications. Plantations of the current varieties have economic life-span around 25-30 years and produce fruits around the year. Thus, predictable annual palm oil supply enables marketing plans and adjustments in line with the economic forecasts. Oil palm cultivation is one of the most profitable land uses in the humid tropics. Oil palm fruits are the richest plant source of pro-vitamin A and vitamin E. Hence, crop both alleviates poverty, and could provide a simple practical solution to eliminate global pro-vitamin A deficiency. Oil palm is a perennial, evergreen tree adapted to cultivation in biodiversity rich equatorial land areas. The growing demand for the palm oil threatens the future of the rain forests and has a large negative impact on biodiversity. Plant science faces three major challenges to make oil palm the key element of building the future sustainable world. The global average yield of 3.5 tons of oil per hectare (t) should be raised to the full yield potential estimated at 11-18t. The tree architecture must be changed to lower labor intensity and improve mechanization of the harvest. Oil composition should be tailored to the evolving needs of the food, oleochemical and fuel industries. The release of the oil palm reference genome sequence in 2013 was the key step toward this goal. The molecular bases of agronomically important traits can be and are beginning to be understood at the single base pair resolution, enabling gene-centered breeding and engineering of this remarkable crop.

  17. Oil palm natural diversity and the potential for yield improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson eBarcelos

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available African oil palm has the highest productivity amongst cultivated oleaginous crops. Species can constitute a single crop capable to fulfil the growing global demand for vegetable oils, which is estimated to reach 240 million tons by 2050. Two types of vegetable oil are extracted from the palm fruit on commercial scale. The crude palm oil and kernel palm oil have different fatty acid profiles, which increases versatility of the crop in industrial applications. Plantations of the current varieties have economic life-span around 25-30 years and produce fruits around the year. Thus, predictable annual palm oil supply enables marketing plans and adjustments in line with the economic forecasts. Oil palm cultivation is one of the most profitable land uses in the humid tropics. Oil palm fruits are the richest plant source of pro-vitamin A and vitamin E. Hence, crop both alleviates poverty, and could provide a simple practical solution to eliminate global pro-vitamin A deficiency. Oil palm is a perennial, evergreen tree adapted to cultivation in biodiversity rich equatorial land areas. The growing demand for the palm oil threatens the future of the rain forests and has a large negative impact on biodiversity. Plant science faces three major challenges to make oil palm the key element of building the future sustainable world. The global average yield of 3.5 tons of oil per hectare (t should be raised to the full yield potential estimated at 11-18t. The tree architecture must be changed to lower labor intensity and improve mechanization of the harvest. Oil composition should be tailored to the evolving needs of the food, oleochemical and fuel industries. The release of the oil palm reference genome sequence in 2013 was the key step towards this goal. The molecular bases of agronomically important traits can be and are beginning to be understood at the single base pair resolution, enabling gene-centered breeding and engineering of this remarkable crop.

  18. Climatic and technological ceilings for Chinese rice stagnation based on yield gaps and yield trend pattern analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tianyi; Yang, Xiaoguang; Wang, Hesong; Li, Yong; Ye, Qing

    2014-04-01

    Climatic or technological ceilings could cause yield stagnation. Thus, identifying the principal reasons for yield stagnation within the context of the local climate and socio-economic conditions are essential for informing regional agricultural policies. In this study, we identified the climatic and technological ceilings for seven rice-production regions in China based on yield gaps and on a yield trend pattern analysis for the period 1980-2010. The results indicate that 54.9% of the counties sampled experienced yield stagnation since the 1980. The potential yield ceilings in northern and eastern China decreased to a greater extent than in other regions due to the accompanying climate effects of increases in temperature and decreases in radiation. This may be associated with yield stagnation and halt occurring in approximately 49.8-57.0% of the sampled counties in these areas. South-western China exhibited a promising scope for yield improvement, showing the greatest yield gap (30.6%), whereas the yields were stagnant in 58.4% of the sampled counties. This finding suggests that efforts to overcome the technological ceiling must be given priority so that the available exploitable yield gap can be achieved. North-eastern China, however, represents a noteworthy exception. In the north-central area of this region, climate change has increased the yield potential ceiling, and this increase has been accompanied by the most rapid increase in actual yield: 1.02 ton ha(-1) per decade. Therefore, north-eastern China shows a great potential for rice production, which is favoured by the current climate conditions and available technology level. Additional environmentally friendly economic incentives might be considered in this region. PMID:24130084

  19. Yield gaps and potential agricultural growth in West and Central Africa:

    OpenAIRE

    Nin-Pratt, Alejandro; Johnson, Michael; Magalhaes, Eduardo; You, Liangzhi; DIAO, Xinshen; Chamberlin, Jordan

    2011-01-01

    The authors identify a set of development priorities for agriculture that cut across West Africa at both the country and regional levels to achieve economywide growth goals in the region. To do this we adopt a modeling and analytical framework that involves the integration of spatial analysis to identify yield gaps determining the growth potential of different agricultural activities for areas with similar conditions and an economywide multimarket model to simulate ex ante the economic effect...

  20. Predicting spring barley yield from variety-specific yield potential, disease resistance and straw length, and from environment-specific disease loads and weed pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergård, Hanne; Kristensen, Kristian; Pinnschmidt, Hans O.;

    2008-01-01

    For low-input crop production, well-characterised varieties increase the possibilities of managing diseases and weeds. This analysis aims at developing a framework for analyzing grain yield using external varietal information about disease resistance, weed competitiveness and yield potential and ...... growth habit. Higher grain yield was thus predicted for taller plants under weed pressure. The results are discussed in relation to the model framework, impact of the considered traits and use of information from conventional variety testing in organic cropping systems....... parsimonious models explained about 50% of the yield variation among varieties including genotype-environment interactions. Disease resistance characteristics of varieties, weighted with disease loads of powdery mildew, leaf rust and net blotch, respectively, had a highly significant influence on grain yield...

  1. Applications of systems simulation for understanding and increasing yield potential of wheat and rice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aggarwal, P.K.

    2000-01-01

    Understanding and increasing yield potential of cereals is essential to meet the growing food demand in Asia. A crop growth simulation model -WTGROWS- was developed to quantify the climatically determined potential grain yields and yield gaps in wheat in tropics and sub-tropics. The model written in

  2. Riding the Yield Curve: A Spanning Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Galvani, Valentina; Landon, Stuart

    2011-01-01

    The average return on long-term bonds exceeds the return on short-term bills by a large amount over short investment horizons. A riding-the-yield-curve investment strategy takes advantage of the higher returns on longer term bonds. This strategy involves the purchase of bonds with maturities longer than the investment horizon and the sale of these bonds, before they mature, at the end of the investment horizon. Most of the literature that evaluates this strategy compares only ex post average ...

  3. Towards a global analysis of b{yields}s{gamma} and b{yields}sl{sup +}l{sup -} decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bobeth, Christoph [Excellence Cluster Universe, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Muenchen (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    Flavour changing neutral current decays mediated by b{yields}s{gamma} and b{yields}sl{sup +}l{sup -} are indirect probes of new physics at or beyond the electroweak scale. They have been under investigation at the B-factories and the Tevatron during the last decade and are investigated currently at the LHC. Especially LHCb is expected to provide unprecedented accuracy and the measurement of new observables for the first time until the end of this year (2012). The theoretical predictions of inclusive and exclusive decays have also been refined allowing the first global analysis of these decays. In particular the angular distribution of B{yields}K{sup *}({yields}K{pi})l{sup +}l{sup -} offers observables with reduced hadronic uncertainties whose potential role in a global anaylsis is studied. First results of model-independent fits are discussed.

  4. IC yield prediction and analysis using semi-empirical yield models and test data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciplickas, Dennis J.; Niewczas, Mariusz; Ruehl, Roland; Stine, Brian; Vallishayee, Rakesh R.; Wojciak, Wojtek

    2002-07-01

    This paper presents the result of an extension to the concept of Micro-Yield modeling. We have developed a design attribute extraction and yield prediction software system that - given the characterization of a semiconductor process via complex test chips that we call Characterization Vehicle test chips and IC product layout and a set of proprietary yield models - computes detailed contributions of different yield models, of geometrical chip regions and of parts of the chip circuitry to the overall chip yield. The organization of the computed output allows easy comparison of predicted yields to inspection and electrical test measurements, where the electrical tests can include failure bit maps for memories and scan tests results for logic circuits. After we review the concept of the Yield Impact Matrix, we define a more general Micro-Event paradigm and introduce the Extended YIMP. We discuss its application to yield loss root-cause analysis, review related work and present example applications of the overall system built around this concepts.

  5. Pod yield stability analysis of runner peanut lines using AMMI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eder Jorge de Oliveira

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The interaction between genotypes and environment (GxE can influence the selection process andrecommendation of peanut cultivars. The objective of this study was therefore to evaluate the influence of GxE interaction ofpeanut pod yield using AMMI. The yield of 18 peanut lines and the cultivars IAC Caiapo and Runner IAC 886 was assessedin 10 field trials in the state of São Paulo. Significant effects of genotypes, environments and GxE interactions were detected inthe analysis. The first AMMI principal component (IPCA1 explained 42.3% of the sum of squares of the GxE interaction.Sixteen of the twenty lines/cultivars under evaluation presented medium to high stability. Genotypes L127, L118, L123 line andRunner IAC 886 accounted for the greatest part of GxE interaction. Lines L132, L149 and L1-50P presented the higheststability and pod yields, above the overall mean, reflecting outstanding potential for cultivar recommendation.

  6. Production potential and yield gaps of summer maize in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Tao; LU Changhe; YU Bohua

    2011-01-01

    Crop potential productivity is a key index of scientifically appraising crop production and land population-supporting capacity.This study firstly simulated the potential and waterlimited yield of summer maize in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region using WOFOST model with meteorological data of 40 years,and then analyzed yield gaps between the actual and potential yield based on statistical data at county level.The potential and water-limited yield of summer maize in the BTH region is 6854-8789 kg/hm2 and 6434-8741 kg/hm2,and the weighted average for whole region is 7861 kg/hm2 and 7185 kg/hm2,respectively.The simulated yields gradually decrease from northeast to southwest with changes in climatic conditions particularly temperature and precipitation.Annual variation of potential yield is higher in the central and southern parts than the northeastern part.Compared to potential yield,the water-limited yield has higher coefficient of variation (CV),because of precipitation effects.The actual yield of summer maize was 2537-8730 kg/hm2,regionally averaged at 5582 kg/hm2,about 70% of the potential yield,implying that the region has room to increase the yield by improving crop management and irrigation systems.

  7. Determination of potential management zones from soil electrical conductivity, yield and crop data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan LI; Zhou SHI; Ci-fang WU; Hong-yi LI; Feng LI

    2008-01-01

    One approach to apply precision agriculture to optimize crop production and environmental quality is identifying management zones. In this paper, the variables of soil electrical conductivity (EC) data, cotton yield data and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data in an about 15 ha field in a coastal saline land were selected as data resources, and their spatial variabilities were firstly analyzed and spatial distribution maps constructed with geostatistics technique. Then fuzzy c-means clustering algorithm was used to define management zones, fuzzy performance index (FPI) and normalized classification entropy (NCE) were used to determine the optimal cluster numbers. Finally one-way variance analysis was performed on 224 georeferenced soil and yield sampling points to assess how well the defined management zones reflected the soil properties and productivity level. The results reveal that the optimal number of management zones for the present study area was 3 and the defined management zones provided a better description of soil properties and yield variation. Statistical analyses indicate significant differences between the chemical properties of soil samples and crop yield in each management zone, and management zone 3 presented the highest nutrient level and potential crop productivity, whereas management zone 1 the lowest. Based on these findings, we conclude that fuzzy c-means clustering approach can be used to delineate management zones by using the given three variables in the coastal saline soils, and the defined management zones form an objective basis for targeting soil samples for nutrient analysis and development of site-specific application strategies.

  8. Remote sensing in dryland cotton: relation to yield potential and soil properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, John J.; Iqbal, Javed; Thomasson, John A.; Willers, Jeffrey L.; Jenkins, Johnie N.

    2004-01-01

    The use of soil and topography information to explain crop yield variation across fields is often applied for crop management purposes. Remote sensed data is a potential source of information for site-specific crop management, providing both spatial and temporal information about soil and crop condition. Studies were conducted in a 104-acre (42-hectare) dryland cotton field in 2001 and 2002 in order to (1) qualitatively assess the spatial variability of soil physical properties from kriged estimates, (2) compare actual yields with normalized difference vegetation reflectance indices (NDVI) obtained from multispectral imagery and from in situ radiometer data, and (3) predict site-specific cotton yields using a crop simulation model, GOSSYM. An NDVI map of soybean in 2000 obtained from a multispectral image was used to establish four sites in each low, medium and high NDVI class. These 12 sites were studied in 2001 and 12 more sites selected at random were studied in 2002 (n = 24). Site-specific measurements included leaf area index (LAI), canopy hyperspectral reflectance, and three-band multispectral image data for green, red, and near-infrared reflectance wavebands at spatial resolutions of 2 m in 2001 and 0.5 m in 2002. Imagery was imported into the image analysis software Imagine (ERDAS, v. 8.5) for georegistration and image analysis. A 6x6 pixels (144 m2) area of interest was established on top of each field plot site and digital numbers (DN) from reflectance imagery were extracted from each band for derivation of NDVI maps for each of four sampling dates. Lint yield from each plot site was collected by hand and also by a cotton picker equipped with AgLeader yield monitor and OmniStar differential global positioning system. We found plant height, leaf area index, and lint yield were closely associated with NDVI maps and with NIR band values acquired from either an aircraft or handheld (GER-1500) sensor during peak bloom in mid July. Results indicate NDVI and NIR

  9. Quantitative Genetic Analysis for Yield and Yield Components in Boro Rice (Oryza sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supriyo CHAKRABORTY

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-nine genotypes of boro rice (Oryza sativa L. were grown in a randomized block design with three replications in plots of 4m x 1m with a crop geometry of 20 cm x 20 cm between November-April, in Regional Agricultural Research Station, Nagaon, India. Quantitative data were collected on five randomly selected plants of each genotype per replication for yield/plant, and six other yield components, namely plant height, panicles/plant, panicle length, effective grains/panicle, 100 grain weight and harvest index. Mean values of the characters for each genotype were used for analysis of variance and covariance to obtain information on genotypic and phenotypic correlation along with coheritability between two characters. Path analyses were carried out to estimate the direct and indirect effects of boro rice�s yield components. The objective of the study was to identify the characters that mostly influence the yield for increasing boro rice productivity through breeding program. Correlation analysis revealed significant positive genotypic correlation of yield/plant with plant height (0.21, panicles/plant (0.53, panicle length (0.53, effective grains/panicle (0.57 and harvest index (0.86. Path analysis based on genotypic correlation coefficients elucidated high positive direct effect of harvest index (0.8631, panicle length (0.2560 and 100 grain weight (0.1632 on yield/plant with a residual effect of 0.33. Plant height and panicles/plant recorded high positive indirect effect on yield/plant via harvest index whereas effective grains/panicle on yield/plant via harvest index and panicle length. Results of the present study suggested that five component characters, namely harvest index, effective grains/plant, panicle length, panicles/plant and plant height influenced the yield of boro rice. A genotype with higher magnitude of these component characters could be either selected from the existing genotypes or evolved by breeding program for genetic

  10. Production yield analysis in the poultry processing industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Somsen, D.J.; Capelle, A.; Tramper, J.

    2004-01-01

    The paper outlines a case study where the PYA-method (production yield analysis) was implemented at a poultry-slaughtering line, processing 9000 broiler chicks per hour. It was shown that the average live weight of a flock of broilers could be used to predict the maximum production yield of the part

  11. Assessment of Potential Yield andClimate Change Sensitivity of Peanut Crop in Cagayan Valley, Philippines using DSSAT Simulation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balderama, O. F.

    2013-12-01

    Peanut is a major upland crop in Cagayan Valley and a leguminous crop that requires less water and therefore, considered an important crop in improving productivity of upland and rainfed areas. However, little information is available on the potential productivity of the crop and analysis on the production constraints including climate change sensitivity. This study was aimed to determine yield potential and production constraints of peanut crop in Cagayan Valley through the use of Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer (DSSAT) simulation modeling; analyze yield gaps between simulated and actual yield levels and to provide decision support to further optimize peanut production under climate change condition. Site of experiment for model calibration and validation was located on-station at Isabela State University, Echague, Isabela. Rainfall and other climatic variables were monitored using a HOBO weather station (Automatic Weather Station) which is strategically installed inside experimental zone.The inputs required to run the CSM model include information on soil and weather conditions, crop management practices and cultivar specific genetic coefficients. In the first step,a model calibration was conducted to determine the cultivar coefficients for certain peanut cultivar that are normally grown in Cagayan Valley. Crop growth and yield simulation modeling was undertaken using the Decision Support System for Agro-Technology Transfer (DSSAT) for small seeded peanut (Pn9). An evaluation of the CSM-CROPGRO-peanut model was performed with data sets from peanut experiment conducted from December 2011 to April 2012. The model was evaluated in the estimation of potential yield of peanut under rainfed condition and low-nitrogen application. Yield potential for peanut limited only by temperature and solar radiation and no-water and nutrient stress, ranged from 3274 to 4805 kg per hectare for six planting dates (October 1, October 15, November 1, November 15

  12. Corrosion potential analysis system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiefer, Karl F.

    1998-03-01

    Many cities in the northeastern U.S. transport electrical power from place to place via underground cables, which utilize voltages from 68 kv to 348 kv. These cables are placed in seamless steel pipe to protect the conductors. These buried pipe-type-cables (PTCs) are carefully designed and constantly pressurized with transformer oil to prevent any possible contamination. A protective coating placed on the outside diameter of the pipe during manufacture protects the steel pipe from the soil environment. Notwithstanding the protection mechanisms available, the pipes remain vulnerable to electrochemical corrosion processes. If undetected, corrosion can cause the pipes to leak transformer oil into the environment. These leaks can assume serious proportions due to the constant pressure on the inside of the pipe. A need exists for a detection system that can dynamically monitor the corrosive potential on the length of the pipe and dynamically adjust cathodic protection to counter local and global changes in the cathodic environment surrounding the pipes. The northeastern United States contains approximately 1000 miles of this pipe. This milage is critical to the transportation and distribution of power. So critical, that each of the pipe runs has a redundant double running parallel to it. Invocon, Inc. proposed and tested a technically unique and cost effective solution to detect critical corrosion potential and to communicate that information to a central data collection and analysis location. Invocon's solution utilizes the steel of the casing pipe as a communication medium. Each data gathering station on the pipe can act as a relay for information gathered elsewhere on the pipe. These stations must have 'smart' network configuration algorithms that constantly test various communication paths and determine the best and most power efficient route through which information should flow. Each network station also performs data acquisition and analysis tasks that ultimately

  13. Raising yield potential of wheat. III. Optimizing partitioning to grain while maintaining lodging resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulkes, M John; Slafer, Gustavo A; Davies, William J; Berry, Pete M; Sylvester-Bradley, Roger; Martre, Pierre; Calderini, Daniel F; Griffiths, Simon; Reynolds, Matthew P

    2011-01-01

    A substantial increase in grain yield potential is required, along with better use of water and fertilizer, to ensure food security and environmental protection in future decades. For improvements in photosynthetic capacity to result in additional wheat yield, extra assimilates must be partitioned to developing spikes and grains and/or potential grain weight increased to accommodate the extra assimilates. At the same time, improvement in dry matter partitioning to spikes should ensure that it does not increase stem or root lodging. It is therefore crucial that improvements in structural and reproductive aspects of growth accompany increases in photosynthesis to enhance the net agronomic benefits of genetic modifications. In this article, six complementary approaches are proposed, namely: (i) optimizing developmental pattern to maximize spike fertility and grain number, (ii) optimizing spike growth to maximize grain number and dry matter harvest index, (iii) improving spike fertility through desensitizing floret abortion to environmental cues, (iv) improving potential grain size and grain filling, and (v) improving lodging resistance. Since many of the traits tackled in these approaches interact strongly, an integrative modelling approach is also proposed, to (vi) identify any trade-offs between key traits, hence to define target ideotypes in quantitative terms. The potential for genetic dissection of key traits via quantitative trait loci analysis is discussed for the efficient deployment of existing variation in breeding programmes. These proposals should maximize returns in food production from investments in increased crop biomass by increasing spike fertility, grain number per unit area and harvest index whilst optimizing the trade-offs with potential grain weight and lodging resistance.

  14. Spatial and Temporal Characteristics of Rice Potential Productivity and Potential Yield Increment in Main Production Regions of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Xiao-jian; TANG Liang; LIU Xiao-jun; CAO Wei-xing; ZHU Yan

    2013-01-01

    The vast area and marked variation of China make it difficult to predict the impact of climate changes on rice productivity in different regions. Therefore, analyzing the spatial and temporal characteristics of rice potential productivity and predicting the possible yield increment in main rice production regions of China is important for guiding rice production and ensuring food security. Using meteorological data of main rice production regions from 1961 to 1970 (the 1960s) and from 1996 to 2005 (the 2000s) provided by 333 stations, the potential photosynthetic, photo-thermal and climatic productivities in rice crop of the 1960s and 2000s in main rice production regions of China were predicted, and differences in the spatial and temporal distribution characteristics between two decades were analyzed. Additionally, the potential yield increment based on the high yield target and actual yield of rice in the 2000s were predicted. Compared with the 1960s, the potential photosynthetic productivity of the 2000s was seen to have decreased by 5.40%, with rates in northeastern and southwestern China found to be lower than those in central and southern China. The potential photo-thermal productivity was generally seen to decrease (2.56%) throughout main rice production regions, decreasing most in central and southern China. However, an increase was seen in northeastern and southwestern China. The potential climatic productivity was observed to be lower (7.44%) in the 2000s compared to the 1960s, but increased in parts of central and southern China. The potential yield increment from the actual yield to high yield target in the 2000s were no more than 6×103 kg ha-1 and ranged from 6×103 to 12×103 kg ha-1 in most of the single-and double-cropping rice growing regions, respectively. The yield increasing potential from the high yield target to the potential photo-thermal productivity in 2000s were less than 10×103 kg ha-1 and ranged from 10×103 to 30×103 kg ha-1 in most

  15. Global wild annual Lens collection: a potential resource for lentil genetic base broadening and yield enhancement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohar Singh

    Full Text Available Crop wild relatives (CWRs are invaluable gene sources for various traits of interest, yet these potential resources are themselves increasingly threatened by the impact of climate change as well as other anthropogenic and socio-economic factors. The prime goal of our research was to cover all aspects of wild Lens genetic resource management like species characterization, agro-morphological evaluation, diversity assessment, and development of representative sets for its enhanced utilization in lentil base broadening and yield improvement initiatives. We characterized and evaluated extensively, the global wild annual Lens taxa, originating from twenty seven counties under two agro-climatic conditions of India consecutively for three cropping seasons. Results on various qualitative and quantitative characters including two foliar diseases showed wide variations for almost all yield attributing traits including multiple disease resistance in the wild species, L. nigricans and L. ervoides accessions. The core set developed from the entire Lens taxa had maximum representation from Turkey and Syria, indicating rich diversity in accessions originating from these regions. Diversity analysis also indicated wide geographical variations across genepool as was reflected in the core set. Potential use of core set, as an initial starting material, for genetic base broadening of cultivated lentil was also suggested.

  16. Regional potential yields of short rotation willow plantations on agricultural land in Northern Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mola-Yudego, B. (Univ. of Eastern Finland, School of Forest Sciences, Joensuu (Finland)), email: blas.mola@uef.fi

    2010-07-01

    The development of short rotation forestry for bioenergy requires accurate and reliable yield estimates. This paper analyses the current, expected and potential regional productivity of short rotation willow plantations for six countries in Northern Europe. The estimations for present productivity are based on empirical models, using data regarding management, and local productivity based on the regional cereal yields. The estimates of expected yield rely on the current trends of yield increase from commercial willow plantations in the region. The estimates for potential yield are based on climatic restrictions. The results show potential average yields of 9.5, 6.8, 7.9, 9.0, 9.3, and 8.0 odt ha-1 yr-1 for Denmark, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Sweden, respectively. The results of the study also show that there is a wide regional variation between the different countries. In Denmark, Finland and Sweden there is a convergence between the future forecasts and the climatic potential yields in the areas of high productivity. The Baltic countries seem to present lower estimates of present productivity, reflecting possible socio-economic restrictions, although they show a high biomass potential. The methods presented in this study can be further developed in other areas where willow cultivation is considered, and can serve as a basis for future economic considerations. (orig.)

  17. How good is good enough? Data requirements for reliable crop yield simulations and yield-gap analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grassini, P.; Bussel, van L.G.J.; Wart, van J.; Wolf, J.; Claessens, L.; Yang, H.; Boogaard, H.L.; Groot, de H.L.E.; Ittersum, van M.K.; Cassman, K.G.

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies have been published during the past two decades that use simulation models to assesscrop yield gaps (quantified as the difference between potential and actual farm yields), impact of climatechange on future crop yields, and land-use change. However, there is a wide range in quality

  18. Genetic analysis for yield and its components in hybrid pigeonpea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ch.Sreelakshmi, C.V.Sameer Kumar and D.Shivani

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Mahalanobis D2 statistics was applied to assess the divergence among the 36 hybrids and three checks of pigeonpea. The hybrids were grouped into nine clusters, where cluster I was the largest containing twenty one hybrids followed by cluster II with seven hybrids. The inter cluster distance was maximum between cluster III and VIII followed by III and VI and seed yield contributed the most (22.2 towards genetic divergence. High heritability coupled with high genetic advance as per cent of mean was noticed for seed yield, number of primary branches per plant and secondary branches per plant suggesting additive gene action controlling these traits. Seed yield showed positive correlation with all the characters studied except 100-seed weight. Genotypic path analysis revealed that the maximum direct effect on seed yield was exhibited by number of primary branches per plant, days to 50% flowering and number of pods per plant.

  19. Integration of remote sensing, RUSLE and GIS to model potential soil loss and sediment yield (SY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Kamaludin

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Land use activities within a basin serve as one of the contributing factors which cause deterioration of river water quality through its potential effect on erosion. Sediment yield in the form of suspended solid in the river water body which is transported to the coastal area occurs as a sign of lowering of the water quality. Hence, the aim of this study was to determine potential soil loss using the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE model and the sediment yield, in the Geographical Information Systems (GIS environment within selected sub-catchments of Pahang River Basin. RUSLE was used to estimate potential soil losses and sediment yield by utilizing information on rainfall erosivity (R using interpolation of rainfall data, soil erodibility (K using field measurement and soil map, vegetation cover (C using satellite images, topography (LS using DEM and conservation practices (P using satellite images. The results indicated that the rate of potential soil loss in these sub-catchments ranged from very low to extremely high. The area covered by very low to low potential soil loss was about 99%, whereas moderate to extremely high soil loss potential covered only about 1% of the study area. Sediment yield represented only 1% of the potential soil loss. The sediment yield (SY value in Pahang River turned out to be higher closer to the river mouth because of the topographic character, climate, vegetation type and density, and land use within the drainage basin.

  20. Managment oriented analysis of sediment yield time compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetanova, Anna; Le Bissonnais, Yves; Raclot, Damien; Nunes, João P.; Licciardello, Feliciana; Le Bouteiller, Caroline; Latron, Jérôme; Rodríguez Caballero, Emilio; Mathys, Nicolle; Klotz, Sébastien; Mekki, Insaf; Gallart, Francesc; Solé Benet, Albert; Pérez Gallego, Nuria; Andrieux, Patrick; Moussa, Roger; Planchon, Olivier; Marisa Santos, Juliana; Alshihabi, Omran; Chikhaoui, Mohamed

    2016-04-01

    The understanding of inter- and intra-annual variability of sediment yield is important for the land use planning and management decisions for sustainable landscapes. It is of particular importance in the regions where the annual sediment yield is often highly dependent on the occurrence of few large events which produce the majority of sediments, such as in the Mediterranean. This phenomenon is referred as time compression, and relevance of its consideration growths with the increase in magnitude and frequency of extreme events due to climate change in many other regions. So far, time compression has ben studied mainly on events datasets, providing high resolution, but (in terms of data amount, required data precision and methods), demanding analysis. In order to provide an alternative simplified approach, the monthly and yearly time compressions were evaluated in eight Mediterranean catchments (of the R-OSMed network), representing a wide range of Mediterranean landscapes. The annual sediment yield varied between 0 to ~27100 Mg•km-2•a-1, and the monthly sediment yield between 0 to ~11600 Mg•km-2•month-1. The catchment's sediment yield was un-equally distributed at inter- and intra-annual scale, and large differences were observed between the catchments. Two types of time compression were distinguished - (i) the inter-annual (based on annual values) and intra- annual (based on monthly values). Four different rainfall-runoff-sediment yield time compression patterns were observed: (i) no time-compression of rainfall, runoff, nor sediment yield, (ii) low time compression of rainfall and runoff, but high compression of sediment yield, (iii) low compression of rainfall and high of runoff and sediment yield, and (iv) low, medium and high compression of rainfall, runoff and sediment yield. All four patterns were present at inter-annual scale, while at intra-annual scale only the two latter were present. This implies that high sediment yields occurred in

  1. The impact of climate change on rice yield in Bangladesh: a time series analysis

    OpenAIRE

    IFTEKHAR UDDIN AHMED CHOWDHURY; MOHAMMAD ABUL EARSHAD KHAN

    2015-01-01

    Rice is the staple food of about 158 million people of Bangladesh, but the increasing climate change vulnerabilities and global warming are severely reducing the yield of various rice crops and may threaten the food security in the country. Therefore, this study is undertaken to examine the potential impact of climate change on the yield of three different rice crops (namely, Aus, Aman and Boro) in Bangladesh. A multiple regression analysis using OLS method is employed to assess the climate-c...

  2. Pod yield stability analysis of runner peanut lines using AMMI

    OpenAIRE

    Eder Jorge de Oliveira; Ignácio José de Godoy

    2006-01-01

    The interaction between genotypes and environment (GxE) can influence the selection process andrecommendation of peanut cultivars. The objective of this study was therefore to evaluate the influence of GxE interaction ofpeanut pod yield using AMMI. The yield of 18 peanut lines and the cultivars IAC Caiapo and Runner IAC 886 was assessedin 10 field trials in the state of São Paulo. Significant effects of genotypes, environments and GxE interactions were detected inthe analysis. The first AMMI ...

  3. Lower Bound Limit Analysis Of Slabs With Nonlinear Yield Criteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krabbenhøft, Kristian; Damkilde, Lars

    2002-01-01

    A finite element formulation of the limit analysis of perfectly plastic slabs is given. An element with linear moment fields for which equilibrium is satisfied exactly is used in connection with an optimization algorithm taking into account the full nonlinearity of the yield criteria. Both load and...... material optimization problems are formulated and by means of the duality theory of linear programming the displacements are extracted from the dual variables. Numerical examples demonstrating the capabilities of the method and the effects of using a more refined representation of the yield criteria are...

  4. Yield gap analysis and assessment of climate-induced yield trends of irrigated rice in selected provinces of the Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reiner Wassmann

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This study describes a combined empirical/modeling approach to assess the possible impact of climate variability on rice production in the Philippines. We collated climate data of the last two decades (1985-2002 as well as yield statistics of six provinces of the Philippines, selected along a North-South gradient. Data from the climate information system of NASA were used as input parameters of the model ORYZA2000 to determine potential yields and, in the next steps, the yield gaps defined as the difference between potential and actual yields. Both simulated and actual yields of irrigated rice varied strongly between years. However, no climate-driven trends were apparent and the variability in actual yields showed no correlation with climatic parameters. The observed variation in simulated yields was attributable to seasonal variations in climate (dry/wet season and to climatic differences between provinces and agro-ecological zones. The actual yield variation between provinces was not related to differences in the climatic yield potential but rather to soil and management factors. The resulting yield gap was largest in remote and infrastructurally disfavored provinces (low external input use with a high production potential (high solar radiation and day-night temperature differences. In turn, the yield gap was lowest in central provinces with good market access but with a relatively low climatic yield potential. We conclude that neither long-term trends nor the variability of the climate can explain current rice yield trends and that agroecological, seasonal, and management effects are over-riding any possible climatic variations. On the other hand the lack of a climate-driven trend in the present situation may be superseded by ongoing climate change in the future.

  5. Using historical wafermap data for automated yield analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To be productive and profitable in a modern semiconductor fabrication environment, large amounts of manufacturing data must be collected, analyzed, and maintained. This includes data collected from in- and off-line wafer inspection systems and from the process equipment itself. This data is increasingly being used to design new processes, control and maintain tools, and to provide the information needed for rapid yield learning and prediction. Because of increasing device complexity, the amount of data being generated is outstripping the yield engineer close-quote s ability to effectively monitor and correct unexpected trends and excursions. The 1997 SIA National Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors highlights a need to address these issues through open-quotes automated data reduction algorithms to source defects from multiple data sources and to reduce defect sourcing time.close quotes SEMATECH and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory have been developing new strategies and technologies for providing the yield engineer with higher levels of assisted data reduction for the purpose of automated yield analysis. In this article, we will discuss the current state of the art and trends in yield management automation. copyright 1999 American Vacuum Society

  6. Genetic analysis for fruit yield and yield attributes in okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. K. Akotkar and D. K. De

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The components of gene effects for yield and its components in okra were studied using generation mean analysis from six generations (P1, P2, F1, F2, BC1, and BC2 derived from six different genotypes. Joint scaling test was applied to detect the presence of epistasis. Epistasis was detected in both the cases. Prevalence of duplicate type of epistasis was observed in all the cases except number of fruits/ plant, fruit length in C1 (IC 3307 x IC 433645, fruit diameter, inter node length in C2 (IC- 43736 x Parbhani Kranti, fruit length, fruit diameter and fruit weight in C3 (IC-342075 X IC-332453. Additive, dominance and epistatic gene effects contribute significantly to the inheritance of various yield characters studied. The joint scaling test confirmed the inadequacy of the additive dominance model in most of the crosses for majority of the characters and indicated the presence of epistasis. Low narrow sense heritability values for most of the characters indicating that these characters are more influenced by the environment and they cannot be improved by simple selection.

  7. Physiological analysis of leaf senescence of two rice cultivars with different yield potential Análise fisiológica da senescência foliar de duas cultivares de arroz com diferentes potenciais de produtividade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antelmo Ralph Falqueto

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the physiological changes that occur in different leaves during the early and late grain-filling stages of two rice genotypes (Oryza sativa subsp. indica , BRS Pelota cultivar, and O. sativa subsp. japonica , BRS Firmeza cultivar, which present differences in grain yield potential. The plants were cultivated in greenhouse. Pigment content, chlorophyll fluorescence, electron transport and oxygen evolution rate were determined in the grain-filling stage, from the first to the forth leaf (top to bottom. Pigment content, photochemical efficiency of photosystem II and electron transport decreased significantly according to the position of leaves in 'BRS Pelota'. The BRS Firmeza cultivar shows higher pigment content and higher activity of the photosynthetic apparatus in comparison to 'BRS Pelota' during the grain-filling stage.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as mudanças fisiológicas que ocorrem em diferentes folhas durante o início e o final do estádio de enchimento de grãos em dois genótipos de arroz (Oryza sativa subsp. indica cultivar BRS Pelota e O. sativa subsp. japonica cultivar BRS Firmeza que apresentam diferenças no potencial de produção de grãos. As plantas foram cultivadas em casa de vegetação. Os teores de pigmentos, a fluorescência da clorofila e a taxa de liberação de oxigênio foram determinados no estádio de enchimento de grão da primeira à quarta folha (do topo à base. O teor de pigmentos, a eficiência fotoquímica do fotossistema II e o transporte de elétrons decresceram significativamente de acordo com a posição das folhas na cultivar BRS Pelota. A cultivar BRS Firmeza apresentou maior teor de pigmentos e maior atividade do aparato fotossintético em comparação à 'BRS Pelota' durante o estádio de enchimento de grão.

  8. Meeting the global food demand of the future by engineering crop photosynthesis and yield potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Stephen P; Marshall-Colon, Amy; Zhu, Xin-Guang

    2015-03-26

    Increase in demand for our primary foodstuffs is outstripping increase in yields, an expanding gap that indicates large potential food shortages by mid-century. This comes at a time when yield improvements are slowing or stagnating as the approaches of the Green Revolution reach their biological limits. Photosynthesis, which has been improved little in crops and falls far short of its biological limit, emerges as the key remaining route to increase the genetic yield potential of our major crops. Thus, there is a timely need to accelerate our understanding of the photosynthetic process in crops to allow informed and guided improvements via in-silico-assisted genetic engineering. Potential and emerging approaches to improving crop photosynthetic efficiency are discussed, and the new tools needed to realize these changes are presented.

  9. Integration of remote sensing, RUSLE and GIS to model potential soil loss and sediment yield (SY)

    OpenAIRE

    H. Kamaludin; Lihan, T.; Z. Ali Rahman; Mustapha, M.A.; Idris, W. M. R.; S. A. Rahim

    2013-01-01

    Land use activities within a basin serve as one of the contributing factors which cause deterioration of river water quality through its potential effect on erosion. Sediment yield in the form of suspended solid in the river water body which is transported to the coastal area occurs as a sign of lowering of the water quality. Hence, the aim of this study was to determine potential soil loss using the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) model and the sediment yield, in the Geographica...

  10. Yield Functions and Plastic Potentials for BCC Metals and Possibly Other Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, R M

    2005-09-29

    Yield functions and plastic potentials are expressed in terms of the invariants of the stress tensor for polycrystalline metals and other isotropic materials. The plastic volume change data of Richmond is used to evaluate the embedded materials properties for some bcc metals and one polymer. A general form for the plastic potential is found that is intended to represent and cover a wide range of materials types.

  11. Interrelationship and cause effect analysis among panicle yield attributing traits in lowland Traditional Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashim Chakravorty

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Yield component analysis provides a framework for identifying potentially useful traits for yield improvement. A field experiment was conducted for two consecutive years to evaluate the forty four low land traditional rice cultivars for twenty three panicle yield and its attributing traits during kharif season at the Zonal Adaptive Research Station, Krishnagar, Nadia, West Bengal, India. Significant varietal differences were observed for all the characters. Among the panicle yield attributing traits, number of primary branches per panicle, number of grains on primary branches panicle-1, number of spikelets on primary branches panicle-1, grain length, grain breadth, grain thickness, kernel breadth, kernel thickness, 100 grain weight, 100 kernel weight correlated significantly and positively with panicle yield both at the genotypic and phenotypic levels. Results of path analysis showed that the direct positive effect on panicle yield was greatest for number of spikelets on secondary branches panicle-1 (0.998 which is followed by number of grains on secondary branches panicle-1 (0.948, grain length (0.755, and number of spikelets on primary branches panicle-1 (0.625, grain thickness (0.392 and fertility % of spikelets on primary branches panicle-1 (0.378. Few characters like number of primary branches panicle-1, number of spikelets panicle-1, by number of grains on primary branches panicle-1 and grain breadth showed negative direct effect on panicle yield even though the genotypic correlation coefficients on panicle yield were positive. The study revealed that the direct selection of the above said traits might be rewarding for panicle yield improvement since they revealed a true relationship with the panicle yield.

  12. Simulating potential growth and yield of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) with PALMSIM: Model description, evaluation and application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoffmann, M.; Castaneda Vera, A.; Wijk, van M.T.; Giller, K.E.; Oberthür, T.; Donough, C.; Whitbread, A.M.

    2014-01-01

    Reducing the gap between water-limited potential yield and actual yield in oil palm production systems through intensification is seen as an important option for sustainably increasing palm oil production. Simulation models can play an important role in quantifying water-limited potential yield, and

  13. Improving yield potential in crops under elevated CO2: Integrating the photosynthetic and nitrogen utilization efficiencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surya eKant

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Increasing crop productivity to meet burgeoning human food demand is challenging under changing environmental conditions. Since industrial revolution atmospheric CO2 levels have linearly increased. Developing crop varieties with increased utilisation of CO2 for photosynthesis is an urgent requirement to cope with the irreversible rise of atmospheric CO2 and achieve higher food production. The primary effects of elevated CO2 levels in most crop plants, particularly C3 plants include increased biomass accumulation, although initial stimulation of net photosynthesis rate is only temporal and plants fail to sustain the maximal stimulation, a phenomenon known as photosynthesis acclimation. Despite this acclimation, grain yield is known to marginally increase under elevated CO2. The yield potential of C3 crops is limited by their capacity to exploit sufficient carbon. The C fertilization through elevated CO2 levels could potentially be used for substantial yield increase. Rubisco is the rate-limiting enzyme in photosynthesis and its activity is largely affected by atmospheric CO2 and nitrogen availability. In addition, maintenance of the C/N ratio is pivotal for various growth and development processes in plants governing yield and seed quality. For maximising the benefits of elevated CO2, raising plant nitrogen pools will be necessary as part of maintaining an optimal C/N balance. In this review, we discuss potential causes for the stagnation in yield increases under elevated CO2 levels and explore possibilities to overcome this limitation by improved photosynthetic capacity and enhanced nitrogen use efficiency. Opportunities of engineering nitrogen uptake, assimilatory, and responsive genes are also discussed that could ensure optimal nitrogen allocation towards expanding source and sink tissues. This might avert photosynthetic acclimation partially or completely and drive for improved crop production under elevated CO2 levels.

  14. PATH COEFFICIENT ANALYSIS OF SEVERAL COMPONENTS OIL YIELD IN SUNFLOWER (HELIANTHUS ANNUUS L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. MIjić

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of investigation was to analyse oil yield components and their relations by simple coefficient correlations as well as direct and indirect effects to oil yield by path analysis. Twenty-four sunflower hybrids were included in the investigation and their seven traits (plant height, head diameter, 1000 seed weight, hec- tolitar mass, grain yield, oil content and oil yield. Very strong positive correlation was estimated between grain yield and oil yield, strong positive correlation between hectolitar mass and oil yield, and middle corre- lation among oil yield and: 1000 seed weight, plaint height and oil content. There was no correlation between grain yields and oil content. Grain yield showed the strongest effect to oil yield. Oil content had lower effect to oil yield. Other traits showed no significant effect to oil yield, and their effect to oil yield was covered by indirect effect of grain yield.

  15. Seed yield components and their potential interaction in grasses - to what extend does seed weigth influence yield?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boelt, B; Gislum, R

    2010-01-01

     In a first-year seed crop of red fescue (Festuca rubra L.) the degree of lodging was controlled by the use of Moddus (Trinexapac-ethyl). Seed weight was found to increase by the decreasing degree of lodging prior to harvest. The higher seed weights were accompanied by higher yields even though t...

  16. Assessments of Maize Yield Potential in the Korean Peninsula Using Multiple Crop Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S. H.; Myoung, B.; Lim, C. H.; Lee, S. G.; Lee, W. K.; Kafatos, M.

    2015-12-01

    The Korean Peninsular has unique agricultural environments due to the differences in the political and socio-economical systems between the Republic of Korea (SK, hereafter) and the Democratic Peoples' Republic of Korea (NK, hereafter). NK has been suffering from the lack of food supplies caused by natural disasters, land degradation and failed political system. The neighboring developed country SK has a better agricultural system but very low food self-sufficiency rate (around 1% of maize). Maize is an important crop in both countries since it is staple food for NK and SK is No. 2 maize importing country in the world after Japan. Therefore evaluating maize yield potential (Yp) in the two distinct regions is essential to assess food security under climate change and variability. In this study, we have utilized multiple process-based crop models capable of regional-scale assessments to evaluate maize Yp over the Korean Peninsula - the GIS version of EPIC model (GEPIC) and APSIM model that can be expanded to regional scales (APSIM regions). First we evaluated model performance and skill for 20 years from 1991 to 2010 using reanalysis data (Local Data Assimilation and Prediction System (LDAPS); 1.5km resolution) and observed data. Each model's performances were compared over different regions within the Korean Peninsula of different regional climate characteristics. To quantify the major influence of individual climate variables, we also conducted a sensitivity test using 20 years of climatology. Lastly, a multi-model ensemble analysis was performed to reduce crop model uncertainties. The results will provide valuable information for estimating the climate change or variability impacts on Yp over the Korean Peninsula.

  17. Rosemary Aromatization of Extra Virgin Olive Oil and Process Optimization Including Antioxidant Potential and Yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erkan Karacabey

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Aromatization of olive oil especially by spices and herbs has been widely used technique throughout the ages in Mediterranean diets. The present study was focused on aromatization of olive oil by rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.. Aromatization process was optimized by response surface methodology as a function of malaxation’s conditions (temperature and time. According to authors’ best knowledge it was first time for examination of oil yield performance with antioxidant potential and pigments under effect of aromatization parameters. For all oil samples, values of the free acidity, peroxide, K232 and K270 as quality parameters fell within the ranges established for the highest quality category “extra virgin oil”. Oil yield (mL oil/kg olive paste changed from 158 to 208 with respect to design parameters. Total phenolic content and free radical scavenging activity as antioxidant potential of olive oil samples were varied in the range of 182.44 – 348.65 mg gallic acid equivalent/kg oil and 28.91 – 88.75 % inhibition of 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl-(DPPH•, respectively. Total contents of carotenoid, chlorophyll and pheophytin a as pigments in oil samples were found to be in between 0.09 – 0.48 mg carotenoid/kg oil, 0.11 – 0.96 mg chlorophyll/kg oil, 0.15 – 4.44 mg pheo α/kg oil, respectively. The proposed models for yield, pigments and antioxidant potential responses were found to be good enough for successful prediction of experimental results. Total phenolics, carotenoids and free radical scavenging activity of aromatized olive oil and oil yield were maximized to gather and optimal conditions were determined as 25°C, 84 min, and 2 % (Rosemary/olive paste; w/w.

  18. ANALYSIS OF ENTERPRISE MARKETING POTENTIAL

    OpenAIRE

    Krіvoruchko, О.; Pіpenko, I.

    2010-01-01

    Methodological fundamentals of enterprise marketing potential analysis have been devised on the basis of substantiation of the main activities, content, sequence and direction, means and methods of their implementation. The introduced fundamentals stipulate determining the changing level of marketing potential with time, ascertaining the influence of the structure of factors, which form them correspondence between an enterprise supply and demand of market entities considering the importance o...

  19. Sequential Path Analysis for Determination of Relationship Between Yield and Yield Components in Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum.L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohtasham MOHAMMADI

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to evaluate 295 wheat genotypes in Alpha-Lattice design with two replications. The arithmetic mean and standard deviation of grain yield was 2706 and 950 (kg/ha,respectively. The results of correlation coefficients indicated that grain yield had significant and positive association with plant height, spike length, early growth vigor and agronomic score. Whereas there were negative correlation coefficients between grain yield and days to physiological maturity and canopy temperature before and during anthesis. Path analysis indicated agronomic score and plant height had high positive direct effects on grain yield, while canopy temperature before and during anthesis, and days to maturity, wes another trait having negative direct effect on grain yield. The results of sequential path analysis showed the traits that accounted as a criteria variable for high grain yield were agronomic score, plant height, canopy temperature, spike length, chlorophyll content and early growth vigor, which were determined as first, second and third order variables and had strong effects on grain yield via one or more paths. More important, as canopy temperature, agronomic score and early growth vigor can be evaluated quickly and easily, these traits may be used for evaluation of large populations.

  20. Introduction to production yield analysis : a new tool for improvement of raw material yield

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Somsen, D.; Capelle, A.

    2002-01-01

    Mass losses during processing will result in a decrease of production yield. Losses can be separated in wanted and unwanted losses. Wanted losses are necessary to transform raw material into desired final product(s). Unwanted losses will result in additional raw material usage and generate additiona

  1. The Experimental Analysis Of An Innovative Yielding Metallic Damper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venghiac Vasile-Mircea

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the most destructive natural phenomena is the earthquake. These events destroy lives, goods and disrupt human activities. For this reason the anti-seismic protection of buildings is a very important and of interest subject in Civil Engineering. In the case of structures with a low seismic energy dissipation capacity (for example steel frame structures with Slimdek composite floors, this problem becomes more complicated due to the requirement of dampers. In this paper an experimental study is presented regarding an innovative yielding metallic energy dissipation device, proposed by the author. An experiment is carried out on a shake table. By studying the results from the experiments and from the previous carried out numerical analysis we can conclude that this device provides a high anti-seismic protection for this type of structures.

  2. Analysis of shape isomer yields of 237Pu in the framework of dynamical–statistical model

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hadi Eslamizadeh

    2012-02-01

    Data on shape isomer yield for + 235U reaction at $E^{\\text{lab}}$ = 20–29 MeV are analysed in the framework of a combined dynamical–statistical model. From this analysis, information on the double humped fission barrier parameters for some Pu isotopes has been obtained and it is shown that the depth of the second potential well should be less than the results of statistical model calculations.

  3. Simulating potential growth and yield of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) with PALMSIM: Model description, evaluation and application.

    OpenAIRE

    Hoffmann, Maik; Castañeda Vera, Alba; Van Wijk, M. T.; Giller, K.E.; Oberthür, T.; Donough, C.; Whitbread, A.M.

    2014-01-01

    Reducing the gap between water-limited potential yield and actual yield in oil palm production systems through intensification is seen as an important option for sustainably increasing palm oil production. Simulation models can play an important role in quantifying water-limited potential yield, and therefore the scope for intensification, but no oil palm model exists that is both simple enough and at the same time incorporates sufficient plant physiological knowledge to be generally applicab...

  4. Yield constraint analysis of rainfed lowland rice in Souteast Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Boling, A.A.

    2007-01-01

    Keywords: Fertilizer application, field hydrology, plant nutrient uptake, toposequence, weed control, yield loss.   Rainfed lowland rice yields are low and unstable due to uncertain water supply, low soil fertility, and pest infestation. To design management interventions aimed at increasing rainfed rice production, the magnitude of and variation in yield gaps associated with various constraining factors need to be assessed. This study aimed at improved understanding of spatial and temporal v...

  5. Evaluation of the development and yielding potential of Chenopodium quinoa Willd. under the climatic conditions of Europe. Part Two: Yielding potential of Chenopodium quinoa under different conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Krzysztof Gęsiński

    2012-01-01

    The evaluation of Chenopodium quinoa cultivation effects in Poland has been compared with European research results. It was found that the conditions in Europe are favorable to Chenopodium quinoa cultivation. Poland has the mean length of the vegetation period. The maximum value of this trait was found in Sweden. The conditions in Bydgoszcz (Poland) are very favorable to the cultivation for green matter and favorable as far as the seed yield is concerned. The most favorable seed yield was rec...

  6. A clone of irradiated banana cultivar 'Williams' with high yield potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efforts to improve banana in the Sudan started effectively with three IAEA mutation breeding projects. The most common banana cultivar is 'Dwarf Cavendish', which covers almost 95% of the area under banana production. This cultivar is considered as the most adapted banana cultivar to different climatic conditions, but it is prone to 'choke throat' and has low yield potential. Banana cv. 'Williams' was irradiated at the IAEA/FAO laboratories, Seibersdorf, Austria. Based on preliminary evaluation of the material, 5 mutants (i.e. W193-3, W188-3, W205-4, W206-1 and W224-4) were selected as single plants and propagated by tissue culture. Multi-location testing was carried out for these mutants with cvs. 'Dwarf Cavendish' and 'Williams as standard cultivars in a randomized complete block design with 4 replications and 25 plants per replication. Spacing was 2 x 2 m (2500 plant per ha) and one sucker was retained. The bunch weight and cumulative yield of clone 193-3 were significantly higher than all banana genotypes. The high yield of clone W193-3 in the plant crop was due to the significantly higher number of hands per bunch and larger fingers. The plant height at shooting and pseudostem girth were significantly higher in clone W193-3. The stability parameters for bunch weight of the different clones showed that clone W193-3 was stable with high yield in all environments. Clone W193-3 was released as a new banana cultivar for farmers under the names 'Albeely'. (author)

  7. Nonparametric Analysis of Yield Stability of some Winter Wheat Varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zrinka Knezović

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The important role in the creation of the new varieties has their stability in different environments. Due to genotype x environment interaction, their performance could be altered so much that their ranking order in different environments would be different, which makes the selection of the best varieties difficult. Therefore, it is important to identify the stable genotypes. Nonparametric measures of stability are used less often then parametric measures. However, they have certain advantages. Their use does not depend on any assumption, because they are based on ranks. In this case study, the use of nonparametric methods in analysis of genotype x environment interaction and stability estimation is investigated in winter wheat variety trials yield data set. The presence of interaction is tested using four nonparametric methods, and interaction is detected in each and every year of investigation. Thereafter, the stability of genotypes is estimated using three nonparametric measures, and their values are compared with values of parametric measures estimated in an earlier study on the same data set. Comparison showed satisfactory resemblance between nonparametric and parametric measures of stability.

  8. Maximizing Amazonia's Ecosystem Services: Juggling the potential for carbon storage, agricultural yield and biodiversity in the Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, C. S.; Foley, J. A.; Gerber, J. S.; Polasky, S.

    2011-12-01

    The Amazon is not only an exceptionally biodiverse and carbon-rich tract of tropical forest, it is also a case study in land use change. Over the next forty years it will continue to experience pressure from an urbanizing and increasingly affluent populace: under a business-as-usual scenario, global cropland, pasture and biofuels systems will carry on expanding, while the Amazon's carbon storage potential will likely become another viable revenue source under REDD+. Balancing those competing land use pressures ought also take into account Amazonia's high - but heterogeneous - biodiversity. Knowing where Amazonia has opportunities to make efficient or optimal trade offs between carbon storage, agricultural production and biodiversity can allow policymakers to direct or influence LUC drivers. This analysis uses a spatially-explicit model that takes climate and management into account to quantify the potential agricultural yield of both the Amazon's most important agricultural commodities - sugar, soy and maize - as well as several that are going to come into increasing prominence, including palm oil. In addition, it maps the potential for carbon to be stored in forest biomass and relative species richness across Amazonia. We then compare carbon storage, agricultural yield and species richness and identify areas where efficient trade offs occur between food, carbon, and biodiversity - three critical ecosystem goods and services provided by the world's largest tropical forest.

  9. Automatic yield-line analysis of slabs using discontinuity layout optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Matthew; He, Linwei; Smith, Colin C; Le, Canh V

    2014-08-01

    The yield-line method of analysis is a long established and extremely effective means of estimating the maximum load sustainable by a slab or plate. However, although numerous attempts to automate the process of directly identifying the critical pattern of yield-lines have been made over the past few decades, to date none has proved capable of reliably analysing slabs of arbitrary geometry. Here, it is demonstrated that the discontinuity layout optimization (DLO) procedure can successfully be applied to such problems. The procedure involves discretization of the problem using nodes inter-connected by potential yield-line discontinuities, with the critical layout of these then identified using linear programming. The procedure is applied to various benchmark problems, demonstrating that highly accurate solutions can be obtained, and showing that DLO provides a truly systematic means of directly and reliably automatically identifying yield-line patterns. Finally, since the critical yield-line patterns for many problems are found to be quite complex in form, a means of automatically simplifying these is presented.

  10. Evaluation of the development and yielding potential of Chenopodium quinoa Willd. under the climatic conditions of Europe. Part Two: Yielding potential of Chenopodium quinoa under different conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Gęsiński

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of Chenopodium quinoa cultivation effects in Poland has been compared with European research results. It was found that the conditions in Europe are favorable to Chenopodium quinoa cultivation. Poland has the mean length of the vegetation period. The maximum value of this trait was found in Sweden. The conditions in Bydgoszcz (Poland are very favorable to the cultivation for green matter and favorable as far as the seed yield is concerned. The most favorable seed yield was recorded in Greece.

  11. Genetic Analysis of Yield and Its Components of B. napus Hybrids Using Resynthesized Rapeseed Lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Yong-guo; XIAO Ling; LU Chang-ming

    2009-01-01

    Resynthesized rapeseeds obtained by crossing the diploid parents Brassica rapa and Brassica oleracea have significant potential in hybrid breeding because of their higher genetic basis compared with Brassica napus cultivars. In this study, an 8×8 complete diallel experiment using four B. Napus cultivars (BN) and four resynthesized rapeseed lines (RS) as parents was designed to study heterosis and genetic inheritance for yield components. The results showed that heterosis for yield per plant, the number of pods per plant and number of seeds per pod were high, with means 32.77, 24.49 and 15.71%, respectively. Diallel analysis showed that both additive and dominant effects were significant for yield and yield components. All traits, except for 1 000-seed weight, were significant for b1 mean squares and exhibited directional dominance. Dominant genes had positive effects on yield per plant, pods per plant and 1000-seed weight, and negative effects on seeds per pod (r=-0.86, -0.62, -0.41, and 0.47, respectively). Narrow-sense heritability for yield per plant, pods per plant, and 1 000-seed weight and seeds per pod were 66, 31, 46 and 78% for the four traits, respectively. The F1 hybrids showed considerable yields compared to B. Napus cultivars when B. Napus cultivars and resynthesized rapeseeds were used as parents (NR hybrids), with many more pods per plant and lower seeds per pod compared with the rapeseed cultivars, indicating that the resynthesized rapeseed may be applicable in current hybrid breeding programs.

  12. Trait association and path coefficient analysis for yield and yield attributing traits in sesame (Sesamum indicum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renuka Goudappagoudra, R. Lokesha, and A.R.G. Ranganatha

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Correlation and path coefficient analysis was performed in one hundred and twenty F4 families of sesame, during kharif, 2010 on ten quantitative traits: days to 50 per cent flowering, days to maturity, plant height, distance from ground to first capsule, number of branches per plant, number of capsules per plant, capsule length, number of seeds per capsule, 1000 seed weight and seed yield per plant. Seed yield per plant showed significant positive association with number of capsules, number of seeds, number of branches per plant, plant height and 1000 seed weight. The magnitude of correlation was the highest in case of number of capsules per plant(r=0.7302. Number of capsules per plant, number of seeds per capsule and 1000 seed weight had high and positive direct effect on seed yield. The indirect effect of number of capsules per plant via days to 50% flowering, plant height, number of branches per plant on seed yield was high and positive. Selection for these characters may be useful in increasing seed yield in sesame.

  13. A global water supply reservoir yield model with uncertainty analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Understanding the reliability and uncertainty associated with water supply yields derived from surface water reservoirs is central for planning purposes. Using a global dataset of monthly river discharge, we introduce a generalized model for estimating the mean and variance of water supply yield, Y, expected from a reservoir for a prespecified reliability, R, and storage capacity, S assuming a flow record of length n. The generalized storage–reliability–yield (SRY) relationships reported here have numerous water resource applications ranging from preliminary water supply investigations, to economic and climate change impact assessments. An example indicates how our generalized SRY relationship can be combined with a hydroclimatic model to determine the impact of climate change on surface reservoir water supply yields. We also document that the variability of estimates of water supply yield are invariant to characteristics of the reservoir system, including its storage capacity and reliability. Standardized metrics of the variability of water supply yields are shown to depend only on the sample size of the inflows and the statistical characteristics of the inflow series. (paper)

  14. Sugar Beet (Beta vulgaris L. Yields and Potential for Bioethanol Production under Irrigation Regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona C. BÂRSAN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The current study was carried out to analyse three sugar beet genotypes regarding to the economic yield and the potential to produce bioethanol, under the influence of furrow irrigation regime in specific conditions of Transylvanian Plain, North-West Romania. The research factors, genotype (‘Leila’, ‘Clementina’ and ‘Libero’ and irrigation regime were studied within a polyfactorial experimental design. The results obtained indicated that in specific climatic conditions of Transylvanian Plain, ‘Libero’ genotype had a great performance and produced the highest yields. The average production of ‘Libero’ genotype was superior than ‘Clementina’ and ‘Leila’ varieties, both in irrigated and non-irrigated conditions, as it follows: 38.98 t ha–1, respectively, 52.72 t ha–1 in the first year of research; 47.63 t ha–1, respectively, 59.73 t ha–1 (in the second year; 2014-60.87 t ha–1, respectively, 74.43 t ha–1 (in the third year. Moreover, the production increased with 11.5% under irrigated conditions for all the studied genotypes. The results also revealed the positive influence of the irrigation regime on the qualitative parameters of the bioethanol (ethanol, higher saturated monoalcohols, methanol, water, inorganic chloride, cooper, phosphorous, sulphur etc. indicating that the obtained bioethanol might be a viable alternative for fossil fuels.

  15. Bioenergy potential of Ulva lactuca: Biomass yield, methane production and combustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruhn, Annette; Dahl, Jonas; Bangsø Nielsen, Henrik;

    2011-01-01

    a production potential of 45 T (TS) ha−1 y−1. Biogas production from fresh and macerated U. lactuca yielded up to 271 ml CH4 g−1 VS, which is in the range of the methane production from cattle manure and land based energy crops, such as grass-clover. Drying of the biomass resulted in a 5–9-fold increase...... in weight specific methane production compared to wet biomass. Ash and alkali contents are the main challenges in the use of U. lactuca for direct combustion. Application of a bio-refinery concept could increase the economical value of the U. lactuca biomass as well as improve its suitability for production...

  16. Safe handling of potential peroxide forming compounds and their corresponding peroxide yielded derivatives.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sears, Jeremiah Matthew; Boyle, Timothy J.; Dean, Christopher J.

    2013-06-01

    This report addresses recent developments concerning the identification and handling of potential peroxide forming (PPF) and peroxide yielded derivative (PYD) chemicals. PPF chemicals are described in terms of labeling, shelf lives, and safe handling requirements as required at SNL. The general peroxide chemistry concerning formation, prevention, and identification is cursorily presented to give some perspective to the generation of peroxides. The procedure for determining peroxide concentrations and the proper disposal methods established by the Hazardous Waste Handling Facility are also provided. Techniques such as neutralization and dilution are provided for the safe handling of any PYD chemicals to allow for safe handling. The appendices are a collection of all available SNL documentation pertaining to PPF/PYD chemicals to serve as a single reference.

  17. BREEDING FOR IMPROVING THE SEED YIELD AND YIELD CONTRIBUTING TRAITS IN BRASSICA NAPUS L. BY USING LINE × TESTER ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shehzad A. Kang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to estimate genetic variation, GCA and SCA in Brassica napus genotypes {Star, Golarchi, Hybripol, UAF 2, BA 0714 (lines and Range, DGL, Ayub2000 (testers} for seed yield and yield components. These genotypes were crossed in 5×3 line×tester crossing fashon (2010-2011.  Data of F1 and their parents were recorded (2011-2012 for days taken to maturity, plant height, secondary branches/plant, number of siliqua/plant, number of seeds/siliqua, 1000-seed weight, seed yield/plant, protein and oil content. The results of analysis of variance showed significant differences in different parents for all the traits. Analysis of variance for combining ability for different traits showed that mean sum of squares due to lines were significant for all the traits except 1000-seed weight and protein content whereas for testers, the mean sum of squares were non-significant for seed yield/plant. Highly significant results were found in line×tester interaction for all above mentioned traits. The estimates of SCA variance was noticed higher than GCA variance in all traits. The contributions of lines as compared to testers were greater for all traits except 1000-seed weight and protein content.

  18. Simulated potential and water-limited yields of cocoa under different agro-ecological zones in Peninsular Malaysia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zabawi, A.G.M.; Gerritsma, W.

    2009-01-01

    The yield of cocoa under potential and water-limited production levels in different agro-ecological zones was simulated using cocoa model CASE2. For both production levels, the yield was simulated using five years of elirnatic data (1991-1995) and plant data of three-year-old plant. The results show

  19. Trend Analysis of Rice Area and Yield in Punjab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present paper to estimated the situation of rice regarding its area and yield in Punjab, the estimation is based on time series data from 1980 to 2011. On the basis of minimum errors of accuracy measure quadratic model was selected. The estimated results revealed that there is an increasing trend in the area and yield of rice in Punjab. The area of rice was 276800 ha in 2012 abd would be 2934280 ha in 2016. Likewise results about yield indicated that it was 2438kg ha/sup -1/ in 2012 and would be 2678kg ha/sup -1/ in 2016. This increasing trend will provide a great opportunity for rice export from the country. (author)

  20. Prediction of yield by digital image analysis of vine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bešlić Zoran S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The grape yield per vine of cv. Cabernet Sauvignon (Vitis vinifera L. was evaluated on the basis of digital image processing of vine part. Digital camera was mounted on tripod and used for taking photos of 1 x 1 m portions of canopy. The Adobe Photoshop software was used to analyse image for the colour counting of the blue pixels of grape in the quadrant region. The actual yield was obtained from the photographed vines by hand harvesting of sampled portions. Linear regression was used for calculation of the correlation between blue pixels and grape weight. The relatively strong relationship between blue pixels and grape weight (R2=0.91 was obtained. Based on these results, we can recommend this simple technique for yield forecasting. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TP31063

  1. Analysis of Sovereign Yield Spreads Behavior: The French Bonds Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandar Vasilev

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of the Euro has led to price level stability and fostered growth within the European Union. Consequently, since its launch as a store of value and unit of account, there has been a clear convergence between the yield of France’s sovereign debt and German benchmark. This paper tries to estimate the effect of certain macroeconomic fundamentals on the yield spread of French 10-year bonds, relative to the German Bund of the same maturity for the period January 1999-March 2003. It reaches the conclusion that staying in line with Maastricht criteria decreases the risk premium of external debt.

  2. Diversity of cacao trees in Waslala, Nicaragua: associations between genotype spectra, product quality and yield potential.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bodo Trognitz

    Full Text Available The sensory quality and the contents of quality-determining chemical compounds in unfermented and fermented cocoa from 100 cacao trees (individual genotypes representing groups of nine genotype spectra (GG, grown at smallholder plantings in the municipality of Waslala, Nicaragua, were evaluated for two successive harvest periods. Cocoa samples were fermented using a technique mimicking recommended on-farm practices. The sensory cocoa quality was assessed by experienced tasters, and seven major chemical taste compounds were quantified by near infrared spectrometry (NIRS. The association of the nine, partially admixed, genotype spectra with the analytical and sensory quality parameters was tested. The individual parameters were analyzed as a function of the factors GG and harvest (including the date of fermentation, individual trees within a single GG were used as replications. In fermented cocoa, significant GG-specific differences were observed for methylxanthines, theobromine-to-caffeine (T/C ratio, total fat, procyanidin B5 and epicatechin, as well as the sensory attributes global score, astringency, and dry fruit aroma, but differences related to harvest were also apparent. The potential cocoa yield was also highly determined by the individual GG, although there was significant tree-to-tree variation within every single GG. Non-fermented samples showed large harvest-to-harvest variation of their chemical composition, while differences between GG were insignificant. These results suggest that selection by the genetic background, represented here by groups of partially admixed genotype spectra, would be a useful strategy toward enhancing quality and yield of cocoa in Nicaragua. Selection by the GG within the local, genetically segregating populations of seed-propagated cacao, followed by clonal propagation of best-performing individuals of the selected GG could be a viable alternative to traditional propagation of cacao by seed from open

  3. Search for the Higgs Boson in the H{yields} ZZ{sup (*)}{yields}4{mu} Channel in CMS Using a Multivariate Analysis; Busqueda del Boson de Higgs en el Canal H{yields} ZZ{sup (*)}{yields}4{mu} en CMS Empleando un Metodo de Analisis Multivariado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso Diaz, A.

    2007-12-28

    This note presents a Higgs boson search analysis in the CMS detector of the LHC accelerator (CERN, Geneva, Switzerland) in the H{yields} ZZ{sup (*)}{yields}4{mu} channel, using a multivariate method. This analysis, based in a Higgs boson mass dependent likelihood, constructed from discriminant variables, provides a significant improvement of the Higgs boson discovery potential in a wide mass range with respect to the official analysis published by CMS, based in orthogonal cuts independent of the Higgs boson mass. (Author) 8 refs.

  4. Gray Connection Analysis on Grain Yield and Agricultural Fundamental Infrastructure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Ying; FAN Yadong

    2011-01-01

    Although the agriculture in Heilongjiang Province has develope poor historical basis and differences between rural and urban institutional fa d ct effectively in recent years, due to issues such as ors, the backward of the agricultural fundamental infrastructure is always the major obstacle in rural economic development of Heilongjiang Province, which prevents the advantage of agricultural production from being fully developed, leading to the increase rate of the grain yield to grow slowly. The backward reflects in the following aspects, the serious aging of water facilities, insufficient agricultural machinery and equipment, low leve of rural roads, lacking of research equipment, shortage of ecological protection facilities, and so on. Based on the latcr data of Heilongjiang Province, this paper analyzed the connection between agricultural fundamental infrastructure and grain yield by using the gray connected model, differentiated primary rural fundamental infrastructure from the secondary one, and provided some suggestions to develop rural areas

  5. Buffalos milk yield analysis using random regression models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S. Schierholt

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Data comprising 1,719 milk yield records from 357 females (predominantly Murrah breed, daughters of 110 sires, with births from 1974 to 2004, obtained from the Programa de Melhoramento Genético de Bubalinos (PROMEBUL and from records of EMBRAPA Amazônia Oriental - EAO herd, located in Belém, Pará, Brazil, were used to compare random regression models for estimating variance components and predicting breeding values of the sires. The data were analyzed by different models using the Legendre’s polynomial functions from second to fourth orders. The random regression models included the effects of herd-year, month of parity date of the control; regression coefficients for age of females (in order to describe the fixed part of the lactation curve and random regression coefficients related to the direct genetic and permanent environment effects. The comparisons among the models were based on the Akaike Infromation Criterion. The random effects regression model using third order Legendre’s polynomials with four classes of the environmental effect were the one that best described the additive genetic variation in milk yield. The heritability estimates varied from 0.08 to 0.40. The genetic correlation between milk yields in younger ages was close to the unit, but in older ages it was low.

  6. Genetic analysis for yield and its components in okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L. Moench

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konda Chandrasekhar Reddy4

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Combining ability variances and effects of yield and its components in okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L. Moenchwere studied through half diallel analysis of 45 F1 hybrids derived by crossing 10 nearly homozygous germplasm lines namelyP1(IC282248, P2(IC27826-A, P3(IC29119-B, P4(IC31398-A, P5(IC45732, P6(IC89819, P7(IC89976, P8(IC90107, P9(IC99716 andP10(IC111443 during mid kharif (July-October, 2009, at the Vegetable Research Station, Rajendranagar, Andhra Pradesh,India. Both additive and non-additive variances were important for a majority of the characters except plant height, fruit andshoot borer infestation on fruits and shoots and yellow vein mosaic virus infestation on plants. Genetic analysis revealed apreponderance of non-additive gene action for plant height, internodal length, days to 50% flowering, first flowering andfruiting node, fruit length and weight, total number of fruits and number of marketable fruits per plant, total yield and marketableyield per plant and yellow vein mosaic virus infestation on fruits and plants and a preponderance of additive gene actionfor number of branches per plant and fruit and shoot borer infestation on fruits and shoots. The parents P5(IC45732, P6(IC89819 and P7(IC89976 were high general combiners for total and marketable yield per plant and their associated traits,which could be exploited for developing prolific pure line varieties of okra. The crosses C23(IC29119-B × IC99716, C17(IC27826-A × IC111443, C42(IC89976 × IC111443 were superior specific combiners for total and marketable yield per plant withthe potential of being commercially exploited for the production of F1 hybrids. The cross combinations C42 (IC89976 × IC111443 and (IC27826-A × IC89819 having one of the parents with positively significant general combining ability effects fortotal yield and marketable yield per plant could be utilized in recombination breeding with single plant selection in the passinggenerations to capitalize

  7. Utilisation of carbon isotope discrimination in the genetic improvement of drought tolerance and yield potential in wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Improvement of drought tolerance in cereals is an important aim for cereal breeders. Drought tolerance related traits have been extensively described in cereals. Their study, however, is based on instantaneous measurements (e.g., gas exchange, fluorescence or water status parameters) which association with yield highly depends on the environmental conditions at the moment of assessment. Realizing these measurements on high numbers of plants, what is a prerequisite for genetic or molecular studies, is tedious and often unrealistic. As a consequence, little is known about the genetics of these traits, and they are not used or even taken into serious consideration in breeding programs. The emergence of isotopic methods may substantially modify the situation. The tremendous advantages of this criterion in breeding programs are related to i) its integrative value, ii) its low genotype x environment interactions and high heritability values, and iii) the easiness of sample preparation and automatization of isotopic analysis. Researches carried out at ENSA-INRA Montpellier (1993-2000) have essentially concerned durum wheat adaptation to Mediterranean conditions. They were carried out in closed collaboration with the CIMMYT/ICARDA Durum Wheat Program and breeding programs of Algeria, Tunisia and Yemen. Studies realized at CIMMYT mainly concerned yield potential and bread wheat

  8. Winter sowing of adapted lines as a potential yield increase strategy in lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abel Barrios

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Lentil (Lens culinaris Medik. subsp. culinaris is a traditional crop in Spain although current grain yield in Spain is relatively low and unstable. The effect of an early sowing date (winter sowing on yield in the Spanish Central Plateau (meseta was analyzed comparing it to the traditional spring sowing. Yield from eleven cultivars currently available for sowing in Spain and two F6:7  populations of recombinant inbred lines (RIL, ´Precoz´ × ´WA8649041´ (89 lines and ´BGE016365´ × ´ILL1918´ (118 lines, was evaluated in winter and spring sowing dates for three seasons (2005/06, 2006/07 and 2007/08 and two localities. Yield and stability were assessed by the method of consistency of performance with some modifications. When comparing with the best currently available cultivars sown in the traditional spring sowing date, (with an estimated average yield of 43.9 g/m in our experimental conditions, winter sowing using adapted breeding lines proved to be a suitable strategy for increasing lentil yield and yield stability in the Spanish meseta, with an average yield increase of 111% (reaching an estimated yield of 92.8 g/m. Results point to that lentil production can greatly increase in the Spanish meseta if adequate plant materials, such as some of the lines analyzed, are sown at late fall.

  9. Contribution of Drought to Potential Crop Yield Reduction in a Wheat-Maize Rotation Region in the North China Plain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Ya-nan; LIU Ying-jie; TANG Hua-jun; XU Yin-long; PAN Jie

    2014-01-01

    With consecutive occurrences of drought disasters in China in recent years, it is important to estimate their potential impacts on regional crop production. In this study, we detect the impacts of drought on wheat and maize yield and their changes at a 0.5°×0.5° grid scale in the wheat-maize rotation planting area in the North China Plain under the A1B climate change scenario using the Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer (DSSAT) model and the outputs of the regional climate modeling system-Providing Regional Climates for Impacts Studies (PRECIS). Self-calibrating palmer drought severity index was used as drought recognition indicator. Two time slices used for the study were the baseline (1961-1990) and 40 years of 2011-2050. The results indicate that the potential planting region for double crop system of wheat-maize would expend northward. The statistic conclusions of crop simulations varied considerably between wheat and maize. In disaster-affected seasons, wheat yield would increase in the future compared with baseline yields, whereas in opposite for maize yield. Potential crop yield reductions caused by drought would be lower for wheat and higher for maize, with a similar trend found for the ratio of potential crop yield reductions for both crops. It appears that the negative impact of drought on maize was larger than that on wheat under climate change A1B scenario.

  10. Potential yields and properties of oil from the hydrothermal liquefaction of microalgae with different biochemical content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biller, P; Ross, A B

    2011-01-01

    A range of model biochemical components, microalgae and cyanobacteria with different biochemical contents have been liquefied under hydrothermal conditions at 350 °C, ∼200 bar in water, 1M Na(2)CO(3) and 1M formic acid. The model compounds include albumin and a soya protein, starch and glucose, the triglyceride from sunflower oil and two amino acids. Microalgae include Chlorella vulgaris,Nannochloropsis occulata and Porphyridium cruentum and the cyanobacteria Spirulina. The yields and product distribution obtained for each model compound have been used to predict the behaviour of microalgae with different biochemical composition and have been validated using microalgae and cyanobacteria. Broad agreement is reached between predictive yields and actual yields for the microalgae based on their biochemical composition. The yields of bio-crude are 5-25 wt.% higher than the lipid content of the algae depending upon biochemical composition. The yields of bio-crude follow the trend lipids>proteins>carbohydrates.

  11. The impact of inocula carryover and inoculum dilution on the methane yields in batch methane potential tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Matthew; Dinsdale, Richard; Guwy, Alan

    2016-05-01

    Batch studies are used to benchmark biohydrogen potential (BHP) and biomethane potential (BMP) yields from feed substrates, digestates residues and different process configurations. This study shows that BMP yields using cellulose can be biased positively by not diluting the initial sewage sludge inoculum and the bias is independent of starting inoculum volatile solids (VS) concentration. The carryover of BHP inoculum also increased the BMP yields when using cellulose as a substrate by up to 18.8%. Furthermore it was also observed that the dilution of BMP inoculum with deionised H2O reduced methane yields from cellulose by up to 132±26 N mL-CH4 g-VS(-1). Therefore it is proposed that inoculum and standard substrate controls (as used in this study) should be included in methane batch methodologies, particularly when using a pre-fermentation stage such as dark fermentation. PMID:26938808

  12. Biomethane yield of energy crops and prediction of their biochemical methane potential (BMP) with near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS)

    OpenAIRE

    Mayer, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion process produces biomethane as a renewable energy source. To optimize the energy production, energy crops with a high biomethane yield per hectare should be identified. A large number of samples of maize, tall fescue, sorghum, spelt, miscanthus, immature rye, switchgrass, sunflower and hemp was cropped. The fresh biomass yield per hectare, the volatile solid (VS) content, the biochemical composition and the biochemical methane potential (BMP) were measured. Maize (annual p...

  13. Analysis of a large dataset of mycorrhiza inoculation field trials on potato shows highly significant increases in yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hijri, Mohamed

    2016-04-01

    An increasing human population requires more food production in nutrient-efficient systems in order to simultaneously meet global food needs while reducing the environmental footprint of agriculture. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) have the potential to enhance crop yield, but their efficiency has yet to be demonstrated in large-scale crop production systems. This study reports an analysis of a dataset consisting of 231 field trials in which the same AMF inoculant (Rhizophagus irregularis DAOM 197198) was applied to potato over a 4-year period in North America and Europe under authentic field conditions. The inoculation was performed using a liquid suspension of AMF spores that was sprayed onto potato seed pieces, yielding a calculated 71 spores per seed piece. Statistical analysis showed a highly significant increase in marketable potato yield (ANOVA, P < 0.0001) for inoculated fields (42.2 tons/ha) compared with non-inoculated controls (38.3 tons/ha), irrespective of trial year. The average yield increase was 3.9 tons/ha, representing 9.5 % of total crop yield. Inoculation was profitable with a 0.67-tons/ha increase in yield, a threshold reached in almost 79 % of all trials. This finding clearly demonstrates the benefits of mycorrhizal-based inoculation on crop yield, using potato as a case study. Further improvements of these beneficial inoculants will help compensate for crop production deficits, both now and in the future.

  14. Yield Potential of Soil Water and Its Sustainability for Dryland Spring Maize with Plastic Film Mulch on the Loess Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wen; Liu, Wenzhao

    2016-04-01

    Plastic film mulch(PM) is an agronomic measure widely used in the dryland spring maize production system on the Loess Plateau of China. The measure can greatly increase yield of dryland maize due to its significant effects on soil water conservation. Few researches have been done to investigate how the yield potential is impacted by PM. The yield-water use (ET) boundary equation raised by French and Schultz provides a simple approach to calculate crop water limited yield potential and gives a benchmark for farmers in managing their crops. However, method used in building the equation is somewhat arbitrary and has no strict principle, which leads to the uncertainty of equation when it is applied. Though using PM can increase crop yield, it increases soil temperature, promotes crop growth and increases the water transpired by crop, which further leads to high water consumption as compared with crops without PM. This means that PM may lead to the overuse of soil water and hence is unsustainable in a long run. This research is mainly focused on the yield potential and sustainability of PMing for spring maize on the Loess Plateau. A principle that may be utilized by any other researchers was proposed based on French & Schultz's boundary equation and on part of quantile regression theory. We used a data set built by collecting the experimental data from published papers and analyzed the water-limited yield potential of spring maize on the Loess Plateau. Moreover, maize yield and soil water dynamics under PM were investigated by a long-term site field experiment. Results show that on the Loess Plateau, the water limited yield potential can be calculated using the boundary equation y = 60.5×(x - 50), with a platform yield of 15954 kghm-2 after the water use exceeds 314 mm. Without PMing, the water limited yield potential can be estimated by the boundary equation y = 47.5×(x - 62.3) , with a platform yield of 12840 kghm-2 when the water use exceeds 325 mm, which

  15. Dependency of global primary bioenergy crop potentials in 2050 on food systems, yields, biodiversity conservation and political stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The future bioenergy crop potential depends on (1) changes in the food system (food demand, agricultural technology), (2) political stability and investment security, (3) biodiversity conservation, (4) avoidance of long carbon payback times from deforestation, and (5) energy crop yields. Using a biophysical biomass-balance model, we analyze how these factors affect global primary bioenergy potentials in 2050. The model calculates biomass supply and demand balances for eleven world regions, eleven food categories, seven food crop types and two livestock categories, integrating agricultural forecasts and scenarios with a consistent global land use and NPP database. The TREND scenario results in a global primary bioenergy potential of 77 EJ/yr, alternative assumptions on food-system changes result in a range of 26–141 EJ/yr. Exclusion of areas for biodiversity conservation and inaccessible land in failed states reduces the bioenergy potential by up to 45%. Optimistic assumptions on future energy crop yields increase the potential by up to 48%, while pessimistic assumptions lower the potential by 26%. We conclude that the design of sustainable bioenergy crop production policies needs to resolve difficult trade-offs such as food vs. energy supply, renewable energy vs. biodiversity conservation or yield growth vs. reduction of environmental problems of intensive agriculture. - Highlights: ► Global energy crop potentials in 2050 are calculated with a biophysical biomass-balance model. ► The study is focused on dedicated energy crops, forestry and residues are excluded. ► Depending on food-system change, global energy crop potentials range from 26–141 EJ/yr. ► Exclusion of protected areas and failed states may reduce the potential up to 45%. ► The bioenergy potential may be 26% lower or 45% higher, depending on energy crop yields.

  16. Heterogeneous global crop yield response to biochar: a meta-regression analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane-Droesch, Andrew; Abiven, Samuel; Jeffery, Simon; Torn, Margaret S.

    2013-12-01

    Biochar may contribute to climate change mitigation at negative cost by sequestering photosynthetically fixed carbon in soil while increasing crop yields. The magnitude of biochar’s potential in this regard will depend on crop yield benefits, which have not been well-characterized across different soils and biochars. Using data from 84 studies, we employ meta-analytical, missing data, and semiparametric statistical methods to explain heterogeneity in crop yield responses across different soils, biochars, and agricultural management factors, and then estimate potential changes in yield across different soil environments globally. We find that soil cation exchange capacity and organic carbon were strong predictors of yield response, with low cation exchange and low carbon associated with positive response. We also find that yield response increases over time since initial application, compared to non-biochar controls. High reported soil clay content and low soil pH were weaker predictors of higher yield response. No biochar parameters in our dataset—biochar pH, percentage carbon content, or temperature of pyrolysis—were significant predictors of yield impacts. Projecting our fitted model onto a global soil database, we find the largest potential increases in areas with highly weathered soils, such as those characterizing much of the humid tropics. Richer soils characterizing much of the world’s important agricultural areas appear to be less likely to benefit from biochar.

  17. Heterogeneous global crop yield response to biochar: a meta-regression analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biochar may contribute to climate change mitigation at negative cost by sequestering photosynthetically fixed carbon in soil while increasing crop yields. The magnitude of biochar’s potential in this regard will depend on crop yield benefits, which have not been well-characterized across different soils and biochars. Using data from 84 studies, we employ meta-analytical, missing data, and semiparametric statistical methods to explain heterogeneity in crop yield responses across different soils, biochars, and agricultural management factors, and then estimate potential changes in yield across different soil environments globally. We find that soil cation exchange capacity and organic carbon were strong predictors of yield response, with low cation exchange and low carbon associated with positive response. We also find that yield response increases over time since initial application, compared to non-biochar controls. High reported soil clay content and low soil pH were weaker predictors of higher yield response. No biochar parameters in our dataset—biochar pH, percentage carbon content, or temperature of pyrolysis—were significant predictors of yield impacts. Projecting our fitted model onto a global soil database, we find the largest potential increases in areas with highly weathered soils, such as those characterizing much of the humid tropics. Richer soils characterizing much of the world’s important agricultural areas appear to be less likely to benefit from biochar. (letter)

  18. Optimal fertilizer N rates and yield-scaled global warming potential in drill seeded rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drill seeded rice (Oryza sativa L.) is the dominant rice cultivation practice in the USA. Although drill seeded systems can lead to significant methane and nitrous oxide emissions due to the presence of both anaerobic and aerobic soil conditions, the relationship between high-yielding management pr...

  19. Stand establishment and yield potential of organically grown seeded and transplanted medicinal herbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field studies were conducted at Las Cruces, N.M., and Alcalde, N.M., to compare direct seeding to transplanting for stand establishment and yield estimates of calendula (Calendula officinalis L.), catnip (Nepeta cataria L.), lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.), stinging nettles (Urtica dioica L.), a...

  20. Biomass and biomass and biogas yielding potential of sorghum as affected by planting density, sowing time and cultivar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biogas from biomass is a promising renewable energy source whose importance is increasing in European as well as in other countries. A field experiment at one location (Experimental Station Giessen, Justus Liebig University of Giessen, Germany) over two years was designed to study the effect of altering sowing time (ST), planting density and cultivar on the biomass yield and chemical composition of biomass sorghum, and its potential for methane production. Of the two cultivars tested, cv. Goliath (intraspecific hybrid) was more productive with respect to biomass yield than cv. Bovital (S. bicolor x S. sudanense hybrid). ST also influenced biomass yield and most of the quality parameters measured. Delayed sowing was in general advantageous. The choice of cultivar had a marked effect on biogas and methane yield. The highest biogas and methane yields were produced by late sown cv. Bovital. Sub-optimal planting densities limited biomass accumulation of the crop, however neither the chemical composition nor the methane yield was affected by planting density. (author)

  1. Expressão do potencial de rendimento de cultivares de soja Yield potential expression of soybean genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Motta Navarro Júnior

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available A soja possui alto potencial de rendimento de grãos, mas em virtude da interação genótipo vs. ambiente esse potencial não é verificado em sua totalidade. Utilizando-se seis genótipos de soja de diferentes ciclos, objetivou-se estudar a expressão do potencial de rendimento de grãos e quantificá-lo durante a ontogenia. O experimento foi conduzido no ano agrícola 1996/97 na Estação Experimental Agronômica da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Eldorado do Sul, RS. As avaliações foram realizadas em plantas individuais e se estenderam desde o estádio de floração até o de maturação. Os resultados obtidos indicam que alto potencial de rendimento não necessariamente identifica uma planta eficiente na retenção das estruturas reprodutivas. Os potenciais de rendimento estimados na floração e no início do enchimento de grãos não se mantêm até a maturação. Genótipos com alto potencial de rendimento de grãos em R8 não apresentam os maiores potenciais de rendimento de grãos em R2 e em R5, porém, são os que apresentam as menores diferenças entre o potencial estimado em R5 e o estimado em R2.Soybean has high yield potential, which is not totally expressed due to genotype vs. environment interaction. Six soybean genotypes of different maturity groups were used with the objective of studying their yield potential expression and quantifying it during ontogeny. The experiment was conducted during the 1996/97 growing season in the Agronomic Experimental Station of the Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Eldorado do Sul, RS, Brazil. Plants were evaluated individually from flowering until maturity. Results obtained indicate that high yield potential does not necessarily mean an efficient plant in reproductive structure retention. Yield potential estimated in the flowering and beginning of grain filling stages are not maintained until maturity. Genotypes with high yield potential in the R8 stage do not present the

  2. Biochemical methane potential, biodegradability, alkali treatment and influence of chemical composition on methane yield of yard wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunaseelan, Victor Nallathambi

    2016-03-01

    In this study, the biochemical CH4 potential, rate, biodegradability, NaOH treatment and the influence of chemical composition on CH4 yield of yard wastes generated from seven trees were examined. All the plant parts were sampled for their chemical composition and subjected to the biochemical CH4 potential assay. The component parts exhibited significant variation in biochemical CH4 potential, which was reflected in their ultimate CH4 yields that ranged from 109 to 382 ml g(-1) volatile solids added and their rate constants that ranged from 0.042 to 0.173 d(-1). The biodegradability of the yard wastes ranged from 0.26 to 0.86. Variation in the biochemical CH4 potential of the yard wastes could be attributed to variation in the chemical composition of the different fractions. In the Thespesia yellow withered leaf, Tamarindus fruit pericarp and Albizia pod husk, NaOH treatment enhanced the ultimate CH4 yields by 17%, 77% and 63%, respectively, and biodegradability by 15%, 77% and 61%, respectively, compared with the untreated samples. The effectiveness of NaOH treatment varied for different yard wastes, depending on the amounts of acid detergent fibre content. Gliricidia petals, Prosopis leaf, inflorescence and immature pod, Tamarindus seeds, Albizia seeds, Cassia seeds and Delonix seeds exhibited CH4 yields higher than 300 ml g(-1) volatile solids added. Multiple linear regression models for predicting the ultimate CH4 yield and biodegradability of yard wastes were designed from the results of this work.

  3. Using Soil Plant Analysis Development Chlorophyll Meter for Two Growth Stages to Assess Grain Yield of Malaysian Rice (Oryza sativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asa Gholizadeh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Proper yield management in rice influences grain quality and quantity. Nitrogen site-specific management is also effective on final product of crops because excessive nitrogen application at any growth stage can reduce yield and increase disease incidence. In contrast, suboptimal nitrogen levels at discrete growth stages may substantially reduce plant productivity. The nitrogen status at specific growth stages may be used for estimating supplemental nitrogen requirements and yield potential. The SPAD chlorophyll meter is a quick and non-destructive tool used for directly measuring leaf chlorophyll and indirectly assessing the proportional parameter of leaf, plant nitrogen status and finally, grain yield. Approach: Describing within-field variability in a typical Malaysian paddy field was conducted to show the temporal variability of SPAD readings and also grain yield. Furthermore, the study aimed to introduce the rice growth stage which SPAD readings show higher relationship with grain yield. SPAD readings data was collected at two different growth stages (55 DAT and 80 DAT using a Minolta SPAD 502. Grain yield was then collected at the end of the season to compare results with SPAD values. Results: Analysis of variance, variogram and kriging were conducted to determine the variability of parameters and also their relationship. Conclusion: Variability maps of the aforementioned parameters were generated. Increasing of SPAD values with growth stage could be observed in this study. SPAD readings taken at 55 DAT had a better relationship to grain yield than those taken at 80 DAT; therefore assessment of grain yield status is better to be done at 55 DAT.

  4. Nasogastric feeding tubes from a neonatal department yield high concentrations of potentially pathogenic bacteria- even 1 d after insertion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Sandra Meinich; Greisen, Gorm; Krogfelt, Karen Angeliki

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Preterm infants are vulnerable to pathogens and at risk of developing necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) or sepsis. Nasogastric feeding tubes (NG-tubes) might contaminate feeds given through them due to biofilm formation. We wanted to determine if there is a rationale in replacing NG-tubes...... more often to reduce contamination. METHODS: We conducted an observational study of used NG-tubes from a tertiary neonatal department. After removal, we flushed a 1-ml saline solution through the tube, determined the density of bacteria by culture, and related it to the duration of use and any...... probiotic administration through the tube. RESULTS: Out of the 94 NG-tubes, 89% yielded more than 1,000 colony-forming units (CFU)/ml bacteria, and 55% yielded the potentially pathogenic Enterobacteriaceae and/or Staphylococcus aureus. The mean concentration in the yield was 5.3 (SD: 2.1, maximum 9.4) log10...

  5. Thickness and potential well yield of the stratified deposits in the Croton River Basin, Putnam County, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Don J.

    1988-01-01

    In 1986, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Putnam County, NY Department of Health, reviewed and compiled all available well information and aerial photographs to plot: (1) the locations of the wells and springs currently on file with USGS, and (2) the thickness and potential well yield of the stratified deposits in the county. These deposits consist either of glacial sand and gravel that lie primarily in glacially enlarged valleys, or of recent accumulations of clay, sand, and organic material on flood plains and within local depressions. Plate 1 shows the locations of all wells and springs in the area that are currently on file in USGS 's computerized data base; both bedrock wells and wells that tap till or stratified material are included. Also shown are the locations and depths of the wells, the reported depth to bedrock and yield, and the yield of all springs. Plate 2 shows the thickness of the stratified deposits as determined from logs of wells that were drilled through it; plate 3 shows the amount of water that a stratified deposit may be expected to yield to a new well. These estimates are based on the reported yields of the compiled wells. (Lantz-PTT)

  6. Photoisomerization dynamics of a rhodopsin-based molecule (potential molecular switch) with high quantum yields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Roland; Jiang, Chen-Wei; Zhang, Xiu-Xing; Fang, Ai-Ping; Li, Hong-Rong; Xie, Rui-Hua; Li, Fu-Li

    2015-03-01

    It is worthwhile to explore the detailed reaction dynamics of various candidates for molecular switches, in order to understand, e.g., the differences in quantum yields and switching times. Here we report density-functional-based simulations for the rhodopsin-based molecule 4-[4-Methylbenzylidene]-5-p-tolyl-3,4-dihydro-2H-pyrrole (MDP), synthesized by Sampedro et al. We find that the photoisomerization quantum yields are remarkably high: 82% for cis-to-trans, and 68% for trans-to-cis. The lifetimes of the S1 excited state in cis-MDP in our calculations are in the range of 900-1800 fs, with a mean value of 1270 fs, while the range of times required for full cis-to-trans isomerization are 1100-2000 fs, with a mean value of 1530 fs. In trans-MDP, the calculated S1 excited state lifetimes are 860-2140 fs, with a mean value of 1330 fs, and with the full trans-to-cis isomerization completed about 200 fs later. In both cases, the dominant reaction mechanism is rotation around the central C =C bond (connected to the pyrroline ring), and de-excitation occurs at an avoided crossing between the ground state and the lowest singlet state, near the midpoint of the rotational pathway. Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China; Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities; Robert A. Welch Foundation; National Natural Science Foundation of China.

  7. The Effects of Climate Change on the Planting Boundary and Potential Yield for Different Rice Cropping Systems in Southern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE Qing; YANG Xiao-guang; LIU Zhi-juan; DAI Shu-wei; LI Yong; XIE Wen-juan; CHEN Fu

    2014-01-01

    Based on climate data from 254 meteorological stations, this study estimated the effects of climate change on rice planting boundaries and potential yields in the southern China during 1951-2010. The results indicated a signiifcant northward shift and westward expansion of northern boundaries for rice planting in the southern China. Compared with the period of 1951-1980, the average temperature during rice growing season in the period of 1981-2010 increased by 0.4°C, and the northern planting boundaries for single rice cropping system (SRCS), early triple cropping rice system (ETCRS), medium triple cropping rice system (MTCRS), and late triple cropping rice system (LTCRS) moved northward by 10, 30, 52 and 66 km, respectively. In addition, compared with the period of 1951-1980, the suitable planting area for SRCS was reduced by 11%during the period of 1981-2010. However, the suitable planting areas for other rice cropping systems increased, with the increasing amplitude of 3, 8, and 10%for ETCRS, MTCRS and LTCRS, respectively. In general, the light and temperature potential productivity of rice decreased by 2.5%. Without considering the change of rice cultivars, the northern planting boundaries for different rice cropping systems showed a northward shift tendency. Climate change resulted in decrease of per unit area yield for SRCS and the annual average yields of ETCRS and LTCRS. Nevertheless, the overall rice production in the entire research area showed a decreasing trend even with the increasing trend of annual average yield for MTCRS.

  8. Water-Saving and High-Yielding Irrigation for Lowland Rice by Controlling Limiting Values of Soil Water Potential

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The present study investigated whether an irrigation system could be established to save water and increase grain yield to enhance water productivity by proper water management at the field level in irrigated lowland rice (Oryza sativa L.). Using two field-grown rice cultivars, two irrigation systems; conventional irrigation and water-saving irrigation, were conducted.In the water-saving irrigation system, limiting values of soil water potential related to specific growth stages were proposed as irrigation indices. Compared with conventional irrigation where drainage was in mid-season and flooded at other times,the water-saving irrigation increased grain yield by 7.4% to 11.3%, reduced irrigation water by 24.5% to 29.2%, and increased water productivity (grain yield per cubic meter of irrigation water) by 43.1% to 50.3%. The water-saving irrigation significantly increased harvest index, improved milling and appearance qualities, elevated zeatin +zeatin riboside concentrations in root bleedings and enhanced activities of sucrose synthase, adenosine diphosphate glucose pyrophosphorylase, starch synthase and starch branching enzyme in grains. Our results indicate that water-saving irrigation by controlling limiting values of soil water potential related to specific growth stages can enhance physiological activities of roots and grains,reduce water input, and increase grain yield.

  9. A piston-rotaxane with two potential stripes: force transitions and yield stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevick, Edith M; Williams, David R M

    2013-01-01

    We examine a rod piston-rotaxane system, where the positions of several mobile rings on the axle are controlled by an external force acting on one of the rings. This allows us to access the translational entropy of the rings. For a simple rotaxane molecule with an axle that has uniform ring-axle interactions along its length, the molecule behaves like a miniature piston filled with a one-dimensional ideal gas. We then examine the effect of two stripes on the axle, having different ring-axle interactions with the mobile rings, so that one section is of high energy (repulsive) for the rings and another section is of lower energy (or attractive). This kind of rotaxane can exhibit rapid changes in displacement or force, and in particular, this molecule can exhibit a yield stress in which the piston suddenly compresses under a small increase in the applied force. PMID:24177696

  10. A Piston-Rotaxane with Two Potential Stripes: Force Transitions and Yield Stresses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edith M. Sevick

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We examine a rod piston-rotaxane system, where the positions of several mobile rings on the axle are controlled by an external force acting on one of the rings. This allows us to access the translational entropy of the rings. For a simple rotaxane molecule with an axle that has uniform ring-axle interactions along its length, the molecule behaves like a miniature piston filled with a one-dimensional ideal gas. We then examine the effect of two stripes on the axle, having different ring-axle interactions with the mobile rings, so that one section is of high energy (repulsive for the rings and another section is of lower energy (or attractive. This kind of rotaxane can exhibit rapid changes in displacement or force, and in particular, this molecule can exhibit a yield stress in which the piston suddenly compresses under a small increase in the applied force.

  11. Physiological Traits Associated with Wheat Yield Potential and Performance under Water-Stress in a Mediterranean Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Pozo, Alejandro; Yáñez, Alejandra; Matus, Iván A.; Tapia, Gerardo; Castillo, Dalma; Sanchez-Jardón, Laura; Araus, José L.

    2016-01-01

    Different physiological traits have been proposed as key traits associated with yield potential as well as performance under water stress. The aim of this paper is to examine the genotypic variability of leaf chlorophyll, stem water-soluble carbohydrate content and carbon isotope discrimination (Δ13C), and their relationship with grain yield (GY) and other agronomical traits, under contrasting water conditions in a Mediterranean environment. The study was performed on a large collection of 384 wheat genotypes grown under water stress (WS, rainfed), mild water stress (MWS, deficit irrigation), and full irrigation (FI). The average GY of two growing seasons was 2.4, 4.8, and 8.9 Mg ha−1 under WS, MWS, and FI, respectively. Chlorophyll content at anthesis was positively correlated with GY (except under FI in 2011) and the agronomical components kernels per spike (KS) and thousand kernel weight (TKW). The WSC content at anthesis (WSCCa) was negatively correlated with spikes per square meter (SM2), but positively correlated with KS and TKW under WS and FI conditions. As a consequence, the relationships between WSCCa with GY were low or not significant. Therefore, selecting for high stem WSC would not necessary lead to genotypes of GY potential. The relationship between Δ13C and GY was positive under FI and MWS but negative under severe WS (in 2011), indicating higher water use under yield potential and MWS conditions. PMID:27458470

  12. Application of geometric midline yield criterion to analysis of three-dimensional forging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO De-wen; WANG Gen-ji; LIU Xiang-hua; WANG Guo-dong

    2008-01-01

    A kinematically admissible continuous velocity field was proposed for the analysis of three-dimensional forging. The linear yield criterion expressed by geometric midline of error triangle between Tresca and Twin shear stress yield loci on the π-plane, called GM yield criterion for short, was firstly applied to analysis of the velocity field for the forging. The analytical solution of the forging force with the effects of external zone and bulging parameter is obtained by strain rate inner product. Compression tests of pure lead are performed to compare the calculated results with the measured ones. The results show that the calculated total pressures are higher than the measured ones whilst the relative error is no more than 9.5%. It is implied that the velocity field is reasonable and the geometric midline yield criterion is available. The solution is still an upper-bound one.

  13. Analysis of relations between crop temperature indices and yield of different sunflower hybrids foliar treated by biopreparations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovár Marek

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The application of biological active preparations (BAPs and remote-sensing control in the management of agronomic intervention are an important part of successful crop cultivation. The effects of foliar application of two BAPs (containing amino acids or Abiestins® on yield and yield-forming, as well eco-physiological traits calculated from infrared thermographs data (crop water stress index, CWSI and index of stomatal conductance, Ig of three hybrids of sunflower were studied in field poly-factorial experiments, realised during two years (2012 and 2013. The results showed that the application of selected BAPs has contributed to an increase of the sunflower yield, in particular through an increase in the weight of thousand seeds (rp = 0.761, P < 0.001. Similarly, oil content in achenes was significantly higher in treatments with BAPs, mainly with preparation containing free amino acids. The study describes the quantitative relationship between yield and quality of sunflower production (rp = −0.41, P < 0.01. Selected hybrids of sunflower in two growth stages showed the significant differences in CWSI and Ig (both at P < 0.01, respectively. An analysis of negative linear relation between the yield of achenes and CWSI (rp = −0.654, P < 0.001 confirmed that higher value of plant stress resulted in a smaller yield and vice-versa. The opposite trend was observed between yield and Ig index (rp = 0.576, P < 0.001. The data obtained from IR thermography can be used for monitoring the physiological health of sunflower plants, as well in potential prediction and control of yield.

  14. Yield-scaled global warming potential of two irrigation management systems in a highly productive rice system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Tarlera

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Water management impacts both methane (CH4 and nitrous oxide (N2O emissions from rice paddy fields. Although controlled irrigation is one of the most important tools for reducing CH4emission in rice production systems it can also increase N2O emissions and reduce crop yields. Over three years, CH4 and N2O emissions were measured in a rice field in Uruguay under two different irrigation management systems, using static closed chambers: conventional water management (continuous flooding after 30 days of emergence, CF30; and an alternative system (controlled deficit irrigation allowing for wetting and drying, AWDI. AWDI showed mean cumulative CH4 emission values of 98.4 kg CH4 ha−1, 55 % lower compared to CF30, while no differences in nitrous oxide emissions were observed between treatments ( p > 0.05. No yield differences between irrigation systems were observed in two of the rice seasons ( p > 0.05 while AWDI promoted yield reduction in one of the seasons ( p< 0.05. When rice yield and greenhouse gases (GHG emissions were considered together, the AWDI irrigation system allowed for lower yield-scaled total global warming potential (GWP. Higher irrigation water productivity was achieved under AWDI in two of the three rice seasons. These findings suggest that AWDI could be an option for reducing GHG emissions and increasing irrigation water productivity. However, AWDI may compromise grain yield in certain years, reflecting the importance of the need for fine tuning of this irrigation strategy and an assessment of the overall tradeoff between relationships in order to promote its adoption by farmers.

  15. A meta analysis of pancreatic microarray datasets yields new targets as cancer genes and biomarkers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nalin C W Goonesekere

    Full Text Available The lack of specific symptoms at early tumor stages, together with a high biological aggressiveness of the tumor contribute to the high mortality rate for pancreatic cancer (PC, which has a five year survival rate of less than 5%. Improved screening for earlier diagnosis, through the detection of diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers provides the best hope of increasing the rate of curatively resectable carcinomas. Though many serum markers have been reported to be elevated in patients with PC, so far, most of these markers have not been implemented into clinical routine due to low sensitivity or specificity. In this study, we have identified genes that are significantly upregulated in PC, through a meta-analysis of large number of microarray datasets. We demonstrate that the biological functions ascribed to these genes are clearly associated with PC and metastasis, and that that these genes exhibit a strong link to pathways involved with inflammation and the immune response. This investigation has yielded new targets for cancer genes, and potential biomarkers for pancreatic cancer. The candidate list of cancer genes includes protein kinase genes, new members of gene families currently associated with PC, as well as genes not previously linked to PC. In this study, we are also able to move towards developing a signature for hypomethylated genes, which could be useful for early detection of PC. We also show that the significantly upregulated 800+ genes in our analysis can serve as an enriched pool for tissue and serum protein biomarkers in pancreatic cancer.

  16. CORRELATION AND PATH ANALYSIS OF SEED YIELD AND YIELD CONTRIBUTING COMPONENTS OF BLACKGRAM ( VIGNA MUNGO L. HEPPER UNDER RAINFED CONDITION FROM ANDHRA PRADESH, INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Vijay Kumar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Correlation coefficient and path analysis studies werecarried out with seventeen parents (fourteen lines and three testers resulting 42 F1crosses for fifteen yield contributing component characters. The phenotypic and genotypic correlation analysis revealed that seed yield was highly significantly and positively correlated with number of branches, number of clusters, number of pods per plant, number of seeds per plant pod weight, total biomass and also highly significantly and positively correlated among themselves. Path coefficient analysis for seed yield revealed that significant phenotypic and genotypic direct effect with seeds per plant, 100 seed weight, harvest index, pod weight and number of clusters per plant. Hence selection for these characters may be carried out in the field and lab for overall yield improvement in blackgram.

  17. Fewer not more leaves - Key to obtaining the needed jump in crop yield potential and water use efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, V.; Kumar, P.; Long, S.

    2013-12-01

    Word food and feed supply needs to increase by 75% by 2050 to meet the increasing demands of our growing population. Soybean which is the world`s fourth most important crop in terms of total production at 250 million Mt/yr is a key protein source, and together with rice and wheat, are experiencing declining global yield increases year on year. At present rates of improvement, 2050 targets cannot be reached without new innovations. In this study we demonstrate an innovative approach that could provide a yield jump. While, natural selection favors individual plants to maximize leaf production to maximize light interception and shade competitors, the presence of this trait in domestic crops could be disadvantageous. In addition, rising CO2 causes increased leaf production further exacerbating the problem. Here, we show by mathematical model and field experiment that, a modern cultivar growing at the center of US soy cultivation produces too many leaves and reduction to an optimal level would increase yield. Our model results indicate that an LAI of 3.5 and 3.8 produces maximal rates of net canopy assimilation under ambient and elevated CO2 conditions respectively. However, observed peak LAI values are 6.9 and 7.5 under ambient and elevated CO2 conditions respectively. This results in a NPP loss of 30% and 20% under ambient and elevated CO2 conditions respectively. Furthermore, the optimal LAI results in a decreased transpiration of up to 30% thus increasing water use efficiency. We show that as LAI increases, the tradeoffs between diminishing day time gains in NPP, and increasing losses in respiration is responsible for this effect. By designing a more optimum canopy, we can increase NPP and this potentially translates to increased seed yield. To test this model result, we perform canopy manipulation experiments on soybean plants, where we artificially decrease LAI by periodically removing young and emerging leaves throughout the growing season (after pod onset), and

  18. Physiological traits contributed to the recent increase in yield potential of winter wheat from Henan Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bangwei Zhou; lvaro Sanz-Sez; Abdelhalim Elazab; Tianmin Shen; Rut Snchez-Bragado; Jordi Bort; Maria Dolors Serret; Jos Luis Araus

    2014-01-01

    This experiment aims to test the traits responsible for the increase in yield potential of winter wheat released in Henan Province, China. Seven established cultivars released in the last 20 years and three advanced lines were assayed. The results showed that grain yield was positively correlated with harvest index (HI), kernel number per square meter, and aboveground biomass. In addition, the HI and aboveground biomass showed an increasing trend with the year of release. Therefore, we can conclude that bread wheat breeding advances during recent decades in Henan Province, China, have been achieved through an increase in HI, kernel number per square meter, and aboveground biomass. A higher d13C seems also to be involved in these advances, which suggests a progressive improvement in constitutive water use efficiency not associated with a trend towards lower stomatal conduc-tance in the most recent genotypes. However, genetic advance does not appear related to changes in photosynthesis rates on area basis when measured in the flag leaf or the spike, but only to a higher, whole-spike photosynthesis. Results also indirectly support the concept that under potential yield conditions, the spike contributed more than the flag leaf to kernel formation.

  19. Looking for Water in the Woods: Quantifying the Potential for Forest Management to Increase Regional Water Yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, S.; Kaplan, D. A.; Mclaughlin, D. L.; Cohen, M. J.

    2014-12-01

    Water scarcity presents a crucial challenge for water resource managers charged with maintaining hydrologic resources for domestic, industrial, and agricultural use while protecting natural systems. Forest lands are critical to the functioning of the hydrologic cycle in many watersheds, affecting the quantity, quality, and timing of water delivered to surface and groundwater systems. While the hydrologic impacts of forest growth and removal have been shown to be substantial in watersheds around the globe, data and models connecting forest management to water use and regional hydrology are generally lacking. We propose that water-focused forest management has the potential to deliver a "new" source of water to surface and groundwater resources. To test this hypothesis, we developed a statistical model of water yield in southeastern US pine stands as a function of forest stand structure and ecosystem water use. Model results suggest a potential increase in water yield of up to 64% for pine stands managed at lower basal areas relative to those managed according to standard silvicultural practices. At the watershed scale, the magnitude of this potential water yield enhancement is driven by existing land use and forest management; evaluated for a large watershed in NE Florida, this potential increase is in excess of 200 million gallons per day (equivalent to 20% of the anthropogenic water use in the watershed). While useful for exploration, our statistical model also highlighted critical sources of uncertainty, including the effects of climatic variation, between-site variability, water use in young pine stands, and prescribed fire. Thus, in ongoing work we are comparing the effects of specific land management actions (e.g., thinning, clearcutting, and fire) on water yield across a gradient of environmental conditions (soil type, aquifer confinement, and climate) using a novel combination of in-situ soil moisture and groundwater monitoring. These data are being used to

  20. The role of climatic variables in winter cereal yields: a retrospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Qunying; Wen, Li

    2015-02-01

    This study examined the effects of observed climate including [CO2] on winter cereal [winter wheat (Triticum aestivum), barley (Hordeum vulgare) and oat (Avena sativa)] yields by adopting robust statistical analysis/modelling approaches (i.e. autoregressive fractionally integrated moving average, generalised addition model) based on long time series of historical climate data and cereal yield data at three locations (Moree, Dubbo and Wagga Wagga) in New South Wales, Australia. Research results show that (1) growing season rainfall was significantly, positively and non-linearly correlated with crop yield at all locations considered; (2) [CO2] was significantly, positively and non-linearly correlated with crop yields in all cases except wheat and barley yields at Wagga Wagga; (3) growing season maximum temperature was significantly, negatively and non-linearly correlated with crop yields at Dubbo and Moree (except for barley); and (4) radiation was only significantly correlated with oat yield at Wagga Wagga. This information will help to identify appropriate management adaptation options in dealing with the risk and in taking the opportunities of climate change.

  1. Estimation of useful yield in surface analysis using single photon ionisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, B. V.; Pellin, M. J.; Moore, J. F.; Veryovkin, I. V.; Savina, M. R.; Tripa, C. E.

    2003-01-01

    Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), laser sputter neutral mass spectrometry (SNMS) and laser desorption photoionisation (LDPI) have been used to investigate the desorption of molecules from self-assembled monolayers of phenylsulphides. LDPI, using an F 2 excimer laser to single photon ionise gave the lowest fragmentation. A useful yield greater than 0.5% was found for analysis of diphenyldisulphide self-assembled monolayers. It is shown that using a free electron laser to postionise will lead, in the future, to analysis of many atoms and molecules with useful yields approaching 30%.

  2. The smallest degree sum that yields potentially Kr,r-graphic sequences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YlN; Jianhua(尹建华); LI; Jiongsheng(李炯生)

    2002-01-01

    We consider a variation of a classical Turán-type extremal problem as follows: Determine the smallest even integer σ(Kr,r, n) such that every n-term graphic sequence π = (d1, d2,..., dn) with term sum σ(π) = d1 + d2 +…+ dn ≥σ(Kr,r, n) is potentially Kr,r-graphic, where Kr,r is an r × r complete bipartite graph, i.e. πr has a realization G containing Kr,r as its subgraph. In this paper, the values σ(Kr,r,n) for even r and n ≥ 4r2 - r - 6 and for odd r and n ≥ 4r2 + 3r - 8 are determined.

  3. Transformation, evaluation of GTGene and multivariate genetic analysis for morpho-physiological and yield attributing traits in Zea mays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaliya Khadija

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Maize is the 3rd major crop grown all over the world that fulfills the needs of millions of people. Various biotic and abiotic factors caused reduction in grain yield of maize, among them weeds show most adverse effects. Objective of this study was to develop glyphosate resistance maize for developing maize hybrids and synthetic varieties with high grain and fodder yield potential. Glyphosate is a broad spectrum herbicide and resistance of crop against the herbicide, allows post emergence application, which otherwise is impossible. Higher GTG crude protein (479.94μg/g was recorded for CIL 194-975 plant. The plant CIL 194-1786 showed higher expression level of GTG protein, indicated that transformation efficiency was better for line CIL-194 than CIL-123. GTGene stably integrated to the genome of the maize lines CIL-194 and CIL-123, these transformed lines showed more ability to cope with herbicides as compared with non-transformed lines in greenhouse and field trials. The transgenic lines were sown in field and data was recorded for various morpho-physiological, grain, fodder yield and quality traits. Data was statistically analyzed to check significance of results at <0.05% probability level. It was concluded from heritability, genetic advance, stepwise multiple linear regression, principle component and factor analysis that the selection on the basis of grain yield, green fodder yield, stem diameter, cob weight, stomata conductance, chlorophyll contents, photosynthetic rate, cob length, grain protein, grain oil, embryo percentage and grain starch may be fruitful keeping in view as the major contributing traits to improve crop yield and production. It was suggested that the transgenic lines for glyphosate resistance may be used to develop transgenic hybrids and synthetic varieties with higher grain yield with high quality.

  4. Project "Lupi-Breed": Improving yield potential, yield stability and seed quality of lupins as protein plants: Work package: Weed suppression and intercropping

    OpenAIRE

    Böhm, Herwart

    2015-01-01

    The overall goal of the project, which has been started in spring 2015, is to improve productivity of narrow-leafed sweet lupin (Lupinus angustifolius) and yellow sweet lupin (L. luteus) with regard to kernel yield, yield stability, and seed composition. In addition, the question shall be addressed whether the narrow genetic basis of current breeding materials may be broadened by including genebank accessions as plant genetic resources. Another task is to optimize lupin cultivation systems fo...

  5. Interrelationship and path coefficient analysis of yield components in F4 progenies of tef (Eragrostis tef).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debebe, Abel; Singh, Harijat; Tefera, Hailu

    2014-01-01

    This experiment was conducted at Debre Zeit and Akaki during 2004-2005 cropping season on F2-derived F4 bulk families of three crosses, viz, DZ-01-974 x DZ-01-2786, DZ-01-974 x DZ-Cr-37 and Alba x Kaye Murri. To estimate the correlations and path coefficients between yield and yield components, 63 F4 families were taken randomly from each of the three crosses. The 189 F4 families, five parents and two checks were space planted following in 14 x 14 simple lattice design. Study of associations among traits indicated that yield was positively associated with shoot biomass, harvest index, lodging index and panicle kernel weight at phenotypic level at Debre Zeit. At Akaki, yield had significant positive correlation with shoot biomass, harvest index, plant height, panicle length and panicle weight. At genotypic level, grain yield per plot exhibited positive association with harvest index, shoot biomass, lodging index and panicle kernel weight at Debre Zeit. By contrast, days to heading, days to maturity, plant height and panicle length showed negative association with yield. At Akaki, kernel yield per plot was positively correlated at genotypic level with all the traits considered where lodging index had the highest correlation followed by shoot biomass, panicle kernel weight and harvest index. Path coefficient analysis at both phenotypic and genotypic levels for both the locations suggested those shoot biomass and harvest indexes are the two important yield determining traits. These two traits might be useful in indirect selection for yield improvement in the material generated from the three crosses under consideration. PMID:24783784

  6. Interrelationship and Path Coefficient Analysis of Yield Components in F4 Progenies of Tef (Eragrostis tef

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abel Debebe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted at Debre Zeit and Akaki during 2004-2005 cropping season on F2- derived F4 bulk families of 3 crosses, viz, DZ-01-974 x DZ-01-2786, DZ-01-974 x DZ-Cr-37 and Alba x Kaye Murri. To estimate the correlations and path coefficients between yield and yield components, 63 F4 families were taken randomly from each of the 3 crosses. The 189 F4 families, five parents and 2 checks were space planted following in 14×14 simple lattice design. Study of associations among traits indicated that yield was positively associated with shoot biomass, harvest index, lodging index and panicle kernel weight at phenotypic level at Debre Zeit. At Akaki, yield had significant positive correlation with shoot biomass, harvest index, plant height and panicle length and panicle weight. At genotypic level, grain yield per plot exhibited positive association with harvest index, shoot biomass, lodging index and panicle kernel weight at Debre Zeit. By contrast, days to heading, days to maturity, plant height and panicle length showed negative association with yield. At Akaki, kernel yield per plot was positively correlated at genotypic level with all the traits considered where lodging index had the highest correlation followed by shoot biomass, panicle kernel weight and harvest index. Path coefficient analysis at both phenotypic and genotypic levels for both the locations suggested those shoot biomass and harvest indexes are the two important yield determining traits. These two traits might be useful in indirect selection for yield improvement in the material generated from the three crosses under consideration.

  7. AMMI analysis of the adaptability and yield stability of yellow passion fruit varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eder Jorge de Oliveira

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available High yield stability and adaptability of yellow passion fruit varieties (Passiflora edulis Sims. f. flavicarpa Deg. are highly desirable attributes when exploring different environments. This study aimed to evaluate the adaptability and yield stability of yellow passion fruit varieties using AMMI (additive main effects and multiplicative interaction and other ancillary statistics. Twelve varieties were evaluated in eight environments. Analysis of variance showed effects attributable to the varieties (G, environment (E and their interaction (G × E. The first two multiplicative components of the interaction accounted for 69% of the sum of squares. The scores of the principal interaction components showed high variability for the environments relative to the variety effects. High varietal phenotypic stability was observed in three environments; which can be used in yellow passion fruit breeding programs for initial selection trials. A biplot-AMMI analysis and yield stability index incorporating the AMMI stability value and yield capacity in a single non-parametric index were useful for discriminating genotypes with superior and stable fruit yield. AMMI analysis also allowed for the identification of more productive varieties in specific environments, leading to significant increase in passion fruit productivity.

  8. Effects of ecological and conventional agricultural intensification practices on maize yields in sub-Saharan Africa under potential climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Much of Africa is among the world’s regions with lowest yields in staple food crops, and climate change is expected to make it more difficult to catch up in crop production in particular in the long run. Various agronomic measures have been proposed for lifting agricultural production in Africa and to adapt it to climate change. Here, we present a projection of potential climate change impacts on maize yields under different intensification options in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) using an agronomic model, GIS-based EPIC (GEPIC). Fallow and nutrient management options taken into account are (a) conventional intensification with high mineral N supply and a bare fallow, (b) moderate mineral N supply and cowpea rotation, and (c) moderate mineral N supply and rotation with a fast growing N fixing tree Sesbania sesban. The simulations suggest that until the 2040s rotation with Sesbania will lead to an increase in yields due to increasing N supply besides improving water infiltration and soils’ water holding capacity. Intensive cultivation with a bare fallow or an herbaceous crop like cowpea in the rotation is predicted to result in lower yields and increased soil erosion during the same time span. However, yields are projected to decrease in all management scenarios towards the end of the century, should temperature increase beyond critical thresholds. The results suggest that the effect of eco-intensification as a sole means of adapting agriculture to climate change is limited in Sub-Saharan Africa. Highly adverse temperatures would rather have to be faced by improved heat tolerant cultivars, while strongly adverse decreases in precipitation would have to be faced by expanding irrigation where feasible. While the evaluation of changes in agro-environmental variables like soil organic carbon, erosion, and soil humidity hints that these are major factors influencing climate change resilience of the field crop, no direct relationship between these factors, crop yields

  9. Effects of ecological and conventional agricultural intensification practices on maize yields in sub-Saharan Africa under potential climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folberth, Christian; Yang, Hong; Gaiser, Thomas; Liu, Junguo; Wang, Xiuying; Williams, Jimmy; Schulin, Rainer

    2014-04-01

    Much of Africa is among the world’s regions with lowest yields in staple food crops, and climate change is expected to make it more difficult to catch up in crop production in particular in the long run. Various agronomic measures have been proposed for lifting agricultural production in Africa and to adapt it to climate change. Here, we present a projection of potential climate change impacts on maize yields under different intensification options in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) using an agronomic model, GIS-based EPIC (GEPIC). Fallow and nutrient management options taken into account are (a) conventional intensification with high mineral N supply and a bare fallow, (b) moderate mineral N supply and cowpea rotation, and (c) moderate mineral N supply and rotation with a fast growing N fixing tree Sesbania sesban. The simulations suggest that until the 2040s rotation with Sesbania will lead to an increase in yields due to increasing N supply besides improving water infiltration and soils’ water holding capacity. Intensive cultivation with a bare fallow or an herbaceous crop like cowpea in the rotation is predicted to result in lower yields and increased soil erosion during the same time span. However, yields are projected to decrease in all management scenarios towards the end of the century, should temperature increase beyond critical thresholds. The results suggest that the effect of eco-intensification as a sole means of adapting agriculture to climate change is limited in Sub-Saharan Africa. Highly adverse temperatures would rather have to be faced by improved heat tolerant cultivars, while strongly adverse decreases in precipitation would have to be faced by expanding irrigation where feasible. While the evaluation of changes in agro-environmental variables like soil organic carbon, erosion, and soil humidity hints that these are major factors influencing climate change resilience of the field crop, no direct relationship between these factors, crop yields, and

  10. YIELD COMPONENTS ANALYSIS AND HERITABILITY OF AGRONOMIC TRAITS AMONG SOME ACCESSIONS OF SORGHUM IN GHANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Nyadanu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench is an important staple food crop in Ghana. It is used to prepare ‘tuo zaafi’, porridge and cake and to brew local beer known as ‘pito’.  Unfortunately, sorghum attracts limited research attention to improve its low productivity which is of great disincentive to farmers. Understanding of yield and its components in sorghum is needed to improve the yield of existing local varieties. A study was carried out under field conditions in Navrongo in the Kassena-Nankana district of the Upper East region of Ghana using four local accessions of sorghum; Banina, Kadaga, Naga red and Kapala to investigate yield and its components and their genetic parameters. There were significant (P<0.05 differences in yield traits among the accessions. High values for phenotypic coefficient of variation (PCV and genotypic coefficient of variation (GCV were recorded for harvest index and number of grains per panicle. High heritability and high genetic advance (GA were observed for number of days to flowering, number of primary panicles, grain weight per panicle, and days to maturity. Banina variety produced the highest number of leaves, panicle height, panicle width, plant height, number of grains per panicle, grains weight, economic and biological yield. There were also significant and positive correlation among most of the characters studied. Principal components analysis revealed that Banina was the highest yielding accession and number of grains per panicle was the principal contributing factor of this accession.

  11. Diagnostic Yield of Chromosomal Microarray Analysis in an Autism Primary Care Practice: Which Guidelines to Implement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrew, Susan G.; Peters, Brittany R.; Crittendon, Julie A.; Veenstra-VanderWeele, Jeremy

    2012-01-01

    Genetic testing is recommended for patients with ASD; however specific recommendations vary by specialty. American Academy of Pediatrics and American Academy of Neurology guidelines recommend G-banded karyotype and Fragile X DNA. The American College of Medical Genetics recommends Chromosomal Microarray Analysis (CMA). We determined the yield of…

  12. Yielding the yield-stress analysis: a study focused on the effects of elasticity on the settling of a single spherical particle in simple yield-stress fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraggedakis, D; Dimakopoulos, Y; Tsamopoulos, J

    2016-06-28

    The sedimentation of a single particle in materials that exhibit simultaneously elastic, viscous and plastic behavior is examined in an effort to explain phenomena that contradict the nature of purely yield-stress materials. Such phenomena include the loss of the fore-and-aft symmetry with respect to an isolated settling particle under creeping flow conditions and the appearance of the "negative wake" behind it. Despite the fact that similar observations have been reported in studies involving viscoelastic fluids, researchers conjectured that thixotropy is responsible for these phenomena, as the aging of yield-stress materials is another common feature. By means of transient calculations, we study the effect of elasticity on both the fluidized and the solid phase. The latter is considered to behave as an ideal Hookean solid. The material properties of the model are determined under the isotropic kinematic hardening framework via Large Amplitude Oscillatory Shear (LAOS) measurements. In this way, we are able to predict accurately the unusual phenomena observed in experiments with simple yield-stress materials, irrespective of the appearance of slip on the particle surface. Viscoelasticity favors the formation of intense shear and extensional stresses downstream of the particle, significantly changing the entrapment mechanism in comparison to that observed in viscoplastic fluids. Therefore, the critical conditions under which the entrapment of the particle occurs deviate from the well-known criterion established theoretically by Beris et al. (1985) and verified experimentally by Tabuteau et al. (2007) for similar materials under conditions that elastic effects are negligible. Our predictions are in quantitative agreement with published experimental results by Holenberg et al. (2012) on the loss of the fore-aft symmetry and the formation of the negative wake in Carbopol with well-characterized rheology. Additionally, we propose simple expressions for the Stokes drag

  13. Yielding the yield-stress analysis: a study focused on the effects of elasticity on the settling of a single spherical particle in simple yield-stress fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraggedakis, D; Dimakopoulos, Y; Tsamopoulos, J

    2016-06-28

    The sedimentation of a single particle in materials that exhibit simultaneously elastic, viscous and plastic behavior is examined in an effort to explain phenomena that contradict the nature of purely yield-stress materials. Such phenomena include the loss of the fore-and-aft symmetry with respect to an isolated settling particle under creeping flow conditions and the appearance of the "negative wake" behind it. Despite the fact that similar observations have been reported in studies involving viscoelastic fluids, researchers conjectured that thixotropy is responsible for these phenomena, as the aging of yield-stress materials is another common feature. By means of transient calculations, we study the effect of elasticity on both the fluidized and the solid phase. The latter is considered to behave as an ideal Hookean solid. The material properties of the model are determined under the isotropic kinematic hardening framework via Large Amplitude Oscillatory Shear (LAOS) measurements. In this way, we are able to predict accurately the unusual phenomena observed in experiments with simple yield-stress materials, irrespective of the appearance of slip on the particle surface. Viscoelasticity favors the formation of intense shear and extensional stresses downstream of the particle, significantly changing the entrapment mechanism in comparison to that observed in viscoplastic fluids. Therefore, the critical conditions under which the entrapment of the particle occurs deviate from the well-known criterion established theoretically by Beris et al. (1985) and verified experimentally by Tabuteau et al. (2007) for similar materials under conditions that elastic effects are negligible. Our predictions are in quantitative agreement with published experimental results by Holenberg et al. (2012) on the loss of the fore-aft symmetry and the formation of the negative wake in Carbopol with well-characterized rheology. Additionally, we propose simple expressions for the Stokes drag

  14. Genetic analysis of F2 and transgressive segregants for seed yield in safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.Shivani, Ch. Sreelakshmi and C.V. Sameer Kumar

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The wide range of F2 variability for seed yield, number of capitula per plant and number of seeds per capitulum in 24 crosses ofline x tester set indicated potential of the crosses to throw large number of variable segregants. Maximum number of positivetransgressive segregants was found in TSF-1 x SFS 9920, TSF-1 x SSF 658, TSF-2 x ASD-07-10, Sagarmutyalu x SFS 9920andManjira x SSF 698 crosses. F1 per se performance, relative heterosis, D2 and GCA effects of parents were found to be goodindicators for predicting the phenotypic variance and genetic advance for seed yield in F2. Average GCA effects of parents hadmoderate degree of influence on the mean of 10% top yielding plants in F2.

  15. Analysis of coelom development in the sea urchin Holopneustes purpurescens yielding a deuterostome body plan

    OpenAIRE

    Morris, Valerie B.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT An analysis of early coelom development in the echinoid Holopneustes purpurescens yields a deuterostome body plan that explains the disparity between the pentameral plan of echinoderms and the bilateral plans of chordates and hemichordates, the three major phyla of the monophyletic deuterostomes. The analysis shows an early separation into a medial hydrocoele and lateral coelomic mesoderm with an enteric channel between them before the hydrocoele forms the pentameral plan of five pri...

  16. An evaluation of the potential yield of indium recycled from end-of-life LCDs: A case study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hengguang; Gu, Yifan; Wu, Yufeng; Zhang, Yi-Nan; Wang, Wei

    2015-12-01

    With the advances in electronics and information technology, China has gradually become the largest consumer of household appliances (HAs). Increasingly, end-of-life (EOL) HAs are generated in China. EOL recycling is a promising strategy to reduce dependence on virgin production, and indium is one of the recycled substances. The potential yield of indium recycling has not been systematically evaluated in China thus far. This paper estimates the potential yield of recycled indium from waste liquid crystal displays (LCDs) in China during the period from 2015 to 2030. The quantities of indium that will be used to produce LCDs are also predicted. The estimates focus on the following three key LCD waste sources: LCD TVs, desktop computers and portable computers. The results show that the demand for indium will be increasing in the near future. It is expected that 350 tonnes of indium will be needed to produce LCDs in China in 2035. The indium recycled from EOL LCDs, however, is much less than the demand and only accounts for approximately 48% of the indium demand. The sustainable index of indium is always less than 0.5. Therefore, future indium recycling efforts should focus on the development of recycling technology and the improvement of the relevant policy.

  17. An analysis of cropland mask choice and ancillary data for annual corn yield forecasting using MODIS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Yang; Campbell, James B.; Taff, Gregory N.; Zheng, Baojuan

    2015-06-01

    The Midwestern United States is one of the world's most important corn-producing regions. Monitoring and forecasting of corn yields in this intensive agricultural region are important activities to support food security, commodity markets, bioenergy industries, and formation of national policies. This study aims to develop forecasting models that have the capability to provide mid-season prediction of county-level corn yields for the entire Midwestern United States. We used multi-temporal MODIS NDVI (normalized difference vegetation index) 16-day composite data as the primary input, with digital elevation model (DEM) and parameter-elevation relationships on independent slopes model (PRISM) climate data as additional inputs. The DEM and PRISM data, along with three types of cropland masks were tested and compared to evaluate their impacts on model predictive accuracy. Our results suggested that the use of general cropland masks (e.g., summer crop or cultivated crops) generated similar results compared with use of an annual corn-specific mask. Leave-one-year-out cross-validation resulted in an average R2 of 0.75 and RMSE value of 1.10 t/ha. Using a DEM as an additional model input slightly improved performance, while inclusion of PRISM climate data appeared not to be important for our regional corn-yield model. Furthermore, our model has potential for real-time/early prediction. Our corn yield esitmates are available as early as late July, which is an improvement upon previous corn-yield prediction models. In addition to annual corn yield forecasting, we examined model uncertainties through spatial and temporal analysis of the model's predictive error distribution. The magnitude of predictive error (by county) appears to be associated with the spatial patterns of corn fields in the study area.

  18. Interrelationships between morphometric variables and rounded fish body yields evaluated by path analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Vilhena Reis Neto

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to verify which morphometric measures and ratios are more directly associated with the weight and body yields of rounded fish. A total of 225 specimens of rounded fish (59 pacus, 61 tambaquis, 52 tambacus and 53 paquis with average weight of 972.43 g (±115.52 g were sampled, stunned, slaughtered, weighed, measured, and processed for morphometric and processing yield analysis. The morphometric measures taken were: standard length (CP; head length (CC; head height (AC; body height (A1; and body width (L1. For completeness, the following morphometric ratios were calculated: CC/CP, AC/CP, A1/CP, L1/CP, CC/A1, AC/A1, L1/A1, CC/AC and L1/CC. The yields of carcass, filet, rib and filet with rib were estimated after processing. Initially, a "stepwise" procedure was performed in order to eliminate multicollinearity problems among the morphometric variables, and the phenotypic correlations were then calculated for the dependent variables (weight and body yields and independent variables (morphometric measurements and ratios. These correlations were later deployed in direct and indirect effects through path analysis, and the direct and indirect contributions of each variable were measured in percentage terms. The CC and A1 measures were important for determining the weight of rounded fish. The CC/A1 ratio was the variable most directly associated with carcass yield. For filet, filet with rib and rib yields, the L1/CC ratio was found to be more appropriate and can be used directly.

  19. Mathematical and statistical analysis of the effect of boron on yield parameters of wheat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rawashdeh, Hamzeh [Water Management and Environment Research Department, National Center for Agricultural Research and Extension, P.O. Box 639, Baqa 19381 (Jordan); Sala, Florin [Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, Faculty of Agriculture, Banat University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine “Regele Mihai I al României” from Timişoara, Timişoara, 300645 (Romania); Boldea, Marius [Mathematics and Statistics, Faculty of Agriculture, Banat University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine “Regele Mihai I al României” from Timisoara, Timişoara, 300645 (Romania)

    2015-03-10

    The main objective of this research is to investigate the effect of foliar applications of boron at different growth stages on yield and yield parameters of wheat. The contribution of boron in achieving yield parameters is described by second degree polynomial equations, with high statistical confidence (p<0.01; F theoretical < F calculated, according to ANOVA test, for Alfa = 0.05). Regression analysis, based on R{sup 2} values obtained, made it possible to evaluate the particular contribution of boron to the realization of yield parameters. This was lower for spike length (R{sup 2} = 0.812), thousand seeds weight (R{sup 2} = 0.850) and higher in the case of the number of spikelets (R{sup 2} = 0.936) and the number of seeds on a spike (R{sup 2} = 0.960). These results confirm that boron plays an important part in achieving the number of seeds on a spike in the case of wheat, as the contribution of this element to the process of flower fertilization is well-known. In regards to productivity elements, the contribution of macroelements to yield quantity is clear, the contribution of B alone being R{sup 2} = 0.868.

  20. Global warming potential and greenhouse gas intensity in rice agriculture driven by high yields and nitrogen use efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoxu; Xu, Xin; Liu, Yinglie; Wang, Jinyang; Xiong, Zhengqin

    2016-05-01

    Our understanding of how global warming potential (GWP) and greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI) is affected by management practices aimed at food security with respect to rice agriculture remains limited. In the present study, a field experiment was conducted in China to evaluate the effects of integrated soil-crop system management (ISSM) on GWP and GHGI after accounting for carbon dioxide (CO2) equivalent emissions from all sources, including methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions, agrochemical inputs and farm operations and sinks (i.e., soil organic carbon sequestration). The ISSM mainly consisted of different nitrogen (N) fertilization rates and split, manure, Zn and Na2SiO3 fertilization and planting density for the improvement of rice yield and agronomic nitrogen use efficiency (NUE). Four ISSM scenarios consisting of different chemical N rates relative to the local farmers' practice (FP) rate were carried out, namely, ISSM-N1 (25 % reduction), ISSM-N2 (10 % reduction), ISSM-N3 (FP rate) and ISSM-N4 (25 % increase). The results showed that compared with the FP, the four ISSM scenarios significantly increased the rice yields by 10, 16, 28 and 41 % and the agronomic NUE by 75, 67, 35 and 40 %, respectively. In addition, compared with the FP, the ISSM-N1 and ISSM-N2 scenarios significantly reduced the GHGI by 14 and 18 %, respectively, despite similar GWPs. The ISSM-N3 and ISSM-N4 scenarios remarkably increased the GWP and GHGI by an average of 69 and 39 %, respectively. In conclusion, the ISSM strategies are promising for both food security and environmental protection, and the ISSM scenario of ISSM-N2 is the optimal strategy to realize high yields and high NUE together with low environmental impacts for this agricultural rice field.

  1. Study of the Higgs boson discovery potential in the process pp{yields}H/A{yields}{mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -}/{tau}{sup +}{tau}{sup -} with the ATLAS detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dedes, Georgios

    2008-04-22

    In this thesis, the discovery potential of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN for the heavy neutral Higgs bosons H/A of theMinimal Supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model of particle physics (MSSM) in the decay channels H/A{yields}{tau}{sup +}{tau}{sup -}{yields}e/{mu}+X and H/A{yields}{mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -} has been studied. The ATLAS detector is designed to study the full spectrum of the physics phenomena occuring in the proton-proton collisions at 14 TeV center-of-mass energy and to provide answers to the question of the origin of particle masses and of electroweak symmetry breaking. For the studies, the ATLAS muon spectrometer plays an important role. The spectrometer allows for a precise muon momentum measurement independently of other ATLAS subdetectors. The performance of the muon spectrometer depends strongly on the performance of the muon tracking detectors, the Monitored Drift Tube Chambers (MDT). Computer programs have been developed in order to test and verify the ATLAS muon spectrometer simulation, an essential ingredient for data analysis. In addition, dedicated programs for the monitoring of the quality of the data collected by the muon spectrometer have been developed and tested with data from cosmic ray muons. High-quality cosmic ray muon data have been used for the calibration of the MDT-chambers. A new calibration method, called analytical autocalibration, has been tested. The proposed method achieved the required accuracy of 20 {mu}m in the determination of the space-to-drift-time relationship of the drift tubes of the MDT chambers with only 2000 muon tracks per chamber. Reliable muon detector simulation and calibration are essential for the study of the MSSM Higgs boson decays H/A{yields}{tau}{sup +}{tau}{sup -}{yields}e/{mu}+X and H/A{yields}{mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -} and of the corresponding background processes. The signal selection and background rejection requirements have been optimized for maximum signal

  2. Grain yield increase in cereal variety mixtures: A meta-analysis of field trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiær, Lars Pødenphant; Skovgaard, Ib; Østergård, Hanne

    2009-01-01

    on grain yield. To investigate the prevalence and preconditions for positive mixing effects, reported grain yields of variety mixtures and pure variety stands were obtained from previously published variety trials, converted into relative mixing effects and combined using meta-analysis. Furthermore......, available information on varieties, mixtures and growing conditions was used as independent variables in a series of meta-regressions. Twenty-six published studies, examining a total of 246 instances of variety mixtures of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), were identified...... as meeting the criteria for inclusion in the meta-analysis; on the other hand, nearly 200 studies were discarded. The accepted studies reported results on both winter and spring types of each crop species. Relative mixing effects ranged from 30% to 100% with an overall meta-estimate of at least 2.7% (p

  3. Combining ability analysis for yield and its attributes in Blackgram (Vigna mungo (L. Hepper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V.S. Durga Prasad and E. Murugan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Hybridization in Line x Tester mating design was conducted with 11 MYMV susceptible lines and three resistant testers in blackgram (Vigna mungo (L. Hepper to understand the nature of gene action, combining ability of the parents (gca and to assess the potential for the exploitation of heterosis (sca in hybrids. Data on nine quantitative characters viz.,days to 50 per cent flowering, plant height (cm, number of branches per plant, number of clusters per plant, number of pods per plant, number of seeds per pod, hundred seed weight (g and seed yield per plant (g were collected on 33 hybrids and their 11 parents. Among the genotypes, PU 31, LBG 645, ADT 3, CO 6 and LBG 709 recorded relatively high per se performance and gca effects for majority of seed yield attributing traits. The hybrid, LBG 709 x PU 31 followed by CO 6 x PU 31 and LBG 645 x VBN (Bg 6 exhibited significant high per se and sca for most of the traits viz., number of branches per plant, number of clusters per plant, number of pods per plant, pod length and seed yield per plant .The crosses involving the parents, LBG 645 x PU 31 and ADT 3 x PU 31 recorded significant gca and non-significant sca effect for most of the characters inferring that these crosses would produce superior recombinants for seed yield.

  4. Assessment of driving factors for yield and productivity developments in crop and cattle production as key to increasing sustainable biomass potentials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerssen-Gondelach, Sarah; Wicke, Birka; Faaij, Andre

    2015-01-01

    The sustainable production potential of biomass for energy and material purposes largely depends on the future availability of surplus agricultural lands made available through yield improvements in crop and livestock production. However, the rates at which yields may develop, and the influence of t

  5. A Global Analysis of Light and Charge Yields in Liquid Xenon

    CERN Document Server

    Lenardo, Brian; Szydagis, Matthew; Tripathi, Mani

    2014-01-01

    We present an updated model of light and charge yields from nuclear recoils in liquid xenon with a simultaneously constrained parameter set. A global analysis is performed using measurements of electron and photon yields compiled from all available historical data, as well as measurements of the ratio of the two. These data sweep over energies from 1 - 300 keV and external applied electric fields from 0 - 4060 V/cm. The model is constrained by constructing global cost functions and using a gradient descent minimizer, a simulated annealing algorithm, and a Markov Chain Monte Carlo approach to optimize and find confidence intervals on all free parameters in the model. This analysis contrasts with previous work in that we do not unnecessarily exclude data sets nor impose artificially conservative assumptions, do not use spline functions, and reduce the number of parameters used in NEST v0.98. We report our results and the calculated best-fit charge and light yields. These quantities are crucial to understanding ...

  6. A meta-analysis of responses of wheat yield formation to elevated ozone concentration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG ZhaoZhong; KOBAYASHI Kazuhiko; WANG XiaoKe; FENG ZongWei

    2009-01-01

    The meta-analysis method was applied to quantitatively investigate effects of the elevated ozone con-centration ([O3]) on chlorophyll concentration, gas exchange and yield components of wheat. There were 39 effective references through Web of Science (ISI, USA) and Chinese journal full-text database (CNKI, China). The results of meta-analysis indicated that elevated [O3] decreased grain yield, grain weight, grain number per ear, ear number per plant and harvest index by 26%, 18%, 11%, 5% and 11%,respectively, relative to ambient air. The decrease in leaf physiological characters was much greater than that in yield when wheat was expose to elevated [O3], while light-saturated photosynthetic rate (Asat), stomatal conductance (Gs) and chlorophyll content (ChI) decreased by 40%, 31%, and 46%,respectively. The responses to elevated [O3] between spring wheat and winter wheat were similar. Most of the variables showed a linear decrease trend with an increase of [O3]. The most significant decrease for Asat, Gs and Chl was found in grain filling stage. Elevated [CO2] could significantly ameliorated or offset the detrimental effects caused by elevated [O3].

  7. Prediction of Pectin Yield and Quality by FTIR and Carbohydrate Microarray Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baum, Andreas; Dominiak, Malgorzata Maria; Vidal-Melgosa, Silvia;

    2016-01-01

    Pectin production is complex, and final product quality assessment is generally accomplished at the end of the process using time-consuming off-line laboratory analysis. In this study, pectin was extracted from lime peel either by acid or by enzymes. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy...... and carbohydrate microarray analysis were performed directly on the crude lime peel extracts during the time course of the extractions. Multivariate analysis of the data was carried out to predict final pectin yields. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was found applicable for determining the optimal...... extraction time for the enzymatic and acidic extraction processes, respectively. The combined results of FTIR and carbohydrate microarray analysis suggested major differences in the crude pectin extracts obtained by enzymatic and acid extraction, respectively. Enzymatically extracted pectin, thus, showed...

  8. Three-Dimensional Analysis of Rolling by Twin Shear Stress Yield Criterion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO De-wen; XIE Ying-jie; LIU Xiang-hua; WANG Guo-dong

    2006-01-01

    Using the twin shear stress yield criterion, the surface integral of the co-line vectors, and the integration depending on upper limit, Kobayashi's three-dimensional velocity field of rolling was analyzed and an analytical expression of rolling torque and single force was obtained. Through redoing the same experiment of rolling pure lead as Sims, the calculated results by the above expression were compared with those of Kobayashi and Sims formulae. The results show that the twin shear stress yield criterion is available for rolling analysis and the calculated results by the new formula are a little higher than those by Kobayashi and Sims ones if the reduction ratio is less than 30%.

  9. Genetic Analysis and Combining Ability Studies for Yield Related Characters in Rapeseed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aamar Shehzad

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Combining ability analysis has a key position in rapeseed breeding. To estimate the combining ability effects for yield controlling traits in rapeseed, three testers and five lines were crossed using line × tester design in randomized complete block design with three replications. Mean sum of squares of analysis of variances for genotypes were significant for all of the traits; indicating the presence of significant genetic variation. All the interactions between lines and testers exhibited significant results of mean sum of squares for combining ability. Line ‘Duncled’ was found good general combiner for decreased Plant height (PH:-2.0, Days taken to 50% flowering (DF: -15.8 and Days taken to maturity (DM:-3.4 while tester ‘Punjab Sarson” for increased Number of seed/siliqua (SS: 2.2, Number of siliquae/plant (SP: 2.2 and decreased DF (-3.0 traits. Significant general and specific combining ability effects were observed. The best hybrid combination on the basis of specific combining ability effects was “Durre-NIFA × ZN-M-6” for Seed yield/plant (SY: 2.7, DF (-6.1 and DM (-3.5. PH (-0.2, Siliqua length (SL: -0.1, SS (-0.03 and SY (0.2 showed non-additive genetic effects. The half of the characters revealed additive and remaining half showed non-additive genetic effects. The present study unveiled the importance of both type of genetic effects demanding the application of integrated breeding approaches for exploiting the variability. ‘Punjab Sarson × ZN-M-6’ exposed maximum SS (30 and SP (837. Maximum SY (75.9g and minimum DF (64 were showed by ‘Legend × Duncled’. The present research delivers valuable information of genotypes for promoting yield by means of improving yield related characters.

  10. Genetic analysis and hybrid vigor study of grain yield and other quantitative traits in auto tetraploid rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genetic analysis and genotype-by-environment interaction for important traits of auto tetraploid rice were evaluated by additive, dominance and additive X additive model. It was show n that genetic effects had more influence on grain yield and other quantitative traits of auto tetraploid rice than genotypic environment interaction. Plant height, panicle length, seed set , grain yield, dry matter production and 1000-grain weight we re mainly regulated by dominance variance. Additive and additive X additive gene action constructed the main proportion of genetic variance for heading date (flowering), number of panicles, grains per panicle, grain length, however grain width was supposed to be affected by additive X additive and dominance variance. Flag leaf length and width, fresh weight, peduncle length, unfilled grains and awn length were greatly influenced by genotypic environment interaction. Heading date produced highly negative heterosis over mid parent (H pm) and better parent ( H pb), whereas H pm and H pb were detected to be highly positive and significant for grain yield, seed set, peduncle length, filled grains and 1000-grain weight in F/sub 1/ and F/sub 2/ generations. The results indicated that auto tetraploid hybrids 96025 X Jackson (indica/japonica), 96025 X Linglun (indica/indica) and Linglun X Jackson (indica/japonica) showed highly significant hybrid vigor with improved seed set percentage and grain yield. These results suggest that intra-specific auto tetraploid rice hybrids have more hybrid vigor as compared to intra-sub specific auto tetraploid rice hybrids and auto tetraploid rice has the potential to be used for further studies and commercial application. (author)

  11. Yield component analysis and recombinative heterosis of complex characters in QPM maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Thanga Hemavathy, N.Subbaraman, S.M.Ibrahim and K.Balaji

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Component analysis is the analysis of variation of complex character based on the variation of its components. For assessing the variation,components should be arranged in ontogenetical order. This allows determination of the mutually independent contributions of the components tothe variation of complex character. Component analysis provides the necessary data for the exploitation of recombinative heterosis in plantbreeding. Recombinative heterosis is the phenomenon where in, the progeny value of a complex character exceeds the mid parental value as aresult of the multiplicative relationship between the complex character and its component traits. It is suggested that this form of heterosis may bean important cause of specific combining ability. As such, it may be involved in the heterosis of complex characters in F1 hybrids and in thehybrid- vigor encountered in interspecific hybrid populations. It is demonstrated how recombinative heterosis may be explained by a quantitativegenetical model involving additive inheritance of the component traits. Current study was focused to predict progeny performance for thecomplex character from parental data for the component traits. This requires regression of individual components on the preceding primarycharacters. The contribution of the coefficient for yield component C3 (single seed weight to variance of log yield was maximum in the parentsCML 189, UMI 814, CML 145, UMI 524, CML 141 followed by the coefficient C2 (number of kernels per row which was maximum in theparents UMI 427 and UMI 814. In the present investigation, 35 hybrid combinations were tested for progeny prediction value. Application of thisprocedure revealed that among the 35 crosses, five crosses exceeded the predicted mid parental value. The predicted values can serve as a basisfor the selection of promising combinations. The crosses that exhibited higher values for grain yield per plant was predicted in the combination ofCML 142 x UMI

  12. Generation mean analysis of grain yield and its related traits in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. S. Raikwar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Generation mean analysis was performed using three crosses namely DL 88 x K 560, K 603 x Azad, RD 2552 x NDB 1020 to study the nature and magnitude of gene effects for yield and its component characters in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.. The F1, F2, BC1 and BC2 of these crosses along with P1 and P2 were studied for six morphological traits. Additive x additive (i epistatic effect was more important and higher than the dominance x dominance (l epistatic effect in the inheritance of no. of effective tillers/plant in DL88 x K560, length of main spike and grain yield/plant in RD 2552 x NDB1020. The length of main spike, weight of grains/main spike, 1000-grain weight and grain yield/plant were significantly higher in RD 2552 x NDB 1020.Thus, these characters were mainly under the control of dominance x dominance (l type of epistasis. Therefore, selection for these characters would be fruitful, if delayed till dominance and epistasis effects are reduced to minimum. The additive × additive (i type gene interaction and duplicate epistasis also seen in this trait suggest the possibilities of obtaining transgressive segregants in later generations. The study revealed the importance of both additive and non-additive types of gene interaction for all the traits studied.

  13. Parameters of AMMI Model for Yield Stability Analysis in Durum Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Sabaghnia

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The improvement of new genotypes with acceptable yield stability in different environments is an important issue in breeding programs. In order to study genotype × environment (GE interaction and to determine the most stable durum wheat genotypes, field experiments were conducted with 20 genotypes for three years (2007-2009. Results showed highly significant GE interaction indicating the possibility of selection for the most stable genotypes. The AMMI (additive main effect and multiplicative interaction analysis indicated that the first five axes were significant based on F-test of Gollob while the other tests (FGH1 and FGH2 identified first three axes as significant AMMI model components. Furthermore, according to FRatio test and cross validation results, only first two axes were significant. According to these distinct numbers of significant axes, sixteen AMMI stability parameters plus ASV(AMMI stability value were computed. Our results showed that EV- and D-based parameters, displayed G7 and G8, SIPC-based parameters indicated G3 and G4 and AMGE-based parameters identified G15 as the most stable genotypes. Genotypes G15 and G7 were the highest mean yielding genotypes and so they could be regarded as the most favorable durum wheat genotypes. The results of this investigation proved that the most of AMMI stability parameters are suitable indices for discriminating stable genotypes and AMGE-based parameters can detect highly seed yield genotypes with good stability.

  14. Parameters of AMMI Model for Yield Stability Analysis in Durum Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Sabaghnia

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The improvement of new genotypes with acceptable yield stability in different environments is an important issue in breeding programs. In order to study genotype × environment (GE interaction and to determine the most stable durum wheat genotypes, field experiments were conducted with 20 genotypes for three years (2007-2009. Results showed highly significant GE interaction indicating the possibility of selection for the most stable genotypes. The AMMI (additive main effect and multiplicative interaction analysis indicated that the first five axes were significant based on F-test of Gollob while the other tests (FGH1 and FGH2 identified first three axes as significant AMMI model components. Furthermore, according to FRatio test and cross validation results, only first two axes were significant. According to these distinct numbers of significant axes, sixteen AMMI stability parameters plus ASV (AMMI stability value were computed. Our results showed that EV- and D-based parameters, displayed G7 and G8, SIPC-based parameters indicated G3 and G4 and AMGE-based parameters identified G15 as the most stable genotypes. Genotypes G15 and G7 were the highest mean yielding genotypes and so they could be regarded as the most favorable durum wheat genotypes. The results of this investigation proved that the most of AMMI stability parameters are suitable indices for discriminating stable genotypes and AMGE-based parameters can detect highly seed yield genotypes with good stability.

  15. Use of Selection Indices Based on Multivariate Analysis for Improving Grain Yield in Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hossein SABOURI; Babak RABIEI; Maryam FAZLALIPOUR

    2008-01-01

    In order to study selection indices for improving rice grain yield, a cross was made between an Iranian traditional rice (Oryza sativa L.) variety, Tarommahalli and an improved indica rice variety, Khazar in 2006. The traits of the parents (30 plants), F1 (30 plants) and F2 generations (492 individuals) were evaluated at the Rice Research institute of Iran (RRII) during 2007. Heritabilities of the number of panicles per plant, plant height, days to heading and panicle exsertion were greater than that of grain yield. The selection indices were developed using the results of multivariate analysis. To evaluate selection strategies to maximize grain yield, 14 selection indices were calculated based on two methods (optimum and base) and combinations of 12 traits with various economic weights. Results of selection indices showed that selection for grain weight, number of panicles per plant and panicle length by using their phenotypic and/or genotypic direct effects (path coefficient) as economic weights should serve as an effective selection criterion for using either the optimum or base index.

  16. QTL analysis of novel genomic regions associated with yield and yield related traits in new plant type based recombinant inbred lines of rice (Oryza sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marathi Balram

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rice is staple food for more than half of the world’s population including two billion Asians, who obtain 60-70% of their energy intake from rice and its derivatives. To meet the growing demand from human population, rice varieties with higher yield potential and greater yield stability need to be developed. The favourable alleles for yield and yield contributing traits are distributed among two subspecies i.e., indica and japonica of cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.. Identification of novel favourable alleles in indica/japonica will pave way to marker-assisted mobilization of these alleles in to a genetic background to break genetic barriers to yield. Results A new plant type (NPT based mapping population of 310 recombinant inbred lines (RILs was used to map novel genomic regions and QTL hotspots influencing yield and eleven yield component traits. We identified major quantitative trait loci (QTLs for days to 50% flowering (R2 = 25%, LOD = 14.3, panicles per plant (R2 = 19%, LOD = 9.74, flag leaf length (R2 = 22%, LOD = 3.05, flag leaf width (R2 = 53%, LOD = 46.5, spikelets per panicle (R2 = 16%, LOD = 13.8, filled grains per panicle (R2 = 22%, LOD = 15.3, percent spikelet sterility (R2 = 18%, LOD = 14.24, thousand grain weight (R2 = 25%, LOD = 12.9 and spikelet setting density (R2 = 23%, LOD = 15 expressing over two or more locations by using composite interval mapping. The phenotypic variation (R2 ranged from 8 to 53% for eleven QTLs expressing across all three locations. 19 novel QTLs were contributed by the NPT parent, Pusa1266. 15 QTL hotpots on eight chromosomes were identified for the correlated traits. Six epistatic QTLs effecting five traits at two locations were identified. A marker interval (RM3276-RM5709 on chromosome 4 harboring major QTLs for four traits was identified. Conclusions The present study reveals that favourable alleles for

  17. Cluster analysis of breeding values for milk yield and lactation persistency in Guzerá cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Diego Augusto Campos da Cruz; Rodrigo Pelicioni Savegnago; Annaíza Braga Bignardi Santana; Maria Gabriela Campolina Diniz Peixoto; Frank Angelo Tomita Bruneli; Lenira El Faro

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to explore the pattern of genetic lactation curves of Guzerá cattle using cluster analysis. Test-day milk yields of 5,274 first-lactation Guzerá cows were recorded in a progeny test. A total of 34,193 monthly records were analyzed with a random regression animal model using Legendre polynomials to fit additive genetic and permanent environmental random effects and mean trends. Hierarchical and non-hierarchical cluster analyses were performed based on the EB...

  18. Pyrolysis of hazelnut shells in a fixed-bed tubular reactor. Yields and structural analysis of bio-oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puetuen, A.E.; Oezcan, A.; Puetuen, E. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Yunusemre Campus, Anadolu University, 26470 Eskisehir (Turkey)

    1999-09-01

    Fixed-bed pyrolysis experiments have been conducted on a sample of hazelnut shells to determine the possibility of being a potential source of renewable fuels and chemical feedstocks. The effects of pyrolysis temperature and well-sweep gas atmosphere (N{sub 2}) on the pyrolysis yields and chemical compositions have been investigated. The maximum bio-oil yield of 23.1 wt.% was obtained in N{sub 2} atmosphere at a pyrolysis temperature of 500C and heating rate of 7 K min{sup -1}. The pyrolysis products were characterised by elemental analysis and various chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques and also compared with currently utilised transport fuels by simulated distillation. Bio-oil was then fractionated into pentane soluble and insoluble compounds (asphaltenes). Pentane soluble was then solvent fractionated into pentane, toluene, ether and methanol subfractions by fractionated column chromatography. The aliphatic and low-molecular-weight aromatic subfractions of the bio-oil were then analyzed by capillary column gas-liquid chromatography and GC/MS. Further structural analysis of bio-oil and aromatic and polar subfractions FTIR and {sup 1}H-NMR spectra were obtained. The chemical characterization has shown that the bio-oil obtained from hazelnut shells was quite similar to the crude oil and shale oil

  19. [Comparison of potential yield and resource utilization efficiency of main food crops in three provinces of Northeast China under climate change].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-yu; Yang, Xiao-guang; Sun, Shuang; Xie, Wen-juan

    2015-10-01

    Based on the daily data of 65 meteorological stations from 1961 to 2010 and the crop phenology data in the potential cultivation zones of thermophilic and chimonophilous crops in Northeast China, the crop potential yields were calculated through step-by-step correction method. The spatio-temporal distribution of the crop potential yields at different levels was analyzed. And then we quantified the limitations of temperature and precipitation on the crop potential yields and compared the differences in the climatic resource utilization efficiency. The results showed that the thermal potential yields of six crops (including maize, rice, spring wheat, sorghum, millet and soybean) during the period 1961-2010 deceased from west to east. The climatic potential yields of the five crops (spring wheat not included) were higher in the south than in the north. The potential yield loss rate due to temperature limitations of the six crops presented a spatial distribution pattern and was higher in the east than in the west. Among the six main crops, the yield potential loss rate due to temperature limitation of the soybean was the highest (51%), and those of the other crops fluctuated within the range of 33%-41%. The potential yield loss rate due to water limitation had an obvious regional difference, and was high in Songnen Plain and Changbai Mountains. The potential yield loss rate of spring wheat was the highest (50%), and those of the other four rainfed crops fluctuated within the range of 8%-10%. The solar energy utilization efficiency of the six main crops ranged from 0.9% to 2.7%, in the order of maize> sorghum>rice>millet>spring wheat>soybean. The precipitation utilization efficiency of the maize, sorghum, spring wheat, millet and soybean under rainfed conditions ranged from 8 to 35 kg . hm-2 . mm-1, in the order of maize>sorghum>spring wheat>millet>soybean. In those areas with lower efficiency of solar energy utilization and precipitation utilization, such as Changbai

  20. Analysis of the thermal profiles and the charcoal gravimetric yield in three variations of rectangular brick

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Rogerio Lima Mota de; Alves Junior, Edson; Mulina, Bruno Henrique Oliveira; Borges, Valerio Luiz; Carvalho, Solidonio Rodrigues de [Federal University of Uberlandia - UFU, MG (Brazil). School of Mechanical Engineering - FEMEC], e-mails: rogerio@mecanica.ufu.br, edson@mec.ufu.br, vlborges@mecanica.ufu.br, srcarvalho@mecanica.ufu.br

    2010-07-01

    Charcoal assumes a major role in Brazilian economic scenario. The procedure for obtaining charcoal consists in carbonization of wood at certain specific temperatures in kilns. This ancient process has a few joined technologies and the kilns for such practice do not have any control instruments, in their great majority, becoming dependent on the ability of its operators. However, in recent decades several studies have been developed to improve the practice as well as the equipment that involve and control the stages of charcoal production. In this sense, this work proposes the analysis of the thermal profiles and the gravimetric yield in three variations of a rectangular brick kiln called RAC220: traditional (without any type of instrumentation), instrumented with thermal sensors (RTD PT100) and adapted with gasifier. The goal is to correlate temperature, gravimetric yield and quality of the produced charcoal. Immediate analyses were performed to determine the amount of fixed carbon, volatile gases and ashes contents in charcoal. Through such measurement procedures, together with statistical analysis, the aim is to identify an important tool to reduce the time of charcoal production and also contributes to minimize losses and to increase the thermal efficiency of the production process. (author)

  1. CULTIVAR RELEASE - BRS Notável: a medium-early-maturing, disease-resistant Carioca common bean cultivar with high yield potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Cristina Prucoli Posse

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available BRS Notável is a common bean cultivar with carioca grain, suitable for cultivation in 20 Brazilian states. It is a mediumearly-maturing cultivar, with an average yield of 2,261 kg ha-1, 8.5% higher than the controls, a high yield potential (4,472 kg ha-1, lodging tolerance and resistance to anthracnose, fusarium wilt, common bacterial blight, and curtobacterium wilt.

  2. Linking genome content to biofuel production yields: a meta-analysis of major catabolic pathways among select H2 and ethanol-producing bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carere Carlo R

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fermentative bacteria offer the potential to convert lignocellulosic waste-streams into biofuels such as hydrogen (H2 and ethanol. Current fermentative H2 and ethanol yields, however, are below theoretical maxima, vary greatly among organisms, and depend on the extent of metabolic pathways utilized. For fermentative H2 and/or ethanol production to become practical, biofuel yields must be increased. We performed a comparative meta-analysis of (i reported end-product yields, and (ii genes encoding pyruvate metabolism and end-product synthesis pathways to identify suitable biomarkers for screening a microorganism’s potential of H2 and/or ethanol production, and to identify targets for metabolic engineering to improve biofuel yields. Our interest in H2 and/or ethanol optimization restricted our meta-analysis to organisms with sequenced genomes and limited branched end-product pathways. These included members of the Firmicutes, Euryarchaeota, and Thermotogae. Results Bioinformatic analysis revealed that the absence of genes encoding acetaldehyde dehydrogenase and bifunctional acetaldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenase (AdhE in Caldicellulosiruptor, Thermococcus, Pyrococcus, and Thermotoga species coincide with high H2 yields and low ethanol production. Organisms containing genes (or activities for both ethanol and H2 synthesis pathways (i.e. Caldanaerobacter subterraneus subsp. tengcongensis, Ethanoligenens harbinense, and Clostridium species had relatively uniform mixed product patterns. The absence of hydrogenases in Geobacillus and Bacillus species did not confer high ethanol production, but rather high lactate production. Only Thermoanaerobacter pseudethanolicus produced relatively high ethanol and low H2 yields. This may be attributed to the presence of genes encoding proteins that promote NADH production. Lactate dehydrogenase and pyruvate:formate lyase are not conducive for ethanol and/or H2 production. While the type(s of

  3. A Meta-Analysis of Impact of Anaerobic Soil Disinfestation on Pest Suppression and Yield of Horticultural Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utsala Shrestha

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Anaerobic soil disinfestation (ASD is a proven but relatively new strategy to control soil borne pests of horticultural crops through anaerobic decomposition of organic soil amendments. The ASD technique has primarily been used to control soil borne pathogens; however, this technique has also shown potential to control plant parasitic nematodes and weeds. ASD can utilize a broad range of carbon (C amendments and optimization may improve efficacy across environments. In this context, a meta-analysis using a random-effects model was conducted to determine effect sizes of the ASD effect on soil borne pathogens (533 studies, plant parasitic nematodes (91 studies, and weeds (88 studies compared with unamended controls. Yield response to ASD was evaluated (123 studies compared to unamended and fumigated controls. We also examined moderator variables for environmental conditions and amendments to explore the impact of these moderators on ASD effectiveness on pests and yield. Across all pathogen types with the exception of Sclerotinia spp., ASD studies show suppression of bacterial, oomycete and fungal pathogens (59% to 86%. Pathogen suppression was effective under all environmental conditions (50% to 94% and amendment types (53% to 98%, except when amendments applied at rates less than 0.3 kg m-2. The ASD effect ranged from 15% to 56% for nematode suppression and 32% to 81% for weed suppression, but these differences were not significant. Significant nematode moderators included study type, soil type, sampling depth, incubation period, and use of mixed amendments. Weed suppression due to ASD showed significant heterogeneity for all environmental conditions, confirming that these studies do not share a common effect size. Total crop yield was not reduced by ASD when compared to a fumigant control and yield was significantly higher (30% compared to an unamended control, suggesting ASD as a feasible option to maintain yield without chemical soil fumigants

  4. A Meta-Analysis of the Impact of Anaerobic Soil Disinfestation on Pest Suppression and Yield of Horticultural Crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Utsala; Augé, Robert M; Butler, David M

    2016-01-01

    Anaerobic soil disinfestation (ASD) is a proven but relatively new strategy to control soil borne pests of horticultural crops through anaerobic decomposition of organic soil amendments. The ASD technique has primarily been used to control soil borne pathogens; however, this technique has also shown potential to control plant parasitic nematodes and weeds. ASD can utilize a broad range of carbon (C) amendments and optimization may improve efficacy across environments. In this context, a meta-analysis using a random-effects model was conducted to determine effect sizes of the ASD effect on soil borne pathogens (533 studies), plant parasitic nematodes (91 studies), and weeds (88 studies) compared with unamended controls. Yield response to ASD was evaluated (123 studies) compared to unamended and fumigated controls. We also examined moderator variables for environmental conditions and amendments to explore the impact of these moderators on ASD effectiveness on pests and yield. Across all pathogen types with the exception of Sclerotinia spp., ASD studies show suppression of bacterial, oomycete and fungal pathogens (59 to 94%). Pathogen suppression was effective under all environmental conditions (50 to 94%) and amendment types (53 to 97%), except when amendments were applied at rates less than 0.3 kg m(-2). The ASD effect ranged from 15 to 56% for nematode suppression and 32 to 81% for weed suppression, but these differences were not significant. Significant nematode moderators included study type, soil type, sampling depth, incubation period, and use of mixed amendments. Weed suppression due to ASD showed significant heterogeneity for all environmental conditions, confirming that these studies do not share a common effect size. Total crop yield was not reduced by ASD when compared to a fumigant control and yield was significantly higher (30%) compared to an unamended control, suggesting ASD as a feasible option to maintain yield without chemical soil fumigants. We

  5. A Meta-Analysis of the Impact of Anaerobic Soil Disinfestation on Pest Suppression and Yield of Horticultural Crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Utsala; Augé, Robert M; Butler, David M

    2016-01-01

    Anaerobic soil disinfestation (ASD) is a proven but relatively new strategy to control soil borne pests of horticultural crops through anaerobic decomposition of organic soil amendments. The ASD technique has primarily been used to control soil borne pathogens; however, this technique has also shown potential to control plant parasitic nematodes and weeds. ASD can utilize a broad range of carbon (C) amendments and optimization may improve efficacy across environments. In this context, a meta-analysis using a random-effects model was conducted to determine effect sizes of the ASD effect on soil borne pathogens (533 studies), plant parasitic nematodes (91 studies), and weeds (88 studies) compared with unamended controls. Yield response to ASD was evaluated (123 studies) compared to unamended and fumigated controls. We also examined moderator variables for environmental conditions and amendments to explore the impact of these moderators on ASD effectiveness on pests and yield. Across all pathogen types with the exception of Sclerotinia spp., ASD studies show suppression of bacterial, oomycete and fungal pathogens (59 to 94%). Pathogen suppression was effective under all environmental conditions (50 to 94%) and amendment types (53 to 97%), except when amendments were applied at rates less than 0.3 kg m(-2). The ASD effect ranged from 15 to 56% for nematode suppression and 32 to 81% for weed suppression, but these differences were not significant. Significant nematode moderators included study type, soil type, sampling depth, incubation period, and use of mixed amendments. Weed suppression due to ASD showed significant heterogeneity for all environmental conditions, confirming that these studies do not share a common effect size. Total crop yield was not reduced by ASD when compared to a fumigant control and yield was significantly higher (30%) compared to an unamended control, suggesting ASD as a feasible option to maintain yield without chemical soil fumigants. We

  6. Yield analysis of large capacity magnetic bubble circuits with redundancy design. [fabrication reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, R. F.; Reekstin, J. P.

    1974-01-01

    The fabrication yield of an on-chip modifiable redundant circuit design for a 100M bit serial shift register is evaluated. The yield model is a redundancy design in which there is a primary loop and a set of secondary loops which can be enabled/disabled without introducing blanks to the data stream. This function has a finite yield, the loop-modification yield factor, which must be greater than 0.9 to make the system more economical than the simple nonredundant design. It is further established that small loop capacities greatly degrade the yield because of the effect of the modification yield factor, while large loop capacities degrade the yield because of defects in the operating area. As the modification yield increases the optimum loop capacity decreases. An optimum value for the number of redundant loops exists for each loop capacity. Other factors that affect the yield are the garnet film and the processed circuit.

  7. CYCLIC RECURRENCE ASSESSMENT OF GRAIN YIELD TIME SERIES USING PHASE ANALYSIS INSTRUMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Temirov A. A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An algorithm of phase analysis as the instrument of nonlinear dynamics' methods used to study cyclic recurrence of time series is viewed in current article. The existing classical econometric methods for estimating cyclic recurrence developed for random systems which dynamics matches to the normal distribution. However, there also exists non-random systems characterized by trends, periodic and non-periodic cycles called quasicycles. An example of computing process of identifying quasicycles is illustrated on time series of all grain yields in Russia for the last 119 years. Phase portrait of this time series is illustrated in twodimension space. As a result, the phase portrait consists of 22 frequently unstable quasicycles which tottality forms a strange attractor. Quasicycles have quantitative (length and quality (configuration characteristics. Their combination defines very important characteristic called trend-stability. Phase analysis is a powerful form of analysis of time series to assess cyclic recurrence and is a tool for pre-forecasting analysis. Fuzzy sets' mathematical apparatus is also used in this article. An algorithm of formation of fuzzy sets' quasicycles' length is also presented here. Quasicycles' statistics are presented in tables, geometric patterns and in the form of fuzzy sets

  8. Simple models of cassava [Manihot utilissima] attainable yield estimation for regional-level productivity analysis in northeast Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to estimate cassava productivity in Northeast Thailand, notorious for its low and unstable agricultural production, simple yield models were developed using water use efficiency (WUE) and radiation conversion efficiency (Cs). In the WUE model, daily dry matter production was estimated by the WUE and transpiration, whereas in the Cs model, by absorbed solar radiation, Cs and LAI. Daily transpiration was estimated by LAI and evapotranspiration, which was estimated from air temperature and solar radiation. The effect of water stress was incorporated through the calculation of actual transpiration in the WUE model, and through a water stress index, i.e. the ratio of actual against potential transpiration in the Cs model. Several experiments, conducted in an experimental farm in Khon Kaen University, located in Northeast Thailand, provided parameters necessary for the models. Validations in the experimental farm and a farmers' field indicated that the models developed were able to estimate the growth and yield of cassava to an acceptable level. Although both models were equally successful, the WUE model seems preferable for application in regional level productivity analysis, because of its simplicity

  9. Surface analysis by glow discharge spectrometry: cathode zone and sputtering yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Applications of the glow discharge optical spectroscopy for surface analysis are numerous. Moreover, this method enables to get qualitative and semi-quantitative results which are already significant. However, we should improve our knowledge of the physical parameters involved in the glow discharge lamp mechanisms and learn to handle such phenomena. The problems can be divided into two categories: sputtering of the target under argon ions accelerated in the cathode dark space, and luminous emission of torn away species which reach the negative glow region. Our aim was to take stock of the present theoretical knowledge which can be applied to the specific self-maintained glow discharge plasma. Moreover, we tried to link together (often roughly) the basic discharge parameters, i.e. current intensity I, voltage of the lamp Vg, pressure of the gas p. Specially a comparison between theoretical and experimental results was established concerning the pure target sputtering yields. The contribution of the argon ions striking the cathode is estimated taking into account their energetic distribution. The role of the fast argon neutrals produced by charge exchange with the ions is important; we evaluated their energetic distribution and their contribution to sputtering. The total theoretical sputtering yield is inferred: the comparison with experimental results is presented. The role of the gas temperature is emphasized

  10. Yield stability and adaptability of maize hybrids based on GGE biplot analysis characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Balestre

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate stability and adaptability of the grain yield of commercial intervarietalmaize hybrids by the GGE (Genotype and Genotype by Environment Interaction biplot and AMMI (Additive Main Effects andMultiplicative Interaction analyses. Two intervarietal hybrids (BIO 2 and BIO4 were evaluated together with single, doubleand three-way cross hybrids. The performance of the intervarietal hybrid BIO 4 was superior to all double and three-waycross hybrids and outmatched the single-cross hybrids by 43%. In terms of stability, BIO 2 was more stable than BIO4, whichis desirable, but biological stability, which is not necessarily desirable, was also observed, since the yield was below theenvironmental mean. The graphical GGE biplot analysis was superior to the AMMI1 since a greater portion of the sum ofsquares of GE and G+GE was captured and the predictive accuracy was higher. On the other hand, the AMMI2 graphoutperformed the GGE biplot in predictive accuracy and explanation of G + GE and GE, although the difference in accuracywas smaller than between GGE2 and AMMI1.

  11. Quantitative and Genetic Analysis of Yield and Seed Quality Components in New Winter Wheat Varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bede

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Long term genetic examination, selection of right parents for crossing and directed selection programs in hybrid population resulted with creation of new winter wheat varieties Kruna, Lara, Lenta, Perla and Astra. In examination conducted in few years period time all new cultivars shown considerably higher yield than standard variety Žitarka. 1000 kernel weight and hectoliter mass almost in all new varieties were on standard level. In new varieties ear was significantly longer than in standard variety Žitarka. From that we can conclude that increasing of the ear length have important influence on increasing of seed yield in new varieties. By the farinografic and extensografic quality index, protein content in seed, sedimentation values of flour and content of wet gluten varieties Lara, Kruna, Perla and especially Lenta can be classify in high quality winter wheat varieties. Results of genotype analysis of new varieties point on known varieties Žitarka and Slavonija. These varieties served as gene donators for some important economic traits in crossing for creating of new varieties.

  12. Dalitz-plot analysis of B{sup 0} {yields} anti-D{sup 0} {pi}+ {pi}-

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roney, Michael [BABAR, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, P.O.Box 3055 Stn Csc, Victoria, BC V8W 3P6 (Canada); Latham, Thomas [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry, CV4 7AL (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-01

    Constraints on the CKM Unitarity Triangle angle {beta} can be obtained from a time-dependent Dalitz-plot analysis of the decay B{sup 0} {yields} D {pi}+ {pi}-. We present preliminary results of an analysis of the B{sup 0} {yields} D {pi}+ {pi}- Dalitz plot using the final BaBar dataset, consisting of around 471 million BB-bar pairs. (author)

  13. Computer analysis of effects of altering jet fuel properties on refinery costs and yields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breton, T.; Dunbar, D.

    1984-01-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the adequacy of future U.S. jet fuel supplies, the potential for large increases in the cost of jet fuel, and to what extent a relaxation in jet fuel properties would remedy these potential problems. The results of the study indicate that refiners should be able to meet jet fuel output requirements in all regions of the country within the current Jet A specifications during the 1990-2010 period. The results also indicate that it will be more difficult to meet Jet A specifications on the West Coast, because the feedstock quality is worse and the required jet fuel yield (jet fuel/crude refined) is higher than in the East. The results show that jet fuel production costs could be reduced by relaxing fuel properties. Potential cost savings in the East (PADDs I-IV) through property relaxation were found to be about 1.3 cents/liter (5 cents/gallon) in January 1, 1981 dollars between 1990 and 2010. However, the savings from property relaxation were all obtained within the range of current Jet A specifications, so there is no financial incentive to relax Jet A fuel specifications in the East. In the West (PADD V) the potential cost savings from lowering fuel quality were considerably greater than in the East. Cost savings from 2.7 to 3.7 cents/liter (10-14 cents/gallon) were found. In contrast to the East, on the West Coast a significant part of the savings was obtained through relaxation of the current Jet A fuel specifications.

  14. Analysis of a Regularized Bingham Model with Pressure-Dependent Yield Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Khouja, Nazek; Roquet, Nicolas; Cazacliu, Bogdan

    2015-12-01

    The goal of this article is to provide some essential results for the solution of a regularized viscoplastic frictional flow model adapted from the extensive mathematical analysis of the Bingham model. The Bingham model is a standard for the description of viscoplastic flows and it is widely used in many application areas. However, wet granular viscoplastic flows necessitate the introduction of additional non-linearities and coupling between velocity and stress fields. This article proposes a step toward a frictional coupling, characterized by a dependence of the yield stress to the pressure field. A regularized version of this viscoplastic frictional model is analysed in the framework of stationary flows. Existence, uniqueness and regularity are investigated, as well as finite-dimensional and algorithmic approximations. It is shown that the model can be solved and approximated as far as a frictional parameter is small enough. Getting similar results for the non-regularized model remains an issue. Numerical investigations are postponed to further works.

  15. Importance of rhizobia in Agriculture: potential of the commercial inoculants and native strains for improving legume yields in different land-use systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesueur, D.; Atieno, M.; Mathu, S.; Herrmann, L.

    2012-04-01

    Legumes play an important role in the traditional diets of many regions throughout the world because they provide a multitude of benefits to both the soil and other crops grown in combination with them or following them in several cropping systems. The ability of legumes to fix atmospheric nitrogen in association with rhizobia gives them the capacity to grow in very degraded soils. But do we have to systematically inoculate legumes? For example our results suggested that the systematic inoculation of both cowpea and green gram in Kenya with commercial inoculants to improve yields is not really justified, native strains performing better than inoculated strains. But when native rhizobia nodulating legumes are not naturally present, application of rhizobial inoculants is very commonly used. Our results showed that the utilization of effective good-quality rhizobial inoculants by farmers have a real potential to improve legume yields in unfertile soils requesting high applications of mineral fertilizers. For example an effective soybean commercial inoculants was tested in different locations in Kenya (in about 150 farms in 3 mandate areas presenting different soil characteristics and environmental conditions). Application of the rhizobial inoculant significantly increased the soybean yields in all mandate areas (about 75% of the farms). Nodule occupancy analysis showed that a high number of nodules occupied by the inoculated strain did not obviously lead to an increase of soybean production. Soil factors (pH, P, C, N…) seemed to affect the inoculant efficiency whether the strain is occupying the nodules or not. Our statistic analysis showed that soil pH significantly affected nodulation and yield, though the effect was variable depending on the region. We concluded that the competitiveness of rhizobial strains might not be the main factor explaining the effect (or lack of) of legumes inoculation in the field. Another study was aiming to assess if several factors

  16. ROI on yield data analysis systems through a business process management strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehani, Manu; Strader, Nathan; Hanson, Jeff

    2005-05-01

    The overriding motivation for yield engineering is profitability. This is achieved through application of yield management. The first application is to continually reduce waste in the form of yield loss. New products, new technologies and the dynamic state of the process and equipment keep introducing new ways to cause yield loss. In response, the yield management efforts have to continually come up with new solutions to minimize it. The second application of yield engineering is to aid in accurate product pricing. This is achieved through predicting future results of the yield engineering effort. The more accurate the yield prediction, the more accurate the wafer start volume, the more accurate the wafer pricing. Another aspect of yield prediction pertains to gauging the impact of a yield problem and predicting how long that will last. The ability to predict such impacts again feeds into wafer start calculations and wafer pricing. The question then is that if the stakes on yield management are so high why is it that most yield management efforts are run like science and engineering projects and less like manufacturing? In the eighties manufacturing put the theory of constraints1 into practice and put a premium on stability and predictability in manufacturing activities, why can't the same be done for yield management activities? This line of introspection led us to define and implement a business process to manage the yield engineering activities. We analyzed the best known methods (BKM) and deployed a workflow tool to make them the standard operating procedure (SOP) for yield managment. We present a case study in deploying a Business Process Management solution for Semiconductor Yield Engineering in a high-mix ASIC environment. We will present a description of the situation prior to deployment, a window into the development process and a valuation of the benefits.

  17. On-farm yield potential of local seed watermelon landraces under heat- and drought-prone conditions in Mali

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nantoume, Aminata Dolo; Christiansen, Jørgen Lindskrog; Andersen, Sven Bode;

    2012-01-01

    On-farm yield experiments were carried out in the Tombouctou region of Mali in 2009/10 under heat- and drought-prone desert conditions with three local landraces of seed-type watermelons. The landraces, named Fombou, Kaneye and Musa Musa by the farmers, exhibited distinct characteristics for fruit...... morphology, but in particular for seed traits. On average, the three landraces produced a fruit yield of 11·6 t/ha and an estimated seed yield of 364 kg/ha, with no significant differences among landraces. Kaneye showed the highest stability of fruit number/ha in different field environments, suggesting this...... landrace is the best among the three for a poor growing environment, whereas Fombou and especially Musa Musa responded positively to more favourable environments. Seed weight revealed a different trend, with Fombou as the most responsive to favourable conditions, while Kaneye and Musa Musa were less...

  18. Sequential path analysis of some yield and quality components in sugar beet grown in normal and drought conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Baradaran Firouzabadi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Through biometrical analyses of yield and its components selection indices can be generated and be used in future breeding programs. Sugar yield components were considered as the first order variables (FOV in previous path analyses studies, while white sugar yield (WSY and its related traits were the FOV here. Three lines of sugar beet (7219-P.69, BP-Karaj, 7112 were evaluated in drought and non-drought conditions. Two sequential path models were used for analysis of associations among WSY and its related traits by arraying the various variables in first-, second-, and third-order paths on the basis of their maximum direct effects and minimal collinearity. Four first-order variables, namely root diameter, sugar yield, molasses content and sugar content, revealed highest direct effects on WSY at normal condition, while root length, α-amino-N, root yield, crown dry weight, water use efficiency and Na+ were found to fit as second-order variables. Three first-order variables, namely sugar content, sugar yield and molasses content, revealed highest direct effects on white sugar yield at drought-stress condition. In this case, sugar yield had the highest direct effect on WSY. In general, the sequential path analysis was efficiently demonstrated the effects of predictor variables.

  19. Soil mulching significantly enhances yields and water and nitrogen use efficiencies of maize and wheat: a meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Wei; Hu, Chunsheng; Oenema, Oene

    2015-11-01

    Global crop yields are limited by water and nutrient availability. Soil mulching (with plastic or straw) reduces evaporation, modifies soil temperature and thereby affects crop yields. Reported effects of mulching are sometimes contradictory, likely due to differences in climatic conditions, soil characteristics, crop species, and also water and nitrogen (N) input levels. Here we report on a meta-analysis of the effects of mulching on wheat and maize, using 1310 yield observations from 74 studies conducted in 19 countries. Our results indicate that mulching significantly increased yields, WUE (yield per unit water) and NUE (yield per unit N) by up to 60%, compared with no-mulching. Effects were larger for maize than wheat, and larger for plastic mulching than straw mulching. Interestingly, plastic mulching performed better at relatively low temperature while straw mulching showed the opposite trend. Effects of mulching also tended to decrease with increasing water input. Mulching effects were not related to soil organic matter content. In conclusion, soil mulching can significantly increase maize and wheat yields, WUE and NUE, and thereby may contribute to closing the yield gap between attainable and actual yields, especially in dryland and low nutrient input agriculture. The management of soil mulching requires site-specific knowledge.

  20. Soil mulching significantly enhances yields and water and nitrogen use efficiencies of maize and wheat: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Wei; Hu, Chunsheng; Oenema, Oene

    2015-11-20

    Global crop yields are limited by water and nutrient availability. Soil mulching (with plastic or straw) reduces evaporation, modifies soil temperature and thereby affects crop yields. Reported effects of mulching are sometimes contradictory, likely due to differences in climatic conditions, soil characteristics, crop species, and also water and nitrogen (N) input levels. Here we report on a meta-analysis of the effects of mulching on wheat and maize, using 1310 yield observations from 74 studies conducted in 19 countries. Our results indicate that mulching significantly increased yields, WUE (yield per unit water) and NUE (yield per unit N) by up to 60%, compared with no-mulching. Effects were larger for maize than wheat, and larger for plastic mulching than straw mulching. Interestingly, plastic mulching performed better at relatively low temperature while straw mulching showed the opposite trend. Effects of mulching also tended to decrease with increasing water input. Mulching effects were not related to soil organic matter content. In conclusion, soil mulching can significantly increase maize and wheat yields, WUE and NUE, and thereby may contribute to closing the yield gap between attainable and actual yields, especially in dryland and low nutrient input agriculture. The management of soil mulching requires site-specific knowledge.

  1. A meta-analysis of the yield of capsule endoscopy compared to double-balloon enteroscopy in patients with small bowel diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To compare the diagnostic yield of capsule endoscopy(CE) with that of double-balloon enteroscopy (DBE).METHODS: Pubmed, Embase, Elsevier ScienceDirect,the China Academic Journals Full-text Database, and Cochrane Controlled Trials Register were searched for the trials comparing the yield of CE with that of DBE.Outcome measure was odds ratio (OR) of the yield. Fixed or random model method was used for data analysis.RESULTS: Eight studies (n = 277) which prospectively compared the yield of CE and DBE were collected. The results of meta-analysis indicated that there was no difference between the yield of CE and DBE [170/277 vs 156/277, OR 1.21 (95% CI: 0.64-2.29)]. Based on sub analysis, the yield of CE was significantly higher than that of double-balloon enteroscopy without combination of oral and anal insertion approaches [137/219 vs 110/219, OR 1.67 (95% CI: 1.14-2.44), P < 0.01), but not superior to the yield of DBE with combination of the two insertion approaches [26/48 vs 37/48, OR 0.33 (95% CI: 0.05-2.21), P > 0.05)]. A focused meta-analysis of the fully published articles concerning obscure GI bleeding was also performed and showed similar results wherein the yield of CE was significantly higher than that of DBE without combination of oral and anal insertion approaches [118/191 vs 96/191, fixed model: OR 1.61(95% CI: 1.07-2.43), P <0.05)] and the yield of CE was significantly lower than that of DBE by oral and anal combinatory approaches [11/24 vs 21/24, fixed model:OR 0.12 (95% CI: 0.03-0.52), P < 0.01)].CONCLUSION: With combination of oral and anal approaches, the yield of DBE might be at least as high as that of CE. Decisions made regarding the initial approach should depend on patient's physical status, technology availability, patient's preferences, and potential for therapeutic endoscopy.

  2. An Economic Analysis of Potential Impacts of Climate Change in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Onyeji, S.C.; Fischer, G.

    1993-01-01

    Projections of climate impacts on crop yields simulated for different GCM scenarios are used, in a recursively dynamic general equilibrium framework, to account for potential economy-wide impacts of climate change in Egypt. Comparing these impact projections to those obtained under a reference, business-as-usual, scenario assuming some moderate changes in the political, economic or technological sphere, indicates that global warming has potentially negative effects. The analysis is based on ...

  3. Corrigendum to "Sinusoidal potential cycling operation of a direct ethanol fuel cell to improving carbon dioxide yields" [J. Power Sources 268 (5 December 2014) 439-442

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majidi, Pasha; Pickup, Peter G.

    2016-09-01

    The authors regret that Equation (5) is incorrect and has resulted in errors in Fig. 4 and the efficiencies stated on p. 442. The corrected equation, figure and text are presented below. In addition, the title should be 'Sinusoidal potential cycling operation of a direct ethanol fuel cell to improve carbon dioxide yields', and the reversible cell potential quoted on p. 441 should be 1.14 V. The authors would like to apologise for any inconvenience caused.

  4. Identification of cocoa trees combining high yield potential and resistance to diseases in segregating progenies In Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diseases and low yielding planting material are the main factors limiting production of “fine” or “flavour” cocoa in Ecuador. This makes it necessary to develop modern varieties capable of overcoming these limitations. During the 1960s and 1970s INIAP tested several progenies from selected crosses...

  5. Spatial and harvesting influence on growth, yield, quality and economic potential of Kalmegh (Andrographis paniculata Wall Ex. Nees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeev Kumar

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Andrographis paniculata, commonly known as Kalmegh, is used both in Ayurvedic and Unani system of medicines because of its immunological, antibacterial and hepatoprotective properties. This study was carried out to investigate the influence of four harvesting times (120,135,150 days after planting and at seed maturity and four planting distances (30×15, 30×10, 20×15 and 20×10 cm on growth, dry herbage biomass, seed yield and quality traits of Andrographis paniculata at CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar, India in the two years 2005 and 2006. The treatments were laid out in a split plot design with three replications. The maximum values for dry herbage biomass yield (5.14 t ha^(-1, net returns (760.00 EUR ha^(-1, B:C ratio (2.59, andrographolide content (2.63% and total yield (135.00 kg ha^(-1 were detected 135 days after planting with an optimum planting distance of 30×15 cm. However, the maximum iron content was estimated 120 days after planting. The highest dry herbage (4.58 t ha^(-1 and maximum seed yield (19.7 kg ha^(-1 were registered at plants that were lined out with a distance of 20×10 cm.

  6. Potential future fisheries yields in shelf waters: a model study of the effects of climate change and ocean acidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leeuwen, S. M.; Le Quesne, W. F.; Parker, E. R.

    2016-01-01

    We applied a coupled marine water column model to three sites in the North Sea. The three sites represent different hydrodynamic regimes and are thus representative of a wider area. The model consists of a hydro-biogeochemical model (GOTM-ERSEM-BFM) coupled one way upwards to a size-structured model representing pelagic predators and detritivores (Blanchard et al., 2009). Thus, bottom-up pressures like changing abiotic environment (climate change, chemical cycling) will have an impact on fish biomass across the size spectrum. Here, we studied three different impacts of future conditions on fish yield: climatic impacts (medium emission scenario), abiotic ocean acidification impacts (reduced pelagic nitrification), and biotic ocean acidification impacts (reduced detritivore growth rate). The three impacts were studied separately and combined, and results showed that sites within different hydrodynamic regimes can respond very differently. The seasonally stratified site showed an increase in fish yields (occurring in winter and spring), with acidification effects of the same order of magnitude as climatic effects. The permanently mixed site also showed an increase in fish yield (increase in summer, decrease in winter), due to climatic effects moderated by acidification impacts. The third site, which is characterised by large inter-annual variability in thermal stratification duration, showed a decline in fish yields (occurring in winter) due to decline in the benthic system which forms an important carbon pathway at this site. All sites displayed a shift towards a more pelagic-oriented system.

  7. Rice yields and yield gaps in Southeast Asia: Past trends and future outlook

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laborte, A.G.; Bie, de C.A.J.M.; Smaling, E.M.A.; Moya, P.F.; Boling, A.A.; Ittersum, van M.K.

    2012-01-01

    Rice production must increase to meet future food requirements amid strong competition for limited resources. Yield gap analysis is a useful method to examine how large the ranges are between potential, desirable rice yields and those actually realized in farmers’ fields. We analyzed farmers’ yields

  8. ANALYSIS OF CHP POTENTIAL AT FEDERAL SITES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HADLEY, S.W.

    2002-03-11

    of these criteria. Executive Order 13123 directs federal facilities to use CHP when life-cycle costs indicate energy reduction goals will be met. FEMP can assist facilities to conduct this analysis. The model developed for this report estimates the magnitude of CHP that could be implemented under various performance and economic assumptions associated with different applications. This model may be useful for other energy technologies. It can be adapted to estimate the market potential in federal buildings for any energy system based on the cost and performance parameters that a user desires to assess. The model already incorporates a standard set of parameters based on available data for federal buildings including total building space, building type, energy use intensity, fuel costs, and the performance of many prime movers commonly used in CHP applications. These and other variables can be adjusted to meet user needs or updated in the future as new data become available.

  9. Analysis of coelom development in the sea urchin Holopneustes purpurescens yielding a deuterostome body plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Valerie B

    2016-01-01

    An analysis of early coelom development in the echinoid Holopneustes purpurescens yields a deuterostome body plan that explains the disparity between the pentameral plan of echinoderms and the bilateral plans of chordates and hemichordates, the three major phyla of the monophyletic deuterostomes. The analysis shows an early separation into a medial hydrocoele and lateral coelomic mesoderm with an enteric channel between them before the hydrocoele forms the pentameral plan of five primary podia. The deuterostome body plan thus has a single axial or medial coelom and a pair of lateral coeloms, all surrounding an enteric channel, the gut channel. Applied to the phyla, the medial coelom is the hydrocoele in echinoderms, the notochord in chordates and the proboscis coelom in hemichordates: the lateral coeloms are the coelomic mesoderm in echinoderms, the paraxial mesoderm in chordates and the lateral coeloms in hemichordates. The plan fits frog and chick development and the echinoderm fossil record, and predicts genes involved in coelomogenesis as the source of deuterostome macroevolution.

  10. Analysis of coelom development in the sea urchin Holopneustes purpurescens yielding a deuterostome body plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie B. Morris

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of early coelom development in the echinoid Holopneustes purpurescens yields a deuterostome body plan that explains the disparity between the pentameral plan of echinoderms and the bilateral plans of chordates and hemichordates, the three major phyla of the monophyletic deuterostomes. The analysis shows an early separation into a medial hydrocoele and lateral coelomic mesoderm with an enteric channel between them before the hydrocoele forms the pentameral plan of five primary podia. The deuterostome body plan thus has a single axial or medial coelom and a pair of lateral coeloms, all surrounding an enteric channel, the gut channel. Applied to the phyla, the medial coelom is the hydrocoele in echinoderms, the notochord in chordates and the proboscis coelom in hemichordates: the lateral coeloms are the coelomic mesoderm in echinoderms, the paraxial mesoderm in chordates and the lateral coeloms in hemichordates. The plan fits frog and chick development and the echinoderm fossil record, and predicts genes involved in coelomogenesis as the source of deuterostome macroevolution.

  11. Calculation of total free energy yield as an alternative approach for predicting the importance of potential chemolithotrophic reactions in geothermal springs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodsworth, Jeremy A; McDonald, Austin I; Hedlund, Brian P

    2012-08-01

    To inform hypotheses regarding the relative importance of chemolithotrophic metabolisms in geothermal environments, we calculated free energy yields of 26 chemical reactions potentially supporting chemolithotrophy in two US Great Basin hot springs, taking into account the effects of changing reactant and product activities on the Gibbs free energy as each reaction progressed. Results ranged from 1.2 × 10(-5) to 3.6 J kg(-1) spring water, or 3.7 × 10(-5) to 11.5 J s(-1) based on measured flow rates, with aerobic oxidation of CH(4) or NH4 + giving the highest average yields. Energy yields calculated without constraining pH were similar to those at constant pH except for reactions where H(+) was consumed, which often had significantly lower yields when pH was unconstrained. In contrast to the commonly used normalization of reaction chemical affinities per mole of electrons transferred, reaction energy yields for a given oxidant varied by several orders of magnitude and were more sensitive to differences in the activities of products and reactants. The high energy yield of aerobic ammonia oxidation is consistent with previous observations of significant ammonia oxidation rates and abundant ammonia-oxidizing archaea in sediments of these springs. This approach offers an additional lens through which to view the thermodynamic landscape of geothermal springs.

  12. Nanoparticles and cars : analysis of potential sources

    OpenAIRE

    Uibel Stefanie; Takemura Masaya; Mueller Daniel; Quarcoo David; Klingelhoefer Doris; Groneberg David A

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Urban health is potentially affected by particle emissions. The potential toxicity of nanoparticles is heavily debated and there is an enormous global increase in research activity in this field. In this respect, it is commonly accepted that nanoparticles may also be generated in processes occurring while driving vehicles. So far, a variety of studies addressed traffic-related particulate matter emissions, but only few studies focused on potential nanoparticles. Therefore, the presen...

  13. Modeling and analysis of effects of precipitation and vegetation coverage on runoff and sediment yield in Jinsha River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun DU

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the effects of precipitation and vegetation coverage on runoff and sediment yield in the Jinsha River Basin. Results of regression analysis were taken as input variables to investigate the applicability of the adaptive network-based fuzzy inference system (ANFIS to simulating annual runoff and sediment yield. Correlation analysis indicates that runoff and sediment yield are positively correlated with the precipitation indices, while negatively correlated with the vegetation indices. Furthermore, the results of stepwise regression show that annual precipitation is the most important factor influencing the variation of runoff, followed by forest coverage, and their contributions to the variation of runoff are 69.8% and 17.3%, respectively. For sediment yield, rainfall erosivity is the most important factor, followed by forest coverage, and their contributions to the variation of sediment yield are 49.3% and 24.2%, respectively. The ANFIS model is of high precision in runoff forecasting, with a relative error of less than 5%, but of poor precision in sediment yield forecasting, indicating that precipitation and vegetation coverage can explain only part of the variation of sediment yield, and that other impact factors, such as human activities, should be sufficiently considered as well.

  14. Adaptability and stability analysis of the juice yield of yellow passion fruit varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, E J; Freitas, J P X; Jesus, O N

    2014-01-01

    This study analyzed the genotype x environment interaction (GE) for the juice productivity (JuProd) of 12 yellow passion fruit varieties (Passiflora edulis Sims. f. flavicarpa Deg.) using additive main effects and multiplicative interaction (AMMI) model and auxiliary parameters. The experiments were conducted in eight environments of Bahia State, Brazil, using a randomized block design with three replications. Analysis of variance showed significant effects (P ≤ 0.01) for environments, genotypes, and GE interaction. The first two interaction principal component axes (IPCAs) explained 81.00% of the sum of squares of the GE interaction. The AMMI1 and AMMI2 models showed that varieties 09 and 11 were the most stable. Other parameters, namely, the AMMI stability value (ASV), yield stability (YSI), sustainability, and stability index (StI), indicated that other varieties were more stable. These varying results were certainly a consequence of methodological differences. In contrast, the ranking of varieties for each of the stability parameters showed significant positive correlations (P ≤ 0.05) between IPCA1 x (ASV, YSI), JuProd x (StI, YSI), YSI x ASV, and StI x YSI. Cluster analysis based on the genotypic profile of the effects of the GE interaction identified three groups that correlated with the distribution of varieties in the AMMI1 biplot. However, the classification of stable genotypes was limited because the association with the productivity was not included in the analysis. Variety 08 showed the most stable and productive behavior, ranking above average in half of the environments, and it should be recommended for use. PMID:25177932

  15. Spatial and harvesting influence on growth, yield, quality and economic potential of Kalmegh (Andrographis paniculata Wall Ex. Nees)

    OpenAIRE

    Sanjeev Kumar; Anil Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Andrographis paniculata, commonly known as Kalmegh, is used both in Ayurvedic and Unani system of medicines because of its immunological, antibacterial and hepatoprotective properties. This study was carried out to investigate the influence of four harvesting times (120,135,150 days after planting and at seed maturity) and four planting distances (30×15, 30×10, 20×15 and 20×10 cm) on growth, dry herbage biomass, seed yield and quality traits of Andrographis paniculata at CCS Haryana Agricultu...

  16. Yield-scaled global warming potential of two irrigation management systems in a highly productive rice system

    OpenAIRE

    Silvana Tarlera; María Cristina Capurro; Pilar Irisarri; Ana Fernández Scavino; Guillermina Cantou; Alvaro Roel

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Water management impacts both methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from rice paddy fields. Although controlled irrigation is one of the most important tools for reducing CH4emission in rice production systems it can also increase N2O emissions and reduce crop yields. Over three years, CH4 and N2O emissions were measured in a rice field in Uruguay under two different irrigation management systems, using static closed chambers: conventional water management (continuous flood...

  17. Genetic Analysis of Grain Yield and Milling Quality Characters of Two Line Rice Hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Mahalingam and N. Nadarajan

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was laid out at Agricultural College and Research Institute, Madurai, Tamil Nadu. India and the materials for thisstudy consisted of three TGMS lines viz., TS 29, TS 6 and GD 98013 and 11 testers viz., ADT 39, ADT 41, Pusa Basmathi 1,Basmathi 370, Improved White ponni, AD 98028, GEB 24, ADT 43, ADT 45, Taroari Basmathi and Jeeraga samba. Crossing wasdone according to clipping and churning method in L X T fashion. Based on the nature of combing ability inferred from line xtester analysis, three cross combinations viz, TS 29 / ADT 41, TS 29 / Pusa Basmathi 1 and TS 29 / Basmathi 370 were selectedfor generation mean analysis study. The scaling tests indicated the presence of epitasis for all the characters and there fore sixparameters model was followed to estimate the various gene action. The scales A and C are negatively significant in all thecrossed viz., TS 29 / ADT 41, TS 29 / Pusa Basmathi 1 and TS 29 / Basmathi 370 for grains per panicle and hundred grainsweight. The scale B is negatively non significant for grains per panicle and hundred grains weight in all the three crosses. Thecrosses TS 29 / ADT 41, TS 29 / Pusa Basmathi 1 and TS 29 / Basmathi 370 showed positively significant A and C scales forgrain yield. The mean effect m was significantly positive and greater than all other effects in all the three crosses viz., TS 29 /ADT 41, TS 29 / Pusa Basmathi 1 and TS 29 / Basmathi 370 for productive tillers, hundred grain weights, graim yield, hulling percent, milling per cent and head rice recovery. A significant additive x dominance (j effect was recorded in TS 29 / Pusa Basmathi1 and TS 29 / Basmathi 370 crosses for grain yied and hulling per cent A significant additive x dominance (j was observed in TS29 / ADT 41 cross (panicle length and milling per cent. The (h and (l effects took opposite signs in all the three crossesindicating the involvement of duplicate dominant epistatic kinds of interaction for productive tillers

  18. Evaluating long-term annual sediment yield estimating potential of GIS interfaced MUSLE model on two micro-watersheds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arekhi, Saleh

    2008-01-15

    Use of an event scale MUSLE model for obtaining accurate long-term annual sediment yield estimates from micro-watersheds was evaluated. Such estimates are extremely important for designing appropriate soil/water conserving measures. For easy extraction and inputting of model input parameters, the proposed model was interfaced to an Arc-View/Spatial Analyst geographic information system. Application of this GIS interfaced MUSLE model on two gauged (pine and oak forest) hilly micro-watersheds viz., Salla Rautella (0.47 km2) and Naula (0.42 km2), in Almora district of Uttaranchal, India showed that it could estimate annual sediment yields with absolute mean relative errors ranging between 12-14%. Even long-term average sediment yields for Salla Rautella (observed: 9.58 tons and estimated: 10.92 tons) and Naula: (Observed: 23.89 tons and estimated: 26.61 tons) micro-watersheds could be quite realistically simulated by the proposed model. PMID:18817202

  19. AN ANALYSIS OF THE YIELD-PRICE RISK ASSOCIATED WITH SPECIALTY CROPS

    OpenAIRE

    Weisensel, Ward P.; Schoney, Richard A.

    1989-01-01

    Specialty crops have been cited as means to diversify crop portfolios on the prairies. Lentils, a specialty crop, have high variability in yields and prices but are relatively uncorrelated with the yields and prices of other traditional Saskatchewan crops. In addition, yields and prices of lentils may be negatively correlated. These attributes have important but offsetting effects in crop portfolio selection. The objective of this article is to assess the relative profitability and riskiness ...

  20. Linkages and Interactions Analysis of Major Effect Drought Grain Yield QTLs in Rice

    OpenAIRE

    Prashant Vikram; B P Mallikarjuna Swamy; Shalabh Dixit; Jennylyn Trinidad; Ma Teresa Sta Cruz; Maturan, Paul C.; Modesto Amante; Arvind Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative trait loci conferring high grain yield under drought in rice are important genomic resources for climate resilient breeding. Major and consistent drought grain yield QTLs usually co-locate with flowering and/or plant height QTLs, which could be due to either linkage or pleiotropy. Five mapping populations used for the identification of major and consistent drought grain yield QTLs underwent multiple-trait, multiple-interval mapping test (MT-MIM) to estimate the significance of pl...

  1. Genome shuffling of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for enhanced glutathione yield and relative gene expression analysis using fluorescent quantitation reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Hua; Ma, Yanlin; Deng, Yang; Xu, Zhenbo; Liu, Junyan; Zhao, Junfeng; Dong, Jianjun; Yu, Junhong; Chang, Zongming

    2016-08-01

    Genome shuffling is an efficient and promising approach for the rapid improvement of microbial phenotypes. In this study, genome shuffling was applied to enhance the yield of glutathione produced by Saccharomyces cerevisiae YS86. Six isolates with subtle improvements in glutathione yield were obtained from populations generated by ultraviolet (UV) irradiation and nitrosoguanidine (NTG) mutagenesis. These yeast strains were then subjected to recursive pool-wise protoplast fusion. A strain library that was likely to yield positive colonies was created by fusing the lethal protoplasts obtained from both UV irradiation and heat treatments. After two rounds of genome shuffling, a high-yield recombinant YSF2-19 strain that exhibited 3.2- and 3.3-fold increases in glutathione production in shake flask and fermenter respectively was obtained. Comparative analysis of synthetase gene expression was conducted between the initial and shuffled strains using FQ (fluorescent quantitation) RT-PCR (reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction). Delta CT (threshold cycle) relative quantitation analysis revealed that glutathione synthetase gene (GSH-I) expression at the transcriptional level in the YSF2-19 strain was 9.9-fold greater than in the initial YS86. The shuffled yeast strain has a potential application in brewing, other food, and pharmaceutical industries. Simultaneously, the analysis of improved phenotypes will provide more valuable data for inverse metabolic engineering. PMID:27302037

  2. The Grey Analysis,Kriging and Selection Index of Flower Yield in Rugosa Rose

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yan-yan; FENG Zhen; ZHAO Lan-yong; MO Zhen-hua; ZHANG Bao

    2007-01-01

    The analysis of grey system,kriging interpolation,and integration selection index were employed to investigate the relationships between the flower yield/plant(FY)and 15 other quantitative traits of 20 rugosa rose cultivars.The result showed that:The grey relational grade(GRG)of the number of flowers/plant(NF),the number of branches/plant(NB),the width of floral bud(WB),and the weight/flower(WF)to the F Y were larger(>0.5);F Y improved with the increase of NFand NB.Moreover,the indirect selection of either trait could not achieve improvement of FY.It is necessary to improve FY by multi-trait selection.The integration selection index(ISI)equation of FY was established with the characters NF,NB,WB,and WF:I=0.3187x1-318.6x2+670.1x4+6.3x8,index heritability=0.8014,selective response of the integration breeding value =245.8811.This will provide a theoretic basis for the genetic breeding of rugosa rose.

  3. Experimental and finite element analysis of fracture criterion in general yielding fracture mechanics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D M Kulkarni; Ravi Prakash; A N Kumar

    2002-12-01

    Efforts made over the last three decades to understand the fracture behaviour of structural materials in elastic and elasto-plastic fracture mechanics are numerous, whereas investigations related to fracture behaviour of materials in thin sheets or general yielding fracture regimes are limited in number. Engineering simulative tests are being used to characterize formability and drawability of sheet metals. However, these tests do not assure consistency in quality of sheet metal products. The prevention of failure in stressed structural components currently requires fracture mechanics based design parameters like critical load, critical crack-tip opening displacement or fracture toughness. The present attempt would aim to fulfill this gap and generate more information thereby increased understanding on fracture behaviour of sheet metals. In the present investigation, using a recently developed technique for determining fracture criteria in sheet metals, results are generated on critical CTOD and fracture toughness. Finite element analysis was performed to support the results on various fracture parameters. The differences are within 1 to 4%. At the end it is concluded that magnitude of critical CTOD and/or critical load can be used as a fracture criterion for thin sheets.

  4. Geomorphic Analysis - Trinity River Restoration Potential

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The goal of the Trinity River project is to identify the potential positive effects of large-scale restoration actions in a 63 kilometer reach of the Trinity River...

  5. EFFECT OF FOLIAR NUTRITION ON WATER POTENTIAL, PHOTOSYNTHETIC RATE, DRY MATTER PRODUCTION AND YIELD OF MUNG BEAN UNDER RECEDING SOIL MOISTURE CONDITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Siva Nageswara Rao

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted during Rabi season of 2012-13 at Regional Agricultural Research Station, Lam, Guntur, with an aim to find out the effect of foliar nutrition on water potent ial, photosynthetic rate, dry matter production and yield of mung bean under rece ding soil moisture conditions in split plot design with irrigation and no irrigation as main treatments and folia r sprays as sub treatments. Under receding soil moisture condition (moisture stress KNO 3 @ 1% proved superior over other foliar sprays by recording more plant height, leaf area, shoot dry weight, and photosyn thetic rate by maintaining high chloro phyll content, high proline and high leaf water potential. KNO 3 @ 1% gave higher yields under receding soil moisture condition compared to other foliar sprays. Under irrigated conditions urea @ 2% record ed higher yield. Among all treatments controlled (no spray under unirrigated conditions recorded lower yiel ds due to moisture stress and nutrient deficiency.

  6. Graphic analysis of yield stability in new improved lentil (Lens culinaris Medik. genotypes using nonparametric statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser SABAGHNIA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Yield stability is an interesting feature of today’s lentil breeding programs, due to the high annual variation in mean yield, particularly in the arid and semi-arid areas. The genetic effects including genetic main and genotype × environment (GE interaction effects for grain yield of eighteen lentil (Lens culinaris Medik. genotypes were studied with fourteen nonparametric stability statistics. Results of five distinct nonparametric tests of GE interaction and combined ANOVA showed there were both additive and crossover interaction types and genotypes varied significantly for grain yield. According to most of the nonparametric stability statistics, genotypes G5, G6, G8 and G18 were the most stable genotypes. Considering mean yield versus stability values via their plotting, indicates that genotypes G2, G11 and G14 following to G5, G16 and G18 were the most favorable genotypes. None of the nonparametric stability statistics were correlated with mean yield and so had static concept of stability. Our results confirmed that rankings of genotypes within environments and using mean yield information permit ease of interpretation of nonparametric results. Finally genotypes G2 (FLIP 92-12L, G11 (Gachsaran and G14 (ILL 6206 were found to be the most stable and high mean yielding genotype and thus recommended for commercial release. Such an outcome could be used to delineate predictive, more rigorous recommendation strategies as well as to help define stability concepts for lentil and other crops.

  7. Analysis of seed and ware potato production systems and yield constraints in Argentina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caldiz, D.O.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to analyze the seed and ware potato production systems in Argentina and their possible yield constraints in order to develop specific strategies to increase seed quality and tuber yield.This thesis starts with a survey of the actual potato production systems in Argentina ca

  8. Statistical Analysis of Large Simulated Yield Datasets for Studying Climate Effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Makowski, D.; Asseng, S.; Ewert, F.; Bassu, S.; Durand, J.L.; Martre, P.; Adam, M.; Aggarwal, P.K.; Angulo, C.; Baron, C.; Basso, B.; Bertuzzi, P.; Biernath, C.; Boogaard, H.; Boote, K.J.; Brisson, N.; Cammarano, D.; Challinor, A.J.; Conijn, J.G.; Corbeels, M.; Deryng, D.; Sanctis, De G.; Doltra, J.; Gayler, S.; Goldberg, R.; Grassini, P.; Hatfield, J.L.; Heng, L.; Hoek, S.B.; Hooker, J.; Hunt, L.A.; Ingwersen, J.; Izaurralde, C.; Jongschaap, R.E.E.; Jones, J.W.; Kemanian, R.A.; Kersebaum, K.C.; Kim, S.H.; Lizaso, J.; Müller, C.; Naresh Kumar, S.; Nendel, C.; O'Leary, G.J.; Olesen, J.E.; Osborne, T.M.; Palosuo, T.; Pravia, M.V.; Priesack, E.; Ripoche, D.; Rosenzweig, C.; Ruane, A.C.; Sau, F.; Semenov, M.A.; Shcherbak, I.; Steduto, P.; Stöckle, C.O.; Stratonovitch, P.; Streck, T.; Supit, I.; Tao, F.; Teixeira, E.; Thorburn, P.; Timlin, D.; Travasso, M.; Roetter, R.P.; Waha, K.; Wallach, D.; White, J.W.; Williams, J.R.; Wolf, J.

    2015-01-01

    Many simulation studies have been carried out to predict the effect of climate change on crop yield. Typically, in such study, one or several crop models are used to simulate series of crop yield values for different climate scenarios corresponding to different hypotheses of temperature, CO2 concent

  9. Closing the cassava yield gap: an analysis from small-holder farms in East Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fermont, van A.M.; Asten, van P.J.A.; Tittonell, P.A.; Wijk, van M.T.; Giller, K.E.

    2009-01-01

    Cassava yields in Africa are small and it remains unclear which factors most limit yields. Using a series of farm surveys and on-farm and on-station trials in Uganda and western Kenya, we evaluated the importance of abiotic, biotic and associated crop management constraints for cassava production in

  10. Type 2 Diabetes Research Yield, 1951-2012: Bibliometrics Analysis and Density-Equalizing Mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geaney, Fiona; Scutaru, Cristian; Kelly, Clare; Glynn, Ronan W; Perry, Ivan J

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to provide a detailed evaluation of type 2 diabetes mellitus research output from 1951-2012, using large-scale data analysis, bibliometric indicators and density-equalizing mapping. Data were retrieved from the Science Citation Index Expanded database, one of the seven curated databases within Web of Science. Using Boolean operators "OR", "AND" and "NOT", a search strategy was developed to estimate the total number of published items. Only studies with an English abstract were eligible. Type 1 diabetes and gestational diabetes items were excluded. Specific software developed for the database analysed the data. Information including titles, authors' affiliations and publication years were extracted from all files and exported to excel. Density-equalizing mapping was conducted as described by Groenberg-Kloft et al, 2008. A total of 24,783 items were published and cited 476,002 times. The greatest number of outputs were published in 2010 (n=2,139). The United States contributed 28.8% to the overall output, followed by the United Kingdom (8.2%) and Japan (7.7%). Bilateral cooperation was most common between the United States and United Kingdom (n=237). Harvard University produced 2% of all publications, followed by the University of California (1.1%). The leading journals were Diabetes, Diabetologia and Diabetes Care and they contributed 9.3%, 7.3% and 4.0% of the research yield, respectively. In conclusion, the volume of research is rising in parallel with the increasing global burden of disease due to type 2 diabetes mellitus. Bibliometrics analysis provides useful information to scientists and funding agencies involved in the development and implementation of research strategies to address global health issues. PMID:26208117

  11. Type 2 Diabetes Research Yield, 1951-2012: Bibliometrics Analysis and Density-Equalizing Mapping.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona Geaney

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to provide a detailed evaluation of type 2 diabetes mellitus research output from 1951-2012, using large-scale data analysis, bibliometric indicators and density-equalizing mapping. Data were retrieved from the Science Citation Index Expanded database, one of the seven curated databases within Web of Science. Using Boolean operators "OR", "AND" and "NOT", a search strategy was developed to estimate the total number of published items. Only studies with an English abstract were eligible. Type 1 diabetes and gestational diabetes items were excluded. Specific software developed for the database analysed the data. Information including titles, authors' affiliations and publication years were extracted from all files and exported to excel. Density-equalizing mapping was conducted as described by Groenberg-Kloft et al, 2008. A total of 24,783 items were published and cited 476,002 times. The greatest number of outputs were published in 2010 (n=2,139. The United States contributed 28.8% to the overall output, followed by the United Kingdom (8.2% and Japan (7.7%. Bilateral cooperation was most common between the United States and United Kingdom (n=237. Harvard University produced 2% of all publications, followed by the University of California (1.1%. The leading journals were Diabetes, Diabetologia and Diabetes Care and they contributed 9.3%, 7.3% and 4.0% of the research yield, respectively. In conclusion, the volume of research is rising in parallel with the increasing global burden of disease due to type 2 diabetes mellitus. Bibliometrics analysis provides useful information to scientists and funding agencies involved in the development and implementation of research strategies to address global health issues.

  12. Potencial produtivo de videiras cultivadas sob cobertura de plástico Yield potential of grapevine cultivated under plastic cover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Chavarria

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência do uso de cobertura de plástico sobre os componentes do rendimento da videira (Vitis vinifera L. cultivar Moscato Giallo. O experimento foi realizado nas safras 2005/2006 e 2006/2007, em Flores da Cunha, RS, em duas áreas de vinhedo, uma com cobertura de plástico impermeável e outra sem cobertura (controle. O microclima foi avaliado quanto à temperatura e umidade relativa do ar, radiação fotossinteticamente ativa e velocidade do vento próximo ao dossel vegetativo e a os cachos. A avaliação dos componentes de rendimento ocorreu em delineamento experimental inteiramente ao acaso, e foram identificadas dez plantas marcadas aleatoriamente em cada área. Avaliaram-se a produção por planta e por hectare, o número de cachos por planta e por metro quadrado, o número de sarmentos por metro quadrado, a massa e comprimento de cacho, a massa de engaço, o número de bagas por cacho, o diâmetro transversal de bagas e a relação entre massa de película e massa de polpa. Acobertura de plástico possibilita aumento na produtividade, não afeta a relação entre massa de casca e massa de polpa das bagas e favorece a estabilidade de produção, independentemente das condições meteorológicas no ciclo.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of plastic cover on the yield components of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. cultivar Moscato Giallo. The experiment was carried out in 2005/2006 and 2006/2007 crop seasons, in Flores da Cunha, RS, Brazil, in two vineyard areas, one covered with an impermeable plastic film and other without covering (control. The microclimate was evaluated in terms of air temperature, air relative humidity, photosynthetically active radiation and wind speed above canopy and close to clusters. The yield components were evaluated in a completely randomized design, in ten plants randomly selected in each area. Measures were made for production per plant, yield per

  13. Potential of liquid extracts of Sargassum wightii on growth, biochemical and yield parameters of cluster bean plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    N Vijayanand; S Sivasangari Ramya; S Rathinavel

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To explore biofertilizing efficiency of seaweed liquid extracts of brown alga Sargassum wightii (S. wightii) on growth, biochemical and yield parameters of Cyamopsis tetragonoloba (C. tetragonoloba). Methods: Seaweeds were made to coarse powder and stock solution was prepared. Different concentrations such as 0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5%, 2.0%, 2.5%and 5.0%were prepared and given as foliar spray. Results: Seaweed Liquid Extract (SLE) at low concentration (1.5%) exhibited promoting effect on growth and yield parameters. Differential responses in the content of photosynthetic pigments, protein, reducing sugar, ascorbic acid and in the activity of nitrate reductase were also observed in the leaves of SLE treated seedlings when compared to untreated seedlings. Higher concentrations (above 1.5%) of SLE were found to show inhibitory effect. Conclusion:The presence of micro and macro nutrients, vitamins, growth hormones and other constituents in the seaweed extract might be very much useful to the crops but their level should be appropriate to enhance growth and productivity. It may be concluded that liquid seaweed extracts could serve as cost effective eco-friendly product for sustainable agriculture.

  14. Influence of mycorrhizal fungi on phytoremediating potential and yield of sunflower in Cd and Pb polluted soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adewole M.B.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of mycorrhizal fungi in uptake of heavy metals, pollution response index and yield of sunflower in degraded soils were investigated. It was a greenhouse experiment with 2 arbuscular mycorrhizae (Glomus mosseae, Glomus intraradices and a non-inoculation that served as control. The treatments were replicated 3 times in a completely randomized design. Each of the treatment consisted of 30 pots and each pot was filled with 5 kg by weight of dried top soil. Solutions of lead acetate and cadmium sulphate at variable levels of: 0, 250, 500, 750, 1000 mg kg-1 and 0, 20, 40, 60, 80 mg kg-1 respectively were used to pollute the soils. Increase in pollution-stressed conditions significantly (P<0.05 reduced the infection of sunflower roots, and the uptake of Pb and Cd in the dry root of sunflower was also significantly (P<0.05 reduced. Also, arbuscular mycorrhizae enhanced the root infection of sunflower, increased the pollution tolerance and consequently increased the yield of sunflower.

  15. Gypsum effects on crop yield and chemistry of soil, crop tissue, and vadose zone water: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gypsum has various potential benefits as a soil amendment, but data are lacking on gypsum effects on crop yields and on environmental impacts across diverse field sites. Gypsum studies were conducted in six states using a common design with three rates each of mined and flue gas desulfurization (FGD...

  16. Correlation and periodicity analysis between herbage yields and climatic factors in the Tianshan Mountain,China in 22 year periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jianlong, L.

    2009-04-01

    To analyze the relationship between herbage yields and climatic factors, 22 years of herbage yields and climate data were collected on the northern slope of the Tianshan Mountains region of western China. Using multiple regression analysis, maximum entropy spectrum analysis and cross spectrum analysis, it was clarified that fluctuation of climatic factors affected herbage yields and their periodical variation. The herbage yields were correlated significantly to the four climate factors including annual precipitation, annual means of relative humidity, absolute humidity and percentage of sunshine, but unrelated to the trend variable (the former year yield has little effects on the later) and other climatic factors. These clarified that long term variation of grassland productivity responded directly to changes of some climate factors in typical zone of arid continental climate. The results in co-spectrum and quadrature spectrum analysis revealed that the herbage yields had 4-year period similar to some moisture factors, and with 1/4 period delay. These findings demonstrated further that the fluctuation of some climatic elements (precipitation particularly) was the crucial factor affecting the variations of herbage yields of natural grassland in arid and semiarid ecosystem. The periodical change of vegetation and correlation with climate provide us a way to predict the herbage production according to the climate change, and it was important for the herdsmen to arrange predictively their animal production including rectifying their livestock population in natural grazing land and storing up the supply of forage timely for livestock use in cold season. Our finding in periodical variation of climatic element and plant yield further demonstrated the crucial driver of some climate factors on formation of herbage yields. The same or similar quasi-4-year period in climatic element and vegetation was due to that periodical variation of climatic element (especially

  17. Métodos para a estimativa do potencial de rendimento da soja durante a ontogenia Methods for estimating the soybean potential yield during ontogeny

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Leonardo Fernandes Pires

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar métodos para a estimativa do potencial de rendimento da soja durante a ontogenia. Os experimentos foram realizados em Eldorado do Sul, RS, durante as safras de 1996/1997, 1999/2000 e 2000/2001. Os tratamentos constaram de cinco cultivares de soja, FT-Saray, IAS 5, IAS 4, FT-Abyara e FEPAGRO RS-10. Cinco métodos foram utilizados para estimar o rendimento que seria obtido se todas as estruturas reprodutivas presentes no florescimento e no início do enchimento de grãos, produzissem grãos na maturação. O potencial de rendimento no florescimento e no enchimento de grãos, apresentou alta correlação com o número de flores e estruturas reprodutivas, respectivamente. Verificou-se, também, correspondência entre os métodos. Não houve, na maioria das vezes, correlações significativas entre o potencial, no florescimento e enchimento de grãos, e o rendimento de grãos na maturação. Os métodos estudados constituem ferramentas importantes para o manejo, quando utilizados para comparar o potencial de rendimento durante a ontogenia.The objective of this work was to study methods to estimate the soybean potential yield during ontogeny. The experiments were performed in Eldorado do Sul, RS, during the growing seasons of 1996/1997, 1999/2000 and 2000/2001. The treatments consisted of five soybean cultivars, FT-Saray, IAS 5, IAS 4, FT-Abyara and FEPAGRO RS-10. It was calculated the potential yield of each cultivar, by five methods, in order to estimate the yield that would be obtained if all the reproductive structures during flowering and beginning of pod filling produced grains at the maturity. Potential yield (during flowering and pod filling presented a high correlation with the number of flowers and reproductive structures, respectively. It was also found a correspondence among the methods. Most of the time, it did not occurred significant correlations between potential (during flowering and pod filling

  18. Mapping the potential distribution of high artemisinin-yielding Artemisia annua L. (Qinghao in China with a geographic information system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duan Baozhong

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Artemisia annua L. is an important source for artemisinin, a potent drug for treating malaria. This study aims to map and predict the potential geographic distribution of A. annua L. in China. Methods The Geographic Information System for traditional Chinese medicine (TCM-GIS was developed and used to map the potential geographic distribution of A. annua L. Results Climatic, edaphic and topographic characteristics of A. annua L. microhabitats in Youyang County were mapped to find distribution patterns. The maps identified that certain habitats in the Chongqing region and some potential regions, especially in Guizhou Province, possess similarity indices of ≥98%. In particular, high quality microhabitats A. annua L. were found in the Wuling mountains region. Conclusion The present study demonstrates a GIS approach to predict potential habitats for A. annua L. TCM-GIS is a powerful tool for assessing bioclimatic suitability for medicinal plants.

  19. Mitigating Land Use Changes From Biofuel Expansion: An Assessment of Biofuel Feedstock Yield Potential in APEC Economies

    OpenAIRE

    Elobeid, Amani E.; Tokgoz, Simla; Yu, Tun-Hsiang

    2009-01-01

    The emerging biofuel sector has drawn great interest as an alternative source of fuel for transportation. The expansion of biofuels greatly impacts world agricultural markets, since currently, the primary feedstocks for ethanol and biodiesel production are field crops and their derived products. There is great interest in the potential of countries to expand their biofuel sectors through increased production of feedstocks. The long-term potential for developing first-generation biofuels in ma...

  20. Evaluation and Bulked Segregant Analysis of Major Yield QTL qtl12.1 Introgressed into Indigenous Elite Line for Low Water Availability under Water Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    N.Manikanda BOOPATHI; Gat SWAPNASHRI; P.KAVITHA; S.SATHISH; R.NITHYA; Wickneswari RATNAM; Arvind KUMAR

    2013-01-01

    Near isogenic lines carrying large-effect QTL (qtl12.1),which has a consistent influence on grain yield under upland drought stress conditions in a wide range of environments,were evaluated under water stress in the fields.The line which gave higher yield under drought was crossed with a local elite line,PMK3,and forwarded to F2:3 generation.Significant variation was found among the F2:3 lines for agronomic traits under water stress in the fields.Low to high broad sense heritability (H) for investigated traits was also found.Water stress indicators such as leaf rolling and leaf drying were negatively correlated with plant height,biomass and grain yield under stress.Bulked segregant analysis (BSA) was performed with the markers in the vicinity of qtl12.1,and RM27933 was found to be segregated perfectly well in individual components of drought resistant and drought susceptible bulks which were bulked based on yield under water stress among F2:3 lines.Hence,this simple and breeder friendly marker,RM27933,may be useful as a potentially valuable candidate marker for the transfer of the QTL qtl12.1 in the regional breeding program.Bioinformatic analysis of the DNA sequence of the qtl12.1 region was also done to identify and analyze positional candidate genes associated with this QTL and to ascertain the putative molecular basis of qtl12.1.

  1. Broussonetia papyrifera (paper mulberry): its growth, yield and potential as a fallow crop in slash-and-burn upland rice system of northern Laos

    OpenAIRE

    Saito, K; Linquist, B.; Keobualapha, B.; Shiraiwa, T.; Horie, T

    2009-01-01

    In northern Laos, shortened fallows in the slash-and-burn upland rice system are not sustainable either from a production or economic standpoint. This paper evaluates the potential for using the indigenous fast-growing tree, Broussonetia papyrifera L. Vent. (paper mulberry) as an economic fallow crop. The objectives of this study are to assess the inner bark yield of paper mulberry, and to evaluate rice productivity following paper mulberry cultivation. In addition, allometric models for esti...

  2. Potential for the slow growing coral Diploastrea heliopora to yield multi-century Western Pacific Warm Pool climate records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maupin, C. R.; Quinn, T. M.; Taylor, F. W.

    2009-12-01

    Coral-based stable isotope records of climate variability have begun to provide insight into behavior of the Western Pacific Warm Pool (WPWP), a planetary heat and moisture source and the center of action for the largest source of interannual climate variability on the planet, the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). However, no multi-century stable isotope records from the WPWP exist, as the commonly utilized Porites spp. corals from the WPWP region tend to have a relatively short lifespan (lived and slower growing (index. Additionally, δ18O variations are highly reproducible between individual polyps sampled. These results suggest that careful sampling of this rarely utilized coral can yield robust, multi-century time series of climate variability from D. heliopora from the WPWP.

  3. Quantitative Analysis of Impact of Education on Improving Farmers' Net Income and Yield Per Capita

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Jing-zhi

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze the relation between farmers' schooling and their net income and yield per capita by systemic and scientific method, concluding that improving farmers' educational level may increase their net income.

  4. Agribusiness Potentials for Bangladesh — an Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Mahboob Ali

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Bangladesh cannot sustain long-run economic progress without having a strong agricultural sector accompanied by a dynamic agribusiness sub-sector. This study has been undertaken as an exploratory study to assess the role and significance of agribusiness in Bangladesh along with the current status and future potentials. Various institutional and other weaknesses and challenges were deemed to exist in the country that prevents full realization of the potentials of this industry. At a general level, the paper recommends various structural, institutional, and market-friendly policy reforms accompanied by infrastructural developments in order to encourage entrepreneurship, innovation, and investments along with better and more effective strategic management of this sector. Such reforms are expected to promote better utilization of scarce resources to promote a strong, dynamic, and sustainable agribusiness sector that would be able to contribute substantially to industrialization and economic development of the country.

  5. ANALYSIS OF HYDROTHERMAL CONDITIONS AND THEIR IMPACT ON EARLY POTATO YIELDS

    OpenAIRE

    Elżbiata Radzka; Katarzyna Rymuza; Tomasz Lenartowicz

    2015-01-01

    The work is based on data on monthly air temperatures, monthly sums of atmospheric precipitation and early potato yields in 2000–2013 obtained from seven COBORU (Research Centre for Cultivar Testing) stations situated in east-central Poland. Hydrothermal conditions during the growing season (April–July) of early potato were described by means of the Sielianinow’s coefficient. The relationships between potato yields and the Sielianinow’s hydrothermal coefficient of the growing season were exam...

  6. Stability Analysis in Tachyonic Potential Chameleon cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Farajollahi, H; Tayebi, F; Ravanpak, A

    2011-01-01

    We study general properties of attractors for tachyonic potential chameleon scalar-field model which possess cosmological scaling solutions. An analytic formulation is given to obtain fixed points with a discussion on their stability. The model predicts a dynamical equation of state parameter with phantom crossing behavior for an accelerating universe. We constrain the parameters of the model by best fitting with the recent data-sets from supernovae and simulated data points for redshift drift experiment generated by Monte Carlo simulations.

  7. Correlation And Path Analysis Of Grain Yield Components In Exotic Maize (Zea Mays L. Hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muneeb Munawar

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Present study was aimed to investigate the genotypic and phenotypic association among grain yield components and their direct and indirect effects on yield. Correlation studies revealed significant positive genotypic and phenotypic relationship of grain yield with cob position, rows per cob and grains per row. Cob height, number of grains per row, stem diameter and cob girth had high positive direct effects on grain yield. Cob position had high negative direct effect on yield. These result depicted that cob position, no. of rows per cob and no. of grains per cob may be used as reliable criteria for improving grain yield. Heritability and genetic advance estimates described the genetic attributes of the traits under study. All the traits except no. of rows per cob and no. of grains per row had non additive type of gene action with high heritability and low genetic advance. The exploitation of these traits would be effective in hybrid maize breeding. No. of rows per cob and no. of grains per row showed both additive and non additive type of gene action with environmental influence due to high environmental variance. These traits can be utilized effectively through selection in varietal development.

  8. Stability analysis of oil yield in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) progenies in different environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafii, M Y; Jalani, B S; Rajanaidu, N; Kushairi, A; Puteh, A; Latif, M A

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated 38 dura x pisifera (DP) oil palm progenies in four locations in Malaysia for genotype by environment interaction and genotypic stability studies. The DP progenies derived from crosses between pisifera palms of AVROS, Serdang S27B, Serdang 29/36, and Lever Cameroon were chosen to be the males' parent and Deli dura palms designated as females' parent. All the locations differed in terms of soil physical and chemical properties, and the soil types ranged from coastal clay to inland soils. The genotype by environment interaction and stability of the individual genotypes were analyzed for oil yield trait using several stability techniques. A genotype by environment interaction was detected for oil yield and it had a larger variance component than genotypic variance (σ(2)(gl)/σ(2)(g) = 139.7%). Genotype by environment interaction of oil yield was largely explained by a non-linear relationship between genotypic and environmental values. Overall assessment of individual genotypic stability showed that seven genotypes were highly stable and had consistent performance over the environments for the oil yield trait [total individual genotype stability scored more than 10 and mean oil yielded above the average of the environment (genotype means are more than 34.37 kg·palm(-1)·year(-1))]. These genotypes will be useful for oil palm breeding and tissue culture programs for developing high oil yielding planting materials with stable performance.

  9. SPATIAL CORRELATION ANALYSIS OF CROP YIELD IN THE MIDDLE AND WEST OF JILIN PROVINCE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, spatial correlation of crop yield in the middle and west of Jilin Province is analyzed by using the method of geostatistics semivariogram, taking the NDVI of NOAA/AVHRR spectrum data as the regionalized variable, aiming to provide theory and practical basis for field sampling of crop yield estimation using remote sensing. The ratio of nugget variance and sill of semivariograms are 21.1% and 9.7% in the west and middle regions in Jilin Province respectively. This shows that the crop yields are spatially correlated. The degree and range of correlation are far different in the different situations. In the west test region, the range is 49.9km and the sill is 0.00019. In the middle test region, the range is 16.5km and the sill is 0.00453. The dissimilarity in the western test region is larger than that in the middle one. The range in which the correlation existed of the former is far larger than the later. Different characteristics of spatial correlation of crop yield are decided by the environmental factors. Samples for crop yield estimation should be extracted according to the characteristic of spatial distribution of crop yield to promote the efficiency of sampling.

  10. SPATIAL CORRELATION ANALYSIS OF CROP YIELD IN THE MIDDLE AND WEST OF JILIN PROVINCE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LILin-yi; LIChun-lin; 等

    2002-01-01

    In this paper,spatial correlation of crop yield in the middle and west of Jilin province is analyzed by us-ing the method of geostatistics swmivarivogram,taking the NDVI of NOAA/AVHRR spectrum data as the regionalized vari-able,aiming to provide theory and practical basis for field sampling of crop yield estimation using remote sensing.The ratio of nugget variance and sill of semivariograms are 21.1% and9.7% in the west and middle regions in Jilin Province respectively.This shows that the crop yields are spatially correlated.The degree and range of correlation are far different in the different situations.In the west test region,the range is 49.9km and the sill is 0.00019 .In the middle test re-gion,the range is 16.5km and the sill is 0.00453.The dissimilarity in the western test region is larger than that in the middle one.The range in which the correlation existed of the former is far larger than the later.Different characteristics of spatial correlation of crop yield are decided by the environmental factors.Samples for crop yield estimation should be extracted according to the characteristic of spatial distribution of crop yield to promote the efficiency of sampling.

  11. Analysis of Climate Change Impact on U.S. Crop Yields with Reanalysis Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwata, K.

    2014-12-01

    Increasing the world population, food security in the sense of supplying enough food has become more important. Cereals are considerable matter in food security issues, and production of cereals are heavily threatened by climate change. In 2012, terrible drought which might happen once in a hundred years, caused massive damage to the soybean and corn harvest. This event had impact on the agriculture industry in U.S., and led drastic increase of commodity price. To ensuring food security, influence of climate risk to food production should be comprehended quantitatively. We used ERA-Interim which includes temperature, dew-point, pressure, precipitation, solar radiation and wind speed product, to analyze the world condition of climate changes, and calculated warmth index and dew-point depression. Kira (1977) developed warmth index which has close relationship between distribution of plants living. Dew-point depression represents the wetness of atmosphere. Also, we analyzed crop yields statistics from USDA to clarify what kind of climate condition affect crop yields. Figure 1 shows variance distribution of warmth index. It can be said that area where contains high value of variance, is subject to extreme climatic changes. Figure 2 is a distribution map indicating whether warmth index was higher or lower than average value. In 2012, it was very hot in the wide range of the Russia and North America. Figure 3 shows correlation between yield index and ERA-Interim climate data at each month. Crop yields have been in trend of increasing because technology enhancements such as improving of breeds and cultivation have been occurred. Therefore, we calculated simple moving average as normal value and calculated yield index by dividing the normal value and annual yields (left Figure 3). If yield index was under 100, it was harvest failure in that year. In contrast, if yield index was higher than 100, it was good harvest in that year. In this result, temperature, warmth index and

  12. Injúria potencial de herbicidas de solo ao girassol: IV - rendimento de aquênios e componentes do rendimento Potential sunflower injury by soil applied herbicides: IV - Achene yield and yield components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ribas A. Vidal

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Conduziu-se um ensaio em campo na Estação Experimental Agronômica da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, em Eldorado do Sul, RS, em 1989/90. O objetivo foi determinar o efeito dos herbicidas clomazone, chlorimuronethyl, imazaquin e imazethaphyr, aplicados em três doses à superfície do solo (PRE ou incorporados no mesmo (PPI, sobre o rendimento de aquênios de girassol e seus componentes. Os herbicidas de solo para controle de plantas daninhas na cultura da soja com maior potencial de dano ao girassol cultivado em sucessão, conforme indicado pelo rendimento de aquênios, foram os seguintes, em ordem decrescente: imazaquin > clomazone > imazethapyr> chlorimuron-ethyl. O efeito mais pronunciado dos herbicidas foi a redução da população de plantas. Este foi o fator que mais influenciou no rendimento do girassol.A field experiment was carried-out during 1989/90 at the Eldorado do Sul Experimental Station of Federal University of "Rio Grande do Sul", Brazil, with the objective of evaluating the effect of clomazone, chlorimuron-ethyl, imazaquin and imazethapyr applied at three different dosages in pre-emergence (PRE or preplant incorporated (PPI, on sunflower achene yield and its components. Herbicide injury potential, as indicated by sunflower yield, was the following, from more to less phytotoxic: imazaquin > clomazone > imazethapyr > chlorimuron-ethyl. The main effect of the herbicides was in sunflower stand reduction, and this was the main yield component which was affected.

  13. Analysis of evoked lumbosacral potentials in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delbeke, J; McComas, A J; Kopec, S J

    1978-04-01

    Surface electrodes have been used to record potentials evoked in the lumbosacral region of 15 healthy volunteers after tibial nerve stimulation. By monitoring the M waves and H reflexes in the triceps surae muslces and by comparing the responses recorded over the roots with those over the lower cord, it was possible to identify the neural substrates responsible for several of the components in the responses. The findings are compared with those of previous studies in man and in other mammalian preparations. PMID:650237

  14. Development of crossbreeding high-yield-potential strains for commercial cultivation in the medicinal mushroom Wolfiporia cocos (Higher Basidiomycetes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Xiaozhao; Wang, Xiaoxia; Bian, Yinbing; Xu, Zhangyi

    2016-07-01

    Wolfiporia cocos is a well-known medicinal mushroom, and its dried sclerotia has been widely used as a traditional medicine in China, Japan, and other Asian countries for centuries. However, long-term asexual reproduction of the breeding system in W. cocos results in a current universal degeneration of cultivated strains. To develop a W. cocos breeding program that will benefit commercial cultivation, we previously developed an optimum method for indoor induction of W. cocos fruiting bodies and clarified the nature of preponderant binuclear sexual basidiospores. In this paper, we first show that the majority of W. cocos single-spore isolates cannot form sclerotium in field cultivation. We then investigated the possibility of breeding new strains by crossbreeding. Three types of mating reactions were observed in both intra-strain pairings and inter-strain pairings, and a total of fifty-five hybrids were selected by antagonistic testing and allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Field cultivation of hybrids demonstrated that some hybrids can form sclerotium via two cultivated methods. Two new high-yield strains were identified. This report will stimulate new thinking on W. cocos and promote further extensive studies on crossbreeding in W. cocos, a new topic related to the development of more efficient protocols for the discrimination of hybrids in W. cocos. PMID:27100524

  15. Diagnostic Yield of Chromosomal Microarray Analysis in a Cohort of Patients with Autism Spectrum Disorders from a Highly Consanguineous Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mamari, Watfa; Al-Saegh, Abeer; Al-Kindy, Adila; Bruwer, Zandre; Al-Murshedi, Fathiya; Al-Thihli, Khalid

    2015-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorders are a complicated group of disorders characterized with heterogeneous genetic etiologies. The genetic investigations for this group of disorders have expanded considerably over the past decade. In our study we designed a tired approach and studied the diagnostic yield of chromosomal microarray analysis on patients…

  16. Potential Flow Analysis of Dynamic Ground Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feifel, W. M.

    1999-01-01

    Interpretation of some flight test data suggests the presence of a 'dynamic ground effect'. The lift of an aircraft approaching the ground depends on the rate of descent and is lower than the aircraft steady state lift at a same height above the ground. Such a lift deficiency under dynamic conditions could have a serious impact on the overall aircraft layout. For example, the increased pitch angle needed to compensate for the temporary loss in lift would reduce the tail strike margin or require an increase in landing gear length. Under HSR2 an effort is under way to clarify the dynamic ground effect issue using a multi-pronged approach. A dynamic ground effect test has been run in the NASA Langley 14x22 ft wind tunnel. Northup-Grumman is conducting time accurate CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) Euler analyses on the National Aerodynamic Simulator facility. Boeing has been using linear potential flow methodology which are thought to provide much needed insight in, physics of this very complex problem. The present report summarizes the results of these potential flow studies.

  17. Comparative analysis of mycobacterium and related actinomycetes yields insight into the evolution of mycobacterium tuberculosis pathogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McGuire Abigail

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The sequence of the pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb strain H37Rv has been available for over a decade, but the biology of the pathogen remains poorly understood. Genome sequences from other Mtb strains and closely related bacteria present an opportunity to apply the power of comparative genomics to understand the evolution of Mtb pathogenesis. We conducted a comparative analysis using 31 genomes from the Tuberculosis Database (TBDB.org, including 8 strains of Mtb and M. bovis, 11 additional Mycobacteria, 4 Corynebacteria, 2 Streptomyces, Rhodococcus jostii RHA1, Nocardia farcinia, Acidothermus cellulolyticus, Rhodobacter sphaeroides, Propionibacterium acnes, and Bifidobacterium longum. Results Our results highlight the functional importance of lipid metabolism and its regulation, and reveal variation between the evolutionary profiles of genes implicated in saturated and unsaturated fatty acid metabolism. It also suggests that DNA repair and molybdopterin cofactors are important in pathogenic Mycobacteria. By analyzing sequence conservation and gene expression data, we identify nearly 400 conserved noncoding regions. These include 37 predicted promoter regulatory motifs, of which 14 correspond to previously validated motifs, as well as 50 potential noncoding RNAs, of which we experimentally confirm the expression of four. Conclusions Our analysis of protein evolution highlights gene families that are associated with the adaptation of environmental Mycobacteria to obligate pathogenesis. These families include fatty acid metabolism, DNA repair, and molybdopterin biosynthesis. Our analysis reinforces recent findings suggesting that small noncoding RNAs are more common in Mycobacteria than previously expected. Our data provide a foundation for understanding the genome and biology of Mtb in a comparative context, and are available online and through TBDB.org.

  18. Effect of Collection Technique on Yield of Bovine Oocytes and the Development Potential of Oocytes from Different Grades of Oocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.G Sianturi

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Oocyte collection technique is important to obtain a maximum number of oocytes to be employed on in vitro production of embryos. In this study, immature bovine oocytes were collected from slaughterhouse ovaries by two techniques: aspiration of 2- to 6-mm follicles and slicing. Following collection, oocyte qualities were classified into four categories (A, B, C, and D on the basis of cumulus attachment. Oocytes of each category were matured in vitro in CO2 incubator for 22-24 hours and cumulus expansion and maturation rates were observed. The total number of oocytes (group A+B+C+D and yield of good quality oocytes (only group A and B recovered per ovary by aspiration were 12.02 and 8.21, and by slicing were 29.38 and 19.65 (P<0.01, respectively. The total cumulus cells expansion rates of A, B, C and D oocytes were 97.1%, 88.3%, 6.0% and 20.6% respectively. Maturation rates for A, B and C categories of oocytes were 91.4%, 82.3% and 35.0% respectively while no matured oocyte was observed for group D oocytes. Maturation rates were significantly different between group A and C and also between B and C but not between A and B (P<0.05. In conclusion, slicing technique recovered more oocytes per ovary (2.4 times than that of aspiration and the best maturation rate was observed from category A oocytes which surrounded by more than 3 layers of cumulus cells. However oocytes of category A and B can be considered as good quality oocytes.

  19. Analysis of hadron yield data within hadron resonance gas model with multi-component eigenvolume corrections

    CERN Document Server

    Vovchenko, Volodymyr

    2016-01-01

    We analyze the sensitivity of thermal fits to heavy-ion hadron yield data of ALICE and NA49 collaborations to the systematic uncertainties in the hadron resonance gas (HRG) model related to the modeling of the eigenvolume interactions. We find a surprisingly large sensitivity in extraction of chemical freeze-out parameters to the assumptions regarding eigenvolumes of different hadrons. We additionally study the effect of including yields of light nuclei into the thermal fits to LHC data and find even larger sensitivity to the modeling of their eigenvolumes. The inclusion of light nuclei yields, thus, may lead to further destabilization of thermal fits. Our results show that modeling of eigenvolume interactions plays a crucial role in thermodynamics of HRG and that conclusions based on a non-interacting HRG are not unique.

  20. ANALYSIS OF HYDROTHERMAL CONDITIONS AND THEIR IMPACT ON EARLY POTATO YIELDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbiata Radzka

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The work is based on data on monthly air temperatures, monthly sums of atmospheric precipitation and early potato yields in 2000–2013 obtained from seven COBORU (Research Centre for Cultivar Testing stations situated in east-central Poland. Hydrothermal conditions during the growing season (April–July of early potato were described by means of the Sielianinow’s coefficient. The relationships between potato yields and the Sielianinow’s hydrothermal coefficient of the growing season were examined using multiple regression equations generated by means of the step-wise regression procedure followed by polynomial regression procedure. The average Sielianinow’s coefficient values ranged from 1.43 in April to 1.66 in May during the early potato growing season in east-central Poland. The applied statistical methods revealed that the hydrothermal factors impacted on early potato yields, particularly in the second stage of potato growth and development.

  1. Comparative analysis of the secondary electron yield from carbon nanoparticles and pure water medium

    CERN Document Server

    Verkhovtsev, Alexey; de Vera, Pablo; Surdutovich, Eugene; Guatelli, Susanna; Korol, Andrei V; Rosenfeld, Anatoly; Solov'yov, Andrey V

    2015-01-01

    The production of secondary electrons generated by carbon nanoparticles and pure water medium irradiated by fast protons is studied by means of model approaches and Monte Carlo simulations. It is demonstrated that due to a prominent collective response to an external field, the nanoparticles embedded in the medium enhance the yield of low-energy electrons. The maximal enhancement is observed for electrons in the energy range where plasmons, which are excited in the nanoparticles, play the dominant role. Electron yield from a solid carbon nanoparticle composed of fullerite, a crystalline form of C60 fullerene, is demonstrated to be several times higher than that from liquid water. Decay of plasmon excitations in carbon-based nanosystems thus represents a mechanism of increase of the low-energy electron yield, similar to the case of sensitizing metal nanoparticles. This observation gives a hint for investigation of novel types of sensitizers to be composed of metallic and organic parts.

  2. Analysis on Relationship between Overcast and Rainy Weather, Drought, Flood and Wheat Yield

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The research aimed to study influence of meteorological factor in late growth stage of wheat. [Method] Based on precipitation, sunshine and yield per unit of wheat in Anyang City in May of 1979-2008, the positive and negative influences of meteorological condition in late growth stage of wheat (May) on wheat yield in Anyang City were analyzed by using agricultural climatic statistical method. Moreover, the reason and defense measure of green-dry hazard in late growth stage of wheat in the city w...

  3. Climatological sensitivity analysis of crop yield to changes in temperature and precipitation using particle filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokozawa, M.; Sakurai, G.; Iizumi, T.

    2010-12-01

    The climatological sensitivities of crop yields to changes in mean temperature and precipitation during a period of the growing season were statistically examined. The sensitivity is defined as the change of yield in response to the change of climatic condition in the growth period from sowing to harvesting. The objective crops are maize and soybean, which are being cultivated in United States, Brazil and China as the world major production countries. We collected the yield data of maize and soybean on county level of United States from USDA during a period of 1980-2006, on Município level of Brazil during a period of 1990-2006 and on Xiàn level of China during a period of 1980-2005. While the data on only four provinces in China are used (Heilongjiang, Henan, Liaoning, and Shandong), total production of the four provinces reaches about 40% (maize) and 51% (soybean) to the country total (USDA 1997). We used JRA-25 reanalysis climate data distributed from the Japanese Meteorological Agency during a period of 1980 through 2006 with a resolution of 1.125° in latitude and longitude. To coincide in resolution, the crop yield data were reallocated into the same grids as climate. To eliminate economical and technical effects on yield, we detrended the time series data of yield and climate. We applied a local regression model to conduct the detrend (cubic weighting and M estimator of Tukey's bi-weight function). The time series data on the deviation from the trend were examined with the changes in temperature and precipitation for each grid using the particle filter. The particle filter used here is based on self-organizing state-space model. As a result, in the northern hemisphere, positive sensitivity, i.e. increase in temperature shifts the crop yield positively, is generally found especially in higher latitude, while negative sensitivity is found in the lower latitude. The neutral sensitivity is found in the regions where the mean temperature during growing season

  4. Agronomic Characteristics, Growth Analysis, and Yield Response of Biofield Treated Mustard, Cowpea, Horse Gram, and Groundnuts

    OpenAIRE

    Trivedi, Mahendra Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Mustard, cowpea, horse gram, and groundnuts are the seasonal pulse crops used as food and fodder in many regions of the world. In the present study, the impact of biofield energy treatment on mustard, cowpea, horse gram, and groundnuts were studied with respect to overall growth, yield, and its related yield attributes. Seeds of each crop was selected and divided in two groups, i.e. control and treated. The treated group of each seed crops was subjected to Mr. Trivedi biofield energy treatmen...

  5. Empirical Analysis of Yield Determinants in Japan’s Municipal Bond Market: Does Credit Risk Premium Exist?

    OpenAIRE

    Hattori, Takahiro; Miyake, Hiroki

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we examine the determinants of the yield spread between issuers in Japan’s municipal bond market using panel data and focus on identifying whether credit risk premium exists. The results of the panel data analysis reveal new evidence on the municipal bond market for FY 2002–2013. In the first half of the 2000s, the fundamental fiscal statistics, that is, the credit risk indicators, had no impact on the yield spreads, suggesting the absence of credit risk premium. Second, Yūbari...

  6. VCS-SSA Mainz Experiment. Measurement of the beam spin asymmetry in (e polarized p {yields} ep{gamma}) and (e polarized p {yields} ep{pi}{sup 0}). Final analysis - MEMO I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonvieille, H.; Bensafa, I. [LPC-Clermont-Fd, Universite Blaise Pascal, F-63170 Aubiere Cedex (France)

    2006-02-15

    This note gives details on the final analysis of the VCS-SSA experiment in terms of Beam Spin Asymmetry. It summarizes the changes between the first and second pass analysis. Then the measured asymmetry is presented for both channels e polarized p {yields} ep{gamma} and e polarized p {yields} ep{pi}{sup 0} including systematic studies. The final experimental result is briefly compared to some model predictions. (authors)

  7. Preliminary assessment of potential well yields and the potential for artificial recharge of the Elm and Middle James aquifers in the Aberdeen area, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmons, P.J.

    1987-01-01

    A complex hydrologic system exists in the glacial drift overlying the bedrock in the Aberdeen, South Dakota, area. The hydrologic system has been subdivided into three aquifers: the Elm, Middle James, and Deep James. These sand-and-gravel outwash aquifers generally are separated from each other by till or other fine-grained sediments. The Elm aquifer is the uppermost and largest of the aquifers and underlies about 204 sq mi of the study area. The maximum altitude of the top of the Elm aquifer is 1,400 ft and the minimum altitude of the bottom is 1,225 ft. The Middle James aquifer underlies about 172 sq mi of the study area. The maximum altitude of the top of the Middle James aquifer is 1,250 ft and the minimum altitude of the bottom is 1 ,150 ft. The lower-most Deep James aquifer was not evaluated. The quality of the water from the Elm and Middle James aquifer varies considerably throughout the study area. The predominant chemical constituents in the water from the aquifers are sodium and sulfate ions; however, calcium, magnesium, bicarbonate, or chloride may dominate locally. The calculated theoretical total well yield from the Elm and Middle James aquifers ranges from a minimum of 64 cu ft/sec, which may be conservative, to a maximum of 640 cu ft/sec. Based on available data, yields of 100 to 150 cu ft/sec probably can be obtained from properly sited and constructed wells. The feasibility of artificially recharging an aquifer, using the technique of water spreading, depends on the geologic and hydraulic characteristics of the aquifer and of the sediments overlying the aquifer through which the recharge water must percolate. The sites suitable for artificial recharge in the study area were defined as those areas where the average aquifer thickness was > 20 ft and the average thickness of the fine-grained sediments overlying the aquifer was < 10 ft. Using these criteria, about 14 sq mi of the study area are suitable for artificial recharge. Infiltration rates in

  8. ANALYSIS OF TOURISTIC DEVELOPMENT POTENTIAL OF SOME NATURA 2000 SITES

    OpenAIRE

    Mirela STANCIU

    2014-01-01

    This paper performs the analysis of the tourism development potential of two sites in the Natura 2000 network. SWOT analysis concerning the potential of tourism development is made, indicating opportunities for lovers of ecotourism: visitors interested in bird species, visitors interested in flora and fauna. It also describes the potential development of tourism services under the concept of "slow tourism". It describes the possible forms of tourism that can develop in this area, presenting a...

  9. Path and ridge regression analysis of seed yield and seed yield components of Russian wildrye (Psathyrostachys juncea Nevski) under field conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Quanzhen; Zhang, Tiejun; Cui, Jian;

    2011-01-01

    numbers per spikelet (Y4) and seed weight (Y5) were counted and the Z were determined in field experiments from 2003 to 2006 via big sample size. Y1 was the most important seed yield component describing the Z and Y2 was the least. The total direct effects of the Y1, Y3 and Y5 to the Z were positive while...... Y4 and Y2 were weakly negative. The total effects (directs plus indirects) of the components were positively contributed to the Z by path analyses. The seed yield components Y1, Y2, Y4 and Y5 were significantly (P<0.001) correlated with the Z for 4 years totally, while in the individual years, Y2...... most important that, via ridge regression, a steady algorithm model between Z and the five yield components was founded, which can be closely estimated the seed yield via the components....

  10. Yield stress in amorphous solids: a mode-coupling-theory analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Atsushi; Berthier, Ludovic

    2013-11-01

    The yield stress is a defining feature of amorphous materials which is difficult to analyze theoretically, because it stems from the strongly nonlinear response of an arrested solid to an applied deformation. Mode-coupling theory predicts the flow curves of materials undergoing a glass transition and thus offers predictions for the yield stress of amorphous solids. We use this approach to analyze several classes of disordered solids, using simple models of hard-sphere glasses, soft glasses, and metallic glasses for which the mode-coupling predictions can be directly compared to the outcome of numerical measurements. The theory correctly describes the emergence of a yield stress of entropic nature in hard-sphere glasses, and its rapid growth as density approaches random close packing at qualitative level. By contrast, the emergence of solid behavior in soft and metallic glasses, which originates from direct particle interactions is not well described by the theory. We show that similar shortcomings arise in the description of the caging dynamics of the glass phase at rest. We discuss the range of applicability of mode-coupling theory to understand the yield stress and nonlinear rheology of amorphous materials.

  11. Genome-Wide Association Analysis to Identify Loci for Milk Yield in Gyr Breed

    Science.gov (United States)

    A genome scan was conducted to identify QTL affecting milk yield in a Brazilian Gyr population of progeny test bulls (N=319). Data used in this study was derived from traditional genetic evaluation records computed by the Embrapa Dairy Cattleand released in May/2009 (http://www.cnpgl.embrapa.br/nova...

  12. MISSE 2 PEACE Polymers Experiment Atomic Oxygen Erosion Yield Error Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Catherine E.; Banks, Bruce A.; deGroh, Kim, K.

    2010-01-01

    Atomic oxygen erosion of polymers in low Earth orbit (LEO) poses a serious threat to spacecraft performance and durability. To address this, 40 different polymer samples and a sample of pyrolytic graphite, collectively called the PEACE (Polymer Erosion and Contamination Experiment) Polymers, were exposed to the LEO space environment on the exterior of the International Space Station (ISS) for nearly 4 years as part of the Materials International Space Station Experiment 1 & 2 (MISSE 1 & 2). The purpose of the PEACE Polymers experiment was to obtain accurate mass loss measurements in space to combine with ground measurements in order to accurately calculate the atomic oxygen erosion yields of a wide variety of polymeric materials exposed to the LEO space environment for a long period of time. Error calculations were performed in order to determine the accuracy of the mass measurements and therefore of the erosion yield values. The standard deviation, or error, of each factor was incorporated into the fractional uncertainty of the erosion yield for each of three different situations, depending on the post-flight weighing procedure. The resulting error calculations showed the erosion yield values to be very accurate, with an average error of 3.30 percent.

  13. Nutrient uptake, biomass yield and quantitative analysis of aliphatic aldehydes in cilantro plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the nutrient uptake, biomass production and yield of the major compounds in the essential oil of five genotypes of Coriandrum sativum L. The treatments were four accessions donated by the National Genetic Resources Advisory Council (NGRAC), U.S. Department...

  14. Analysis of photonuclear yield curves by the variable Bin Penfold-Leiss method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various standard procedures have been evolved for the unfolding photonuclear cross sections from a measured set of bremsstrahlung induced yield curves. This program uses the variable Bin Penfold-Leiss (VBPL) method of matrix inversion to obtain a set of cross section values each with its corresponding energy resolution

  15. Quantitative trait analysis of yeast biodiversity yields novel gene tools for metabolic engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hubmann, Georg; Foulquié-Moreno, Maria R.; Nevoigt, Elke; Duitama, Jorge; Meurens, Nicolas; Pais, Thiago M.; Mathé, Lotte; Saerens, Sofie; Nguyen, Huyen Thi Thanh; Swinnen, Steve; Verstrepen, Kevin J.; Concilio, Luigi; de Troostembergh, Jean-Claude; Thevelein, Johan M.

    2013-01-01

    Engineering of metabolic pathways by genetic modification has been restricted largely to enzyme-encoding structural genes. The product yield of such pathways is a quantitative genetic trait. Out of 52 Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains phenotyped in small-scale fermentations, we identified strain CBS6

  16. Metabolic regulation of triacylglycerol accumulation in the green algae: identification of potential targets for engineering to improve oil yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncalves, Elton C; Wilkie, Ann C; Kirst, Matias; Rathinasabapathi, Bala

    2016-08-01

    The great need for more sustainable alternatives to fossil fuels has increased our research interests in algal biofuels. Microalgal cells, characterized by high photosynthetic efficiency and rapid cell division, are an excellent source of neutral lipids as potential fuel stocks. Various stress factors, especially nutrient-starvation conditions, induce an increased formation of lipid bodies filled with triacylglycerol in these cells. Here we review our knowledge base on glycerolipid synthesis in the green algae with an emphasis on recent studies on carbon flux, redistribution of lipids under nutrient-limiting conditions and its regulation. We discuss the contributions and limitations of classical and novel approaches used to elucidate the algal triacylglycerol biosynthetic pathway and its regulatory network in green algae. Also discussed are gaps in knowledge and suggestions for much needed research both on the biology of triacylglycerol accumulation and possible avenues to engineer improved algal strains. PMID:26801206

  17. Combining ability analysis for yield and its component traits in Blackgram (Vigna mungo (L. Hepper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.Anbu Selvam and R.Elangaimannan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A diallele analaysis of 8 x 8 was studied in black gram (Vigna mungo with a view to understand the combining ability, nature of gene action andpotential for the exploitation of heterosis using nine quantitative characters viz., days to first flower, plant height, number of branches per plant,number of clusters per plant, number of pods per cluster, number of pods per plant, number of seeds per pod, hundred seed weight and seed yieldper plant in 28 hybrids and their eight parents. The parent ADT 3 recorded relatively high per se performance for seed yield, hundred seedweight, number of clusters per plant, number of pods per cluster, number of pods per plant and number of branches per plant with early floweringand short stature. Among the hybrids, ADT 3/99V48, ADT 3/LBG 645 and 2KU 53/LBG 645 were found to have high mean performance foralmost all the yield component characters besides seed yield. The gca effect of the genotypes ADT 3, LBG 645 and 2 KU 53 was high andsignificant for the traits seed yield per plant besides number of pods per cluster, number of pods per plant and number of seeds per pod. The SCAvariance was greater than GCA variance for all the traits studied thus indicating the predominance of non-additive gene action. Among thehybrids, ADT 3/99V48 recorded the maximum significant sca effect indicating their suitability for heterosis breeding. The hybrids ADT 3/ LBG645 and 2 KU 53/ LBG 645 recorded non significant sca effects for almost all the traits studied including seed yield per plant. Hence, these twocrosses were adjudged as superior for recombination breeding based on sca effects

  18. Climate change impact on crop rotations of winter durum wheat and tomato in southern Italy: yield analysis and soil fertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Ventrella

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Cropping systems are affected by climate change because of the strong relationship between crop development, growth, yield, CO2 atmospheric concentration and climate conditions. The increasing temperatures and the reduction of available water resources may result in negative impacts on the agricultural activity in Mediterranean environments than other areas. In this study the CERES-Wheat and CROPGRO-Tomato models were used to assess the effects of climate change on winter wheat (Triticum durum L. and processing tomato (Lycopersicon aesculentum Mill. in one of most productive areas of Italy, located in the northern part of the Puglia region. In particular we have compared three different General Circulation Models (HadCM3, CCSM3, ECHAM5 subjected to a statistical downscaling under two future IPCC scenarios (B1 and A2. The analysis was carried out at regional scale repeating the simulations for seven homogeneous area characterizing the spatial variability of the region. In the second part of the study, considering only HadCM3 data set, climate change impact on long-term sequences of the two crops combined in three crop rotations were evaluated in terms of yield performances and soil fertility as indicated by the soil organic content of carbon and nitrogen. The comparison between GCMs showed no significant differences for winter durum wheat yield, while noticeable differences were found for yield and irrigation requirements of tomato. Under future scenarios, the production levels were reduced for tomato, whereas positive yield effects were observed for winter durum wheat. For winter durum wheat the simulation indicated that two- and three-year rotations, including one year of tomato cultivation, improved the cereal yield and this positive effect maintained its validity also in future scenarios. For both crops higher requirements of water and nitrogen were predicted under future scenarios. This result coupled with the decrease of yield caused

  19. GGE Biplot Analysis of Yield Stability in Multi-environment Trials of Lentil Genotypes under Rainfed Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmatollah KARIMIZADEH

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This investigation was done to study GE interaction over twelve environments for seed yield in 18 genetically diverse genotypes. Grain yield performances were evaluated for three years at four locations in Iran using a randomized complete block design. The first two principal components (IPC1 and IPC2 were used to create a two-dimensional GGE biplot that accounted percentages of 49% and 20% respectively of sums of squares of the GE interaction. The combined analysis of variance indicated that year and location were the most important sources affecting yield variation and these factors accounted for percentages of 50.0% and 33.3% respectively of total G+E+GE variation. The GGE biplot suggested the existence of three lentil mega-environments with wining genotypes G1, G11 and G14. According to the ideal-genotype biplot, genotype G1 was the better genotype demonstrating high mean yield and high stability of performance across test locations. The average tester coordinate view indicated that genotype G1 had the highest average yield, and genotypes G1 and G12 recorded the best stability. The study revealed that a GGE biplot graphically displays interrelationships between test locations as well as genotypes and facilitates visual comparisons.

  20. Vineyard Yield Estimation Based on the Analysis of High Resolution Images Obtained with Artificial Illumination at Night

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davinia Font

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a method for vineyard yield estimation based on the analysis of high-resolution images obtained with artificial illumination at night. First, this paper assesses different pixel-based segmentation methods in order to detect reddish grapes: threshold based, Mahalanobis distance, Bayesian classifier, linear color model segmentation and histogram segmentation, in order to obtain the best estimation of the area of the clusters of grapes in this illumination conditions. The color spaces tested were the original RGB and the Hue-Saturation-Value (HSV. The best segmentation method in the case of a non-occluded reddish table-grape variety was the threshold segmentation applied to the H layer, with an estimation error in the area of 13.55%, improved up to 10.01% by morphological filtering. Secondly, after segmentation, two procedures for yield estimation based on a previous calibration procedure have been proposed: (1 the number of pixels corresponding to a cluster of grapes is computed and converted directly into a yield estimate; and (2 the area of a cluster of grapes is converted into a volume by means of a solid of revolution, and this volume is converted into a yield estimate; the yield errors obtained were 16% and −17%, respectively.

  1. Multivariate Analysis of Grain Yield and Its Attributing Traits in Different Maize Hybrids Grown under Heat and Drought Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Fawad; Kanwal, Naila; Ahsan, Muhammmad; Ali, Qurban; Bibi, Irshad; Niazi, Nabeel Khan

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate F1 single cross-maize hybrids in four crop growing seasons (2010-2012). Morphological traits and physiological parameters of twelve maize hybrids were evaluated (i) to construct seed yield equation and (ii) to determine grain yield attributing traits of well-performing maize genotype using a previously unexplored method of two-way hierarchical clustering. In seed yield predicting equation photosynthetic rate contributed the highest variation (46%). Principal component analysis data showed that investigated traits contributed up to 90.55% variation in dependent structure. From factor analysis, we found that factor 1 contributed 49.6% variation (P stomata conductance, substomata CO2 absorption rate, and photosynthetic rate). The results of two-way hierarchical clustering demonstrated that Cluster III had outperforming genotype H12 (Sultan × Soneri) along with its most closely related traits (photosynthetic rate, stomata conductance, substomata CO2 absorption rate, chlorophyll contents, leaf area, and fresh stem weight). Our data shows that H12 (Sultan × Soneri) possessed the highest grain yield per plant under environmentally stress conditions, which are most likely to exist in arid and semiarid climatic conditions, such as in Pakistan. PMID:26798554

  2. Multivariate Analysis of Grain Yield and Its Attributing Traits in Different Maize Hybrids Grown under Heat and Drought Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fawad Ali

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to evaluate F1 single cross-maize hybrids in four crop growing seasons (2010–2012. Morphological traits and physiological parameters of twelve maize hybrids were evaluated (i to construct seed yield equation and (ii to determine grain yield attributing traits of well-performing maize genotype using a previously unexplored method of two-way hierarchical clustering. In seed yield predicting equation photosynthetic rate contributed the highest variation (46%. Principal component analysis data showed that investigated traits contributed up to 90.55% variation in dependent structure. From factor analysis, we found that factor 1 contributed 49.6% variation (P<0.05 with primary important traits (i.e., number of leaves per plant, plant height, stem diameter, fresh leaves weight, leaf area, stomata conductance, substomata CO2 absorption rate, and photosynthetic rate. The results of two-way hierarchical clustering demonstrated that Cluster III had outperforming genotype H12 (Sultan × Soneri along with its most closely related traits (photosynthetic rate, stomata conductance, substomata CO2 absorption rate, chlorophyll contents, leaf area, and fresh stem weight. Our data shows that H12 (Sultan × Soneri possessed the highest grain yield per plant under environmentally stress conditions, which are most likely to exist in arid and semiarid climatic conditions, such as in Pakistan.

  3. Analysis of particle size reduction on overall surface area and enzymatic hydrolysis yield of corn stover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hanjie; Ye, Chenlin; Liu, Ke; Gu, Hanqi; Du, Weitao; Bao, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Particle size of lignocellulose materials is an important factor for enzymatic hydrolysis efficiency. In this study, corn stover was milled and sieved into different size fractions from 1.42, 0.69, 0.34, to 0.21 mm, and the corresponding enzymatic hydrolysis yields were 24.69, 23.96, 25.34, and 26.97 %, respectively. The results indicate that the hydrolysis yield is approximately constant with changing corn stover particle sizes in the experimental range. The overall surface area and the inner pore size measurement show that the overall specific surface area was less than 2 % with the half reduction of particle size due to the greater inner pore surface area. The scanning electron microscope photographs gave direct evidence of the much greater inner pore surface area of corn stover particles. This result provided a reference when a proper size reduction of lignocellulose materials is considered in biorefining operations.

  4. Measurements and analysis of excitation coefficients and secondary electron yields in Townsend dark discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we review our study of excitation coefficients in rare gases and in methane, some of the excitation cross sections that were obtained, the spatial profiles of emission (with absolute calibration) and secondary electron yields. The data for excitation coefficients have been analysed to produce the cross section data in some cases. The spatial profiles of emission at the low currents were used to establish the importance of the non-hydrodynamic relaxation and the contributions of heavy particles and reflected electrons. These data were also used to get more reliable secondary electron yields for rare gases. The spatial emission profiles at higher currents have been applied to obtain field profiles and make comparisons with hybrid models. In particular, we present in this paper, the emission coefficients in krypton and we discuss the wide range of interconnected applications of excitation coefficients and spatial emission profiles

  5. An association analysis between OXT genotype and milk yield and flow in Italian Mediterranean river buffalo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauciullo, Alfredo; Cosenza, Gianfranco; Steri, Roberto; Coletta, Angelo; Jemma, Lazzaro; Feligini, Maria; Di Berardino, Dino; Macciotta, Nicolò P P; Ramunno, Luigi

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate possible associations between three SNPs at the oxytocin locus (AM234538: g.28C>T; g.204A>G and g.1627G>T) and two productive traits, milk yield and milkability, in Italian Mediterranean river buffaloes. Effects of parity, calving season and month of production were also evaluated. A total of 41 980 test-day records belonging to 219 lactations of 163 buffalo cows were investigated. The allele call rate was 98·8% and the major allele frequency for all the investigated loci was 0·76. The OXT genotype was significantly associated with milk yield (P=0·029). The TT genotype showed an average daily milk yield approximately 1·7 kg higher than GT buffaloes. Such a difference represents about 23% more milk/d. A large dominance effect (-1·17±0·43 kg) was estimated, whereas the contribution of OXT genotype (r(2)(OXT)) to the total phenotypic variance in milk yield was equal to 0·06. The TT genotype showed higher values also for the milk flow, even though the estimated difference did not reach a level of statistical significance (P=0·07). Such an association, among the first reported for the oxytocin locus in ruminants, should be tested on a population scale and possible effects on milk composition traits should be evaluated in order to supply useful indications for the application of marker-assisted selection programmes in river buffaloes. PMID:22280971

  6. Spatial dimensions of precision agriculture: a spatial econometric analysis of millet yield on Sahelian coversands

    OpenAIRE

    FLORAX Raymond J.g.m.; Voortman, Roelf L.; Brouwer, Joost

    2002-01-01

    The identification of local soil variability caused by within-field differences of macronutrients and ecological features is of paramount importance for the effectiveness of precision agriculture. We present several spatial statistical and econometric techniques to capture local differences in soil variation, ecological characteristics, and yield more effectively than the analytical techniques traditionally used in agronomy. The application of these techniques is illustrated in a case study d...

  7. Empirical analysis of relation between credit premia and government yield term structure

    OpenAIRE

    Pehkonen, Pauli

    2014-01-01

    This Master's thesis contributes to the existing literature by studying the relation between credit premia - corporate bond spreads and corporate credit default swap (CDS) premia - and government yield term structure components, which focus on the level and the slope. My sample centers on the Euro-denominated investment grade credit premia by using Markit's iBoxx corporate bond indices and iTraxx corporate CDS indices. For bond indices the time period of study is September 2002 - October 2013...

  8. Slow pyrolysis of rice straw: analysis of products properties, carbon and energy yields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jinje; Lee, Yongwoon; Ryu, Changkook; Park, Young-Kwon

    2014-03-01

    Among many uses of rice straw, application of its biochar from pyrolysis to the soil is receiving greater interest for increased crop productivity and sequestration of CO2. This study investigated slow pyrolysis of rice straw at 300-700°C to characterize the yields and detailed composition of the biochar, bio-oil and non-condensable gases. Biochar was analyzed for pH, microscopic surface area and pore volume distribution. Although the mass yield for the organic fraction was only about 25% above 500°C, biochar was the primary product of pyrolysis containing 40% of energy and 45% of carbon from the straw. The utilization of by-products (bio-oil and gases) as energy resources was essential, since the sum of energy yield was about 60%. The gases could be burned to produce the heat for an auto-thermal pyrolysis process, but the heat balance was significantly influenced by the moisture content of the raw material.

  9. Comparative analysis of the secondary electron yield from carbon nanoparticles and pure water medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The issue of enhancing the radiosensitivity of tumors is important in radiotherapy. The production of secondary electrons generated by carbon nanoparticles and pure water medium irradiated by fast protons is studied by means of model approaches and Monte Carlo simulations. It is demonstrated that due to a prominent collective response to an external field, the nanoparticles embedded in the medium enhance the yield of low-energy electrons. The maximal enhancement is observed for electrons in the energy range where plasmons, which are excited in the nanoparticles, play the dominant role. The electron yield from a solid carbon nanoparticle composed of fullerite, a crystalline form of C60 fullerene, is demonstrated to be several times higher than that from liquid water. Decay of plasmon excitations in carbon-based nano-systems thus represents a mechanism of increasing the low-energy electron yield, similar to the case of sensitizing metal nanoparticles. This observation gives a hint for investigation of novel types of sensitizers to be composed of metallic and organic parts. (authors)

  10. Potential forcing of CO{sub 2}, technology and climate changes in maize (Zea mays) and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) yield in southeast Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, L C; Justino, F; Oliveira, L J C; Sediyama, G C; Lemos, C F [Department of Agricultural Engineering, Federal University of Vicosa, PH Rolfs S/N, Vicosa, MG, 36570 000 (Brazil); Ferreira, W P M [Embrapa Milho e Sorgo, Rodovia MG 424, km 45, Caixa Postal 285, CEP 35701-970 Sete Lagoas, MG (Brazil)], E-mail: fjustino@ufv.br

    2009-01-15

    Based upon sensitivity experiments, this study aims to investigate the impact of increased atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration, climate changes, and ongoing technological advancements on bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and maize (Zea mays) yield. This investigation assumes that the atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration evolves according to the A2 scenario. For these analyses we have used climate data as projected by climate simulations conducted with the HadCM3 climate model for both present day and greenhouse warming conditions. The results demonstrated that warming conditions associated with increased greenhouse gases as delivered by the HadCM3 model lead to reductions in the potential productivity of maize and beans for the years 2050 and 2080 by up to 30%. This thermal response is, however, damped by the highly efficient CO{sub 2} fertilization effect which is expected to increase bean productivity as compared to present day conditions. A similar investigation for maize yield revealed a different picture. It has been found that the CO{sub 2} fertilization feedback is much weaker and cannot cancel out the thermal effect. We have found, therefore, that climate changes as simulated to occur in the future are not favorable for increasing the maize yield in southeast Brazil. By the inclusion of the third forcing evaluated, representing technological advancements, it is demonstrated that improvements in the crop system reduce the negative effect associated with warmer climate conditions for both crops. We conclude that appropriate soil and technological management as well as genetic improvements may very likely induce an increase in bean and maize yield despite the unfavorable future climate conditions.

  11. Photosynthetic characterization of peanut varieties differing in yield potential%不同产量水平花生品种光合作用特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高国庆; 李杨瑞; 韩柱强; 钟瑞春; 周翠球

    2001-01-01

    用Li-6400手持式光合作用分析系统,测定了8个具有不同产量水平花生品种4个生长时期的光合速率和相关的光合参数.结果表明,7个产量潜力较高的品种,尽管相互之间的产量差异在10%以上,但其光合强度(Pn)却没有明显差别,而引自印度的低产品种Isgv-9的光合强度则明显较低.所有品种中,位于主茎倒数第二或第三片完全展开的叶片,在荚果充实期(播种后52 d)光合强度最大.叶片气孔导度(Cond)和胞间CO2浓度(Ci)与Pn显著相关,秋季夜间低温和Cond与Ci的降低,与生长后期(播种后88 d)花生叶片光合强度的降低有关.叶片烫伤处理导致叶片光合作用、气孔导度和蒸腾速率迅速降低,而Ci却急剧升高,说明处理刺激了呼吸作用的进行.本研究的结果说明,对于产量潜力达到较高水平的花生品种,光合作用本身不是进一步提高产量的限制因素.%Leaf photosynthesis and related traits at 4 growth stages of 8 peanut varieties difference in yield potential were studied using Li-6400 portable photosynthesis system.No significant difference in photosynthesis rate(Pn)was found among the 7 varieties with high yield potential,although their yield difference may be more than 10%,while one variety,Isgv-9,an Indian origin,had lower yield potential and significantly lower leaf Pn.The highest Pn occurred at the last second or third fully expended leaf and at pod enlarging stage(52 days after planting,DAP).Leaf stomata conductance(Cond)and intercellular CO2 concentration(Ci)were found to be higly correlated with Pn,and low night temperature and decrease of Cond and Ci is responsible for the low Pn in late growth stage(88 DAP).Leaf petiole girdling by hot water resulted in immediate dropdown of Pn,Cond and transpiration rate(Trmmol)but sharp increase of Ci,indicating a stimulated respiration.It is concluded that,for the peanut varieties with high yield potential,leaf Pn coordinates well with the

  12. Temporal Variations of Water Productivity in Irrigated Corn: An Analysis of Factors Influencing Yield and Water Use across Central Nebraska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Tony; Yang, Haishun; Ray, Chittaranjan

    2016-01-01

    Water Productivity (WP) of a crop defines the relationship between the economic or physical yield of the crop and its water use. With this concept it is possible to identify disproportionate water use or water-limited yield gaps and thereby support improvements in agricultural water management. However, too often important qualitative and quantitative environmental factors are not part of a WP analysis and therefore neglect the aspect of maintaining a sustainable agricultural system. In this study, we examine both the physical and economic WP in perspective with temporally changing environmental conditions. The physical WP analysis was performed by comparing simulated maximum attainable corn yields per unit of water using the crop model Hybrid-Maize with observed data from 2005 through 2013 from 108 farm plots in the Central Platte and the Tri Basin Natural Resource Districts of Nebraska. In order to expand the WP analysis on external factors influencing yields, a second model, Maize-N, was used to estimate optimal nitrogen (N)-fertilizer rate for specific fields in the study area. Finally, a vadose zone flow and transport model, HYDRUS-1D for simulating vertical nutrient transport in the soil, was used to estimate locations of nitrogen pulses in the soil profile. The comparison of simulated and observed data revealed that WP was not on an optimal level, mainly due to large amounts of irrigation used in the study area. The further analysis illustrated year-to-year variations of WP during the nine consecutive years, as well as the need to improve fertilizer management to favor WP and environmental quality. In addition, we addressed the negative influence of groundwater depletion on the economic WP through increasing pumping costs. In summary, this study demonstrated that involving temporal variations of WP as well as associated environmental and economic issues can represent a bigger picture of WP that can help to create incentives to sustainably improve

  13. Temporal Variations of Water Productivity in Irrigated Corn: An Analysis of Factors Influencing Yield and Water Use across Central Nebraska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Tony; Yang, Haishun; Ray, Chittaranjan

    2016-01-01

    Water Productivity (WP) of a crop defines the relationship between the economic or physical yield of the crop and its water use. With this concept it is possible to identify disproportionate water use or water-limited yield gaps and thereby support improvements in agricultural water management. However, too often important qualitative and quantitative environmental factors are not part of a WP analysis and therefore neglect the aspect of maintaining a sustainable agricultural system. In this study, we examine both the physical and economic WP in perspective with temporally changing environmental conditions. The physical WP analysis was performed by comparing simulated maximum attainable corn yields per unit of water using the crop model Hybrid-Maize with observed data from 2005 through 2013 from 108 farm plots in the Central Platte and the Tri Basin Natural Resource Districts of Nebraska. In order to expand the WP analysis on external factors influencing yields, a second model, Maize-N, was used to estimate optimal nitrogen (N)-fertilizer rate for specific fields in the study area. Finally, a vadose zone flow and transport model, HYDRUS-1D for simulating vertical nutrient transport in the soil, was used to estimate locations of nitrogen pulses in the soil profile. The comparison of simulated and observed data revealed that WP was not on an optimal level, mainly due to large amounts of irrigation used in the study area. The further analysis illustrated year-to-year variations of WP during the nine consecutive years, as well as the need to improve fertilizer management to favor WP and environmental quality. In addition, we addressed the negative influence of groundwater depletion on the economic WP through increasing pumping costs. In summary, this study demonstrated that involving temporal variations of WP as well as associated environmental and economic issues can represent a bigger picture of WP that can help to create incentives to sustainably improve

  14. Temporal Variations of Water Productivity in Irrigated Corn: An Analysis of Factors Influencing Yield and Water Use across Central Nebraska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Tony; Yang, Haishun; Ray, Chittaranjan

    2016-01-01

    Water Productivity (WP) of a crop defines the relationship between the economic or physical yield of the crop and its water use. With this concept it is possible to identify disproportionate water use or water-limited yield gaps and thereby support improvements in agricultural water management. However, too often important qualitative and quantitative environmental factors are not part of a WP analysis and therefore neglect the aspect of maintaining a sustainable agricultural system. In this study, we examine both the physical and economic WP in perspective with temporally changing environmental conditions. The physical WP analysis was performed by comparing simulated maximum attainable corn yields per unit of water using the crop model Hybrid-Maize with observed data from 2005 through 2013 from 108 farm plots in the Central Platte and the Tri Basin Natural Resource Districts of Nebraska. In order to expand the WP analysis on external factors influencing yields, a second model, Maize-N, was used to estimate optimal nitrogen (N)–fertilizer rate for specific fields in the study area. Finally, a vadose zone flow and transport model, HYDRUS-1D for simulating vertical nutrient transport in the soil, was used to estimate locations of nitrogen pulses in the soil profile. The comparison of simulated and observed data revealed that WP was not on an optimal level, mainly due to large amounts of irrigation used in the study area. The further analysis illustrated year-to-year variations of WP during the nine consecutive years, as well as the need to improve fertilizer management to favor WP and environmental quality. In addition, we addressed the negative influence of groundwater depletion on the economic WP through increasing pumping costs. In summary, this study demonstrated that involving temporal variations of WP as well as associated environmental and economic issues can represent a bigger picture of WP that can help to create incentives to sustainably improve

  15. MOLECULAR ANALYSIS OF HUMAN SPERMATOZOA: POTENTIAL FOR INFERTILITY RESEARCH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon Research Conference: Mammalian Gametogenesis and Embryogenesis New London, CT, July 1-6, 2000Molecular Analysis of Human Spermatozoa: Potential for Infertility ResearchDavid Miller 1, David Dix2, Robert Reid 3, Stephen A Krawetz 3 1Reproductive ...

  16. Recycling as a strategy against rare earth element criticality: a systemic evaluation of the potential yield of NdFeB magnet recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rademaker, Jelle H; Kleijn, René; Yang, Yongxiang

    2013-09-17

    End-of-life recycling is promoted by OECD countries as a promising strategy in the current global supply crisis surrounding rare earth elements (REEs) so that dependence on China, the dominant supplier, can be decreased. So far the feasibility and potential yield of REE recycling has not been systematically evaluated. This paper estimates the annual waste flows of neodymium and dysprosium from permanent magnets, the main deployment of these critical REEs, during the 2011-2030 period. The estimates focus on three key permanent magnet waste flows: wind turbines, hybrid and electric vehicles, and hard disk drives (HDDs) in personal computers (PCs). This is a good indication of the end-of-life recycling of neodymium and dysprosium maximum potential yield. Results show that for some time to come, waste flows from permanent magnets will remain small relative to the rapidly growing global REE demand. Policymakers therefore need to be aware that during the next decade recycling is unlikely to substantially contribute to global REE supply security. In the long term, waste flows will increase sharply and will meet a substantial part of the total demand for these metals. Future REE recycling efforts should, therefore, focus on the development of recycling technology and infrastructure.

  17. Monte Carlo analysis of accelerator-driven systems studies on spallation neutron yield and energy gain

    CERN Document Server

    Hashemi-Nezhad, S R; Westmeier, W; Bamblevski, V P; Krivopustov, M I; Kulakov, B A; Sosnin, A N; Wan, J S; Odoj, R

    2001-01-01

    The neutron yield in the interaction of protons with lead and uranium targets has been studied using the LAHET code system. The dependence of the neutron multiplicity on target dimensions and proton energy has been calculated and the dependence of the energy amplification on the proton energy has been investigated in an accelerator-driven system of a given effective multiplication coefficient. Some of the results are compared with experimental findings and with similar calculations by the DCM/CEM code of Dubna and the FLUKA code system used in CERN. (14 refs).

  18. Potential ecological impacts analysis of California high speed rail

    OpenAIRE

    Cameron, Dick; White, Mike; Stallcup, Jerre Ann; Penrod, Kristeen

    2005-01-01

    The Nature Conservancy and the Conservation Biology Institute conducted an analysis of the potential environmental impacts of the proposed California High Speed Rail project as detailed in the 2004 Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Report. The analysis intended to match the scale of the programmatic EIR in order to inform comments and to create a synoptic view of the project with select focal examples of potential impact areas for non-governmental organization partners and funders. An i...

  19. Analysis of the stability for yield in maize (Zea mays hybrids in the central Ecuadorian Coastal Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Vera Aviles

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the stability of commercial and experimental maize hybrids in the Central Ecuadorian Coastal Region. During a period from december 2010 to april 2011 uniform trials of yield in four locations with contrasting environments were evaluated. The genetic material was constituted by five experimental hybrids and three commercial. The experimental design used was completely randomized blocks design with four replications; the experimental plots were two rows with a length of 5.0 m separated to 0.90 meters. The combined analysis of variance proposed by Eberhart and Russel was statistical significance as well as for genotype and for interaction. The average yield showed that between experimental hybrids two, (SM45 x SSD08SV39 and (SM45 x SV15SV39, were highlighted with averages higher than 7.0 t ha-1 whilst AG-003 was the highlighted commercial hybrid with a yield of 7.48 t ha-1. The best yields and environmental indexes were registered in the locations of Quevedo and Vinces, the lowest environmental indexes were for Balzar and Ventanas. In relation to the tendency of response of the outstanding genotypes in the four evaluation environments, it was particularly observed that genotypes are desirable by virtue of the outstanding results in both favorable and unfavorable environments.

  20. Energy Efficiency Analysis and Modeling the Relationship between Energy Inputs and Wheat Yield in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fakher Kardoni

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Wheat is the dominant cereal crop constituting the first staple food in Iran. This paper studies the energy consumption patterns and the relationship between energy inputs and yield for Wheat production in Iranian agriculture during the period 1986 – 2008. The results indicated that total energy inputs in irrigated and dryland wheat production increased from 29.01 and 9.81 GJ ha-1 in 1986 to 44.67 and 12.35 GJ ha-1 in 2008, respectively. Similarly, total output energy rose from 28.87 and 10.43 GJ ha-1 in 1986 to 58.53 and 15.77 GJ ha-1 in 2008, in the same period. Energy efficiency indicators, input– output ratio, energy productivity, and net energy have improved over the examined period. The results also revealed that nonrenewable, direct, and indirect energy forms had a positive impact on the output level. Moreover, the regression results showed the significant effect of irrigation water and seed energies in irrigated wheat and human labor and fertilizer in dryland wheat on crop yield. Results of this study indicated that improvement of fertilizer efficiency and reduction of fuel consumption by modifying tillage, harvest method, and other agronomic operations can significantly affect the energy efficiency of wheat production in Iran.

  1. GGE-Biplot Analysis of Grain Yield of Faba Bean Genotypes in Southern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fekadu Gurmu, Ersulo Lire, Asrat Asfaw, Fitsum Alemayehu, Yeyis Rezene, Daniel Ambachew

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A Genotype x Environment (GxE interaction study was conducted in Southern Ethiopia in 2007 and 2008 using 16 faba bean genotypes in a randomized complete block design with three replications. The objectives of the study were to determine the magnitude of G x E interaction and to identify high yielding and stable or specifically adapted genotypes for target environment(s. A GGE-Biplot was used to analyse G x E interaction and stability of the genotypes based on the trait grain yield (kg ha-1. Genotypic difference was found to be significant (P < 0.05 and (P < 0.001 for each environment and across environments, respectively. Location main effect was also highly significant (P < 0.001, but year main effect was not significant. Genotype x Locations (GL and Location x Years (LY were significant. Genotypes G3 and G8 were specifically adapted to Hossana and Waka while G11 was specifically adapted to Angacha and Bule. G5 was the most stable genotype with wider adaptation to all the test environments and can be recommended for wider production in similar high land environments of the Southern Region of Ethiopia.

  2. Analysis of heat stress in UK dairy cattle and impact on milk yields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Much as humans suffer from heat-stress during periods of high temperature and humidity, so do dairy cattle. Using a temperature-humidity index (THI), we investigate the effect of past heatwaves in the UK on heat-stress in dairy herds. Daily THI data derived from routine meteorological observations show that during the summer, there has been an average of typically 1 day per year per station over the past 40 years when the THI has exceeded the threshold for the onset of mild heat-stress in dairy cattle. However, during the heatwaves of 2003 and 2006, this threshold was exceeded on typically 5 days on average in the Midlands, south and east of England. Most dairy cattle are in the west and north of the country and so did not experience the severest heat. Milk yield data in the south-west of England show that a few herds experienced decreases in yields during 2003 and 2006. We used the 11-member regional climate model ensemble with the A1B scenario from UKCP09 to investigate the possible future change in days exceeding the THI threshold for the onset of mild heat-stress. The number of days where the THI exceeds this threshold could increase to over 20 days yr−1 in southern parts of England by the end of the century. (letters)

  3. Analysis of heat stress in UK dairy cattle and impact on milk yields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Robert J. H.; Mead, Naomi E.; Willett, Kate M.; Parker, David E.

    2014-05-01

    Much as humans suffer from heat-stress during periods of high temperature and humidity, so do dairy cattle. Using a temperature-humidity index (THI), we investigate the effect of past heatwaves in the UK on heat-stress in dairy herds. Daily THI data derived from routine meteorological observations show that during the summer, there has been an average of typically 1 day per year per station over the past 40 years when the THI has exceeded the threshold for the onset of mild heat-stress in dairy cattle. However, during the heatwaves of 2003 and 2006, this threshold was exceeded on typically 5 days on average in the Midlands, south and east of England. Most dairy cattle are in the west and north of the country and so did not experience the severest heat. Milk yield data in the south-west of England show that a few herds experienced decreases in yields during 2003 and 2006. We used the 11-member regional climate model ensemble with the A1B scenario from UKCP09 to investigate the possible future change in days exceeding the THI threshold for the onset of mild heat-stress. The number of days where the THI exceeds this threshold could increase to over 20 days yr-1 in southern parts of England by the end of the century.

  4. Combining ability analysis for yield and fibre quality parameters in intraspecific hybrids of G. hirsutum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.A.Saravanan, N.A., R. Ravikesavan and T.S. Raveendran

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Four genetically diverse jassid resistant varieties viz., SRT 1, Khandwa 2, KC 2 and SVPR 3 (Females i.e lines were crossedwith three standard varieties viz., MCU 5, MCU 7 and MCU 12 (male parents i.e., testers in line x tester fashion for estimationin combining ability effects of twelve economic characters including fibre quality traits like 2.5% span length, bundle strength,fibre fineness, uniformity ratio and elongation percentage. Non-additive type of gene action was found relatively more importantfor all the characters. The jassid resistant parent KC 2 was a good combiner for boll weight, lint index, seed index and bundlestrength besides seed cotton yield. While the parents SRT 1 and MCU 5 were found to be good general combiner for 2.5 per centspan length. On the basis of sca effects the combinations KC 2 x MCU 5, KC 2 x MCU 12 and Khandwa 2 x MCU 5 were thebest hybrids for combining high yield, quality and jassid resistance.

  5. Genotype by environment interaction and yield stability analysis of quality protein maize genotypes in Terai Region of Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiban Shrestha

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Grain yield stability for the new maize genotypes is an important target in maize breeding programs. The main objective of this study was to identify stable high yielding quality protein maize (QPM genotypes under various locations and years in terai region of Nepal. Six quality protein maize genotypes along with Poshilo Makai-1 (Standard Check and Farmer’s Variety (Local Check were tested at three different locations namely Ayodhyapuri-2, Devendrapur, Madi, Chitwan; Rajahar-8, Bartandi, Rajahar, Nawalparasi; Mangalpur-2, Rampur, Chitwan during 2011 and 2012 spring and winter seasons under rainfed condition. The experiment was conducted using Randomized Complete Block Design with two replications in farmer’s fields. There was considerable variation among genotypes and environments for grain yield. The analysis of variance showed that mean squares of environments (E was highly significant and genotypes (G and genotype x environment interaction (GEI were non significant. The genotypes S03TLYQ- AB02 and RampurS03FQ02 respectively produced the higher mean grain yield 5422±564 kg/ha and 5274±603 kg/ha across the locations. Joint regression analysis showed that RampurS03FQ02 and S03TLYQ-AB02 with regression coefficient 1.10 and 1.22 respectively are the most stable genotypes over the tested environments. The coefficient of determination (R2 for genotypes Rampur S03FQ02 and S03TLYQ-AB02 were as high as 0.954, confirming their high predictability to stability. Further confirmation from GGE biplot analysis showed that maize genotype S03TLYQ-AB02 followed by Rampur S03FQ02 were more stable and adaptive genotypes across the tested environments. Thus these genotypes could be recommended to farmers for general cultivation.

  6. Reliability analysis for cementless hip prosthesis using a new optimized formulation of yield stress against elasticity modulus relationship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We develop a new formulation between the yield stress and Young’s modulus of bone. • We validate the optimized formulation for cortical and trabecular bone. • We integrate the reliability analysis into artificially hip replacement design. - Abstract: Using classical design optimization methods for implant-bone studies does not completely guarantee a safety and satisfactory performance, due in part to the randomness of bone properties and loading. Here, the material properties of the different bone layers are considered as uncertain parameters. So their corresponding yield stress values will not be deterministic, that leads to integrate variable limitations into the optimization process. Here there is a strong need to find a reliable mathematical relationship between yield stress and material properties of the different bone layers. In this work, a new optimized formulation for yield stress against elasticity modulus relationship is first developed. This model is based on some experimental results. A validation of the proposed formulation is next carried out to show its accuracy for both bone layers (cortical and cancellous). A probabilistic sensitivity analysis is then carried out to show the role of each input parameter with respect to the limit state function. The new optimized formulation is next integrated into a reliability analysis problem in order to assess the reliability level of the stem–bone study where we deal with variable boundary limitations. An illustrative application is considered as a bi-dimensional example (contains only two variables) in order to present the results in an illustrative 2D space. Finally, a multi-variable problem considering several daily loading cases on a hip prosthesis shows the applicability of the proposed strategy

  7. Meta-analysis of the effects of ractopamine hydrochloride on carcass cutability and primal yields of finishing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohrer, B M; Kyle, J M; Boler, D D; Rincker, P J; Ritter, M J; Carr, S N

    2013-02-01

    The objective was to summarize previous literature, using a meta-analysis approach, on the effects of ractopamine hydrochloride (RAC) when fed at doses of 5 to 10 mg/kg for up to 35 d before harvest on carcass cutability and belly quality of finishing pigs. The meta-analysis provided an opportunity to determine the consensus of previously published literature. Ten studies were evaluated to determine cutting yields and 8 studies were used to determine belly quality in this review. Pooled dietary RAC concentrations (5 mg/kg, 7.4 mg/kg, 10 mg/kg, and step-up feeding programs) and pooled feeding durations (up to 35 d before harvest) were compared with pigs not fed RAC (controls) and were analyzed as a meta-analysis using the mixed procedure of SAS. Ractopamine inclusion was the fixed effect in the model and the individual study was considered a random variable. The only difference between RAC and control pigs for whole primals as a percentage of side weight was the whole ham (P pigs having a carcass cutting yield (74.70% vs. 73.69%, respectively; P = 0.02; SED = 0.33) advantage of 1.01% units and a bone in lean cutting yield (61.43% vs. 60.33%, respectively; P = 0.03; SED = 0.40) advantage of 1.10% units when compared with control pigs. The advantage in bone-in cutability was a result of increased boneless sub primal yields in each of the lean cuts (shoulder, loin, and ham). When further evaluated, RAC pigs had a boneless shoulder (Boston butt + picnic) yield advantage of 0.32% units (P pigs when compared with control pigs. There were no subprimal yield differences (P = 0.93) in the trimmed belly between RAC pigs (12.18%) and control pigs (12.18%). However, RAC pigs (15.27 cm; 73.42) had narrower flop distances (P = 0.02; SED = 0.62) and greater iodine values (P = 0.01; SED = 0.33), respectively, when compared with control pigs (17.08 cm; 71.48).

  8. 4种典型土壤上玉米产量潜力的实现程度及其因素分析%Potential maize yield realization and related driving factors in four typical soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯鹏; 陈新平; 崔振岭; 李世清; 王伟; 叶优良; 陈远学; 张福锁

    2012-01-01

    region in the Loess Plateau, fluvo-aquic soil region in North China Plain and the purple soil region in Southwest China) were analyzed to demonstrate whether and how soil conditions limit maize potential yield realization. The results showed that in all the 4 experimental sites (852-farm in Heilongjiang Province, Changwu in Shaanxi Province, Wenxian in Henan Province and Jianyang in Sichuan Province), maize yields under the best management practices were 10.7 t·hm-2,14.1 t·hm-2,9.2 t·hm-2 and 6.7 t·hm-2 in 2009, which were 92%, 104%, 84% and 78% of yield potentials in the respective regions. Correlation analysis showed that soil physical property (bulk density) and root dry matter density were significantly negatively and positively related with realization degree of potential yield, respectively. Soil physical property (bulk density) and fertility (organic matter) had significant effects on maize potential yield realization. A moderate bulk density and high organic matter content of 69.3 g·kg-1 under tillage conditions were beneficial to roots growth, and furthermore, led to 92% yield potential realization in the 852-farm, Heilongjiang Province. Low soil bulk density of 1.15 g·cm-3 under tillage conditions led to the highest root growth and 104% yield potential realization in Changwu, Shaanxi Province. In contrast, high soil bulk densities, especially in the 10-20 cm soil layer with the highest bulk density of 1.53 g·cm-3 went against roots growth, and led to only 84% yield potential realization in Wenxian, Henan Province. Low soil organic matter and high soil bulk density in soil profiles led to only 78% yield potential realization in Jianyang, Sichuan Province. It was therefore concluded that different soil quality improvement strategies needed to be adopted in different regions to realize maize yield potential and balanced yield increase over large areas across China.

  9. Combining ability analysis for yield and its components in popcorn (Zea mays var. everta Sturt.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayabharathi A

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A line x tester set was obtained by crossing 8 lines with 3 testers in popcorn. The resultant 24 derived F1s were evaluatedalong with 11 parents to estimate general and specific combining ability variances and effects for 14 characters. The resultsshowed predominant role of non-additive gene action for all the characters studied. Based on both per se and gca, thegenotypes UPC 5, UPC 4, UPC 1 among lines and Amber popcorn, Bangalore popcorn among the testers were proved asgood general combiners for yield and quality traits. High per se, significant sca, standard heterosis exhibited by three hybridsviz., UPC 9 x Amber popcorn, UPC 8 x Amber popcorn and UPC 1 x UPC 6 could be used for exploitation of heterosis foryield and quality characters.

  10. Analysis of the Contribution of Total Factor Productivity to Agricultural Yield in Anhui Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    By analyzing data concerning agricultural development from 1981 to 2010 in Anhui Province,the total factor productivity and growth rate of agriculture from 1981 to 2010 are estimated empirically.By dividing years from 1981 to 2010 into several subintervals,this paper evaluates and analyzes initial stage of reform and opening up,soft landing stage,the stage of financial crisis,the stage of subprime mortgage crisis and the impact of all factors on total factor growth rate of agriculture.Then it analyzes the contribution of growth of total factor productivity to total yield of agricultural economy.The research finds that the growth of total factor productivity in Anhui Province is significant to agricultural development.

  11. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Latex Reveals Molecular Mechanisms Underlying Increased Rubber Yield in Hevea brasiliensis Self-Rooting Juvenile Clones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui-Liang; Guo, Dong; Zhu, Jia-Hong; Wang, Ying; Chen, Xiong-Ting; Peng, Shi-Qing

    2016-01-01

    Rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) self-rooting juvenile clones (JCs) are promising planting materials for rubber production. In a comparative trial between self-rooting JCs and donor clones (DCs), self-rooting JCs exhibited better performance in rubber yield. To study the molecular mechanism associated with higher rubber yield in self-rooting JCs, we sequenced and comparatively analyzed the latex of rubber tree self-rooting JCs and DCs at the transcriptome level. Total raw reads of 34,632,012 and 35,913,020 bp were obtained from the library of self-rooting JCs and DCs, respectively, by using Illumina HiSeq 2000 sequencing technology. De novo assemblies yielded 54689 unigenes from the library of self-rooting JCs and DCs. Among 54689 genes, 1716 genes were identified as differentially expressed between self-rooting JCs and DCs via comparative transcript profiling. Functional analysis showed that the genes related to the mass of categories were differentially enriched between the two clones. Several genes involved in carbohydrate metabolism, hormone metabolism and reactive oxygen species scavenging were up-regulated in self-rooting JCs, suggesting that the self-rooting JCs provide sufficient molecular basis for the increased rubber yielding, especially in the aspects of improved latex metabolisms and latex flow. Some genes encoding epigenetic modification enzymes were also differentially expressed between self-rooting JCs and DCs. Epigenetic modifications may lead to gene differential expression between self-rooting JCs and DCs. These data will provide new cues to understand the molecular mechanism underlying the improved rubber yield of H. brasiliensis self-rooting clones. PMID:27555864

  12. Productivity, Profitability and Resource Use Efficiency: A Comparative Analysis between Conventional and High Yielding Rice in Rajbari District, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Yahia Bapari

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The study was analyzed the determinants, costs and benefits and resources allocation of both conventional and high yielding rice cultivation over the Rajbari district of Bangladesh. Data were accumulated from 300 regular rice growers of conventional and high yielding varieties and random sampling technique was applied for selecting the respondents from the study area from which information was collected through pre-tested questionnaire. Cobb – Douglas production function and gross margin were mainly used to determine the productivities and profits of both rice and the marginal value of the product was highly recommended to derive the optimal use of the resources. Results obtained by applying ordinary least square method showed that the most important factors of production in the study area were irrigation, labor, fertilizer and insecticide costs whose elasticities were 0.904, 0.048, 0.045 and 0.044 respectively and insignificant factors were seed and ploughing costs whose elasticities were – 0.009 and 0.030 respectively for high yielding rice. On the other hand, irrigation, insecticide, seed and ploughing costs of elasticities 0.880, 0.589, 0.116 and – 0.127 respectively were the important factors and minor role playing factors were labor and fertilizer costs whose elasticities were 0.098 and 0.077 respectively for conventional yielding rice. The core message from productivity analysis was that the irrigation was key variable which played a positive and vital role in producing rice of both varieties. All variables (resources were economically misallocated in the production activities of both varieties along the study area but high yielding rice was more profitable than conventional one. Results also showed that the farmers of the study area produced rice of both varieties in the inefficient range of production. Continuous supply of electricity, flexible credit and improving the existing resources were the prime policy recommendations of

  13. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Latex Reveals Molecular Mechanisms Underlying Increased Rubber Yield in Hevea brasiliensis Self-Rooting Juvenile Clones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui-Liang; Guo, Dong; Zhu, Jia-Hong; Wang, Ying; Chen, Xiong-Ting; Peng, Shi-Qing

    2016-01-01

    Rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) self-rooting juvenile clones (JCs) are promising planting materials for rubber production. In a comparative trial between self-rooting JCs and donor clones (DCs), self-rooting JCs exhibited better performance in rubber yield. To study the molecular mechanism associated with higher rubber yield in self-rooting JCs, we sequenced and comparatively analyzed the latex of rubber tree self-rooting JCs and DCs at the transcriptome level. Total raw reads of 34,632,012 and 35,913,020 bp were obtained from the library of self-rooting JCs and DCs, respectively, by using Illumina HiSeq 2000 sequencing technology. De novo assemblies yielded 54689 unigenes from the library of self-rooting JCs and DCs. Among 54689 genes, 1716 genes were identified as differentially expressed between self-rooting JCs and DCs via comparative transcript profiling. Functional analysis showed that the genes related to the mass of categories were differentially enriched between the two clones. Several genes involved in carbohydrate metabolism, hormone metabolism and reactive oxygen species scavenging were up-regulated in self-rooting JCs, suggesting that the self-rooting JCs provide sufficient molecular basis for the increased rubber yielding, especially in the aspects of improved latex metabolisms and latex flow. Some genes encoding epigenetic modification enzymes were also differentially expressed between self-rooting JCs and DCs. Epigenetic modifications may lead to gene differential expression between self-rooting JCs and DCs. These data will provide new cues to understand the molecular mechanism underlying the improved rubber yield of H. brasiliensis self-rooting clones.

  14. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Latex Reveals Molecular Mechanisms Underlying Increased Rubber Yield in Hevea brasiliensis Self-Rooting Juvenile Clones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui-Liang; Guo, Dong; Zhu, Jia-Hong; Wang, Ying; Chen, Xiong-Ting; Peng, Shi-Qing

    2016-01-01

    Rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) self-rooting juvenile clones (JCs) are promising planting materials for rubber production. In a comparative trial between self-rooting JCs and donor clones (DCs), self-rooting JCs exhibited better performance in rubber yield. To study the molecular mechanism associated with higher rubber yield in self-rooting JCs, we sequenced and comparatively analyzed the latex of rubber tree self-rooting JCs and DCs at the transcriptome level. Total raw reads of 34,632,012 and 35,913,020 bp were obtained from the library of self-rooting JCs and DCs, respectively, by using Illumina HiSeq 2000 sequencing technology. De novo assemblies yielded 54689 unigenes from the library of self-rooting JCs and DCs. Among 54689 genes, 1716 genes were identified as differentially expressed between self-rooting JCs and DCs via comparative transcript profiling. Functional analysis showed that the genes related to the mass of categories were differentially enriched between the two clones. Several genes involved in carbohydrate metabolism, hormone metabolism and reactive oxygen species scavenging were up-regulated in self-rooting JCs, suggesting that the self-rooting JCs provide sufficient molecular basis for the increased rubber yielding, especially in the aspects of improved latex metabolisms and latex flow. Some genes encoding epigenetic modification enzymes were also differentially expressed between self-rooting JCs and DCs. Epigenetic modifications may lead to gene differential expression between self-rooting JCs and DCs. These data will provide new cues to understand the molecular mechanism underlying the improved rubber yield of H. brasiliensis self-rooting clones. PMID:27555864

  15. Development of analysis and reconstruction tools in Opera and analysis of {tau} {yields} 3 charged hadrons channel; Developpement des outils d'analyse et de reconstruction dans OPERA et analyse du canal {tau} {yields} 3 hadrons charges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavy, M

    2004-07-01

    OPERA aims to prove the existence of {nu}{sub {mu}} {yields} {nu}{sub {tau}} oscillation by a direct observation of {nu}{sub {tau}} appearance in a {nu}{sub {mu}} beam. To achieve this goal, a pure {nu}{sub {mu}} beam is produced at CERN and directed towards the Gran Sasso underground laboratory where the OPERA detector is located. The nuclear emulsions composing the detector have a very high degree of accuracy in position ({mu}m) and should allow {tau} lepton detection produced via {nu}{sub {tau}} charged current interaction. The emulsions analysis is thus a key point of the OPERA experiment. The development of simulation and reconstruction software is a part of this thesis work. In an other part of this thesis, it is shown that with a suitable kinematic analysis, the 3 charged hadrons tau decay channel can be used as any tau decay channels in the OPERA data analysis. (author)

  16. Study of gene effects for yield and its component traits in bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L. by generation mean analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Radha Rani, K. Ravinder Reddy and Ch. Surrender Raju

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was carried out to study the nature and magnitude of gene effects for yield and yield attributing traits in bitter gourd by generation mean analysis involving six generations (P1, P2, F1, F2, BC1 and BC2 at Model orchard, College of Horticulture, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad during summer 2011. The results revealed the presence of additive, dominance gene effects and epistatic interactions for all the characters except for vine length in cross IC-470550 × IC-470558 indicating the importance of both additive and non-additive gene actions in the expression of the characters. The greater magnitude of dominance gene effect as compare to additive effect for most of the traits suggest that heterosis breeding may be more useful. Biparental mating which could exploit both additive and non-additive type of gene effects is also suggested for the improvement of the traits in bitter gourd.

  17. Best Linear Unbiased Prediction (BLUP) for regional yield trials: a comparison to additive main effects and multiplicative interaction (AMMI) analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piepho, H P

    1994-11-01

    Multilocation trials are often used to analyse the adaptability of genotypes in different environments and to find for each environment the genotype that is best adapted; i.e. that is highest yielding in that environment. For this purpose, it is of interest to obtain a reliable estimate of the mean yield of a cultivar in a given environment. This article compares two different statistical estimation procedures for this task: the Additive Main Effects and Multiplicative Interaction (AMMI) analysis and Best Linear Unbiased Prediction (BLUP). A modification of a cross validation procedure commonly used with AMMI is suggested for trials that are laid out as a randomized complete block design. The use of these procedure is exemplified using five faba bean datasets from German registration trails. BLUP was found to outperform AMMI in four of five faba bean datasets.

  18. Proteomic Analysis of the Response of Liangyoupeijiu (Super High-Yield Hybrid Rice) Seedlings to Cold Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ping-Fang Yang; Xiao-Juan Li; Yu Liang; Yu-Xiang Jing; Shi-Hua Shen; Ting-Yun Kuang

    2006-01-01

    Liangyoupeijiu is a super high-yield hybrid rice. Despite its advantages with respect to yield and grain quality, it is sensitive to cold, which keeps it from being widely cultivated. We subjected Liangyoupeijiu seedlings to 4 ℃ cold treatment, then extracted the leaf proteins. After 2-D gel electrophoresis separation and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry analysis, a series of differentially displayed proteins were identified. Some metabolism-associated proteins were found among the downregulated proteins, such as carbamoyl phosphate synthetase, transketolase 1, dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase. The upregulated proteins included both stress-resistance proteins such as nucleoside diphosphate kinase Ⅰ and proteins that are negative for rice growth, such as FtsH-like protein, plastid fusion and/or translocation factor (Pftf) and actin. Our results indicate that cold may inhibit Liangyoupeijiu growth through decreasing metabolic activity and damaging cell structure.

  19. Net global warming potential and greenhouse gas intensity in rice agriculture driven by high yields and nitrogen use efficiency: a 5 year field study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X.; Zhou, Z.; Liu, Y.; Xu, X.; Wang, J.; Zhang, H.; Xiong, Z.

    2015-11-01

    Our understanding of how net global warming potential (NGWP) and greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI) is affected by management practices aimed at food security with respect to rice agriculture remains limited. In the present study, a 5 year field experiment was conducted in China to evaluate the effects of integrated soil-crop system management (ISSM) on NGWP and GHGI after accounting for carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from all sources (methane, CH4, and nitrous oxide, N2O, emissions, agrochemical inputs, Ei, and farm operations, Eo) and sinks (i.e., soil organic carbon, SOC, sequestration). For the improvement of rice yield and agronomic nitrogen use efficiency (NUE), four ISSM scenarios consisting of different nitrogen (N) fertilization rates relative to the local farmers' practice (FP) rate were carried out, namely, N1 (25 % reduction), N2 (10 % reduction), N3 (FP rate) and N4 (25 % increase). The results showed that compared with the FP, the four ISSM scenarios, i.e., N1, N2, N3 and N4, significantly increased the rice yields by 10, 16, 28 and 41 % and the agronomic NUE by 75, 67, 86 and 82 %, respectively. In addition, compared with the FP, the N1 and N2 scenarios significantly reduced the GHGI by 14 and 18 %, respectively, despite similar NGWPs. The N3 and N4 scenarios remarkably increased the NGWP and GHGI by an average of 67 and 36 %, respectively. In conclusion, the ISSM strategies are promising for both food security and environmental protection, and the ISSM scenario of N2 is the optimal strategy to realize high yields and high NUE together with low environmental impacts for this agricultural rice field.

  20. Breeding for Grass Seed Yield

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boelt, Birte; Studer, Bruno

    2010-01-01

    important aspects and components affecting the seed yield potential and the agronomic and environmental aspects affecting the utilization and realization of the seed yield potential. Finally, it discusses the potential of plant breeding to sustainably improve total seed yield in fodder and amenity grasses....

  1. Biomass yielding potential of naturally regenerated Prosopis juliflora tree stands at three varied ecosystems in southern districts of Tamil Nadu, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraswathi, K; Chandrasekaran, S

    2016-05-01

    Fuel energy demand is of great concern in recent times due to the depletion of fossil fuel resources. Biomass serves as widely available primary renewable energy source. Hence, a study was performed to assess the above-ground biomass yielding capability of fuel wood tree Prosopis juliflora in three varied ecosystems viz., coastal, fallow land and riparian ecosystems in southern districts of Tamil Nadu. The results showed that the biomass production potential and above-ground net primary productivity of P. juliflora depend on the age of the tree stands and the nature of ecosystem. A higher biomass yield was observed for P. juliflora trees with 5 to 10 years old when compared to less than 5 years of their age. Among the three ecosystems, the maximum biomass production was recorded in riparian ecosystem. The stands with less than 5-year-old P. juliflora trees gave 1.40 t/ha, and 5- to 10-year-old tree stands produced 27.69 t/ha in riparian ecosystem. Above-ground net primary productivity of both the age groups was high in fallow land ecosystem. In riparian ecosystem, the wood showed high density and low sulphur content than the other two ecosystems. Hence, P. juliflora biomass can serve as an environmentally and economically feasible fuel as well as their utilization proffers an effective means to control its invasiveness.

  2. Effect of Ploughing Depth on the Growth and Yield of Heracleum candicans: a Threatened Medicinal Herb and a Less-explored Potential Crop of the Himalayan Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hemant K. Badola; Jitendra S. Butola

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of ploughing depths (A - 60 cm, B - 45 cm and C - 30 cm) on the growth and yield of Heracleum candicans Wall (Apiaceae), a threatened medicinal herb of the Himalayan region. This less-explored plant is being suggested as a potential crop for the mountain agriculture. The study was carried out in an orchard in Himachal Pradesh, India at 2500 m altitude, for two successive growth years. During the first year, all plants remained in juvenile state; in the second year, nearly 65 % plants produced flowers only under 60 cm ploughing depth. Among its morphological traits, plant height, collar diameter and aboveground fresh weight were found to be strongly correlated (P < 0.01) with the belowground biomass during the first year (r =0.968, 0.925 and 0.973, respectively) and during the second year (r=0.945, 0.928 and 0.775, respectively). Increase in the ploughing depth was significantly correlated (P<0.01) with all growth parameters, including the belowground dry weight, marketable portion of the produce. The belowground biomass (commercial yield; 16.28 Qt/hec) at depth A was about 2.6 and 4.7 times higher than those recorded at depths B and C, respectively. The results clearly justify the importance of deep ploughing and this paper strongly recommends it for economically sustainable cropping.

  3. Biomass yielding potential of naturally regenerated Prosopis juliflora tree stands at three varied ecosystems in southern districts of Tamil Nadu, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraswathi, K; Chandrasekaran, S

    2016-05-01

    Fuel energy demand is of great concern in recent times due to the depletion of fossil fuel resources. Biomass serves as widely available primary renewable energy source. Hence, a study was performed to assess the above-ground biomass yielding capability of fuel wood tree Prosopis juliflora in three varied ecosystems viz., coastal, fallow land and riparian ecosystems in southern districts of Tamil Nadu. The results showed that the biomass production potential and above-ground net primary productivity of P. juliflora depend on the age of the tree stands and the nature of ecosystem. A higher biomass yield was observed for P. juliflora trees with 5 to 10 years old when compared to less than 5 years of their age. Among the three ecosystems, the maximum biomass production was recorded in riparian ecosystem. The stands with less than 5-year-old P. juliflora trees gave 1.40 t/ha, and 5- to 10-year-old tree stands produced 27.69 t/ha in riparian ecosystem. Above-ground net primary productivity of both the age groups was high in fallow land ecosystem. In riparian ecosystem, the wood showed high density and low sulphur content than the other two ecosystems. Hence, P. juliflora biomass can serve as an environmentally and economically feasible fuel as well as their utilization proffers an effective means to control its invasiveness. PMID:26797948

  4. The yield gap of major food crops in family agriculture in the tropics: Assessment and analysis through field surveys and modelling

    OpenAIRE

    Affholder, F.; Poeydebat, C.; Corbeels, M; Scopel, E.; Tittonell, P.A.

    2013-01-01

    Yield gaps of major food crops are wide under rainfed family agriculture in the tropics. Their magnitude and causes vary substantially across agro-ecological, demographic and market situations. Methods to assess yield gaps should cope with spatio-temporal variability of bio-physical conditions, management practices, and data scarcity under smallholder conditions. Particularly challenging is to determine the most relevant methods for estimating potential (Yp) and water-limited (Yw) yields agai...

  5. Natural Pigment Production by Monascus purpureus: Improving the yield in a bioreactor based on statistical analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atieh Seyedin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available AbstractDue to the especial properties such as high growth rates, easy extraction as well as high yields, using microorganisms in comparison to other sources is more chosen for pigment production. Pigments are used in food industries as natural colorants and preservatives, they also have pharmaceutical applications. In this study, fungus Monascus purpureus PTCC 5303 have been used to produce red, orange and yellow pigments. At first significant variables were screened based on plackett-Burman design and then the optimized value of two effectivefactors such as yeast extract and K2HPO4 concentrations wasoptimized byresponse surface method. Optimal levels of factors were found to be 2/75 g/L yeast extract and1/5 g/LK2HPO4 respectively. Antimicrobial activity of pigments was evaluated on Gram-positive foodborne bacteria under optimal conditionswhich resultsshowed inhibitory effects. Moreover Pigments production at optimal conditions in a bioreactor was evaluatedand the rate of production of red, orange and yellow pigments, 2.05, 1.55 and 0.78 (ODU/ml were observed respectively.  

  6. Quantum yield and lifetime data analysis for the UV curable quantum dot nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Cheng

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The quantum yield (QY and lifetime are the important parameters for the photoluminescent materials. The data here report the changes of the QY and lifetime for the quantum dot (QD nanocomposite after the UV curing of the urethane acrylate prepolymer. The data were collected based on the water soluble CdTe QDs and urethane acrylate prepolymer. Colloidal QDs were in various concentration from 0.5×10−3 molL−1 to 10×10−3 molL−1, and 1% (wt% 1173 was the photoinitiator. The QY before the curing was 56.3%, 57.8% and 58.6% for the QDs 510 nm, 540 nm and 620 nm, respectively. The QY after the curing was changed to 8.9%, 9.6% and 13.4% for the QDs 510 nm, 540 nm and 620 nm, respectively. Lifetime data showed that the lifetime was changed from 23.71 ns, 24.55 ns, 23.52 ns to 1.29 ns, 2.74 ns, 2.45 ns for the QDs 510 nm, 540 nm and 620 nm, respectively.

  7. Genetic variability and factor analysis in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. germplasm collection for yield related traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Sofi , M. Y. Zargar, S. M. Razvi, F. A. Sheikh, Iram Saba and T. Shafi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken in Kharif 2011 and 2012 at Research Farm of Regional Research station of SKUAST-K at Wadura. The divergence of beans collection comprising 300 genotypes including 297 test germplasm accessions and three checks namely Shalimar Rajmash-1, Contender and Selection-3 was studied using factor analysis. We considered eight quantitative traits related to seed yield namely days to flowering, days to maturity, plant height, number of pods/plant, pod length, seeds/pod, 100-seed weight and seed yield/plant. Analysis of variance revealed that there were significant differences between checks and accessions, between accessions and between checks for all the traits. It indicated presence of substantial amount of variation among the test entries. The factor analysis was based on Pearson correlation matrix and Euclidean distances. Total variance explained with the four PC's was more than 70%. Latent roots (Eigen values are between 2.318 for the first and 0.112 for the eight. The first component explained 28.976 % of total variation, the second component explained 16.989 %, while as the third and fourth component explained 14.751 and 12.972 % respectively. Days to flowering and days to maturity were the important traits in the first two principal components. 100-seed weight was the important trait in third principal component while the pod length and seeds per pod were important traits in fourth principal component. Combined use of the three seven PC (principal components could yield a successful selection of genotypes suitable for donors of one or more important traits in breeding.

  8. Viscous Potential Flow Analysis of Electrohydrodynamic Rayleigh-Taylor Instability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awasthi Mukesh Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A linear analysis of Rayleigh-Taylor instability in the presence of tangential electric field has been carried out using viscous potential flow theory. In viscous potential flow theory, viscosity is not zero but viscous term in the Navier- Stokes equation is zero as vorticity is zero. Viscosity enters through normal stress balance and tangential stresses are not considered in viscous flow theory. A dispersion relation has been obtained and stability criterion has been given in the terms of critical value of electric field. It has been observed that tangential electric field influences stability of the system. A comparison between the results obtained by viscous potential analysis and inviscid potential flow has been made and found that viscosity reduces the growth of instability.

  9. Heterosis and combining ability analysis for grain yield and its component traits in aerobic rice (Oryza sativa L. cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Utharasu and C. R. Anandakumar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available An investigation on LxT analysis was carried out with six popular and ten improved cultures to estimate gene action, combining ability and heterosis for yield and drought tolerant traits under aerobic conditions. Both additive and non-additive gene action were found to control the expression of the traits under study. The magnitude of combining ability revealed non-additive genetic variance was higher than the additive variance for all the studied traits. Parents PMK3, RMD(R1, ARB6, ARB7, ARB8 and CB-04-801 were found to be the good combiners for drought tolerant and yield traits. The crosses RMD(R1/ARB7, PMK3/ARB8, PMK3/ARB7, ADT43/IR77080-B-34-3 and MDU5/Anjali recorded hight sca effects for grain yield. Crosses PMK3/ARB6, PMK3/ARB8, RMD(R1/ARB7 and PMK3/ARB7 performed better than the check PMK 3 for most of the traits and showed significance for all the three types of heterosis. The crosses RMD(R1/ARB7, ADT48/ARB6, PMK3/ARB7 and MDU5/Anjali were identified as the best combinations for aerobic conditions on the basis of high mean, significant sca effects and high standard heterosis.

  10. Genetic analysis for sooty mold resistance and heart of palm yield in Archontophoenix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bovi Marilene Leão Alves

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Archontophoenix palms, utilized both as ornamental species and as a source of high-quality heart of palm, are susceptible to sooty mold, a disease coupled with aphid infestation, which affects photosynthesis and causes unpleasant, darkish palm appearance. Scoring rates for sooty mold resistance and three growth traits were assessed under field conditions in 24 open-pollinated half-sibs families, 28 months after planting, aiming to identify genetic variability for sooty mold resistance; estimate genetic parameters for this trait and plant height, diameter and number of leaves; estimate genetic and phenotypic correlation for the four traits and evaluate selection methods for heart of palm production through multi-trait index selection based on growth traits. There were genetic differences among families for all traits. The low coefficient of variation for sooty mold (9.48% indicates that the visual rating method adopted was effective and feasible for comparing aphid plus sooty mold infestation levels in Archontophoenix. Narrow sense heritability estimates were low and medium for growth traits (0.10, 0.26 and 0.26 for leaves number, plant diameter and height, respectively and very high (0.91 for sooty mold resistance. Genetic correlation was found between sooty mold resistance and plant height. This positive relationship indicates that culling of very susceptible palms can be done possibily without interference in the follow up indirect selection for heart of palm yield. Some selection strategies were presented, showing that possible genetic gain could range from 6.23 to 11.83%, depending on the selection method adopted and on the effective restriction of the population size.

  11. Growth and yield models, assortment type and analysis of deadwood in chestnut coppice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marziliano PA

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Chestnut (Castanea sativa MILL. is one of the most important forest tree species in Europe, and it is considered a symbol of the natural vegetation in southern Europe. In Calabria (southern Italy chestnut forest covers an area of approximately 87000 hectares, most of which (about 80% managed as coppice. In this study a growth and yield table has been elaborated. Thurthermore, assortment type and quantity of deadwood have been evaluated according to age of coppice and forest fire prevention, respectively. The study site is located in the “Presila of Catanzaro” and the research was carried out in 15 plots; the age of the examined stands ranged from 2 to 50 years old. More than 30000 shoots per hectare were recorded in the first two years after coppicing. As opposed, about 2300 and 1000 shoots per hectare were observed 15 and 50 years after coppicing, respectively. The culmination of the mean annual increment of the forest standing volume (16 m3 ha-1 year-1 was highlighted 25 years after coppicing, while the current annual increment culmination (21 m3 ha-1 year-1 was observed at 15 years. Fifteen years after coppicing, most of the wood production was constituted by small dimension assortments. Twenty five years after coppicing small and large poles were the prevailing assortments while telegraph poles and timber beams increased after 50 years. The amount of deadwood in forest ranged between 11.9 and 68.7 m3 ha-1. The largest component was represented by standing dead shoots. The results show that coppice management can be adopted even if the main purpose of the chestnut stand is the production of large size assortments. In chestnut coppice, highly vulnerable to fire, the reduction of stand density with silvicultural practices (thinning and displacement is the main way to promote the efficiency of forest and a higher strength and resiliency against forest fire.

  12. Latent Class Analysis of Peer Conformity: Who Is Yielding to Pressure and Why?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosten, Paul A.; Scheier, Lawrence M.; Grenard, Jerry L.

    2013-01-01

    This study used latent class analysis to examine typologies of peer conformity in a community sample of middle school students. Students responded to 31 items assessing diverse facets of conformity dispositions. The most parsimonious model produced three qualitatively distinct classes that differed on the basis of conformity to recreational…

  13. Viscous Potential Flow Analysis of Electrohydrodynamic Rayleigh-Taylor Instability

    OpenAIRE

    Awasthi Mukesh Kumar; Yadav Dhananjay; G.S. Agrawal

    2014-01-01

    A linear analysis of Rayleigh-Taylor instability in the presence of tangential electric field has been carried out using viscous potential flow theory. In viscous potential flow theory, viscosity is not zero but viscous term in the Navier- Stokes equation is zero as vorticity is zero. Viscosity enters through normal stress balance and tangential stresses are not considered in viscous flow theory. A dispersion relation has been obtained and stability criterion has been given in the terms of cr...

  14. Seismic response analysis of RCC structure with yielding dampers using linearization techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parulekar, Y.M., E-mail: yogitap@barc.gov.i [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085, Maharashtra (India); Reddy, G.R.; Vaze, K.K.; Ghosh, A.K.; Kushwaha, H.S. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085, Maharashtra (India); Ramesh Babu, R. [Central Power Research Institute, Bangalore (India)

    2009-12-15

    Passive energy dissipating devices like elasto-plastic dampers (EPDs) can be used for retrofitting of structures subjected to seismic loads. A model of reinforced concrete structure is tested on shake table with and without EPDs attached in its frames. Using a finite element model of the structure, linear and nonlinear time history analysis is carried out using Newmark's time integration technique. However, the most viable approach used by designers is response spectrum approach. Hence equivalent linearization techniques are used to address the nonlinearity of dampers and iterative response spectrum method is used for evaluating the response of the structure using equivalent damping and stiffness. The analytical maximum storey response of the structure is compared with experimental values and time history analysis values. It has been concluded that, iterative response spectrum technique using equivalent linearization techniques is simple and results in reasonably acceptable response of the structures retrofitted with energy dissipaters.

  15. CYCLIC RECURRENCE ASSESSMENT OF GRAIN YIELD TIME SERIES USING PHASE ANALYSIS INSTRUMENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Temirov A. A.

    2016-01-01

    An algorithm of phase analysis as the instrument of nonlinear dynamics' methods used to study cyclic recurrence of time series is viewed in current article. The existing classical econometric methods for estimating cyclic recurrence developed for random systems which dynamics matches to the normal distribution. However, there also exists non-random systems characterized by trends, periodic and non-periodic cycles called quasicycles. An example of computing process of identifying quasicycles i...

  16. Comparison of Artificial Neural Networks and GIS Based Solar Analysis for Solar Potential Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konakoǧlu, Berkant; Usta, Ziya; Cömert, Çetin; Gökalp, Ertan

    2016-04-01

    Nowadays, estimation of solar potential plays an important role in planning process for sustainable cities. The use of solar panels, which produces electricity directly from the sun, has become popular in accordance with developing technologies. Since the use of solar panels enables the users to decrease costs and increase yields, the use of solar panels will be more popular in the future. Production of electricity is not convenient for all circumstances. Shading effects, massive clouds and rainy weather are some factors that directly affect the production of electricity from solar energy. Hence, before the installation of solar panels, it is crucial to conduct spatial analysis and estimate the solar potential of the place that the solar panel will be installed. There are several approaches to determine the solar potential. Examination of the applications in the literature reveals that the applications conducted for determining the solar potential are divided into two main categories. Solar potential is estimated either by using artificial neural network approach in which statistical parameters such as the duration of sun shine, number of clear days, solar radiation etc. are used, or by spatial analysis conducted in GIS approaches in which spatial parameters such as, latitude, longitude, slope, aspect etc. are used. In the literature, there are several studies that use both approaches but the literature lacks of a study related to the comparison of these approaches. In this study, Karadeniz Technical University campus has been selected as study area. Monthly average values of the number of clear sky days, air temperature, atmospheric pressure, relative humidity, sunshine duration and solar radiation parameters obtained for the years between 2005 and 2015 will be used to perform artificial neural network analysis to estimate the solar potential of the study area. The solar potential will also be estimated by using GIS-based solar analysis modules. The results of

  17. Potential demand and cost-benefit analysis of electric cars

    OpenAIRE

    Zito, Pietro; Salerno, Silvia

    2004-01-01

    In this study an analysis of electric family car performances is carried out. In particular, the aim of this research is to appraise the possibility of introducing electric cars in urban mobility and the evaluation of its economic feasibility. First of all, we determined the potential electric car demand, which was forecasted using a stated preference (SP) analysis. The survey was carried out at the University of Palermo considering a particular target of consumer: “the hybrid hou...

  18. Genetic analysis reveals demographic fragmentation of grizzly bears yielding vulnerably small populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, Michael F; McLellan, Bruce N; Strobeck, Curtis; Barclay, Robert M R

    2005-11-22

    Ecosystem conservation requires the presence of native carnivores, yet in North America, the distributions of many larger carnivores have contracted. Large carnivores live at low densities and require large areas to thrive at the population level. Therefore, if human-dominated landscapes fragment remaining carnivore populations, small and demographically vulnerable populations may result. Grizzly bear range contraction in the conterminous USA has left four fragmented populations, three of which remain along the Canada-USA border. A tenet of grizzly bear conservation is that the viability of these populations requires demographic linkage (i.e. inter-population movement of both sexes) to Canadian bears. Using individual-based genetic analysis, our results suggest this demographic connection has been severed across their entire range in southern Canada by a highway and associated settlements, limiting female and reducing male movement. Two resulting populations are vulnerably small (bear populations may be more threatened than previously thought and that conservation efforts must expand to include international connectivity management. They also demonstrate the ability of genetic analysis to detect gender-specific demographic population fragmentation in recently disturbed systems, a traditionally intractable yet increasingly important ecological measurement worldwide.

  19. Yield analysis of large-scale adiabatic-quantum-flux-parametron logic: The effect of the distribution of the critical current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We performed yield analysis of adiabatic-quantum-flux-parametron (AQFP) circuits. • Monte Carlo simulations were conducted assuming the distribution of the critical current. • We made an analytical model for the circuit yield of large-scale AQFP circuits. • AQFP integrated circuits containing more than 1 million gates can be realized. • The standard deviation of the critical current should be less than 1%. - Abstract: We performed yield analysis of large-scale adiabatic-quantum-flux-parametron (AQFP) circuits using circuit simulations based on the Monte Carlo method assuming the distribution of the critical current of Josephson junctions. Based on the simulation results, we also made an analytical model for the circuit yield of large-scale AQFP circuits. The yield analysis indicates that AQFP integrated circuits containing 1 million gates can be realized when the interconnect inductance is about 40 pH and the normalized standard deviation of the critical current is less than 1%

  20. Distribution of genes associated with yield potential and water-saving in Chinese Zone II wheat detected by developed functional markers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Zhenxian Gao; Zhanliang Shi; Aimin Zhang; Jinkao Guo

    2015-03-01

    Functional markers (FMs) developed from sequence polymorphisms are present in allelic variants of a functional gene at a locus and are directly associated with phenotypic variations. In this study, FM linked to Rht-B1, Rht-D1, TaCwi-A1, TaSus2-2B, TaGW2-6A and Dreb-B1 genes conferring to yield potential and water-saving were selected to analyse the distribution in 102 wheat varieties, most of which were authorized in the past decade and adapted to grow in Zone II of China. First, the semi-dwarfing genes Rht-B1b and Rht-D1b (mutant alleles) conferring to grain yield were analysed. The frequencies of favourable alleles Rht-B1b and Rht-D1b were 32.4 and 58.8%, respectively. Comparing with the previous report, the frequency of Rht-B1b among cultivars in this study is similar to the frequency among cultivars released in the 1990s, while the frequency of Rht-D1b is slightly lower than the previous report 63.9%. Twelve (11.8%) cultivars neither contained Rht-B1b nor Rht-D1b, while only Yumai 66 contained both semidwarfing genes. Linyuan8 and Xinong 928 are heterozygous at RhtB1 locus and Zhengmai 9023 is heterozygous at both RhtB1 and Rht-D1 loci. Second, the TaCwi-A1, TaSus2-2B and TaGW2-6A genes considered as candidate genes related to grain weight were detected. We found that the frequencies of the favourable alleles were 76.5, 56.9 and 69.6%, respectively. Among the 102 wheat varieties, 30 contained all the three favourable genes, 45 contained two of the three favourable genes and 27 contained only one. There are eight wheat varieties (7.8%) in hybrid state at the TaCWI-A1 locus. Third, the designed FM linked to water-saving gene Dreb-B1 were validated on 102 wheat varieties. The results showed that the haplotypes of 47 wheat varieties at the Dreb-B1 locus were same as that of Opata 85, and 55 wheat varieties showed the signal expected for W7984 (Opata 85 and W7984 are parents of the ITMI mapping population). This information will be useful for the wheat breeding

  1. Distribution of genes associated with yield potential and water-saving in Chinese Zone II wheat detected by developed functional markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhenxian; Shi, Zhanliang; Zhang, Aimin; Guo, Jinkao

    2015-03-01

    Functional markers (FMs) developed from sequence polymorphisms are present in allelic variants of a functional gene at a locus and are directly associated with phenotypic variations. In this study, FM linked to Rht-B1, Rht-D1, TaCwi-A1, TaSus2-2B, TaGW2-6A and Dreb-B1 genes conferring to yield potential and water-saving were selected to analyse the distribution in 102 wheat varieties, most of which were authorized in the past decade and adapted to grow in Zone II of China. First, the semidwarfing genes Rht-B1b and Rht-D1b (mutant alleles) conferring to grain yield were analysed. The frequencies of favourable alleles Rht-B1b and Rht-D1b were 32.4 and 58.8%, respectively. Comparing with the previous report, the frequency of Rht-B1b among cultivars in this study is similar to the frequency among cultivars released in the 1990s, while the frequency of Rht-D1b is slightly lower than the previous report 63.9%. Twelve (11.8%) cultivars neither contained Rht-B1b nor Rht-D1b, while only Yumai 66 contained both semidwarfing genes. Linyuan8 and Xinong 928 are heterozygous at RhtB1 locus and Zhengmai 9023 is heterozygous at both RhtB1 and Rht-D1 loci. Second, the TaCwi-A1, TaSus2-2B and TaGW2-6A genes considered as candidate genes related to grain weight were detected. We found that the frequencies of the favourable alleles were 76.5, 56.9 and 69.6%, respectively. Among the 102 wheat varieties, 30 contained all the three favourable genes, 45 contained two of the three favourable genes and 27 contained only one. There are eight wheat varieties (7.8%) in hybrid state at the TaCWI-A1 locus. Third, the designed FM linked to water-saving gene Dreb-B1 were validated on 102 wheat varieties. The results showed that the haplotypes of 47 wheat varieties at the Dreb-B1 locus were same as that of Opata 85, and 55 wheat varieties showed the signal expected for W7984 (Opata 85 and W7984 are parents of the ITMI mapping population). This information will be useful for the wheat breeding

  2. ANALYSIS OF TOURISTIC DEVELOPMENT POTENTIAL OF SOME NATURA 2000 SITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela STANCIU

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper performs the analysis of the tourism development potential of two sites in the Natura 2000 network. SWOT analysis concerning the potential of tourism development is made, indicating opportunities for lovers of ecotourism: visitors interested in bird species, visitors interested in flora and fauna. It also describes the potential development of tourism services under the concept of "slow tourism". It describes the possible forms of tourism that can develop in this area, presenting a positive or negative impact on the environment and describe the type of interested visitors. The paper describes the main objectives of tourism development that should be included in the local development strategy promoted by the GAL’s in the area.

  3. Scientific and methodical approaches to analysis of enterprise development potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrechina Iryna V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The modern state of the Ukrainian economy urge enterprises to search for new possibilities of their development, which makes the study subject topical. The article systemises existing approaches to analysis of the potential of enterprise development and marks out two main scientific approaches: first is directed at analysis of prospects of self-development of the economic system; the second – at analysis of probability of possibilities of growth. In order to increase the quality of the process of formation of methods of analysis of potential of enterprise development, the article offers an organisation model of methods and characterises its main elements. It develops methods of analysis, in the basis of which there are indicators of potentialogical sustainability. Scientific novelty of the obtained results lies in a possibility of identification of main directions of enterprise development with the use of the enterprise development potential ration: self-development or probability of augmenting opportunities, which is traced through interconnection of resources and profit.

  4. Quasiclassical analysis of spectra in two groups of central potentials

    CERN Document Server

    Shpatakovskaya, G V

    2001-01-01

    The method for the spectra analysis in the gravitational central potentials with the Coulomb feature in the zero (interatomic potentials) and the finite ones in the zero (potentials in the spheric clusters nuclei) is proposed. It is shown that by the degeneration removal by the orbital quantum number for the n-shell by small l the difference epsilon sub n sub l - epsilon sub n sub 0 approx = a subepsilon sub sub n sub sub 0 (l + 1/2) sup 2. The correctness of the presented formula for the internal electrons is demonstrated by the mercury atoms spectrum calculations. The reverse dependence takes place, as a rule, in the cluster potentials. The dependence of the area position with the degenerated level on the N cluster size is analyzed by the example of the Al sub N aluminium clusters. It is known that the increase in the N leads to the pressing-out of this area upwards

  5. Quantitative analysis of relationships between irradiation parameters and the reproducibility of cyclotron-produced (99m)Tc yields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanguay, J; Hou, X; Buckley, K; Schaffer, P; Bénard, F; Ruth, T J; Celler, A

    2015-05-21

    Cyclotron production of (99m)Tc through the (100)Mo(p,2n) (99m)Tc reaction channel is actively being investigated as an alternative to reactor-based (99)Mo generation by nuclear fission of (235)U. An exciting aspect of this approach is that it can be implemented using currently-existing cyclotron infrastructure to supplement, or potentially replace, conventional (99m)Tc production methods that are based on aging and increasingly unreliable nuclear reactors. Successful implementation will require consistent production of large quantities of high-radionuclidic-purity (99m)Tc. However, variations in proton beam currents and the thickness and isotopic composition of enriched (100)Mo targets, in addition to other irradiation parameters, may degrade reproducibility of both radionuclidic purity and absolute (99m)Tc yields. The purpose of this article is to present a method for quantifying relationships between random variations in production parameters, including (100)Mo target thicknesses and proton beam currents, and reproducibility of absolute (99m)Tc yields (defined as the end of bombardment (EOB) (99m)Tc activity). Using the concepts of linear error propagation and the theory of stochastic point processes, we derive a mathematical expression that quantifies the influence of variations in various irradiation parameters on yield reproducibility, quantified in terms of the coefficient of variation of the EOB (99m)Tc activity. The utility of the developed formalism is demonstrated with an example. We show that achieving less than 20% variability in (99m)Tc yields will require highly-reproducible target thicknesses and proton currents. These results are related to the service rate which is defined as the percentage of (99m)Tc production runs that meet the minimum daily requirement of one (or many) nuclear medicine departments. For example, we show that achieving service rates of 84.0%, 97.5% and 99.9% with 20% variations in target thicknesses requires producing on average

  6. Candidate gene association analysis for milk yield, composition, urea nitrogen and somatic cell scores in Brown Swiss cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecchinato, A; Ribeca, C; Chessa, S; Cipolat-Gotet, C; Maretto, F; Casellas, J; Bittante, G

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate 96 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from 54 candidate genes, and test the associations of the polymorphic SNPs with milk yield, composition, milk urea nitrogen (MUN) content and somatic cell score (SCS) in individual milk samples from Italian Brown Swiss cows. Milk and blood samples were collected from 1271 cows sampled once from 85 herds. Milk production, quality traits (i.e. protein, casein, fat and lactose percentages), MUN and SCS were measured for each milk sample. Genotyping was performed using a custom Illumina VeraCode GoldenGate approach. A Bayesian linear animal model that considered the effects of herd, days in milk, parity, SNP genotype and additive polygenic effect was used for the association analysis. Our results showed that 14 of the 51 polymorphic SNPs had relevant additive effects on at least one of the aforementioned traits. Polymorphisms in the glucocorticoid receptor DNA-binding factor 1 (GRLF1), prolactin receptor (PRLR) and chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2) were associated with milk yield; an SNP in the stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD-1) was related to fat content; SNPs in the caspase recruitment domain 15 protein (CARD15) and lipin 1 (LPIN1) affected the protein and casein contents; SNPs in growth hormone 1 (GH1), lactotransferrin (LTF) and SCD-1 were relevant for casein number; variants in beta casein (CSN2), GH1, GRLF1 and LTF affected lactose content; SNPs in beta-2 adrenergic receptor (ADRB2), serpin peptidase inhibitor (PI) and SCD-1 were associated with MUN; and SNPs in acetyl-CoA carboxylase alpha (ACACA) and signal transducer and activator of transcription 5A (STAT5A) were relevant in explaining the variation of SCS. Although further research is needed to validate these SNPs in other populations and breeds, the association between these markers and milk yield, composition, MUN and SCS could be exploited in gene-assisted selection programs for genetic improvement purposes.

  7. GGE biplot analysis of yield stability and test location representativeness in proso millet (Panicum miliaceum L.) genotypes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Pan-pan; ZHENG Dian-feng; FENG Bai-li; SONG Hui; KE Xi-wang; JIN Xi-jun; YIN Li-hua; LIU Yang; QU Yang; SU Wang; FENG Nai-jie

    2016-01-01

    The experiments were conducted for three consecutive years across 14 locations using 9 non-waxy proso milet genotypes and 16 locations using 7 waxy proso milet genotypes in China. The objectives of this study were to analyze yield stability and adaptability of proso milets and to evaluate the discrimination and representativeness of locations by analysis of vari-ance (ANOVA) and genotype and genotype by environment interaction (GGE) biplot methods. Grain yields of proso milet genotypes were signiifcantly inlfuenced by environment (E), genotype (G) and their interaction (G×E) (P<0.1%). G×E inter-action effect was six times higher than G effect in non-waxy group and seven times in waxy group. N04-339 in non-waxy and Neimi 6 (NM6) in waxy showed higher grain yields and stability compared with other genotypes. Also, Neimi 9 (NM9, a non-waxy cultivar) and 90322-2-33 (a waxy cultivar) showed higher adaptability in 7 and in 11 locations, respectively. For non-waxy, Dalat, Inner Mongolia (E2) and Wuzhai, Shanxi (E5) were the best sites among al the locations for maximizing the variance among candidate cultivars, and Yanchi, Ningxia (E10) had the best representativeness. Wuzhai, Shanxi (e9) and Yanchi, Ningxia (e14) were the best representative locations, and Baicheng, Jilin (e2) was better discriminating location than others for waxy genotypes. Based on our results, E10 and e14 have enhanced efifciency and accuracy for non-waxy genotypes and waxy genotypes selection, respectively in national regional test of proso milet varieties.

  8. Stability and adaptability analysis of rice cultivars using environment-centered yield in two-way ANOVA model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Sumith De. Z. Abeysiriwardena

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Identification of rice varieties with wider adaptability and stability are the important aspects in varietal recommendation to achieve better economic benefits for farmers. Multi locational trails are conducted in different locations / seasons to test and identify the consistently performing varieties in wider environments and location specific high performing varieties. The interaction aspect of varieties with environment is complex and highly variable across locations. Thus, the identifying varieties under these circumstances are difficult for varietal recommendations. However, several methods have been proposed in the recent past with the complex computation requirements. But, the aid of statistical software and other programs capabilities ease the complexity to a large extent. In this study, we employed one of the established techniques called variance component analysis (VCA to make the varietal recommendation for wider adaptability for many varying environments and the location specific recommendations. In this method variety × environment interaction is portioned into components for individual varieties using yield deviation approach. The average effect of variety (environment centered yield deviation - Dk and the stability measure of each variety (variety interaction variance -Sk2 are used make the recommendations. The rice yield data of cultivars of three month maturity duration, cultivated across diverse environments during the 2002/03 wet–season in Sri Lanka was analyzed for making recommendations. Based on the results the variety At581 gave the highest D2ksk value with wide adaptability selected for general recommendation. Varieties Bg305 and At303 also had relatively higher Dk and thus these two can also be selected for general cultivation purpose.

  9. Candidate gene association analysis for milk yield, composition, urea nitrogen and somatic cell scores in Brown Swiss cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecchinato, A; Ribeca, C; Chessa, S; Cipolat-Gotet, C; Maretto, F; Casellas, J; Bittante, G

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate 96 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from 54 candidate genes, and test the associations of the polymorphic SNPs with milk yield, composition, milk urea nitrogen (MUN) content and somatic cell score (SCS) in individual milk samples from Italian Brown Swiss cows. Milk and blood samples were collected from 1271 cows sampled once from 85 herds. Milk production, quality traits (i.e. protein, casein, fat and lactose percentages), MUN and SCS were measured for each milk sample. Genotyping was performed using a custom Illumina VeraCode GoldenGate approach. A Bayesian linear animal model that considered the effects of herd, days in milk, parity, SNP genotype and additive polygenic effect was used for the association analysis. Our results showed that 14 of the 51 polymorphic SNPs had relevant additive effects on at least one of the aforementioned traits. Polymorphisms in the glucocorticoid receptor DNA-binding factor 1 (GRLF1), prolactin receptor (PRLR) and chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2) were associated with milk yield; an SNP in the stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD-1) was related to fat content; SNPs in the caspase recruitment domain 15 protein (CARD15) and lipin 1 (LPIN1) affected the protein and casein contents; SNPs in growth hormone 1 (GH1), lactotransferrin (LTF) and SCD-1 were relevant for casein number; variants in beta casein (CSN2), GH1, GRLF1 and LTF affected lactose content; SNPs in beta-2 adrenergic receptor (ADRB2), serpin peptidase inhibitor (PI) and SCD-1 were associated with MUN; and SNPs in acetyl-CoA carboxylase alpha (ACACA) and signal transducer and activator of transcription 5A (STAT5A) were relevant in explaining the variation of SCS. Although further research is needed to validate these SNPs in other populations and breeds, the association between these markers and milk yield, composition, MUN and SCS could be exploited in gene-assisted selection programs for genetic improvement purposes. PMID:24804775

  10. Simulation of Sediment Yield in a Semi-Arid River Basin under Changing Land Use: An Integrated Approach of Hydrologic Modelling and Principal Component Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Gyamfi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Intensified human activities over the past decades have culminated in the prevalence of dire environmental consequences of sediment yield resulting mainly from land use changes. Understanding the role that land use changes play in the dynamics of sediment yield would greatly enhance decision-making processes related to land use and water resources management. In this study, we investigated the impacts of land use and cover changes on sediment yield dynamics through an integrated approach of hydrologic modelling and principal component analysis (PCA. A three-phase land use scenario (2000, 2007 and 2013 employing the “fix-changing” method was used to simulate the sediment yield of the Olifants Basin. Contributions in the changes in individual land uses to sediment yield were assessed using the component and pattern matrixes of PCA. Our results indicate that sediment yield dynamics in the study area is significantly attributed to the changes in agriculture, urban and forested lands. Changes in agriculture and urban lands were directly proportional to sediment yield dynamics of the Olifants Basin. On the contrary, forested areas had a negative relationship with sediment yield indicating less sediment yield from these areas. The output of this research work provides a simplistic approach of evaluating the impacts of land use changes on sediment yield. The tools and methods used are relevant for policy directions on land and water resources planning and management.

  11. Enhanced extraction yields and mobile phase separations by solvent mixtures for the analysis of metabolites in Annona muricata L. leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro de Souza, Eloana Benassi; da Silva, Renata Reis; Afonso, Sabrina; Scarminio, Ieda Spacino

    2009-12-01

    The effects of five extraction solvents and their mixtures on the yield of metabolites in crude and fractionated extracts of Annona muricata L. leaves were investigated by direct comparison. Extraction media were prepared using simplex centroid mixtures of ethanol, ethyl acetate, dichloromethane, acetone, and chloroform. The effects of the mobile phase solvent strength and the analysis wavelength on the chromatographic separation were also investigated. Solvent mixtures rather than pure solvents were found to be the most efficient extractors for the different fractions. The results indicated that the mobile phase composed of methanol/acetonitrile/water (26:27:47 v/v/v) was most suitable for the basic fraction analysis at 254 nm, whereas the mobile phase composed of methanol/acetonitrile/water (35:35:30 v/v/v) was the most adequate for the organic fraction analysis at 254 nm. The results indicated that the chromatographic profiles and number of peaks were affected by the mobile phase strength and analysis wavelength.

  12. Modified crop model estimation of depleted and potential soybean yield=Modelo modificado de estimação da produtividade deplecionada e potencial da soja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Augusto Manfron

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite the great importance of soybeans in Brazil, there have been few applications of soybean crop modeling on Brazilian conditions. Thus, the objective of this study was to use modified crop models to estimate the depleted and potential soybean crop yield in Brazil. The climatic variable data used in the modified simulation of the soybean crop models were temperature, insolation and rainfall. The data set was taken from 33 counties (28 Sao Paulo state counties, and 5 counties from other states that neighbor São Paulo. Among the models, modifications in the estimation of the leaf area of the soybean crop, which includes corrections for the temperature, shading, senescence, CO2, and biomass partition were proposed; also, the methods of input for the model’s simulation of the climatic variables were reconsidered. The depleted yields were estimated through a water balance, from which the depletion coefficient was estimated. It can be concluded that the adaptation soybean growth crop model might be used to predict the results of the depleted and potential yield of soybeans, and it can also be used to indicate better locations and periods of tillage.Aplicações de modelos de previsão de produtividade na cultura da soja são muito raros. Assim, o objetivo desta pesquisa foi realizar a estimação da produtividade deplecionada e potencial da cultura de soja, usando modelos de previsão modificados. Os dados climáticos utilizados nos modelos de simulação foram a temperatura, precipitação e insolação. Os dados foram proveniente de 33 municípios (28 do estado de São Paulo, e cinco municípios de estados vizinhos. Dentre os modelos propostos modificados está a estimação da área foliar da soja, com correções para temperatura, sombreamento, senescência, CO2, partição de biomassa, bem como os métodos de simulação das variávies climáticas do “input” para o modelo. As produções deplecionadas foram estimadas através do balan

  13. Analysis of two precipitation methods on the yield, structural features and activity of sulfated polysaccharides from Gracilaria cornea (Rhodophyta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Basto Souza

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The global demand for natural products from seaweeds has increased worldwide; however, no description of the use of isoamly alcohol (IAA for obtaining of sulfated polysaccharides (SPs has been reported. We investigated the efficiency of two precipitation methods (M in obtaining SPs from the red seaweed Gracilaria cornea. SPs enzymatically isolated were concentrated with cetylpyridinium chloride (M I or IAA (M II and extracts were examined with regard to their yield, structural features and in vitro effects on the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT using normal human plasma and standard heparin (193 IU mg-1. Yield difference reached 12.99%. Quantitative determination of sulfate was similar between the two methods (̴ 26%, but extracts revealed different pattern on charge density by agarose gel electrophoresis. Whereas both extracts revealed as agarocolloids, alternative M II was also efficient for lipids, proteins and nucleic acids according to the infrared analysis. Extracts had virtually no effect on APPT (1.95 and 2 IU mg-1 for M I and M II, respectively. The results revealed IAA as an alternative solvent for obtaining SPs from the red seaweed G. cornea, depending on the industry’ usage criterion.

  14. Using aeroelastic structures with nonlinear switching electronics to increase potential energy yield in airflow: investigating analog control circuitry for automated peak detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihalca, Alexander G.; Drosinos, Jonathan G.; Grayson, Malika; Garcia, Ephrahim

    2015-03-01

    Bending piezoelectric transducers have the ability to harvest energy from aeroelastic vibrations induced by the ambient airflow. Such harvesters can have useful applications in the operation of low power devices, and their relatively small size makes them ideal for use in urban environments over civil infrastructure. One of the areas of focus regarding piezoelectric energy harvesting is the circuit topology used to store the harvested power. This study aims to further investigate the increase in potential energy yield from the piezoelectric harvester by optimizing the circuitry connecting the piezoelectric transducer and the power storage interface. When compared to an optimal resistive load case, it has been shown that certain circuit topologies, specifically synchronized switching and discharging to a storage capacitor through an inductor (SSDCI), can increase the charging power by as much as 400% if the circuit is completely lossless. This paper proposes a strategy for making a self-sufficient SSDCI circuit capable of peak detection for the synchronized switching using analog components. Using circuit simulation software, the performance of this proposed self-sufficient circuit is compared to an ideal case, and the effectiveness of the self-sufficient circuit strategy is discussed based on these simulation results. Further investigation of a physical working model of the new circuit proposal will be developed and experimental results of the circuit's performance obtained and compared to the estimated performance from the model.

  15. Enhanced yield of phenolic extracts from banana peels (Musa acuminata Colla AAA) and cinnamon barks (Cinnamomum varum) and their antioxidative potentials in fish oil

    OpenAIRE

    Anal, Anil Kumar; Jaisanti, Sirorat; Athapol NOOMHORM

    2012-01-01

    The bioactive compounds of banana peels and cinnamon barks were extracted by vacuum microwave and ultrasonic-assisted extraction methods at pre-determined temperatures and times. These methods enhance the yield extracts in shorter time. The highest yields of both extracts were obtained from the conditions which employed the highest temperature and the longest time. The extracts’ yield from cinnamon bark method was higher by ultrasonic than vacuum microwave method, while vacuum microwave metho...

  16. Proton induced γ-ray emission yields for external beam analysis of F and Na in aerosol samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proton induced γ-ray emission (PIGE) is commonly used as a complementary technique of proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) for the analysis of light elements in aerosol samples. In order to get the best operating conditions of PIGE for F and Na determination in aerosol samples relative to thin reference standards in an external beam setup, the γ-ray yields of the reaction 19F (p, p' γ) 19F (Eγ=110 keV and 197 keV) and 23Na (p, p' γ) 23Na (Eγ=440 keV) were measured for incident protons in the energy range of 1.8-2.9 MeV at the external beam facility of the 1.7 MV tandem accelerator in Beijing Normal University. (authors)

  17. Analysis of the Industry Potential in Republic of Moldova

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa BUGAIAN

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article identifies several competitive sectors of the economy that have potential to lead to sustainable economic growth for Republic of Moldova. Sectors were chosen for analysis combining quantitative and qualitative methods. A pool of sectors was selected based on export and sales performance over the last eight years. The final decision of the top sectors was based on the qualitative factors such as prevalence of the SMEs in the sector, gender makeup of the workforce and the regional presence, as well as employment levels and sales growth. The results of analysis showed that following industrial sectors: wine; textiles and apparel; information and communication technology; footwear; construction materials and furniture have the most potential for contributing to transformational growth in the Republic of Moldova economy.

  18. Mycorrhizal Colonization and Yield Potential of Brassica napus L.%AM真菌对油菜的侵染及增产潜力研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵建波; 杨晓红; 张永艳; 卞德锡; 尤淑芬

    2011-01-01

    为了进一步探索AM真菌对油菜根系的侵染程度和增产潜力,在用摩西球囊霉接种盆栽油菜(中双11号)幼苗确定了AM真菌对油菜的侵染能力之后,进行大田幼苗接种试验.结果表明:盆栽条件下,AM真菌能够侵染油菜形成菌根,菌根依赖性为120.05±6.24%,大田试验中AM真菌也能够对油菜形成一定的侵染,但接种AM真菌能够使油菜菌根侵染率得到明显提高;接种处理油菜的营养生长和生殖生长的农艺性状相比对照油菜都有一定的改善,其中株高、节间长度、主花序长度、单株有效角果数变化相对较明显,产量有所提高,千粒质量增加了3.18%,单株产量增加了5.09%.AM真菌与油菜根皮层细胞之间存在着营养互作关系.%To explore the colonization performance of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AM fungi) and its yield-increasing potential to rapesecd (Brassica napus L. ) , cv. Zhongshuang 11 was inoculated with Glomus mosseae in a pot experiment, and the ability of AM fungi to infect the rape plants was confirmed. the mycorrhizal dependence being 120. 05 ±6. 24%. Then, in a field experiment, the young seedlings of Zhongshuang 11 were inoculated with G. mosseae. The results showed that rape could be infected by AM fungi in some degree also , but inoculation with AM fungi markedly increased the mycorrhizal infection rate of the roots and obviously improved vcgetative growth and reproductive growth. Compared with CK, plant height, internode length, main inflorescence length and siliquae number/plant of the AM-treated plants were enhanced, and 1000-gain-weight and seed yield/plant increased by 3. 18% and 5. 09%, respectively. It is thus concluded that a nutrition symbiosis does exist between rapeseed root cortex cells and AM fungi.

  19. Vegetation response to upstream water yield in the Heihe river by time series analysis of MODIS data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Jia

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Liquid and solid precipitation is abundant in the high elevation, upper reach of the Heihe basin. The development of modern irrigation schemes in the middle reach of the basin is taking up an increasing share of fresh water resources, endangering the oasis and traditional irrigation systems in the lower reach. In this study, the response of vegetation in the Ejina Oasis in the lower reach of the Heihe River to the water yield of the upper catchment was analyzed by time series analysis of monthly observations of precipitation in the upper and lower catchment, river streamflow downstream of the modern irrigation schemes and satellite observations of vegetation index. Firstly, remote sensing data were used to monitor the vegetation dynamic for a long time period. Due to cloud-contamination, atmospheric influence and different solar angles, however, the quality and consistence of time series of remote sensing data is degraded. In this research we used a Fourier Transform method – the Harmonic Analysis of Time Series (HANTS algorithm – to reconstruct cloud-free NDVI time series data from the Terra-MODIS dataset. Anomalies in precipitation, streamflow, and vegetation index are detected by comparing each year with the average year. The relationship between the anomalies in vegetation growth, the local precipitation and upstream water yield were analyzed. The same approach is used to identify, remove and gap-filling cloud contaminated observations in the satellite data for each year in the dataset. The results showed that: the previous year total runoff had a significant relationship with the vegetation growth in Ejina Oasis and that anomalies in monthly runoff of the Heihe River influenced the phenology of vegetation in the entire oasis during drier years. The time of maximum green-up was uniform throughout the oasis during wetter years, but showed a clear S–N gradient (downstream during drier years.

  20. Modelo para estimativa do potencial produtivo em trigo e cevada por meio do sensor GreenSeeker Model for yield potential estimation in wheat and barley using the GreenSeeker sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel S. Grohs

    2009-03-01

    Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI to shoot dry biomass at the 6-leaf-stage was developed for estimating yield potential classes for wheat and barley. The model eliminated differences between species and cultivars as no correction for these factors is necessary. The effects of surface background (corn or soybean crop residues were considered in this model. When readings are carried out before or after the recommended period, the model can be adjusted for under or overestimation. Spatial variability analysis may evaluate if yield potential zones estimated by the NDVI classes proposed in the model are related to spatial variability of shoot biomass, N rates applied and grain yield.

  1. Ex vivo analysis of irradiated fingernails: chemical yields and properties of radiation-induced and mechanically-induced radicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Paul J; Swarts, Steven G

    2010-02-01

    A qualitative and quantitative analysis of the radicals underlying the radiation-induced signal (RIS) in fingernails was conducted in an attempt to identify properties of these radicals that could be used for biodosimetry purposes. A qualitative analysis of RIS showed the presence of at least three components, two of which were observed at low doses (500 Gy). The low dose signal, obtained by reconstruction, consists of a 10 gauss singlet at g = 2.0053 and an 18 gauss doublet centered at g = 2.0044. Based on the initial slope of the dose-response curve, the chemical (radical) yields of the radicals giving rise to the singlet and doublet were 327 (+/-113) and 122 (+/-9) nmol J-1 (standard error, SE), respectively. At doses below 50 Gy, the singlet signal is the dominant component. Above this dose range, the signal intensity of the singlet rapidly dose-saturates. At doses signal that increases in its proportion of the RIS as dose increases. A third component was revealed at high dose with a spectral extent of approximately 100 gauss and displayed peaks due to g anisotropy at g = 2.056, 2.026, and 1.996. The total radical yield calculated from the initial slope of the dose-response curve averaged 458 +/- (116) nmol J-1 (SE) in irradiated nail clippings obtained from six volunteers. Such high yields indicate that nails are a strong candidate for biodosimetry at low doses. In a comparison of relative stabilities of the radicals underlying the singlet and doublet signals, the stability of the doublet signal is more sensitive to the moisture content of the nail than the singlet. This differential in radical stabilities could provide a method for removing the doublet signal under controlled exposures to high humidities (>70% relative humidity). The decay of the singlet signal in RIS varies with exposure of a nail clipping to differing ambient humidities. However, long exposures (>6 h) to relative humidities of 72-94% results in singlet intensities that approach 7.0 +/- (3

  2. Production yield analysis in food processing. Applications in the French-fries and the poultry-processing industries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Somsen, D.J.

    2004-01-01

    Food processors face increasing demands to improve their raw material yield efficiency. To really understand the raw material yield efficiency of food processing, mass losses need to be divided in wanted (desired) and unwanted ones. The basic approach to increase the raw material yield efficiency is

  3. Effect of variety and cane yield on sugarcane potential trash Efecto de las variedades y su rendimiento cultural en la biomasa residual potencial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo R. Romero

    Full Text Available Low environmental impact production systems are a major concern in agroindustry and society, with food and sugarcane production being one of the areas where sustainability is a high priority. Green cane harvesting emerges as an important alternative for a cleaner production system, since it excludes the burning of residues, conserves soil and insolves the possibility of energy generation. An estimation of potential sugarcane available trash is very important in order to define management strategies. A research was carried out to determine the amount of dry trash available in cane fields before (SPT and after green cane harvesting (SFT. Also, the relationship between SPT and SFT was studied in order to validate the precision of SPT as an SFT predictor using green cane combine harvesting for the main cultivated varieties in the sugarcane-growing area of Tucumán (LCP 85-384, TUCCP 77-42, CP 65-357 and RA 87-3. An increase in SPT was associated to cane yielding/ha, ranging from 6.9 to 16.0 t/ha of SPT for 32 to 104 t/ha of cane yielding. LCP 85-384 and CP 65-357 produced the highest amount of dry trash before harvest, while TUCCP 77-42 produced the least for similar cane yielding. Simultaneously the DT/CY ratio decreased with a mean value around 16% of cane yield and its use for estimating SPT was limited, as low coefficients of determination highlight. SPT appropriately predicted SFT under green cane combine harvesting conditions and the former one could be estimated using cane yielding/ha.La implementación de sistemas productivos con bajo impacto ambiental es una preocupación tanto para la agroindustria como para la sociedad, resultando la producción de azúcar una de las áreas donde la sustentabilidad es un objetivo prioritario y alcanzable. La cosecha en verde de la caña de azúcar aparece como una importante alternativa para conformar sistemas de producción más limpios, prescindiendo de la quema de material vegetal y residuos de cosecha

  4. Metagenome-scale analysis yields insights into the structure and function of microbial communities in a copper bioleaching heap

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Xian; Niu, Jiaojiao; Liang, Yili; Liu, Xueduan; Yin, Huaqun

    2016-01-01

    Background Metagenomics allows us to acquire the potential resources from both cultivatable and uncultivable microorganisms in the environment. Here, shotgun metagenome sequencing was used to investigate microbial communities from the surface layer of low grade copper tailings that were industrially bioleached at the Dexing Copper Mine, China. A bioinformatics analysis was further performed to elucidate structural and functional properties of the microbial communities in a copper bioleaching ...

  5. Determination of renewable energy yield from mixed waste material from the use of novel image analysis methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagland, S T; Dudley, R; Naftaly, M; Longhurst, P J

    2013-11-01

    Two novel techniques are presented in this study which together aim to provide a system able to determine the renewable energy potential of mixed waste materials. An image analysis tool was applied to two waste samples prepared using known quantities of source-segregated recyclable materials. The technique was used to determine the composition of the wastes, where through the use of waste component properties the biogenic content of the samples was calculated. The percentage renewable energy determined by image analysis for each sample was accurate to within 5% of the actual values calculated. Microwave-based multiple-point imaging (AutoHarvest) was used to demonstrate the ability of such a technique to determine the moisture content of mixed samples. This proof-of-concept experiment was shown to produce moisture measurement accurate to within 10%. Overall, the image analysis tool was able to determine the renewable energy potential of the mixed samples, and the AutoHarvest should enable the net calorific value calculations through the provision of moisture content measurements. The proposed system is suitable for combustion facilities, and enables the operator to understand the renewable energy potential of the waste prior to combustion.

  6. Genetic analysis of yield and its component traits in drought tolerant genotypes of pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan L. Millspaugh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ch. Sreelakshmi, C.V. Sameer Kumar and D. Shivani

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present investigation, sufficient variability was observed in the drought tolerant pigeonpea genotypes for the traits under study. Most of theyield contributing characters showed significant positive correlation whereas, number of primary branches per plant showed significant negativecorrelation with seed yield. Days to maturity had maximum direct effect on seed yield followed by number of pods per plant and plant height andnumber of secondary branches which had negative direct effect on seed yield. Number of secondary branches per plant, number of pods per plantand days to maturity were identified as important yield components and hence, selection should be focused on these traits to improve yield indrought tolerant genotypes of pigeonpea.

  7. Restricting the above ground sink corrects the root/shoot ratio and substantially boosts the yield potential per panicle in field-grown rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nada, Reham M; Abogadallah, Gaber M

    2016-04-01

    Rice has shallow, weak roots, but it is unknown how much increase in yield potential could be achieved if the root/shoot ratio is corrected. Removing all tillers except the main one, in a japonica (Sakha 101) and an indica (IR64) rice cultivar, instantly increased the root/shoot ratio from 0.21 to 1.16 in Sakha 101 and from 0.16 to 1.46 in IR64. Over 30 days after detillering, the root/shoot ratios of the detillered plants decreased to 0.49 in Sakha 101 and 0.46 in IR64 but remained significantly higher than in the controls. The detillered plants showed two- or fourfold increase in the main tiller fresh weight, as a consequence of more positive midday leaf relative water content (RWC), and consistently higher rates of stomatal conductance and photosynthesis, but not transpiration, compared with the controls. The enhanced photosynthesis in Sakha 101 after detillering resulted from both improved water status and higher Rubisco contents whereas in IR64, increasing the Rubisco content did not contribute to improving photosynthesis. Detillering did not increase the carbohydrate contents of leaves but prevented starch depletion at the end of grain filling. The leaf protein content during vegetative and reproductive stages, the grain filling rate, the number of filled grains per panicle were greatly improved, bringing about 38.3 and 35.9% increase in the harvested grain dry weight per panicle in Sakha 101 and IR64, respectively. We provide evidence that improving the root performance by increasing the root/shoot ratio would eliminate the current limitations to photosynthesis and growth in rice.

  8. Flowering-Related RING Protein 1 (FRRP1) Regulates Flowering Time and Yield Potential by Affecting Histone H2B Monoubiquitination in Rice (Oryza Sativa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yiwei; He, Wei; Deng, Changwang; Chen, Xi; Gou, Lanming; Zhu, Fugui; Guo, Wei; Zhang, Jianfu; Wang, Tao

    2016-01-01

    Flowering time is a critical trait for crops cultivated under various temperature/photoperiod conditions around the world. To understand better the flowering time of rice, we used the vector pTCK303 to produce several lines of RNAi knockdown transgenic rice and investigated their flowering times and other agronomic traits. Among them, the heading date of FRRP1-RNAi knockdown transgenic rice was 23-26 days earlier than that of wild-type plants. FRRP1 is a novel rice gene that encodes a C3HC4-type Really Interesting Novel Gene (RING) finger domain protein. In addition to the early flowering time, FRRP1-RNAi knockdown transgenic rice caused changes on an array of agronomic traits, including plant height, panicle length and grain length. We analyzed the expression of some key genes associated with the flowering time and other agronomic traits in the FRRP1-RNAi knockdown lines and compared with that in wild-type lines. The expression of Hd3a increased significantly, which was the key factor in the early flowering time. Further experiments showed that the level of histone H2B monoubiquitination (H2Bub1) was noticeably reduced in the FRRP1-RNAi knockdown transgenic rice lines compared with wild-type plants and MBP-FRRP1-F1 was capable of self-ubiquitination. The results indicate that Flowering Related RING Protein 1 (FRRP1) is involved in histone H2B monoubiquitination and suggest that FRRP1 functions as an E3 ligase in vivo and in vitro. In conclusion, FRRP1 probably regulates flowering time and yield potential in rice by affecting histone H2B monoubiquitination, which leads to changes in gene expression in multiple processes.

  9. Genetic progress in Dutch crop yields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijk, H.C.A.; Ittersum, van M.K.; Withagen, J.C.M.

    2013-01-01

    Crop yields are a result of interactions between genetics, environment and management (G × E × M). As in the Netherlands differences between potential yield and actual farm yields (yield gaps) are relatively small, progress in genetic potential is essential to further increase farm yields. In this p

  10. Forecasting the Influence of Climate Change on Agroecosystem Services: Potential Impacts on Honey Yields in a Small-Island Developing State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana L. Delgado

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Global change poses numerous challenges to developing nations and small-island developing states (SIDSs. Among these are the effects of climate change on honeybees’ provisioning services including honey production. Here we ask two questions. First, what is the relationship between honey yield and climate in a tropical environment? Second, how does yield vary spatially under current climate and future scenarios of climate change? Focusing on the island of Puerto Rico, we developed an ensemble of bioclimatic models that were used in a geographical information system to identify suitable areas for honey production under current and future scenarios of climate change. A comparison between contemporary (1998–2005 and historical (1910–1974 honey yield data revealed a reduction in average yield, including variability, over time, with current yields averaging 5.3 L/colony. Three bioclimatic variables were retained by at least three models: temperature seasonality and mean temperature of the wettest quarter were negatively correlated with honey yields whereas precipitation of the wettest month was positively correlated. The four models varied in terms of their predictions but showed that both honey yields and areas suitable for honey production will decrease under scenarios of climate change. These results illustrate the possible impacts of climate change on honey and ultimately honeybees.

  11. Energy inputs-yield relationship and sensitivity analysis of pistachio (Pistacia vera L. production in Markazi Region of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Keshavarz Afshar

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Pistachio is considered as an important agricultural commodity in Iran and ranks top amongst all exported agricultural products. Conducting an overall energy audit and economic analysis of pistachio production can provide useful information to help implement management strategies for improving energy efficiency. A study was conducted during 2009 and 2010 to evaluate the overall energy inputs and outputs and to perform an economic analysis of pistachio production in the Iranian province of Markazi. The results revealed that the total energy input for pistachio production was 54305 MJ ha-1. Electricity, followed by diesel fuel and nitrogen fertilizer application were the highest contributors to energy input in pistachio orchards. The contribution of direct energy was higher than indirect energy and share of non-renewable energy was more than renewable energy. Net energy, energy use efficiency, energy productivity and specific energy were 7522 MJ ha-1, 0.86, 0.08 kg MJ-1 and 13.69 MJ kg-1, respectively. Econometric model based on Cobb-Douglas function indicated that impacts of electricity, diesel fuel and chemical fertilizer energy inputs on pistachio yield were positive while the impact of machinery was negative. The marginal physical productivity (MPP value for diesel fuel was the highest among other variables, followed by energy inputs related to the chemicals and irrigation water. The results revealed that production of pistachios in Markazi Province, under current management practices, are not energy efficient and efforts should be made to improve energy use efficiency.

  12. Extending solar potential analysis in buildings to vertical facades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catita, C.; Redweik, P.; Pereira, J.; Brito, M. C.

    2014-05-01

    The assessment of local photovoltaic (PV) potential plays a critical role in the development of planning policies and financing schemes for the successful deployment of PV systems in cities. Considering the significant area available on facades in modern urban landscapes, the solar potential analysis at the local or municipal scale should be extended to take into account the irradiation on vertical walls. Starting from three different sets of information of a site, solar radiation model for roofs, ground and facades, 3D buildings model and a DSM derived from airborne LiDAR data, a methodology was developed in a GIS environment in order to fuse the datasets and allow for spatio-temporal analysis for solar energy quests. The resultant 3D database enables spatial visualization of the answers to the most interesting questions regarding new solar energy systems on buildings. The GIS database can be used as a tool to support municipal/local decision planners since statistics for the solar potential of each building can be easily inspected. In order to optimize solar collection, this system is particularly suited to identify which parts (roofs and/or facades) of a building are more favorable for the installation of solar arrays as well as the area available for the installation.

  13. 1962-2010年潜在干旱对中国冬小麦产量影响的模拟分析%Simulation of winter wheat yield influenced by potential drought in China during 1962-2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹阳; 杨婕; 熊伟; 武永峰; 冯灵芝; 杨晓光

    2014-01-01

    change on wheat are therefore a great concern. Most previous studies investigated the drought impacts through the use of climate indices, such as SPI. The climate indices usually neglect the diverse responses of different crop growth stages to a certain degree of drought shock, and they also disregard the contrasting characteristics in terms of the drought resistance between crop genotypes. This study assessed the potential yield impacts of past drought anomaly (1962-2010) on winter wheat, by using a process-based crop model CERES-Wheat. The model was driven by daily weather data and soil data at a grid scale of 50 km ×50 km. The output of rainfed and fully irrigated yields were retrieved for further analysis. We used the difference between simulated irrigated and rainfed wheat yields to define a potential yield loss caused by drought. The anomaly percentage of the potential yield loss was employed to reflect the interannual and interdecadal variation of estimated impact of drought on winter wheat. We investigated the moving of drought susceptible regions by calculating a geographically drought-affecting center for each 10-year period from 1962 to 2010 (1960s: 1962-1970, 1970s: 1971-1980, 1980s: 1981-1990, 1990s: 1991-2000, 2000s: 2001-2010). Finally, the relationships between estimated yield impacts and recorded indices of atmosphere circulation was examined to understand the underlying mechanisms of past drought risks. The indices were averaged over the prior to winter wheat growing-season (June-Sept.) and the whole growing-season (Oct.-May), respectively. Our results demonstrated that simulated winter wheat yield exhibited a fast decreasing rate under the rainfied environment than that under the full irrigated condition, resulting in a slight increase of estimated potential yield loss from 1962 to 2010. These suggest that overall past climate change has caused increased drought risks for winter wheat production in China. Northwest China, especially the Loess Plain

  14. Evaluation of the development and yielding potential of Chenopodium quinoa Willd. under the climatic conditions of Europe. Part one: accomodation of Chenopodium quinoa (Willd. to different conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Gęsiński

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on the evaluation of selected varieties of Chenopodium quinoa, their requirements were identified; it was shown which varieties demonstrated the best effects in what conditions. It was found that the best varieties for Europe's conditions were E-DK-4-PQCIP and RU-5-PQCIP. E-DK-4-PQCIP variety showed the best effects under the conditions of cluster II which included e.g. Bydgoszcz (Poland and cluster IV which included Southern European countries (Greece and Italy, while the best effects found in RU-5-PQCIP variety were identified in cluster I which included Sweden. E-DK-4-PQCIP variety in cluster II showed a very high yield of green matter and a mean seed yield, and in cluster IV - a very high seed yield and a high yield of green matter.

  15. Statistical Error analysis of Nucleon-Nucleon phenomenological potentials

    CERN Document Server

    Perez, R Navarro; Arriola, E Ruiz

    2014-01-01

    Nucleon-Nucleon potentials are commonplace in nuclear physics and are determined from a finite number of experimental data with limited precision sampling the scattering process. We study the statistical assumptions implicit in the standard least squares fitting procedure and apply, along with more conventional tests, a tail sensitive quantile-quantile test as a simple and confident tool to verify the normality of residuals. We show that the fulfilment of normality tests is linked to a judicious and consistent selection of a nucleon-nucleon database. These considerations prove crucial to a proper statistical error analysis and uncertainty propagation. We illustrate these issues by analyzing about 8000 proton-proton and neutron-proton scattering published data. This enables the construction of potentials meeting all statistical requirements necessary for statistical uncertainty estimates in nuclear structure calculations.

  16. GIS Based Analysis of future district heating potential in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Steffen; Möller, Bernd

    2012-01-01

    The physical placement of buildings is important when determining the future potential for district heating (DH). Good locations for DH are mainly determined by having a large heat demand within a certain area combined with an access to local resources. In Denmark, the placement of buildings and...... finding the heat production cost within these areas, and adding transmission and distribution costs, the economic feasibility of supplying areas with DH is found. The result of the analysis is that the DH potential differs from area to area. In many areas it is economically feasible to expand DH, while in...... others production costs and grid losses should be reduced for DH expansions to be feasible. Including transmission and distribution costs into the calculation, gives an idea about where the boundaries for DH are. These boundaries are not static, but changes under different conditions....

  17. Forecasting the Influence of Climate Change on Agroecosystem Services: Potential Impacts on Honey Yields in a Small-Island Developing State

    OpenAIRE

    Delgado, Diana L.; María Eglée Pérez; Alberto Galindo-Cardona; Tugrul Giray; Carla Restrepo

    2012-01-01

    Global change poses numerous challenges to developing nations and small-island developing states (SIDSs). Among these are the effects of climate change on honeybees’ provisioning services including honey production. Here we ask two questions. First, what is the relationship between honey yield and climate in a tropical environment? Second, how does yield vary spatially under current climate and future scenarios of climate change? Focusing on the island of Puerto Rico, we developed an ensemble...

  18. Identification and mapping of genes for improving yield from Chinese common wild rice (O. Rufipogon Griff.)using advanced backcross QTL analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    To identify useful genes from wild rice which have been lost or weakened in cultivated rice has become more and more important for modern breeding strategy. In this study, a BC4 population derived from 94W1, an acces-sion of common wild rice (Oryza rufipogon Griff.) from Dongxiang in Jiangxi Province of China, as the donor, and a high-yielding Indica cultivar (O. sativa L.), "Guichao 2", as the recipient, was used to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with yield and its components. Based on the analysis for the genotype of BC4F1 population with 87 SSR markers distributed throughout the genome and investigation of the plant height, yield and yield components of BC4F2, a total of 52 QTLs, were detected. Of 7 QTLs associated with grain yield per plant, 2 QTLs on chro-mosome 2 and chromosome 11 for grain yield, explaining 16% and 11% of the phenotypic variance respectively, were identified. The alleles from Dongxiang common wild rice in those two loci could increase the yield of "Guichao 2" by 25.9% and 23.2% respectively. The QTL on chromosome 2 increasing grain yield of cultivar is actually a major gene, which did not coincide with any previously published QTLs in rice.

  19. The potential of electroanalytical techniques in pharmaceutical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffmann, J M; Pékli-Novák, M; Nagy, A

    1996-03-01

    With the considerable progresses observed in analytical instrumentation, it was of interest to survey recent trends in the field of electroanalysis of drugs. Potentiometric, voltammetric and amperometric techniques were scrutinized both in terms of historical evolution and in terms of potentialities with respect to the analysis of drugs in various matrices. With regard to the former, it appeared that numerous original selective electrodes (for drugs and ions) have been studied and several ion-selective electrodes have been successfully commercialized. Improvements are still expected in this field in order to find more robust membrane matrices and to minimize the surface fouling. Electrochemistry is well suited for trace metal analysis. A renewed interest in potentiometric stripping analysis is observed and is stimulated by the power of computers and microprocessors which allow rapid signal recording and data handling. Polarography and its refinements (Pulsed Waveform, Automation,...) is ideally applied for trace metal analysis and speciation. The technique is still useful in the analysis of drug formulations and in biological samples provided that the method is adequately validated (selectivity!). The same holds for solid electrodes which are currently routinely applied as sensitive detectors after chromatographic separation. New instrumentation is soon expected as regard electrochemical detection in capillary electrophoresis. Actually, in order to increase the responses and improve the selectivity, solid electrodes are facing exponential research dedicated to surface modifications. Perm-selectivity, chelations catalysis, etc. may be considered as appropriate strategies. Microelectrodes and screen printed (disposable) sensors are of considerable interest in cell culture e.g. for single cell excretion analysis and in field (decentralized) assays, respectively. Finally several biosensors and electrochemical immunoassays have been successfully development for the

  20. Analysis of Renewable Energy Potential on U. S. National Forest Lands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zvolanek, E. [Environmental Science Division; Kuiper, J. [Environmental Science Division; Carr, A. [Environmental Science Division; Hlava, K.

    2013-12-13

    In 2005, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) completed an assessment of the potential for solar and wind energy development on National Forest System (NFS) public lands managed by the US Department of Agriculture, U.S. Forest Service (USFS). This report provides an update of the analysis in the NREL report, and extends the analysis with additional siting factors for solar and wind energy. It also expands the scope to biomass and geothermal energy resources. Hydropower is acknowledged as another major renewable energy source on NFS lands; however, it was not analyzed in this project primarily because of the substantially different analysis that would be needed to identify suitable locations. Details about each renewable energy production technology included in the study are provided following the report introduction, including how each resource is converted to electrical power, and examples of existing power plants. The analysis approach was to use current and available Geographic Information System (GIS) data to map the distribution of the subject renewable energy resources, major siting factors, and NFS lands. For each major category of renewable energy power production, a set of siting factors were determined, including minimum levels for the renewable energy resources, and details for each of the other siting factors. Phase 1 of the analysis focused on replicating and updating the 2005 NREL analysis, and Phase 2 introduced additional siting factors and energy resources. Source data were converted to a cell-based format that helped create composite maps of locations meeting all the siting criteria. Acreages and potential power production levels for NFS units were tabulated and are presented throughout this report and the accompanying files. NFS units in the southwest United States were found to have the most potentially suitable land for concentrating solar power (CSP), especially in Arizona and New Mexico. In total, about 136,032 acres of NFS lands

  1. Production yield analysis in food processing. Applications in the French-fries and the poultry-processing industries

    OpenAIRE

    Somsen, D.J.

    2004-01-01

    Food processors face increasing demands to improve their raw material yield efficiency. To really understand the raw material yield efficiency of food processing, mass losses need to be divided in wanted (desired) and unwanted ones. The basic approach to increase the raw material yield efficiency is to mini mise unwanted mass losses at source. Wasting raw materials should be avoided, because the largest proportion of the overall business costs is associated with the purchase of raw materials....

  2. Optimization through neuron network of the potentiality of Higgs discovery in the CMS detector via H {yields} ZZ{sup *} {yields} 4e{sup {+-}}, and study of the triggering primitives of the electromagnetic calorimeter; Optimisation par reseaux de neurones du potentiel de decouverte du boson de Higgs dans le canal H {yields} ZZ{sup *} {yields} 4e{sup {+-}} sur le detecteur CMS, et etude des primitives de declenchement du calorimetre electromagnetique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bimbot, St

    2006-10-15

    The first chapter presents the theoretical background on which the Higgs mechanism is based within the framework of the standard model. The second chapter reviews the past and present attempts aiming at the discovery of the Higgs boson. The specific features of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and of one of its detector: the CMS (Compact Muon Solenoid) detector are given in the third chapter. The author details the track detector and the ECAL electronic calorimeter that are key components of CMS in the detection of the Higgs boson via the following decay channel: H {yields} ZZ{sup *} {yields} 2e{sup +}2e{sup -} (where Z and Z{sup *} represents the Z{sup O} boson in a real state and in a virtual state respectively). The chapters 4 and 5 are dedicated to the calibration of the ECAL calorimeter via the use of an electron beam and to the triggering system. The data analysis that will lead to the reconstruction of the events detected by CMS is presented in the chapter 6. The last chapter is devoted to the optimization of the extraction of the Higgs boson signal from an abundant background noise. (A.C.)

  3. Protecting Privacy of Shared Epidemiologic Data without Compromising Analysis Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Cologne

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Ensuring privacy of research subjects when epidemiologic data are shared with outside collaborators involves masking (modifying the data, but overmasking can compromise utility (analysis potential. Methods of statistical disclosure control for protecting privacy may be impractical for individual researchers involved in small-scale collaborations. Methods. We investigated a simple approach based on measures of disclosure risk and analytical utility that are straightforward for epidemiologic researchers to derive. The method is illustrated using data from the Japanese Atomic-bomb Survivor population. Results. Masking by modest rounding did not adequately enhance security but rounding to remove several digits of relative accuracy effectively reduced the risk of identification without substantially reducing utility. Grouping or adding random noise led to noticeable bias. Conclusions. When sharing epidemiologic data, it is recommended that masking be performed using rounding. Specific treatment should be determined separately in individual situations after consideration of the disclosure risks and analysis needs.

  4. Interannual climatic variability effects on yield, berry and wine quality indices in long-term deficit irrigated grapevines, determined by multivariate analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romero P

    2016-08-01

    growing season and greater solar radiation during ripening were the main climatic factors that positively influenced the yield response, berry and wine quality. Besides, berry quality in PRI was more affected (negatively by high temperatures (high Tªmax and Tªmin during the growing season than in RDI and SDI, indicating that cooler and humid years may favor the PRI response more. These results suggest that years with a cool, wet winter followed by a mild, wet spring and early summer (April–June and a mild fruit set–véraison period (June–July, and then greater solar radiation during ripening (August–mid-September provide adequate growth potential and increase the likelihood of higher berry and wine quality in PRI. Besides, more irrigated SDI vines were less sensitive to high temperatures and low soil water content during ripening than RDI and PRI vines. Keywords: berry quality indices, climatic factors, multivariate analysis, deficit irrigation techniques, wine quality index, yield

  5. Analysis of Potential for Titanium Liner Buckling after Proof in a Large Kevlar/Epoxy COPV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phoenix, S. Leigh; Kezirian, Michael T.

    2009-01-01

    We analyze the potential for liner buckling in a 40-in Kevlar49/epoxy overwrapped spherical pressure vessel (COPV) due to long, local depressions or valleys in the titanium liner, which appeared after proof testing (autofrettage). We begin by presenting the geometric characteristics of approximately 20 mil (0.02 in.) deep depressions measured by laser profilometry in several vessels. While such depths were more typical, depths of more than 40 mils (0.02 in.) were seen near the equator in one particular vessel. Such depressions are largely the result of overlap of the edges of overwrap bands (with rectangular cross-section prepreg tows) from the first or second wrap patterns particularly where they start and end. We then discuss the physical mechanisms of formation of the depressions during the autofrettage process in terms of uneven void compaction in the overwrap around the tow overlap lines and the resulting 10-fold increase in through-thickness stiffness of the overwrap. We consider the effects of liner plastic yielding mechanisms in the liner on residual bending moments and interface pressures with the overwrap both at the peak proof pressure (approx.6500 psi) and when reducing the pressure to 0 psi. During depressurization the Bauschinger phenomenon becomes very important whereby extensive yielding in tension reduces the magnitude of the yield threshold in compression by 30 to 40%, compared to the virgin annealed state of the liner titanium. In the absence of a depression, the liner is elastically stable in compression even at liner overwrap interface pressures nominally 6 times the approx. 1000 psi interface pressure that exists at 0 psi. Using a model based on a plate-on-an-elastic-foundation, we develop an extensive analysis of the possible destabilizing effects of a frozen-in valley. The analysis treats the modifying effects of the residual bending moments and interface pressures remaining after the proof hold as well as the Bauschinger effect on the

  6. Analysis of registered CDM projects: potential removal of evidenced bottlenecks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agosto, D.; Bombard, P.; Gostinelli, F.

    2007-07-01

    The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) has developed during its first period of implementation, a distinctive set of patterns. The authors thought of concentrating on the CDM analysis in order to highlight potential remedies or reasons for given bottlenecks. In order to establish a sort of extensive SWOT analysis for CDMs, all the 356 projects actually (November 2006) registered at UNFCCC were examined, together with all the about 1000 PDDs presented to the UNFCCC but not registered yet. The CDM projects have been studied trying to cluster projects according to relevant characteristics, both from a technical and an economic point of view. Chosen indicators are meant to identify: more convenient/more diffused energy system for a CDM; reasons for a geographical distribution of different types of projects; potentials for a future exploitation of lower used technologies in CDM. Conclusions are drawn and appropriate tables and graphs presented. (1) the Baseline Emission Factor, combined to economic patterns, is the pivotal factor that characterizes both choices of host country and technology; (2) some technologies can exploit appropriately CDM scheme, whilst other technologies, are constrained by it. (3) there are still some important weak points: grouping of non Annex I countries; crediting period; criteria for the evaluation of sustainable development. (auth)

  7. A clustering approach for the analysis of solar energy yields: A case study for concentrating solar thermal power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peruchena, Carlos M. Fernández; García-Barberena, Javier; Guisado, María Vicenta; Gastón, Martín

    2016-05-01

    The design of Concentrating Solar Thermal Power (CSTP) systems requires a detailed knowledge of the dynamic behavior of the meteorology at the site of interest. Meteorological series are often condensed into one representative year with the aim of data volume reduction and speeding-up of energy system simulations, defined as Typical Meteorological Year (TMY). This approach seems to be appropriate for rather detailed simulations of a specific plant; however, in previous stages of the design of a power plant, especially during the optimization of the large number of plant parameters before a final design is reached, a huge number of simulations are needed. Even with today's technology, the computational effort to simulate solar energy system performance with one year of data at high frequency (as 1-min) may become colossal if a multivariable optimization has to be performed. This work presents a simple and efficient methodology for selecting number of individual days able to represent the electrical production of the plant throughout the complete year. To achieve this objective, a new procedure for determining a reduced set of typical weather data in order to evaluate the long-term performance of a solar energy system is proposed. The proposed methodology is based on cluster analysis and permits to drastically reduce computational effort related to the calculation of a CSTP plant energy yield by simulating a reduced number of days from a high frequency TMY.

  8. Case History: Merging the Tools of DC Resistivity and Fracture Trace Analysis for Locating High Yield Domestic Water Wells in Karst Terrain, Shenandoah Valley, Virginia, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frangos, W.; Eaton, L. S.

    2004-05-01

    , suggesting underground voids. This knowledge could serve as a future guide for both well placement and for site evaluation of the potential for sinkhole occurrence. The second site is located 5 km due south of the Barth Farm. A potential residential and farm operations site was being evaluated for construction based on the availability of adequate water yield. Previous attempts of drilling on a contiguous property resulted in a fruitless 800 ft dry hole. The site is mapped as folded sedimentary rock (limestone, dolomite, shale), but outcrops are masked by ~25 m thick alluvial deposits of quartzite gravel and sand. The presence of numerous sinkholes and ponds suggests karst terrain. Fracture trace analysis was initially conducted to identify zones that may contain water-bearing conduits. A dipole-dipole DC resistivity survey followed in areas specifically delineated by the fracture trace analysis. The results lead to two strong wells, one producing 60-100 gpm at 286 ft deep, and the second well 40 gpm at 395 ft. Based on the previous drilling difficulty in this terrain, the complementary tools of high-resolution resistivity and fracture trace analysis are effective in locating high-yield water wells in karst environments. In the first case, the shallow aquifer was detected directly by the resistivity and indirectly by photo interpretation; in the second, both methods provided indirect evidence. The combined use of near-surface indications of underlying karst reservoirs is recommended for future exploration work.

  9. Analysis of some potential social effects of four coal technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, C.A.; Gould, L.C.

    1980-09-01

    This is an analysis of the potential social impacts of four coal technologies: conventional combustion, fluidized-bed combustion, liquifaction, and gasification. Because of their flexibility, and the abundance and relatively low costs of coal, the potential benefits of these technologies would seem to outweigh their potential social costs, both in the intermediate and long term. Nevertheless, the social costs of a coal industry are far more obscure and hard to quantify than the benefits. In general, however, it maybe expected that those technologies that can be deployed most quickly, that provide fuels that can substitute most easily for oil and natural gas, that are the cheapest, and that are the most thermally efficient will minimize social costs most in the intermediate term, while technologies that can guide energy infrastructure changes to become the most compatable with the fuels that will be most easily derived from inexhaustible sources (electricity and hydrogen) will minimize social costs most in the long run. An industry structured to favor eastern over western coal and plant sites in moderate sized communities, which could easily adapt to inexhaustible energy technologies (nuclear or solar) in the future, would be favored in either time period.

  10. Wind energy potential analysis in Al-Fattaih-Darnah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjahjana, Dominicus Danardono Dwi Prija; Salem, Abdelkarim Ali; Himawanto, Dwi Aries

    2016-03-01

    In this paper the wind energy potential in Al-Fattaih-Darnah, Libya, had been studied. Wind energy is very attractive because it can provide a clean and renewable energy. Due mostly to the uncertainty caused by the chaotic characteristics of wind near the earth's surface, wind energy characteristic need to be investigated carefully in order to get consistent power generation. This investigation was based on one year wind data measured in 2003. As a result of the analysis, wind speed profile and wind energy potential have been developed. The wind energy potential of the location is looked very promising to generate electricity. The annual wind speed of the site is 8.21 m/s and the wind speed carrying maximum energy is 7.97 m/s. The annual power density of the site is classified into class 3. The Polaris P50-500 wind turbine can produce 768.39 M Wh/year and has capacity factor of 17.54%.

  11. Correlation and path analysis of grain yield and morphological traits in test–cross populations of maize

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sreckov, Z.; Nastasic, A.; Bocanski, J.; Djalovic, I.; Vukosavljev, M.; Jockovic, B.

    2011-01-01

    One of the goals of this paper was to determine correlation between grain yield, like the most important agronomic trait, and traits of the plant and ear that are influencing on the grain yield, in two test-cross populations, which are formed by crossing progenies of NSU(1) population after 17 cycle

  12. Rapid Prototyping of NASA's Solar and Meteorological Data For Regional Level Modeling of Agricultural and Bio-fuel Crop Phenology and Yield Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoell, J. M.; Stackhouse, P. W.; Eckman, R. S.

    2006-12-01

    Global demand for food, feedstock and bio-fuel crops is expanding rapidly due to population growth, increasing consumption of these products (especially in developing countries), and more recently skyrocketing use of these crops to produce ethanol as a bio-fuel. As a result, there are growing concerns, both in the US and world wide, about the ability to meet the projected demand for agricultural/bio-fuel crops without expanding production areas into environmentally sensitive regions. Concurrently, there are increasing concerns over the negative impact of global warming on crop yields. Accurate ecophysiological crop models have been developed for many of the food and bio-fuel crops and serve as the back-bone in sophisticated Decision Support Systems (DSS). These DSS's are increasingly being used to address the balance between the need to increase production/efficiency and environmental concerns, as well as the impact of global warming on crop production. Realistic application of these agricultural DSS's requires accurate environmental data on time scales ranging from hours to decades. To date only sparse surface measurements are used that typically do not measure solar irradiance. NASA's Prediction of Worldwide Energy Resource (POWER) project, which has as one of its objectives the development of data products for agricultural applications, currently provides a climatological data base of meteorological parameters and surface solar energy fluxes on a global 1-degree latitude by 1- degree longitude grid. NASA is also developing capabilities to produce near-real time data sets specifically designed for application by agricultural DSS's. In this presentation, we discuss the development of 1-degree global data products which combine the climatological data in the POWER project archive (http://earth-www.larc.nasa.gov/power), near real time (2 to 3 day lag) meteorological data from the Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) quick-look products, and global solar energy

  13. Genome-Wide Identification of Differentially Expressed Genes Associated with the High Yielding of Oleoresin in Secondary Xylem of Masson Pine (Pinus massoniana Lamb by Transcriptomic Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinghua Liu

    Full Text Available Masson pine is an important timber and resource for oleoresin in South China. Increasing yield of oleoresin in stems can raise economic benefits and enhance the resistance to bark beetles. However, the genetic mechanisms for regulating the yield of oleoresin were still unknown. Here, high-throughput sequencing technology was used to investigate the transcriptome and compare the gene expression profiles of high and low oleoresin-yielding genotypes. A total of 40,690,540 reads were obtained and assembled into 137,499 transcripts from the secondary xylem tissues. We identified 84,842 candidate unigenes based on sequence annotation using various databases and 96 unigenes were candidates for terpenoid backbone biosynthesis in pine. By comparing the expression profiles of high and low oleoresin-yielding genotypes, 649 differentially expressed genes (DEGs were identified. GO enrichment analysis of DEGs revealed that multiple pathways were related to high yield of oleoresin. Nine candidate genes were validated by QPCR analysis. Among them, the candidate genes encoding geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase (GGPS and (--alpha/beta-pinene synthase were up-regulated in the high oleoresin-yielding genotype, while tricyclene synthase revealed lower expression level, which was in good agreement with the GC/MS result. In addition, DEG encoding ABC transporters, pathogenesis-related proteins (PR5 and PR9, phosphomethylpyrimidine synthase, non-specific lipid-transfer protein-like protein and ethylene responsive transcription factors (ERFs were also confirmed to be critical for the biosynthesis of oleoresin. The next-generation sequencing strategy used in this study has proven to be a powerful means for analyzing transcriptome variation related to the yield of oleoresin in masson pine. The candidate genes encoding GGPS, (--alpha/beta-pinene, tricyclene synthase, ABC transporters, non-specific lipid-transfer protein-like protein, phosphomethylpyrimidine synthase

  14. The Potential Use of Summer Rainfall Enhancement in Illinois. Part I: A Field Experiment to Define Responses of Crop Yields to Increased Rainfall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Changnon, Stanley A.; Hollinger, Steven E.

    1993-03-01

    An assessment was made of factors affecting the use of cloud seeding to increase summer (June-August) rainfall for improved corn and soybean yields in Illinois. Crop yields from a five-year agricultural field experiment involving nine levels of rain increases were compared with yields produced under natural rainfall. The sampled years (1987 91) included a wide range of summer weather conditions, including extremely hot and dry (1988) and very wet and cool (1990). Since the types of growing seasons sampled represented only 30% of all types, caution must be used in interpreting the results and applying them to other years.Additional water of 10%, 25%, or 40% of each day's actual rainfall was applied after each rain. Additional water was also applied only to certain rains, depending on whether they were light, moderate, or heavy. The best treatment, based on performance in all years and considering both treated and untreated crops, was a 25% rain increase applied on days with moderate rain (2.5 mm 2.53 cm). However, it was only marginally better than the natural rainfall. The best treatment for soybeans alone, based on the average yields for 1987 90, was the natural, unmodified rainfall, whereas that for corn was 10% 40% increases only on heavy-rain days. In general, rain increases of 10% had little yield effect, and 40% increases applied in all years were found damaging in wetter years. However, in extremely dry summers, the 40% rain increases were the best for both crops. The best treatment in any given summer varied by the type and timing of rain conditions and crop. Selection of the best treatment to use in any summer would require the capability to predict the amount and timing of summer rainfall by 1 June.

  15. ANALYSIS OF RURAL TOURISM POTENTIAL OF REGION CRISANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BARBU IONEL

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we will present a SWOT analysis on the potential of rural tourism in the region Crisana. Crisana region is a historical region delimited at north by the river Somes and Maramures region, at west by the river Tisa, at south by the Mures river and Banat region, and at east by the peaks of the Apuseni Mountains and Transylvania region. Crisana Region stretches on both Romania and Hungary, and we will refer only to the Romanian side of it. Crisana region has an area of 17,717 km2 and if we refer to the current counties, this region includes much of Arad county, without the area between the river Mures and Timis county, north of Hunedoara county Bihor county and part of western Salaj county

  16. Numerical analysis of 3-D potential flow in centrifugal turbomachines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daiguji, H.

    1983-09-01

    A numerical method is developed for analysing a three-dimensional steady incompressible potential flow through an impeller in centrifugal turbomachines. The method is the same as the previous method which was developed for the axial flow turbomachines, except for some treatments in the downstream region. In order to clarify the validity and limitation of the method, a comparison with the existing experimental data and numerical results is made for radial flow compressor impellers. The calculated blade surface pressure distributions almost coincide with the quasi-3-D calculation by Krimerman and Adler (1978), but are different partly from the quasi-3-D calculation using one meridional flow analysis. It is suggested from this comparison that the flow through an impeller with high efficiency near the design point can be predicted by this fully 3-D numerical method.

  17. Yield Mapping in Salix; Skoerdekartering av salix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Christoffer; Gilbertsson, Mikael; Rogstrand, Gustav; Thylen, Lars

    2004-09-01

    The most common species for energy forest production is willow. Willow is able to produce a large amount of biomass in a short period of time. Growing willow has a potential to render a good financial result for the farmer if cultivated on fields with the right conditions and plenty of water. Under the right conditions growing willow can give the farmer a net income of 3,000 SEK (about 430 USD) per hectare and year, which is something that common cereal crops cannot compete with. However, this is not the common case since willow is often grown as a substitute crop on fields where cereal crop yield is low. The aim of this study was to reveal if it is possible to measure yield variability in willow, and if it is possible to describe the reasons for yield variation both within the field but also between different fields. Yield mapping has been used in conventional farming for about a decade. The principles for yield mapping are to continuously measure the yield while registering location by the use of GPS when harvesting the field. The collected data is then used to search for spatial variations within the field, and to try to understand the reasons for this variation. Since there is currently no commercial equipment for yield mapping in willow, a yield mapping system had to be developed within this project. The new system was installed on a Claas Jaguar harvester. The principle for yield mapping on the Claas Jaguar harvester is to measure the distance between the feeding rollers. This distance is correlated to the flow through the harvester. The speed and position of the machine was registered using GPS. Knowing the working width of the harvester this information was used to calculate the yield. All collected data was stored on a PDA computer. Soil samples were also collected from the yield mapped fields. This was to be able to test yield against both physical and chemical soil parameters. The result shows that it is possible to measure spatial variations of yield in

  18. Analysis of classifiers performance for classification of potential microcalcification

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. N., Arun K.; Sheshadri, H. S.

    2013-07-01

    Breast cancer is a significant public health problem in the world. According to the literature early detection improve breast cancer prognosis. Mammography is a screening tool used for early detection of breast cancer. About 10-30% cases are missed during the routine check as it is difficult for the radiologists to make accurate analysis due to large amount of data. The Microcalcifications (MCs) are considered to be important signs of breast cancer. It has been reported in literature that 30% - 50% of breast cancer detected radio graphically show MCs on mammograms. Histologic examinations report 62% to 79% of breast carcinomas reveals MCs. MC are tiny, vary in size, shape, and distribution, and MC may be closely connected to surrounding tissues. There is a major challenge using the traditional classifiers in the classification of individual potential MCs as the processing of mammograms in appropriate stage generates data sets with an unequal amount of information for both classes (i.e., MC, and Not-MC). Most of the existing state-of-the-art classification approaches are well developed by assuming the underlying training set is evenly distributed. However, they are faced with a severe bias problem when the training set is highly imbalanced in distribution. This paper addresses this issue by using classifiers which handle the imbalanced data sets. In this paper, we also compare the performance of classifiers which are used in the classification of potential MC.

  19. Flood Risk Analysis and Flood Potential Losses Assessment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The heavy floods in the Taihu Basin showed increasing trend in recent years. In thiswork, a typical area in the northern Taihu Basin was selected for flood risk analysis and potentialflood losses assessment. Human activities have strong impact on the study area' s flood situation (asaffected by the polders built, deforestation, population increase, urbanization, etc. ), and havemade water level higher, flood duration shorter, and flood peaks sharper. Five years of differentflood return periods [(1970), 5 (1962), 10 (1987), 20 (1954), 50 (1991)] were used to cal-culate the potential flood risk area and its losses. The potential flood risk map, economic losses,and flood-impacted population were also calculated. The study's main conclusions are: 1 ) Humanactivities have strongly changed the natural flood situation in the study area, increasing runoff andflooding; 2) The flood risk area is closely related with the precipitation center; 3) Polder construc-tion has successfully protected land from flood, shortened the flood duration, and elevated waterlevel in rivers outside the polders; 4) Economic and social development have caused flood losses toincrease in recent years.

  20. Analysis of Renewable Energy Potential on U. S. National Forest Lands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zvolanek, E. [Environmental Science Division; Kuiper, J. [Environmental Science Division; Carr, A. [Environmental Science Division; Hlava, K.

    2013-12-13

    In 2005, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) completed an assessment of the potential for solar and wind energy development on National Forest System (NFS) public lands managed by the US Department of Agriculture, U.S. Forest Service (USFS). This report provides an update of the analysis in the NREL report, and extends the analysis with additional siting factors for solar and wind energy. It also expands the scope to biomass and geothermal energy resources. Hydropower is acknowledged as another major renewable energy source on NFS lands; however, it was not analyzed in this project primarily because of the substantially different analysis that would be needed to identify suitable locations. Details about each renewable energy production technology included in the study are provided following the report introduction, including how each resource is converted to electrical power, and examples of existing power plants. The analysis approach was to use current and available Geographic Information System (GIS) data to map the distribution of the subject renewable energy resources, major siting factors, and NFS lands. For each major category of renewable energy power production, a set of siting factors were determined, including minimum levels for the renewable energy resources, and details for each of the other siting factors. Phase 1 of the analysis focused on replicating and updating the 2005 NREL analysis, and Phase 2 introduced additional siting factors and energy resources. Source data were converted to a cell-based format that helped create composite maps of locations meeting all the siting criteria. Acreages and potential power production levels for NFS units were tabulated and are presented throughout this report and the accompanying files. NFS units in the southwest United States were found to have the most potentially suitable land for concentrating solar power (CSP), especially in Arizona and New Mexico. In total, about 136,032 acres of NFS lands

  1. Growth analysis and yield of two varieties of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) as influenced by different weed control methods

    OpenAIRE

    Olayinka, Bolaji U.; Etejere, Emmanuel O.

    2015-01-01

    Field trials were carried out to evaluate the effects of seven weed management strategies on the growth and yield of two groundnut varieties (Samnut 10 and MK 373) for two successive seasons (2010–2011). The experimental layout was a split plot complete randomized block design with three replications. The two groundnut varieties showed identical pattern of results for leaf area index, dry matter accumulation, relative growth rate, net assimilation rate and crop growth rate as well as yield. A...

  2. Analysis of water soluble polysaccharides as a potential chemotaxonomic marker for landraces in Bixa orellana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parimalan, Rangan; Mahendranath, Gondi; Giridhar, Parvatam

    2014-02-01

    Annatto tree (Bixa orellana L.) is native to Brazil and is now under cultivation in many parts of world for its reddish orange 'annatto' dye. There are three types of landraces in annatto and they are distinguished based on fruit shape i.e., ovate, conical and hemispherical, whose pigment yield differs. Since annatto pigment yield varies with landrace, it is necessary to characterize markers towards the identification of landraces. In this study, we characterized water soluble polysaccharides (WSP) of twigs from three landraces using size-exclusion chromatography (SEC), Fourier-transform Infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) and gas liquid chromatography (GLC) for their potential use as chemotaxonomic markers to distinguish the landraces. GLC analysis on WSP showed hemispherical type contained 38% rhamnose, while conical and ovate types contained 17% and 34% glucose, respectively. Thus, glucose and rhamnose content of WSP could be used to distinguish the three landraces. Further, differences in calculated molecular weight as revealed by SEC (281.8, 151.3 and 79.4 kDa for conical, hemispherical and ovate types, respectively) could also be used to distinguish the three landraces. PMID:24791421

  3. Determining Balıkesir’s Energy Potential Using a Regression Analysis Computer Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bedri Yüksel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Solar power and wind energy are used concurrently during specific periods, while at other times only the more efficient is used, and hybrid systems make this possible. When establishing a hybrid system, the extent to which these two energy sources support each other needs to be taken into account. This paper is a study of the effects of wind speed, insolation levels, and the meteorological parameters of temperature and humidity on the energy potential in Balıkesir, in the Marmara region of Turkey. The relationship between the parameters was studied using a multiple linear regression method. Using a designed-for-purpose computer program, two different regression equations were derived, with wind speed being the dependent variable in the first and insolation levels in the second. The regression equations yielded accurate results. The computer program allowed for the rapid calculation of different acceptance rates. The results of the statistical analysis proved the reliability of the equations. An estimate of identified meteorological parameters and unknown parameters could be produced with a specified precision by using the regression analysis method. The regression equations also worked for the evaluation of energy potential.

  4. Yield enhancement with DFM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paek, Seung Weon; Kang, Jae Hyun; Ha, Naya; Kim, Byung-Moo; Jang, Dae-Hyun; Jeon, Junsu; Kim, DaeWook; Chung, Kun Young; Yu, Sung-eun; Park, Joo Hyun; Bae, SangMin; Song, DongSup; Noh, WooYoung; Kim, YoungDuck; Song, HyunSeok; Choi, HungBok; Kim, Kee Sup; Choi, Kyu-Myung; Choi, Woonhyuk; Jeon, JoongWon; Lee, JinWoo; Kim, Ki-Su; Park, SeongHo; Chung, No-Young; Lee, KangDuck; Hong, YoungKi; Kim, BongSeok

    2012-03-01

    A set of design for manufacturing (DFM) techniques have been developed and applied to 45nm, 32nm and 28nm logic process technologies. A noble technology combined a number of potential confliction of DFM techniques into a comprehensive solution. These techniques work in three phases for design optimization and one phase for silicon diagnostics. In the DFM prevention phase, foundation IP such as standard cells, IO, and memory and P&R tech file are optimized. In the DFM solution phase, which happens during ECO step, auto fixing of process weak patterns and advanced RC extraction are performed. In the DFM polishing phase, post-layout tuning is done to improve manufacturability. DFM analysis enables prioritization of random and systematic failures. The DFM technique presented in this paper has been silicon-proven with three successful tape-outs in Samsung 32nm processes; about 5% improvement in yield was achieved without any notable side effects. Visual inspection of silicon also confirmed the positive effect of the DFM techniques.

  5. Correlation between biogas yield and chemical composition of energy crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dandikas, V; Heuwinkel, H; Lichti, F; Drewes, J E; Koch, K

    2014-12-01

    The scope of this study was to investigate the influence of the chemical composition of energy crops on biogas and methane yield. In total, 41 different plants were analyzed in batch test and their chemical composition was determined. For acid detergent lignin (ADL) content below 10% of total solids, a significant negative correlation for biogas and methane yields (r≈-0.90) was observed. Based on a simple regression analysis, more than 80% of the sample variation can be explained through ADL. Based on a principal component analysis and multiple regression analysis, ADL and hemicellulose are suggested as suitable model variables for biogas yield potential predictions across plant species. PMID:25443623

  6. Ecosystem-management-based Management Models of Fast-growing and High-yield Plantation and Its Eco-economic Benefits Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The paper expounded the basic concept and principles of ecosystem management,and analyzed the state and trend of industrial plantation ecosystem management in other countries.Based on the analysis of typical case studies,the eco-economic benefits were evaluated for the management models of fast-growing and high-yield plantations.

  7. A methodology for model-based greenhouse design: Part 3, sensitivity analysis of a combined greenhouse climate-crop yield model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanthoor, B.H.E.; Henten, van E.J.; Stanghellini, C.; Visser, de P.H.B.

    2011-01-01

    Greenhouse design is an optimisation problem that might be solved by a model-based greenhouse design method. A sensitivity analysis of a combined greenhouse climate-crop yield model of tomato was done to identify the parameters, i.e. greenhouse design parameters, outdoor climate and climate set-poin

  8. An analysis of the sponge Acanthostrongylophora igens’ microbiome yields an actinomycete that produces the natural product manzamine A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Leigh Waters

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Sponges have generated significant interest as a source of bioactive and elaborate secondary metabolites that hold promise for the development of novel therapeutics for the control of an array of human diseases. However, research and development of marine natural products can often be hampered by the difficulty associated with obtaining a stable and sustainable production source. Herein we report the first successful characterization and utilization of the microbiome of a marine invertebrate to identify a sustainable production source for an important natural product scaffold. Through molecular-microbial community analysis, optimization of fermentation conditions and MALDI-MS imaging, we provide the first report of a sponge-associated bacterium (Micromonospora sp. that produces the manzamine class of antimalarials from the Indo-Pacific sponge Acanthostrongylophora ingens (Thiele, 1899 (Class Demospongiae, Order Haplosclerida, Family Petrosiidae. These findings suggest that a general strategy of analysis of the macroorganism’s microbiome could significantly transform the field of natural products drug discovery by gaining access to not only novel drug leads, but the potential for sustainable production sources and biosynthetic genes at the same time.

  9. Identification and Evolutionary Analysis of Potential Candidate Genes in a Human Eating Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbagh, Ubadah; Mullegama, Saman; Wyckoff, Gerald J

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to find genes linked with eating disorders and associated with both metabolic and neural systems. Our operating hypothesis was that there are genetic factors underlying some eating disorders resting in both those pathways. Specifically, we are interested in disorders that may rest in both sleep and metabolic function, generally called Night Eating Syndrome (NES). A meta-analysis of the Gene Expression Omnibus targeting the mammalian nervous system, sleep, and obesity studies was performed, yielding numerous genes of interest. Through a text-based analysis of the results, a number of potential candidate genes were identified. VGF, in particular, appeared to be relevant both to obesity and, broadly, to brain or neural development. VGF is a highly connected protein that interacts with numerous targets via proteolytically digested peptides. We examined VGF from an evolutionary perspective to determine whether other available evidence supported a role for the gene in human disease. We conclude that some of the already identified variants in VGF from human polymorphism studies may contribute to eating disorders and obesity. Our data suggest that there is enough evidence to warrant eGWAS and GWAS analysis of these genes in NES patients in a case-control study.

  10. Identification and Evolutionary Analysis of Potential Candidate Genes in a Human Eating Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ubadah Sabbagh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to find genes linked with eating disorders and associated with both metabolic and neural systems. Our operating hypothesis was that there are genetic factors underlying some eating disorders resting in both those pathways. Specifically, we are interested in disorders that may rest in both sleep and metabolic function, generally called Night Eating Syndrome (NES. A meta-analysis of the Gene Expression Omnibus targeting the mammalian nervous system, sleep, and obesity studies was performed, yielding numerous genes of interest. Through a text-based analysis of the results, a number of potential candidate genes were identified. VGF, in particular, appeared to be relevant both to obesity and, broadly, to brain or neural development. VGF is a highly connected protein that interacts with numerous targets via proteolytically digested peptides. We examined VGF from an evolutionary perspective to determine whether other available evidence supported a role for the gene in human disease. We conclude that some of the already identified variants in VGF from human polymorphism studies may contribute to eating disorders and obesity. Our data suggest that there is enough evidence to warrant eGWAS and GWAS analysis of these genes in NES patients in a case-control study.

  11. Identification and Evolutionary Analysis of Potential Candidate Genes in a Human Eating Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbagh, Ubadah; Mullegama, Saman; Wyckoff, Gerald J

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to find genes linked with eating disorders and associated with both metabolic and neural systems. Our operating hypothesis was that there are genetic factors underlying some eating disorders resting in both those pathways. Specifically, we are interested in disorders that may rest in both sleep and metabolic function, generally called Night Eating Syndrome (NES). A meta-analysis of the Gene Expression Omnibus targeting the mammalian nervous system, sleep, and obesity studies was performed, yielding numerous genes of interest. Through a text-based analysis of the results, a number of potential candidate genes were identified. VGF, in particular, appeared to be relevant both to obesity and, broadly, to brain or neural development. VGF is a highly connected protein that interacts with numerous targets via proteolytically digested peptides. We examined VGF from an evolutionary perspective to determine whether other available evidence supported a role for the gene in human disease. We conclude that some of the already identified variants in VGF from human polymorphism studies may contribute to eating disorders and obesity. Our data suggest that there is enough evidence to warrant eGWAS and GWAS analysis of these genes in NES patients in a case-control study. PMID:27088090

  12. Genetic Component Analysis for Yield and Morphological Traits in Pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.) Genotypes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main objectives of present investigation were to find out the extent of genetic variability, heritability (bs), component of variance and genetic advance for yield and yield related traits of pearl millet, Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br. For this purpose twenty five (25) pearl millet (local and exotic) germplasm accessions were evaluated in a Randomized Complete Block Design having three replications at Arid Zone Research Institute, PARC, D.I. Khan, Pakistan during 2013. Highly significant (P<0.01) differences were observed for all the traits except days to maturity which was mere significant (P<0.05). A substantial amount of genetic variability among the genotypes revealed that accessions under studies belonged to diversified sources indicating the expediency of genotypes for future breeding of millet varieties. The line MS-3 proved its superiority through producing the highest grain yield of 132.70 g/plant. High genotypic (68.06) as well as phenotypic co-efficient of variation (71.50) were recorded for grain yield. Moderate to high heritability was recorded for number of leaves per plant (47.11), leaf area index (46.75), days to heading (69.34) and days to maturity (68.58). Avery high heritability (89.54 percentage) was recorded for 1000- grain weight and grain yield. The high heritability amalgamated with high genetic advance (171.04) as percent of mean was recorded for grain yield indicating the least environmental effect and presence of more additive gene effect leading to crop improvement through simple selection. (author)

  13. Molecular electrostatic potential analysis of non-covalent complexes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PADINJARE VEETIL BIJINA; CHERUMUTTATHU H SURESH

    2016-10-01

    Ab initio MP4/Aug-cc-pvDZ//MP2/6-311++g(d,p) level interaction energy (Eint) and molecular electrostatic potential analysis (MESP) of a large variety of non-covalent intermolecular complexes, viz. tetrel, chalcogen, pnicogen, halogen, hydrogen, dihydrogen and lithium bonded complexes have been reported. The electronic changes associated with the non-covalent complex formation is monitored in terms of MESP minimum (Vmin) in the free and complexed states of the donor and acceptor molecules as well as in terms ofMESP at the donor and acceptor atoms (Vn) of the free monomers and complexes. The change in Vmin or Vn on the donor molecule (ΔVmin(D) or ΔVn(D)) during complex formation is proportional to its electron donating ability while such a change on the acceptor molecule (ΔVmin(A) or ΔVn(A)) is proportional to its electron accepting ability. Further, the quantities ΔΔVmin = ΔVmin(D) −ΔVmin(A) and ΔΔVn = ΔVn(D) −ΔVn(A) have shown strong linear correlations with Eint of the complex (Eint values fall in the range 0.7 to 46.2 kcal/mol for 54 complexes) and suggest that the intermolecular non-covalent interactions in a wide variety of systems can be monitored and assessed in terms of change in MESP due to complex formation in the gas phase. With the incorporation of solvent effect in the calculation, charged systems showed significant deviations from the linear correlation. The MESP based analysis proposes that the large variety of intermolecular non-covalent complexes considered in this study can be grouped under the general category of electron donor-acceptor (eDA) complexes

  14. An Econometric Analysis of U.S. Crop Yield and Cropland Acreage: Implications for the Impact of Climate Change

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Haixiao; Khanna, Madhu

    2010-01-01

    A SIGNIFICANTLY REVISED/UPDATED AND EDITED VERSION OF THIS PAPER WAS PUBLISHED AS: Citation: Miao, Ruiqing, Madhu Khanna and Haixiao Huang. “Responsiveness of Crop Yield and Acreage to Prices and Climate.” American Journal of Agricultural Economics (2015) doi: 10.1093/ajae/aav025 Abstract: We investigate the effect of crop price and climate variables on rainfed corn and soybean yields and acreage in the United States using a large panel dataset for the 1977–2007 period. Instrumental variables...

  15. Homogeneity analysis of high yield manufacturing process of mems-based pzt thick film vibrational energy harvesters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lei, Anders; Xu, Ruichao; Pedersen, C.M.;

    2011-01-01

    This work presents a high yield wafer scale fabrication of MEMS-based unimorph silicon/PZT thick film vibrational energy harvesters aimed towards vibration sources with peak frequencies in the range of a few hundred Hz. By combining KOH etching with mechanical front side protection, SOI wafer...... to accurately define the thickness of the silicon part of the harvester and a silicon compatible PZT thick film screen-printing technique, we are able to fabricate energy harvesters on wafer scale with a yield higher than 90%. The characterization of the fabricated harvesters is focused towards the full wafer...

  16. Analysis of the Pauli potential of atoms and ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The square root of the electron density satisfies a Schroedinger equation that contains a correction term called Pauli potential in addition to the usual one-body potential of the density functional theory. Earlier exact one-body potential was determined from the electron density for two- and three-level systems. The Pauli potential and the kinetic energy density corresponding to the Pauli potential are determined for several atoms and ions with several electrons. Properties of the Pauli potential are discussed. (author) 16 refs.; 10 figs

  17. Estimativa do potencial produtivo em trigo utilizando sensor óptico ativo para adubação nitrogenada em taxa variável Wheat yield potential estimation using active optical sensor for site-specific nitrogen fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Bredemeier

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A adubação nitrogenada em trigo é baseada no potencial produtivo da cultura, teor de matéria orgânica do solo e cultura antecessora. A definição do potencial produtivo é complexa, pois este varia com as condições meteorológicas de cada ano específico. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a relação entre o índice de vegetação por diferença normalizada (NDVI, medido por sensor óptico ativo e o rendimento de grãos em quatro cultivares de trigo, visando a desenvolver procedimentos para a adubação nitrogenada em cobertura em taxa variável. O experimento foi realizado em campo em 2009. Foram avaliados o NDVI em diferentes estádios de desenvolvimento e o rendimento de grãos. As leituras do NDVI ao longo do ciclo ativo foram eficientes em identificar variações de produtividade do trigo. Assim, o potencial de produtividade pode ser estimado através de medições desse índice durante a ontogenia da planta. Pode-se adotar um modelo único para descrever a relação entre NDVI e potencial produtivo para as cultivares testadas neste trabalho.Nitrogen fertilization in spring wheat is based on yield potential, soil organic matter content and previous crop. Yield potential definition is difficult, since it is affected by weather conditions. The objective of this research was to evaluate the relationship between Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI measured by an active sensor and grain yield of four wheat cultivars. The experiment was carried out at field conditions in 2009. NDVI in different growth stages and grain yield were evaluated. NDVI measured was efficient to detect growth variability generated by N availability and correlated well with grain yield for all cultivars tested, indicating that yield potential can be estimated by NDVI evaluations during crop ontogeny. One single model for the relationship between NDVI and yield potential can be used considering cultivars used in this research.

  18. Interrelationships and genetic analysis of seed yield and morphological traits in mini core collection of Iranian landrace, breeding lines and improved chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadi Khosro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine the association between genetic parameters and morphological traits in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. genotypes, a field experiment was conducted with 49 different landrace, breeding lines and cultivated chickpea genotypes using a 7×7 lattice square design with 2 replications in the 2012-2013 growing season. Genetic parameters including genetic, environmental and phenotypic variances; coefficients of variation; heritability; correlation coefficients; factor analysis and path coefficients were estimated, and cluster analysis was performed. High heritability values observed in measured traits indicating that these traits are controlled mainly by additive genes and that selection of such traits may be effective for improving seed yield. Number of seeds per plant, 100-seed weight and plant biomass had a positive direct effect on seed yield. These traits also had positive and highly significant phenotypic correlations with seed yield. Using principal component (PC analysis, the first three PCs with eigenvalues more than 1 contributed 70.94% of the variability among accessions. The germplasm were grouped into 3 clusters. Each cluster had some specific characteristics of its own and the cluster I was clearly separated from cluster II and III. Overall the results, it can be concluded that seed yield in chickpea can be improved by selecting an ideotype having greater number of seeds per plant, 100-seed weight and plant biomass.

  19. The Ozone Component of Global Change:Potential Effects on Agricultural and Horticultural Plant Yield,Product Quality and Interactions with Invasive Species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fitzgerald Booker; Russell Muntifering; Margaret McGrath; Kent Burkey; Dennis Decoteau; Edwin Fiscus; William Manning; Sagar Krupa; Arthur Chappelka; David Grantz

    2009-01-01

    The productivity,product quality and competitive ability of important agricultural and horticultural plants in many regions of the world may be adversely affected by current and anticipated concentrations of groundlevel ozone (O3).Exposure to elevated O3 typically results in suppressed photosynthesis,accelerated senescence,decreased growth and lower yields.Various approaches used to evaluate O3 effects generally concur that current yield losses range from 5% to 15% among sensitive plants.There is,however,considerable genetic variability in plant responses to O3.To illustrate this,we show that ambient O3 concentrations in the eastern United States cause substantially different levels of damage to otherwise similar snap bean cultivars.Largely undesirable effects of O3 can also occur in seed and fruit chemistry as well as in forage nutritive value,with consequences for animal production.Ozone may alter herbicide efficacy and foster establishment of some invasive species.We conclude that current and projected levels of O3 in many regions worldwide are toxic to sensitive plants of agricultural and horticultural significance.Plant breeding that incorporates O3 sensitivity into selection strategies will be increasingly necessary to achieve sustainable production with changing atmospheric composition,while reductions in O3 precursor emissions will likely benefit world food production and reduce atmospheric concentrations of an important greenhouse gas.

  20. REGIONAL ANALYSIS OF INORGANIC NITROGEN YIELD AND RETENTION IN HIGH-ELEVATION ECOSYSTEMS OF THE SIERRA NEVADA AND ROCKY MOUNTAINS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yields and retention of inorganic nitrogen (DIN) and nitrate concentrations in surface runoff are summarized for 28 high elevation watersheds in the Sierra Nevada, California and Rocky Mountains of Wyoming and Colorado. Catchments ranged in elevation from 2475 to 3603 m and from...

  1. Genetic Analysis of Protein Yield, Udder Health, and Female Fertility in First-Parity Danish Holstein Cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch, L H; Norberg, E

    2008-01-01

    Genetic parameters for protein yield, clinical mastitis, SCS, number of inseminations (NI), and days from first to last insemination (FLI) were estimated for first-parity Danish Holstein cows. The objective was to estimate genetic correlations between the five traits mentioned above and to study ...

  2. Transcriptome analysis suggests that starch synthesis may proceed via multiple metabolic routes in high yielding potato cultivars.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kacper Piotr Kaminski

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Glucose-6-phosphate is imported into the amyloplast of potato tubers and thought to constitute the precursor for starch synthesis in potato tubers. However, recently it was shown that glucose-1-phosphate can also be imported into the amyloplast and incorporated into starch via an ATP independent mechanism under special conditions. Nonetheless, glucose-6-phosphate is believed to be the quantitatively important precursor for starch synthesis in potato. PRINCIPAL FINDING: Potato tubers of the high yielding cv Kuras had low gene expression of plastidial phophoglucomutase (PGM and normal levels of transcripts for other enzymes involved in starch metabolism in comparison with medium and low yielding cultivars as determined by DeepSAGE transcriptome profiling. The decrease in PGM activity in Kuras was confirmed by measuring the enzyme activity from potato tuber extracts. Contrary to expectations, this combination lead to a higher level of intracellular glucose-1-phosphate (G1P in Kuras suggesting that G1P is directly imported into plastids and can be quantitatively important for starch synthesis under normal conditions in high yielding cultivars. SIGNIFICANCE: This could open entirely new possibilities for metabolic engineering of the starch metabolism in potato via the so far uncharacterized G1P transporter. The perspectives are to increase yield and space efficiency of this important crop. In the light of the increasing demands imposed on agriculture to support a growing global population this presents an exciting new possibility.

  3. Production yield of produced radioisotopes from 100 MeV proton beam on lead target for shielding analysis of large accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oranj, Leila Mokhtari; Oh, Joo Hee; Jung, Nam Suk; Bae, O Ryun; Lee, Hee Seock [Div. of Advanced Nuclear Engineering, POSTECH, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-11-15

    In this work, the production yield of major shielding material, a lead, was investigated using 100 MeV protons of KOMAC accelerator facility. For the analysis of the experimental data, the activity has been calculated using the FLUKA Monte Carlo code and analytical methods. The cross section data and the stopping power in the irradiated assembly were calculated by TALYS and SRIM codes in the analytical method, respectively. Consequently, the experimental production yield of produced radioisotopes was compared with the data that are based on Monte Carlo calculations and analytical studies. In this research, the {sup nat}Pb(p, x) reaction was studied using experimental measurements, Monte Carlo simulations and analytical methods. Rereading to the experimental measurements, we demonstrate that both Monte Carlo simulation and analytical methods could be useful tools for the estimation of production yield of this reaction.

  4. High yield growth and purification of human parainfluenza type 3 virus and initial analysis of viral structural proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guskey, L E; Bergtrom, G

    1981-05-01

    Structural proteins from a large-plaque variant (LPV) of human parainfluenza type 3 virus were analysed by electrophoresis on Laemmli-type polyacrylamide gels. High virus concentrations were obtained by growth in BS-C-1 cells cultivated on microcarrier beads. Purification of the virus in composite equilibrium gradients of potassium tartrate:glycerol resulted in 25% recovery of input infectivity and a preparation containing less than 0.08% of input host cell protein and RNA. Parainfluenza type 3 virus equilibrated at a density of 1.20 g/ml in these gradients. Analysis by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of 3H-glucosamine-labelled virus taken from peak gradient fractions revealed 8 or 9 major virion peptides, ranging in mol. wt. from 17 x 10(3) to 125 x 10(3) (17K to 125K), two of which were glycoproteins. The sum of the estimated mol. wt. of these peptides, 501.5K to 570.5K, does not exceed the estimated genomic potential of other paramyxoviruses. PMID:6270242

  5. Sowing time on Soybean yield potential in Uberlândia-MGÉpoca de semeadura no Potencial produtivo de Soja em Uberlândia-MG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Divina Lemes Hamawaki

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The work was done in Uberlândia (MG to evaluate the performance of seven soybeans cultivars sowed in four different times: October 30th, November 15th, December 14th and 31st during the 2001/2002 season. The cultivars utilized were: DM-118 early-maturing, DM-247, DM-Victoria, DM-339, medium late cycle and DM-309, DM-98C81 and DM-Noble cycle Late. The statistical design was a randomized blocks in a factorial scheme (7 cultivars x 4 times with three replications. The evaluated characteristics were: yield, number of days for flowering, number of days for maturing, plant height, first bean height and plant laying. For the most evaluated cultivars, sowing beyond December 14th in Uberlandia region presented yield losses for earlier cultivars as DM-118 as well for the later ones as DM Vitória, compared to sowing in 30th October. The time for flowering and maturing and plant height had effect on the yield.O trabalho foi feito em Uberlândia, com o objetivo de avaliar o comportamento de sete cultivares de soja em quatro épocas distintas de semeadura: 30 de Outubro, 15 de Novembro, 14 e 31 de Dezembro, na safra 2001/02. As cultivares utilizadas foram: DM-118 de ciclo precoce, DM-247, DM-Vitória, DM-339, de ciclo semitardio e DM-309, DM-98C81 e DM-Nobre de ciclo tardio. O delineamento utilizado foi o de blocos casualizados em esquema fatorial (7 cultivares x 4 épocas com três repetições. As características avaliadas foram: produtividade, número de dias para floração e maturação, altura de plantas na maturação, inserção da primeira vagem e acamamento. Para a maioria das cultivares, a semeadura realizada a partir de 14 de dezembro na região de Uberlândia provocou queda na produtividade, tanto para as cultivares mais precoces quanto para mais tardia, DM Vitória, quando comparada a semeadura em 30 de outubro. O período para o florescimento, maturação e a altura de plantas interferiram na produtividade. Há decréscimo de altura de

  6. A potential method for non-invasive acute myocardial infarction detection based on saliva Raman spectroscopy and multivariate analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Gang; Chen, Maowen; Chen, Yuanxiang; Huang, Zufang; Lin, Jinyong; Lin, Jia; Xu, Zhihong; Wu, Shanshan; Huang, Wei; Weng, Guoxing; Chen, Guannan

    2015-12-01

    Raman spectroscopy (RS) was employed for human saliva biochemical analysis with the aim to develop a rapidly non-invasive test for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) detection. High-quality Raman spectra were obtained from human saliva samples of 46 AMI patients and 43 healthy controls. Significant differences in Raman intensities of prominent bands were observed between AMI and normal saliva. The tentative assignment of the observed Raman bands indicated constituent and conformational differences between the two groups. Furthermore, principal component analysis (PCA) combined with linear discriminant analysis (LDA) was employed to analyze and classify the Raman spectra acquired from AMI and healthy saliva, yielding a diagnostic sensitivity of 80.4% and specificity of 81.4%. The results from this exploratory study demonstrated the feasibility and potential for developing RS analysis of human saliva into a clinical tool for rapid AMI detection and screening.

  7. Burst analysis tool for developing neuronal networks exhibiting highly varying action potential dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fikret Emre eKapucu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose a firing statistics based neuronal network burst detection algorithm for neuronal networks exhibiting highly variable action potential dynamics. Electrical activity of neuronal networks is generally analyzed by the occurrences of spikes and bursts both in time and space. Commonly accepted analysis tools employ burst detection algorithms based on predefined criteria. However, maturing neuronal networks, such as those originating from human embryonic stem cells (hESC, exhibit highly variable network structure and time-varying dynamics. To explore the developing burst/spike activities of such networks, we propose a burst detection algorithm which utilizes the firing statistics based on interspike interval (ISI histograms. Moreover, the algorithm calculates interspike interval thresholds for burst spikes as well as for pre-burst spikes and burst tails by evaluating the cumulative moving average and skewness of the ISI histogram. Because of the adaptive nature of the proposed algorithm, its analysis power is not limited by the type of neuronal cell network at hand. We demonstrate the functionality of our algorithm with two different types of microelectrode array (MEA data recorded from spontaneously active hESC-derived neuronal cell networks. The same data was also analyzed by two commonly employed burst detection algorithms and the differences in burst detection results are illustrated. The results demonstrate that our method is both adaptive to the firing statistics of the network and yields successful burst detection from the data. In conclusion, the proposed method is a potential tool for analyzing of hESC-derived neuronal cell networks and thus can be utilized in studies aiming to understand the development and functioning of human neuronal networks and as an analysis tool for in vitro drug screening and neurotoxicity assays.

  8. Burst analysis tool for developing neuronal networks exhibiting highly varying action potential dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapucu, Fikret E; Tanskanen, Jarno M A; Mikkonen, Jarno E; Ylä-Outinen, Laura; Narkilahti, Susanna; Hyttinen, Jari A K

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we propose a firing statistics based neuronal network burst detection algorithm for neuronal networks exhibiting highly variable action potential dynamics. Electrical activity of neuronal networks is generally analyzed by the occurrences of spikes and bursts both in time and space. Commonly accepted analysis tools employ burst detection algorithms based on predefined criteria. However, maturing neuronal networks, such as those originating from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), exhibit highly variable network structure and time-varying dynamics. To explore the developing burst/spike activities of such networks, we propose a burst detection algorithm which utilizes the firing statistics based on interspike interval (ISI) histograms. Moreover, the algorithm calculates ISI thresholds for burst spikes as well as for pre-burst spikes and burst tails by evaluating the cumulative moving average (CMA) and skewness of the ISI histogram. Because of the adaptive nature of the proposed algorithm, its analysis power is not limited by the type of neuronal cell network at hand. We demonstrate the functionality of our algorithm with two different types of microelectrode array (MEA) data recorded from spontaneously active hESC-derived neuronal cell networks. The same data was also analyzed by two commonly employed burst detection algorithms and the differences in burst detection results are illustrated. The results demonstrate that our method is both adaptive to the firing statistics of the network and yields successful burst detection from the data. In conclusion, the proposed method is a potential tool for analyzing of hESC-derived neuronal cell networks and thus can be utilized in studies aiming to understand the development and functioning of human neuronal networks and as an analysis tool for in vitro drug screening and neurotoxicity assays.

  9. Quantitative Genetics and Functional-Structural Plant Growth Models: Simulation of Quantitative Trait Loci Detection for Model Parameters and Application to Potential Yield Optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Letort, Veronique; Cournède, Paul-Henry; De Reffye, Philippe; Courtois, Brigitte; 10.1093/aob/mcm197

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims: Prediction of phenotypic traits from new genotypes under untested environmental conditions is crucial to build simulations of breeding strategies to improve target traits. Although the plant response to environmental stresses is characterized by both architectural and functional plasticity, recent attempts to integrate biological knowledge into genetics models have mainly concerned specific physiological processes or crop models without architecture, and thus may prove limited when studying genotype x environment interactions. Consequently, this paper presents a simulation study introducing genetics into a functional-structural growth model, which gives access to more fundamental traits for quantitative trait loci (QTL) detection and thus to promising tools for yield optimization. Methods: The GreenLab model was selected as a reasonable choice to link growth model parameters to QTL. Virtual genes and virtual chromosomes were defined to build a simple genetic model that drove the settings ...

  10. Transcriptome Analysis Suggests That Starch Synthesis May Proceed via Multiple Metabolic Routes in High Yielding Potato Cultivars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaminski, Kacper Piotr; Petersen, Annabeth Høgh; Sønderkær, Mads;

    2012-01-01

    levels of transcripts for other enzymes involved in starch metabolism in comparison with medium and low yielding cultivars as determined by DeepSAGE transcriptome profiling. The decrease in PGM activity in Kuras was confirmed by measuring the enzyme activity from potato tuber extracts. Contrary......Background: Glucose-6-phosphate is imported into the amyloplast of potato tubers and thought to constitute the precursor for starch synthesis in potato tubers. However, recently it was shown that glucose-1-phosphate can also be imported into the amyloplast and incorporated into starch via an ATP...... independent mechanism under special conditions. Nonetheless, glucose-6-phosphate is believed to be the quantitatively important precursor for starch synthesis in potato. Principical finding: potato tubers of the high yielding cv Kuras had low gene expression of plastidial phophoglucomutase (PGM) and normal...

  11. Analysis of Yield Components of F1 Hybrids of Crosses between Spring and Winter Wheat Types (Triticum aestivum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marijana Barić

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available F1 hybrids were produced using the German spring wheat variety Remus as a female parent and eight Croatian wheat varieties (six winter and two spring types as male parents. The heterosis (MP-mid parent, BP-better parent for five yield components was investigated in eight cross combinations. Data are based on field trial. All the combinations tested gave average heterosis (MP, BP for 1000-grain weight (14.38%, 6.12% and grain weight per spike (11.47%, 3.68%. The highest heterosis (MP, BP was found for 1000-grain weight (35.27%, 28.42% in the hybrid Remus/Sivka and for grain weight per spike (20. 45%, 19.1% in the hybrid Remus/Dukat. These data showed that the spring wheat variety Remus could be used in cross combinations for improvement of yield through higher 1000-grain weight and grain weight per spike.

  12. Biological hydrogen production by Anabaena sp. – Yield, energy and CO2 analysis including fermentative biomass recovery

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Ana F.; Marques, Ana C.; Batista, Ana Paula; Marques, Paula Alexandra; de Gouveia, L.; Carla M. Silva

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents laboratory results of biological production of hydrogen by photoautrotophic cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. Additional hydrogen production from residual Cyanobacteria fermentation was achieved by Enterobacter aerogenes bacteria. The authors evaluated the yield of H2 production, the energy consumption and CO2 emissions and the technological bottlenecks and possible improvements of the whole energy and CO2 emission chain. The authors did not attempt to extrapolate the results to...

  13. Bayesian analysis of the predictive power of the yield curve using a vector autoregressive model with multiple structural breaks

    OpenAIRE

    Katsuhiro Sugita

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we analyze the predictive power of the yield curve on output growth using a vector autoregressive model with multiple structural breaks in the intercept term and the volatility. To estimate the model and to detect the number of breaks, we apply a Bayesian approach with Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm. We find strong evidence of three structural breaks using the US data.

  14. Potential uses of human salivary protein and peptide analysis in the diagnosis of disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Kawas, Sausan; Rahim, Zubaidah H A; Ferguson, David B

    2012-01-01

    Saliva is an important body fluid containing a complex mixture of proteins, peptides and other substances. These are not only important in maintaining the health of the oral cavity but also may yield information about oral and systemic disease. Comprehensive analysis and identification of the proteomic content of human saliva may contribute to the understanding of oral pathophysiology and provide a foundation for the recognition of potential biomarkers of human disease. The collection of saliva samples is non-invasive, safe, and inexpensive. It seems likely that testing methods can be developed which can be used in general medical or dental practice. However, it is important to realize that the collection of saliva must be carefully controlled. In this paper we review the progress in the analysis of the human salivary proteome and summarise the diagnostic possibilities that have been explored. The precautions in collecting saliva, and some of the factors which would have to be considered if a diagnostic test were to be generally adopted are discussed.

  15. Exploitation of high-yields in hard-rock aquifers: downscaling methodology combining GIS and multicriteria analysis to delineate field prospecting zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachassagne, P; Wyns, R; Bérard, P; Bruel, T; Chéry, L; Coutand, T; Desprats, J F; Le Strat, P

    2001-01-01

    Based on research work in the Truyère River catchment of the Massif Central (Lozère Department, France), a methodology has been developed for delineating favorable prospecting zones of a few square kilometers within basement areas of several hundred, if not thousand, square kilometers for the purpose of sitting high-yield water wells. The methodology adopts a functional approach to hard-rock aquifers using a conceptual model of the aquifer structure and of the functioning of the main aquifer compartments: the alterites (weathered and decayed rock), the underlying weathered-fissured zone, and the fractured bedrock. It involves an economically feasible method of mapping the thickness and spatial distribution of the alterites and the weathered-fissured zone, on which the long-term exploitation of the water resource chiefly depends. This method is used for the first time in hydrogeology. The potential ground water resources were mapped by GIS multicriteria analysis using parameters characterizing the structure and functioning of the aquifer, i.e., lithology and hydrogeological properties of the substratum, nature and thickness of the alterites and weathered-fissured zone, depth of the water table, slope, fracture networks and present-day tectonic stresses, and forecasted ground water quality. The methodology involves a coherent process of downscaling that, through applying methods that are increasingly precise but also increasingly costly, enables the selection of sites with diminishing surface areas as the work advances. The resulting documents are used for ground water exploration, although they can also be applied to the broader domain of land-use management. PMID:11447857

  16. Foot-and-mouth disease and its effect on milk yield: an economic analysis on livestock holders in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, G; Tasciotti, L; Khan, E; Kiani, A

    2014-12-01

    A longitudinal study has been conducted in the provinces of Sindh, Punjab and Islamabad Capital Territory area, Pakistan, to evaluate the impact of foot-and-mouth disease on milk yield in a sample of farmers owning cattle and buffaloes. The sample consisted of 50 farms where the presence of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) virus was initially suspected on the basis of clinical signs and subsequently confirmed through either a field test or laboratory confirmation. In each farm, the total number of clinical cases was registered, and clinically diseased milking cattle and buffaloes were followed up for the next 60 days from the onset of clinical signs and the amount of milk yield measured. The average milk yield, estimated to be around 10 l per animal before the onset of FMD, decreased significantly in the 2 months following the onset of acute clinical disease. The loss of milk production in the 60 days following the onset of clinical signs was estimated to be around 220 and 201 l for cattle and buffaloes, respectively. Under the assumption that the administration of a good-quality vaccine matching circulating FMD strains could protect against clinical disease, the benefit/cost ratio for having all animals vaccinated in all 50 farms was estimated to be 5.7.

  17. Genotype-environment interaction and analysis of yield stability in trial with tomato crop in drought condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Boicet Fabre

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The present work was developed in the UBPC “The Coast”, belonging to the Miscellaneous Crops Enterprise of Campechuela municipality, Granma province, during the period from November to March of the year 2010 – 2011. It was carried out in a reddish brown fersialitic soil, according with the new genetic classification of the soils of Cuba MINAGRI, (2000, with the objective of studying and evaluating the influence of different organic fertilizers in the growth, development and yield in the cultivation of onion, variety Texas Early Grain. For this reason it was necessary to work on blocks with 4 treatments and 4 replies. The treatments applied were: treatment 1 (vermicompost, treatment 2 (cow dung, treatment 3 (cachaça and treatment 4 (control, those were applied in a solid way. The growth variables that were evaluated were number of leaves, height of the plant, equatorial diameter, polar diameter and fresh weight of the bulb. The yield was also evaluated in t.ha -1 per treatment. High yields are achieved with the application of organic fertilizer, among 27 and 30 t.ha -1, this is an alternative for the sustainable production of this product which is highly demanded by the population.

  18. Genetic Analysis of Carbon Isotope Discrimination and its Relation to Yield in a Wheat Doubled Haploid Population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xianshan Wu; Xiaoping Chang; Ruilian Jing

    2011-01-01

    Carbon isotope discrimination (△13C) is considered a useful indicator for indirect selection of grain yield (GY) in cereals.Therefore,it is important to evaluate the genetic variation in △13C and its relationship with GY.A doubled haploid (DH) population derived from a cross of two common wheat varieties,Hanxuan 10 (H10) and Lumai 14 (L14),was phenotyped for △13C in the flag leaf,GY and yield associated traits in two trials contrasted by water availability,specifically,rain-fed and irrigated.Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) were identified by single locus and two locus QTL analyses.QTLs for △13C were located on chromosomes 1A,2B,3B,5A,7A and 7B,and QTLs for other traits on all chromosomes except 1A,4D,5A,5B and 6D.The population selected for high △13C had an increased frequency of QTL for high △13C,GY and number of spikes per plant (NSP) when grown under rain-fed conditions and only for high △13C and NSP when grown under irrigated conditions,which was consistent with agronomic performance of the corresponding trait values in the high △13C progeny; that is,significantly greater than that in the low △13C.Therefore,selection for △13C was beneficial in increasing grain yield in rain-fed environments.

  19. Conceito de ideotipo e seu uso no aumento do rendimento potencial de cereais The ideotipe concept and its use to increase cereal's yield potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton Luiz de Almeida

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available A presente revisão tem por objetivo apresentar algumas características consideradas interessantes de serem incorporadas em plantas de cereais quando cultivadas em comunidade, através da integração de conhecimentos de fisiologia, bioquímica e melhoramento. No melhoramento de diferentes espécies verifica-se que várias características de planta foram modificadas no processo de seleção para rendimento de grãos. Neste enfoque, propõe-se discutir a validade de incorporar estas características em cultivares e perguntar se as cultivares antigas tivessem sido melhoradas através destas características qual resultado teria sido alcançado. A discussão de ideotipo aumenta de importância com a rápida evolução das técnicas de avaliação da variabilidade genética, pois caso não seja definido um modelo de planta para aumentar o rendimento potencial estas técnicas podem ter uma utilização restrita. Na discussão de ideotipo para aumentar o rendimento potencial, é necessário formular um novo modelo baseado em algumas características já amplamente analisadas deforma isolada. As principais, são o maior crescimento inicial e maior fitomassa da comunidade, o que lhe permite aumentar a capacidade de aproveitamento da radiação, principalmente no início do ciclo da cultura. Somado a isto, o aumento da capacidade fotossintética através do aumento da força de demanda, com provável efeito sobre o índice de colheita. A ação conjunta das características individuais necessita ser testada quando incorporadas sobre um mesmo genótipo, para analisar o seu grau de resposta.This review has the purpose of presenting some important traits to be incorporated in cereals through the integration of physiology, biochemistry and plant breeding. Several plant attributes were modified during the selection process to improve grain yield of different plant species. This paper intends to discuss the validity of aggregating some of the se traits in

  20. 辽宁省玉米高产潜力探索及创建"超高产田"关键技术研究%Exploration of Maize High-yielding Potential and Technology for Creation of"Super High-yielding Plots"in Liaoning Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王延波; 赵海岩

    2015-01-01

    Maize yield potential exploration and small area of super-high-yielding creation work were carried out by Liaoning Grain Productive Technology Engineering Team in the project area of western Liaoning province from 2006 to 2014. The results of geographical distribution, planting varieties, plant population, yield and yield com?ponents and key field management in 32 trial plots, which yield was equal to or above 15000 kg/ha were showed that, high yielding plots usually distributed at 40.82°-42.07° N and below 1 000 m elevation. Average yield of high-yielding plot was 16 630.5 kg/ha, which plant density of 75%plot was 6.75 × 104 plant/ha. Harvest ear number was positively related to yield. Seed yield of Liaodan565 was from 15 025.5 to 18 822.2 kg/ha, the harvest ear number was from 69 800 to 93 200 ear/ha, the kernel number per ear was from 453 to 510, the 1 000-kernel weight was from 422.5 to 463.9 g, kernel weight per ear was from 190.3 to 233.6 g. High yielding technology was mainly about that, choosing high density tolerant and high-yielding variety, increasing plant population, higher water and fertiliz?er supply, scientific management and plastic film mulching.%2006~2014年,辽宁省粮食丰产科技工程项目组在辽西项目区开展玉米高产潜力探索及小面积超高产田创建工作.对经过严格测产且产量达到和超过15 000 kg/hm2的32个地块的地理分布、种植品种、种植密度、产量和产量构成因素及创建关键技术进行分析.结果表明,从纬度看,高产田均出现在40.82°~42.07° N范围内;从海拔看,高产田出现在1 000 m以下.玉米高产田的平均产量为16 630.5 kg/hm2,75%以上高产田块的种植密度超过6.75×104株/hm2,收获穗数与产量呈正相关关系.辽单565产量为15 025.5~18 822.2 kg/hm2,收获穗数69 800~93 200穗/hm2,穗粒数453~510粒,千粒重422.5~463.9 g,穗粒重190.3~233.6 g.高产关键技术是采用耐密型高产稳产品种,合理提高密度,充足

  1. Dynamic analysis of a diffusing particle in a trapping potential

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindner, M.; Nir, G.; Vivante, A.; Young, I.T.; Garini, Y.

    2013-01-01

    The dynamics of a diffusing particle in a potential field is ubiquitous in physics, and it plays a pivotal role in single-molecule studies. We present a formalism for analyzing the dynamics of diffusing particles in harmonic potentials at low Reynolds numbers using the time evolution of the particle

  2. Analysis of phenomenological potentials for a quarkonium-like system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The comparison is made of the numerical results of quark-antiquark bound state spectra in a non-relativistic approximation for interaction effective potentials. The discussion of several aspects attached to the scalar and vetor nature of the confinant potential is made. The results obtained are compared with recent data on the PSI family. (L.C.)

  3. Estimation of the Effect Size of Lactation Sequence and Calving Season on 305-Day Lactation Milk Yield with Meta Analysis Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hande Küçükönder

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effect of the lactation sequence and the calving season, which are one of the factors influencing the milk yield in Holstein Friesian breed cows, were studied with meta-analysis method. Meta-analysis is a statistical technique that allows a re-evaluation of the studies conducted by other researchers for the same purpose by bringing them together. Meta-analysis combines and summarizes the results of the studies conducted on various fields, and contributes in making a common judgment among researchers. For these reasons, the studies of 7 different researchers that have been made in this field were brought together and it was aimed to create a common view about the studied parameters. In addition, the heterogeneity in this study was investigated by Chi-Square and I2 test statistics, and these values were found as ×^2=50.205 and I2= 88%, respectively. Therefore, for combining the studies, the fixed effect model wasn’t used in meta-analysis. In this study, the results of the researchers’ studies’ regarding the subject in question were scanned with meta-analytical screening method, and were combined by using the odds ratio (OR which is the effect size criterion in meta-analysis. As a result of the meta-analysis, the Odds ratio value was found as 0.759 and the effect level was determined middle. With this study conducted, as a result of this meta-analysis conducted, it was found that the contribution done by the lactation sequence on 305-day lactation milk yield in Holstein Friesian cattles in obtaining high milk yield was 0.759 times more compared to the calving season.

  4. Orbital spectral variables, growth analysis and sugarcane yield Variáveis espectrais orbitais, indicadoras de desenvolvimento e produtividade da cana-de-açúcar

    OpenAIRE

    Maurício dos Santos Simões; Jansle Vieira Rocha; Rubens Augusto de Camargo Lamparelli

    2009-01-01

    Temporal analysis of crop development in commercial fields requires tools for large area monitoring, such as remote sensing. This paper describes the temporal evolution of sugar cane biophysical parameters such as total biomass (BMT), yield (TSS), leaf area index (LAI), and number of plants per linear meter (NPM) correlated to Landsat data. During the 2000 and 2001 cropping seasons, a commercial sugarcane field in Araras, São Paulo state, Brazil, planted with the SP80-1842 sugarcane variety i...

  5. A Potential Correlation Between the Temperature of the Pacific Ocean and Data from Google Trends May Yield a Warning Sign for the Outbreak of Zika

    OpenAIRE

    Isea, Raul

    2016-01-01

    There has been a large number of reported cases of the occurrence of Zika in different countries in 2016 and it is necessary to develop an early warning system to initiate preventive campaigns against the disease. A potential early warning system based on the rise in ocean temperature of the Pacific Ni\\~no Index is proposed. The efficacy is verified using data for the outbreak in Colombia as obtained from Google Trends.

  6. Association Analysis of SSR Markers with Phenology, Grain, and Stover-Yield Related Traits in Pearl Millet (Pennisetum glaucum (L. R. Br.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baskaran Kannan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pearl millet is a staple food crop for millions of people living in the arid and semi-arid tropics. Molecular markers have been used to identify genomic regions linked to traits of interest by conventional QTL mapping and association analysis. Phenotypic recurrent selection is known to increase frequencies of favorable alleles and decrease those unfavorable for the traits under selection. This study was undertaken (i to quantify the response to recurrent selection for phenotypic traits during breeding of the pearl millet open-pollinated cultivar “CO (Cu 9” and its four immediate progenitor populations and (ii to assess the ability of simple sequence repeat (SSR marker alleles to identify genomic regions linked to grain and stover yield-related traits in these populations by association analysis. A total of 159 SSR alleles were detected across 34 selected single-copy SSR loci. SSR marker data revealed presence of subpopulations. Association analysis identified genomic regions associated with flowering time located on linkage group (LG 6 and plant height on LG4, LG6, and LG7. Marker alleles on LG6 were associated with stover yield, and those on LG7 were associated with grain yield. Findings of this study would give an opportunity to develop marker-assisted recurrent selection (MARS or marker-assisted population improvement (MAPI strategies to increase the rate of gain for pearl millet populations undergoing recurrent selection.

  7. Analysis of Deuteron-Nucleus Scattering Using Sao Paulo Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibraheem, Awad A.

    2016-09-01

    Deuteron elastic and inelastic scattering from 6Li, 12C, 16O, 24Mg, 32S, 50V, 58Ni, 70Ge, 90Zr, and 116Sn targets at different incident energies have been analyzed. Both Phenomenological Woods-Saxon and double-folding optical model potentials have been used. The folding calculations were based upon the Sao Paulo potential. A semi-microscopic representation has been proposed to study the effect of the dynamic polarization potential. Comparisons between our results and measured angular distributions of the differential cross sections showed a pronounced success of our theoretical predictions. The corresponding reaction cross sections have also been investigated.

  8. Biomass yield and energy analysis of soybean production in relation to fertilizer-NPK and organic manure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandal, K.G.; Hati, K.M.; Misra, A.K. [Division of Soil Physics, Indian Institute of Soil Science (ICAR), Nabibagh, Berasia Road, Bhopal 462 038, Madhya Pradesh (India)

    2009-12-15

    The study attempts to quantify the root biomass and density, nodulation, crop biomass and grain yield of soybean, to analyze crop growth and energy (renewable and non-renewable) inputs in relation to fertilizer-NPK and organic manure. Observations were recorded from soybean grown with no fertilizer, NPK and NPK + FYM (farmyard manure). The root biomass (BM{sub root}) increased significantly with NPK + FYM compared to NPK and control. The trend of BM{sub root} was best fitted with a third order polynomial. Root length density was higher in NPK + FYM. Biomass of stem, petiole and leaf were significantly greater in NPK + FYM than other treatments, relative contribution to total biomass at physiological maturity were stem 29%, petiole 9%, leaf 17% and pod 46%; quadratic regression models best represented the stem, petiole and leaf biomass data. A maximum LAI of 4.88, total biomass of 633 g m{sup -2} at maturity, CGR of 18.4 g m{sup -2} d{sup -1} were recorded in NPK + FYM. Grain yields increased by 72.5 and 98.5%, and stover yields by 56.0 and 94.8% in NPK and NPK + FYM, respectively over control. Though the total energy input in NPK + FYM was greater than those in NPK and control, the share of renewable energy was much higher with greater net energy output and non-renewable energy productivity in NPK + FYM than NPK. The use efficiency of non-renewable energy was also higher in NPF + FYM. Thus, a combination of NPK-fertilizer and organic manure (FYM) could be the viable nutrient management option for soybean production. (author)

  9. Comparative Fingerprint and Extraction Yield of Medicinal Herb Phenolics with Hepatoprotective Potential, as Determined by UV-Vis and FT-MIR Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona ZAVOI

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed to compare the polyphenolic composition of six medicinal herbs, from wild flora of Romania. The plants investigated, Cynara scolimus (artichoke, Taraxacum officinalis (dandelion, Chelidonium majus (celandine, Hypericum perforatum (St. John’s wort, Silybum marianum (Mary thistle and Lycopodium clavatum (Wolf’s claw are known, to have hepatoprotective action. Using in parallel glycerol-water, ethanol-water and methanol, the solvent-dependence of the extract fingerprint and composition in bioactive molecules was studied by UV-Vis and Infrared (FT-MIR spectrometry. The extraction yields, calculated as an extraction factor (EF were superior in acidic methanol comparative to glycerin and ethanol, favorising the increase in phenolic acids against flavonoid derivatives . Based on the differences of polarity between the three solvents used, higher EF values were obtained for dandelion, artichoke, celandine and St. John wort, more rich in phenolic acids than flavonoids. Mary thistle and Wolf’s claw had lower concentrations of phenolics, but higher content of lignans and terpenoids. Based on the FT-MIR peaks from 8 regions, for each plant extract, has been determined the fingerprint region between 900 and 1500 cm-1and identified the specific functional groups. A good, significant correlation was found between the concentration of total phenolics calculated by UV-Vis spectrometry and FTIR methods, after calibration with gallic acid. The value of the MIR signal at 1743 cm-1 may be considered a good indicator of phenolics concentration in such extracts. Combined UV-Vis and FTIR spectroscopy are recommended as rapid and reliable tools to investigate the fingerprint and to predict the composition of medicinal plants or to evaluate the quality and authenticity of different standardized formulas.

  10. Analysis of Yield Components of F1 Hybrids of Crosses between Spring and Winter Wheat Types (Triticum aestivum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Marijana Barić; Hrvoje Šarčević; Snježana Kereša

    2004-01-01

    F1 hybrids were produced using the German spring wheat variety Remus as a female parent and eight Croatian wheat varieties (six winter and two spring types) as male parents. The heterosis (MP-mid parent, BP-better parent) for five yield components was investigated in eight cross combinations. Data are based on field trial. All the combinations tested gave average heterosis (MP, BP) for 1000-grain weight (14.38%, 6.12%) and grain weight per spike (11.47%, 3.68%). The highest heterosis (MP, BP)...

  11. Analysis of the demographic potential in function of tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Mijalce Gjorgievski

    2011-01-01

    Man is the prime mover of the overall social economic and political life of the entire globe and therefore he is studied from various aspects depending on the needs of what we want to obtain information on the demographic potential and its features. In this paper, the subject of study will be processing potential through its demographic characteristics (number condition, age structure, natural increase, economic activity, religious composition, etc.) for the tourism economy. We know that the ...

  12. Analysis of shock relations for steady potential flow models

    OpenAIRE

    Sanderse, Benjamin; Koren, Barry

    2013-01-01

    Potential flow models remain to be practically relevant, for both physical and numerical reasons. Detailed knowledge of their difference with rotational and viscous flow models is still important. In the present paper, this knowledge is reviewed and extended. Normal and oblique shock relations for the steady full potential equation and steady transonic small disturbance equation are derived. Among others, the deficiencies in conservation of mass and momentum across shock waves are analyzed in...

  13. Statistical analysis of the relationship between climate-induced maize yield and rainy-season precipitation across Inner Mongolia, North China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jin; Chen, Xin; Zhou, Limin; Xue, Yan; Lin, Jie

    2016-06-01

    Exploring possible relationships between climate-induced maize yield and rainy-season precipitation under climate change is fundamental to science-based decision for food security in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region (IMAR). To determine the relationship of maize yield with precipitation variables across IMAR during 1960-2012, we selected 11 precipitation indices of rainy season and divided IMAR into four sub-regions—west, middle, east, and northeast using principal component analysis and K-means clustering methods. Results show that climate-induced maize yield is more sensitive to precipitation variability in the west and middle IMAR. The most important precipitation factor that limits maize yield is moderate precipitation days in these two sub-regions. Moreover, west and middle Inner Mongolia was dominated by decreasing precipitation during the rainy season. Furthermore, the El Niño/La Niña-Southern Oscillation cycle has the significant influence on the rainy-season precipitation in the west and middle IMAR.

  14. Dynamic Airline Scheduling: An Analysis of the Potentials of Refleeting and Retiming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warburg, Valdemar; Hansen, Troels G.; Larsen, Allan;

    2008-01-01

    We present a Dynamic Airline Scheduling (DAS) technique which is able to change departure times and reassign aircraft types during the booking process to meet fluctuating passenger demands. The procedure is tested on several different days before departure, resulting in a significant profit...... increase for a major European airline. The results also indicate that applying DAS close to departure yields the largest potential....

  15. Dynamic Airline Scheduling: An Analysis of the Potentials of Refleeting and Retiming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warburg, Valdemar; Hansen, Troels G.; Larsen, Allan;

    We present a Dynamic Airline Scheduling (DAS) technique which is able to change departure times and reassign aircraft types during the booking process to meet fluctuating passenger demands. The procedure is tested on several different days before departure, resulting in a significant profit...... increase for a major European airline. The results also indicate that applying DAS close to departure yields the largest potential....

  16. A new high phenyl lactic acid-yielding Lactobacillus plantarum IMAU10124 and a comparative analysis of lactate dehydrogenase gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiqing; Zhang, Shuli; Shi, Yan; Shen, Fadi; Wang, Haikuan

    2014-07-01

    Phenyl lactic acid (PLA) has been widely reported as a new natural antimicrobial compound. In this study, 120 Lactobacillus plantarum strains were demonstrated to produce PLA using high-performance liquid chromatography. Lactobacillus plantarum IMAU10124 was screened with a PLA yield of 0.229 g L(-1) . Compared with all previous reports, this is the highest PLA-producing lactic acid bacteria (LAB) when grown in MRS broth without any optimizing conditions. When 3.0 g L(-1) phenyl pyruvic acid (PPA) was added to the medium as substrate, PLA production reached 2.90 g L(-1) , with the highest 96.05% conversion rate. A lowest PLA-yielding L. plantarum IMAU40105 (0.043 g L(-1) ) was also screened. It was shown that the conversion from PPA to PLA by lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) is the key factor in the improvement of PLA production by LAB. Comparing the LDH gene of two strains, four amino acid mutation sites were found in this study in the LDH of L. plantarum IMAU10124.

  17. Genetic analysis to identify good combiners for ToLCV resistance and yield components in tomato using interspecific hybridization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ramesh K. Singh; N. Rai; Major Singh; S. N. Singh; K. Srivastava

    2014-12-01

    The interspecific hybridization for tomato leaf curl virus (ToLCV) resistance was carried out among 10 genetically diverse tomato genotypes (diversified by 50 SSR markers). Among the 10 parents, four susceptible cultivars of Solanum lycopersicum were crossed with six resistant wilds, such as S. pimpinellifolium, S. habrochaites, S. chemielewskii, S. ceraseforme, S. peruvianum and S. chilense in a line × tester mating design. All the 24 hybrids and their parents were grown in the field and glasshouse conditions to determine the general-combining abilities (GCA) and specific-combining abilities (SCA). The variances due to SCA and GCA showed both additive and nonadditive gene effects. Based on GCA estimates, EC-520061 and WIR-5032 were good general combiners while based on SCA estimates, PBC × EC-520061 and PBC × EC-521080 were best specific combiners for coefficient of infection and fruit yield per plant in both the environments. These lines could be selected and utilized in ToLCV resistance and high yield breeding programme for improving the traits.

  18. SPATIAL-TEMPORAL CHARACTERISTICS OFPOTATO POTENTIAL YIELDS IN YUNNAN PROVINCE%我国云南山区马铃薯周年生产潜力的时空分布特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁淑敏; 王颖; 杨琼芬; 李燕山; 白建明; 李先平; 隋启君

    2016-01-01

    利用NASA Prediction of Worldwide Energy Resource ( POWER)网站和中国气象数据共享网中云南省1983~2013年台站的逐日气温数据和太阳辐射数据,基于FAO农业生态区域法和瓦赫宁根大学的马铃薯光合生产潜力模型,估算云南省马铃薯周年生产潜力。结果表明:比较三种马铃薯产量潜力的计算方法,结合国内外的生产实际, FAO农业生态区域法的光温产量潜力模型是目前较符合实际的计算马铃薯产量潜力的方法,并且有可能达到最大的实际产量的计算方法,其计算结果为大春(134.2±9.0) t/hm2,小春为(76.6±14.8) t/hm2,秋作为(76.2±8.3) t/hm2,冬作为(70.1±15.1) t/hm2。当水分不是限制因素时,海拔1000m以上为大春马铃薯稳产高产区域;滇东北,滇东南和北纬25.5~26.5度间为小春马铃薯稳产高产区域。滇东北为秋作马铃薯稳产高产区域(经度在东经102.5~105.5之间)。云南省冬作马铃薯生产适宜区主要分布在滇中和滇南地区,面积较广,同时也是高产区域,滇西北和滇东北大部分区域不适宜种植冬作马铃薯,即海拔2200m以下范围为适宜冬作区域,其余地区则为不适宜区域。海拔550~950m左右区域的冬作光合生产潜力、光温生产潜力最高。当水分不是限制因素时,在滇南950m海拔以下为稳产高产区域。%The annual potato potential yield in Yunnan province was assessed based on daily mean temperature and solar radiation data from 1983-2013 from NASA Prediction of Worldwide Energy Resource ( POWER) and China meteorological data sharing service system,using the FAO agricultural ecological zone and the photosynthesis poten-tial yield of Wageningen model. The results showed that compared with three methods of the calculation of the pota-to potential yield, the FAO potential yield model was a better method of calculating the potato potential yield which can achieve maximum actual yield. The

  19. Diallel Analysis of Yield and It’s related Traits in Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. under Well-watered and Water-stressed Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Kholghi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available 800x600 Drought stress is one of the factors which influence sunflower production. Hence, breeding for tolerance to drought stress has become a major focus. In this paper, combining ability, gene action and genetic analysis of several characteristics were studied for five sunflower inbred lines and their ten hybrids (fifteen genotypes. The materials were evaluated in two separate experiments using a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD with three replications in well-watered and waterstressed states and in field condition. Data were analyzed by Griffing’s diallel analysis model 1 (fixed effects and method 2 (parents and crosses. Combined analysis of experiments revealed significant differences among genotypes for all studied traits. Combining ability analysis revealed that in well-watered conditions, general and specific combining abilities (GCA and SCA effects were significant for all studied traits except for the leaf number. In water-stressed condition, GCA and SCA effects were significant for all studied traits except for the head and stem diameter. The Griffing diallel analysis showed that the genotype LR4 could be considered as the best combiner with the highest GCA effect for seed yield per plant, number of filled seed, stem diameter and head diameter in the sunflower breeding programs. In both water treatment conditions the cross ‘RHA266xLR4’ showed the highest positive SCA effects and the highest mean value for seed yield per plant. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE FA

  20. Analysis of high yield formation of rapeseed in Hunan province and high-yield cultivation measures%湖南高产油菜的产量构成特点及主要栽培措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    官春云; 谭太龙; 王国槐; 王峰; 官梅

    2011-01-01

    对2008-2009年参加湖南省油菜高产创建活动的高产田块产量及其形成特点进行分析.结果表明:平均产量为3084 kg/hm2的油菜田块角果数为6.522×107个/hm2,每果粒数为20.5粒,千粒重4.077 g;冬前苗单株绿叶数约10片,单株总叶数16片,最大叶长近45 cm,叶宽18 cm,干物质产量为4 841.85 kg/hm2;盛花期株高为136 cm,主茎总节数31.8节,主茎绿叶数17片,第一片无柄叶长28.8 cm,宽13 cm,10 cm以上分枝数10.6个,干物质产量为11 225.1 kg/hm2;成熟期株高为180 cm,分枝数11个,干物质产量(去角果)为9 118.65 kg/hm2.高产田块主要栽培措施为:9月7-15日播种,培育壮苗,10月10-25 日移栽;土壤肥力中等,精细整地;施用45%高效复合肥450~750 kg/hm2,另加15 kg/hm2硼肥作底肥,苗期适当追施尿素;或施优质农家肥1.5×104kg/hm2,25%复合肥375 kg/hm2,加15 kg/hm2硼肥作底肥,苗期适当追施尿素150~225 kg/hm2;种植密度1.2× 105株/hm2,及时灌排水和防治病虫草害等.%According to the analysis of yield level and yield characteristics of typical block in Hunan province in 2008-2009, preliminary results are obtained. Yield components and physiological index in different growth stages of rapeseed yielded around 3 084 kg/hm2 in Hunan are: number of siliques is 6.522 × 107/hm2, seed number is 20.5/ silique, thousand grain weight of rapeseed is 4.077 g. Green leaf number per plant in seedlings before winter (1/10) is nearly 10, total leaf number is 16, maximum leaf length nearly 45 cm, leaf width 18 cm, dry matter yield before winter is 4 841.85 kg/ hm2. Plant height in florescence stage is 136 cm, nodes number on the main stalk is 31.8, green leaf number on the main stalk is 17, first piece of sessile leaf length is 28.8 cm, width 13 cm, branch quantity (≥10 cm)is 10.6, the total mass of dry matter is 11 225.1 kg/hm2. Plant height in maturity stage is 180 cm, number of branch quantity is 11 and total amount of dry matter (silique

  1. An Empirical Dipole Polarizability for he from a Fit to Spectroscopic Data Yielding Analytic Empirical Potentials for all Isotopologues of HeH^+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Young-Sang; Le Roy, Robert J.; Dattani, Nikesh S.

    2015-06-01

    All available spectroscopic data for all stable isotopologues of HeH^+ are analyzed with a direct-potential-fit (DPF) procedure that uses least-squares fits to experimental data in order to optimize the parameters defining an analytic potential. Since the coefficient of the leading (1/r^4) inverse-power term is C_4 = αHe/2, when treated as a free parameter in the fit, it provides an independent empirical estimate of the polarizability of the He atom. The fact that the present model for the long-range behaviour includes accurate theoretical C_6, C_7 and C_8 coefficients (which are held fixed in the fits) should make it possible to obtain a good estimate of this quantity. The Boltzmann constant k_B, a fundamental constant that can define temperature, is directly related to the dipole polarizability α of a gas by the expression k_B = α/3ɛ_0(ɛ_r+2/ɛ_r-1){p}/{T} in which ɛ_0 is the permitivity of free space, and ɛ_r is the relative dielectric permitivity at pressure p and temperature T. If k_B can be determined with greater precision, it can be used to define temperature based on a fundamental constant, rather than based on the rather arbitrary triple point of water, which is only known to 5 digits of precision. α for He is known theoretically to 8 digits of precision, but an empirical value lags behind. This work, examines the question of how precisely αHe can be determined from a DPF to spectroscopic HeH^+ data, where the limiting long-range tail of the analytic potential has the correct form implied by Rydberg theory: αHe/2r^4. Although the highest observed vibrational level is bound by over 1000 cm-1, our current fits determine an empirical C_4 = α{He}/2 with an uncertainty of only 0.6%. It has been shown that with more precise spectroscopic data near the dissociation, α{He} can be determined with high enough precision to determine a more precise k_B and hence redefine temperature more accurately. Dattani N S. & Puchalski M. (2015) Physical Review

  2. Analytical analysis of surface potential for grooved-gate MOSFET

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Xiao-Ju; Gong Xin; Wang Jun-Ping; Hao Yue

    2006-01-01

    The improvement of the characteristics of grooved-gate MOSFETs compared to the planar devices is attributed to the corner effect of the surface potential along the channel. In this paper we propose an analytical model of the surface potential distribution based on the solution of two-dimensional Poisson equation in cylindrical coordinates utilizing the cylinder approximation and the structure parameters such as the concave corner θ0. The relationship between the minimum surface potential and the structure parameters is theoretically analysed. Results confirm that the bigger the concave corner, the more obvious the corner effect. The corner effect increases the threshold voltage of the grooved-gate MOSFETs, so the better is the short channel effect (SCE) immunity.

  3. Genome-wide association analysis of milk yield traits in Nordic Red Cattle using imputed whole genome sequence variants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iso-Touru, T; Sahana, G; Guldbrandtsen, B;

    2016-01-01

    variants behind them. In this study, we used whole genome sequence level data from 4280 progeny tested Nordic Red Cattle bulls to scan the genome for loci affecting milk, fat and protein yields. RESULTS: Using a genome-wise significance threshold, regions on Bos taurus chromosomes 5, 14, 23, 25 and 26 were...... traits via biological networks. CONCLUSION: This is the first time when whole genome sequence data is utilized to study genomic regions affecting milk production in the Nordic Red Cattle population. Sequence level data offers the possibility to study quantitative traits in detail but still cannot......BACKGROUND: The Nordic Red Cattle consisting of three different populations from Finland, Sweden and Denmark are under a joint breeding value estimation system. The long history of recording of production and health traits offers a great opportunity to study production traits and identify causal...

  4. Genome-Wide Analysis of Yield in Europe: Allelic Effects Vary with Drought and Heat Scenarios1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millet, Emilie J.; Welcker, Claude; Kruijer, Willem; Negro, Sandra; Coupel-Ledru, Aude; Laborde, Jacques; Bauland, Cyril; Praud, Sebastien; Presterl, Thomas; Usadel, Björn; Charcosset, Alain; Van Eeuwijk, Fred; Tardieu, François

    2016-01-01

    Assessing the genetic variability of plant performance under heat and drought scenarios can contribute to reduce the negative effects of climate change. We propose here an approach that consisted of (1) clustering time courses of environmental variables simulated by a crop model in current (35 years × 55 sites) and future conditions into six scenarios of temperature and water deficit as experienced by maize (Zea mays L.) plants; (2) performing 29 field experiments in contrasting conditions across Europe with 244 maize hybrids; (3) assigning individual experiments to scenarios based on environmental conditions as measured in each field experiment; frequencies of temperature scenarios in our experiments corresponded to future heat scenarios (+5°C); (4) analyzing the genetic variation of plant performance for each environmental scenario. Forty-eight quantitative trait loci (QTLs) of yield were identified by association genetics using a multi-environment multi-locus model. Eight and twelve QTLs were associated to tolerances to heat and drought stresses because they were specific to hot and dry scenarios, respectively, with low or even negative allelic effects in favorable scenarios. Twenty-four QTLs improved yield in favorable conditions but showed nonsignificant effects under stress; they were therefore associated with higher sensitivity. Our approach showed a pattern of QTL effects expressed as functions of environmental variables and scenarios, allowing us to suggest hypotheses for mechanisms and candidate genes underlying each QTL. It can be used for assessing the performance of genotypes and the contribution of genomic regions under current and future stress situations and to accelerate breeding for drought-prone environments. PMID:27436830

  5. Yielding and its adaptability of several promising bulk cocoa clones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dedy Suhendi

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Yielding and its adaptability are considered to be an important criteria for clones recommendation. An experiment to evaluate yield and its adaptability of several promising bulk cocoa clones has been executed during 1996—2003 in three locations having different altitude and type of climate, consisted of Jatirono(450 m asl., B type of climate, Kalisepanjang (275 m asl., C type of climate and Kalitelepak (145 m asl., B type of climate. Randomized completely block design (RCBD was used in each location with 14 promising clones and four replications. Recommended clones of ICS 60 and GC 7 were used as standard. The promising clones were originated from mother trees selection with the main criteria of yield. Observations were conducted on yield and its components as well as bean characteristics. Determination of adaptability of each clone by using yield performance and its stability. Statistical analysis was done by using combined analysis. The results showed that KW 30 and KW 48 perform higher yield (2.3 ton/ha than that of standard clone (1.7 ton/ha as well as consistant yield stability between location and over years. There for, the two clones performed good adaptability. KW 30 and KW 48 also perform good yield components, and high percentage of fat content i.e 55%. So, those clones are potential to be recommended for commercial planting materials. Key words : bulk cocoa, yield, clone, stability, adaptability.

  6. Event Related Potential Analysis of Stimulus Over-Selectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Phil; Savile, Amy; Truzoli, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    Stimulus over-selectivity is a phenomenon often displayed by individuals with many forms of developmental and intellectual disabilities, and also by individuals lacking such disabilities who are under cognitive strain. It occurs when only one of potentially many aspects of the environment controls behavior. Adult participants were trained and…

  7. Analysis of shock relations for steady potential flow models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanderse, B.; Koren, B.

    2013-01-01

    Potential flow models remain to be practically relevant, for both physical and numerical reasons. Detailed knowledge of their difference with rotational and viscous flow models is still important. In the present paper, this knowledge is reviewed and extended. Normal and oblique shock relations for t

  8. Geospatial Analysis of Renewable Energy Technical Potential on Tribal Lands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doris, E.; Lopez, A.; Beckley, D.

    2013-02-01

    This technical report uses an established geospatial methodology to estimate the technical potential for renewable energy on tribal lands for the purpose of allowing Tribes to prioritize the development of renewable energy resources either for community scale on-tribal land use or for revenue generating electricity sales.

  9. Analysis of cross sections using various nuclear potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relevant astrophysical reaction rates which are derived from the reaction cross sections are necessary input to the reaction network. In this work, we analyse several theoretical models of the nuclear potential which give better prediction of the cross sections for some selected reactions

  10. First Generation College Student Leadership Potential: A Mixed Methods Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hojan-Clark, Jane M.

    2010-01-01

    This mixed methods research compared the leadership potential of traditionally aged first generation college students to that of college students whose parents are college educated. A college education provides advantages to those who can obtain it (Baum & Payea, 2004; Black Issues in Higher Education, 2005; Education and the Value of Knowledge,…

  11. Stability analysis of the inverse transmembrane potential problem in electrocardiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Martin; Mardal, Kent-André; Nielsen, Bjørn Fredrik

    2010-10-01

    In this paper we study some mathematical properties of an inverse problem arising in connection with electrocardiograms (ECGs). More specifically, we analyze the possibility for recovering the transmembrane potential in the heart from ECG recordings, a challenge currently investigated by a growing number of groups. Our approach is based on the bidomain model for the electrical activity in the myocardium, and leads to a parameter identification problem for elliptic partial differential equations (PDEs). It turns out that this challenge can be split into two subproblems: the task of recovering the potential at the heart surface from body surface recordings; the problem of computing the transmembrane potential inside the heart from the potential determined at the heart surface. Problem (1), which can be formulated as the Cauchy problem for an elliptic PDE, has been extensively studied and is well known to be severely ill-posed. The main purpose of this paper is to prove that problem (2) is stable and well posed if a suitable prior is available. Moreover, our theoretical findings are illuminated by a series of numerical experiments. Finally, we discuss some aspects of uniqueness related to the anisotropy in the heart.

  12. Product Analysis in Target Market : Potential of Chinese Electric Motorcycle in Southern Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Ye, Jing

    2012-01-01

    Ye, Jing 2012. Product Analysis in Target Market. Potential of Chinese Electric Motorcycle in Southern Finland. Bachelor’s Thesis. Kemi-Tornio University of Applied Sciences. Business and Culture. Pages 61. The thesis investigates potential of Chinese electric motorcycles in Southern Finland market through a product analysis. The objective of the thesis is to understand market situation and search market potential of Chinese electric motorcycles through a product analysis. The target marke...

  13. Time series analysis in astronomy: Limits and potentialities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vio, R.; Kristensen, N.R.; Madsen, Henrik;

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we consider the problem of the limits concerning the physical information that can be extracted from the analysis of one or more time series ( light curves) typical of astrophysical objects. On the basis of theoretical considerations and numerical simulations, we show that with no a......In this paper we consider the problem of the limits concerning the physical information that can be extracted from the analysis of one or more time series ( light curves) typical of astrophysical objects. On the basis of theoretical considerations and numerical simulations, we show...... that with no a priori physical model there are not many possibilities to obtain interpretable results. For this reason, the practice to develop more and more sophisticated statistical methods of time series analysis is not productive. Only techniques of data analysis developed in a specific physical context can...... be expected to provide useful results. The field of stochastic dynamics appears to be an interesting framework for such an approach. In particular, it is shown that modelling the experimental time series by means of the stochastic differential equations (SDE) represents a valuable tool of analysis...

  14. Energy inputs-yield relationship and sensitivity analysis of pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) production in Markazi Region of Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Keshavarz Afshar, R.; a Alipour; Hashemi, M.; M. Ansari Jovini; D. Pimentel

    2013-01-01

    Pistachio is considered as an important agricultural commodity in Iran and ranks top amongst all exported agricultural products. Conducting an overall energy audit and economic analysis of pistachio production can provide useful information to help implement management strategies for improving energy efficiency. A study was conducted during 2009 and 2010 to evaluate the overall energy inputs and outputs and to perform an economic analysis of pistachio production in the Iranian province of Mar...

  15. ANALYSIS OF THE DEMOGRAPHIC POTENTIAL IN FUNCTION OF TOURISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijalce Gjorgievski

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Man is the prime mover of the overall social economic and political life of the entire globe and therefore he is studied from various aspects depending on the needs of what we want to obtain information on the demographic potential and its features.In this paper, the subject of study will be processing potential through its demographic characteristics (number condition, age structure, natural increase, economic activity, religious composition, etc. for the tourism economy. We know that the basic elements of tourism are the natural and cultural wealth that detect, evaluate and put into operation in tourism. However, it has its function, the basic factor are the people who need to visit those places, so it is very important to understand the demographic characteristics of people in every region of the globe in order to come to some understanding of the habits, needs and affinities of people depending on age, nationality and religious affiliation, etc. when choosing their travel destination.

  16. Single-sweep spectral analysis of contact heat evoked potentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tine M; Graversen, Carina; Frøkjaer, Jens B;

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: The cortical response to nociceptive thermal stimuli recorded as contact heat evoked potentials (CHEPs) may be altered by morphine. However, previous studies have averaged CHEPs over multiple stimuli, which are confounded by jitter between sweeps. Thus, the aim was to assess single-sweep ch......AIMS: The cortical response to nociceptive thermal stimuli recorded as contact heat evoked potentials (CHEPs) may be altered by morphine. However, previous studies have averaged CHEPs over multiple stimuli, which are confounded by jitter between sweeps. Thus, the aim was to assess single...... by 13% (P = 0.04) and 9% (P = 0.007), while the beta and gamma bands were increased by 10% (P = 0.006) and 24% (P = 0.04). CONCLUSION: The decreases in the delta and theta band are suggested to represent a decrease in the pain specific morphology of the CHEPs, which indicates a diminished pain response...

  17. Dynamical analysis of Schrodinger operators with growing sparse potentials

    CERN Document Server

    Tcheremchantsev, S

    2003-01-01

    We consider Scr\\"odinger operators in l^2(Z^+) with potentials of the form V(n)=S(n)+Q(n). Here S is a sparse potential: S(n)=n^{1-\\eta \\over 2 \\eta}, 0<\\eta <1, for n=L_N and S(n)=0 else, where L_N is a very fast growing sequence. The real function Q(n) is compactly supported. We give a rather complete description of the (time-averaged) dynamics exp(-itH) \\psi for different initial states \\psi. In particular, for some \\psi we calculate explicitely the "intermittency function" \\beta_\\psi^- (p) which turns out to be nonconstant. As a particular corollary of obtained results, we show that the spectral measure restricted to (-2,2) has exact Hausdorff dimension \\eta for all boundary conditions, improving the result of Jitomirskaya and Last.

  18. A resurgence analysis for cubic and quartic anharmonic potentials

    CERN Document Server

    Gahramanov, Ilmar

    2016-01-01

    In this work we explicitly show resurgence relations between perturbative and one instanton sectors of the resonance energy levels for cubic and quartic anharmonic potentials in one-dimensional quantum mechanics. Both systems satisfy the Dunne-Unsal relation and hence we are able to derive one-instanton non-perturbative contributions with the fluctuation terms to the energy merely from the perturbative data. We confirm our results with previous results obtained by Zinn-Justin et al.

  19. Viscous potential flow analysis of peripheral heavy ion collisions

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Du-Juan; Néda, Zoltán; Csernai, Laszlo

    2013-01-01

    The conditions for the development of a Kelvin-Helmholtz instability (KHI) for the quark-gluon plasma (QGP) flow in a peripheral heavy ion collision is investigated. The projectile and target side particles are separated by an energetically motivated hypothetical surface, characterized with a phenomenological surface tension. In such a view, a classical potential flow approximation is considered and the onset of the KHI is studied. The growth rate of the instability is computed as a function ...

  20. Viscous potential flow analysis of peripheral heavy ion collisions

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, D. J.; Néda, Z.; Csernai, L. P.

    2013-01-01

    The conditions for the development of a Kelvin-Helmholtz Instability (KHI) for the Quark-gluon Plasma (QGP) flow in a peripheral heavy-ion collision is investigated. The projectile and target side particles are separated by an energetically motivated hypothetical surface, characterized with a phenomenological surface tension. In such a view, a classical potential flow approximation is considered and the onset of the KHI is studied. The growth rate of the instability is computed as function of...

  1. Analysis of event-related potentials (ERP) by damped sinusoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demiralp, T; Ademoglu, A; Istefanopulos, Y; Gülçür, H O

    1998-06-01

    Several researchers propose that event-related potentials (ERPs) can be explained by a superposition of transient oscillations at certain frequency bands in response to external or internal events. The transient nature of the ERP is more suitable to be modelled as a sum of damped sinusoids. These damped sinusoids can be completely characterized by four sets of parameters, namely the amplitude, the damping coefficient, the phase and the frequency. The Prony method is used to estimate these parameters. In this study, the long-latency auditory-evoked potentials (AEP) and the auditory oddball responses (P300) of 10 healthy subjects are analysed by this method. It is shown that the original waveforms can be reconstructed by summing a small number of damped sinusoids. This allows for a parsimonious representation of the ERPs. Furthermore, the method shows that the oddball target responses contain higher amplitude, slower delta and slower damped theta components than those of the AEPs. With this technique, we show that the differentiation of sensory and cognitive potentials are not inherent in their overall frequency content but in their frequency components at certain bands.

  2. Potential flow analysis of glaze ice accretions on an airfoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaguli, R. J.

    1984-01-01

    The results of an analytical/experimental study of the flow fields about an airfoil with leading edge glaze ice accretion shapes are presented. Tests were conducted in the Icing Research Tunnel to measure surface pressure distributions and boundary layer separation reattachment characteristics on a general aviation wing section to which was affixed wooden ice shapes which approximated typical glaze ice accretions. Comparisons were made with predicted pressure distributions using current airfoil analysis codes as well as the Bristow mixed analysis/design airfoil panel code. The Bristow code was also used to predict the separation reattachment dividing streamline by inputting the appropriate experimental surface pressure distribution.

  3. Comparative and quantitative analysis of antioxidant and scavenging potential of Indigofera tinctoria Linn. extracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rashmi Singh; Shatruhan Sharma; Veena Sharma

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare and elucidate the antioxidant efifcacy of ethanolic and hydroethanolic extracts ofIndigofera tinctoriaLinn. (Fabaceae family). METHODS: Variousin-vitro antioxidant assays and free radical-scavenging assays were done. Quantitative measurements of various phytoconstituents, reductive abilities and chelating potential were carried out along with standard compounds. Half inhibitory concentration (IC50) values for ethanol and hydroethanol extracts were analyzed and compared with respective standards. RESULTS: Hydroethanolic extracts showed considerably more potent antioxidant activity in comparison to ethanol extracts. Hydroethanolic extracts had lower IC50 values than ethanol extracts in the case of DPPH, metal chelation and hydroxyl radical-scavenging capacity (829, 659 and 26.7 μg/mL) but had slightly higher values than ethanol in case of SO2- and NO2-scavenging activity (P< 0.001vs standard). Quantitative measurements also showed that the abundance of phenolic and lfavonoid bioactive phytoconstituents were signiifcantly (P< 0.001) greater in hydroethanol extracts (212.920 and 149.770 mg GAE and rutin/g of plant extract respectively) than in ethanol extracts (211.691 and 132.603 mg GAE and rutin/g of plant extract respectively). Karl Pearson’s correlation analysis (r2) between various antioxidant parameters and bioactive components also associated the antioxidant potential ofI. tinctoria with various phytoconstituents, especialy phenolics, lfavonoids, saponins and tannins. CONCLUSION: This study may be helpful to draw the attention of researchers towards the hydroethanol extracts ofI. tinctoria, which has a high yield, and great prospects in herbal industries to produce inexpensive and powerful herbal products.

  4. Assessment of the Potential Impacts of Wheat Plant Traits across Environments by Combining Crop Modeling and Global Sensitivity Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casadebaig, Pierre; Zheng, Bangyou; Chapman, Scott; Huth, Neil; Faivre, Robert; Chenu, Karine

    2016-01-01

    A crop can be viewed as a complex system with outputs (e.g. yield) that are affected by inputs of genetic, physiology, pedo-climatic and management information. Application of numerical methods for model exploration assist in evaluating the major most influential inputs, providing the simulation model is a credible description of the biological system. A sensitivity analysis was used to assess the simulated impact on yield of a suite of traits involved in major processes of crop growth and development, and to evaluate how the simulated value of such traits varies across environments and in relation to other traits (which can be interpreted as a virtual change in genetic background). The study focused on wheat in Australia, with an emphasis on adaptation to low rainfall conditions. A large set of traits (90) was evaluated in a wide target population of environments (4 sites × 125 years), management practices (3 sowing dates × 3 nitrogen fertilization levels) and CO2 (2 levels). The Morris sensitivity analysis method was used to sample the parameter space and reduce computational requirements, while maintaining a realistic representation of the targeted trait × environment × management landscape (∼ 82 million individual simulations in total). The patterns of parameter × environment × management interactions were investigated for the most influential parameters, considering a potential genetic range of +/- 20% compared to a reference cultivar. Main (i.e. linear) and interaction (i.e. non-linear and interaction) sensitivity indices calculated for most of APSIM-Wheat parameters allowed the identification of 42 parameters substantially impacting yield in most target environments. Among these, a subset of parameters related to phenology, resource acquisition, resource use efficiency and biomass allocation were identified as potential candidates for crop (and model) improvement. PMID:26799483

  5. Assessment of the Potential Impacts of Wheat Plant Traits across Environments by Combining Crop Modeling and Global Sensitivity Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casadebaig, Pierre; Zheng, Bangyou; Chapman, Scott; Huth, Neil; Faivre, Robert; Chenu, Karine

    2016-01-01

    A crop can be viewed as a complex system with outputs (e.g. yield) that are affected by inputs of genetic, physiology, pedo-climatic and management information. Application of numerical methods for model exploration assist in evaluating the major most influential inputs, providing the simulation model is a credible description of the biological system. A sensitivity analysis was used to assess the simulated impact on yield of a suite of traits involved in major processes of crop growth and development, and to evaluate how the simulated value of such traits varies across environments and in relation to other traits (which can be interpreted as a virtual change in genetic background). The study focused on wheat in Australia, with an emphasis on adaptation to low rainfall conditions. A large set of traits (90) was evaluated in a wide target population of environments (4 sites × 125 years), management practices (3 sowing dates × 3 nitrogen fertilization levels) and CO2 (2 levels). The Morris sensitivity analysis method was used to sample the parameter space and reduce computational requirements, while maintaining a realistic representation of the targeted trait × environment × management landscape (∼ 82 million individual simulations in total). The patterns of parameter × environment × management interactions were investigated for the most influential parameters, considering a potential genetic range of +/- 20% compared to a reference cultivar. Main (i.e. linear) and interaction (i.e. non-linear and interaction) sensitivity indices calculated for most of APSIM-Wheat parameters allowed the identification of 42 parameters substantially impacting yield in most target environments. Among these, a subset of parameters related to phenology, resource acquisition, resource use efficiency and biomass allocation were identified as potential candidates for crop (and model) improvement.

  6. Assessment of the Potential Impacts of Wheat Plant Traits across Environments by Combining Crop Modeling and Global Sensitivity Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Casadebaig

    Full Text Available A crop can be viewed as a complex system with outputs (e.g. yield that are affected by inputs of genetic, physiology, pedo-climatic and management information. Application of numerical methods for model exploration assist in evaluating the major most influential inputs, providing the simulation model is a credible description of the biological system. A sensitivity analysis was used to assess the simulated impact on yield of a suite of traits involved in major processes of crop growth and development, and to evaluate how the simulated value of such traits varies across environments and in relation to other traits (which can be interpreted as a virtual change in genetic background. The study focused on wheat in Australia, with an emphasis on adaptation to low rainfall conditions. A large set of traits (90 was evaluated in a wide target population of environments (4 sites × 125 years, management practices (3 sowing dates × 3 nitrogen fertilization levels and CO2 (2 levels. The Morris sensitivity analysis method was used to sample the parameter space and reduce computational requirements, while maintaining a realistic representation of the targeted trait × environment × management landscape (∼ 82 million individual simulations in total. The patterns of parameter × environment × management interactions were investigated for the most influential parameters, considering a potential genetic range of +/- 20% compared to a reference cultivar. Main (i.e. linear and interaction (i.e. non-linear and interaction sensitivity indices calculated for most of APSIM-Wheat parameters allowed the identification of 42 parameters substantially impacting yield in most target environments. Among these, a subset of parameters related to phenology, resource acquisition, resource use efficiency and biomass allocation were identified as potential candidates for crop (and model improvement.

  7. GIS based analysis of future district heating potential in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Steffen; Möller, Bernd

    2013-01-01

    in Denmark have been mapped in a heat atlas which includes all buildings and their heat demands. This article focuses on developing a method for assessing the costs associated with supplying these buildings with DH. The analysis is based on the existing DH areas in Denmark. By finding the heat production...

  8. Statistical model analysis of hadron yields in proton-nucleus and heavy-ion collisions at SIS 18 energies

    CERN Document Server

    Agakishiev, G; Balanda, A; Belver, D; Belyaev, A; Berger-Chen, J C; Blanco, A; Böhmer, M; Boyard, J L; Cabanelas, P; Castro, E; Chernenko, S; Destefanis, M; Dohrmann, F; Dybczak, A; Epple, E; Fabbietti, L; Fateev, O; Finocchiaro, P; Fonte, P; Friese, J; Fröhlich, I; Galatyuk, T; Garzon, J A; Gernhäuser, R; Gilardi, C; Göbel, K; Golubeva, M; Gonzalez-Diaz, D; Guber, F; Gumberidze, M; Heinz, T; Hennino, T; Holzmann, R; Ierusalimov, A; Iori, I; Ivashkin, A; Jurkovic, M; Kämpfer, B; Karavicheva, T; Koenig, I; Koenig, W; Kolb, B W; Kornakov, G; Kotte, R; Krasa, A; Krizek, F; Krücken, R; Kuc, H; Kühn, W; Kugler, A; Kurepin, A; Ladygin, V; Lalik, R; Lange, J S; Lang, S; Lapidus, K; Lebedev, A; Liu, T; Lopes, L; Lorenz, M; Maier, L; Mangiarotti, A; Markert, J; Metag, V; Michalska, B; Michel, J; Moriniere, E; Mousa, J; Müntz, C; Münzer, R; Naumann, L; Pachmayer, Y C; Palka, M; Parpottas, Y; Pechenov, V; Pechenova, O; Pietraszko, J; Przygoda, W; Ramstein, B; Rehnisch, L; Reshetin, A; Rustamov, A; Sadovsky, A; Salabura, P; Scheib, T; Schmah, A; Schuldes, H; Schwab, E; Siebenson, J; Sobolev, Yu G; Spataro, S; Spruck, B; Ströbele, H; Stroth, J; Sturm, C; Tarantola, A; Teilab, K; Tlusty, P; Traxler, M; Trebacz, R; Tsertos, H; Vasiliev, T; Wagner, V; Weber, M; Wendisch, C; Wisniowski, M; Wüstenfeld, J; Yurevich, S; Zanevsky, Y

    2015-01-01

    The HADES data from p+Nb collisions at center of mass energy of $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$= 3.2 GeV are analyzed by employing a statistical model. Accounting for the identified hadrons $\\pi^0$, $\\eta$, $\\Lambda$, $K^{0}_{s}$, $\\omega$ allows a surprisingly good description of their abundances with parameters $T_{chem}=(99\\pm11)$ MeV and $\\mu_{b}=(619\\pm34)$ MeV, which fits well in the chemical freeze-out systematics found in heavy-ion collisions. In supplement we reanalyze our previous HADES data from Ar+KCl collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$= 2.6 GeV with an updated version of the statistical model. We address equilibration in heavy-ion collisions by testing two aspects: the description of yields and the regularity of freeze-out parameters from a statistical model fit. Special emphasis is put on feed-down contributions from higher-lying resonance states which have been proposed to explain the experimentally observed $\\Xi^-$ excess present in both data samples.

  9. Analysis of strengthening in AA6111 during the early stages of aging: Atom probe tomography and yield stress modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, a series of aging treatments has been conducted on AA6111 alloy samples for various times at ambient temperature (so-called natural aging) and at temperatures between 60 and 180 °C (artificially aged). The time at artificial ageing was chosen such that samples with approximately the same yield stress were produced. The microstructures of these alloy samples have been carefully characterized using atom probe tomography together with advanced cluster-finding techniques in order to obtain quantitative information about the changes in distribution of both the solute clusters and early-stage precipitates that are formed. The size distribution of clusters has been mapped onto the glide plane and then the stress necessary for a dislocation to pass through the range of obstacles has been estimated using an areal glide model where the dislocation–obstacle interaction strength has been assumed to be related to the obstacle size on the glide plane. It is demonstrated that the contribution of cluster strengthening during artificial aging at higher temperatures is dominated by the high number density of small clusters (Guinier radius <1 nm), whereas the situation during room temperature natural aging is more complex

  10. Analysis of Mount Atlas mastic smoke: a potential food preservative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohagheghzadeh, Abdolali; Faridi, Pouya; Ghasemi, Younes

    2010-09-01

    Pistacia terebinthus L. smoke has been used traditionally in Iran as disinfectant and air purifier. Smoke was collected by a simple method, and the chemical constituents and antimicrobial activity of the smoke were analyzed. The chemical constituents of the smoke were alpha-pinene (65.1%), limonene (11.5%) and allo-ocimene (2.8%). The non polar phase of smoke noticeably inhibited the growth of different microorganisms. MIC test shows that non polar fraction of smoke can inhibit the growth of some bacteria. The results indicating that the properties of the smoke as a flavoring and preservative agent could be a potential subject for future studies.

  11. Viscous potential flow analysis of peripheral heavy ion collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, D J; Csernai, L P

    2013-01-01

    The conditions for the development of a Kelvin-Helmholtz Instability (KHI) for the Quark-gluon Plasma (QGP) flow in a peripheral heavy-ion collision is investigated. The projectile and target side particles are separated by an energetically motivated hypothetical surface, characterized with a phenomenological surface tension. In such a view, a classical potential flow approximation is considered and the onset of the KHI is studied. The growth rate of the instability is computed as function of phenomenological parameters characteristic for the QGP fluid: viscosity, surface tension and flow layer thickness.

  12. A POTENTIAL APPLICATION OF UNCERTAINTY ANALYSIS TO DOE-STD-3009-94 ACCIDENT ANALYSIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmrose, D E; Yang, J M

    2007-05-10

    The objective of this paper is to assess proposed transuranic waste accident analysis guidance and recent software improvements in a Windows-OS version of MACCS2 that allows the inputting of parameter uncertainty. With this guidance and code capability, there is the potential to perform a quantitative uncertainty assessment of unmitigated accident releases with respect to the 25 rem Evaluation Guideline (EG) of DOE-STD-3009-94 CN3 (STD-3009). Historically, the classification of safety systems in a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facility's safety basis has involved how subject matter experts qualitatively view uncertainty in the STD-3009 Appendix A accident analysis methodology. Specifically, whether consequence uncertainty could be larger than previously evaluated so the site-specific accident consequences may challenge the EG. This paper assesses whether a potential uncertainty capability for MACCS2 could provide a stronger technical basis as to when the consequences from a design basis accident (DBA) truly challenges the 25 rem EG.

  13. Improved ethanol yield and reduced minimum ethanol selling price (MESP by modifying low severity dilute acid pretreatment with deacetylation and mechanical refining: 2 Techno-economic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Ling

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our companion paper discussed the yield benefits achieved by integrating deacetylation, mechanical refining, and washing with low acid and low temperature pretreatment. To evaluate the impact of the modified process on the economic feasibility, a techno-economic analysis (TEA was performed based on the experimental data presented in the companion paper. Results The cost benefits of dilute acid pretreatment technology combined with the process alternatives of deacetylation, mechanical refining, and pretreated solids washing were evaluated using cost benefit analysis within a conceptual modeling framework. Control cases were pretreated at much lower acid loadings and temperatures than used those in the NREL 2011 design case, resulting in much lower annual ethanol production. Therefore, the minimum ethanol selling prices (MESP of the control cases were $0.41-$0.77 higher than the $2.15/gallon MESP of the design case. This increment is highly dependent on the carbohydrate content in the corn stover. However, if pretreatment was employed with either deacetylation or mechanical refining, the MESPs were reduced by $0.23-$0.30/gallon. Combing both steps could lower the MESP further by $0.44 ~ $0.54. Washing of the pretreated solids could also greatly improve the final ethanol yields. However, the large capital cost of the solid–liquid separation unit negatively influences the process economics. Finally, sensitivity analysis was performed to study the effect of the cost of the pretreatment reactor and the energy input for mechanical refining. A 50% cost reduction in the pretreatment reactor cost reduced the MESP of the entire conversion process by $0.11-$0.14/gallon, while a 10-fold increase in energy input for mechanical refining will increase the MESP by $0.07/gallon. Conclusion Deacetylation and mechanical refining process options combined with low acid, low severity pretreatments show improvements in ethanol yields and

  14. Assessment of some homogeneous methods for the regional analysis of suspended sediment yield in the south and southeast of the Caspian Sea

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hossein Kheirfam; Mehdi Vafakhah

    2015-08-01

    Regional analysis of suspended sediment yield (SSY) is commonly used to estimate sediment at a particular site where little or no information is available on sediment yield. In this research, the efficiency of three input selection and homogenization methods were evaluated in the estimation of SSY. Therefore, 42 sediment measurement stations and their upstream watersheds were selected and sediment rating curve was estimated by using regression models for each station. Mean annual SSY was estimated by using sediment rating curve and daily discharge. In the present study, in order to determine the independent variables in sediment yield, 11 physiographical, one climatic and two hydrologic variables of whole study watersheds were selected. Then the most effective independent variables were selected by using principal component analysis (PCA), Gamma test (GT) and stepwise regression (SR) techniques. After reducing 14 input variables to five (using PCA and GT) and two (using SR techniques), they are divided into homogeneous areas by Andrew curve (AC), cluster analysis (CA) and canonical discriminate function (CDFs) techniques. The watersheds were divided into two (using PCA-AC), three (using PCA-CA, PCA-CDFs and GT-CDFs), four (using GT-CA, GT-AC and SR-CA) and five (using SR-AC) homogenous regions. Multiple regression models to estimate mean annual SSY as a function of five (using PCA and GT) and two (using SR techniques) watershed characteristics were built in each homogeneous region, and compared to actual mean annual SSY in each station using relative error (RE), efficiency coefficients (CE) and relative root mean square error (RRMSE). The results showed that preprocessing the input variables by means of PCA and GT techniques has improved the homogeneous stations determination and the development models. According to the results, the best technique for determining homogeneous watersheds was AC technique with RE=49.24%, RRMSE=43.75% and CE=71.04%.

  15. 宁夏灌区扁豆农艺及产量性状分析%Analysis on Agronomic and Yield Traits of Lentils in Irrigation of Ningxia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    The article is analysis lentils agronomic and yield traits in irrigation of Ningxia ,The results showed that lentils needs from planting to maturity about 80 d in irrigation.The correlation analysis showed growth peri⁃od and the number of pods per plant with plant height was significantly negatively correlated,But stem branches and 1000-grains weight with yileld was a significant positive correlation.The principal component analysis showed three main components,were yield,1000-grains weight and the number of grain per pod. The pods per plant,the number of grain per pod were no significant differences,but 1000- grains weight was significant difference in va⁃rieties.the change of yield was mainly due to the changes caused by the grain weight.%  对宁夏灌区引种扁豆的农艺及产量性状进行分析,结果表明,宁夏灌区引种的扁豆从播种到成熟需要80d左右;株高与生育期、单株荚数呈显著负相关;小区产量与主茎分枝、千粒重均呈显著正相关;主成分分析表现为3个主成分,分别是产量主成分、千粒重主成分和荚粒数主成分;产量及其构成因素分析表明单株荚数、单荚粒数品种间均无显著差异,而千粒重差异显著,产量的变化主要是由千粒重的变化引起的。

  16. Risk analysis for power systems : overview and potential benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Hilber, Patrik; Wallnerström, Carl Johan; Rosenlind, Johanna; Setréus, Johan; Schönborg, Niclas

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides a mapping and sample of recently developed risk assessment techniques that are available for the distribution system operator. Three estimates on the value of more detailed risk analysis are desccribed. I.e. component reliability importance indices can be used to divversify the maintenance efforts, gaining better expected system performance at no cost. Furthermore, components that are assumed to be relatively harmless (based on average values) are identified as critical fo...

  17. The potential of shared value creation: a theoretical analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Danciu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The urgent issues economy, environment and society are facing need new approaches which allow a well-balanced sharing of value created by the economy. A step forward is the concept of shared value creation. This paper aims to analyze the main features, the content of strategy of shared value creation and to propose the social innovation as main strategic way of shared value creation. At the beginning, the drivers and challenges of shared value creation are investigated in a systematized manner, in order to better understand why this new way of doing business is needed. Then, the concept and the three levels of shared value creation are investigated as sources of economic, environmental and social benefits that a business creates. These benefits depend on how efficient and diligent the company works. We are advancing the social innovation as main strategy having the greatest potential to create value with economic, environmental and social benefits. Finally, a framework for measurement of shared value creation is included. This framework is aiming at giving a tool for checking up the potential the shared value creation has for solving environmental and social issues.

  18. Effects of Cropping System and Cowpea Variety on Symbiotic Potential and Yields of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp and Pearl Millet (Pennisetum glaucum L. in the Sudano-Sahelian Zone of Mali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoumana Kouyaté

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Many cowpea varieties (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp have been proposed by research in Mali. None of these varieties were investigated for their symbiotic potential in terms of root nodulation and mycorrhizal infection. An experiment was conducted at Cinzana Research Station, from 2007 to 2009 with an objective to identify a cowpea variety with high symbiotic potential which may improve millet/cowpea cropping global production. Randomized complete block (RCBD design with a factorial combination of 3 cowpea varieties (IT89KD-374, CZ1-94-23-1, and CZ11-94-5C and 2 cropping systems (millet/cowpea intercropping and cowpea-millet rotation was used. On farm test was conducted to evaluate CZ11-94-5C and IT89KD-374 nodulation performance. Cowpea variety CZ11-94-5-C had the highest nodule number and nodule weight. Millet/cowpea alternate rows intercropping (1/1, only, had a significant influence on cowpea root infection rates by mycorrhizae, on the 45th day after emergence. IT89KD-374 gave the best cowpea grain yield (1540 kg ha−1 in sole crop. The highest millet grain yield (1650 kg ha−1 was obtained under CZ11-94-5C-millet rotation. Farmers' fields assessments results confirmed CZ11-94-5C performance on research station. The CZ11-94-5C cowpea variety needs to be more characterized.

  19. Wing analysis using a transonic potential flow computational method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henne, P. A.; Hicks, R. M.

    1978-01-01

    The ability of the method to compute wing transonic performance was determined by comparing computed results with both experimental data and results computed by other theoretical procedures. Both pressure distributions and aerodynamic forces were evaluated. Comparisons indicated that the method is a significant improvement in transonic wing analysis capability. In particular, the computational method generally calculated the correct development of three-dimensional pressure distributions from subcritical to transonic conditions. Complicated, multiple shocked flows observed experimentally were reproduced computationally. The ability to identify the effects of design modifications was demonstrated both in terms of pressure distributions and shock drag characteristics.

  20. Meta-analysis of strategies to control nitrate leaching in irrigated agricultural systems and their effects on crop yield.

    OpenAIRE

    Quemada Saenz-Badillos, Miguel; Baranski, M; Nobel-de Lange, M. N. J.; Vallejo Garcia, Antonio; Cooper, J M

    2013-01-01

    Nitrate leaching (NL) is an important N loss process in irrigated agriculture that imposes a cost on the farmer and the environment. A meta-analysis of published experimental results from agricultural irrigated systems was conducted to identify those strategies that have proven effective at reducing NL and to quantify the scale of reduction that can be achieved. Forty-four scientific articles were identified which investigated four main strategies (water and fertilizer management, use of cove...

  1. Chemical analysis and potential health risks of hookah charcoal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsayed, Yehya; Dalibalta, Sarah; Abu-Farha, Nedal

    2016-11-01

    Hookah (waterpipe) smoking is a very common practice that has spread globally. There is growing evidence on the hazardous consequences of smoking hookah, with studies indicating that its harmful effects are comparable to cigarette smoking if not worse. Charcoal is commonly used as a heating source for hookah smoke. Although charcoal briquettes are thought to be one of the major contributors to toxicity, their composition and impact on the smoke generated remains largely unidentified. This study aims to analyze the elemental composition of five different raw synthetic and natural charcoals by using Carbon-Hydrogen-Nitrogen (CHN) analysis, inductively coupled plasma (ICP), and scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-Ray spectrometry (SEM-EDS). Elemental analysis showed that the raw charcoals contain heavy metals such as zinc, iron, cadmium, vanadium, aluminum, lead, chromium, manganese and cobalt at concentrations similar, if not higher than, cigarettes. In addition, thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (TD-GC-MS) was used to analyze the chemical composition of the smoke produced from burning the charcoal samples. The smoke emitted from charcoal was found to be the source of numerous compounds which could be hazardous to health. A total of seven carcinogens, 39 central nervous system depressants and 31 respiratory irritants were identified. PMID:27343945

  2. Economic Analysis of Sorghum Silage Potential for Dairy Industry in the Texas High Plains

    OpenAIRE

    Obembe, Oladipo S.; Almas, Lal K.; Guerrero, Bridget L.; Lust, David G.

    2014-01-01

    The objective is to evaluate the economic feasibility and potential water savings to a dairy of replacing corn silage with BMR sorghum silage; and to estimate the potential economic benefits and water savings (current & future) to the region from adoption of this practice. Economic analysis was conducted for different scenarios to estimate irrigated sorghum silage potential in the Texas High Plains to meet the feed requirements of ever growing dairy industry. Sensitivity analysis was also con...

  3. Computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA): capabilities and potential developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amann, Rupert P; Waberski, Dagmar

    2014-01-01

    Computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA) systems have evolved over approximately 40 years, through advances in devices to capture the image from a microscope, huge increases in computational power concurrent with amazing reduction in size of computers, new computer languages, and updated/expanded software algorithms. Remarkably, basic concepts for identifying sperm and their motion patterns are little changed. Older and slower systems remain in use. Most major spermatology laboratories and semen processing facilities have a CASA system, but the extent of reliance thereon ranges widely. This review describes capabilities and limitations of present CASA technology used with boar, bull, and stallion sperm, followed by possible future developments. Each marketed system is different. Modern CASA systems can automatically view multiple fields in a shallow specimen chamber to capture strobe-like images of 500 to >2000 sperm, at 50 or 60 frames per second, in clear or complex extenders, and in process data apparently are available. PMID:24274405

  4. Comparing Yields and Profitability in MARD's High- and Low-Input Maize Programs 1997/98 Survey Results and Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Howard, Julie A.; Jeje, Jose Jaime; Kelly, Valerie A.; Boughton, Duncan

    2000-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results from data collected during the study’s second year, 1997/98. The analysis is based on a sample of 210 smallholder farmers in Nampula Province using three different sets of production practices: the DNER/Sasakawa- Global 2000 Program (DNER/SG) high-input package (improved open-pollinated maize, 100 kg/ha each 12-24-12 and urea fertilizer on credit); improved planting and weeding practices only (using local seed, without fertilizer); and a control group of farm...

  5. The Analysis Of The Strain Influence On Some Yield Elemnts On An Assortment Of Isogenic Wheat Varieties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Păniţă, Ovidiu

    2015-09-01

    In the years 2012-2014 on Banu-Maracine DRS were tested an assortment consists of 25 isogenic lines of common wheat (Triticum aestivum ssp.vulgare), with the combination of Rht1&rht8 genes, the analyzed characters being the hight of the strain (cm), the number of seeds/spike, seeds weight/spike (g), no. of spikes/m2, weight of a thousand seeds (WTS) (g) and no. of emerged plants/m2. Based on recorded data and statistical processing of those, they were identified a numbers of links between these characters, links quantified by using the correlation. Regarding the classification based on the average high of the strain, it was found that that there is a strong link between some characters too. Based on component analysis, the no. of seeds/spike and the seeds weight/spikes are components that influence in excess of 83% variance analysis, a total of five genotypes having positive scores for both factors.

  6. Energy production from tannery solid wastes : thermal balance, models of process yields and economic analysis; Produzione di energia da residui conciariprocesso e analisi di fattibilita`

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manzo, G; Grasso, G.; Bufalo, G. [Stazione Sperimentale per l`Industria delle Pelli e Materie Concianti, Naples (Italy)

    1996-01-01

    Present paper deals with a modeling approach to the recovery of thermal energy, chromium and compost from tannery solid wastes, by incineration to ash and biomethanization to digested biomass. A thermal balance on the whole industrial Italian production of tanning residues firstly quantifies the impact of the matter. A model was successively developed in order to compute the caloric content of the different kinds of residues, starting from their elementary composition. Proper models of the process yields, for both the incineration and biomethanization, were also derived. Finally an economic cost analysis of the incineration process was presented, conveniently disaggregated on the single cost elements. This analysis was based on the previously obtained data both of heat and chromium recovery and on matter-balance data of a typical tanning process (chromium shoe upper produced from salted bovine hide).

  7. Hybrid Additive Manufacturing Technologies - An Analysis Regarding Potentials and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merklein, Marion; Junker, Daniel; Schaub, Adam; Neubauer, Franziska

    Imposing the trend of mass customization of lightweight construction in industry, conventional manufacturing processes like forming technology and chipping production are pushed to their limits for economical manufacturing. More flexible processes are needed which were developed by the additive manufacturing technology. This toolless production principle offers a high geometrical freedom and an optimized utilization of the used material. Thus load adjusted lightweight components can be produced in small lot sizes in an economical way. To compensate disadvantages like inadequate accuracy and surface roughness hybrid machines combining additive and subtractive manufacturing are developed. Within this paper the principles of mainly used additive manufacturing processes of metals and their possibility to be integrated into a hybrid production machine are summarized. It is pointed out that in particular the integration of deposition processes into a CNC milling center supposes high potential for manufacturing larger parts with high accuracy. Furthermore the combination of additive and subtractive manufacturing allows the production of ready to use products within one single machine. Additionally actual research for the integration of additive manufacturing processes into the production chain will be analyzed. For the long manufacturing time of additive production processes the combination with conventional manufacturing processes like sheet or bulk metal forming seems an effective solution. Especially large volumes can be produced by conventional processes. In an additional production step active elements can be applied by additive manufacturing. This principle is also investigated for tool production to reduce chipping of the high strength material used for forming tools. The aim is the addition of active elements onto a geometrical simple basis by using Laser Metal Deposition. That process allows the utilization of several powder materials during one process what

  8. Analysis of High Yield and Efficiency Technique in Hybrid Rice Zhongzheyou No.1%杂交水稻中浙优1号高产高效技术途径分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘伟明

    2009-01-01

    To understand the high yield and efficiency technique in hybrid rice Zhongzheyou No.1, we conducted the correlation analysis, regression analysis and path analysis of hybrid rice Zhongzheyou No.1 based on the data of its ear, grain and weight at different yield levels. From this study, we put forward the high yield and efficiency technique in Zhongzheyou No.1: on the basis of certain effective ear number, filled grains per ear should be mainly targeted with a consideration to 1 000-grain weight.

  9. Potential limitations for potato yields in raised soil field systems near Lake Titicaca Limitações potenciais para produtividade da batata em solos de campos elevados no Lago Titicaca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Sánchez de Lozada

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available During the last two decades, various non-governmental organizations have strongly encouraged Bolivian farmers in the Altiplano region near Lake Titicaca to resume the ancestral agricultural practice of constructing raised fields. In addition to improved drainage and possibilities this practice affords for sub-irrigation, advocated benefits of this system traditionally include frost mitigation and high crop yields. Until recently, reliable data to assess the extent of these benefits were unfortunately lacking. In this context, field experiments on raised fields were designed and carried out at two locations in the Bolivian Altiplano to obtain reliable potato yield and temperature data. Observed yields ranged from 2.73 to 10.80 t ha-1 at the first site, where salinity caused significant yield variability (R² = 0.79. At the second site, yields per raised platform varied between 8.25 and 33.45 t ha-1. However, comparable yields were obtained in flat control plots in spite of a mid-season frost, and the minimum temperatures differed only by 1ºC in the conventional plots relative to the raised fields. These results suggest that, under the experimental conditions, the potential benefits of raised fields in terms of frost mitigation or increased yields might only be observable in exceptionally bad years, when extreme frosts wipe out entire potato crops on conventional fields. Nevertheless, it is argued that in spite of these marginally supportive observations, raised-field agriculture may still be a viable option for farmers to consider if the water-filled channels between the raised fields are managed for fish and fertilizer production.Nas últimas duas décadas várias organizações não governamentais entusiasmaram lavradores bolivianos da região do Altiplano, próximo ao Lago Titicaca, a reassumir a prática ancestral de construir campos elevados. Além de sua drenagem melhorada e das possibilidades de implementar a sub-irrigação, as vantagens

  10. Effective field theory analysis of new physics in e{sup +}e{sup -}{yields}W{sup +}W{sup -} at a linear collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchalla, G.; Cata, O.; Rahn, R. [Muenchen Univ. (Germany). Fakultaet fuer Physik; Schlaffer, M. [Muenchen Univ. (Germany). Fakultaet fuer Physik; Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2013-02-15

    We analyze new physics contributions to e{sup +}e{sup -}{yields}W{sup +}W{sup -} at the TeV energy scale, employing an effective field theory framework. A complete basis of next-to-leading order operators in the standard model effective Lagrangian is used, both for the nonlinear and the linear realization of the electroweak sector. The elimination of redundant operators via equations-of-motion constraints is discussed in detail. Polarized cross sections for e{sup +}e{sup -}{yields}W{sup +}W{sup -} (on-shell) are computed and the corrections to the standard model results are given in an expansion for large s/M{sup 2}{sub W}. The dominant relative corrections grow with s and can be fully expressed in terms of modified gauge-fermion couplings. These corrections are interpreted in the context of the Goldstone boson equivalence theorem. Explicit new physics models are considered to illustrate the generation and the potential size of the coefficients in the effective Lagrangian. Brief comments are made on the production of W{sup +}W{sup -} pairs at the LHC.

  11. Analysis of ethanol cereals in German site conditions. NIRS calibration for ethanol yield; Bewertung von Ethanolgetreide unter den Standortbedingungen in Deutschland. NIRS-Kalibration fuer Ethanolausbeute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pohl, Ferdinand [Hohenheim Univ., Stuttgart (Germany). Inst. fuer Lebensmittelwissenschaft und Biotechnologie

    2010-07-01

    Bioethanol production has been growing significantly during the past few years. In Europe, most of it is produced from cereals. The demand for cereals therefore is expected to grow but so far there are no species specially cultivated for ethanol production. The project therefore focused on a screening process in which requirements on ethanol cereals from plant operators and raw material producers were to be verified or falsified, quality criteria apart from the starch content were to be defined, and indirect cultivation-relevant parameters were to be identified. The focus was on potential yields and on the corresponding ethanol yield per unit area. The screening covered 10 species of wheat, 10 species of triticale, and 6 species of rye. Additionally, 14 species of triticale were analyzed that were among the species tested by the Federal Species Office at the beginning of the project. The species to be investigated were cultivated orthogonally in ten German sites in 2006 - 2008. This resulted in a representative cross section of all quality grades of winter cereals and all German regions relevant for cultivation of cereals.

  12. Computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA): capabilities and potential developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amann, Rupert P; Waberski, Dagmar

    2014-01-01

    Computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA) systems have evolved over approximately 40 years, through advances in devices to capture the image from a microscope, huge increases in computational power concurrent with amazing reduction in size of computers, new computer languages, and updated/expanded software algorithms. Remarkably, basic concepts for identifying sperm and their motion patterns are little changed. Older and slower systems remain in use. Most major spermatology laboratories and semen processing facilities have a CASA system, but the extent of reliance thereon ranges widely. This review describes capabilities and limitations of present CASA technology used with boar, bull, and stallion sperm, followed by possible future developments. Each marketed system is different. Modern CASA systems can automatically view multiple fields in a shallow specimen chamber to capture strobe-like images of 500 to >2000 sperm, at 50 or 60 frames per second, in clear or complex extenders, and in CASA cannot accurately predict 'fertility' that will be obtained with a semen sample or subject. However, when carefully validated, current CASA systems provide information important for quality assurance of semen planned for marketing, and for the understanding of the diversity of sperm responses to changes in the microenvironment in research. The four take-home messages from this review are: (1) animal species, extender or medium, specimen chamber, intensity of illumination, imaging hardware and software, instrument settings, technician, etc., all affect accuracy and precision of output values; (2) semen production facilities probably do not need a substantially different CASA system whereas biology laboratories would benefit from systems capable of imaging and tracking sperm in deep chambers for a flexible period of time; (3) software should enable grouping of individual sperm based on one or more attributes so outputs reflect subpopulations or clusters of similar sperm with unique

  13. Water Saving and High Yield Irrigation Models of Rice and Soil Moisture Potential Control Criteria%水稻节水高产灌溉模式及土壤水分能量调控标准研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    迟道才; 王文焰; 朱庭芸; 夏桂敏; 王宣

    2001-01-01

    Pot, plot and field experiments with lysimeter were conducted at an irrigation experimental station to investigate water requirement of rice and soil moisture changes in paddy field. The relationship between soil water condition and evapotranspiration intensity of rice was discussed. The effect of different irrigation models on evapotranspiration of rice and the effect of soil water stress on rice yield were studied. Water saving and high yield irrigation models of rice and soil moisture potential control criteria are suggested.%根据土壤-植物-大气连续系统原理,1989~1998年在沈阳农业大学灌溉试验场通过盆载、蒸渗仪、小区及大田进行试验,分析了水稻的需要水规律及稻田土壤水分能量的变化特点,论述了土壤水分状况与水稻腾发强度之间的关系、不同灌模式对水稻腾发量的调控作用以及水分胁迫对水稻产量的影响,提出了水稻节水高产灌溉模式和土壤水分能量调控标准。

  14. Diagnostic yield of ink-jet prints from digital radiographs for the assessment of approximal carious lesions: ROC-analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulze, Ralf K.W., E-mail: rschulze@mail.uni-mainz.de [Poliklinik fuer Zahnaerztliche Chirurgie, University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg-University, Augustusplatz 2, D-55131 Mainz (Germany); Grimm, Stefanie, E-mail: StefanieGrimm@gmx.de [Poliklinik fuer Zahnaerztliche Chirurgie, University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg-University, Augustusplatz 2, D-55131 Mainz (Germany); Schulze, Dirk, E-mail: dirk.schulze@uniklinik-freiburg.de [Klinik fuer Mund,- Kiefer- und Gesichtschirurgie, Sektion Roentgen, Universitaetsklinikum Freiburg, Hugstetterstr. 55, D-79106 Freiburg (Germany); Voss, Kai, E-mail: zahnarzt@drvoss.eu [Zahnaerztekammer Schleswig-Holstein, Vorstand fuer Praxisfuehrung, Westring 496, D- 24106 Kiel (Germany); Keller, Hans-Peter, E-mail: hans-peter.keller@din.de [NA Dental (NADENT) im DIN, Alexander-Wellendorff-Str. 2, D-75172 Pforzheim (Germany); Wedel, Matthias, E-mail: matthias.wedel@siemens.com [Siemens AG, Medical Solutions, Postfach 32 60, D-91050 Erlangen (Germany)

    2011-08-15

    Aims: To investigate the diagnostic quality of different quality, individually calibrated ink-jet printers for the very challenging dental radiographic task of approximal carious lesion detection. Materials and methods: A test-pattern evaluating resolution, contrast and homogeneity of the ink-jet prints was developed. 50 standardized dental radiographs each showing two neighbouring teeth in natural contact were printed on glossy paper with calibrated, randomly selected ink-jet printers (Canon S520 and iP4500, Epson Stylus Photo R2400). Printing size equalled the viewing size on a 17'' cathode-ray-tube monitor daily quality-tested according to German regulations. The true caries status was determined from serial sectioning and microscopic evaluation. 16 experienced observers evaluated the radiographs on a five-point confidence scale on all prints plus the viewing monitor with respect to the visibility of a carious lesion. A non-parametric Receiver-Operating Characteristics (ROC-) analysis was performed explicitly designed for the evaluation of readings stemming from identical samples but different modality. Significant differences are expressed by a critical ratio z exceeding {+-}2. Diagnostic accuracy was determined by the area (Az) underneath the ROC-curves. Results: Average Az-values ranged between 0.62 (S520 and R2400) and 0.64 (monitor, iP4500), with no significant difference between modalities (P = 0.172). Neither significant (range mean z: -0.40 (S520) and -0.11 (iP4500)) nor clinically relevant differences were found between printers and viewing monitor. Conclusions: Our results for a challenging task in dental radiography indicate that calibrated, off-the-shelf ink-jet printers are able to reproduce (dental) radiographs at quality levels sufficient for radiographic diagnosis in a typical dental working environment.

  15. 基于收益率的股票相关性计量分析%An Analysis of Yield -based Stock Correlation Measurement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱家明; 刘红杉; 朱运良; 程瑶瑶; 于静

    2015-01-01

    Correlation Analysis,hierarchical cluster analysis,network construction and some other methods, targeting yield rate,are used to build the Metrics Model of the correlation of stocks.Correlation Coefficient Matrix is finalized via Excel and Matlab.And by setting proper threshold value,utilizing Netdraw,Stock Network is set up based on optimal threshold value and correlation coefficient.By Clustering Analysis on the module in China’s stock market,the mathematic model about the study of Stocks Correlation is ultimately constructed on yield rate,which is considered as a relatively complete solution for stock correlation studies.%针对股票间相关性,通过相关分析、系统聚类分析、网络构建等多种方法,以收益率为对象,建立股票间相关性度量指标模型,运用软件 Excel、Matlab 得出股票相关系数矩阵,并设置合适的阈值,利用软件Netdraw 构建出基于最佳阈值和相关系数所对应的股票网络。然后从所建网络出发,对中国股票市场中的板块进行聚类分析,最终建立起一个以收益率为指标来研究股票相关性的模型,为研究股票相关性提供了一个相对比较完善的方案。

  16. Analysis on Yield Characteristics of Male Sterile Lines of Alfalfa%苜蓿雄性不育系杂交制种产量性状分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈海玲; 石凤翎; 郝玉光; 徐军; 蔡丽艳; 高翠萍

    2012-01-01

    Eight Male Sterile Lines of Afalfal and three afalfal materials with better characters were get by Backcrossing that used as female and male parent,and carried hybrid seed production test in open pollination and artificial pollination. The results showed: (1) Megachile pollination could Effectively improve male sterile lines of alfalfa seed yield (33.66% ) ,and the per plant seed yield of No. 2 was the highest (3.16 g/plant). (2) Correlation and regression analysis indicated that branches of per plant was the most important factor which influenced the male sterile lines seed yield of alfalfa, and the setting percentage was the secondly.%以回交转育得到8个苜蓿雄性不育株(系)和3个优良苜蓿品种为亲本,分别在开放授粉和人工控制下进行杂交制种试验.结果表明:切叶蜂辅助授粉方式可以有效提高苜蓿雄性不育株(系)的制种产量.综合2种授粉方式下的制种产量,其中2号不育株(系)单株种子产量最高(3.16g/株);通过苜蓿雄性不育株(系)种子产量的相关分析和回归分析,明确了每株生殖枝数对不育株(系)单株种子产量作用影响最大,其次是结实率.

  17. Improved parameterization of interatomic potentials for rare gas dimers with density-based energy decomposition analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Nengjie; Lu, Zhenyu; Wu, Qin; Zhang, Yingkai

    2014-01-01

    We examine interatomic interactions for rare gas dimers using the density-based energy decomposition analysis (DEDA) in conjunction with computational results from CCSD(T) at the complete basis set (CBS) limit. The unique DEDA capability of separating frozen density interactions from density relaxation contributions is employed to yield clean interaction components, and the results are found to be consistent with the typical physical picture that density relaxations play a very minimal role i...

  18. Anaerobic co-digestion of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste with FOG waste from a sewage treatment plant: recovering a wasted methane potential and enhancing the biogas yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-González, L; Colturato, L F; Font, X; Vicent, T

    2010-10-01

    Anaerobic digestion is applied widely to treat the source collected organic fraction of municipal solid wastes (SC-OFMSW). Lipid-rich wastes are a valuable substrate for anaerobic digestion due to their high theoretical methane potential. Nevertheless, although fat, oil and grease waste from sewage treatment plants (STP-FOGW) are commonly disposed of in landfill, European legislation is aimed at encouraging more effective forms of treatment. Co-digestion of the above wastes may enhance valorisation of STP-FOGW and lead to a higher biogas yield throughout the anaerobic digestion process. In the present study, STP-FOGW was evaluated as a co-substrate in wet anaerobic digestion of SC-OFMSW under mesophilic conditions (37 degrees C). Batch experiments carried out at different co-digestion ratios showed an improvement in methane production related to STP-FOGW addition. A 1:7 (VS/VS) STP-FOGW:SC-OFMSW feed ratio was selected for use in performing further lab-scale studies in a 5L continuous reactor. Biogas yield increased from 0.38+/-0.02 L g VS(feed)(-1) to 0.55+/-0.05 L g VS(feed)(-1) as a result of adding STP-FOGW to reactor feed. Both VS reduction values and biogas methane content were maintained and inhibition produced by long chain fatty acid (LCFA) accumulation was not observed. Recovery of a currently wasted methane potential from STP-FOGW was achieved in a co-digestion process with SC-OFMSW.

  19. Anaerobic co-digestion of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste with FOG waste from a sewage treatment plant: recovering a wasted methane potential and enhancing the biogas yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-González, L; Colturato, L F; Font, X; Vicent, T

    2010-10-01

    Anaerobic digestion is applied widely to treat the source collected organic fraction of municipal solid wastes (SC-OFMSW). Lipid-rich wastes are a valuable substrate for anaerobic digestion due to their high theoretical methane potential. Nevertheless, although fat, oil and grease waste from sewage treatment plants (STP-FOGW) are commonly disposed of in landfill, European legislation is aimed at encouraging more effective forms of treatment. Co-digestion of the above wastes may enhance valorisation of STP-FOGW and lead to a higher biogas yield throughout the anaerobic digestion process. In the present study, STP-FOGW was evaluated as a co-substrate in wet anaerobic digestion of SC-OFMSW under mesophilic conditions (37 degrees C). Batch experiments carried out at different co-digestion ratios showed an improvement in methane production related to STP-FOGW addition. A 1:7 (VS/VS) STP-FOGW:SC-OFMSW feed ratio was selected for use in performing further lab-scale studies in a 5L continuous reactor. Biogas yield increased from 0.38+/-0.02 L g VS(feed)(-1) to 0.55+/-0.05 L g VS(feed)(-1) as a result of adding STP-FOGW to reactor feed. Both VS reduction values and biogas methane content were maintained and inhibition produced by long chain fatty acid (LCFA) accumulation was not observed. Recovery of a currently wasted methane potential from STP-FOGW was achieved in a co-digestion process with SC-OFMSW. PMID:20400285

  20. Functional and fluorochrome analysis of an exocytotic mutant yields evidence of store-operated Ca2+ influx in Paramecium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, I; Klauke, N; Hentschel, J; Cohen, J; Plattner, H

    2002-05-01

    to perform membrane fusion, as analyzed with the Ca2+ ionophore, A23187. These findings were corroborated by cryofixation and freeze-fracture analysis of trichocyst docking sites after AED or 4CmC stimulation, which also revealed no membrane fusion. In sum, in nd12 cells increased culture temperature entails multiple defects, notably insensitivity to any Ca2+ signal, which, moreover, cannot develop properly due to a lower basal [Ca2+] level and the lack of Ca2+ influx, despite normal store activation.