WorldWideScience

Sample records for analysis yields potential

  1. Optimal yield-related attributes of irrigated rice for high yield potential based on path analysis and stability analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganghua Li

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Improvement of yield in rice (Oryza sativa L. is vital for ensuring food security in China. Both rice breeders and growers need an improved understanding of the relationship between yield and yield-related traits. New indica cultivars (53 in 2007 and 48 in 2008 were grown in Taoyuan, Yunnan province, to identify important components contributing to yield. Additionally, two standard indica rice cultivars with similar yield potentials, II You 107 (a large-panicle type and Xieyou 107 (a heavy-panicle type, were planted in Taoyuan, Yunnan province and Nanjing, Jiangsu province, from 2006 to 2008 to evaluate the stability of yield and yield-related attributes. Growth duration (GD, leaf area index (LAI, panicles per m2 (PN, and spikelets per m2 (SM were significantly and positively correlated with grain yield (GY over all years. Sequential path analysis identified PN and panicle weight (PW as important first-order traits that influenced grain yield. All direct effects were significant, as indicated by bootstrap analysis. Yield potential varied greatly across locations but not across years. Plant height (PH, days from heading to maturity (HM, and grain weight (GW were stable traits that showed little variation across sites or years, whereas GD (mainly the pre-heading period, PHP and PN varied significantly across locations. To achieve a yield of 15 t ha− 1, a cultivar should have a PH of 110–125 cm, a long GD with HM of approximately 40 days, a PN of 300–400 m− 2, and a GW of 29–31 mg.

  2. Analysis of growth, yield potential and horticultural performance of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Complete randomized block design was applied to evaluate and compare the growth, yield and field performance of in vitro derived turmeric plants with conventional rhizome under field condition. In vitro propagated plants manifest consistently superior horticultural performance over the conventional rhizome. Among the ...

  3. Quantitative Genetic Analysis Reveals Potential to Genetically Improve Fruit Yield and Drought Resistance Simultaneously in Coriander.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodadadi, Mostafa; Dehghani, Hamid; Jalali Javaran, Mokhtar

    2017-01-01

    Enhancing water use efficiency of coriander ( Coriandrum sativum L.) is a major focus for coriander breeding to cope with drought stress. The purpose of this study was; (a) to identify the predominant mechanism(s) of drought resistance in coriander and (b) to evaluate the genetic control mechanism(s) of traits associated with drought resistance and higher fruit yield. To reach this purpose, 15 half-diallel hybrids of coriander and their six parents were evaluated under well-watered and water deficit stressed (WDS) in both glasshouse lysimetric and field conditions. The parents were selected for their different response to water deficit stress following preliminary experiments. Results revealed that the genetic control mechanism of fruit yield is complex, variable and highly affected by environment. The mode of inheritance and nature of gene action for percent assimilate partitioned to fruits were similar to those for flowering time in both well-watered and WDS conditions. A significant negative genetic linkage was found between fruit yield and percent assimilate partitioned to root, percent assimilate partitioned to shoot, root number, root diameter, root dry mass, root volume, and early flowering. Thus, to improve fruit yield under water deficit stress, selection of low values of these traits could be used. In contrast, a significant positive genetic linkage between fruit yield and percent assimilate partitioned to fruits, leaf relative water content and chlorophyll content indicate selection for high values of these traits. These secondary or surrogate traits could be selected during early segregating generations. The early ripening parent (P 1 ; TN-59-230) contained effective genes involved in preferred percent assimilate partitioning to fruit and drought stress resistance. In conclusion, genetic improvement of fruit yield and drought resistance could be simultaneously gained in coriander when breeding for drought resistance.

  4. Yield and yield component analysis of twelve upland rice genotypes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Multiple correlation and path coefficient analysis were used to study yield and yield components. Genotypic stability analysis was performed on the yield and the two traits most related to yield using mean yield-coefficient of variation (CV). The genotype, ITA 324 had the highest grain yield and percentage fertile spikelets in ...

  5. Yield stress fluids slowly yield to analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonn, D.; Denn, M.M.

    2009-01-01

    We are surrounded in everyday life by yield stress fluids: materials that behave as solids under small stresses but flow like liquids beyond a critical stress. For example, paint must flow under the brush, but remain fixed in a vertical film despite the force of gravity. Food products (such as

  6. Use of agro-climatic zones to upscale simulated crop yield potential

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wart, van J.; Bussel, van L.G.J.; Wolf, J.; Licker, R.; Grassini, P.; Nelson, A.; Boogaard, H.L.; Gerber, J.; Mueller, N.D.; Claessens, L.F.G.; Ittersum, van M.K.; Cassman, K.G.

    2013-01-01

    Yield gap analysis, which evaluates magnitude and variability of difference between crop yield potential (Yp) or water limited yield potential (Yw) and actual farm yields, provides a measure of untapped food production capacity. Reliable location-specific estimates of yield gaps, either derived from

  7. Yield Potential of Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) Cultivars in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, Lise Christina; Flengmark, Poul Kristiansen

    2005-01-01

    In order to determine the yield potential of fibre hemp in Denmark, defined as seed yield, biomass, stem and fibre production, five cultivars were evaluated in field trials at two sites during 1998-2000. The total dry matter yield, stem yield, fibre yield, fibre percent, plant height, and seed...

  8. Studies on seed yield potential of some selected kenaf (Hibiscus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-06-11

    Jun 11, 2014 ... planted irrespective of the location on seed weight/plant, 100 seed weight and seed yield/ha. Average .... Mean squares derived from combined analysis of variance for seed yield and yield components in 20 kenaf genotypes. Source of .... environment interaction and yield stability in winter wheat. Ph.D.

  9. Deep subthreshold photofission yields analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellia, G.; Del Zoppo, A.; Migneco, E.; Barna, R.C.; De Pasquale, D.

    1979-01-01

    Photofission yield measurements on 232 Th and /sup 235,236,238/U, showing the ''shelf effect,'' have been analyzed in terms of a double-humped fission barrier. From the characteristic of the shelf it was possible to evaluate the excitation energy E/sub II/ of the shape isomer. In the framework of the double-humped barrier, with the competition between γ decay to the shape isomer and tunneling through the outer barrier of a compound state in the second well, it was possible to deduce fission branching ratios in agreement with those known in the literature. In particular for 232 Th a three-humped fission barrier is proposed, the second deep minimum causing the shelf effect and the third one the narrow resonances detected in this isotope

  10. Deep subthreshold photofission yields analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellia, G.; Del Zoppo, A.; Migneco, E.; Barna, R.C.; De Pasquale, D.

    1979-09-01

    Photofission yield measurements on /sup 232/Th and /sup 235,236,238/U, showing the ''shelf effect,'' have been analyzed in terms of a double-humped fission barrier. From the characteristic of the shelf it was possible to evaluate the excitation energy E/sub II/ of the shape isomer. In the framework of the double-humped barrier, with the competition between ..gamma.. decay to the shape isomer and tunneling through the outer barrier of a compound state in the second well, it was possible to deduce fission branching ratios in agreement with those known in the literature. In particular for /sup 232/Th a three-humped fission barrier is proposed, the second deep minimum causing the shelf effect and the third one the narrow resonances detected in this isotope.

  11. Optimizing rice yields while minimizing yield-scaled global warming potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittelkow, Cameron M; Adviento-Borbe, Maria A; van Kessel, Chris; Hill, James E; Linquist, Bruce A

    2014-05-01

    To meet growing global food demand with limited land and reduced environmental impact, agricultural greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are increasingly evaluated with respect to crop productivity, i.e., on a yield-scaled as opposed to area basis. Here, we compiled available field data on CH4 and N2 O emissions from rice production systems to test the hypothesis that in response to fertilizer nitrogen (N) addition, yield-scaled global warming potential (GWP) will be minimized at N rates that maximize yields. Within each study, yield N surplus was calculated to estimate deficit or excess N application rates with respect to the optimal N rate (defined as the N rate at which maximum yield was achieved). Relationships between yield N surplus and GHG emissions were assessed using linear and nonlinear mixed-effects models. Results indicate that yields increased in response to increasing N surplus when moving from deficit to optimal N rates. At N rates contributing to a yield N surplus, N2 O and yield-scaled N2 O emissions increased exponentially. In contrast, CH4 emissions were not impacted by N inputs. Accordingly, yield-scaled CH4 emissions decreased with N addition. Overall, yield-scaled GWP was minimized at optimal N rates, decreasing by 21% compared to treatments without N addition. These results are unique compared to aerobic cropping systems in which N2 O emissions are the primary contributor to GWP, meaning yield-scaled GWP may not necessarily decrease for aerobic crops when yields are optimized by N fertilizer addition. Balancing gains in agricultural productivity with climate change concerns, this work supports the concept that high rice yields can be achieved with minimal yield-scaled GWP through optimal N application rates. Moreover, additional improvements in N use efficiency may further reduce yield-scaled GWP, thereby strengthening the economic and environmental sustainability of rice systems. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Zero tillage: A potential technology to improve cotton yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Hafiz Ghazanfar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Zero tillage technology revealed with no use of any soil inverting technique to grow crops. The crop plant seed is planted in the soil directly after irrigation to make the soil soft without any replenishing in soil layers. A study was conducted to evaluate cotton genotypes FH-114 and FH-142 for the consecutive three years of growing seasons from 2013-15. The seed of both genotypes was sown with two date of sowing, 1 March and 1 May of each three years of sowing under three tillage treatments (zero tillage, minimum tillage and conventional tillage in triplicate completely randomized split-split plot design. It was found from results that significant differences were recorded for tillage treatments, date of sowing, genotypes and their interactions. Multivariate analysis was performed to evaluate the yield and it attributed traits for potential of FH-114 and FH-142 cotton genotypes. The genotype FH-142 was found with higher and batter performance as compared to FH-114 under zero tillage, minimum tillage and conventional tillage techniques. The traits bolls per plant, boll weight, fibre fineness, fibre strength, plant height, cotton yield per plant and sympodial branches per plant were found as most contributing traits towards cotton yield and production. It was also found that FH-142 gives higher output in terms of economic gain under zero tillage with 54% increase as compared to conventional tillage technique. It was suggested that zero tillage technology should be adopted to improve cotton yield and quality. It was also recommended that further study to evaluate zero tillage as potential technology should be performed with different regions, climate and timing throughout the world.

  13. Distribution of genes associated with yield potential and water ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Supplementary data: Distribution of genes associated with yield potential and water-saving in. Chinese Zone II wheat detected by developed functional markers. Zhenxian Gao, Zhanliang Shi, Aimin Zhang and Jinkao Guo. J. Genet. 94, 35–42. Table 1. Functional markers for high-yield or water-saving genes in wheat and ...

  14. Quantifying potential yield and water-limited yield of summer maize in the North China Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Mingnuo; Liu, Chaoshun; Chen, Maosi

    2017-09-01

    The North China Plain is a major food producing region in China, and climate change could pose a threat to food production in the region. Based on China Meteorological Forcing Dataset, simulating the growth of summer maize in North China Plain from 1979 to 2015 with the regional implementation of crop growth model WOFOST. The results showed that the model can reflect the potential yield and water-limited yield of Summer Maize in North China Plain through the calibration and validation of WOFOST model. After the regional implementation of model, combined with the reanalysis data, the model can better reproduce the regional history of summer maize yield in the North China Plain. The yield gap in Southeastern Beijing, southern Tianjin, southern Hebei province, Northwestern Shandong province is significant, these means the water condition is the main factor to summer maize yield in these regions.

  15. Correlation Analysis of some Growth, Yield, Yield Components and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Correlation studies provide a better understanding of the association of different characters with grain yield (Dixet and Dubey, 1984). The study of associations ... of 120 kg ha-1. The date of sowing was as prescribed by the treatments. Four irrigations were applied to the crop before withholding water to allow for proper ...

  16. Yield trends and yield gap analysis of major crops in the world

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hengsdijk, H.; Langeveld, J.W.A.

    2009-01-01

    This study aims to quantify the gap between current and potential yields of major crops in the world, and the production constraints that contribute to this yield gap. Using an expert-based evaluation of yield gaps and the literature, global and regional yields and yield trends of major crops are

  17. GENETIC ANALYSIS OF YIELD AND YIELD COMPONENTS IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    2017-11-16

    Nov 16, 2017 ... used different genotypes and the environmental conditions under which their ... and Jinks (1971):. Y = m + aa + βd + a2aa + 2aβad +β2dd … .... /plant, 100-grain weight per plant and Grain yield per plant (g) of six generations in IET6279 X IR70445-146-3-. 3 cross. Traits. Generation. Mean. Standard. Range.

  18. Growth and yield potential of Echinochloa pyramidalis (Lam.) Hitchc ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Indeed, although E. pyramidalis has exhibited an excellent yielding potential in vertical-flow constructed wetlands, this treatment process faces numerous problems such as the variability of liquid waste compositions and clogging of the wetland treatment units. In Cameroon, the faecal sludge contains high organic matter ...

  19. BRS Pampeira: new irrigated rice cultivar with high yield potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariano Martins de Magalhães Júnior

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available BRS Pampeira is a rice cultivar developed by Embrapa, recommended for irrigated cultivation in Brazil. It shows modern architecture, with high tillering and tolerance to lodging. It stands out for its high yield potential, medium cycle and good grain quality.

  20. Evaluation of polycross sweetpotato seedlings for root yield potential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study aimed at determining the root yield potential of the sweetpotato seedlings, the variation in storage root flesh colour and response of the storage roots to major pests and diseases attacking sweetpotato in the field .The experiment was carried out in the screen house and at the Eastern experimental field of National ...

  1. GENETIC ANALYSIS OF YIELD AND YIELD COMPONENTS IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    2017-11-16

    Nov 16, 2017 ... Sierra Leone Agricultural Research Institute, Rokupr Agricultural Research Centre, Sierra Leone .... The objectives of this study was to elucidate ... Data analysis. Generation mean analysis. (Equation 1) was used to estimates genetic control of the seven quantitative traits according to the methodology ...

  2. Distribution of genes associated with yield potential and water ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2B, TaGW2-6A and Dreb-B1 genes conferring to yield potential and water-saving were selected to analyse the distribution in. 102 wheat varieties, most of which were authorized in the past decade and adapted to grow in Zone II of China. First, the semi- dwarfing genes Rht-B1b and Rht-D1b (mutant alleles) conferring to ...

  3. Prediction of seed-yield potential of common bean populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abreu Ângela de Fátima Barbosa

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Earliest possible prediction of seed-yield potential of autogamous crop populations increases breeding program efficiency by saving time and resources. Alternatives for obtaining seed-yield predictions were compared by evaluating four common-bean populations in F1 and F2 generations together with the parents. Mean components (m + a' and d and variances were estimated. The potential of each population was predicted by using both these and the Jinks and Pooni (1976 procedure, which allows probability estimation of each population of originating lines surpassing a determined standard. Estimate efficiency was determined by evaluating performances of 62 F5:7 families from each population. Mean component m + a' estimates obtained for the F1 and F2 generations proved efficient in predicting seed yield of F7 generation lines as did d for estimate variance among F7 generation families. In addition, the Jinks and Pooni (1976 procedure proved efficient in early prediction of common bean population genetic potentials, especially when using the m + a' estimate.

  4. Effect of nitrogen and water deficit type on the yield gap between the potential and attainable wheat yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangang Liu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Water deficit and N fertilizer are the two primary limiting factors for wheat yield in the North China plain, the most important winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. production area in China. Analyzing the yield gap between the potential yield and the attainable yield can quantify the potential for increasing wheat production and exploring the limiting factors to yield gap in the high-yielding farming region of North China Plain. The Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer (DSSAT model was used to identify methods to increase the grain yield and decrease the gap. In order to explore the impact of N and cultivars on wheat yield in the different drought types, the climate conditions during 1981 to 2011 growing seasons was categorized into low, moderate, and severe water deficit classes according to the anomaly percentage of the water deficit rate during the entire wheat growing season. There are differences (P < 0.0001 in the variations of the potential yields among three cultivars over 30 yr. For all three water deficit types, the more recent cultivars Jimai22 and Shijiazhuang8 had higher yields compared to the older 'Jinan17'. As the N fertilizer rate increased, the yield gap decreased more substantially during the low water deficit years because of the significant increase in attainable yield. Overall, the yield gaps were smaller with less water stress. Replacement of cultivars and appropriate N fertilizer application based on the forecasted drought types can narrow the yield gap effectively.

  5. correlation studies and path coefficient analysis for seed yield

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    4.00 ... Yield being a quantitative trait has complex inheritance, which is subjected to environmental fluctuations ... Analysis for seed yield and yield components in Ethiopian coriander. 53 longest basal leaf, plant height at full maturity,.

  6. Bird communities and biomass yields in potential bioenergy grasslands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, Peter J; Sample, David W; Williams, Carol L; Turner, Monica G

    2014-01-01

    Demand for bioenergy is increasing, but the ecological consequences of bioenergy crop production on working lands remain unresolved. Corn is currently a dominant bioenergy crop, but perennial grasslands could produce renewable bioenergy resources and enhance biodiversity. Grassland bird populations have declined in recent decades and may particularly benefit from perennial grasslands grown for bioenergy. We asked how breeding bird community assemblages, vegetation characteristics, and biomass yields varied among three types of potential bioenergy grassland fields (grass monocultures, grass-dominated fields, and forb-dominated fields), and assessed tradeoffs between grassland biomass production and bird habitat. We also compared the bird communities in grassland fields to nearby cornfields. Cornfields had few birds compared to perennial grassland fields. Ten bird Species of Greatest Conservation Need (SGCN) were observed in perennial grassland fields. Bird species richness and total bird density increased with forb cover and were greater in forb-dominated fields than grass monocultures. SGCN density declined with increasing vertical vegetation density, indicating that tall, dense grassland fields managed for maximum biomass yield would be of lesser value to imperiled grassland bird species. The proportion of grassland habitat within 1 km of study sites was positively associated with bird species richness and the density of total birds and SGCNs, suggesting that grassland bioenergy fields may be more beneficial for grassland birds if they are established near other grassland parcels. Predicted total bird density peaked below maximum biomass yields and predicted SGCN density was negatively related to biomass yields. Our results indicate that perennial grassland fields could produce bioenergy feedstocks while providing bird habitat. Bioenergy grasslands promote agricultural multifunctionality and conservation of biodiversity in working landscapes.

  7. Bird communities and biomass yields in potential bioenergy grasslands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J Blank

    Full Text Available Demand for bioenergy is increasing, but the ecological consequences of bioenergy crop production on working lands remain unresolved. Corn is currently a dominant bioenergy crop, but perennial grasslands could produce renewable bioenergy resources and enhance biodiversity. Grassland bird populations have declined in recent decades and may particularly benefit from perennial grasslands grown for bioenergy. We asked how breeding bird community assemblages, vegetation characteristics, and biomass yields varied among three types of potential bioenergy grassland fields (grass monocultures, grass-dominated fields, and forb-dominated fields, and assessed tradeoffs between grassland biomass production and bird habitat. We also compared the bird communities in grassland fields to nearby cornfields. Cornfields had few birds compared to perennial grassland fields. Ten bird Species of Greatest Conservation Need (SGCN were observed in perennial grassland fields. Bird species richness and total bird density increased with forb cover and were greater in forb-dominated fields than grass monocultures. SGCN density declined with increasing vertical vegetation density, indicating that tall, dense grassland fields managed for maximum biomass yield would be of lesser value to imperiled grassland bird species. The proportion of grassland habitat within 1 km of study sites was positively associated with bird species richness and the density of total birds and SGCNs, suggesting that grassland bioenergy fields may be more beneficial for grassland birds if they are established near other grassland parcels. Predicted total bird density peaked below maximum biomass yields and predicted SGCN density was negatively related to biomass yields. Our results indicate that perennial grassland fields could produce bioenergy feedstocks while providing bird habitat. Bioenergy grasslands promote agricultural multifunctionality and conservation of biodiversity in working landscapes.

  8. Analysis of yield advantage in mixed cropping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ranganathan, R.

    1993-01-01

    It has long been recognized that mixed cropping can give yield advantages over sole cropping, but methods that can identify such yield benefits are still being developed. This thesis presents a method that combines physiological and economic principles in the evaluation of yield advantage.

  9. Wheat yield dynamics: a structural econometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Afsin; Akdi, Yilmaz; Arslan, Fahrettin

    2007-10-15

    In this study we initially have tried to explore the wheat situation in Turkey, which has a small-open economy and in the member countries of European Union (EU). We have observed that increasing the wheat yield is fundamental to obtain comparative advantage among countries by depressing domestic prices. Also the changing structure of supporting schemes in Turkey makes it necessary to increase its wheat yield level. For this purpose, we have used available data to determine the dynamics of wheat yield by Ordinary Least Square Regression methods. In order to find out whether there is a linear relationship among these series we have checked each series whether they are integrated at the same order or not. Consequently, we have pointed out that fertilizer usage and precipitation level are substantial inputs for producing high wheat yield. Furthermore, in respect for our model, fertilizer usage affects wheat yield more than precipitation level.

  10. Oil palm natural diversity and the potential for yield improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson eBarcelos

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available African oil palm has the highest productivity amongst cultivated oleaginous crops. Species can constitute a single crop capable to fulfil the growing global demand for vegetable oils, which is estimated to reach 240 million tons by 2050. Two types of vegetable oil are extracted from the palm fruit on commercial scale. The crude palm oil and kernel palm oil have different fatty acid profiles, which increases versatility of the crop in industrial applications. Plantations of the current varieties have economic life-span around 25-30 years and produce fruits around the year. Thus, predictable annual palm oil supply enables marketing plans and adjustments in line with the economic forecasts. Oil palm cultivation is one of the most profitable land uses in the humid tropics. Oil palm fruits are the richest plant source of pro-vitamin A and vitamin E. Hence, crop both alleviates poverty, and could provide a simple practical solution to eliminate global pro-vitamin A deficiency. Oil palm is a perennial, evergreen tree adapted to cultivation in biodiversity rich equatorial land areas. The growing demand for the palm oil threatens the future of the rain forests and has a large negative impact on biodiversity. Plant science faces three major challenges to make oil palm the key element of building the future sustainable world. The global average yield of 3.5 tons of oil per hectare (t should be raised to the full yield potential estimated at 11-18t. The tree architecture must be changed to lower labor intensity and improve mechanization of the harvest. Oil composition should be tailored to the evolving needs of the food, oleochemical and fuel industries. The release of the oil palm reference genome sequence in 2013 was the key step towards this goal. The molecular bases of agronomically important traits can be and are beginning to be understood at the single base pair resolution, enabling gene-centered breeding and engineering of this remarkable crop.

  11. Oil palm natural diversity and the potential for yield improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcelos, Edson; Rios, Sara de Almeida; Cunha, Raimundo N V; Lopes, Ricardo; Motoike, Sérgio Y; Babiychuk, Elena; Skirycz, Aleksandra; Kushnir, Sergei

    2015-01-01

    African oil palm has the highest productivity amongst cultivated oleaginous crops. Species can constitute a single crop capable to fulfill the growing global demand for vegetable oils, which is estimated to reach 240 million tons by 2050. Two types of vegetable oil are extracted from the palm fruit on commercial scale. The crude palm oil and kernel palm oil have different fatty acid profiles, which increases versatility of the crop in industrial applications. Plantations of the current varieties have economic life-span around 25-30 years and produce fruits around the year. Thus, predictable annual palm oil supply enables marketing plans and adjustments in line with the economic forecasts. Oil palm cultivation is one of the most profitable land uses in the humid tropics. Oil palm fruits are the richest plant source of pro-vitamin A and vitamin E. Hence, crop both alleviates poverty, and could provide a simple practical solution to eliminate global pro-vitamin A deficiency. Oil palm is a perennial, evergreen tree adapted to cultivation in biodiversity rich equatorial land areas. The growing demand for the palm oil threatens the future of the rain forests and has a large negative impact on biodiversity. Plant science faces three major challenges to make oil palm the key element of building the future sustainable world. The global average yield of 3.5 tons of oil per hectare (t) should be raised to the full yield potential estimated at 11-18t. The tree architecture must be changed to lower labor intensity and improve mechanization of the harvest. Oil composition should be tailored to the evolving needs of the food, oleochemical and fuel industries. The release of the oil palm reference genome sequence in 2013 was the key step toward this goal. The molecular bases of agronomically important traits can be and are beginning to be understood at the single base pair resolution, enabling gene-centered breeding and engineering of this remarkable crop.

  12. Oil palm natural diversity and the potential for yield improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcelos, Edson; Rios, Sara de Almeida; Cunha, Raimundo N. V.; Lopes, Ricardo; Motoike, Sérgio Y.; Babiychuk, Elena; Skirycz, Aleksandra; Kushnir, Sergei

    2015-01-01

    African oil palm has the highest productivity amongst cultivated oleaginous crops. Species can constitute a single crop capable to fulfill the growing global demand for vegetable oils, which is estimated to reach 240 million tons by 2050. Two types of vegetable oil are extracted from the palm fruit on commercial scale. The crude palm oil and kernel palm oil have different fatty acid profiles, which increases versatility of the crop in industrial applications. Plantations of the current varieties have economic life-span around 25–30 years and produce fruits around the year. Thus, predictable annual palm oil supply enables marketing plans and adjustments in line with the economic forecasts. Oil palm cultivation is one of the most profitable land uses in the humid tropics. Oil palm fruits are the richest plant source of pro-vitamin A and vitamin E. Hence, crop both alleviates poverty, and could provide a simple practical solution to eliminate global pro-vitamin A deficiency. Oil palm is a perennial, evergreen tree adapted to cultivation in biodiversity rich equatorial land areas. The growing demand for the palm oil threatens the future of the rain forests and has a large negative impact on biodiversity. Plant science faces three major challenges to make oil palm the key element of building the future sustainable world. The global average yield of 3.5 tons of oil per hectare (t) should be raised to the full yield potential estimated at 11–18t. The tree architecture must be changed to lower labor intensity and improve mechanization of the harvest. Oil composition should be tailored to the evolving needs of the food, oleochemical and fuel industries. The release of the oil palm reference genome sequence in 2013 was the key step toward this goal. The molecular bases of agronomically important traits can be and are beginning to be understood at the single base pair resolution, enabling gene-centered breeding and engineering of this remarkable crop. PMID:25870604

  13. Genetic analysis of yield in peanut ( Arachis hypogaea L.) using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The yield had significant major gene effect and the results implied that not only should the two major genes' effects be considered but also the polygene's effect should be considered in breeding to increase peanut yield. Key words: Peanut, yield, major gene plus polygene inheritance model, genetic analysis.

  14. Analysis of yield-attributing traits for high-yielding wheat lines in southwestern Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Midori Okami

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Development of wheat cultivars that achieve high yields despite the short growing season is essential for increasing wheat production in southwestern Japan. The objectives of this study were to assess the genetic progress in grain yield and to clarify yield-attributing traits of high-yielding wheat lines in southwestern Japan. We conducted field experiments for two growing seasons (2012–2013 and 2013–2014 using three commercial wheat cultivars (Shiroganekomugi, Chikugoizumi, and Iwainodaichi and four high-yielding wheat lines including Hakei W1380 developed in southwestern Japan. In an ancillary field experiment, we compared a commercial cultivar, Shiroganekomugi, and a high-yielding line, Hakei W1380, in the 2014–2015 season. Across the two seasons, grain yield of high-yielding lines was generally higher than commercial cultivars. Hakei W1380 achieved the highest grain yield across the two seasons, and successfully produced more than 900 g m−2 in the 2013–2014 season. Correlation analysis showed that recent yield progress of wheat lines in southwestern Japan was derived from enhanced biomass production and grain number m−2. Larger numbers of grains m−2 in high-yielding lines than in commercial cultivars were associated with higher crop growth rate at the pre-anthesis stage, and therefore higher spike dry weight m−2 at anthesis. Genotypic differences in crop growth rate from jointing to anthesis resulted mainly from differences in leaf area index. These results indicate that further improvements in grain yield in southwestern Japan could be achieved by increasing the amount of radiation intercepted at the pre-anthesis stage and grain number m−2.

  15. Studies on seed yield potential of some selected kenaf ( Hibiscus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kenaf seed yield depends on morpho-physiological traits between varieties, and the interaction between genotype and the environment. Studies were conducted in Ibadan, Ilora and Kisi stations of the Institute of Agricultural Research and Training (IAR&T), Obafemi Awolowo University, Moor Plantation, Ibadan, Oyo State, ...

  16. Potential of multiseeded mutant (msd) to boost sorghum grain yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seed number per plant is an important determinant of the grain yield in cereal and other crops. We have isolated a class of multiseeded (msd) sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) mutants that are capable of producing three times the seed number and twice the seed weight per panicle as compared with t...

  17. Distribution of genes associated with yield potential and water ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    [Gao Z., Shi Z., Zhang A. and Guo J. 2015 Distribution of genes associated with yield potenial and water-saving in Chinese Zone II wheat detected by developed functional markers. J. Genet. 94, 35–42]. Introduction. The Yellow and Huai wheat production region (Zone II), where Shijiazhuang irrigation district (SID) is located, ...

  18. Path Analysis of Grain Yield and Yield Components and Some Agronomic Traits in Bread Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Janmohammadi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Development of new bread wheat cultivars needs efficient tools to monitor trait association in a breeding program. This investigation was aimed to characterize grain yield components and some agronomic traits related to bread wheat grain yield. The efficiency of a breeding program depends mainly on the direction of the correlation between different traits and the relative importance of each component involved in contributing to grain yield. Correlation and path analysis were carried out in 56 bread wheat genotypes grown under field conditions of Maragheh, Iran. Observations were recorded on 18 wheat traits and correlation coefficient analysis revealed grain yield was positively correlated with stem diameter, spike length, floret number, spikelet number, grain diameter, grain length and 1000 seed weight traits. According to the variance inflation factor (VIF and tolerance as multicollinearity statistics, there are inconsistent relationships among the variables and all traits could be considered as first-order variables (Model I with grain yield as the response variable due to low multicollinearity of all measured traits. In the path coefficient analysis, grain yield represented the dependent variable and the spikelet number and 1000 seed weight traits were the independent ones. Our results indicated that the number of spikelets per spikes and leaf width and 1000 seed weight traits followed by the grain length, grain diameter and grain number per spike were the traits related to higher grain yield. The above mentioned traits along with their indirect causal factors should be considered simultaneously as an effective selection criteria evolving high yielding genotype because of their direct positive contribution to grain yield.

  19. Yield Line Analysis of Slabs with Covered Openings

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-08-01

    r hasu been identified. There are two methods available in yield line analysis that can be used to calculate r : theu virtual work method and the...equilibrium method. Each method has its advantages and disadvantages as a design/analysis tool. VIRTUAL WORK METHOD The virtual work method of yield...the virtual work done by the forces is zero" (Ref 1). A failure mechanism consisting of plastic hinges (yield lines) and planar sectors is assumed for

  20. Genetic analysis of yield and yield components in Oryza sativa x ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... inheritance of yield and yield components and to estimate the heritabilities of important quantitative traits in rice (Oryza sativa L.). Six generations viz., P1, P2, F1, F2, BCP1 and BCP2 of a cross between IET6279 and IR70445-146-3-3 were used for the study. Generation mean analysis suggested that additive effects had a ...

  1. A RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CHLOROPHYLL PHOTOSYNTHETIC POTENTIAL AND YIELD OF WINTER WHEAT (Triticum aestivum L.) AT ELEVATED TEMPERATURES

    OpenAIRE

    G.À. PRIADKINA; O.O. STASIK; L.N. MIKHALSKAYA; V.V. SHVARTAU

    2014-01-01

    Development of the indices for selection of high-yielding crops and the models, forecasting crop yields, necessitate the analysis of the relationship between photosynthetic traits and productivity. Chlorophyll photosynthetic potential, characterizing the total amount of chlorophyll in the aboveground parts of plants (or in leaves) per unit of ground surface area during the growing season or a certain period, under optimal weather conditions correlated most closely with yield (T.M. Shadchina e...

  2. Inter-relationships among traits and path analysis for yield ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research aimed at selecting varieties of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) with potential for high storage root yields through identification of stable yield components that can be used as selection criteria was carried out at three locations of different altitudes in Uganda. Multiple regression and simple phenotypic ...

  3. Predicting spring barley yield from variety-specific yield potential, disease resistance and straw length, and from environment-specific disease loads and weed pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergård, Hanne; Kristensen, Kristian; Pinnschmidt, Hans O.

    2008-01-01

    For low-input crop production, well-characterised varieties increase the possibilities of managing diseases and weeds. This analysis aims at developing a framework for analyzing grain yield using external varietal information about disease resistance, weed competitiveness and yield potential and ...... growth habit. Higher grain yield was thus predicted for taller plants under weed pressure. The results are discussed in relation to the model framework, impact of the considered traits and use of information from conventional variety testing in organic cropping systems.......For low-input crop production, well-characterised varieties increase the possibilities of managing diseases and weeds. This analysis aims at developing a framework for analyzing grain yield using external varietal information about disease resistance, weed competitiveness and yield potential...... and quantifying the impact of susceptibility grouping and straw length scores (as a measure for weed competitiveness) for predicting spring barley grain yield under variable biotic stress levels. The study comprised 52 spring barley varieties and 17 environments, i.e., combinations of location, growing system...

  4. Seed yield components and their potential interaction in grasses - to what extend does seed weigth influence yield?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boelt, B; Gislum, R

    2010-01-01

     In a first-year seed crop of red fescue (Festuca rubra L.) the degree of lodging was controlled by the use of Moddus (Trinexapac-ethyl). Seed weight was found to increase by the decreasing degree of lodging prior to harvest. The higher seed weights were accompanied by higher yields even though t...... with yield loss during the harvest and post-harvest processes....... In a first-year seed crop of red fescue (Festuca rubra L.) the degree of lodging was controlled by the use of Moddus (Trinexapac-ethyl). Seed weight was found to increase by the decreasing degree of lodging prior to harvest. The higher seed weights were accompanied by higher yields even though...... the number of reproductive tillers and floret site utilization (FSU) were unaffected by the treatments. Seed yield is affected by several yield components and reflects the interaction between the seed yield potential (e.g. number of reproductive tillers, number of spikelets and florets/spikelet per...

  5. Quantitative Genetic Analysis for Yield and Yield Components in Boro Rice (Oryza sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supriyo CHAKRABORTY

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-nine genotypes of boro rice (Oryza sativa L. were grown in a randomized block design with three replications in plots of 4m x 1m with a crop geometry of 20 cm x 20 cm between November-April, in Regional Agricultural Research Station, Nagaon, India. Quantitative data were collected on five randomly selected plants of each genotype per replication for yield/plant, and six other yield components, namely plant height, panicles/plant, panicle length, effective grains/panicle, 100 grain weight and harvest index. Mean values of the characters for each genotype were used for analysis of variance and covariance to obtain information on genotypic and phenotypic correlation along with coheritability between two characters. Path analyses were carried out to estimate the direct and indirect effects of boro rice�s yield components. The objective of the study was to identify the characters that mostly influence the yield for increasing boro rice productivity through breeding program. Correlation analysis revealed significant positive genotypic correlation of yield/plant with plant height (0.21, panicles/plant (0.53, panicle length (0.53, effective grains/panicle (0.57 and harvest index (0.86. Path analysis based on genotypic correlation coefficients elucidated high positive direct effect of harvest index (0.8631, panicle length (0.2560 and 100 grain weight (0.1632 on yield/plant with a residual effect of 0.33. Plant height and panicles/plant recorded high positive indirect effect on yield/plant via harvest index whereas effective grains/panicle on yield/plant via harvest index and panicle length. Results of the present study suggested that five component characters, namely harvest index, effective grains/plant, panicle length, panicles/plant and plant height influenced the yield of boro rice. A genotype with higher magnitude of these component characters could be either selected from the existing genotypes or evolved by breeding program for genetic

  6. Using yield gap analysis to give sustainable intensification local meaning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silva, João Vasco

    2017-01-01

    Yield gap analysis is useful to understand the relative contribution of growth-defining, -limiting and -reducing factors to actual yields. This is traditionally performed at the field level using mechanistic crop growth simulation models, and directly up-scaled to the regional and global levels

  7. Production yield analysis in the poultry processing industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Somsen, D.J.; Capelle, A.; Tramper, J.

    2004-01-01

    The paper outlines a case study where the PYA-method (production yield analysis) was implemented at a poultry-slaughtering line, processing 9000 broiler chicks per hour. It was shown that the average live weight of a flock of broilers could be used to predict the maximum production yield of the

  8. Genetic analysis of yield in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-07-20

    Jul 20, 2011 ... only should the two major genes' effects be considered but also the polygene's effect should be considered in breeding to increase peanut yield. Key words: Peanut, yield, major gene plus polygene inheritance model, genetic analysis. INTRODUCTION. Peanut consists of diploid (2n = 2x = 20), tetraploid ...

  9. Genotype x environment interaction and stability analysis for yield ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    etc

    2015-05-06

    May 6, 2015 ... Various stability indices were used to assess stability and genotype by environment performances. Combined analysis of variance (ANOVA) for yield .... Mean grain yield (kg/ha) of 17 Kabuli-type chickpea genotypes grown at five locations in Ethiopia. ... Performance trials have to be conducted in multiple.

  10. Yield stability analysis of pearl millet hybrids in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hope&shola

    2006-02-02

    Feb 2, 2006 ... years. Genotype x environment interaction was observed, a large component of which was accounted ... Table 1. The different environments, years, locations, total rainfall, latitudes and environmental means for grain yield average ... Table 2. Pooled analysis of variance for stability of grain yield (t/ha).

  11. correlation and path coefficient analysis of yield characters of bambara

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Finance DAC

    academicjournals.org/AJEST. African Journal of Environmental Science and. Technology. Full Length Research Paper. Correlation and path coefficient analysis of yield characters of bambara (Vigna subterranea L.Verdc.) S. M. Maunde. 1. *, B. Tanimu.

  12. Simulating the potential yield and yield gaps of sugar beet due to water and nitrogen limitations in Khorasan province using SUCROS model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Deihimfard

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Crop productivity is highly constrained by water and nitrogen limitations in many areas of the world (Kalra et al., 2007. Therefore, there is a need to investigate more on nitrogen and water management to achieve higher production as well as quality. Irrigated sugar beet in the cropping systems of Khorasan province in northeastern of Iran accounts for about 34% of the land area under sugar beet production (~115,000 ha with an average yield of around 36 t.ha-1 (Anonymous, 2009. However, there is a huge yield gap (the difference between potential and water and nitrogen-limited yield mainly due to biotic and abiotic factors causing major reduction in farmers’ yield. Accordingly, yield gap analysis should be carried out to reduce the yield reduction and reach the farmer’s yield to the potential yield. The current study aimed to simulate potential yield as well as yield gap related to water and nitrogen shortage in the major sugar beet-growing areas of Khorasan province of Iran. Materials and methods This study was carried out in 6 locations across Khorasan province, which is located in the northeast of Iran. Long term weather data for 1986 to 2009 were obtained from Iran Meteorological Organization for 6 selected locations. The weather data included daily sunshine hours (h, daily maximum and minimum temperatures (◦C, and daily rainfall (mm. Daily solar radiation was estimated using the Goudriaan (1993 method. The validated SUCROSBEET model (Deihimfard, 2011; Deihimfard et al., 2011 was then used to estimate potential, water and nitrogen-limited yield and yield gap of sugar beet for 6 selected locations across the Khorasan province in the northeast of Iran. This model simulates the impacts of weather, genotype and management factors on crop growth and development, soil water and nitrogen balance on a daily basis and finally it predicts crop yield. The model requires input data, including local weather and soil conditions, cultivar

  13. Potential impacts of agricultural drought on crop yield variability under a changing climate in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, K.; Leng, G.; Huang, M.; Sheffield, J.; Zhao, G.; Gao, H.

    2017-12-01

    Texas has the largest farm area in the U.S, and its revenue from crop production ranks third overall. With the changing climate, hydrological extremes such as droughts are becoming more frequent and intensified, causing significant yield reduction in rainfed agricultural systems. The objective of this study is to investigate the potential impacts of agricultural drought on crop yields (corn, sorghum, and wheat) under a changing climate in Texas. The Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model, which is calibrated and validated over 10 major Texas river basins during the historical period, is employed in this study.The model is forced by a set of statistically downscaled climate projections from Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) model ensembles at a spatial resolution of 1/8°. The CMIP5 projections contain four Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP) that represent different greenhouse gas concentration (4.5 and 8.5 w/m2 are selected in this study). To carry out the analysis, VIC simulations from 1950 to 2099 are first analyzed to investigate how the frequency and severity of agricultural droughts will be altered in Texas (under a changing climate). Second, future crop yields are projected using a statistical crop model. Third, the effects of agricultural drought on crop yields are quantitatively analyzed. The results are expected to contribute to future water resources planning, with a goal of mitigating the negative impacts of future droughts on agricultural production in Texas.

  14. Analysis of Yield and Yield Related Traits Variability of Winter Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. Cv. Izolda and Double Haploid Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozdój Janusz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The yield-forming potential of winter wheat is determined by several factors, namely total number of shoots per plant and total number of spikelets per spike. The field experiments were conducted during three vegetation seasons at the Plant Breeding and Acclimatization Institute – National Research Institute (PBAI–NRI, located in Radzików, Poland. The objective of this study was a comparative analysis of the structural yield-forming factor levels, which determine grain yield per spike and per plant of the DH lines and standard Izolda cultivar. Results indicate that several DH lines showed some differences in tested morphological structures of plant, yield factor levels and in grain yield per spike and per plant in comparison to standard Izolda, regardless of the year. Mean grain yield per plant of DH lines was 26.5% lower in comparison to standard Izolda only in the second year of study. It was caused by a reduction of productive tillers number. Structural yield-forming potential of DH lines was used in 38% and 59% and in case of Izolda in 47% and 61% (the second and the third year of experiment, respectively. The mean grain yield per spike of DH lines was 14.8% lower than Izolda cultivar only in third year of experiment and it was caused by about 12% lower number of grains per spike. Structural yield-forming potential of DH spikes was used in 82.4%, 85.4% and 84.9% and in case of Izolda in 83.8%, 87% and 89.5% (the first, the second and the third year of experiment, respectively. The grain yield per winter wheat plant (both DH lines and standard Izolda was significantly correlated with the number of productive tillers per plant (r = 0.80. The grain yield per winter wheat spike (both DH lines and Izolda cultivar was significantly and highly correlated with the number of grains per spike (r = 0.96, number of fertile spikelets per spike (r = 0.87 and the spike length (r = 0.80. Variation of spike and plant structural yield-forming factors

  15. Irrigation of winter wheat to improve the realization of genetic yield potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragović Svetimir

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Realization of genetic yield potential of winter wheat depends on a large number of environmental factors among which rainfall level and air temperature are particularly important. Because of frequent rainfall shortages on the territory of Serbia in the period of wheat sowing in the fall and the vegetation in the spring, it is not possible to realize maximum yields, i.e., to reach the full genetic yield potential. In this situation, irrigation practice may be a solution needed to provide optimum soil moisture throughout the wheat growing season. Irrigation response of ten winter wheat varieties (Evropa, Avala, Pobeda, Balkan, Slavija, Milica, NS Rana 5, NS 4339, Nova Jadranka and Proteinka was studied in the period 1993 -1995. The varieties were irrigated at the time of sowing and during the growing period, the schedule being determined on the basis of soil moisture analysis and irrigation being performed at the soil moisture level of 70-75% FWC. The three-year average yields obtained with and without irrigation were 6.72 and 6.47 t/ha, respectively. The average annual yields with and without irrigation were 7.95, 6.08 and 612 t/ha, and 7.25, 6.08 and 6.09 t/ha, respectively. The variety Evropa was the best performer with 7.03 t/ha in irrigation and 6.58 t/ha without irrigation. The highest yield in irrigation, 8.66 t/ha, was obtained in 1993. The average effect of irrigation was only 0.25 t/ha, i.e., 4%. This was due to relatively high rainfalls that occurred in all experiment years in the period when wheat had the highest water requirement. The relatively small irrigation doses could not be very effective in this situation. Furthermore, high temperatures occurred in June in all years, causing premature ripening of wheat. The differences in plant condition that existed between the irrigated and non-irrigated variants before June were thus eradicated and the yields were evened out.

  16. Assessment of Potential Yield andClimate Change Sensitivity of Peanut Crop in Cagayan Valley, Philippines using DSSAT Simulation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balderama, O. F.

    2013-12-01

    Peanut is a major upland crop in Cagayan Valley and a leguminous crop that requires less water and therefore, considered an important crop in improving productivity of upland and rainfed areas. However, little information is available on the potential productivity of the crop and analysis on the production constraints including climate change sensitivity. This study was aimed to determine yield potential and production constraints of peanut crop in Cagayan Valley through the use of Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer (DSSAT) simulation modeling; analyze yield gaps between simulated and actual yield levels and to provide decision support to further optimize peanut production under climate change condition. Site of experiment for model calibration and validation was located on-station at Isabela State University, Echague, Isabela. Rainfall and other climatic variables were monitored using a HOBO weather station (Automatic Weather Station) which is strategically installed inside experimental zone.The inputs required to run the CSM model include information on soil and weather conditions, crop management practices and cultivar specific genetic coefficients. In the first step,a model calibration was conducted to determine the cultivar coefficients for certain peanut cultivar that are normally grown in Cagayan Valley. Crop growth and yield simulation modeling was undertaken using the Decision Support System for Agro-Technology Transfer (DSSAT) for small seeded peanut (Pn9). An evaluation of the CSM-CROPGRO-peanut model was performed with data sets from peanut experiment conducted from December 2011 to April 2012. The model was evaluated in the estimation of potential yield of peanut under rainfed condition and low-nitrogen application. Yield potential for peanut limited only by temperature and solar radiation and no-water and nutrient stress, ranged from 3274 to 4805 kg per hectare for six planting dates (October 1, October 15, November 1, November 15

  17. Estimating Sugarcane Yield Potential Using an In-Season Determination of Normalized Difference Vegetative Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lofton, Josh; Tubana, Brenda S.; Kanke, Yumiko; Teboh, Jasper; Viator, Howard; Dalen, Marilyn

    2012-01-01

    Estimating crop yield using remote sensing techniques has proven to be successful. However, sugarcane possesses unique characteristics; such as, a multi-year cropping cycle and plant height-limiting for midseason fertilizer application timing. Our study objective was to determine if sugarcane yield potential could be estimated using an in-season estimation of normalized difference vegetative index (NDVI). Sensor readings were taken using the GreenSeeker® handheld sensor from 2008 to 2011 in St. Gabriel and Jeanerette, LA, USA. In-season estimates of yield (INSEY) values were calculated by dividing NDVI by thermal variables. Optimum timing for estimating sugarcane yield was between 601–750 GDD. In-season estimated yield values improved the yield potential (YP) model compared to using NDVI. Generally, INSEY value showed a positive exponential relationship with yield (r2 values 0.48 and 0.42 for cane tonnage and sugar yield, respectively). When models were separated based on canopy structure there was an increase the strength of the relationship for the erectophile varieties (r2 0.53 and 0.47 for cane tonnage and sugar yield, respectively); however, the model for planophile varieties weakened slightly. Results of this study indicate using an INSEY value for predicting sugarcane yield shows potential of being a valuable management tool for sugarcane producers in Louisiana. PMID:22969359

  18. Raising yield potential of wheat. III. Optimizing partitioning to grain while maintaining lodging resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulkes, M John; Slafer, Gustavo A; Davies, William J; Berry, Pete M; Sylvester-Bradley, Roger; Martre, Pierre; Calderini, Daniel F; Griffiths, Simon; Reynolds, Matthew P

    2011-01-01

    A substantial increase in grain yield potential is required, along with better use of water and fertilizer, to ensure food security and environmental protection in future decades. For improvements in photosynthetic capacity to result in additional wheat yield, extra assimilates must be partitioned to developing spikes and grains and/or potential grain weight increased to accommodate the extra assimilates. At the same time, improvement in dry matter partitioning to spikes should ensure that it does not increase stem or root lodging. It is therefore crucial that improvements in structural and reproductive aspects of growth accompany increases in photosynthesis to enhance the net agronomic benefits of genetic modifications. In this article, six complementary approaches are proposed, namely: (i) optimizing developmental pattern to maximize spike fertility and grain number, (ii) optimizing spike growth to maximize grain number and dry matter harvest index, (iii) improving spike fertility through desensitizing floret abortion to environmental cues, (iv) improving potential grain size and grain filling, and (v) improving lodging resistance. Since many of the traits tackled in these approaches interact strongly, an integrative modelling approach is also proposed, to (vi) identify any trade-offs between key traits, hence to define target ideotypes in quantitative terms. The potential for genetic dissection of key traits via quantitative trait loci analysis is discussed for the efficient deployment of existing variation in breeding programmes. These proposals should maximize returns in food production from investments in increased crop biomass by increasing spike fertility, grain number per unit area and harvest index whilst optimizing the trade-offs with potential grain weight and lodging resistance.

  19. Analysis of shape isomer yields of Pu in the framework of dynamical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    February 2012 physics pp. 231–236. Analysis of shape isomer yields of ... the depth of the second potential well should be less than the results of statistical model calculations. Keywords. Fission; fission barrier ... (2) population of the second potential well and cooling via particle or γ emission (this event is interpreted as the ...

  20. Managment oriented analysis of sediment yield time compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetanova, Anna; Le Bissonnais, Yves; Raclot, Damien; Nunes, João P.; Licciardello, Feliciana; Le Bouteiller, Caroline; Latron, Jérôme; Rodríguez Caballero, Emilio; Mathys, Nicolle; Klotz, Sébastien; Mekki, Insaf; Gallart, Francesc; Solé Benet, Albert; Pérez Gallego, Nuria; Andrieux, Patrick; Moussa, Roger; Planchon, Olivier; Marisa Santos, Juliana; Alshihabi, Omran; Chikhaoui, Mohamed

    2016-04-01

    The understanding of inter- and intra-annual variability of sediment yield is important for the land use planning and management decisions for sustainable landscapes. It is of particular importance in the regions where the annual sediment yield is often highly dependent on the occurrence of few large events which produce the majority of sediments, such as in the Mediterranean. This phenomenon is referred as time compression, and relevance of its consideration growths with the increase in magnitude and frequency of extreme events due to climate change in many other regions. So far, time compression has ben studied mainly on events datasets, providing high resolution, but (in terms of data amount, required data precision and methods), demanding analysis. In order to provide an alternative simplified approach, the monthly and yearly time compressions were evaluated in eight Mediterranean catchments (of the R-OSMed network), representing a wide range of Mediterranean landscapes. The annual sediment yield varied between 0 to ~27100 Mg•km-2•a-1, and the monthly sediment yield between 0 to ~11600 Mg•km-2•month-1. The catchment's sediment yield was un-equally distributed at inter- and intra-annual scale, and large differences were observed between the catchments. Two types of time compression were distinguished - (i) the inter-annual (based on annual values) and intra- annual (based on monthly values). Four different rainfall-runoff-sediment yield time compression patterns were observed: (i) no time-compression of rainfall, runoff, nor sediment yield, (ii) low time compression of rainfall and runoff, but high compression of sediment yield, (iii) low compression of rainfall and high of runoff and sediment yield, and (iv) low, medium and high compression of rainfall, runoff and sediment yield. All four patterns were present at inter-annual scale, while at intra-annual scale only the two latter were present. This implies that high sediment yields occurred in

  1. Do soil organic carbon levels affect potential yields and nitrogen use efficiency?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oelofse, Myles; Markussen, Bo; Knudsen, Leif

    2015-01-01

    , but in many studies it is difficult to separate the effect of nutrients from the effect of SOC in itself. The aim of this study was to analyze whether the SOC content, in itself, has a significant effect on potential yields of commonly grown cereals across a wider range of soil types in Denmark. The study......Soil organic carbon (SOC) is broadly recognised as an important parameter affecting soil quality, and can therefore contribute to improving a number of soil properties that influence crop yield. Previous research generally indicates that soil organic carbon has positive effects on crop yields...... and aimed to elucidate the sole effect of SOC by controlling for potential confounding variables. No significant effect of SOC on potential winter wheat was found, whilst for spring barley, only for the course sandy loam soil type was a borderline significantly positive effect of SOC on potential yields...

  2. Lower Bound Limit Analysis Of Slabs With Nonlinear Yield Criteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krabbenhøft, Kristian; Damkilde, Lars

    2002-01-01

    A finite element formulation of the limit analysis of perfectly plastic slabs is given. An element with linear moment fields for which equilibrium is satisfied exactly is used in connection with an optimization algorithm taking into account the full nonlinearity of the yield criteria. Both load...

  3. Bayesian analysis of interacting quantitative trait loci (QTL) for yield ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    7×Lycopersicon pimpinellifolium LA2184 was used for genome-wide linkage analysis for yield traits in tomato. The genetic map, spanning the tomato genome of 808.4 cM long was constructed with 112 SSR markers distributing on 16 linkage ...

  4. Yield evaluation and stability analysis in newly selected `KSA' cotton ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yield evaluation and stability analysis in newly selected `KSA' cotton cultivars in Western Kenya. R M Opondo, G A Ombakho. Abstract. (African Crop Science Journal, 1997 5(2): 119-126). http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/acsj.v5i2.27854 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians ...

  5. Yield gap analysis of feed-crop livestock systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linden, van der Aart; Oosting, Simon J.; Ven, van de Gerrie W.J.; Veysset, Patrick; Boer, de Imke J.M.; Ittersum, van Martin K.

    2018-01-01

    Sustainable intensification is a strategy contributing to global food security. The scope for sustainable intensification in crop sciences can be assessed through yield gap analysis, using crop growth models based on concepts of production ecology. Recently, an analogous cattle production model

  6. Use of Linear Discriminant Function Analysis in Five Yield Sub ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    K-means cluster analysis grouped the 134 accessions into four distinct groups. Pairwise Mahalanobis 2 distance (D) among some of the groups was highly significant. From the study the yield sub-characters pod length, pod width, peduncle length and 100-seed weight contributed most to group separation in the cowpea ...

  7. Lower bound limit analysis of slabs with nonlinear yield criteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krabbenhøft, Kristian; Damkilde, Lars

    2002-01-01

    A finite element formulation of the limit analysis of perfectly plastic slabs is given. An element with linear moment fields for which equilibrium is satisfied exactly is used in connection with an optimization algorithm taking into account the full nonlinearity of the yield criteria. Both load...... and material optimization problems are formulated and by means of the duality theory of linear programming the displacements are extracted from the dual variables. Numerical examples demonstrating the capabilities of the method and the effects of using a more refined representation of the yield criteria...

  8. Yield gap analysis and assessment of climate-induced yield trends of irrigated rice in selected provinces of the Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reiner Wassmann

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This study describes a combined empirical/modeling approach to assess the possible impact of climate variability on rice production in the Philippines. We collated climate data of the last two decades (1985-2002 as well as yield statistics of six provinces of the Philippines, selected along a North-South gradient. Data from the climate information system of NASA were used as input parameters of the model ORYZA2000 to determine potential yields and, in the next steps, the yield gaps defined as the difference between potential and actual yields. Both simulated and actual yields of irrigated rice varied strongly between years. However, no climate-driven trends were apparent and the variability in actual yields showed no correlation with climatic parameters. The observed variation in simulated yields was attributable to seasonal variations in climate (dry/wet season and to climatic differences between provinces and agro-ecological zones. The actual yield variation between provinces was not related to differences in the climatic yield potential but rather to soil and management factors. The resulting yield gap was largest in remote and infrastructurally disfavored provinces (low external input use with a high production potential (high solar radiation and day-night temperature differences. In turn, the yield gap was lowest in central provinces with good market access but with a relatively low climatic yield potential. We conclude that neither long-term trends nor the variability of the climate can explain current rice yield trends and that agroecological, seasonal, and management effects are over-riding any possible climatic variations. On the other hand the lack of a climate-driven trend in the present situation may be superseded by ongoing climate change in the future.

  9. Recents declines in potential evapotranspiration over South Africa: potential causes and implications for maize yield and irrigation demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, L. D.; Caylor, K. K.; Chaney, N.; Herrera-Estrada, J. E.; Sheffield, J.; Wood, E. F.

    2014-12-01

    Recent work has identified a 31-year (1979-2010) decline in potential evapotranspiration (PET) during the maize growing season in South Africa, the world's 9th largest producer of that crop. Using a newly-developed, bias-corrected meteorological forcing dataset, we apply an attribution analysis to identify the relative role of four key physical drivers (temperature, net radiation, vapor pressure, and windspeed) in reducing atmospheric demand for water. We conduct a statistical analysis to correlate changes in these four key drivers to potential causal mechanisms, including atmospheric aerosol concentration and changes in the extent of irrigated cropland, which we identify using a novel, high accuracy landcover dataset. Finally, we use the DSSAT maize model, together with counter-factual climate scenarios, to investigate the implications of the PET decline on maize yields and maize irrigation demand. This study illustrates how improved meteorological data, better landcover maps, and crop simulation can be combined to 1) improve understanding of the linkages between the land surface and atmosphere, and 2) help inform crop and irrigation management under changing climates.

  10. YIELD INDICATORS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, East and Southern Africa, Centre, P.O. Box 7878,. Kampala, Uganda. Makerere ... would have great potential in terms of human nutrition. Storage root yield , the ... Inter-relationships among traits and path analysis for yield components of cassava. 604 collected included plant ...

  11. Stability Analysis for Seed Yield over Environments in Coriander

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangeeta Yadav

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Thirty five genotypes of coriander (Coriandrum sativum L. were tested in four artificially created environments to judge their stability in performance of seed yield. The differences among genotypes and environments were significant for seed yield. Stability parameters varied considerably among the tested genotypes in all the methods used. The variation in result in different methods was due to non-fulfillment of assumption of different models. However, AMMI analysis provides the information on main effects as well as interaction effects and depiction of PCA score gives better understanding of the pattern of genotype – environment interaction. The sum of squares due to PCAs was also used for the computation of AMMI stability values for better understanding of the adaptability behavior of genotypes hence, additive main effects and multiplicative interaction (AMMI model was most appropriate for the analysis of G x E interactions for seed yield in coriander. Genotypes RVC 15, RVC 19, RVC 22, RVC 25 and Panipat local showed wider adaptability while, Simpo S 33 exhibited specific adaptability to favourable conditions of high fertility. These genotypes could be utilized in breeding programmers to transfer the adaptability genes into high yielding genetic back ground of coriander.

  12. Physiological analysis of leaf senescence of two rice cultivars with different yield potential Análise fisiológica da senescência foliar de duas cultivares de arroz com diferentes potenciais de produtividade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antelmo Ralph Falqueto

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the physiological changes that occur in different leaves during the early and late grain-filling stages of two rice genotypes (Oryza sativa subsp. indica , BRS Pelota cultivar, and O. sativa subsp. japonica , BRS Firmeza cultivar, which present differences in grain yield potential. The plants were cultivated in greenhouse. Pigment content, chlorophyll fluorescence, electron transport and oxygen evolution rate were determined in the grain-filling stage, from the first to the forth leaf (top to bottom. Pigment content, photochemical efficiency of photosystem II and electron transport decreased significantly according to the position of leaves in 'BRS Pelota'. The BRS Firmeza cultivar shows higher pigment content and higher activity of the photosynthetic apparatus in comparison to 'BRS Pelota' during the grain-filling stage.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as mudanças fisiológicas que ocorrem em diferentes folhas durante o início e o final do estádio de enchimento de grãos em dois genótipos de arroz (Oryza sativa subsp. indica cultivar BRS Pelota e O. sativa subsp. japonica cultivar BRS Firmeza que apresentam diferenças no potencial de produção de grãos. As plantas foram cultivadas em casa de vegetação. Os teores de pigmentos, a fluorescência da clorofila e a taxa de liberação de oxigênio foram determinados no estádio de enchimento de grão da primeira à quarta folha (do topo à base. O teor de pigmentos, a eficiência fotoquímica do fotossistema II e o transporte de elétrons decresceram significativamente de acordo com a posição das folhas na cultivar BRS Pelota. A cultivar BRS Firmeza apresentou maior teor de pigmentos e maior atividade do aparato fotossintético em comparação à 'BRS Pelota' durante o estádio de enchimento de grão.

  13. Ecological intensification of cereal production systems: yield potential, soil quality, and precision agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassman, K G

    1999-05-25

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), rice (Oryza sativa L.), and maize (Zea mays L.) provide about two-thirds of all energy in human diets, and four major cropping systems in which these cereals are grown represent the foundation of human food supply. Yield per unit time and land has increased markedly during the past 30 years in these systems, a result of intensified crop management involving improved germplasm, greater inputs of fertilizer, production of two or more crops per year on the same piece of land, and irrigation. Meeting future food demand while minimizing expansion of cultivated area primarily will depend on continued intensification of these same four systems. The manner in which further intensification is achieved, however, will differ markedly from the past because the exploitable gap between average farm yields and genetic yield potential is closing. At present, the rate of increase in yield potential is much less than the expected increase in demand. Hence, average farm yields must reach 70-80% of the yield potential ceiling within 30 years in each of these major cereal systems. Achieving consistent production at these high levels without causing environmental damage requires improvements in soil quality and precise management of all production factors in time and space. The scope of the scientific challenge related to these objectives is discussed. It is concluded that major scientific breakthroughs must occur in basic plant physiology, ecophysiology, agroecology, and soil science to achieve the ecological intensification that is needed to meet the expected increase in food demand.

  14. Meeting the global food demand of the future by engineering crop photosynthesis and yield potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Stephen P; Marshall-Colon, Amy; Zhu, Xin-Guang

    2015-03-26

    Increase in demand for our primary foodstuffs is outstripping increase in yields, an expanding gap that indicates large potential food shortages by mid-century. This comes at a time when yield improvements are slowing or stagnating as the approaches of the Green Revolution reach their biological limits. Photosynthesis, which has been improved little in crops and falls far short of its biological limit, emerges as the key remaining route to increase the genetic yield potential of our major crops. Thus, there is a timely need to accelerate our understanding of the photosynthetic process in crops to allow informed and guided improvements via in-silico-assisted genetic engineering. Potential and emerging approaches to improving crop photosynthetic efficiency are discussed, and the new tools needed to realize these changes are presented. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Analysis of shape isomer yields of 237 Pu in the framework of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Data on shape isomer yield for + 235U reaction at E lab = 20–29 MeV are analysed in the framework of a combined dynamical–statistical model. From this analysis, information on the double humped fission barrier parameters for some Pu isotopes has been obtained and it is shown that the depth of the second potential ...

  16. Study of Winter Wheat Yield Quality Analysis at ARDS Turda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovidiu Adrian Ceclan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to study the potential for yield and quality indicators for winter wheat genotypes in terms of pedological and climate condition and applied technology, at ARDS Turda during 2014 – 2015. Depending on the climatic conditions that are associated with applied technology is a decisive factor in successful wheat crop for all genotypes that were studied at Ards Turda during the 2014 – 2016. That’s wy each genotype responded differently to the conditions of the ARDS Turda also through the two levels of fertilisations applied in the winter with fertilizers 20:20:0, 250 kg/ha assuring 50 kg/ha N and P active substance and second level of fertilisations with 150 kg/ha ammonium nitrate assuring 50 kg/ha N active substance. All genotype that were studied in terms of yield and quality indicators were influenced by the fertilization level. The influence of pedo-climatic conditions, applied technologies and fertilizers level at ARDS Turda showed that all genotypes with small yield had higher protein and gluten content respectively Zeleny index.

  17. Correlation and path-cofficient analysis of seed yield and yield ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was undertaken in order to determine the association among yield components and their direct and indirect effects on the seed yield of confectionery sunflower. 36 confectionery sunflower populations originated from different regions of Northwest Iran were characterized using 11 agromorphological traits ...

  18. Stability of rust resistance and yield potential of some icarda bread wheat lines in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, S.J.A.; Khan, A.J.; Azam, F.; Mirza, J.I.; Atiq-ur-Rehman

    2003-01-01

    Thirty bread wheat lines resistant to Yellow rust (Yr) were selected after careful screening from two ICARDA nurseries during 1998 - 1999, Rabi season at Nuclear Institute for Food and Agriculture (NIFA), Tarnab, Peshawar under severe disease pressure. In the following crop cycle, these selections were again field evaluated for stability and effectiveness of Yr resistance at multilocations while their yield potential was ascertained at Tarnab in two different trials with Tatara as commercial check. Results revealed that uniformity was found in the potential behavior of 23 lines (77%) in both the cropping seasons against Yr. This included some high yielding (up to 7067 kg/ ha) and low yielding lines (up to 4333 kg / ha) when compared with the check (6089 kg / ha). Yield potential of some high yielding lines with stable Yr resistance should be further evaluated over sites and seasons for wide adaptability, under national uniform testing in order to select and deploy future varieties to combat Yr for acquiring food security in Pakistan.(author)

  19. Potentials of flora species on the yield of honey in Dakka Forest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study assessed the potentials of flora on the yield of honey in Bali Local Government Area of Taraba State. Floral resources that could accommodate possible apicultural industry have not been examined in the study area. Data on plant species (trees, shrubs and herbaceous plants) utilized by honeybees were obtained ...

  20. Potential water yield response following clearcut harvesting on north and south slopes in northern Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard G. Cline; Harold F. Haupt; Gaylon S. Campbell

    1977-01-01

    The hydrologic response of small clearcuts on north and south slopes in northern Idaho was investigated. On the north slope, substantial gains (27 to 35 cm) in potential water yield per year resulted from (a) removal of transpiring surfaces associated with plant cover, (b) elimination of snow interception by a closed-canopied forest, and (C) delayed reoccupation of the...

  1. Disease Impact on Wheat Yield Potential and Prospects of Genetic Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Ravi P.; Singh, Pawan K.; Rutkoski, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    Wheat is grown worldwide in diverse geographical regions, environments, and production systems. Although many diseases and pests are known to reduce grain yield potential and quality, the three rusts and powdery mildew fungi have historically caused major crop losses and continue to remain econom...

  2. Genome-Wide Association Analyses Identify QTL Hotspots for Yield and Component Traits in Durum Wheat Grown under Yield Potential, Drought, and Heat Stress Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukumaran, Sivakumar; Reynolds, Matthew P.; Sansaloni, Carolina

    2018-01-01

    Understanding the genetic bases of economically important traits is fundamentally important in enhancing genetic gains in durum wheat. In this study, a durum panel of 208 lines (comprised of elite materials and exotics from the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center gene bank) were subjected to genome wide association study (GWAS) using 6,211 DArTseq single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). The panel was phenotyped under yield potential (YP), drought stress (DT), and heat stress (HT) conditions for 2 years. Mean yield of the panel was reduced by 72% (to 1.64 t/ha) under HT and by 60% (to 2.33 t/ha) under DT, compared to YP (5.79 t/ha). Whereas, the mean yield of the panel under HT was 30% less than under DT. GWAS identified the largest number of significant marker-trait associations on chromosomes 2A and 2B with p-values 10−06 to 10−03 and the markers from the whole study explained 7–25% variation in the traits. Common markers were identified for stress tolerance indices: stress susceptibility index, stress tolerance, and stress tolerance index estimated for the traits under DT (82 cM on 2B) and HT (68 and 83 cM on 3B; 25 cM on 7A). GWAS of irrigated (YP and HT combined), stressed (DT and HT combined), combined analysis of three environments (YP + DT + HT), and its comparison with trait per se and stress indices identified QTL hotspots on chromosomes 2A (54–70 cM) and 2B (75–82 cM). This study enhances our knowledge about the molecular markers associated with grain yield and its components under different stress conditions. It identifies several marker-trait associations for further exploration and validation for marker-assisted breeding. PMID:29467776

  3. Simulating potential growth and yield of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) with PALMSIM: Model description, evaluation and application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoffmann, M.; Castaneda Vera, A.; Wijk, van M.T.; Giller, K.E.; Oberthür, T.; Donough, C.; Whitbread, A.M.

    2014-01-01

    Reducing the gap between water-limited potential yield and actual yield in oil palm production systems through intensification is seen as an important option for sustainably increasing palm oil production. Simulation models can play an important role in quantifying water-limited potential yield, and

  4. Photosensitized electron transport across lipid vesicle walls: Enhancement of quantum yield by ionophores and transmembrane potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laane, Colja; Ford, William E.; Otvos, John W.; Calvin, Melvin

    1981-01-01

    The photosensitized reduction of heptylviologen in the bulk aqueous phase of phosphatidylcholine vesicles containing EDTA inside and a membrane-bound tris(2,2′-bipyridine)ruthenium(2+) derivative is enhanced by a factor of 6.5 by the addition of valinomycin in the presence of K+. A 3-fold stimulation by gramicidin and carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone is observed. The results suggest that, under these conditions, the rate of photoinduced electron transfer across vesicle walls in the absence of ion carriers is limited by cotransport of cations. The rate of electron transfer across vesicle walls could be influenced further by generating transmembrane potentials with K+ gradients in the presence of valinomycin. When vesicles are made with transmembrane potentials, interior more negative, the quantum yield of heptylviologen reduction is doubled, and, conversely, when vesicles are made with transmembrane potentials, interior more positive, the quantum yield is decreased and approaches the value found in the absence of valinomycin. PMID:16593002

  5. Theoretical characterization of the potential energy surface for the reversible reaction H + O2 yields HO2(asterisk) yields OH + O. III - Computed points to define a global potential energy surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walch, Stephen P.; Duchovic, Ronald J.

    1991-01-01

    Computed energies and geometries are reported which, combined with previously published calculations, permit a global representation of the potential energy surface for the reaction H + O2 yields HO2(asterisk) yields OH + O. These new calculations characterize the potential energy surface (PES) for all H atom angles of approach to O2 and for the region of the inner repulsive wall. The region of the T-shaped H-O2 exchange saddle point is connected with the constrained energy minimum (CEM) path, and a new collinear H-O2 exchange saddle point is characterized which lies only 9 kcal/mol above the H + O2 asymptote. A vibrational analysis which utilizes local cubic and quartic polynomial representations of the PES along the CEM path has been carried out. Optimal geometries, energies, and harmonic frequencies are reported along with anharmonic analyses for the O2 and OH asymptotes and for the HO2 minimum region of the PES.

  6. PATH COEFFICIENT ANALYSIS OF SEVERAL COMPONENTS OIL YIELD IN SUNFLOWER (HELIANTHUS ANNUUS L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. MIjić

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of investigation was to analyse oil yield components and their relations by simple coefficient correlations as well as direct and indirect effects to oil yield by path analysis. Twenty-four sunflower hybrids were included in the investigation and their seven traits (plant height, head diameter, 1000 seed weight, hec- tolitar mass, grain yield, oil content and oil yield. Very strong positive correlation was estimated between grain yield and oil yield, strong positive correlation between hectolitar mass and oil yield, and middle corre- lation among oil yield and: 1000 seed weight, plaint height and oil content. There was no correlation between grain yields and oil content. Grain yield showed the strongest effect to oil yield. Oil content had lower effect to oil yield. Other traits showed no significant effect to oil yield, and their effect to oil yield was covered by indirect effect of grain yield.

  7. Prediction of Pectin Yield and Quality by FTIR and Carbohydrate Microarray Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baum, Andreas; Dominiak, Malgorzata Maria; Vidal-Melgosa, Silvia

    2017-01-01

    and carbohydrate microarray analysis were performed directly on the crude lime peel extracts during the time course of the extractions. Multivariate analysis of the data was carried out to predict final pectin yields. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was found applicable for determining the optimal...... extraction time for the enzymatic and acidic extraction processes, respectively. The combined results of FTIR and carbohydrate microarray analysis suggested major differences in the crude pectin extracts obtained by enzymatic and acid extraction, respectively. Enzymatically extracted pectin, thus, showed......, and that FTIR and carbohydrate microarray analysis have potential to be developed into online process analysis tools for prediction of pectin extraction yields and pectin features from measurements on crude pectin extracts....

  8. A Projection of Maize-Yield Potential in the Southwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S. H.; Kim, J.; Walko, R. L.; Myoung, B.; Stack, D.; Kafatos, M.

    2014-12-01

    As human population is projected to increase by 35% by 2050, agricultural production requires substantial growth compared to the current yield levels. In the coming decades, evaluating yield potential (Yp), the yield of a crop cultivar when grown without limitation of water and nutrients with effectively controlled pest and diseases change and solely determined by climate variables, is crucial to assess food security under climate change scenarios as it is directly connected to amount of exploitable yield. In this study, Yp is estimated and projected using regional climate models (RCM) and a process-based crop model over the Southwestern United States. High-resolution (8km grid spacing at the inner domain) climate variables are obtained using dynamical downscaling with two RCMs (WRF and OLAM) driven by boundary conditions from a GCM (GFDL-ESM2M) in the 5th phase of Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) archives. 20 years of the high-resolution and bias-corrected climate data from the two RCM runs (historical (1981-2000) and future (2031-2050)) are employed on the process-based crop model, Agricultural Production Systems sIMulator (ASPIM) to assess the climate change impact on maize Yp. The potential maize yield in the future period under the RCP8.5 greenhouse gas concentrations pathways shows that the yields are significantly changed when compared to the historical period. In the generally rising temperature regime, the projected Yp shows strong geospatial variations according to the regional climate characteristics in the high-resolution RCM projections.

  9. Potential limitations for potato yields in raised soil field systems near Lake Titicaca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lozada Diego Sánchez de

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available During the last two decades, various non-governmental organizations have strongly encouraged Bolivian farmers in the Altiplano region near Lake Titicaca to resume the ancestral agricultural practice of constructing raised fields. In addition to improved drainage and possibilities this practice affords for sub-irrigation, advocated benefits of this system traditionally include frost mitigation and high crop yields. Until recently, reliable data to assess the extent of these benefits were unfortunately lacking. In this context, field experiments on raised fields were designed and carried out at two locations in the Bolivian Altiplano to obtain reliable potato yield and temperature data. Observed yields ranged from 2.73 to 10.80 t ha-1 at the first site, where salinity caused significant yield variability (R² = 0.79. At the second site, yields per raised platform varied between 8.25 and 33.45 t ha-1. However, comparable yields were obtained in flat control plots in spite of a mid-season frost, and the minimum temperatures differed only by 1ºC in the conventional plots relative to the raised fields. These results suggest that, under the experimental conditions, the potential benefits of raised fields in terms of frost mitigation or increased yields might only be observable in exceptionally bad years, when extreme frosts wipe out entire potato crops on conventional fields. Nevertheless, it is argued that in spite of these marginally supportive observations, raised-field agriculture may still be a viable option for farmers to consider if the water-filled channels between the raised fields are managed for fish and fertilizer production.

  10. Mapping of yield, yield stability, yield adaptability and other traits in barley using linkage disequilibrium mapping and linkage analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraakman, A.T.W.

    2005-01-01

    Plants is mostly done through linkage analysis. A segregating mapping population Identification and mappping of Quantitative Trait Loci (QTLs) in is created from a bi-parental cross and linkages between trait values and mapped markers reveal the positions ofQTLs. In

  11. Mapping of yield, yield stability, yield adaptability and other traits in barley using linkage disequilibrium mapping and linkage analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Kraakman, A.T.W.

    2005-01-01

    Plants is mostly done through linkage analysis. A segregating mapping population Identification and mappping of Quantitative Trait Loci (QTLs) in is created from a bi-parental cross and linkages between trait values and mapped markers reveal the positions ofQTLs. Inthisstudyweexploredlinkagedisequilibrium(LD)mappingof traits in a set of modernbarleycultivars. LDbetweenmolecularmarkerswasfoundup to a distance of 10 centimorgan,whichislargecomparedtootherspecies.Thelarge distancemightbeinducedb...

  12. Introduction to production yield analysis : a new tool for improvement of raw material yield

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Somsen, D.; Capelle, A.

    2002-01-01

    Mass losses during processing will result in a decrease of production yield. Losses can be separated in wanted and unwanted losses. Wanted losses are necessary to transform raw material into desired final product(s). Unwanted losses will result in additional raw material usage and generate

  13. Sequential Path Analysis for Determination of Relationship Between Yield and Yield Components in Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum.L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohtasham MOHAMMADI

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to evaluate 295 wheat genotypes in Alpha-Lattice design with two replications. The arithmetic mean and standard deviation of grain yield was 2706 and 950 (kg/ha,respectively. The results of correlation coefficients indicated that grain yield had significant and positive association with plant height, spike length, early growth vigor and agronomic score. Whereas there were negative correlation coefficients between grain yield and days to physiological maturity and canopy temperature before and during anthesis. Path analysis indicated agronomic score and plant height had high positive direct effects on grain yield, while canopy temperature before and during anthesis, and days to maturity, wes another trait having negative direct effect on grain yield. The results of sequential path analysis showed the traits that accounted as a criteria variable for high grain yield were agronomic score, plant height, canopy temperature, spike length, chlorophyll content and early growth vigor, which were determined as first, second and third order variables and had strong effects on grain yield via one or more paths. More important, as canopy temperature, agronomic score and early growth vigor can be evaluated quickly and easily, these traits may be used for evaluation of large populations.

  14. An assessment of irrigation needs and crop yield for the United States under potential climate changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumbelow, Kelly; Georgakakos, Aris P.

    2000-01-01

    Past assessments of climate change on U.S. agriculture have mostly focused on changes in crop yield. Few studies have included the entire conterminous U.S., and few studies have assessed changing irrigation requirements. None have included the effects of changing soil moisture characteristics as determined by changing climatic forcing. This study assesses changes in irrigation requirements and crop yields for five crops in the areas of the U.S. where they have traditionally been grown. Physiologically-based crop models are used to incorporate inputs of climate, soils, agricultural management, and drought stress tolerance. Soil moisture values from a macroscale hydrologic model run under a future climate scenario are used to initialize soil moisture content at the beginning of each growing season. Historical crop yield data is used to calibrate model parameters and determine locally acceptable drought stress as a management parameter. Changes in irrigation demand and crop yield are assessed for both means and extremes by comparing results for atmospheric forcing close to the present climate with those for a future climate scenario. Assessments using the Canadian Center for Climate Modeling and Analysis General Circulation Model (CGCM1) indicate greater irrigation demands in the southern U.S. and decreased irrigation demands in the northern and western U.S. Crop yields typically increase except for winter wheat in the southern U.S. and corn. Variability in both irrigation demands and crop yields increases in most cases. Assessment results for the CGCM1 climate scenario are compared to those for the Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction and Research GCM (HadCM2) scenario for southwestern Georgia. The comparison shows significant differences in irrigation and yield trends, both in magnitude and direction. The differences reflect the high forecast uncertainty of current GCMs. Nonetheless, both GCMs indicate higher variability in future climatic forcing and, consequently

  15. Assessments of Future Maize Yield Potential Changes in the Korean Peninsula Using Multiple Crop Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S. H.; Lim, C. H.; Kim, J.; Lee, W. K.; Kafatos, M.

    2016-12-01

    The Korean Peninsula has unique agricultural environment due to the differences of political and socio-economical system between Republic of Korea (SK, hereafter) and Democratic Peoples' Republic of Korea (NK, hereafter). NK has been suffering lack of food supplies caused by natural disasters, land degradation and political failure. The neighboring developed country SK has better agricultural system but very low food self-sufficiency rate. Maize is an important crop in both countries since it is staple food for NK and SK is No. 2 maize importing country in the world after Japan. Therefore, evaluating maize yield potential (Yp) in the two distinct regions is essential to assess food security under climate change and variability. In this study, we utilized multiple process-based crop models, having ability of regional scale assessment, to evaluate maize Yp and assess the model uncertainties -EPIC, GEPIC, DSSAT, and APSIM model that has capability of regional scale expansion (apsimRegions). First we evaluated each crop model for 3 years from 2012 to 2014 using reanalysis data (RDAPS; Regional Data Assimilation and Prediction System produced by Korea Meteorological Agency) and observed yield data. Each model performances were compared over the different regions in the Korean Peninsula having different local climate characteristics. To quantify of the major influence of at each climate variables, we also conducted sensitivity test using 20 years of climatology in historical period from 1981 to 2000. Lastly, the multi-crop model ensemble analysis was performed for future period from 2031 to 2050. The required weather variables projected for mid-century were employed from COordinated Regional climate Downscaling EXperiment (CORDEX) East Asia. The high-resolution climate data were obtained from multiple regional climate models (RCM) driven by multiple climate scenarios projected from multiple global climate models (GCMs) in conjunction with multiple greenhouse gas

  16. Rosemary Aromatization of Extra Virgin Olive Oil and Process Optimization Including Antioxidant Potential and Yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erkan Karacabey

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Aromatization of olive oil especially by spices and herbs has been widely used technique throughout the ages in Mediterranean diets. The present study was focused on aromatization of olive oil by rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.. Aromatization process was optimized by response surface methodology as a function of malaxation’s conditions (temperature and time. According to authors’ best knowledge it was first time for examination of oil yield performance with antioxidant potential and pigments under effect of aromatization parameters. For all oil samples, values of the free acidity, peroxide, K232 and K270 as quality parameters fell within the ranges established for the highest quality category “extra virgin oil”. Oil yield (mL oil/kg olive paste changed from 158 to 208 with respect to design parameters. Total phenolic content and free radical scavenging activity as antioxidant potential of olive oil samples were varied in the range of 182.44 – 348.65 mg gallic acid equivalent/kg oil and 28.91 – 88.75 % inhibition of 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl-(DPPH•, respectively. Total contents of carotenoid, chlorophyll and pheophytin a as pigments in oil samples were found to be in between 0.09 – 0.48 mg carotenoid/kg oil, 0.11 – 0.96 mg chlorophyll/kg oil, 0.15 – 4.44 mg pheo α/kg oil, respectively. The proposed models for yield, pigments and antioxidant potential responses were found to be good enough for successful prediction of experimental results. Total phenolics, carotenoids and free radical scavenging activity of aromatized olive oil and oil yield were maximized to gather and optimal conditions were determined as 25°C, 84 min, and 2 % (Rosemary/olive paste; w/w.

  17. Assessments of Maize Yield Potential in the Korean Peninsula Using Multiple Crop Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S. H.; Myoung, B.; Lim, C. H.; Lee, S. G.; Lee, W. K.; Kafatos, M.

    2015-12-01

    The Korean Peninsular has unique agricultural environments due to the differences in the political and socio-economical systems between the Republic of Korea (SK, hereafter) and the Democratic Peoples' Republic of Korea (NK, hereafter). NK has been suffering from the lack of food supplies caused by natural disasters, land degradation and failed political system. The neighboring developed country SK has a better agricultural system but very low food self-sufficiency rate (around 1% of maize). Maize is an important crop in both countries since it is staple food for NK and SK is No. 2 maize importing country in the world after Japan. Therefore evaluating maize yield potential (Yp) in the two distinct regions is essential to assess food security under climate change and variability. In this study, we have utilized multiple process-based crop models capable of regional-scale assessments to evaluate maize Yp over the Korean Peninsula - the GIS version of EPIC model (GEPIC) and APSIM model that can be expanded to regional scales (APSIM regions). First we evaluated model performance and skill for 20 years from 1991 to 2010 using reanalysis data (Local Data Assimilation and Prediction System (LDAPS); 1.5km resolution) and observed data. Each model's performances were compared over different regions within the Korean Peninsula of different regional climate characteristics. To quantify the major influence of individual climate variables, we also conducted a sensitivity test using 20 years of climatology. Lastly, a multi-model ensemble analysis was performed to reduce crop model uncertainties. The results will provide valuable information for estimating the climate change or variability impacts on Yp over the Korean Peninsula.

  18. Modeling the yield potential of dryland canola under current and future climates in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, N.; Kaffka, S.; Beeck, C.; Bucaram, S.; Zhang, J.

    2012-12-01

    Models predict that the climate of California will become hotter, drier and more variable under future climate change scenarios. This will lead to both increased irrigation demand and reduced irrigation water availability. In addition, it is predicted that most common Californian crops will suffer a concomitant decline in productivity. To remain productive and economically viable, future agricultural systems will need to have greater water use efficiency, tolerance of high temperatures, and tolerance of more erratic temperature and rainfall patterns. Canola (Brassica napus) is the third most important oilseed globally, supporting large and well-established agricultural industries in Canada, Europe and Australia. It is an agronomically useful and economically valuable crop, with multiple end markets, that can be grown in California as a dryland winter rotation with little to no irrigation demand. This gives canola great potential as a new crop for Californian farmers both now and as the climate changes. Given practical and financial limitations it is not always possible to immediately or widely evaluate a crop in a new region. Crop production models are therefore valuable tools for assessing the potential of new crops, better targeting further field research, and refining research questions. APSIM is a modular modeling framework developed by the Agricultural Production Systems Research Unit in Australia, it combines biophysical and management modules to simulate cropping systems. This study was undertaken to examine the yield potential of Australian canola varieties having different water requirements and maturity classes in California using APSIM. The objective of the work was to identify the agricultural regions of California most ideally suited to the production of Australian cultivars of canola and to simulate the production of canola in these regions to estimate yield-potential. This will establish whether the introduction and in-field evaluation of better

  19. Path and correlation analysis of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) seed yield components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abel, Simon; Gislum, René; Boelt, Birte

    2017-01-01

    Maximum perennial ryegrass seed production potential is substantially greater than harvested yields with harvested yields representing only 20% of calculated potential. Similar to wheat, maize and other agriculturally important crops, seed yield is highly dependent on a number of interacting seed...

  20. Lodging resistance and yield potential of winter wheat: effect of planting density and genotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonggui XIAO,Jianjun LIU,Haosheng LI,Xinyou CAO,Xianchun XIA,Zhonghu HE

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Improved lodging resistance is important for achieving high yield in irrigated environments. This study was conducted to determine genotypic variation in lodging resistance and related morphological traits among winter wheat cultivars planted at two densities, and to identify key traits associated with lodging resistance. Lodging performance of 28 genotypes, including 24 released cultivars and four advanced lines, was evaluated at 250 plants per square meter and 500 plants per square meter in Shandong province during the 2008ndash;2009 and 2009ndash;2010 crop seasons. At the higher density, the average grain yield was 2.6% higher, even though lodging score rose by as much as 136%. The higher planting density increased lodging through increased leaf area index (LAI, plant height, center of gravity and length of basal internodes, and reduced grain weight per spike and diameter of the lower two stem internodes. LAI, center of gravity and diameter of first internodes, as the important indicators for lodging resistance, were significantly correlated with lodging score, with R= 0.62, 0.59 and minus;0.52 (P<0.01, respectively. Plant pushing resistance was significantly associated with diameter and length of the first internodes (R = 0.71ndash;0.77, P<0.01, indicating it could be used to assess the strength of the lower stem. Higher planting density could be used to select genotypes with lodging resistance in irrigated environments. Cultivars carrying high plant density tolerance and high yield potential, such as Jimai 22 and Liangxing 66, were recommended as leading cultivars for production as well as elite crossing parents for further increasing yield potential in the Yellow and Huai Valleys Winter Wheat Zone in China.

  1. Genetic analysis of yield and flesh colour in sweetpotato | Naidoo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pre-breeding information on the inheritance mechanism of important sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas L.) agronomic traits is still limited. This study aimed at assessing the inheritance of five sweetpotato agronomic traits, viz. marketable fresh root yield (MFRY) and number (MNR), total fresh root yield (TFRY) and number (TNR) ...

  2. Yield analysis at a poultry processing plant in Harare, Zimbabwe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This investigation was conducted to establish the yield of parts or organs of chickens brought for slaughter at a poultry processing plant in Harare. Results of the study will furnish management and other poultry farmers with information that will enable them to identify yield losses and sustainable ways of minimizing resultant ...

  3. Generation by Generation Correlation and Path Analysis for Yield ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Six advanced generations (F7 - F12) of tomato hybrids were evaluated in the Department of Crop Science Research Farm, University of Nigeria, Nsukka from 2004 to 2008 to estimate the magnitude of character association of yield and yield related attributes in each filial generation. Traits under focus were days to flowering, ...

  4. Analysis of growth, yield potential and horticultural performance of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PTC Lab

    2013-04-03

    Apr 3, 2013 ... medicine in Manipur, India for centuries and has gained reinvigorated interest due to its significant medicinal values like the plant extracts reported (Yin et al., 2008a, b; Li et al., 2011; Yang et al., 2012; Kong et al., 2009,. 2011). Turmeric is exclusively propagated vegetatively using rhizomes in different parts ...

  5. Correlation and path co-efficient analysis for achene yield and yield components in sunflower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadaqat, H.A.

    2009-01-01

    Twelve sunflower genotypes viz. A-43, A-75, A-88, A-132, A-133, A-185, G-33, G-46, G-51, G-68, G-100 and HBRS-1 were grown in the research field of the Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, during the year, 2005 following a triplicate randomized complete block design lay out. Variability among these genotypes was assessed for plant height (cm), number of leaves per plant, internodal length (cm), stem diameter at base (mm), head diameter (cm), head type, 100-Achene weight (g), achene weight per head (g) and oil contents (%). Genotypic and phenotypic correlations among these traits and their direct and indirect effects on achene weight per head were estimated. The genotypes were significantly different for all the traits studied. The genotype HBRS-1 had the best performance for most of the characters under discussion. Achene weight per head had positive and significant genotypic and phenotypic correlations with plant height, internodal length and head diameter. The correlations of 100-achene weight with stem diameter and head diameter were also positive and significant at both phenotypic and genotypic levels. Internodal length followed by stem diameter at base and head diameter had the highest direct effects on achene weight per head. 100-achene weight had high indirect effects on achene weight per head via stem diameter and head diameter. Stem diameter at base, head diameter and 100-achene weight can be used as indirect selection criteria for the improvement of achene yield. (author)

  6. Analysis of the static yield stress for giant electrorheological fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Youngwook P.; Choi, Hyoung Jin; Seo, Yongsok

    2017-08-01

    Cheng et al. (2010)'s experimental results for the static yield stress of giant electrorheological (GER) fluids over the full range of electric field strengths were reanalyzed by applying Seo's scaling function which could include both the polarization and the conductivity models. The Seo's scaling function could correctly fit the yield stress behavior of GER suspensions behavior after if a proper normalization of the yield stress data was taken which collapse them onto a single curve. The model predictions were also contrasted with recently proposed Choi et al.'s scaling function to rouse the attention for a proper consideration of the GER fluid mechanisms.

  7. Automatic yield-line analysis of slabs using discontinuity layout optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Matthew; He, Linwei; Smith, Colin C; Le, Canh V

    2014-08-08

    The yield-line method of analysis is a long established and extremely effective means of estimating the maximum load sustainable by a slab or plate. However, although numerous attempts to automate the process of directly identifying the critical pattern of yield-lines have been made over the past few decades, to date none has proved capable of reliably analysing slabs of arbitrary geometry. Here, it is demonstrated that the discontinuity layout optimization (DLO) procedure can successfully be applied to such problems. The procedure involves discretization of the problem using nodes inter-connected by potential yield-line discontinuities, with the critical layout of these then identified using linear programming. The procedure is applied to various benchmark problems, demonstrating that highly accurate solutions can be obtained, and showing that DLO provides a truly systematic means of directly and reliably automatically identifying yield-line patterns. Finally, since the critical yield-line patterns for many problems are found to be quite complex in form, a means of automatically simplifying these is presented.

  8. Yield gap analysis in long-term experiments with intensive rice cultivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laureles, E.V.; Correa, T. Jr.; Buresh, R.J.

    2007-01-01

    The long-term continuous cropping experiment at IRRI is cultivated with three rice crops in a year, making it the world's most intensively cropped long-term rice experiment. The availability of comprehensive rice production records, compiled weather data, and tested crop models provides a means to evaluate long-term trends in measured and potential yields and yield gaps in this rice production system. Yield trends were assessed using the highest yielding cultivar in each cropping season from 1979 to 2005. Potential yield of the highest yielding cultivar in each season was determined using three rice models (ORYZA, TERM, and CERES) run with the actual transplanting and harvest dates for the cultivar. The yield gap was determined from the difference between the simulated potential grain yield and the measured grain yield. Measured and potential yields and the yield gap varied across seasons and years. Measured yields were higher in the dry season than in the early and late wet seasons. The yield gap tended to be higher in the wet season than in the dry season. Climatic parameters, particularly solar radiation, influenced the performance of rice cultivars. The relatively larger yield gaps in the late wet season than in the dry season were associated with increased spikelet sterility. The cumulative measured yield for the three annual rice crop was near 80 percent of the annual yield potential in years with best practices for fertilizer N and crop management. The long term trends suggest that effective timing and rates of N fertilization and effective control of diseases were critical in achieving 80 percent of the annual yield potential

  9. Correlation and path-cofficient analysis of seed yield and yield ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-10-10

    Oct 10, 2011 ... 733-735, 10-13 March, Mar del Plata, Argentina. Lal GS, Bhaderiya VS, Singh AK (1997). Genetic association and path analysis in elite lines of sunflower. Crop Res. Hisar 13: 631-634. Lu G, Hoeft E (2009). Sunflower. In: A compendium of transgenic crop plants (Kole C, Hall TC eds.), Vol 2. Wiley-Blackwell ...

  10. Bioenergy potential of Ulva lactuca: Biomass yield, methane production and combustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruhn, Annette; Dahl, Jonas; Bangsø Nielsen, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    The biomass production potential at temperate latitudes (56°N), and the quality of the biomass for energy production (anaerobic digestion to methane and direct combustion) were investigated for the green macroalgae, Ulva lactuca. The algae were cultivated in a land based facility demonstrating...... a production potential of 45 T (TS) ha−1 y−1. Biogas production from fresh and macerated U. lactuca yielded up to 271 ml CH4 g−1 VS, which is in the range of the methane production from cattle manure and land based energy crops, such as grass-clover. Drying of the biomass resulted in a 5–9-fold increase...... in weight specific methane production compared to wet biomass. Ash and alkali contents are the main challenges in the use of U. lactuca for direct combustion. Application of a bio-refinery concept could increase the economical value of the U. lactuca biomass as well as improve its suitability for production...

  11. Evaluation of the development and yielding potential of Chenopodium quinoa Willd. under the climatic conditions of Europe. Part Two: Yielding potential of Chenopodium quinoa under different conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Gęsiński

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of Chenopodium quinoa cultivation effects in Poland has been compared with European research results. It was found that the conditions in Europe are favorable to Chenopodium quinoa cultivation. Poland has the mean length of the vegetation period. The maximum value of this trait was found in Sweden. The conditions in Bydgoszcz (Poland are very favorable to the cultivation for green matter and favorable as far as the seed yield is concerned. The most favorable seed yield was recorded in Greece.

  12. Maximizing Amazonia's Ecosystem Services: Juggling the potential for carbon storage, agricultural yield and biodiversity in the Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, C. S.; Foley, J. A.; Gerber, J. S.; Polasky, S.

    2011-12-01

    The Amazon is not only an exceptionally biodiverse and carbon-rich tract of tropical forest, it is also a case study in land use change. Over the next forty years it will continue to experience pressure from an urbanizing and increasingly affluent populace: under a business-as-usual scenario, global cropland, pasture and biofuels systems will carry on expanding, while the Amazon's carbon storage potential will likely become another viable revenue source under REDD+. Balancing those competing land use pressures ought also take into account Amazonia's high - but heterogeneous - biodiversity. Knowing where Amazonia has opportunities to make efficient or optimal trade offs between carbon storage, agricultural production and biodiversity can allow policymakers to direct or influence LUC drivers. This analysis uses a spatially-explicit model that takes climate and management into account to quantify the potential agricultural yield of both the Amazon's most important agricultural commodities - sugar, soy and maize - as well as several that are going to come into increasing prominence, including palm oil. In addition, it maps the potential for carbon to be stored in forest biomass and relative species richness across Amazonia. We then compare carbon storage, agricultural yield and species richness and identify areas where efficient trade offs occur between food, carbon, and biodiversity - three critical ecosystem goods and services provided by the world's largest tropical forest.

  13. Path analysis and canonical correlations for indirect selection of Jatropha genotypes with higher oil yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, L A; Peixoto, L A; Teodoro, P E; Rodrigues, E V; Laviola, B G; Bhering, L L

    2017-03-22

    Jatropha is a species with great potential for biodiesel production, and the knowledge on how the main agronomic traits are correlated will contribute to its improvement. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to estimate the genetic parameters of the traits: plant height at 12 and 40 months, canopy projection on the row at 12 and 40 months, canopy projection between the row at 12 and 40 months, number of branches at 40 months, grain yield, and oil yield; to verify the existence of phenotypic correlation between these traits; to verify the influence of the morphological traits on oil yield by means of path analysis; and to evaluate the relationship between the productive traits in Jatropha and the morphological traits measured at different ages. Sixty-seven half-sib families were evaluated using a completely randomized block design with two replications and five plants per plot. Analysis of variance was used to estimate the genetic value. Phenotypic correlations were given by the Pearson correlation between traits. For the canonical correlation analysis, two groups of traits were established: group I, consisting of traits of economic importance for the culture, and group II, consisting of morphological traits. Path analysis was carried out considering oil yield as the main dependent variable. Genetic variability was observed among Jatropha families. Productive traits can be indirectly selected via morphological traits due to the correlation between these two groups of traits. Therefore, canonical correlations and path analysis are two strategies that may be useful in Jatropha-breeding program when the objective is to select productive traits via morphological traits.

  14. Correlation and path coefficient analysis of yield and agronomic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A two-year study was conducted on maize (Zea mays L.) at the University of Ilorin Teaching and Research Farm Ilorin, Nigeria, during 2005 and 2006 growing seasons. The objective was to investigate correlation between grain yield and other agronomic parameters using 10 open-pollinated maize varieties and their 45 F1 ...

  15. Variational formulation based analysis on growth of yield front in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study investigates the growth of elastic-plastic front in rotating solid disks of non-uniform thickness having exponential and parabolic geometry variation. The problem is solved through an extension of a variational method in elastoplastic regime. The formulation is based on von-Mises yield criterion and linear ...

  16. Economic analysis of maize yield response to nitrogen and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Experiments were conducted in western Kenya to determine the agronomic and economic benefits of applying Nitrogen (N) and Phosphorus (P) to maize. These factors were identified through an informal survey to be the main cause of low maize yield in the area. The experiments were conducted in 2 locations on farmers' ...

  17. Citizen science and remote sensing for crop yield gap analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beza, Eskender Andualem

    2017-01-01

    The world population is anticipated to be around 9.1 billion in 2050 and the challenge is how to feed this huge number of people without affecting natural ecosystems. Different approaches have been proposed and closing the ‘yield gap’ on currently available agricultural lands is one of them. The

  18. Genotype x environment interaction and stability analysis for yield ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chickpea is the major pulse crop cultivated in Ethiopia. However, its production is constrained due to genotype instability and environmental variability. This research was carried out to examine the magnitude of environmental effect on yield of chickpea genotypes and to investigate the stability and adaptability of genotypes ...

  19. Bayesian analysis of interacting quantitative trait loci (QTL) for yield ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-10-17

    Oct 17, 2011 ... genetic map, spanning the tomato genome of 808.4 cM long was constructed with 112 SSR markers distributing on 16 linkage ... governing simultaneously first flower node and number of flowers per truss. Key words: Tomato, SSR ... map and location of QTL for yield traits. Traits evaluation. The node of first ...

  20. Statistical Analysis of Large Simulated Yield Datasets for Studying Climate Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makowski, David; Asseng, Senthold; Ewert, Frank; Bassu, Simona; Durand, Jean-Louis; Martre, Pierre; Adam, Myriam; Aggarwal, Pramod K.; Angulo, Carlos; Baron, Chritian; hide

    2015-01-01

    Many studies have been carried out during the last decade to study the effect of climate change on crop yields and other key crop characteristics. In these studies, one or several crop models were used to simulate crop growth and development for different climate scenarios that correspond to different projections of atmospheric CO2 concentration, temperature, and rainfall changes (Semenov et al., 1996; Tubiello and Ewert, 2002; White et al., 2011). The Agricultural Model Intercomparison and Improvement Project (AgMIP; Rosenzweig et al., 2013) builds on these studies with the goal of using an ensemble of multiple crop models in order to assess effects of climate change scenarios for several crops in contrasting environments. These studies generate large datasets, including thousands of simulated crop yield data. They include series of yield values obtained by combining several crop models with different climate scenarios that are defined by several climatic variables (temperature, CO2, rainfall, etc.). Such datasets potentially provide useful information on the possible effects of different climate change scenarios on crop yields. However, it is sometimes difficult to analyze these datasets and to summarize them in a useful way due to their structural complexity; simulated yield data can differ among contrasting climate scenarios, sites, and crop models. Another issue is that it is not straightforward to extrapolate the results obtained for the scenarios to alternative climate change scenarios not initially included in the simulation protocols. Additional dynamic crop model simulations for new climate change scenarios are an option but this approach is costly, especially when a large number of crop models are used to generate the simulated data, as in AgMIP. Statistical models have been used to analyze responses of measured yield data to climate variables in past studies (Lobell et al., 2011), but the use of a statistical model to analyze yields simulated by complex

  1. Safe handling of potential peroxide forming compounds and their corresponding peroxide yielded derivatives.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sears, Jeremiah Matthew; Boyle, Timothy J.; Dean, Christopher J.

    2013-06-01

    This report addresses recent developments concerning the identification and handling of potential peroxide forming (PPF) and peroxide yielded derivative (PYD) chemicals. PPF chemicals are described in terms of labeling, shelf lives, and safe handling requirements as required at SNL. The general peroxide chemistry concerning formation, prevention, and identification is cursorily presented to give some perspective to the generation of peroxides. The procedure for determining peroxide concentrations and the proper disposal methods established by the Hazardous Waste Handling Facility are also provided. Techniques such as neutralization and dilution are provided for the safe handling of any PYD chemicals to allow for safe handling. The appendices are a collection of all available SNL documentation pertaining to PPF/PYD chemicals to serve as a single reference.

  2. Buffalos milk yield analysis using random regression models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S. Schierholt

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Data comprising 1,719 milk yield records from 357 females (predominantly Murrah breed, daughters of 110 sires, with births from 1974 to 2004, obtained from the Programa de Melhoramento Genético de Bubalinos (PROMEBUL and from records of EMBRAPA Amazônia Oriental - EAO herd, located in Belém, Pará, Brazil, were used to compare random regression models for estimating variance components and predicting breeding values of the sires. The data were analyzed by different models using the Legendre’s polynomial functions from second to fourth orders. The random regression models included the effects of herd-year, month of parity date of the control; regression coefficients for age of females (in order to describe the fixed part of the lactation curve and random regression coefficients related to the direct genetic and permanent environment effects. The comparisons among the models were based on the Akaike Infromation Criterion. The random effects regression model using third order Legendre’s polynomials with four classes of the environmental effect were the one that best described the additive genetic variation in milk yield. The heritability estimates varied from 0.08 to 0.40. The genetic correlation between milk yields in younger ages was close to the unit, but in older ages it was low.

  3. Genetic Analysis of Grain Yield Related Traits in Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Zarbafi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available To determine gene action and heritability of grain yield related traits in rice, six rice varieties including Hashemi, Vandana, Kadous, Hassani, Shahpasand and IR36 were crossed in a diallel design in 2010. The parents and seeds of F1 generation (36 genotypes were grown in a completely randomized block design with three replications at the Research Field of the Rice Research Institute of Iran-Rasht in 2011. In this experiment, the yield related traits including grain yield, number of panicles per plant, number of spikelet’s per panicle, 1000-grain weight, plant height, panicle length and flag leaf area were measured in each experimental unit. Evaluation of the gene action based on the Hayman graphical method indicated that 1000-grain weight was controlled by partial dominance effect and the other attributes were controlled by complete dominance to over-dominance effects. Broad-sense heritability varied from 54.91% to 99.84% for flag leaf area and plant height, respectively and narrow-sense heritability ranged from 26.04% to 88.68% for panicle length and 1000-grain weight, respectively. Results of this research showed that the additive gene effect can be used to improve several traits including 1000-grain weight, but utilizing the heterosis phenomenon and hybrid production is recommended to improve the remaining traits in the studied population.

  4. New approach for regional crop yield gap analysis in the Borujen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    enoh

    2012-03-20

    Mar 20, 2012 ... Finally, the results of quantitative analysis (yield estimation in different wheat cropping systems) performed on four ... Yield forecasting, or determining yield in advance of harvest, has been used in many .... a simulation model to problems on regional scale, two methods can be used: simulate first and then ...

  5. Shifts in North Sea forage fish productivity and potential fisheries yield

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Worsøe Clausen, Lotte; Rindorf, Anna; van Deurs, Mikael

    2017-01-01

    1. Forage fish populations support large scale fisheries and are key components of marine ecosystems across the world, linking secondary production to higher trophic levels. While climate-induced changes in the North Sea zooplankton community are described and documented in literature......, the associated bottom-up effects and consequences for fisheries remain largely unidentified. 2. We investigated the temporal development in forage fish productivity and the associated influence on fisheries yield of herring, sprat, Norway pout and sandeel in the North Sea. Using principal component analysis, we...... analysed 40 years of recruitment success and growth proxies to reveal changes in productivity and patterns of synchroneity across stocks (i.e. functional complementarity). The relationship between forage fish production and Calanus finmarchicus (an indicator of climate change) was also analysed. We used...

  6. Impact of Climate Change on Potential, Attainable, and Actual Wheat Yield in Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhakal, K.; Linde, E.; Kakani, V. G.; Alderman, P. D.; Brunson, D.; Ochsner, T. E.; Carver, B.

    2017-12-01

    Gradually developing climatic and weather anomalies due to increasing atmospheric greenhouse gases concentration can pose threat to farmers and resource managers. This study was aimed at investigating the effects of climate change on winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under the Representative Concentration Pathways 6.0 and 8.5 using downscaled climate projections from different models and their ensembles. Daily data of maximum and minimum air temperature, rainfall, and solar radiation for, four General Circulation Models (MRIOC5, MRI-CGCM3, HadGEM2-ES, CSRIO-Mk3.6.0), ensemble of four models and ensemble of 17 GCMs, at 800 m resolution, were developed for two RCPs using Marksim. We describe a methodology for rapid synthesis of GCM-based, spatially explicit, high resolution future weather data inputs for the DSSAT crop model, for cropland area across wheat growing regions of Oklahoma for the future period 2040-2060. The potential impacts of climate change and variability on potential, attainable, and actual winter wheat yield in Oklahoma is discussed.

  7. Using Satellite Data to Identify the Causes of and Potential Solutions for Yield Gaps in India's Wheat Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, M.; Singh, B.; Srivastava, A.; Malik, R. K.; McDonald, A.; Lobell, D. B.

    2017-12-01

    Food security will be increasingly challenged by climate change, natural resource degradation, and population growth. Wheat yields, in particular, have already stagnated in many regions and will be further affected by warming temperatures. Despite these challenges, wheat yields can be increased by improving management practices in regions with existing yield gaps. We present two studies that are using satellite data to better understand the factors contributing to yield gaps and potential interventions to close yield gaps in India's main wheat belt, the Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP). To identify the magnitude and causes of current yield gaps, we produced 30 meter resolution yield maps from 2001 to 2015 using Landsat sallite data and a new method that translates satellite vegetation indices to yield estimates using crop model simulations, bypassing the need for ground calibration data. This is one of the first attempts to apply this method to a smallholder agriculture system, where ground calibration data are rarely available. We find that yields can be increased by 11% on average and up to 32% in the eastern IGP by improving management to current best practices within a given district. Additionally, if current best practices from the highest-yielding state of Punjab are implemented in the eastern IGP, yields could increase by almost 110%. Considering the factors that most influence yields, later sow dates and warmer temperatures are most associated with low yields across the IGP. This suggests that strategies to reduce the negative effects of heat stress, like earlier sowing and planting heat-tolerant wheat varieties, are critical to increasing wheat yields in this globally-important agricultural region. We also apply this method to high-resolution micro-satellite data (technology and identify whether satellite data can be used to appropriately target this intervention.

  8. Diversity of Cacao Trees in Waslala, Nicaragua: Associations between Genotype Spectra, Product Quality and Yield Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trognitz, Bodo; Cros, Emile; Assemat, Sophie; Davrieux, Fabrice; Forestier-Chiron, Nelly; Ayestas, Eusebio; Kuant, Aldo; Scheldeman, Xavier; Hermann, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The sensory quality and the contents of quality-determining chemical compounds in unfermented and fermented cocoa from 100 cacao trees (individual genotypes) representing groups of nine genotype spectra (GG), grown at smallholder plantings in the municipality of Waslala, Nicaragua, were evaluated for two successive harvest periods. Cocoa samples were fermented using a technique mimicking recommended on-farm practices. The sensory cocoa quality was assessed by experienced tasters, and seven major chemical taste compounds were quantified by near infrared spectrometry (NIRS). The association of the nine, partially admixed, genotype spectra with the analytical and sensory quality parameters was tested. The individual parameters were analyzed as a function of the factors GG and harvest (including the date of fermentation), individual trees within a single GG were used as replications. In fermented cocoa, significant GG-specific differences were observed for methylxanthines, theobromine-to-caffeine (T/C) ratio, total fat, procyanidin B5 and epicatechin, as well as the sensory attributes global score, astringency, and dry fruit aroma, but differences related to harvest were also apparent. The potential cocoa yield was also highly determined by the individual GG, although there was significant tree-to-tree variation within every single GG. Non-fermented samples showed large harvest-to-harvest variation of their chemical composition, while differences between GG were insignificant. These results suggest that selection by the genetic background, represented here by groups of partially admixed genotype spectra, would be a useful strategy toward enhancing quality and yield of cocoa in Nicaragua. Selection by the GG within the local, genetically segregating populations of seed-propagated cacao, followed by clonal propagation of best-performing individuals of the selected GG could be a viable alternative to traditional propagation of cacao by seed from open pollination. Fast and

  9. Diversity of cacao trees in Waslala, Nicaragua: associations between genotype spectra, product quality and yield potential.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bodo Trognitz

    Full Text Available The sensory quality and the contents of quality-determining chemical compounds in unfermented and fermented cocoa from 100 cacao trees (individual genotypes representing groups of nine genotype spectra (GG, grown at smallholder plantings in the municipality of Waslala, Nicaragua, were evaluated for two successive harvest periods. Cocoa samples were fermented using a technique mimicking recommended on-farm practices. The sensory cocoa quality was assessed by experienced tasters, and seven major chemical taste compounds were quantified by near infrared spectrometry (NIRS. The association of the nine, partially admixed, genotype spectra with the analytical and sensory quality parameters was tested. The individual parameters were analyzed as a function of the factors GG and harvest (including the date of fermentation, individual trees within a single GG were used as replications. In fermented cocoa, significant GG-specific differences were observed for methylxanthines, theobromine-to-caffeine (T/C ratio, total fat, procyanidin B5 and epicatechin, as well as the sensory attributes global score, astringency, and dry fruit aroma, but differences related to harvest were also apparent. The potential cocoa yield was also highly determined by the individual GG, although there was significant tree-to-tree variation within every single GG. Non-fermented samples showed large harvest-to-harvest variation of their chemical composition, while differences between GG were insignificant. These results suggest that selection by the genetic background, represented here by groups of partially admixed genotype spectra, would be a useful strategy toward enhancing quality and yield of cocoa in Nicaragua. Selection by the GG within the local, genetically segregating populations of seed-propagated cacao, followed by clonal propagation of best-performing individuals of the selected GG could be a viable alternative to traditional propagation of cacao by seed from open

  10. Diversity of cacao trees in Waslala, Nicaragua: associations between genotype spectra, product quality and yield potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trognitz, Bodo; Cros, Emile; Assemat, Sophie; Davrieux, Fabrice; Forestier-Chiron, Nelly; Ayestas, Eusebio; Kuant, Aldo; Scheldeman, Xavier; Hermann, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The sensory quality and the contents of quality-determining chemical compounds in unfermented and fermented cocoa from 100 cacao trees (individual genotypes) representing groups of nine genotype spectra (GG), grown at smallholder plantings in the municipality of Waslala, Nicaragua, were evaluated for two successive harvest periods. Cocoa samples were fermented using a technique mimicking recommended on-farm practices. The sensory cocoa quality was assessed by experienced tasters, and seven major chemical taste compounds were quantified by near infrared spectrometry (NIRS). The association of the nine, partially admixed, genotype spectra with the analytical and sensory quality parameters was tested. The individual parameters were analyzed as a function of the factors GG and harvest (including the date of fermentation), individual trees within a single GG were used as replications. In fermented cocoa, significant GG-specific differences were observed for methylxanthines, theobromine-to-caffeine (T/C) ratio, total fat, procyanidin B5 and epicatechin, as well as the sensory attributes global score, astringency, and dry fruit aroma, but differences related to harvest were also apparent. The potential cocoa yield was also highly determined by the individual GG, although there was significant tree-to-tree variation within every single GG. Non-fermented samples showed large harvest-to-harvest variation of their chemical composition, while differences between GG were insignificant. These results suggest that selection by the genetic background, represented here by groups of partially admixed genotype spectra, would be a useful strategy toward enhancing quality and yield of cocoa in Nicaragua. Selection by the GG within the local, genetically segregating populations of seed-propagated cacao, followed by clonal propagation of best-performing individuals of the selected GG could be a viable alternative to traditional propagation of cacao by seed from open pollination. Fast and

  11. Impact of NDF degradability of corn silage on the milk yield potential of dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Spanghero

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The neutral detergent fibre (NDF degradability of corn silage samples, measured in vitro (ivNDFd by a filter bag system, was used to examine (i the relationship between the ivNDFd and that calculated from acid detergent lignin (L content (NDFd and (ii the impact of ivNDFd variations on the predicted milk yield (MY of dairy cows fed corn silage based diets. A total of 173 samples of corn silage were collected during a period of three years (2001-03 in different dairy farms of the Po Valley (Northern Italy. Each sample was analysed for chemical composition and was also tested in triplicate for the ivNDFd using the DaisyII incubator (Ankom, Tech. Co., Fairport, NY, USA with incubation time of 48hs. Moreover, the NDFd of samples was calculated from the L contents, while the measured ivNDFd values were used to estimate the NEl, the potential dry matter intakes (DMI and to predict the MY of cows. Corn silage samples of the three years were similar for NDF and starch contents (44.2 and 30.7% DM, on average, respectively while samples from 2003, in comparison with 2001 and 2002, had lower crude protein (6.9 vs 8.3-8.4% DM, P<0.01 and L contents (3.3 vs 3.6-3.9% DM, P<0.01 and higher ivNDFd values (53.3 vs 45.6-47.8%, P<0.01. The relationship between ivNDFd and NDFd was weak (R2=0.09, not significant. The MY predicted from the NEl content and DMI of corn silage (5.5 MJ/kg DM and 8.9 kg/d minus the maintenance energy costs, was 11.5 kg/d on average (coefficient of variation 20%. Our simulations indicate that a variation of ivNDFd by +1.0% changes the NEl of corn silage to have an expected variation in milk yield of +0.15 kg/d. If the ivNDFd is also used to predict the corn silage DMI then a +1.0% variation in ivNDFd of corn silage produces an overall +0.23 kg/d MY variation. The present results indicate that ivNDFd is highly variable in corn silage populations and differences in this nutritional parameter have an appreciable impact on the predicted milk

  12. Agro-climatic zonation of Khouzestan province based on potential yield of irrigated wheat using WOFOST model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.H. Gharineh

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available By application of climatic zoning methods, it is possible to study different agricultural aspects and then with harmony this aspects, determined similar states in a zone. Today, simulation models are widely used around the world in agricultural research and education and cropland management. Due to the vast extent of the agricultural activities in Iran, application of such models seems to be quite necessary for optimization objectives. The primary focus of this research was climatic zoning of Khouzestan region based on the results from wheat yield potential by means of WOFOST model. First, model performance and the accuracy of its results were evaluated. The findings showed that WOFOST model can adequately simulate phenological phases and grain and dry matter yields. The calculated Root Mean Square Error (RMSE values from blooming and physiologic maturity of crop were 1.97 per day and for seed and dry matter performances 810 and 810 kg ha-1, respectively. Also, one-to-one linear regression values for these stages were 0.96, 0.97, 0.93 and 0.91, respectively. The results of simulations indicated that the potentials of crop yield and the actual yield of farmlands are considerably different. Determination of the yield potentials of crop and its restricting factors were considered as the first step toward higher yield of crop. The results emphasized the fact that maximum and minimum yield potentials were found near the cities of Izeh (9247 kg. ha-1 and Shushtar (7538 kg. ha-1. A comparison of potential and actual crop yield trends revealed that the latter has been decreased might be due to the global warming phenomena resulting from green gases release into atmosphere while the increase of the farmer has been related to genetic modification of crop and management strategic. The results also showed that the poor yield of Mahshahr croplands (65.8% was because of unsuitable soil and high level ground water resources. The lowest performance was found in

  13. Search for the Higgs Boson in the H{yields} ZZ{sup (*)}{yields}4{mu} Channel in CMS Using a Multivariate Analysis; Busqueda del Boson de Higgs en el Canal H{yields} ZZ{sup (*)}{yields}4{mu} en CMS Empleando un Metodo de Analisis Multivariado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso Diaz, A.

    2007-12-28

    This note presents a Higgs boson search analysis in the CMS detector of the LHC accelerator (CERN, Geneva, Switzerland) in the H{yields} ZZ{sup (*)}{yields}4{mu} channel, using a multivariate method. This analysis, based in a Higgs boson mass dependent likelihood, constructed from discriminant variables, provides a significant improvement of the Higgs boson discovery potential in a wide mass range with respect to the official analysis published by CMS, based in orthogonal cuts independent of the Higgs boson mass. (Author) 8 refs.

  14. Winter sowing of adapted lines as a potential yield increase strategy in lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrios, A.; Aparicio, T.; Rodríguez, M.J.; Pérez de la Vega, M.; Caminero, C.

    2016-11-01

    Lentil (Lens culinaris Medik. subsp. culinaris) is a traditional crop in Spain although current grain yield in Spain is relatively low and unstable. The effect of an early sowing date (winter sowing) on yield in the Spanish Central Plateau (meseta) was analyzed comparing it to the traditional spring sowing. Yield from eleven cultivars currently available for sowing in Spain and two F6:7 populations of recombinant inbred lines (RIL), ´Precoz´ × ´WA8649041´ (89 lines) and ´BGE016365´ × ´ILL1918´ (118 lines), was evaluated in winter and spring sowing dates for three seasons (2005/06, 2006/07 and 2007/08) and two localities. Yield and stability were assessed by the method of consistency of performance with some modifications. When comparing with the best currently available cultivars sown in the traditional spring sowing date, (with an estimated average yield of 43.9 g/m in our experimental conditions), winter sowing using adapted breeding lines proved to be a suitable strategy for increasing lentil yield and yield stability in the Spanish meseta, with an average yield increase of 111% (reaching an estimated yield of 92.8 g/m). Results point to that lentil production can greatly increase in the Spanish meseta if adequate plant materials, such as some of the lines analyzed, are sown at late fall. (Author)

  15. Theoretical characterization of the potential energy surface for H + O2 yields HO2(asterisk) yields HO + O. II - The potential for H atom exchange in HO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walch, Stephen P.; Rohlfing, Celeste Mcmichael

    1989-01-01

    The results of CASSCF multireference contracted CI calculations with large ANO basis sets are presented for the exchange region of the HO2 potential-energy surface. The saddle point for H atom exchange is about 13 kcal/mol below the energy of H + O2; therefore, this region of the surface should be accessible during H + O2 recombination and methathesis reactions.

  16. Efficient Fault Localization and Failure Analysis Techniques for Improving IC Yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankush Oberai

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available With the increase in the complexity of the semiconductor device processes and increase in the challenge to satisfy high market demands, enhancement in yield has become a crucial factor. Discovering and reacting to yield problems emerging at the end of the production line may cause unbearable yield loss leading to larger times to market. Thus, time and cost involved in fault isolation may be significantly shortened by effectively utilizing the fault diagnosis technology and supporting yield improvements. Hence for yield analysis, a highly integrated data network with software analysis tools have been established to reduce the fault analysis time. Synopsys Avalon, a product used for fault localization is described in this paper which aids in achieving better integrated circuit yields. This paper also illustrates various fault localization techniques for faster problem identification and discusses a few analytical tools like photon emission microscope and transmission emission microscope for faster determination of device failures.

  17. Analysis of a large dataset of mycorrhiza inoculation field trials on potato shows highly significant increases in yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hijri, Mohamed

    2016-04-01

    An increasing human population requires more food production in nutrient-efficient systems in order to simultaneously meet global food needs while reducing the environmental footprint of agriculture. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) have the potential to enhance crop yield, but their efficiency has yet to be demonstrated in large-scale crop production systems. This study reports an analysis of a dataset consisting of 231 field trials in which the same AMF inoculant (Rhizophagus irregularis DAOM 197198) was applied to potato over a 4-year period in North America and Europe under authentic field conditions. The inoculation was performed using a liquid suspension of AMF spores that was sprayed onto potato seed pieces, yielding a calculated 71 spores per seed piece. Statistical analysis showed a highly significant increase in marketable potato yield (ANOVA, P < 0.0001) for inoculated fields (42.2 tons/ha) compared with non-inoculated controls (38.3 tons/ha), irrespective of trial year. The average yield increase was 3.9 tons/ha, representing 9.5 % of total crop yield. Inoculation was profitable with a 0.67-tons/ha increase in yield, a threshold reached in almost 79 % of all trials. This finding clearly demonstrates the benefits of mycorrhizal-based inoculation on crop yield, using potato as a case study. Further improvements of these beneficial inoculants will help compensate for crop production deficits, both now and in the future.

  18. Variation of Potential Yield of Hybrid Population of Robusta coffee (Coffea canepor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novie Pranata Erdiansyah

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The low yield of Robusta coffee in Indonesia may be due to the use of planting materials derived from seeds. The research objective was to determine the variation of Robusta coffee yield wich local propagated by using seeds. The study was conducted in Kaliwining experimental Station of ICCRI (Indonesian Coffee andCocoa Research Institute. There were two populations observed. Number of progeny used in this study were 186 genotypes consisting of two groups from crossesBP 409 x Q 121 with 89 progenies and BP 961 x BP 409 with 81 progenies. The results showed that planting materials from seeds exhibit properties mixed results.Progeny that have the best results (yield more than 2 ton/ha not more than 5% of the total population. In both populations there is a big difference between the progenythat has high and low yield. Highest yield B population could reach 2,500 kg/ha and the C population reached 2,200 kg/ha. The lowest yield can only produce coffee270 kg/ha in populations B and 120 kg/ha in population C.Key words: Coffea canephora, hybrid, variation, yield

  19. Analysis of climate signals in the crop yield record of sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Alexis L; Kemanian, Armen R; Forest, Chris E

    2018-01-01

    Food security and agriculture productivity assessments in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) require a better understanding of how climate and other drivers influence regional crop yields. In this paper, our objective was to identify the climate signal in the realized yields of maize, sorghum, and groundnut in SSA. We explored the relation between crop yields and scale-compatible climate data for the 1962-2014 period using Random Forest, a diagnostic machine learning technique. We found that improved agricultural technology and country fixed effects are three times more important than climate variables for explaining changes in crop yields in SSA. We also found that increasing temperatures reduced yields for all three crops in the temperature range observed in SSA, while precipitation increased yields up to a level roughly matching crop evapotranspiration. Crop yields exhibited both linear and nonlinear responses to temperature and precipitation, respectively. For maize, technology steadily increased yields by about 1% (13 kg/ha) per year while increasing temperatures decreased yields by 0.8% (10 kg/ha) per °C. This study demonstrates that although we should expect increases in future crop yields due to improving technology, the potential yields could be progressively reduced due to warmer and drier climates. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Sperm yield after single layer centrifugation with Androcoll-E is related to the potential fertility of the original ejaculate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrell, J M; Stuhtmann, G; Meurling, S; Lundgren, A; Winblad, C; Macias Garcia, B; Johannisson, A

    2014-05-01

    Many attempts have been made to identify laboratory tests that are predictive of sperm fertility, both to improve the quality of stallion semen doses for artificial insemination (AI) and to identify potential breeding sires if no fertility data are available. Sperm quality at the stud is mostly evaluated by assessing subjective motility, although this parameter can be poorly indicative of fertility. Sperm morphology and chromatin integrity in Swedish stallions are correlated to pregnancy rate after AI. Because single layer centrifugation (SLC) selects for spermatozoa with normal morphology and good chromatin, retrospective analysis was carried out to investigate whether sperm yield after SLC is linked to potential fertility. Commercial semen doses for AI from 24 stallions (five stallions with four ejaculates each, 19 stallions with three ejaculates each; n = 77) obtained during the breeding season were cooled, and sent overnight to the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences in an insulated box for evaluation, with other doses being sent to studs for commercial AI. On arrival at Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, the semen was used for SLC and also for evaluation of sperm motility, membrane integrity, chromatin integrity, and morphology. The seasonal pregnancy rates for each stallion were available. The yield of progressively motile spermatozoa after SLC (calculated as a proportion of the initial load) was found to be highly correlated with pregnancy rate (r = 0.75; P centrifugation is fast (30 minutes) and does not require expensive equipment, whereas other assays require a flow cytometer and/or specialist skills. An additional option could be to transport semen doses to a laboratory for SLC if the stud personnel do not want to perform the procedure themselves. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Sensitivity of commercial pumpkin yield to potential decline among different groups of pollinating bees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckerter, Philipp W.; Schirmel, Jens; Cresswell, James E.; Entling, Martin H.

    2017-01-01

    The yield of animal-pollinated crops is threatened by bee declines, but its precise sensitivity is poorly known. We therefore determined the yield dependence of Hokkaido pumpkin in Germany on insect pollination by quantifying: (i) the relationship between pollen receipt and fruit set and (ii) the cumulative pollen deposition of each pollinator group. We found that approximately 2500 pollen grains per flower were needed to maximize fruit set. At the measured rates of flower visitation, we estimated that bumblebees (21 visits/flower lifetime, 864 grains/visit) or honeybees (123 visits, 260 grains) could individually achieve maximum crop yield, whereas halictid bees are ineffective (11 visits, 16 grains). The pollinator fauna was capable of delivering 20 times the necessary amount of pollen. We therefore estimate that pumpkin yield was not pollination-limited in our study region and that it is currently fairly resilient to single declines of honeybees or wild bumblebees. PMID:28573019

  2. Yield potential of chive: Effects of cultivar, plastic mulch and fertilisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. SUOJALA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Chive is a perennial herb, growing also natural in Finland. Commercial production of the herb is very small in our country, but large amounts of chive are imported. This fact has aroused interest in investigating the opportunities of producing chive using modern cultivation techniques. Effects of cultivar, plastic mulch as ground cover and fertilisation on yield were studied in field experiments over three years. In the experiments, the most productive cultivars or populations (a Finnish population “Hankoniemi”, a Dutch population “Tavallinen” and a German cultivar ‘Grolau’ produced 10–20% higher yields than the less productive cultivars. There were no clear differences in the yield quality between the cultivars. Black plastic mulch was effective in increasing yield, controlling weeds and maintaining soil moisture. For fertilisation, the experiments revealed the high nutrient demand of chive. After the basic soil fertilisation, weekly fertigation with a NPK fertiliser at a higher nitrogen dose (10-15 kg ha -1 N per week resulted in higher biomass production than fertigation with nitrogen alone and/or a half nitrogen dose. In the years following the planting, the annual uptakes in yield were 185-200 kg ha -1 for nitrogen, 17-20 kg ha -1 for phosphorus, and 120-140 kg ha -1 for potassium in the most intensively fertilised treatment producing the highest yield. The results show that chive is feasible for commercial production with modern cultivation techniques.;

  3. Yield Potential of Soil Water and Its Sustainability for Dryland Spring Maize with Plastic Film Mulch on the Loess Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wen; Liu, Wenzhao

    2016-04-01

    Plastic film mulch(PM) is an agronomic measure widely used in the dryland spring maize production system on the Loess Plateau of China. The measure can greatly increase yield of dryland maize due to its significant effects on soil water conservation. Few researches have been done to investigate how the yield potential is impacted by PM. The yield-water use (ET) boundary equation raised by French and Schultz provides a simple approach to calculate crop water limited yield potential and gives a benchmark for farmers in managing their crops. However, method used in building the equation is somewhat arbitrary and has no strict principle, which leads to the uncertainty of equation when it is applied. Though using PM can increase crop yield, it increases soil temperature, promotes crop growth and increases the water transpired by crop, which further leads to high water consumption as compared with crops without PM. This means that PM may lead to the overuse of soil water and hence is unsustainable in a long run. This research is mainly focused on the yield potential and sustainability of PMing for spring maize on the Loess Plateau. A principle that may be utilized by any other researchers was proposed based on French & Schultz's boundary equation and on part of quantile regression theory. We used a data set built by collecting the experimental data from published papers and analyzed the water-limited yield potential of spring maize on the Loess Plateau. Moreover, maize yield and soil water dynamics under PM were investigated by a long-term site field experiment. Results show that on the Loess Plateau, the water limited yield potential can be calculated using the boundary equation y = 60.5×(x - 50), with a platform yield of 15954 kghm-2 after the water use exceeds 314 mm. Without PMing, the water limited yield potential can be estimated by the boundary equation y = 47.5×(x - 62.3) , with a platform yield of 12840 kghm-2 when the water use exceeds 325 mm, which

  4. Heterogeneous global crop yield response to biochar: a meta-regression analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crane-Droesch, Andrew; Torn, Margaret S; Abiven, Samuel; Jeffery, Simon

    2013-01-01

    Biochar may contribute to climate change mitigation at negative cost by sequestering photosynthetically fixed carbon in soil while increasing crop yields. The magnitude of biochar’s potential in this regard will depend on crop yield benefits, which have not been well-characterized across different soils and biochars. Using data from 84 studies, we employ meta-analytical, missing data, and semiparametric statistical methods to explain heterogeneity in crop yield responses across different soils, biochars, and agricultural management factors, and then estimate potential changes in yield across different soil environments globally. We find that soil cation exchange capacity and organic carbon were strong predictors of yield response, with low cation exchange and low carbon associated with positive response. We also find that yield response increases over time since initial application, compared to non-biochar controls. High reported soil clay content and low soil pH were weaker predictors of higher yield response. No biochar parameters in our dataset—biochar pH, percentage carbon content, or temperature of pyrolysis—were significant predictors of yield impacts. Projecting our fitted model onto a global soil database, we find the largest potential increases in areas with highly weathered soils, such as those characterizing much of the humid tropics. Richer soils characterizing much of the world’s important agricultural areas appear to be less likely to benefit from biochar. (letter)

  5. Potential of Cowpea Variety Mixtures to Increase Yield Stability in Subsistence Agriculture: Preliminary Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua S. Okonya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cowpea Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. is an important leafy vegetable and grain legume in Uganda. Unlike in commercial agriculture, where variety mixtures are known to give higher and more stable yields, the performance of cowpea variety mixtures in subsistence agriculture is little known. Mixtures containing up to four cowpea varieties were subjected to all possible 2-way, 3-way, and 4-way combinations. These cowpea varieties and mixtures were grown at three locations in Soroti and Kumi districts in order to assess the relative mixture effect, defined as: Mixture effect (% = (mixture yield − pure line component average/pure line component average × 100. Yield data was subjected to one-way ANOVA using the GLM procedure of SYSTAT. PLABSTAT was used to generate ecovalence (Wi values as a measure of stability with low ecovalence values indicating higher stability. The total cowpea dry matter (DM yield was in the range of  3.7–6.7 g/m2 (leaf and 12.1–36.7 g/m2 (grain, respectively. Mixture effects were between  −9.3–14.0% (leaf and −30.3–21.9% (grain. Yield stability spanned  Wi = 0.06–5.30 (leaf and Wi = 4.45–894.84 (grain. The results suggested that yields of cowpea variety mixtures grown in marginal environments were more stable than of single varieties but not all mixtures yielded more than single varieties.

  6. A comparative ideotype, yield component and cultivation value analysis for spring wheat adaptation in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heikki Laurila

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study Mixed structural covariance, Path and Cultivation Value analyses and the CERES-Wheat crop model were used to evaluate vegetation and yield component variation affecting yield potential between different high-latitude (> 60° N lat. and mid-European (< 60° N lat. spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L. genotypes currently cultivated in southern Finland. Path modeling results from this study suggest that especially grains/ear, harvest index (HI and maximum 1000 kernel weight were significant factors defining the highest yield potential. Mixed and Cultivation value modeling results suggest that when compared with genotypes introduced for cultivation before 1990s, modern spring wheat genotypes have a significantly higher yielding capacity, current high yielding mid-European genotypes even exceeding the 5 t ha-1 non-potential baseline yield level (yb. Because of a forthcoming climate change, the new high yielding wheat genotypes have to adapt for elevated temperatures and atmospheric CO2 growing conditions in northern latitudes. The optimized ideotype profiles derived from the generic high-latitude and mid-European genotypes are presented in the results. High-latitude and mid-European ideotype profiles with factors estimating the effects of concurrent elevated CO2 and temperature levels with photoperiodical daylength effects can be utilized when designing future high yielding ideotypes adapted to future growing conditions. The CERES-Wheat ideotype modeling results imply, that with new high yielding mid-European ideotypes, the non-potential baseline yield (yb would be on average 5150 kg ha-1 level (+ 108 % vs. new high-latitude ideotypes (yb 4770 kg ha-1, 100% grown under the elevated CO2(700ppm×temperature(+3ºC growing conditions projected by the year 2100 climate change scenario in southern Finland.

  7. Variability, correlation and path co-eeficient analysis for yield and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    this study, fourteen rice (Oryza sativa L.) genotypes at the Gezira Research Station Farm (GRSF), Sudan were assessed for genetic variability and correlations between yield and yield components among phenotypic markers and polygenic trait analysis. A wider genetic variability was observed among the genotypes for most ...

  8. Genomics approaches to unlock the high yield potential of cassava, a tropical model plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengkui ZHANG,Ping'an MA,Haiyan WANG,Cheng LU,Xin CHEN,Zhiqiang XIA,Meiling ZOU,Xinchen ZHOU,Wenquan WANG

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Cassava, a tropical food, feed and biofuel crop, has great capacity for biomass accumulation and an extraordinary efficiency in water use and mineral nutrition, which makes it highly suitable as a model plant for tropical crops. However, the understanding of the metabolism and genomics of this important crop is limited. The recent breakthroughs in the genomics of cassava, including whole-genome sequencing and transcriptome analysis, as well as advances in the biology of photosynthesis, starch biosynthesis, adaptation to drought and high temperature, and resistance to virus and bacterial diseases, are reviewed here. Many of the new developments have come from comparative analyses between a wild ancestor and existing cultivars. Finally, the current challenges and future potential of cassava as a model plant are discussed.

  9. Diagnostic yield of hair and urine toxicology testing in potential child abuse cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauffer, Stephanie L; Wood, Stephanie M; Krasowski, Matthew D

    2015-07-01

    Detection of drugs in a child may be the first objective finding that can be reported in cases of suspected child abuse. Hair and urine toxicology testing, when performed as part of the initial clinical evaluation for suspected child abuse or maltreatment, may serve to facilitate the identification of at-risk children. Furthermore, significant environmental exposure to a drug (considered by law to constitute child abuse in some states) may be identified by toxicology testing of unwashed hair specimens. In order to determine the clinical utility of hair and urine toxicology testing in this population we performed a retrospective chart review on all children for whom hair toxicology testing was ordered at our academic medical center between January 2004 and April 2014. The medical records of 616 children aged 0-17.5 years were reviewed for injury history, previous medication and illicit drug use by caregiver(s), urine drug screen result (if performed), hair toxicology result, medication list, and outcome of any child abuse evaluation. Hair toxicology testing was positive for at least one compound in 106 cases (17.2%), with unexplained drugs in 82 cases (13.3%). Of these, there were 48 cases in which multiple compounds (including combination of parent drugs and/or metabolites within the same drug class) were identified in the sample of one patient. The compounds most frequently identified in the hair of our study population included cocaine, benzoylecgonine, native (unmetabolized) tetrahydrocannabinol, and methamphetamine. There were 68 instances in which a parent drug was identified in the hair without any of its potential metabolites, suggesting environmental exposure. Among the 82 cases in which hair toxicology testing was positive for unexplained drugs, a change in clinical outcome was noted in 71 cases (86.5%). Urine drug screens (UDS) were performed in 457 of the 616 reviewed cases. Of these, over 95% of positive UDS results could be explained by iatrogenic drug

  10. Dependency of global primary bioenergy crop potentials in 2050 on food systems, yields, biodiversity conservation and political stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erb, Karl-Heinz; Haberl, Helmut; Plutzar, Christoph

    2012-01-01

    The future bioenergy crop potential depends on (1) changes in the food system (food demand, agricultural technology), (2) political stability and investment security, (3) biodiversity conservation, (4) avoidance of long carbon payback times from deforestation, and (5) energy crop yields. Using a biophysical biomass-balance model, we analyze how these factors affect global primary bioenergy potentials in 2050. The model calculates biomass supply and demand balances for eleven world regions, eleven food categories, seven food crop types and two livestock categories, integrating agricultural forecasts and scenarios with a consistent global land use and NPP database. The TREND scenario results in a global primary bioenergy potential of 77 EJ/yr, alternative assumptions on food-system changes result in a range of 26–141 EJ/yr. Exclusion of areas for biodiversity conservation and inaccessible land in failed states reduces the bioenergy potential by up to 45%. Optimistic assumptions on future energy crop yields increase the potential by up to 48%, while pessimistic assumptions lower the potential by 26%. We conclude that the design of sustainable bioenergy crop production policies needs to resolve difficult trade-offs such as food vs. energy supply, renewable energy vs. biodiversity conservation or yield growth vs. reduction of environmental problems of intensive agriculture. - Highlights: ► Global energy crop potentials in 2050 are calculated with a biophysical biomass-balance model. ► The study is focused on dedicated energy crops, forestry and residues are excluded. ► Depending on food-system change, global energy crop potentials range from 26–141 EJ/yr. ► Exclusion of protected areas and failed states may reduce the potential up to 45%. ► The bioenergy potential may be 26% lower or 45% higher, depending on energy crop yields.

  11. Quantifying the potential for reservoirs to secure future surface water yields in the world’s largest river basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lu; Parkinson, Simon; Gidden, Matthew; Byers, Edward; Satoh, Yusuke; Riahi, Keywan; Forman, Barton

    2018-04-01

    Surface water reservoirs provide us with reliable water supply, hydropower generation, flood control and recreation services. Yet reservoirs also cause flow fragmentation in rivers and lead to flooding of upstream areas, thereby displacing existing land-use activities and ecosystems. Anticipated population growth and development coupled with climate change in many regions of the globe suggests a critical need to assess the potential for future reservoir capacity to help balance rising water demands with long-term water availability. Here, we assess the potential of large-scale reservoirs to provide reliable surface water yields while also considering environmental flows within 235 of the world’s largest river basins. Maps of existing cropland and habitat conservation zones are integrated with spatially-explicit population and urbanization projections from the Shared Socioeconomic Pathways to identify regions unsuitable for increasing water supply by exploiting new reservoir storage. Results show that even when maximizing the global reservoir storage to its potential limit (∼4.3–4.8 times the current capacity), firm yields would only increase by about 50% over current levels. However, there exist large disparities across different basins. The majority of river basins in North America are found to gain relatively little firm yield by increasing storage capacity, whereas basins in Southeast Asia display greater potential for expansion as well as proportional gains in firm yield under multiple uncertainties. Parts of Europe, the United States and South America show relatively low reliability of maintaining current firm yields under future climate change, whereas most of Asia and higher latitude regions display comparatively high reliability. Findings from this study highlight the importance of incorporating different factors, including human development, land-use activities, and climate change, over a time span of multiple decades and across a range of different

  12. Variation of Potential Yield of Hybrid Population of Robusta Coffee (Coffea Canepor

    OpenAIRE

    Erdiansyah, Novie Pranata; Sumirat, Ucu; -, Priyono

    2014-01-01

    The low yield of Robusta coffee in Indonesia may be due to the use of planting materials derived from seeds. The research objective was to determine the variation of Robusta coffee yield wich local propagated by using seeds. The study was conducted in Kaliwining experimental Station of ICCRI (Indonesian Coffee andCocoa Research Institute). There were two populations observed. Number of progeny used in this study were 186 genotypes consisting of two groups from crossesBP 409 x Q 121 with 89 pr...

  13. Will C3 crops enhanced with the C4 CO2-concentrating mechanism live up to their full potential (yield)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driever, Steven M; Kromdijk, Johannes

    2013-10-01

    Sustainably feeding the world's growing population in future is a great challenge and can be achieved only by increasing yield per unit land surface. Efficiency of light interception and biomass partitioning into harvestable parts (harvest index) has been improved substantially via plant breeding in modern crops. The conversion efficiency of intercepted light into biomass still holds promise for yield increase. This conversion efficiency is to a great extent constrained by the metabolic capacity of photosynthesis, defined by the characteristics of its components. Genetic manipulations are increasingly applied to lift these constraints, by improving CO2 or substrate availability for the photosynthetic carbon reduction cycle. Although these manipulations can lead to improved potential growth rates, this increase might be offset by a decrease in performance under stress conditions. In this review, we assess possible positive or negative effects of the introduction of a CO2-concentrating mechanism in C3 crop species on crop potential productivity and yield robustness.

  14. Optimal fertilizer N rates and yield-scaled global warming potential in drill seeded rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drill seeded rice (Oryza sativa L.) is the dominant rice cultivation practice in the USA. Although drill seeded systems can lead to significant methane and nitrous oxide emissions due to the presence of both anaerobic and aerobic soil conditions, the relationship between high-yielding management pr...

  15. Potential of commodity chemicals to become bio-based according to maximum yields and petrochemical prices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Straathof, Adrie J.J.; Bampouli, A.

    2017-01-01

    Carbohydrates are the prevailing biomass components available for bio-based production. The most direct way to convert carbohydrates into commodity chemicals is by one-step conversion at maximum theoretical yield, such as by anaerobic fermentation without side product formation. Considering these

  16. Effects of climate change on yield potential of wheat and maize crops in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolf, J.; Diepen, van C.A.

    1995-01-01

    Yields of winter wheat, silage maize and grain maize in the main arable areas of the European Union (EU) were calculated with a simulation model, WOFOST, using historical weather data and average soil characteristics. The sensitivity of the model to individual weather variables was determined.

  17. A Global Data Analysis for Representing Sediment and Particulate Organic Carbon Yield in Earth System Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Zeli [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Leung, L. Ruby [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Li, Hongyi [Montana State University, Bozeman MT USA; Tesfa, Teklu [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Vanmaercke, Matthias [Département de Géographie, Université de Liège, Liege Belgium; Poesen, Jean [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Division of Geography, KU Leuven, Leuven Belgium; Zhang, Xuesong [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Lu, Hui [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for Earth System Modeling, Department of Earth System Science, Tsinghua University, Beijing China; Hartmann, Jens [Institute for Geology, Center for Earth System Research and Sustainability, Universität Hamburg, Hamburg Germany

    2017-12-01

    Although sediment yield (SY) from water erosion is ubiquitous and its environmental consequences are well recognized, its impacts on the global carbon cycle remain largely uncertain. This knowledge gap is partly due to the lack of soil erosion modeling in Earth System Models (ESMs), which are important tools used to understand the global carbon cycle and explore its changes. This study analyzed sediment and particulate organic carbon yield (CY) data from 1081 and 38 small catchments (0.1-200 km27 ), respectively, in different environments across the globe. Using multiple statistical analysis techniques, we explored environmental factors and hydrological processes important for SY and CY modeling in ESMs. Our results show clear correlations of high SY with traditional agriculture, seismicity and heavy storms, as well as strong correlations between SY and annual peak runoff. These highlight the potential limitation of SY models that represent only interrill and rill erosion because shallow overland flow and rill flow have limited transport capacity due to their hydraulic geometry to produce high SY. Further, our results suggest that SY modeling in ESMs should be implemented at the event scale to produce the catastrophic mass transport during episodic events. Several environmental factors such as seismicity and land management that are often not considered in current catchment-scale SY models can be important in controlling global SY. Our analyses show that SY is likely the primary control on CY in small catchments and a statistically significant empirical relationship is established to calculate SY and CY jointly in ESMs.

  18. A Global Data Analysis for Representing Sediment and Particulate Organic Carbon Yield in Earth System Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Zeli; Leung, L. Ruby; Li, Hongyi; Tesfa, Teklu; Vanmaercke, Matthias; Poesen, Jean; Zhang, Xuesong; Lu, Hui; Hartmann, Jens

    2017-12-01

    Although sediment yield (SY) from water erosion is ubiquitous and its environmental consequences are well recognized, its impacts on the global carbon cycle remain largely uncertain. This knowledge gap is partly due to the lack of soil erosion modeling in Earth System Models (ESMs), which are important tools used to understand the global carbon cycle and explore its changes. This study analyzed sediment and particulate organic carbon yield (CY) data from 1,081 and 38 small catchments (0.1-200 km2), respectively, in different environments across the globe. Using multiple statistical analysis techniques, we explored environmental factors and hydrological processes important for SY and CY modeling in ESMs. Our results show clear correlations of high SY with traditional agriculture, seismicity and heavy storms, as well as strong correlations between SY and annual peak runoff. These highlight the potential limitation of SY models that represent only interrill and rill erosion because shallow overland flow and rill flow have limited transport capacity due to their hydraulic geometry to produce high SY. Further, our results suggest that SY modeling in ESMs should be implemented at the event scale to produce the catastrophic mass transport during episodic events. Several environmental factors such as seismicity and land management that are often not considered in current catchment-scale SY models can be important in controlling global SY. Our analyses show that SY is likely the primary control on CY in small catchments and a statistically significant empirical relationship is established to calculate SY and CY jointly in ESMs.

  19. Dependency of global primary bioenergy crop potentials in 2050 on food systems, yields, biodiversity conservation and political stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erb, Karl-Heinz; Haberl, Helmut; Plutzar, Christoph

    2012-08-01

    The future bioenergy crop potential depends on (1) changes in the food system (food demand, agricultural technology), (2) political stability and investment security, (3) biodiversity conservation, (4) avoidance of long carbon payback times from deforestation, and (5) energy crop yields. Using a biophysical biomass-balance model, we analyze how these factors affect global primary bioenergy potentials in 2050. The model calculates biomass supply and demand balances for eleven world regions, eleven food categories, seven food crop types and two livestock categories, integrating agricultural forecasts and scenarios with a consistent global land use and NPP database. The TREND scenario results in a global primary bioenergy potential of 77 EJ/yr, alternative assumptions on food-system changes result in a range of 26-141 EJ/yr. Exclusion of areas for biodiversity conservation and inaccessible land in failed states reduces the bioenergy potential by up to 45%. Optimistic assumptions on future energy crop yields increase the potential by up to 48%, while pessimistic assumptions lower the potential by 26%. We conclude that the design of sustainable bioenergy crop production policies needs to resolve difficult trade-offs such as food vs. energy supply, renewable energy vs. biodiversity conservation or yield growth vs. reduction of environmental problems of intensive agriculture.

  20. Cultivar mixtures: a meta-analysis of the effect of intraspecific diversity on crop yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiss, Emily R; Drinkwater, Laurie E

    2018-01-01

    Extensive research has shown that greater plant community diversity leads to higher levels of productivity and other ecosystem services, and such increased diversity has been suggested as a way to improve yield and agricultural sustainability. Increasing intraspecific diversity with cultivar mixtures is one way to increase diversity in agricultural systems. We examined the relationship between intraspecific diversity and yield in cultivar mixtures using a meta-analysis of 91 studies and >3,600 observations. Additionally, we investigated how environmental and management factors might influence this relationship, and if the yield stability of cultivar mixtures differed from that of monocultures. We found that the yield increased by 2.2% overall in cultivar mixtures relative to their monoculture components. Mixtures with more cultivars and those with more functional trait diversity showed higher relative yields. Under biotic stressors, such as disease pressure, and abiotic stressors, such as low levels of soil organic matter and nutrient availability, this diversity effect was stronger, resulting in higher relative yields. Finally, cultivar mixtures generally showed higher yield stability compared to monocultures, especially in response to annual weather variability at a site over time. This practice of mixing cultivars can be integrated into intensified cropping systems where species monocultures dominate, as well as in smallholder cropping systems where low-cost improvements are in demand. Overall, these results suggest that cultivar mixtures are a viable strategy to increase diversity in agroecosystems, promoting increased yield and yield stability, with minimal environmental impact. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  1. Analysis of the spatial variability of crop yield and soil properties in small agricultural plots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vieira Sidney Rosa

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess spatial variability of soil properties and crop yield under no tillage as a function of time, in two soil/climate conditions in São Paulo State, Brazil. The two sites measured approximately one hectare each and were cultivated with crop sequences which included corn, soybean, cotton, oats, black oats, wheat, rye, rice and green manure. Soil fertility, soil physical properties and crop yield were measured in a 10-m grid. The soils were a Dusky Red Latossol (Oxisol and a Red Yellow Latossol (Ultisol. Soil sampling was performed in each field every two years after harvesting of the summer crop. Crop yield was measured at the end of each crop cycle, in 2 x 2.5 m sub plots. Data were analysed using semivariogram analysis and kriging interpolation for contour map generation. Yield maps were constructed in order to visually compare the variability of yields, the variability of the yield components and related soil properties. The results show that the factors affecting the variability of crop yield varies from one crop to another. The changes in yield from one year to another suggest that the causes of variability may change with time. The changes with time for the cross semivariogram between phosphorus in leaves and soybean yield is another evidence of this result.

  2. Biochar potential in intensive cultivation of Capsicum annuum L. (sweet pepper): crop yield and plant protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Abhay; Elad, Yigal; Tsechansky, Ludmila; Abrol, Vikas; Lew, Beni; Offenbach, Rivka; Graber, Ellen R

    2018-01-01

    The influence of various biochars on crop yield and disease resistance of Capsicum annuum L. (sweet pepper) under modern, high input, intensive net house cultivation was tested over the course of 2011-2014 in the Arava desert region of Israel. A pot experiment with Lactuca sativa L. (lettuce) grown in the absence of fertilizer employed the 3-year-old field trial soils to determine if biochar treatments contributed to soil intrinsic fertility. Biochar amendments resulted in a significant increase in the number and weight of pepper fruits over 3 years. Concomitant with the increased yield, biochar significantly decreased the severity of powdery mildew (Leveillula taurica) disease and broad mite (Polyphagotarsonemus latus) pest infestation. Biochar additions resulted in increased soil organic matter but did not influence the pH, electrical conductivity or soil or plant mineral nutrients. Intrinsic fertility experiments with lettuce showed that two of the four biochar-treated field soils had significant positive impacts on lettuce fresh weight and total chlorophyll, carotenoid and anthocyanin contents. Biochar-based soil management can enhance the functioning of intensive, commercial, net house production of peppers under the tested conditions, resulting in increased crop yield and plant resistance to disease over several years. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Land Use, Yield and Quality Changes of Minor Field Crops: Is There Superseded Potential to Be Reinvented in Northern Europe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltonen-Sainio, Pirjo; Jauhiainen, Lauri; Lehtonen, Heikki

    2016-01-01

    Diversification of agriculture was one of the strengthened aims of the greening payment of European Agricultural Policy (CAP) as diversification provides numerous ecosystems services compared to cereal-intensive crop rotations. This study focuses on current minor crops in Finland that have potential for expanded production and considers changes in their cropping areas, yield trends, breeding gains, roles in crop rotations and potential for improving resilience. Long-term datasets of Natural Resources Institute Finland and farmers' land use data from the Agency of Rural Affairs were used to analyze the above-mentioned trends and changes. The role of minor crops in rotations declined when early and late CAP periods were compared and that of cereal monocultures strengthened. Genetic yield potentials of minor crops have increased as also genetic improvements in quality traits, although some typical trade-offs with improved yields have also appeared. However, the gap between potential and attained yields has expanded, depending on the minor crop, as national yield trends have either stagnated or declined. When comparing genetic improvements of minor crops to those of the emerging major crop, spring wheat, breeding achievements in minor crops were lower. It was evident that the current agricultural policies in the prevailing market and the price environment have not encouraged cultivation of minor crops but further strengthened the role of cereal monocultures. We suggest optimization of agricultural land use, which is a core element of sustainable intensification, as a future means to couple long-term environmental sustainability with better success in economic profitability and social acceptability. This calls for development of effective policy instruments to support farmer's diversification actions.

  4. Expressão do potencial de rendimento de cultivares de soja Yield potential expression of soybean genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Motta Navarro Júnior

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available A soja possui alto potencial de rendimento de grãos, mas em virtude da interação genótipo vs. ambiente esse potencial não é verificado em sua totalidade. Utilizando-se seis genótipos de soja de diferentes ciclos, objetivou-se estudar a expressão do potencial de rendimento de grãos e quantificá-lo durante a ontogenia. O experimento foi conduzido no ano agrícola 1996/97 na Estação Experimental Agronômica da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Eldorado do Sul, RS. As avaliações foram realizadas em plantas individuais e se estenderam desde o estádio de floração até o de maturação. Os resultados obtidos indicam que alto potencial de rendimento não necessariamente identifica uma planta eficiente na retenção das estruturas reprodutivas. Os potenciais de rendimento estimados na floração e no início do enchimento de grãos não se mantêm até a maturação. Genótipos com alto potencial de rendimento de grãos em R8 não apresentam os maiores potenciais de rendimento de grãos em R2 e em R5, porém, são os que apresentam as menores diferenças entre o potencial estimado em R5 e o estimado em R2.Soybean has high yield potential, which is not totally expressed due to genotype vs. environment interaction. Six soybean genotypes of different maturity groups were used with the objective of studying their yield potential expression and quantifying it during ontogeny. The experiment was conducted during the 1996/97 growing season in the Agronomic Experimental Station of the Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Eldorado do Sul, RS, Brazil. Plants were evaluated individually from flowering until maturity. Results obtained indicate that high yield potential does not necessarily mean an efficient plant in reproductive structure retention. Yield potential estimated in the flowering and beginning of grain filling stages are not maintained until maturity. Genotypes with high yield potential in the R8 stage do not present the

  5. Lipids of Rhodotorula mucilaginosa IIPL32 with biodiesel potential: Oil yield, fatty acid profile, fuel properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khot, Mahesh; Ghosh, Debashish

    2017-04-01

    This study analyzes the single cell oil (SCO), fatty acid profile, and biodiesel fuel properties of the yeast Rhodotorula mucilaginosa IIPL32 grown on the pentose fraction of acid pre-treated sugarcane bagasse as a carbon source. The yeast biomass from nitrogen limiting culture conditions (15.3 g L -1 ) was able to give the SCO yield of 0.17 g g -1 of xylose consumed. Acid digestion, cryo-pulverization, direct in situ transesterification, and microwave assisted techniques were evaluated in comparison to the Soxhlet extraction for the total intracellular yeast lipid recovery. The significant differences were observed among the SCO yield of different methods and the in situ transesterification stood out most for effective yeast lipid recovery generating 97.23 mg lipid as FAME per gram dry biomass. The method was fast and consumed lesser solvent with greater FAME yield while accessing most cellular fatty acids present. The yeast lipids showed the major presence of monounsaturated fatty esters (35-55%; 18:1, 16:1) suitable for better ignition quality, oxidative stability, and cold-flow properties of the biodiesel. Analyzed fuel properties (density, kinematic viscosity, cetane number) of the yeast oil were in good agreement with international biodiesel standards. The sugarcane bagasse-derived xylose and the consolidated comparative assessment of lab scale SCO recovery methods highlight the necessity for careful substrate choice and validation of analytical method in yeast oil research. The use of less toxic co-solvents together with solvent recovery and recycling would help improve process economics for sustainable production of biodiesel from the hemicellulosic fraction of cheap renewable sources. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Marker-Trait Association for Biomass Yield of Potential Bio-fuel Feedstock Miscanthus sinensis from Southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Gang; Huang, Linkai; Zhang, Xinquan; Taylor, Megan; Jiang, Yiwei; Yu, Xiaoqing; Liu, Xinchun; Wang, Xinyu; Zhang, Yajie

    2016-01-01

    As a great potential bio-fuel feedstock, the genus Miscanthus has been widely studied around the world, especially Miscanthus × giganteus owing to its high biomass yield in Europe and North America. However, the narrow genetic basis and sterile characteristics of M. × giganteus have become a limitation for utilization and adaptation to extreme climate conditions. In this study, we focused on one of the progenitors of M. × giganteus, Miscanthus sinensis, which was originally distributed in East Asia with abundant genetic resources and comparable biomass yield potential to M. × giganteus in some areas. A collection of 138 individuals was selected for conducting a 3-year trial of biomass production and analyzed by using 104 pairs of SRAP, ISAP, and SSR primers for genetic diversity as well as marker-trait association. Significant differences in biomass yield and related traits were observed among individuals. Tiller number, fresh biomass yield per plant and dry biomass yield per plant had a high level of phenotypic variation among individuals and the coefficient of variation were all above 40% in 2011, 2012, and 2013. The majority of the traits had a significant correlation with the biomass yield except for the length and width of flag leaves. Plant height was a highly stable trait correlated with biomass yield. A total of 1059 discernible loci were detected by markers across individuals. The population structure (Q) and cluster analyses identified three subpopulations in the collection and family relative kinship (K) represented high gene flow among M. sinensis populations from Southwest China. Model testing identified that Q+K was the best model for describing the associations between the markers and traits, compared to the simple linear, Q or K model. Using the Q+K model, 12 significant associations (P < 0.001) were identified including four markers with plant height and one with biomass yield. Such associations would serve an efficient tool for an early

  7. Marker-Trait Association for Biomass Yield of Potential Bio-fuel Feedstock Miscanthus sinensis from Southwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang eNie

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available As a great potential bio-fuel feedstock, the genus Miscanthus has been widely studied around the world, especially Miscanthus × giganteus owing to its high biomass yield in Europe and North America. However, the narrow genetic basis and sterile characteristics of M. × giganteus have become a limitation for utilization and adaptation to extreme climate conditions. In this study, we focused on one of the progenitors of M. × giganteus, Miscanthus sinensis, which was originally distributed in East Asia with abundant genetic resources and comparable biomass yield potential to M. × giganteus in some areas. A collection of 138 individuals was selected for conducting a three-year trial of biomass production and analyzed by using 104 pairs of SRAP, ISAP, and SSR primers for genetic diversity as well as marker-trait association. Significant differences in biomass yield and related traits were observed among individuals. Tiller number, fresh biomass yield per plant and dry biomass yield per plant had a high level of phenotypic variation among individuals and the coefficient of variation were all above 40% in 2011, 2012, and 2013. The majority of the traits had a significant correlation with the biomass yield except for the length and width of flag leaves. Plant height was a highly stable trait correlated with biomass yield. A total of 1059 discernible loci were detected by markers across individuals. The population structure (Q and cluster analyses identified three subpopulations in the collection and family relative kinship (K represented a very complex relationship among M. sinensis populations from Southwest China. Model testing identified that Q+K was the best model for describing the associations between the markers and traits, compared to the simple linear, Q or K model. Using the Q+K model, 12 significant associations (P < 0.001 were identified including four markers with plant height and one with biomass yield. Such associations would serve an

  8. Potential design modifications for the High Yield Lithium Injection Fusion Energy (HYLIFE) reaction chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitts, J.H.; Hovingh, J.; Meier, W.R.; Monsler, M.J.; Powell, E.G.; Walker, P.E.

    1979-01-01

    Generation of electric power from inertial confinement fusion requires a reaction chamber. One promising type, the High Yield Lithium Injection Fusion Energy (HYLIFE) chamber, includes a falling array of liquid lithium jets. These jets act as: (1) a renewable first wall and blanket to shield metal components from x-ray and neutron exposure, (2) a tritium breeder to replace tritium burned during the fusion process, and (3) an absorber and transfer medium for fusion energy. Over 90% of the energy produced in the reaction chamber is absorbed in the lithium jet fall. Design aspects are included

  9. Seed yield response to N fertilization and potential of proximal sensing in Italian ryegrass seed crops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vleugels, Tim; Rijckaert, Georges; Gislum, René

    2017-01-01

    . The objectives of this study were (1) to determine the seed yield response to N fertilization, and (2) to evaluate if NDVI values can reliably predict the N status in Italian ryegrass seed crops. During eight years, field trials were conducted with two cultivars ‘Melclips’ and ‘Melquatro’, and seven N strategies...... applied after the forage cut as single or split application: 0, 60, 60 + 30, 90, 90 + 30, 120 and 150 kg N ha−1. NDVI values were obtained with a ‘GreenSeeker’ optical sensor. Maximum seed yield was attained at 141 kg N ha−1 total available N (92 kg N ha−1 fertilized). Higher fertilizations only increased...... at NNI values of 0.86 in the 2–3 node stage, 0.72 at the beginning of heading, and 0.59 at full ear emergence. NDVI values were correlated with NNI values, but were also heavily influenced by trial year. Therefore, is it impossible to establish NDVI thresholds to decide on remedial N fertilization....

  10. Analysis of relations between crop temperature indices and yield of different sunflower hybrids foliar treated by biopreparations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovár Marek

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The application of biological active preparations (BAPs and remote-sensing control in the management of agronomic intervention are an important part of successful crop cultivation. The effects of foliar application of two BAPs (containing amino acids or Abiestins® on yield and yield-forming, as well eco-physiological traits calculated from infrared thermographs data (crop water stress index, CWSI and index of stomatal conductance, Ig of three hybrids of sunflower were studied in field poly-factorial experiments, realised during two years (2012 and 2013. The results showed that the application of selected BAPs has contributed to an increase of the sunflower yield, in particular through an increase in the weight of thousand seeds (rp = 0.761, P < 0.001. Similarly, oil content in achenes was significantly higher in treatments with BAPs, mainly with preparation containing free amino acids. The study describes the quantitative relationship between yield and quality of sunflower production (rp = −0.41, P < 0.01. Selected hybrids of sunflower in two growth stages showed the significant differences in CWSI and Ig (both at P < 0.01, respectively. An analysis of negative linear relation between the yield of achenes and CWSI (rp = −0.654, P < 0.001 confirmed that higher value of plant stress resulted in a smaller yield and vice-versa. The opposite trend was observed between yield and Ig index (rp = 0.576, P < 0.001. The data obtained from IR thermography can be used for monitoring the physiological health of sunflower plants, as well in potential prediction and control of yield.

  11. Correlation, path analysis and heritability estimation for agronomic traits contribute to yield on soybean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulistyo, A.; Purwantoro; Sari, K. P.

    2018-01-01

    Selection is a routine activity in plant breeding programs that must be done by plant breeders in obtaining superior plant genotypes. The use of appropriate selection criteria will determine the effectiveness of selection activities. The purpose of this study was to analysis the inheritable agronomic traits that contribute to soybean yield. A total of 91 soybean lines were planted in Muneng Experimental Station, Probolinggo District, East Java Province, Indonesia in 2016. All soybean lines were arranged in randomized complete block design with two replicates. Correlation analysis, path analysis and heritability estimation were performed on days to flowering, days to maturing, plant height, number of branches, number of fertile nodes, number of filled pods, weight of 100 seeds, and yield to determine selection criteria on soybean breeding program. The results showed that the heritability value of almost all agronomic traits observed is high except for the number of fertile nodes with low heritability. The result of correlation analysis shows that days to flowering, plant height and number of fertile nodes have positive correlation with seed yield per plot (0.056, 0.444, and 0.100, respectively). In addition, path analysis showed that plant height and number of fertile nodes have highest positive direct effect on soybean yield. Based on this result, plant height can be selected as one of selection criteria in soybean breeding program to obtain high yielding soybean variety.

  12. A Piston-Rotaxane with Two Potential Stripes: Force Transitions and Yield Stresses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edith M. Sevick

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We examine a rod piston-rotaxane system, where the positions of several mobile rings on the axle are controlled by an external force acting on one of the rings. This allows us to access the translational entropy of the rings. For a simple rotaxane molecule with an axle that has uniform ring-axle interactions along its length, the molecule behaves like a miniature piston filled with a one-dimensional ideal gas. We then examine the effect of two stripes on the axle, having different ring-axle interactions with the mobile rings, so that one section is of high energy (repulsive for the rings and another section is of lower energy (or attractive. This kind of rotaxane can exhibit rapid changes in displacement or force, and in particular, this molecule can exhibit a yield stress in which the piston suddenly compresses under a small increase in the applied force.

  13. A meta analysis of pancreatic microarray datasets yields new targets as cancer genes and biomarkers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nalin C W Goonesekere

    Full Text Available The lack of specific symptoms at early tumor stages, together with a high biological aggressiveness of the tumor contribute to the high mortality rate for pancreatic cancer (PC, which has a five year survival rate of less than 5%. Improved screening for earlier diagnosis, through the detection of diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers provides the best hope of increasing the rate of curatively resectable carcinomas. Though many serum markers have been reported to be elevated in patients with PC, so far, most of these markers have not been implemented into clinical routine due to low sensitivity or specificity. In this study, we have identified genes that are significantly upregulated in PC, through a meta-analysis of large number of microarray datasets. We demonstrate that the biological functions ascribed to these genes are clearly associated with PC and metastasis, and that that these genes exhibit a strong link to pathways involved with inflammation and the immune response. This investigation has yielded new targets for cancer genes, and potential biomarkers for pancreatic cancer. The candidate list of cancer genes includes protein kinase genes, new members of gene families currently associated with PC, as well as genes not previously linked to PC. In this study, we are also able to move towards developing a signature for hypomethylated genes, which could be useful for early detection of PC. We also show that the significantly upregulated 800+ genes in our analysis can serve as an enriched pool for tissue and serum protein biomarkers in pancreatic cancer.

  14. A GIS-based model of potential groundwater yield zonation for a sandstone aquifer in the Juye Coalfield, Shangdong, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Huiyong; Shi, Yongli; Niu, Huigong; Xie, Daolei; Wei, Jiuchuan; Lefticariu, Liliana; Xu, Shuanxiang

    2018-02-01

    Resolving the potential groundwater yield zonation of sandstone aquifers occurring at depths of several hundred meters has been an important and challenging objective of the hydrogeological research focused on preventing flood hazards in coal mines. Using accessible geological exploration data we put forward a method of predicting the spatial distribution of groundwater storage potential in sandstone aquifers from Permian-age coal deposits in Juye Coalfield, Shangdong, China. A Geological, Tectonic and Lithological Composition Index (GTLCI) model was created using the following parameters: sandstone depth and thickness, faults length density (FaLD), faults density (FaD), fault frequency density (FaFD), fault scale density (FaSD), variation coefficient of the slope (VCS) of the coal seam, intensity index of folds in horizontal direction (IIFoH), and lithological composition index (LCI). Each of these factors was subsequently divided into 5 classes. The analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and trapezoidal fuzzy number (TFN) method was applied to calculate the weight of the conditioning factor and their respective sub-classes. Groundwater yield potential contour map, which was initially constructed using the GTLCI values revealed four groundwater abundance zones. The map was further refined by taking into account hydrogeologic data collected during mining activities. The GTLCI model predictive success rate of 80% was explained by the limited number of boreholes available for validation. It is considered that the GTLCI model is effective at predicting zonation of groundwater yield in the sandstone aquifers from Permian- age coal deposits in Juye Coalfield, China.

  15. Yield-scaled global warming potential of two irrigation management systems in a highly productive rice system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Tarlera

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Water management impacts both methane (CH4 and nitrous oxide (N2O emissions from rice paddy fields. Although controlled irrigation is one of the most important tools for reducing CH4emission in rice production systems it can also increase N2O emissions and reduce crop yields. Over three years, CH4 and N2O emissions were measured in a rice field in Uruguay under two different irrigation management systems, using static closed chambers: conventional water management (continuous flooding after 30 days of emergence, CF30; and an alternative system (controlled deficit irrigation allowing for wetting and drying, AWDI. AWDI showed mean cumulative CH4 emission values of 98.4 kg CH4 ha−1, 55 % lower compared to CF30, while no differences in nitrous oxide emissions were observed between treatments ( p > 0.05. No yield differences between irrigation systems were observed in two of the rice seasons ( p > 0.05 while AWDI promoted yield reduction in one of the seasons ( p< 0.05. When rice yield and greenhouse gases (GHG emissions were considered together, the AWDI irrigation system allowed for lower yield-scaled total global warming potential (GWP. Higher irrigation water productivity was achieved under AWDI in two of the three rice seasons. These findings suggest that AWDI could be an option for reducing GHG emissions and increasing irrigation water productivity. However, AWDI may compromise grain yield in certain years, reflecting the importance of the need for fine tuning of this irrigation strategy and an assessment of the overall tradeoff between relationships in order to promote its adoption by farmers.

  16. The role of climatic variables in winter cereal yields: a retrospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Qunying; Wen, Li

    2015-02-01

    This study examined the effects of observed climate including [CO2] on winter cereal [winter wheat (Triticum aestivum), barley (Hordeum vulgare) and oat (Avena sativa)] yields by adopting robust statistical analysis/modelling approaches (i.e. autoregressive fractionally integrated moving average, generalised addition model) based on long time series of historical climate data and cereal yield data at three locations (Moree, Dubbo and Wagga Wagga) in New South Wales, Australia. Research results show that (1) growing season rainfall was significantly, positively and non-linearly correlated with crop yield at all locations considered; (2) [CO2] was significantly, positively and non-linearly correlated with crop yields in all cases except wheat and barley yields at Wagga Wagga; (3) growing season maximum temperature was significantly, negatively and non-linearly correlated with crop yields at Dubbo and Moree (except for barley); and (4) radiation was only significantly correlated with oat yield at Wagga Wagga. This information will help to identify appropriate management adaptation options in dealing with the risk and in taking the opportunities of climate change.

  17. [Winter wheat yield gap between field blocks based on comparative performance analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jian; Wang, Zhong-Yi; Li, Liang-Tao; Zhang, Ke-Feng; Yu, Zhen-Rong

    2008-09-01

    Based on a two-year household survey data, the yield gap of winter wheat in Quzhou County of Hebei Province, China in 2003-2004 was studied through comparative performance analysis (CPA). The results showed that there was a greater yield gap (from 4.2 to 7.9 t x hm(-2)) between field blocks, with a variation coefficient of 0.14. Through stepwise forward linear multiple regression, it was found that the yield model with 8 selected variables could explain 63% variability of winter wheat yield. Among the variables selected, soil salinity, soil fertility, and irrigation water quality were the most important limiting factors, accounting for 52% of the total yield gap. Crop variety was another important limiting factor, accounting for 14%; while planting date, fertilizer type, disease and pest, and water press accounted for 7%, 14%, 10%, and 3%, respectively. Therefore, besides soil and climate conditions, management practices occupied the majority of yield variability in Quzhou County, suggesting that the yield gap could be reduced significantly through optimum field management.

  18. [Milk yield and environmental factors: Multiple regression analysis of the association between milk yield and udder health, fertility data and replacement rate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fölsche, C; Staufenbiel, R

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between milk yield and both fertility and general animal health in dairy herds is discussed from opposing viewpoints. The hypothesis (1) that raising the herd milk yield would decrease fertility results, the number of milk cells as an indicator for udder health and the replacement rate as a global indicator for animal health as well as increasing the occurrence of specific diseases as a herd problem was compared to the opposing hypotheses that there is no relationship (2) or that there is a differentiated and changing relationship (3). A total of 743 herd examinations, considered independent, were performed in 489 herds between 1995 and 2010. The milk yield, fertility rate, milk cell count, replacement rate, categorized herd problems and management information were recorded. The relationship between the milk yield and both the fertility data and animal health was evaluated using simple and multiple regression analyses. The period between calving and the first service displayed no significant relationship to the herd milk yield. Simple regression analysis showed that the period between calving and gestation, the calving interval and the insemination number were significantly positively associated with the herd milk yield. This positive correlation was lost in multiple regression analysis. The milk cell count and replacement rate using both the simple and multiple regression analyses displayed a significant negative relationship to the milk yield. The alternative hypothesis (3) was confirmed. A higher milk yield has no negative influence on the milk cell count and the replacement rate in terms of the udder and general health. When parameterizing the fertility, the herd milk yield should be considered. Extending the resting time may increase the milk yield while preventing a decline in the insemination index.

  19. AMMI analysis of yields and oil content in some linseed (Linum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Linseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) is important to the Ethiopian farmers in terms of its various home uses generating potential in both domestic and foreign markets. One of the major linseed production constraints in the country is the lack of high yielding and high oil content varieties. This experiment was conducted at ...

  20. Yield gap analysis and resource footprints of Irish potato production systems in Zimbabwe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Svubure, O.; Struik, P.C.; Haverkort, A.J.; Steyn, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Irish potato is the third most important carbohydrate food crop in Zimbabwe after maize and wheat. In 2012, the Government of Zimbabwe declared it a strategic national food security crop. In this study, we examine the country's potential for increasing Irish potato yield and help ease the nation's

  1. New approach for regional crop yield gap analysis in the Borujen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    enoh

    2012-03-20

    Mar 20, 2012 ... This study was performed to analyze the regional crop yield gap for potential and water-limited production situations in the cold-semiarid climate at Borujen basin, Iran. Experimental data were used for model calibration and evaluation of WOFOST as a crop growth simulation model. WOFOST divides.

  2. Determination of Dacarbazine Φ-Order Photokinetics, Quantum Yields, and Potential for Actinometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maafi, Mounir; Lee, Lok-Yan

    2015-10-01

    The characterization of drugs' photodegradation kinetics is more accurately achieved by means of the recently developed Φ-order kinetics than by the zero-, first-, and/or second-order classical treatments. The photodegradation of anti-cancer dacarbazine (DBZ) in ethanol has been investigated and found to obey Φ-order kinetics when subjected to continuous and monochromatic irradiation of various wavelengths. Its photochemical efficiency was proven to be wavelength dependent in the 220-350 nm range, undergoing a 50-fold increase. Albeit this variation was well defined by a sigmoid pattern, the overall photoreactivity of DBZ was proven to depend also on the contributions of reactants and experimental attributes. The usefulness of DBZ to serve as a drug-actinometer has been investigated using the mathematical framework of Φ-order kinetics. It has been shown that DBZ in ethanol can represent a good candidate for reliable actinometry in the range 270-350 nm. A detailed and easy-to-implement procedure has been proposed for DBZ actinometry. This procedure could advantageously be implemented prior to the determination of the photodegradation quantum yields. This approach might be found useful for the development of many drug actinometers as alternatives to quinine hydrochloride. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  3. Grain yield increase in cereal variety mixtures: A meta-analysis of field trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiær, Lars Pødenphant; Skovgaard, Ib; Østergård, Hanne

    2009-01-01

    on grain yield. To investigate the prevalence and preconditions for positive mixing effects, reported grain yields of variety mixtures and pure variety stands were obtained from previously published variety trials, converted into relative mixing effects and combined using meta-analysis. Furthermore...... as meeting the criteria for inclusion in the meta-analysis; on the other hand, nearly 200 studies were discarded. The accepted studies reported results on both winter and spring types of each crop species. Relative mixing effects ranged from 30% to 100% with an overall meta-estimate of at least 2.7% (p

  4. Fewer not more leaves - Key to obtaining the needed jump in crop yield potential and water use efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, V.; Kumar, P.; Long, S.

    2013-12-01

    Word food and feed supply needs to increase by 75% by 2050 to meet the increasing demands of our growing population. Soybean which is the world`s fourth most important crop in terms of total production at 250 million Mt/yr is a key protein source, and together with rice and wheat, are experiencing declining global yield increases year on year. At present rates of improvement, 2050 targets cannot be reached without new innovations. In this study we demonstrate an innovative approach that could provide a yield jump. While, natural selection favors individual plants to maximize leaf production to maximize light interception and shade competitors, the presence of this trait in domestic crops could be disadvantageous. In addition, rising CO2 causes increased leaf production further exacerbating the problem. Here, we show by mathematical model and field experiment that, a modern cultivar growing at the center of US soy cultivation produces too many leaves and reduction to an optimal level would increase yield. Our model results indicate that an LAI of 3.5 and 3.8 produces maximal rates of net canopy assimilation under ambient and elevated CO2 conditions respectively. However, observed peak LAI values are 6.9 and 7.5 under ambient and elevated CO2 conditions respectively. This results in a NPP loss of 30% and 20% under ambient and elevated CO2 conditions respectively. Furthermore, the optimal LAI results in a decreased transpiration of up to 30% thus increasing water use efficiency. We show that as LAI increases, the tradeoffs between diminishing day time gains in NPP, and increasing losses in respiration is responsible for this effect. By designing a more optimum canopy, we can increase NPP and this potentially translates to increased seed yield. To test this model result, we perform canopy manipulation experiments on soybean plants, where we artificially decrease LAI by periodically removing young and emerging leaves throughout the growing season (after pod onset), and

  5. The role of inoculum's origin on the methane yield of different substrates in biochemical methane potential (BMP) tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Konrad; Lippert, Thomas; Drewes, Jörg E

    2017-11-01

    The impact of the inoculum's origin on the methane yield in Biochemical Methane Potential (BMP) tests was investigated. The three most commonly applied inocula were chosen, originating from (i) a digester of a wastewater treatment plant, (ii) an agricultural biogas plant treating manure and energy crops, and (iii) a biowaste treatment plant. The performance of each inoculum was tested with four different substrates, namely sewage sludge, dried whole crop maize, food waste, and microcrystalline cellulose as a typical reference material. The results revealed that the choice of inoculum had no significant impact on the specific methane yield of the tested substrates except for cellulose. Still, the specific methane production rate was significantly influenced by the choice of the inoculum especially for sewage sludge, but also for food waste and cellulose, whereas it became clear that an inoculum adapted to a substrate is beneficial for a speedy digestion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Expansion of Adult Human Pancreatic Tissue Yields Organoids Harboring Progenitor Cells with Endocrine Differentiation Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cindy J.M. Loomans

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Generating an unlimited source of human insulin-producing cells is a prerequisite to advance β cell replacement therapy for diabetes. Here, we describe a 3D culture system that supports the expansion of adult human pancreatic tissue and the generation of a cell subpopulation with progenitor characteristics. These cells display high aldehyde dehydrogenase activity (ALDHhi, express pancreatic progenitors markers (PDX1, PTF1A, CPA1, and MYC, and can form new organoids in contrast to ALDHlo cells. Interestingly, gene expression profiling revealed that ALDHhi cells are closer to human fetal pancreatic tissue compared with adult pancreatic tissue. Endocrine lineage markers were detected upon in vitro differentiation. Engrafted organoids differentiated toward insulin-positive (INS+ cells, and circulating human C-peptide was detected upon glucose challenge 1 month after transplantation. Engrafted ALDHhi cells formed INS+ cells. We conclude that adult human pancreatic tissue has potential for expansion into 3D structures harboring progenitor cells with endocrine differentiation potential. : In the context of β cell replacement therapy for diabetes, de Koning and colleagues describe a 3D culture platform that supports ex vivo expansion of human pancreatic tissue as organoids. These organoids harbor a subpopulation of ALDHhi cells that display proliferative capacity and can differentiate to an endocrine fate. Keywords: pancreas, organoid, human, ALDH, endocrine differentiation, beta cells, insulin, progenitor, fetal, diabetes

  7. Yield QTL analysis of Oryza sativa x O. glumaepatula introgression lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Nascimento Rangel

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the yield performance of two generations (BC2F2 and BC2F9 of introgression lines developed from the interspecific cross between Oryza sativa and O. glumaepatula, and to identify the SSR markers associated to yield. The wild accession RS‑16 (O. glumaepatula was used as donor parent in the backcross with the high yielding cultivar Cica‑8 (O. sativa. A set of 114 BC2F1 introgression lines was genotyped with 141 polymorphic SSR loci distributed across the whole rice genome. Molecular analysis showed that in average 22% of the O. glumaepatula genome was introgressed into BC2F1 generation. Nine BC2F9 introgression lines had a significantly higher yield than the genitor Cica‑8, thus showing a positive genome interaction among cultivated rice and the wild O. glumaepatula. Seven QTL were identified in the overall BC2F2, with one marker interval (4879‑EST20 of great effect on yield. The alleles with positive effect on yield came from the cultivated parent Cica‑8.

  8. Yielding the yield-stress analysis: a study focused on the effects of elasticity on the settling of a single spherical particle in simple yield-stress fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraggedakis, D; Dimakopoulos, Y; Tsamopoulos, J

    2016-06-28

    The sedimentation of a single particle in materials that exhibit simultaneously elastic, viscous and plastic behavior is examined in an effort to explain phenomena that contradict the nature of purely yield-stress materials. Such phenomena include the loss of the fore-and-aft symmetry with respect to an isolated settling particle under creeping flow conditions and the appearance of the "negative wake" behind it. Despite the fact that similar observations have been reported in studies involving viscoelastic fluids, researchers conjectured that thixotropy is responsible for these phenomena, as the aging of yield-stress materials is another common feature. By means of transient calculations, we study the effect of elasticity on both the fluidized and the solid phase. The latter is considered to behave as an ideal Hookean solid. The material properties of the model are determined under the isotropic kinematic hardening framework via Large Amplitude Oscillatory Shear (LAOS) measurements. In this way, we are able to predict accurately the unusual phenomena observed in experiments with simple yield-stress materials, irrespective of the appearance of slip on the particle surface. Viscoelasticity favors the formation of intense shear and extensional stresses downstream of the particle, significantly changing the entrapment mechanism in comparison to that observed in viscoplastic fluids. Therefore, the critical conditions under which the entrapment of the particle occurs deviate from the well-known criterion established theoretically by Beris et al. (1985) and verified experimentally by Tabuteau et al. (2007) for similar materials under conditions that elastic effects are negligible. Our predictions are in quantitative agreement with published experimental results by Holenberg et al. (2012) on the loss of the fore-aft symmetry and the formation of the negative wake in Carbopol with well-characterized rheology. Additionally, we propose simple expressions for the Stokes drag

  9. Qualitative trait loci analysis for seed yield and component traits in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    VANITHA

    2014-02-05

    Feb 5, 2014 ... Qualitative trait loci analysis for seed yield and component traits in sunflower. J. Vanitha*, N. Manivannan and ... improvement, plant breeders deal with several qualitative traits. However, the most difficult problem is the ... Characteristics of parental lines. Character. TNHSF239-68-1-1-1 (female). 17B (male).

  10. Diagnostic Yield of Chromosomal Microarray Analysis in an Autism Primary Care Practice: Which Guidelines to Implement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrew, Susan G.; Peters, Brittany R.; Crittendon, Julie A.; Veenstra-VanderWeele, Jeremy

    2012-01-01

    Genetic testing is recommended for patients with ASD; however specific recommendations vary by specialty. American Academy of Pediatrics and American Academy of Neurology guidelines recommend G-banded karyotype and Fragile X DNA. The American College of Medical Genetics recommends Chromosomal Microarray Analysis (CMA). We determined the yield of…

  11. Yield-reliability analysis and operating rules for run-of-river ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study focused on yield-reliability analysis and operating rules for optimum scheduling of run-of-river (ROR) abstractions for typical rural water supply schemes using Siloam Village, Limpopo Province, South Africa, as a case study. Efficient operation of water supply systems requires operating rules as decision support ...

  12. Rooting for cassava: insights into photosynthesis and associated physiology as a route to improve yield potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Souza, Amanda P; Massenburg, Lynnicia N; Jaiswal, Deepak; Cheng, Siyuan; Shekar, Rachel; Long, Stephen P

    2017-01-01

    Contents 50 I. 50 II. 52 III. 54 IV. 55 V. 57 VI. 57 VII. 59 60 References 61 SUMMARY: As a consequence of an increase in world population, food demand is expected to grow by up to 110% in the next 30-35 yr. The population of sub-Saharan Africa is projected to increase by > 120%. In this region, cassava (Manihot esculenta) is the second most important source of calories and contributes c. 30% of the daily calorie requirements per person. Despite its importance, the average yield of cassava in Africa has not increased significantly since 1961. An evaluation of modern cultivars of cassava showed that the interception efficiency (ɛ i ) of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and the efficiency of conversion of that intercepted PAR (ɛ c ) are major opportunities for genetic improvement of the yield potential. This review examines what is known of the physiological processes underlying productivity in cassava and seeks to provide some strategies and directions toward yield improvement through genetic alterations to physiology to increase ɛ i and ɛ c . Possible physiological limitations, as well as environmental constraints, are discussed. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  13. The dependence of maize (Zea mays hybrids yielding potential on the water amounts reaching the soil surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kresović Branka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to observe the response of maize hybrids under rainfed and irrigation conditions of the soil in order to establish the dependence of yielding potential on the water amounts reaching the soil surface during the growing season. The four-replicate trail was set up according to the randomised complete-block design on chernozem. Pre-watering soil moisture was approximately 70% of field water capacity, and soil moisture was established thermogravimetrically. During the five-year studies, the following differences in yields could be as follows: 12.68 t ha-1 (ZP 341; 12.76 t ha-1 (ZP 434; 13.17 t ha-1 (ZP 578; 14.03 t ha-1 (ZP 684 and 13.75 t ha-1 (ZP 704 under conditions of 440 mm, 440 mm, 424 mm, 457 mm and 466 mm of water, respectively. The hybrid ZP 341, i.e. ZP 578 expressed the highest, i.e. the lowest tolerance in dry relative seasons, respectively. The reduction of the water amount for every 10 mm decreased the yield by 119.4 kg ha-1 (ZP 341, 156.7 kg ha-1 (ZP 434, 172.3 kg ha-1 (ZP 578, 148.9 kg ha-1 (ZP 684 and 151.1 kg ha-1 (ZP 704. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31037

  14. Sustainable stemwood yield in relation to the nitrogen balance of forest plantations: a model analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewar, Roderick C.; McMurtrie, Ross E.

    1996-01-01

    We used an existing analytical model of stemwood growth in relation to nitrogen supply, which we describe in an accompanying paper, to examine the long-term effects of harvesting and fire on tree growth. Our analysis takes into account the balance between nitrogen additions from deposition, fixation, and fertilizer applications, and nitrogen losses from stemwood harvesting, regeneration burning, leaching and gaseous emissions. Using a plausible set of parameter values for Eucalyptus, we conclude that nitrogen loss through fire is the main factor limiting sustainable yield, defined as the maximum mean annual stemwood volume increment obtained in the steady state, if management practices are continued indefinitely. The sustainable yield is 30 m(3) ha(-1) year(-1) with harvesting only, 15 m(3) ha(-1) year(-1) with harvesting and regeneration burning, and 13 m(3) ha(-1) year(-1) with harvesting, fire, leaching and gaseous emissions combined. Our approach uses a simple graphical analysis that provides a useful framework for examining the factors affecting sustainable yield. The graphical analysis is also useful for extending the application of the present model to the effects of climate change on sustainable yield, or for interpreting the behavior of other models of sustainable forest growth.

  15. nfluence of the nuclear part of the nuclei interaction potential to the mass yields of fragments from fission of highly-excited nuclei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Yu. Denisov

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The influence for various parameterizations of the nuclear part of the interaction potential to the mass yields of fission fragments of highly excited nuclei for the reaction α+197Au → fission was studied. It is shown that using of various nuclear potentials leads to small changes in the yields of fission fragments of the nuclei.

  16. Effects of ecological and conventional agricultural intensification practices on maize yields in sub-Saharan Africa under potential climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Folberth, Christian; Yang, Hong; Gaiser, Thomas; Liu, Junguo; Wang, Xiuying; Williams, Jimmy; Schulin, Rainer

    2014-01-01

    Much of Africa is among the world’s regions with lowest yields in staple food crops, and climate change is expected to make it more difficult to catch up in crop production in particular in the long run. Various agronomic measures have been proposed for lifting agricultural production in Africa and to adapt it to climate change. Here, we present a projection of potential climate change impacts on maize yields under different intensification options in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) using an agronomic model, GIS-based EPIC (GEPIC). Fallow and nutrient management options taken into account are (a) conventional intensification with high mineral N supply and a bare fallow, (b) moderate mineral N supply and cowpea rotation, and (c) moderate mineral N supply and rotation with a fast growing N fixing tree Sesbania sesban. The simulations suggest that until the 2040s rotation with Sesbania will lead to an increase in yields due to increasing N supply besides improving water infiltration and soils’ water holding capacity. Intensive cultivation with a bare fallow or an herbaceous crop like cowpea in the rotation is predicted to result in lower yields and increased soil erosion during the same time span. However, yields are projected to decrease in all management scenarios towards the end of the century, should temperature increase beyond critical thresholds. The results suggest that the effect of eco-intensification as a sole means of adapting agriculture to climate change is limited in Sub-Saharan Africa. Highly adverse temperatures would rather have to be faced by improved heat tolerant cultivars, while strongly adverse decreases in precipitation would have to be faced by expanding irrigation where feasible. While the evaluation of changes in agro-environmental variables like soil organic carbon, erosion, and soil humidity hints that these are major factors influencing climate change resilience of the field crop, no direct relationship between these factors, crop yields

  17. Effects of ecological and conventional agricultural intensification practices on maize yields in sub-Saharan Africa under potential climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folberth, Christian; Yang, Hong; Gaiser, Thomas; Liu, Junguo; Wang, Xiuying; Williams, Jimmy; Schulin, Rainer

    2014-04-01

    Much of Africa is among the world’s regions with lowest yields in staple food crops, and climate change is expected to make it more difficult to catch up in crop production in particular in the long run. Various agronomic measures have been proposed for lifting agricultural production in Africa and to adapt it to climate change. Here, we present a projection of potential climate change impacts on maize yields under different intensification options in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) using an agronomic model, GIS-based EPIC (GEPIC). Fallow and nutrient management options taken into account are (a) conventional intensification with high mineral N supply and a bare fallow, (b) moderate mineral N supply and cowpea rotation, and (c) moderate mineral N supply and rotation with a fast growing N fixing tree Sesbania sesban. The simulations suggest that until the 2040s rotation with Sesbania will lead to an increase in yields due to increasing N supply besides improving water infiltration and soils’ water holding capacity. Intensive cultivation with a bare fallow or an herbaceous crop like cowpea in the rotation is predicted to result in lower yields and increased soil erosion during the same time span. However, yields are projected to decrease in all management scenarios towards the end of the century, should temperature increase beyond critical thresholds. The results suggest that the effect of eco-intensification as a sole means of adapting agriculture to climate change is limited in Sub-Saharan Africa. Highly adverse temperatures would rather have to be faced by improved heat tolerant cultivars, while strongly adverse decreases in precipitation would have to be faced by expanding irrigation where feasible. While the evaluation of changes in agro-environmental variables like soil organic carbon, erosion, and soil humidity hints that these are major factors influencing climate change resilience of the field crop, no direct relationship between these factors, crop yields, and

  18. An analysis of cropland mask choice and ancillary data for annual corn yield forecasting using MODIS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Yang; Campbell, James B.; Taff, Gregory N.; Zheng, Baojuan

    2015-06-01

    The Midwestern United States is one of the world's most important corn-producing regions. Monitoring and forecasting of corn yields in this intensive agricultural region are important activities to support food security, commodity markets, bioenergy industries, and formation of national policies. This study aims to develop forecasting models that have the capability to provide mid-season prediction of county-level corn yields for the entire Midwestern United States. We used multi-temporal MODIS NDVI (normalized difference vegetation index) 16-day composite data as the primary input, with digital elevation model (DEM) and parameter-elevation relationships on independent slopes model (PRISM) climate data as additional inputs. The DEM and PRISM data, along with three types of cropland masks were tested and compared to evaluate their impacts on model predictive accuracy. Our results suggested that the use of general cropland masks (e.g., summer crop or cultivated crops) generated similar results compared with use of an annual corn-specific mask. Leave-one-year-out cross-validation resulted in an average R2 of 0.75 and RMSE value of 1.10 t/ha. Using a DEM as an additional model input slightly improved performance, while inclusion of PRISM climate data appeared not to be important for our regional corn-yield model. Furthermore, our model has potential for real-time/early prediction. Our corn yield esitmates are available as early as late July, which is an improvement upon previous corn-yield prediction models. In addition to annual corn yield forecasting, we examined model uncertainties through spatial and temporal analysis of the model's predictive error distribution. The magnitude of predictive error (by county) appears to be associated with the spatial patterns of corn fields in the study area.

  19. Paclobutrazol treatment as a potential strategy for higher seed and oil yield in field-grown Camelina sativa L. Crantz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sumit; Ghatty, Sreenivas; Satyanarayana, Jella; Guha, Anirban; Chaitanya, Bsk; Reddy, Attipalli R

    2012-03-13

    Camelina (Camelina sativa L. Crantz) is a non-food oilseed crop which holds promise as an alternative biofuel energy resource. Its ability to grow in a variety of climatic and soil conditions and minimal requirements of agronomical inputs than other oilseed crops makes it economically viable for advanced biofuel production. We designed a study to investigate the effect of paclobutrazol [2RS, 3RS)-1-(4-Chlorophenyl)-4,4-dimethyl-2-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)pentan-3-ol] (PBZ), a popular plant growth regulator, on the seed and oil yield of Camelina sativa (cv. Celine). A field-based micro-trial setup was established in a randomized block design and the study was performed twice within a span of five months (October 2010 to February 2011) and five different PBZ treatments (Control: T0; 25 mg l-1: T1; 50 mg l-1: T2; 75 mg l-1: T3; 100 mg l-1: T4; 125 mg l-1: T5) were applied (soil application) at the time of initiation of flowering. PBZ at 100 mg l-1 concentration (T4) resulted in highest seed and oil yield by 80% and 15%, respectively. The seed yield increment was mainly due to enhanced number of siliques per plant when compared to control. The PBZ - treated plants displayed better photosynthetic leaf gas exchange characteristics, higher chlorophyll contents and possessed dark green leaves which were photosynthetically active for a longer period and facilitated higher photoassimilation. We report for the first time that application of optimized PBZ dose can be a potential strategy to achieve higher seed and oil yield from Camelina sativa that holds great promise as a biofuel crop in future.

  20. Paclobutrazol treatment as a potential strategy for higher seed and oil yield in field-grown camelina sativa L. Crantz

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Camelina (Camelina sativa L. Crantz) is a non-food oilseed crop which holds promise as an alternative biofuel energy resource. Its ability to grow in a variety of climatic and soil conditions and minimal requirements of agronomical inputs than other oilseed crops makes it economically viable for advanced biofuel production. We designed a study to investigate the effect of paclobutrazol [2RS, 3RS)-1-(4-Chlorophenyl)-4,4-dimethyl-2-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)pentan-3-ol] (PBZ), a popular plant growth regulator, on the seed and oil yield of Camelina sativa (cv. Celine). Results A field-based micro-trial setup was established in a randomized block design and the study was performed twice within a span of five months (October 2010 to February 2011) and five different PBZ treatments (Control: T0; 25 mg l-1: T1; 50 mg l-1: T2; 75 mg l-1: T3; 100 mg l-1: T4; 125 mg l-1: T5) were applied (soil application) at the time of initiation of flowering. PBZ at 100 mg l-1 concentration (T4) resulted in highest seed and oil yield by 80% and 15%, respectively. The seed yield increment was mainly due to enhanced number of siliques per plant when compared to control. The PBZ - treated plants displayed better photosynthetic leaf gas exchange characteristics, higher chlorophyll contents and possessed dark green leaves which were photosynthetically active for a longer period and facilitated higher photoassimilation. Conclusion We report for the first time that application of optimized PBZ dose can be a potential strategy to achieve higher seed and oil yield from Camelina sativa that holds great promise as a biofuel crop in future. PMID:22410213

  1. Interrelationships between morphometric variables and rounded fish body yields evaluated by path analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Vilhena Reis Neto

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to verify which morphometric measures and ratios are more directly associated with the weight and body yields of rounded fish. A total of 225 specimens of rounded fish (59 pacus, 61 tambaquis, 52 tambacus and 53 paquis with average weight of 972.43 g (±115.52 g were sampled, stunned, slaughtered, weighed, measured, and processed for morphometric and processing yield analysis. The morphometric measures taken were: standard length (CP; head length (CC; head height (AC; body height (A1; and body width (L1. For completeness, the following morphometric ratios were calculated: CC/CP, AC/CP, A1/CP, L1/CP, CC/A1, AC/A1, L1/A1, CC/AC and L1/CC. The yields of carcass, filet, rib and filet with rib were estimated after processing. Initially, a "stepwise" procedure was performed in order to eliminate multicollinearity problems among the morphometric variables, and the phenotypic correlations were then calculated for the dependent variables (weight and body yields and independent variables (morphometric measurements and ratios. These correlations were later deployed in direct and indirect effects through path analysis, and the direct and indirect contributions of each variable were measured in percentage terms. The CC and A1 measures were important for determining the weight of rounded fish. The CC/A1 ratio was the variable most directly associated with carcass yield. For filet, filet with rib and rib yields, the L1/CC ratio was found to be more appropriate and can be used directly.

  2. Effect of sea salt irrigation on plant growth, yield potential and some biochemical attributes of carissa carandas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tayyab, A.

    2016-01-01

    Carissa carandas (varn. Karonda) is an edible and medicinal plant having ability to grow in saline and water deficit conditions, however, little is known about its salinity tolerance. Therefore, the effect of salinity on vegetative (height and volume), reproductive (number of flowers and number, size and weight of fruits) and some biochemical parameters (leaf pigments, ions, soluble sugars, proteins, and phenols) of C. carandas were studied. Plants were grown in drum pot culture and irrigated with non-saline or saline water of 0.6% and 0.8% sea salt concentrations, for a period of 30 months. Results showed that, plant height, and canopy volume decreased with increasing salinity. The chlorophyll contents and chlorophyll a/b ratio followed the similar trend as for growth, however, carotenoids increased at 0.6% sea salt and subsequently decreased in higher salinity. Unchanged soluble sugar and protein content at 0.6% sea salt, as compared to control, could be attributed to leaf osmotic adjustments which decreased with further increase in salinity. Linear increase in soluble phenols and carotenoid/chlorophyll ratio indicating a protective strategy of C. carandas to minimize photo-damage. Besides increasing Na+ and decreasing K+ contents, plant seemed to maintain K+/Na+ ratio (above 1), especially at 0.6 sea salt, which disturbed at higher salinity. Salinity adversely affected reproductive growth of C. carandas where, production of flowers, and fruits were significantly reduced. In addition, fresh and dry weights of fruits decreased with increasing salinity, but salinity did not affect fruit length and diameter. Present study provides basic information related to plant growth, fruit yield and some biochemical attributes, which suggest that C. carandas is moderately salt tolerant plant. This plant showed potential to grow on saline marginal lands using brackish water irrigation and provide biomass for edible and medicinal purposes. However, in-depth analysis of field and

  3. OH Reactivity and Potential SOA Yields from Volatile Organic Compounds and Other Trace Gases Measured in Controlled Laboratory Biomass Burns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilman, J. B.; Warneke, C.; Kuster, W. C.; Goldan, P. D.; Veres, P. R.; Roberts, J. M.; de Gouw, J. A.; Burling, I. R.; Yokelson, R. J.

    2010-12-01

    A comprehensive suite of instruments were used to characterize volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and other trace gases (e.g., CO, CH4, NO2, etc.) emitted from controlled burns of various fuel types common to the Southeastern and Southwestern United States. These laboratory-based measurements were conducted in February 2009 at the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Fire Sciences Laboratory in Missoula, Montana. An on-line GC-MS provided highly speciated VOC measurements of alkenes, alkanes, oxygenates, aromatics, biogenics, and nitrogen-containing compounds during the flaming or smoldering phases of replicate burns. The speciated GC-MS “grab” samples were integrated with fast-response gas-phase measurements (e.g., PTR-MS, PTR-IT-MS, NI-PT-CIMS, and FTIR) in order to determine VOC emission ratios and the fraction of identified vs. unidentifiable mass detected by PTR-MS. Emission ratios were used to calculate OH reactivity, which is a measure of potential ozone formation, as well as potential secondary organic aerosol (SOA) yields from the various fuel types. Small oxygenated VOCs had the highest emission ratios of the compounds observed. Alkenes dominated the VOC OH reactivity, which occasionally exceeded 1000 s-1. Calculated SOA yields from known precursors were dominated by aromatic VOCs, such as toluene, naphthalene (C10H8), and 1,3-benzenediol (C6H6O2, resorcinol). The contribution of several compounds not typically reported in ambient air measurements, such as substituted furans (C4H4O), pyrroles (C4H5N), and unsaturated C9 aromatics (C9H10), on OH reactivity and SOA yields will be discussed.

  4. Biocontrol potential of Halotolerant bacterial chitinase from high yielding novel Bacillus Pumilus MCB-7 autochthonous to mangrove ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rishad, K S; Rebello, Sharrel; Shabanamol, P S; Jisha, M S

    2017-04-01

    The multifaceted role of chitinase in medicine, agriculture, environmental remediation and various other industries greatly demands the isolation of high yielding chitinase producing microorganisms with improved properties. The current study aimed to investigate the isolation, characterization and biocontrol prospective of chitinase producing bacterial strains autochthonous to the extreme conditions of mangrove ecosystems. Among the 51 bacterial isolates screened, Bacillus pumilus MCB-7 with highest chitinase production potential was identified and confirmed by 16S rDNA typing. Chitinase enzyme of MCB-7 was purified; the chitin degradation was evaluated by SEM and LC-MS. Unlike previously reported B.pumilus isolates, MCB-7 exhibited highest chitinase activity of 3.36U/mL, active even at high salt concentrations and temperature up to 60°C. The crude as well as purified enzyme showed significant antimycotic activity against agricultural pathogens such as Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigatus, Ceratorhiza hydrophila and Fusarium oxysporum. The enzyme also exhibited biopesticidal role against larvae of Scirpophaga incertulas (Walker). [Lep.: Pyralidae], a serious agricultural pest of rice. The high chitinolytic and antimycotic potential of MCB-7 increases the prospects of the isolate as an excellent biocontrol agent. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of high chitinase yielding Bacillus pumilus strain from mangrove ecosystem with a biocontrol role against phytopathogenic fungi and insect larval pests. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Global sensitivity analysis of a local water balance model predicting evaporation, water yield and drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speich, Matthias; Zappa, Massimiliano; Lischke, Heike

    2017-04-01

    Evaporation and transpiration affect both catchment water yield and the growing conditions for vegetation. They are driven by climate, but also depend on vegetation, soil and land surface properties. In hydrological and land surface models, these properties may be included as constant parameters, or as state variables. Often, little is known about the effect of these variables on model outputs. In the present study, the effect of surface properties on evaporation was assessed in a global sensitivity analysis. To this effect, we developed a simple local water balance model combining state-of-the-art process formulations for evaporation, transpiration and soil water balance. The model is vertically one-dimensional, and the relative simplicity of its process formulations makes it suitable for integration in a spatially distributed model at regional scale. The main model outputs are annual total evaporation (TE, i.e. the sum of transpiration, soil evaporation and interception), and a drought index (DI), which is based on the ratio of actual and potential transpiration. This index represents the growing conditions for forest trees. The sensitivity analysis was conducted in two steps. First, a screening analysis was applied to identify unimportant parameters out of an initial set of 19 parameters. In a second step, a statistical meta-model was applied to a sample of 800 model runs, in which the values of the important parameters were varied. Parameter effect and interactions were analyzed with effects plots. The model was driven with forcing data from ten meteorological stations in Switzerland, representing a wide range of precipitation regimes across a strong temperature gradient. Of the 19 original parameters, eight were identified as important in the screening analysis. Both steps highlighted the importance of Plant Available Water Capacity (AWC) and Leaf Area Index (LAI). However, their effect varies greatly across stations. For example, while a transition from a

  6. Study of the Higgs boson discovery potential in the process pp{yields}Hqq, H{yields}{tau}{sup +}{tau}{sup -} with the ATLAS detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groh, Manfred

    2009-04-27

    The subject of this work is the evaluation of the discovery potential of the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider for the Standard Model Higgs boson in vector-boson fusion production and a subsequent decay into a {tau}-lepton pair. This is one of the most promising discovery channels of the Higgs boson in the low mass range, which is the mass range favored from precision measurements of the electroweak interaction. The decay modes where both {tau} leptons decay leptonically and where one {tau} lepton decays leptonically and the other one hadronically are studied in this thesis. The main objective was to investigate possible improvements upon earlier cut-based analyses by using additional discriminating variables as well as by applying multivariate analysis methods which take into account correlations between the variables. The variables are carefully selected in order to avoid correlations with the reconstructed invariant {tau}{tau} mass. In an intermediate step, the sequential signal selection cuts have been optimized for maximum signal significance. With this strategy, one can expect to discover the Higgs boson with {>=}5{sigma} significance in the mass range 115 GeV{<=} m{sub H}{<=}135 GeV with an integrated luminosity of 30 fb{sup -1} corresponding to the first three years of ATLAS operation. The maximum signal significance of 5.9{sigma} is obtained for a Higgs mass of 120 GeV. Significant further improvement was found with multivariate selection methods. The best results are obtained with an Artificial Neural Network algorithm. The mass range for the {>=}5{sigma} Higgs discovery with 30 fb{sup -1} is extended to 110 GeV with a maximum signal significance of 6.5 {sigma} at m{sub H}=125 GeV. Systematic uncertainties are studied in detail for both methods and are included in the above predictions of the signal significance. The largest uncertainty is due to the jet energy scale. In the case of using only Monte Carlo simulations for estimating the

  7. EMPLOYER BRAND AND ANALYSIS OF INDIVIDUAL POTENTIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljiljana Stošić Mihajlović

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available As companies and individuals to live their best release? What should companies and individuals were the most successful? What job would bring the most satisfaction and opportunities for further development? What would be the fastest way led to the realization of corporate goals and their own? Answers to these questions can be obtained through analysis of employer brand and Analysis of individual potential (AIP. Employer brand analysis and analysis of individual potential is the process of identifying the strengths and potential of the company as well as a person. In this way, determining what it is that a company or person works best, how to motivate people and to the field of application of discovered talent. The main objective of this procedure is the development of an overall as well as personal and professional development of individuals in the direction of those activities and areas that will bring long-term satisfaction

  8. Assessment of Potential Climate Change Effects on the Rice Yield and Water Footprint in the Nanliujiang Catchment, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingzhi Yang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Nanliujiang catchment is one of major rice production bases of South China. Irrigation districts play an important role in rice production which requires a large quantity of water. There are potential risks on future climate change in response to rice production, agricultural irrigation water use and pollution control locally. The SWAT model was used to quantify the yield and water footprint (WF of rice in this catchment. A combined method of automatic and manual sub-basin delineation was used for the model setup in this work to reflect the differences between irrigation districts in yield and water use of rice. We validated our simulations against observed leaf area index, biomass and yield of rice, evapotranspiration and runoff. The outputs of three GCMs (GFDL-ESM2M, IPSL-CM5A-LR and HadGEM2-ES under three RCPs (RCP2.6, 4.5, 8.5 were fed to the SWAT model. The results showed that: (a the SWAT model is an ideal tool to simulate rice development as well as hydrology; (b there would be increases in rice yield ranged from +1.4 to +10.6% under climate projections of GFDL-ESM2M and IPSL-CM5A-LR but slight decreases ranged from −3.5 to −0.8% under that of HadGEM2-ES; (c the yield and WFs of rice displayed clear differences in the catchment, with a characteristic that high in the south and low in the north, mainly due to the differences in climatic conditions, soil quality and fertilization amount; (d there would be a decrease by 45.5% in blue WF with an increase by 88.1% in green WF, which could provide favorable conditions to enlarge irrigated areas and take technical measures for improving green water use efficiency of irrigation districts; (e a clear rise in future grey WF would present enormous challenges for the protection of water resources and environmental pollution control in this catchment. So it should be to improved nutrient management strategies for the agricultural non-point source pollution control in irrigation districts

  9. Chickpea Performance Compared to Pea, Barley and Oat in Central Europe: Growth Analysis and Yield

    OpenAIRE

    Neugschwandtner, R.W.; Wichmann, S.; Gimplinger, D.M.; Wagentristl, H.; Kaul, H.P.

    2015-01-01

    An increase of grain legume production is essential for meeting feed protein need in Europe. Warming climates offer the opportunity for adapting crops with a more warm-season growth habit such as chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) in cool, northern latitude areas. Therefore, yield and growth analysis of chickpea were assessed in a two-year field experiment in Central Europe (Raasdorf, Austria) and compared to pea, barley and oat, which are well adapted crops in that region. Chickpea had a lower ab...

  10. Chickpea Performance Compared to Pea, Barley and Oat in Central Europe: Growth Analysis and Yield

    OpenAIRE

    Neugschwandtner, R.W.; Wichmann, S.; Gimplinger, D.M.; Wagentristl, H.; Kaul, H.P.

    2013-01-01

    An increase of grain legume production is essential for meeting feed protein need in Europe. Warming climates offer the opportunity for adapting crops with a more warm-season growth habit such as chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) in cool, northern latitude areas. Therefore, yield and growth analysis of chickpea were assessed in a two-year field experiment in Central Europe (Raasdorf, Austria) and compared to pea, barley and oat, which are well adapted crops in that region. Chickpea had a lower ab...

  11. Early Yield Prediction Using Image Analysis of Apple Fruit and Tree Canopy Features with Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Cheng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available (1 Background: Since early yield prediction is relevant for resource requirements of harvesting and marketing in the whole fruit industry, this paper presents a new approach of using image analysis and tree canopy features to predict early yield with artificial neural networks (ANN; (2 Methods: Two back propagation neural network (BPNN models were developed for the early period after natural fruit drop in June and the ripening period, respectively. Within the same periods, images of apple cv. “Gala” trees were captured from an orchard near Bonn, Germany. Two sample sets were developed to train and test models; each set included 150 samples from the 2009 and 2010 growing season. For each sample (each canopy image, pixels were segmented into fruit, foliage, and background using image segmentation. The four features extracted from the data set for the canopy were: total cross-sectional area of fruits, fruit number, total cross-section area of small fruits, and cross-sectional area of foliage, and were used as inputs. With the actual weighted yield per tree as a target, BPNN was employed to learn their mutual relationship as a prerequisite to develop the prediction; (3 Results: For the developed BPNN model of the early period after June drop, correlation coefficients (R2 between the estimated and the actual weighted yield, mean forecast error (MFE, mean absolute percentage error (MAPE, and root mean square error (RMSE were 0.81, −0.05, 10.7%, 2.34 kg/tree, respectively. For the model of the ripening period, these measures were 0.83, −0.03, 8.9%, 2.3 kg/tree, respectively. In 2011, the two previously developed models were used to predict apple yield. The RMSE and R2 values between the estimated and harvested apple yield were 2.6 kg/tree and 0.62 for the early period (small, green fruit and improved near harvest (red, large fruit to 2.5 kg/tree and 0.75 for a tree with ca. 18 kg yield per tree. For further method verification, the cv.

  12. Meta-analysis of grain yield QTL identified during agricultural drought in grasses showed consensus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swamy, B P Mallikarjuna; Vikram, Prashant; Dixit, Shalabh; Ahmed, H U; Kumar, Arvind

    2011-06-16

    In the last few years, efforts have been made to identify large effect QTL for grain yield under drought in rice. However, identification of most precise and consistent QTL across the environments and genetics backgrounds is essential for their successful use in Marker-assisted Selection. In this study, an attempt was made to locate consistent QTL regions associated with yield increase under drought by applying a genome-wide QTL meta-analysis approach. The integration of 15 maps resulted in a consensus map with 531 markers and a total map length of 1821 cM. Fifty-three yield QTL reported in 15 studies were projected on a consensus map and meta-analysis was performed. Fourteen meta-QTL were obtained on seven chromosomes. MQTL1.2, MQTL1.3, MQTL1.4, and MQTL12.1 were around 700 kb and corresponded to a reasonably small genetic distance of 1.8 to 5 cM and they are suitable for use in marker-assisted selection (MAS). The meta-QTL for grain yield under drought coincided with at least one of the meta-QTL identified for root and leaf morphology traits under drought in earlier reports. Validation of major-effect QTL on a panel of random drought-tolerant lines revealed the presence of at least one major QTL in each line. DTY12.1 was present in 85% of the lines, followed by DTY4.1 in 79% and DTY1.1 in 64% of the lines. Comparative genomics of meta-QTL with other cereals revealed that the homologous regions of MQTL1.4 and MQTL3.2 had QTL for grain yield under drought in maize, wheat, and barley respectively. The genes in the meta-QTL regions were analyzed by a comparative genomics approach and candidate genes were deduced for grain yield under drought. Three groups of genes such as stress-inducible genes, growth and development-related genes, and sugar transport-related genes were found in clusters in most of the meta-QTL. Meta-QTL with small genetic and physical intervals could be useful in Marker-assisted selection individually and in combinations. Validation and comparative

  13. Study of the Higgs boson discovery potential in the process pp{yields}H/A{yields}{mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -}/{tau}{sup +}{tau}{sup -} with the ATLAS detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dedes, Georgios

    2008-04-22

    In this thesis, the discovery potential of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN for the heavy neutral Higgs bosons H/A of theMinimal Supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model of particle physics (MSSM) in the decay channels H/A{yields}{tau}{sup +}{tau}{sup -}{yields}e/{mu}+X and H/A{yields}{mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -} has been studied. The ATLAS detector is designed to study the full spectrum of the physics phenomena occuring in the proton-proton collisions at 14 TeV center-of-mass energy and to provide answers to the question of the origin of particle masses and of electroweak symmetry breaking. For the studies, the ATLAS muon spectrometer plays an important role. The spectrometer allows for a precise muon momentum measurement independently of other ATLAS subdetectors. The performance of the muon spectrometer depends strongly on the performance of the muon tracking detectors, the Monitored Drift Tube Chambers (MDT). Computer programs have been developed in order to test and verify the ATLAS muon spectrometer simulation, an essential ingredient for data analysis. In addition, dedicated programs for the monitoring of the quality of the data collected by the muon spectrometer have been developed and tested with data from cosmic ray muons. High-quality cosmic ray muon data have been used for the calibration of the MDT-chambers. A new calibration method, called analytical autocalibration, has been tested. The proposed method achieved the required accuracy of 20 {mu}m in the determination of the space-to-drift-time relationship of the drift tubes of the MDT chambers with only 2000 muon tracks per chamber. Reliable muon detector simulation and calibration are essential for the study of the MSSM Higgs boson decays H/A{yields}{tau}{sup +}{tau}{sup -}{yields}e/{mu}+X and H/A{yields}{mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -} and of the corresponding background processes. The signal selection and background rejection requirements have been optimized for maximum signal

  14. Phenotyping Drought Tolerance and Yield Potential of Warm-Season Legumes Through Field- and Airborne-Based Hyperspectral VSWIR Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewry, D.; Berny-Mier y Teran, J. C.; Dutta, D.; Gepts, P.

    2017-12-01

    Hyperspectral sensing in the visible through shortwave infrared (VSWIR) portion of the spectrum has been demonstrated to provide significant information on the structural and functional properties of vegetation, resulting in powerful techniques to discern species differences, characterize crop nutrient or water stress, and quantify the density of foliage in agricultural fields. Modern machine-learning techniques allow for the entire set of spectral bands, on the order of hundreds with modern field and airborne spectrometers, to be used to develop models that can simultaneously retrieve a variety of foliar chemical compounds and hydrological and structural states. The application of these techniques, in the context of leaf-level measurements of VSWIR reflectance, or more complicated remote airborne surveys, has the potential to revolutionize high-throughput methods to phenotype germplasm that optimizes yield, resource-use efficiencies, or alternate objectives related to disease resistance or biomass accumulation, for example. Here we focus on breeding trials for a set of warm-season legumes, conducted in both greenhouse and field settings, and spanning a set of diverse genotypes providing a range of adaptation to drought and yield potential in the context of the semi-arid climate cultivation. At the leaf-level, a large set of spectral reflectance measurements spanning 400-2500 nanometers were made for plants across various growth stages in field experiments that induced severe drought, along with sampling for relevant trait values. Here we will discuss the development and performance of algorithms for a range of leaf traits related to gas exchange, leaf structure, hydrological status, nutrient contents and stable isotope discrimination, along with their relationships to drought resistance and yield. We likewise discuss the effectiveness of quantifying relevant foliar and canopy traits through airborne imaging spectroscopy from small unmanned vehicles (sUAVs), and

  15. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis Reveals Different Silk Yields of Two Silkworm Strains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Li

    Full Text Available Cocoon and silk yields are the most important characteristics of sericulture. However, few studies have examined the genes that modulate these features. Further studies of these genes will be useful for improving the products of sericulture. JingSong (JS and Lan10 (L10 are two strains having significantly different cocoon and silk yields. In the current study, RNA-Seq and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR were performed on both strains in order to determine divergence of the silk gland, which controls silk biosynthesis in silkworms. Compared with L10, JS had 1375 differentially expressed genes (DEGs; 738 up-regulated genes and 673 down-regulated genes. Nine enriched gene ontology (GO terms were identified by GO enrichment analysis based on these DEGs. KEGG enrichment analysis results showed that the DEGs were enriched in three pathways, which were mainly associated with the processing and biosynthesis of proteins. The representative genes in the enrichment pathways and ten significant DEGs were further verified by qPCR, the results of which were consistent with the RNA-Seq data. Our study has revealed differences in silk glands between the two silkworm strains and provides a perspective for understanding the molecular mechanisms determining silk yield.

  16. Statistical analysis of corn yields responding to climate variability at various spatio-temporal resolutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, H.; Lin, T.

    2017-12-01

    Rain-fed corn production systems are subject to sub-seasonal variations of precipitation and temperature during the growing season. As each growth phase has varied inherent physiological process, plants necessitate different optimal environmental conditions during each phase. However, this temporal heterogeneity towards climate variability alongside the lifecycle of crops is often simplified and fixed as constant responses in large scale statistical modeling analysis. To capture the time-variant growing requirements in large scale statistical analysis, we develop and compare statistical models at various spatial and temporal resolutions to quantify the relationship between corn yield and weather factors for 12 corn belt states from 1981 to 2016. The study compares three spatial resolutions (county, agricultural district, and state scale) and three temporal resolutions (crop growth phase, monthly, and growing season) to characterize the effects of spatial and temporal variability. Our results show that the agricultural district model together with growth phase resolution can explain 52% variations of corn yield caused by temperature and precipitation variability. It provides a practical model structure balancing the overfitting problem in county specific model and weak explanation power in state specific model. In US corn belt, precipitation has positive impact on corn yield in growing season except for vegetative stage while extreme heat attains highest sensitivity from silking to dough phase. The results show the northern counties in corn belt area are less interfered by extreme heat but are more vulnerable to water deficiency.

  17. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis Reveals Different Silk Yields of Two Silkworm Strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Juan; Qin, Sheng; Yu, Huanjun; Zhang, Jing; Liu, Na; Yu, Ye; Hou, Chengxiang; Li, Muwang

    2016-01-01

    Cocoon and silk yields are the most important characteristics of sericulture. However, few studies have examined the genes that modulate these features. Further studies of these genes will be useful for improving the products of sericulture. JingSong (JS) and Lan10 (L10) are two strains having significantly different cocoon and silk yields. In the current study, RNA-Seq and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) were performed on both strains in order to determine divergence of the silk gland, which controls silk biosynthesis in silkworms. Compared with L10, JS had 1375 differentially expressed genes (DEGs; 738 up-regulated genes and 673 down-regulated genes). Nine enriched gene ontology (GO) terms were identified by GO enrichment analysis based on these DEGs. KEGG enrichment analysis results showed that the DEGs were enriched in three pathways, which were mainly associated with the processing and biosynthesis of proteins. The representative genes in the enrichment pathways and ten significant DEGs were further verified by qPCR, the results of which were consistent with the RNA-Seq data. Our study has revealed differences in silk glands between the two silkworm strains and provides a perspective for understanding the molecular mechanisms determining silk yield.

  18. Timber Harvest Effects on Sediment and Water Yields and Analysis of Sediment Load Calculation Methods in the Interior Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elverson, C.; Karwan, D. L.

    2015-12-01

    Timber harvest practices have a long-standing association with changes in water and sediment yields. We quantify the trends in water and sediment yields in the Mica Creek Experimental Watershed (MCEW) in relation to management practices with linear regression and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). From 1991 to 2013, an increase in water yield resulted from both clearcutting and thinning treatments, with monthly water yield rate increases of 13-57% and annual water yield increases up to 210 mm (40%) in the clearcut watershed. Following treatment, annual sediment yields increased in the clearcut watershed by 40-131% and the thinned watershed by 33-163%, both relative to the control watershed, with statistically-significant monthly load increases in the year immediately following treatment. Water and sediment yield changes do not follow the same post-treatment patterns. Water yields increased immediately following treatment and, over time, gradually dropped towards pre-harvest levels. Annual sediment yields increased in some years after the harvest, but in some cases the increase was years after treatment. Monthly sediment yields increased in the first year following the clearcut harvest, but elevated monthly loads following the partial cut harvest came years later. Hence, we investigate the changes in sediment yield through an examination of water yield and sediment concentration and in response to events. We test the sensitivity of our results to different methods for computing sediment yields based on total suspended solids concentration and continuous discharge measurements. Flow-weighted sediment yield averaged 24% higher than sediment yield computed from linear-interpolated total suspended solids concentration values. During typical summer and fall conditions, flow-weighting was found to overweight storm measurements and produce large sediment yield estimates. Further work is suggested to test methods of calculating monthly sediment yields with irregularly

  19. Univariate Stability Analysis of Genotype×Environment Interaction of Oilseed Rape Seed Yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Amiri Oghan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirteen stability statistics were used to analyze genotype × environment (GE interaction of 36 canola genotypes. Combined analysis of variance indicated that GE interaction significantly influenced seed yield performance. According to Type I stability concept (environmental variance, coefficient of variation and stability variance genotypes G7, G9 and G13 were the most stable genotypes, while based on the Type II concept (coefficients of three linear regres­sion models, genotypes G33, G27 and G29 could be selected as the most favorable genotypes. Also, genotype G7 was the most favorable genotype according to Type III stability concept (deviation from linear regression method. Genotypes clustering based on stability properties and mean yield grouped them into three distinct classes. Coefficient of determination for the canola genotypes indicated that genotypes G27 and G33 were the most stable genotypes but the genotypes G1, G10 and G25 had the highest desirability index and were the most stable ones. The plot of principal component analysis was used for graphic display of the relationships among statistics and the first axis distinguished the Type II of stability concept from other types and mean yield groups near this stability type. However, based on most statistics and mean yield performance, genotypes G9 or Fanaei‑6 (2592.47 kg ha‑1, G11 or Fanaei‑14 (2592.47 kg ha−1, G12 Fanaei‑15 or (2592.47 kg ha‑1 and G19 or Dez‑7169 (2592.47 kg ha‑1 were the most stable and favorable genotypes and are recommended for national release Iran.

  20. Cryobiopsy in the diagnosis of diffuse interstitial lung disease: yield and cost-effectiveness analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-González, Fernanda; Lucena, Carmen M; Ramírez, José; Sánchez, Marcelo; Jimenez, María José; Xaubet, Antoni; Sellares, Jacobo; Agustí, Carlos

    2015-06-01

    Assessment of patients with suspected interstitial lung disease (ILD) includes surgical lung biopsy (SLB) when clinical and radiological data are inconclusive. However, cryobiopsy is acquiring an important role in the ILD diagnostic process. The objective of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic yield, safety and economic costs of the systematic use of cryobiopsy in the assessment of patients with suspected ILD. This was a retrospective observational study of patients who had undergone transbronchial cryobiopsy for evaluation of ILD from January 2011 to January 2014. The procedures were performed with a video bronchoscope using a cryoprobe for the collection of lung parenchyma specimens, which were analyzed by pathologists. Diagnostic yield, complications and economic costs of this technique were analyzed. Criobiopsy specimens from a total of 33 patients were included. A specific diagnosis was obtained in 26, producing a diagnostic yield of 79%. In 5 patients, SLB was required for a histopathological confirmation of disease, but the procedure could not be performed in 4, due to severe comorbidities. The most frequent complications were pneumothorax (12%) and gradei (9%) or gradeii (21%) bleeding. There were no life-threatening complications. The systematic use of cryobiopsy saved up to €59,846. Cryobiopsy is a safe and potentially useful technique in the diagnostic assessment of patients with ILD. Furthermore, the systematic use of cryobiopsy has an important economic impact. Copyright © 2014 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  1. Assessment of water-limited winter wheat yield potential at spatially contrasting sites in Ireland using a simple growth and development model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynch J.P.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Although Irish winter wheat yields are among the highest globally, increases in the profitability of this crop are required to maintain its economic viability. However, in order to determine if efforts to further increase Irish wheat yields are likely to be successful, an accurate estimation of the yield potential is required for different regions within Ireland. A winter wheat yield potential model (WWYPM was developed, which estimates the maximum water-limited yield achievable, within the confines of current genetic resources and technologies, using parameters for winter wheat growth and development observed recently in Ireland and a minor amount of daily meteorological input (maximum and minimum daily temperature, total daily rainfall and total daily incident radiation. The WWYPM is composed of three processes: (i an estimation of potential green area index, (ii an estimation of light interception and biomass accumulation and (iii an estimation of biomass partitioning to grain yield. Model validation indicated that WWYPM estimations of water-limited yield potential (YPw were significantly related to maximum yields recorded in variety evaluation trials as well as regional average and maximum farm yields, reflecting the model’s sensitivity to alterations in the climatic environment with spatial and seasonal variations. Simulations of YPw for long-term average weather data at 12 sites located at spatially contrasting regions of Ireland indicated that the typical YPw varied between 15.6 and 17.9 t/ha, with a mean of 16.7 t/ha at 15% moisture content. These results indicate that the majority of sites in Ireland have the potential to grow high-yielding crops of winter wheat when the effects of very high rainfall and other stresses such as disease incidence and nutrient deficits are not considered.

  2. Potential Impact of Climate Change on Suspended Sediment Yield in NW Spain: A Case Study on the Corbeira Catchment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Luz Rodríguez-Blanco

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Soil losses and the subsequent sediment delivery constitute significant environmental threats. Climate change is likely to have an impact on the availability of water and therefore on sediment yield in catchments. In this context, quantifying the sediment response to an increased atmospheric CO2 concentration and climate change is of utmost importance to the proper management of rural catchments. However, quantitative assessment of climate change impact remains a complex task. In this study, the potential medium (2031–2060 and long-term (2069–2098 impacts of projected changes of temperature, rainfall and CO2 concentration on sediment yield in a small rural catchment located in NW Spain were evaluated using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT model. Climate change scenarios were created using future climate data projected by regional climate models from the ENSEMBLES project and two CO2 concentration scenarios (550 and 660 ppm. The results showed that climate change would have a noticeable impact on suspended sediment if the forecast temperature, rainfall and CO2 concentration changes included in this study were met. Overall, suspended sediment is expected to decrease (2031–2060: −11%, 2069–2098: −8% compared to the baseline period (1981–2010, mainly due to decreased streamflow. However, an increase in sediment transport in winter is predicted, possibly associated with increased erosion in cultivated areas (11%–17%, suggesting that, at this time of the year, the effect of soil detachment prevails over sediment transport capacity. Consequently, management practices aimed at reducing soil erosion in cultivated areas should be carried out, because these are the main source of sediment in the study area.

  3. QTL analysis of novel genomic regions associated with yield and yield related traits in new plant type based recombinant inbred lines of rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marathi, Balram; Guleria, Smriti; Mohapatra, Trilochan; Parsad, Rajender; Mariappan, Nagarajan; Kurungara, Vinod Kunnummal; Atwal, Salwandir Singh; Prabhu, Kumble Vinod; Singh, Nagendra Kumar; Singh, Ashok Kumar

    2012-08-09

    Rice is staple food for more than half of the world's population including two billion Asians, who obtain 60-70% of their energy intake from rice and its derivatives. To meet the growing demand from human population, rice varieties with higher yield potential and greater yield stability need to be developed. The favourable alleles for yield and yield contributing traits are distributed among two subspecies i.e., indica and japonica of cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.). Identification of novel favourable alleles in indica/japonica will pave way to marker-assisted mobilization of these alleles in to a genetic background to break genetic barriers to yield. A new plant type (NPT) based mapping population of 310 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) was used to map novel genomic regions and QTL hotspots influencing yield and eleven yield component traits. We identified major quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for days to 50% flowering (R2 = 25%, LOD = 14.3), panicles per plant (R2 = 19%, LOD = 9.74), flag leaf length (R2 = 22%, LOD = 3.05), flag leaf width (R2 = 53%, LOD = 46.5), spikelets per panicle (R2 = 16%, LOD = 13.8), filled grains per panicle (R2 = 22%, LOD = 15.3), percent spikelet sterility (R2 = 18%, LOD = 14.24), thousand grain weight (R2 = 25%, LOD = 12.9) and spikelet setting density (R2 = 23%, LOD = 15) expressing over two or more locations by using composite interval mapping. The phenotypic variation (R2) ranged from 8 to 53% for eleven QTLs expressing across all three locations. 19 novel QTLs were contributed by the NPT parent, Pusa1266. 15 QTL hotpots on eight chromosomes were identified for the correlated traits. Six epistatic QTLs effecting five traits at two locations were identified. A marker interval (RM3276-RM5709) on chromosome 4 harboring major QTLs for four traits was identified. The present study reveals that favourable alleles for yield and yield contributing traits were

  4. Use of Selection Indices Based on Multivariate Analysis for Improving Grain Yield in Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein SABOURI

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to study selection indices for improving rice grain yield, a cross was made between an Iranian traditional rice (Oryza sativa L. variety, Tarommahalli and an improved indica rice variety, Khazar in 2006. The traits of the parents (30 plants, F1 (30 plants and F2 generations (492 individuals were evaluated at the Rice Research Institute of Iran (RRII during 2007. Heritabilities of the number of panicles per plant, plant height, days to heading and panicle exsertion were greater than that of grain yield. The selection indices were developed using the results of multivariate analysis. To evaluate selection strategies to maximize grain yield, 14 selection indices were calculated based on two methods (optimum and base and combinations of 12 traits with various economic weights. Results of selection indices showed that selection for grain weight, number of panicles per plant and panicle length by using their phenotypic and/or genotypic direct effects (path coefficient as economic weights should serve as an effective selection criterion for using either the optimum or base index.

  5. Genetic analysis and hybrid vigor study of grain yield and other quantitative traits in auto tetraploid rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahid, M.Q.; Xiong, C.Z.; Juan, L.Y.; Ming, X.H.

    2011-01-01

    Genetic analysis and genotype-by-environment interaction for important traits of auto tetraploid rice were evaluated by additive, dominance and additive X additive model. It was show n that genetic effects had more influence on grain yield and other quantitative traits of auto tetraploid rice than genotypic environment interaction. Plant height, panicle length, seed set , grain yield, dry matter production and 1000-grain weight we re mainly regulated by dominance variance. Additive and additive X additive gene action constructed the main proportion of genetic variance for heading date (flowering), number of panicles, grains per panicle, grain length, however grain width was supposed to be affected by additive X additive and dominance variance. Flag leaf length and width, fresh weight, peduncle length, unfilled grains and awn length were greatly influenced by genotypic environment interaction. Heading date produced highly negative heterosis over mid parent (H pm) and better parent ( H pb), whereas H pm and H pb were detected to be highly positive and significant for grain yield, seed set, peduncle length, filled grains and 1000-grain weight in F/sub 1/ and F/sub 2/ generations. The results indicated that auto tetraploid hybrids 96025 X Jackson (indica/japonica), 96025 X Linglun (indica/indica) and Linglun X Jackson (indica/japonica) showed highly significant hybrid vigor with improved seed set percentage and grain yield. These results suggest that intra-specific auto tetraploid rice hybrids have more hybrid vigor as compared to intra-sub specific auto tetraploid rice hybrids and auto tetraploid rice has the potential to be used for further studies and commercial application. (author)

  6. Modelling predicts that tolerance to drought during reproductive development will be required for high yield potential and stability of wheat in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenov, Mikhail A.; Stratonovitch, Pierre; Paul, Matthew J.

    2017-04-01

    Short periods of extreme weather, such as a spell of high temperature or drought during a sensitive stage of development, could result in substantial yield losses due to reduction in grain number and grain size. In a modelling study (Stratonovitch & Semenov 2015), heat tolerance around flowering in wheat was identified as a key trait for increased yield potential in Europe under climate change. Ji et all (Ji et al. 2010) demonstrated cultivar specific responses of yield to drought stress around flowering in wheat. They hypothesised that carbohydrate supply to anthers may be the key in maintaining pollen fertility and grain number in wheat. It was shown in (Nuccio et al. 2015) that genetically modified varieties of maize that increase the concentration of sucrose in ear spikelets, performed better under non-drought and drought conditions in field experiments. The objective of this modelling study was to assess potential benefits of tolerance to drought during reproductive development for wheat yield potential and yield stability across Europe. We used the Sirius wheat model to optimise wheat ideotypes for 2050 (HadGEM2, RCP8.5) climate scenarios at selected European sites. Eight cultivar parameters were optimised to maximise mean yields, including parameters controlling phenology, canopy growth and water limitation. At those sites where water could be limited, ideotypes sensitive to drought produced substantially lower mean yields and higher yield variability compare with tolerant ideotypes. Therefore, tolerance to drought during reproductive development is likely to be required for wheat cultivars optimised for the future climate in Europe in order to achieve high yield potential and yield stability.

  7. Yields and chondrogenic potential of primary synovial mesenchymal stem cells are comparable between rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohno, Yuji; Mizuno, Mitsuru; Ozeki, Nobutake; Katano, Hisako; Komori, Keiichiro; Fujii, Shizuka; Otabe, Koji; Horie, Masafumi; Koga, Hideyuki; Tsuji, Kunikazu; Matsumoto, Mikio; Kaneko, Haruka; Takazawa, Yuji; Muneta, Takeshi; Sekiya, Ichiro

    2017-05-16

    Mesenchymal stem cells derived from the synovial membrane (synovial MSCs) are a candidate cell source for regenerative medicine of cartilage and menisci due to their high chondrogenic ability. Regenerative medicine can be expected for RA patients with the inflammation well-controlled as well as OA patients and transplantation of synovial MSCs would also be a possible therapeutic treatment. Some properties of synovial MSCs vary dependent on the diseases patients have, and whether or not the pathological condition of RA affects the chondrogenesis of synovial MSCs remains controversial. The purpose of this study was to compare the properties of primary synovial MSCs between RA and OA patients. Human synovial tissue was harvested during total knee arthroplasty from the knee joints of eight patients with RA and OA respectively. Synovial nucleated cells were cultured for 14 days. Total cell yields, surface markers, and differentiation potentials were analyzed for primary synovial MSCs. Nucleated cell number per 1 mg synovium was 8.4 ± 3.9 thousand in RA and 8.0 ± 0.9 thousand in OA. Total cell number after 14-day culture/1 mg synovium was 0.7 ± 0.4 million in RA and 0.5 ± 0.3 million in OA, showing no significant difference between in RA and OA. Cells after 14-day culture were mostly positive for CD44, CD73, CD90, CD105, negative for CD45 both in RA and OA. There was no significant difference for the cartilage pellet weight and sGAG content per pellet between in RA and OA. Both oil red O-positive colony rate and alizarin red-positive colony rate were similar in RA and OA. Yields, surface markers and chondrogenic potential of primary synovial MSCs in RA were comparable to those in OA. Synovium derived from RA patients can be the cell source of MSCs for cartilage and meniscus regeneration.

  8. Using satellite data to identify the causes of and potential solutions for yield gaps in India’s Wheat Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, M.; Singh, Balwinder; Srivastava, A. A. K.; Malik, R. K.; McDonald, A. J.; Lobell, D. B.

    2017-09-01

    Food security will be increasingly challenged by climate change, natural resource degradation, and population growth. Wheat yields, in particular, have already stagnated in many regions and will be further affected by warming temperatures. Despite these challenges, wheat yields can be increased by improving management practices in regions with existing yield gaps. To identify the magnitude and causes of current yield gaps in India, one of the largest wheat producers globally, we produced 30 meter resolution yield maps from 2001 to 2015 across the Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP), the nation’s main wheat belt. Yield maps were derived using a new method that translates satellite vegetation indices to yield estimates using crop model simulations, bypassing the need for ground calibration data. This is one of the first attempts to apply this method to a smallholder agriculture system, where ground calibration data are rarely available. We find that yields can be increased by 11% on average and up to 32% in the eastern IGP by improving management to current best practices within a given district. Additionally, if current best practices from the highest-yielding state of Punjab are implemented in the eastern IGP, yields could increase by almost 110%. Considering the factors that most influence yields, later sow dates and warmer temperatures are most associated with low yields across the IGP. This suggests that strategies to reduce the negative effects of heat stress, like earlier sowing and planting heat-tolerant wheat varieties, are critical to increasing wheat yields in this globally-important agricultural region.

  9. Soil mulching significantly enhances yields and water and nitrogen use efficiencies of maize and wheat: a meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Qin; Chunsheng Hu; Oene Oenema

    2015-01-01

    Global crop yields are limited by water and nutrient availability. Soil mulching (with plastic or straw) reduces evaporation, modifies soil temperature and thereby affects crop yields. Reported effects of mulching are sometimes contradictory, likely due to differences in climatic conditions, soil characteristics, crop species, and also water and nitrogen (N) input levels. Here we report on a meta-analysis of the effects of mulching on wheat and maize, using 1310 yield observations from 74 stu...

  10. Improving Crop Yield and Nutrient Use Efficiency via Biofertilization—A Global Meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schütz, Lukas; Gattinger, Andreas; Meier, Matthias; Müller, Adrian; Boller, Thomas; Mäder, Paul; Mathimaran, Natarajan

    2018-01-01

    The application of microbial inoculants (biofertilizers) is a promising technology for future sustainable farming systems in view of rapidly decreasing phosphorus stocks and the need to more efficiently use available nitrogen (N). Various microbial taxa are currently used as biofertilizers, based on their capacity to access nutrients from fertilizers and soil stocks, to fix atmospheric nitrogen, to improve water uptake or to act as biocontrol agents. Despite the existence of a considerable knowledge on effects of specific taxa of biofertilizers, a comprehensive quantitative assessment of the performance of biofertilizers with different traits such as phosphorus solubilization and N fixation applied to various crops at a global scale is missing. We conducted a meta-analysis to quantify benefits of biofertilizers in terms of yield increase, nitrogen and phosphorus use efficiency, based on 171 peer reviewed publications that met eligibility criteria. Major findings are: (i) the superiority of biofertilizer performance in dry climates over other climatic regions (yield response: dry climate +20.0 ± 1.7%, tropical climate +14.9 ± 1.2%, oceanic climate +10.0 ± 3.7%, continental climate +8.5 ± 2.4%); (ii) meta-regression analyses revealed that yield response due to biofertilizer application was generally small at low soil P levels; efficacy increased along higher soil P levels in the order arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), P solubilizers, and N fixers; (iii) meta-regressions showed that the success of inoculation with AMF was greater at low organic matter content and at neutral pH. Our comprehensive analysis provides a basis and guidance for proper choice and application of biofertilizers. PMID:29375594

  11. Improving Crop Yield and Nutrient Use Efficiency via Biofertilization-A Global Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schütz, Lukas; Gattinger, Andreas; Meier, Matthias; Müller, Adrian; Boller, Thomas; Mäder, Paul; Mathimaran, Natarajan

    2017-01-01

    The application of microbial inoculants (biofertilizers) is a promising technology for future sustainable farming systems in view of rapidly decreasing phosphorus stocks and the need to more efficiently use available nitrogen (N). Various microbial taxa are currently used as biofertilizers, based on their capacity to access nutrients from fertilizers and soil stocks, to fix atmospheric nitrogen, to improve water uptake or to act as biocontrol agents. Despite the existence of a considerable knowledge on effects of specific taxa of biofertilizers, a comprehensive quantitative assessment of the performance of biofertilizers with different traits such as phosphorus solubilization and N fixation applied to various crops at a global scale is missing. We conducted a meta-analysis to quantify benefits of biofertilizers in terms of yield increase, nitrogen and phosphorus use efficiency, based on 171 peer reviewed publications that met eligibility criteria. Major findings are: (i) the superiority of biofertilizer performance in dry climates over other climatic regions (yield response: dry climate +20.0 ± 1.7%, tropical climate +14.9 ± 1.2%, oceanic climate +10.0 ± 3.7%, continental climate +8.5 ± 2.4%); (ii) meta-regression analyses revealed that yield response due to biofertilizer application was generally small at low soil P levels; efficacy increased along higher soil P levels in the order arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), P solubilizers, and N fixers; (iii) meta-regressions showed that the success of inoculation with AMF was greater at low organic matter content and at neutral pH. Our comprehensive analysis provides a basis and guidance for proper choice and application of biofertilizers.

  12. Analysis of the thermal profiles and the charcoal gravimetric yield in three variations of rectangular brick

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Rogerio Lima Mota de; Alves Junior, Edson; Mulina, Bruno Henrique Oliveira; Borges, Valerio Luiz; Carvalho, Solidonio Rodrigues de [Federal University of Uberlandia - UFU, MG (Brazil). School of Mechanical Engineering - FEMEC], e-mails: rogerio@mecanica.ufu.br, edson@mec.ufu.br, vlborges@mecanica.ufu.br, srcarvalho@mecanica.ufu.br

    2010-07-01

    Charcoal assumes a major role in Brazilian economic scenario. The procedure for obtaining charcoal consists in carbonization of wood at certain specific temperatures in kilns. This ancient process has a few joined technologies and the kilns for such practice do not have any control instruments, in their great majority, becoming dependent on the ability of its operators. However, in recent decades several studies have been developed to improve the practice as well as the equipment that involve and control the stages of charcoal production. In this sense, this work proposes the analysis of the thermal profiles and the gravimetric yield in three variations of a rectangular brick kiln called RAC220: traditional (without any type of instrumentation), instrumented with thermal sensors (RTD PT100) and adapted with gasifier. The goal is to correlate temperature, gravimetric yield and quality of the produced charcoal. Immediate analyses were performed to determine the amount of fixed carbon, volatile gases and ashes contents in charcoal. Through such measurement procedures, together with statistical analysis, the aim is to identify an important tool to reduce the time of charcoal production and also contributes to minimize losses and to increase the thermal efficiency of the production process. (author)

  13. Ectopic expression of Arabidopsis Target of Rapamycin (AtTOR) improves water-use efficiency and yield potential in rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakshi, Achala; Moin, Mazahar; Kumar, M. Udaya; Reddy, Aramati Bindu Madhava; Ren, Maozhi; Datla, Raju; Siddiq, E. A.; Kirti, P. B.

    2017-02-01

    The target of Rapamycin (TOR) present in all eukaryotes is a multifunctional protein, regulating growth, development, protein translation, ribosome biogenesis, nutrient, and energy signaling. In the present study, ectopic expression of TOR gene of Arabidopsis thaliana in a widely cultivated indica rice resulted in enhanced plant growth under water-limiting conditions conferring agronomically important water-use efficiency (WUE) trait. The AtTOR high expression lines of rice exhibited profuse tillering, increased panicle length, increased plant height, high photosynthetic efficiency, chlorophyll content and low ∆13C. Δ13C, which is inversely related to high WUE, was as low as 17‰ in two AtTOR high expression lines. These lines were also insensitive to the ABA-mediated inhibition of seed germination. The significant upregulation of 15 stress-specific genes in high expression lines indicates their contribution to abiotic stress tolerance. The constitutive expression of AtTOR is also associated with significant transcriptional upregulation of putative TOR complex-1 components, OsRaptor and OsLST8. Glucose-mediated transcriptional activation of AtTOR gene enhanced lateral root formation. Taken together, our findings indicate that TOR, in addition to its multiple cellular functions, also plays an important role in response to abiotic stress and potentially enhances WUE and yield related attributes.

  14. Preconcentration method using an activatable yield tracer for neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukada, Masamichi; Yamamoto, Daijiro; Endo, Kazutoyo; Nakahara, Hiromichi

    1991-01-01

    Previously, the use of an enriched stable isotope as an activatable yield tracer in preconcentration steps has been tested by use of commercially available enriched 116 Cd and 156 Dy for biological standard reference materials. In the present work, this method has been further applied to the determination of lanthanoid contents in various kinds of samples: one coal fly-ash, three Japanese standard rocks, and eight standard soils. Samples were decomposed by alkali fusion in the preconcentration step. Thirteen elements were determined for coal fly-ash and soil samples, and 14 elements for rocks. The data obtained for coal fly-ash and standard rocks are compared with the data reported in literature. The data for soil samples have been newly determined in the present work. The ordinary instrumental neutron activation analysis and radiochemical neutron activation analysis were also performed to confirm the accuracy and usefulness of the present method. (author) 10 refs.; 4 tabs

  15. Collagen type I from bovine bone. Effect of animal age, bone anatomy and drying methodology on extraction yield, self-assembly, thermal behaviour and electrokinetic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, Vincenza; Gaillard-Martinie, Brigitte; Sayd, Thierry; Chambon, Christophe; Anton, Marc; Santé-Lhoutellier, Véronique

    2017-04-01

    Natural collagen is easily available from animal tissues such as bones. Main limitations reported in the use of natural collagen are heterogeneity and loss of integrity during recovery. However, its natural complexity, functionality and bioactivity still remain to be achieved through synthetic and recombinant ways. Variability of physicochemical properties of collagen extracted from bovine bone by acetic acid was then investigated taking into account endogenous and exogenous factors. Endogenous: bovine's bones age (4 and 7 years) and anatomy (femur and tibia); exogenous: thermal treatments (spray-drying and lyophilisation). Scanning electron microscopy, spectroscopy (EDS, FTIR, UV/Vis and CD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), centesimal composition, mass spectrometry, amino acids and zeta-potential analysis were used for the purpose. Age correlated negatively with yield of recovery and positively with minerals and proteoglycans content. Comparing the anatomy, higher yields were found for tibias, and higher stability of tibias collagen in solution was noticed. Whatever the age and the anatomy, collagens were able to renature and to self-assemble into tri-dimensional structures. Nonetheless thermal stability and kinetics of renaturation were different. Variability of natural collagen with bone age and anatomy, and drying methodology, may be a crucial advantage to conceive tailor-made applications in either the biological or technical sector. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Analysis of the binder yield energy test as an indicator of fatigue behaviour of asphalt mixes

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Johan; Mturi, Georges A. J.; Komba, Julius; Du Plessis, Louw

    2017-09-01

    Empirical binder testing has increasingly failed to predict pavement performance in South Africa, with fatigue cracking being one of the major forms of premature pavement distress. In response, it has become a national aspiration to incorporate a performance related fatigue test into the binder specifications for South Africa. The Binder Yield Energy Test (BYET) was the first in a series of tests analysed for its potential to predict the fatigue performance of the binder. The test is performed with the dynamic shear rheometer, giving two key parameters, namely, yield energy and shear strain at maximum shear stress (γτmax). The objective of the investigation was to perform a rudimentary evaluation of the BYET; followed by a more in-depth investigation should the initial BYET results prove promising. The paper discusses the results generated from the BYET under eight different conditions, using six different binders. The results are then correlated with four point bending beam fatigue test results obtained from asphalt mix samples that were manufactured from the same binders. Final results indicate that the BYET is not ideal as an indicator of fatigue performance.

  17. Regional annual water yield from forest lands and its response to potential deforestation across the southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge Sun; Steve G. McNulty; J. Lu; Devendra M. Amatya; Y. Liang; R.K. Kolka

    2005-01-01

    Regional water yield at a meso-scale can be estimated as the difference between precipitation input and evapotranspiration output. Forest water yield from the southeastern US varies greatly both in space and time. Because of the hot climate and high evapotranspiration, less than half of the annual precipitation that falls on forest lands is available for stream flow...

  18. The addition of submergence-tolerant Sub1 gene into high yielding MR219 rice variety and analysis of its BC2F3 population in terms of yield and yield contributing characters to select advance lines as a variety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahim Ahmed

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A cross was made between MR219 (high yielding but submergence intolerant and Swarna-Sub1 (submergence tolerant to produce submergence-tolerant rice variety using the marker-assisted backcrossing (MABC method to protect the farmers of low-lying land from flash floods during rain. Knowledge of yield and yield contributing factors plays a vital role in the selection process of a variety. This experim ent was designed to determine the genetic diversity among recently produced different lines of BC2F3 population and also to compare all the lines with MR219 to find the best one. Agronomical, yield and yield contributing data were taken, while genotypic and phenotypic coefficients, variance components and heritability were estimated. Introgression of the target gene, Sub1, was done using tightly linked marker, and also background recovery was measured using simple sequence repeat (SSR markers in different generations. The observed recurrent parent genome (RPG recovery of BC2F2 generation was 95.37%, which indicates high-level similarity between the recurrent parent (MR219 and the resulting lines. Thirty newly developed lines of BC2F3 population, resulting backcross of MR219 and Swarna-Sub1, were planted with four replications following randomised complete block design (RCBD. Newly developed lines were grouped into four clusters based on traits with UPGMA dendrogram and cluster analysis to select the 10 best plants. This study will help the future researchers to select the best plants of a breeding programme after introgression of a gene considering phenotype performances to develop new varieties.

  19. A Meta-Analysis of Impact of Anaerobic Soil Disinfestation on Pest Suppression and Yield of Horticultural Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utsala Shrestha

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Anaerobic soil disinfestation (ASD is a proven but relatively new strategy to control soil borne pests of horticultural crops through anaerobic decomposition of organic soil amendments. The ASD technique has primarily been used to control soil borne pathogens; however, this technique has also shown potential to control plant parasitic nematodes and weeds. ASD can utilize a broad range of carbon (C amendments and optimization may improve efficacy across environments. In this context, a meta-analysis using a random-effects model was conducted to determine effect sizes of the ASD effect on soil borne pathogens (533 studies, plant parasitic nematodes (91 studies, and weeds (88 studies compared with unamended controls. Yield response to ASD was evaluated (123 studies compared to unamended and fumigated controls. We also examined moderator variables for environmental conditions and amendments to explore the impact of these moderators on ASD effectiveness on pests and yield. Across all pathogen types with the exception of Sclerotinia spp., ASD studies show suppression of bacterial, oomycete and fungal pathogens (59% to 86%. Pathogen suppression was effective under all environmental conditions (50% to 94% and amendment types (53% to 98%, except when amendments applied at rates less than 0.3 kg m-2. The ASD effect ranged from 15% to 56% for nematode suppression and 32% to 81% for weed suppression, but these differences were not significant. Significant nematode moderators included study type, soil type, sampling depth, incubation period, and use of mixed amendments. Weed suppression due to ASD showed significant heterogeneity for all environmental conditions, confirming that these studies do not share a common effect size. Total crop yield was not reduced by ASD when compared to a fumigant control and yield was significantly higher (30% compared to an unamended control, suggesting ASD as a feasible option to maintain yield without chemical soil fumigants

  20. A Meta-Analysis of the Impact of Anaerobic Soil Disinfestation on Pest Suppression and Yield of Horticultural Crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Utsala; Augé, Robert M; Butler, David M

    2016-01-01

    Anaerobic soil disinfestation (ASD) is a proven but relatively new strategy to control soil borne pests of horticultural crops through anaerobic decomposition of organic soil amendments. The ASD technique has primarily been used to control soil borne pathogens; however, this technique has also shown potential to control plant parasitic nematodes and weeds. ASD can utilize a broad range of carbon (C) amendments and optimization may improve efficacy across environments. In this context, a meta-analysis using a random-effects model was conducted to determine effect sizes of the ASD effect on soil borne pathogens (533 studies), plant parasitic nematodes (91 studies), and weeds (88 studies) compared with unamended controls. Yield response to ASD was evaluated (123 studies) compared to unamended and fumigated controls. We also examined moderator variables for environmental conditions and amendments to explore the impact of these moderators on ASD effectiveness on pests and yield. Across all pathogen types with the exception of Sclerotinia spp., ASD studies show suppression of bacterial, oomycete and fungal pathogens (59 to 94%). Pathogen suppression was effective under all environmental conditions (50 to 94%) and amendment types (53 to 97%), except when amendments were applied at rates less than 0.3 kg m(-2). The ASD effect ranged from 15 to 56% for nematode suppression and 32 to 81% for weed suppression, but these differences were not significant. Significant nematode moderators included study type, soil type, sampling depth, incubation period, and use of mixed amendments. Weed suppression due to ASD showed significant heterogeneity for all environmental conditions, confirming that these studies do not share a common effect size. Total crop yield was not reduced by ASD when compared to a fumigant control and yield was significantly higher (30%) compared to an unamended control, suggesting ASD as a feasible option to maintain yield without chemical soil fumigants. We

  1. Surface analysis by glow discharge spectrometry: cathode zone and sputtering yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohannessian, L.

    1986-01-01

    Applications of the glow discharge optical spectroscopy for surface analysis are numerous. Moreover, this method enables to get qualitative and semi-quantitative results which are already significant. However, we should improve our knowledge of the physical parameters involved in the glow discharge lamp mechanisms and learn to handle such phenomena. The problems can be divided into two categories: sputtering of the target under argon ions accelerated in the cathode dark space, and luminous emission of torn away species which reach the negative glow region. Our aim was to take stock of the present theoretical knowledge which can be applied to the specific self-maintained glow discharge plasma. Moreover, we tried to link together (often roughly) the basic discharge parameters, i.e. current intensity I, voltage of the lamp Vg, pressure of the gas p. Specially a comparison between theoretical and experimental results was established concerning the pure target sputtering yields. The contribution of the argon ions striking the cathode is estimated taking into account their energetic distribution. The role of the fast argon neutrals produced by charge exchange with the ions is important; we evaluated their energetic distribution and their contribution to sputtering. The total theoretical sputtering yield is inferred: the comparison with experimental results is presented. The role of the gas temperature is emphasized [fr

  2. Yield stability and adaptability of maize hybrids based on GGE biplot analysis characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Balestre

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate stability and adaptability of the grain yield of commercial intervarietalmaize hybrids by the GGE (Genotype and Genotype by Environment Interaction biplot and AMMI (Additive Main Effects andMultiplicative Interaction analyses. Two intervarietal hybrids (BIO 2 and BIO4 were evaluated together with single, doubleand three-way cross hybrids. The performance of the intervarietal hybrid BIO 4 was superior to all double and three-waycross hybrids and outmatched the single-cross hybrids by 43%. In terms of stability, BIO 2 was more stable than BIO4, whichis desirable, but biological stability, which is not necessarily desirable, was also observed, since the yield was below theenvironmental mean. The graphical GGE biplot analysis was superior to the AMMI1 since a greater portion of the sum ofsquares of GE and G+GE was captured and the predictive accuracy was higher. On the other hand, the AMMI2 graphoutperformed the GGE biplot in predictive accuracy and explanation of G + GE and GE, although the difference in accuracywas smaller than between GGE2 and AMMI1.

  3. Development of frontage road yield treatment analysis tool (FRYTAT) database software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    The Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) sponsored Project 0-4986, An Assessment of Frontage Road : Yield Treatments, to assess the effectiveness of a wide variety of frontage roadexit ramp and frontage roadU-turn : yield treatments...

  4. Analysis of chlorophyll content and its correlation with yield attributing traits on early varieties of maize (Zea mays L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bikal Ghimire

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Chlorophyll has direct roles on photosynthesis and hence closely relates to capacity for photosynthesis, development and yield of crops. With object to explore the roles of chlorophyll content and its relation with other yield attributing traits a field research was conducted using fourteen early genotypes of maize in RCBD design with three replications. Observations were made for Soil Plant Analysis Development (SPAD reading, ear weight, number of kernel row/ear, number of kernel/row, five hundred kernel weight and grain yield/hectare and these traits were analyzed using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA and correlation coefficient analysis. SPAD reading showed a non-significant variation among the genotypes while it revealed significant correlation with no. of kernel/row, grain yield/hectare and highly significant correlation with no. of kernel row/ear and ear weight which are the most yield determinative traits. For the trait grain yield/ha followed by number of kernel row/ear genotype ARUN-1EV has been found comparatively superior to ARUN-2 (standard check. Grain Yield/hectare was highly heritable (>0.6 while no. of kernel / row, SPAD reading, ear weight, number of kernel row/ear were moderately heritable (0.3-0.6. Correlation analysis and ANOVA revealed ARUN-1EV, comparatively superior to ARUN-2 (standard check, had higher SPAD reading than mean SPAD reading with significant correlation with no. of kernel/row, no. of kernel row/ear, ear weight and grain yield/ha which are all yield determinative traits . This showed positive and significant effect of chlorophyll content in grain yield of the maize.

  5. Energy development potential: An analysis of Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perobelli, Fernando Salgueiro; Oliveira, Caio Cézar Calheiros de

    2013-01-01

    This paper develops an indicator for the energy development potential (EDP) of 27 Brazilian states. This indicator uses data on a state's infrastructure and its supply of and demand for energy. The indicator measures the data for three periods: the first part of the 1990s, which is a period of low economic growth; the first part of the 2000s, which is a period of high economic growth but with a historical crisis in the Brazilian energy sector; and 2009–2011, which is a period of economic growth after the energy crisis. Using a factor analysis, we are able to identify three factors for EDP. They are the demand for energy, the supply of renewable energy, and the supply of nonrenewable energy. We use these factors to classify the Brazilian states according to their EDP and to perform an exploratory spatial data analysis (ESDA) by using the Moran indicators and the local indicators of spatial association (LISA). - Highlights: • This paper deals with the spatial dimension of the Brazilian energy sector. • We construct an index of the energy development potential for Brazilian states. • Energy issues are defined over time and space, thus have spatial dimensions. • The spatial results show that there are two well-defined spatial patterns

  6. Sustainable stemwood yield in relation to the nitrogen balance of forest plantations: a model analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dewar, R. C.; McMurtrie, R. E. [New South Wales Univ., Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    1996-01-01

    An existing analytical model of stemwood growth in relation to nitrogen supply was used to examine the long-term effects of harvesting and fire on tree growth. Balance between nitrogen additions from a variety of sources, such as from deposition, fixation and fertilizer applications, and nitrogen losses from harvesting, regeneration burning, leaching and gaseous emissions, have been considered. Using a hypothetical set of parameters for Eucalyptus, it was concluded that nitrogen loss through fire is the main factor limiting sustainable yield. The analysis technique and the model can also be applied to a simulation of the effects of climate change, or to verifying results of sustainable forest growth obtained by using other models. 24 refs., 5 figs.

  7. Genetic Analysis of Seed Yield Components and its Association with Forage Production in Wild and Cultivated Species of Sainfoin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Najafipoor

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about genetic variation of seed related traits and their association with forage characters in sainfoin. In order to investigate the variation and relationship among seed yield and its components, 93 genotypes from 21 wild and cultivated species of genus Onobrychis were evaluated using a randomized complete block design with four replications at Isfahan University of Technology Research Farm, Isfahan, Iran. Analysis of variance showed that there was significant difference among genotypes, indicating existence of considerable genetic variation in this germplasm. Panicle fertility and panicle length had the most variation in cultivated and the wild genotypes, respectively. Results of correlation analysis showed that seed yield was positively correlated with number of stems per plant and number of seeds per panicle and negatively correlated with panicle length and days to 50% flowering. Seed yield had positive correlation with forage yield in wild species while this correlation was not significant in cultivated one. Cluster analysis classified the genotypes into three groups which separate wild and cultivated species. Based on principal component analysis the first component was related to seed yield and the second one was related to components of forage yield which can be used for selection of high forage and seed yielding genotypes.

  8. Diallel analysis of pod yield and 100 seeds weight in peanut ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: The lack of information on yield and yield components are an obstacle in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) breeding for productivity improvement in BURKINA FASO. This work is to elucidate the mode of heritability of genes that govern 100 seed weight and pod yield, and identify the best parents for ...

  9. On-farm yield potential of local seed watermelon landraces under heat- and drought-prone conditions in Mali

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nantoume, Aminata Dolo; Christiansen, Jørgen Lindskrog; Andersen, Sven Bode

    2012-01-01

    On-farm yield experiments were carried out in the Tombouctou region of Mali in 2009/10 under heat- and drought-prone desert conditions with three local landraces of seed-type watermelons. The landraces, named Fombou, Kaneye and Musa Musa by the farmers, exhibited distinct characteristics for fruit...... responsive. The yields obtained suggest that these local landraces of watermelon are valuable plant genetic resources for securing food supply in arid, heat- and drought-prone areas....

  10. Genome-Wide Analysis of Grain Yield Stability and Environmental Interactions in a Multiparental Soybean Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alencar Xavier

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Genetic improvement toward optimized and stable agronomic performance of soybean genotypes is desirable for food security. Understanding how genotypes perform in different environmental conditions helps breeders develop sustainable cultivars adapted to target regions. Complex traits of importance are known to be controlled by a large number of genomic regions with small effects whose magnitude and direction are modulated by environmental factors. Knowledge of the constraints and undesirable effects resulting from genotype by environmental interactions is a key objective in improving selection procedures in soybean breeding programs. In this study, the genetic basis of soybean grain yield responsiveness to environmental factors was examined in a large soybean nested association population. For this, a genome-wide association to performance stability estimates generated from a Finlay-Wilkinson analysis and the inclusion of the interaction between marker genotypes and environmental factors was implemented. Genomic footprints were investigated by analysis and meta-analysis using a recently published multiparent model. Results indicated that specific soybean genomic regions were associated with stability, and that multiplicative interactions were present between environments and genetic background. Seven genomic regions in six chromosomes were identified as being associated with genotype-by-environment interactions. This study provides insight into genomic assisted breeding aimed at achieving a more stable agronomic performance of soybean, and documented opportunities to exploit genomic regions that were specifically associated with interactions involving environments and subpopulations.

  11. Soil mulching significantly enhances yields and water and nitrogen use efficiencies of maize and wheat: a meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Wei; Hu, Chunsheng; Oenema, Oene

    2015-11-01

    Global crop yields are limited by water and nutrient availability. Soil mulching (with plastic or straw) reduces evaporation, modifies soil temperature and thereby affects crop yields. Reported effects of mulching are sometimes contradictory, likely due to differences in climatic conditions, soil characteristics, crop species, and also water and nitrogen (N) input levels. Here we report on a meta-analysis of the effects of mulching on wheat and maize, using 1310 yield observations from 74 studies conducted in 19 countries. Our results indicate that mulching significantly increased yields, WUE (yield per unit water) and NUE (yield per unit N) by up to 60%, compared with no-mulching. Effects were larger for maize than wheat, and larger for plastic mulching than straw mulching. Interestingly, plastic mulching performed better at relatively low temperature while straw mulching showed the opposite trend. Effects of mulching also tended to decrease with increasing water input. Mulching effects were not related to soil organic matter content. In conclusion, soil mulching can significantly increase maize and wheat yields, WUE and NUE, and thereby may contribute to closing the yield gap between attainable and actual yields, especially in dryland and low nutrient input agriculture. The management of soil mulching requires site-specific knowledge.

  12. Soil mulching significantly enhances yields and water and nitrogen use efficiencies of maize and wheat: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Wei; Hu, Chunsheng; Oenema, Oene

    2015-11-20

    Global crop yields are limited by water and nutrient availability. Soil mulching (with plastic or straw) reduces evaporation, modifies soil temperature and thereby affects crop yields. Reported effects of mulching are sometimes contradictory, likely due to differences in climatic conditions, soil characteristics, crop species, and also water and nitrogen (N) input levels. Here we report on a meta-analysis of the effects of mulching on wheat and maize, using 1310 yield observations from 74 studies conducted in 19 countries. Our results indicate that mulching significantly increased yields, WUE (yield per unit water) and NUE (yield per unit N) by up to 60%, compared with no-mulching. Effects were larger for maize than wheat, and larger for plastic mulching than straw mulching. Interestingly, plastic mulching performed better at relatively low temperature while straw mulching showed the opposite trend. Effects of mulching also tended to decrease with increasing water input. Mulching effects were not related to soil organic matter content. In conclusion, soil mulching can significantly increase maize and wheat yields, WUE and NUE, and thereby may contribute to closing the yield gap between attainable and actual yields, especially in dryland and low nutrient input agriculture. The management of soil mulching requires site-specific knowledge.

  13. Analysis of the production of salmon fillet - Prediction of production yield

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Gine Ørnholt; Guðjónsdóttir, María; Nielsen, Michael Engelbrecht

    2017-01-01

    The aim was to investigate the influence of raw material variation in Atlantic salmon from aquaculture on filleting yield, and to develop a decision tool for choosing the appropriate raw material for optimized yield. This was achieved by tracking salmon on an individual level (n = 60) through...... the yield after filleting. The model was based on six pre-processing variables and allowed an acceptable prediction of the filleting yield with a root mean square error cross validation of 0.68. The presented model can estimate the slaughter yield for a certain batch before ordering from the slaughterhouse...

  14. Multivariate meta-analysis: Potential and promise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Dan; Riley, Richard; White, Ian R

    2011-01-01

    The multivariate random effects model is a generalization of the standard univariate model. Multivariate meta-analysis is becoming more commonly used and the techniques and related computer software, although continually under development, are now in place. In order to raise awareness of the multivariate methods, and discuss their advantages and disadvantages, we organized a one day ‘Multivariate meta-analysis’ event at the Royal Statistical Society. In addition to disseminating the most recent developments, we also received an abundance of comments, concerns, insights, critiques and encouragement. This article provides a balanced account of the day's discourse. By giving others the opportunity to respond to our assessment, we hope to ensure that the various view points and opinions are aired before multivariate meta-analysis simply becomes another widely used de facto method without any proper consideration of it by the medical statistics community. We describe the areas of application that multivariate meta-analysis has found, the methods available, the difficulties typically encountered and the arguments for and against the multivariate methods, using four representative but contrasting examples. We conclude that the multivariate methods can be useful, and in particular can provide estimates with better statistical properties, but also that these benefits come at the price of making more assumptions which do not result in better inference in every case. Although there is evidence that multivariate meta-analysis has considerable potential, it must be even more carefully applied than its univariate counterpart in practice. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:21268052

  15. Analysis of CDM projects’ potential benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Affonso dos Reis Junior

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective – The main goal of this study is to identify and assess, within sustainability reports, information concerning potential carbon credits obtained through projects carried out under Clean Development Mechanism (CDM assumptions, as well as to assess CDM project experts’ perceptions of obstacles to entering carbon credit markets. Design/methodology/approach – exploratory, descriptive, bibliographical and documental research, and interviews. Theoretical basis - Research was based on the concepts of sustainability, especially as to environmental responsibility (CSR; cost-benefit analysis was also considered, since selling carbon credits can be a way of mitigating the trade off between immediate shareholder satisfaction and investment in CSR. Findings – The perceptions of representatives from carbon credit projects’ certifying companies was examined by means of a series of interviews – concluding that savings in costs, business marketing and certifications are even greater motivators than carbon credits themselves. We estimated that, through energy efficiency, the projects discussed in 2011 sustainability reports would be capable of saving approximately 538 million reais in costs. In addition, 40 million reais, considering the rate of the euro and of securities on December 31, 2014, would be gained through the sale of carbon credits. Practical implications – Thus, this research helps to demonstrate the significant potential for further financial gains that companies may obtain through energy efficiency and habitat restructuring, whether by taking advantage of CO2 reduction brought about by such projects, or by developing new projects that continue to benefit economy, society and the environment.

  16. Analysis of coelom development in the sea urchin Holopneustes purpurescens yielding a deuterostome body plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie B. Morris

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of early coelom development in the echinoid Holopneustes purpurescens yields a deuterostome body plan that explains the disparity between the pentameral plan of echinoderms and the bilateral plans of chordates and hemichordates, the three major phyla of the monophyletic deuterostomes. The analysis shows an early separation into a medial hydrocoele and lateral coelomic mesoderm with an enteric channel between them before the hydrocoele forms the pentameral plan of five primary podia. The deuterostome body plan thus has a single axial or medial coelom and a pair of lateral coeloms, all surrounding an enteric channel, the gut channel. Applied to the phyla, the medial coelom is the hydrocoele in echinoderms, the notochord in chordates and the proboscis coelom in hemichordates: the lateral coeloms are the coelomic mesoderm in echinoderms, the paraxial mesoderm in chordates and the lateral coeloms in hemichordates. The plan fits frog and chick development and the echinoderm fossil record, and predicts genes involved in coelomogenesis as the source of deuterostome macroevolution.

  17. Effect of nitrogen levels and nitrogen ratios on lodging resistance and yield potential of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mingwei; Wang, Hui; Yi, Yuan; Ding, Jinfeng; Zhu, Min; Li, Chunyan; Guo, Wenshan; Feng, Chaonian; Zhu, Xinkai

    2017-01-01

    Lodging is one of the constraints that limit wheat yields and quality due to the unexpected bending or breaking stems on wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) production worldwide. In addition to choosing lodging resistance varieties, husbandry practices also have a significant effect on lodging. Nitrogen management is one of the most common and efficient methods. A field experiment with Yangmai 20 as research material (a widely-used variety) was conducted to study the effects of different nitrogen levels and ratios on culm morphological, anatomical characters and chemical components and to explore the nitrogen application techniques for lodging tolerance and high yield. Results showed that some index of basal internodes, such as stem wall thickness, filling degree, lignin content, cellulose content, water-soluble carbohydrate (WSC) and WSC/N ratio, were positively and significantly correlated with culm lodging-resistant index (CLRI). As the increase of nitrogen level and basal nitrogen ratio, the basal internodes became slender and fragile with the thick stem wall, while filling degree, chemical components and the strength of the stem decreased gradually, which significantly increased the lodging risk. The response of grain yield to nitrogen doses was quadratic and grain yield reached the highest at the nitrogen ratio of 50%:10%:20%:20% (the ratio of nitrogen amount applied before sowing, at tillering stage, jointing stage and booting stage respectively, abbreviated as 5:1:2:2). These results suggested that for Yangmai 20, the planting density of 180×104ha-1, nitrogen level of 225 kg ha-1, and the ratio of 5: 1: 2: 2 effectively increased lodging resistance and grain yield. This combination of planting density and nitrogen level and ratio could effectively relieve the contradiction between high-yielding and anti-lodging.

  18. Effect of nitrogen levels and nitrogen ratios on lodging resistance and yield potential of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingwei Zhang

    Full Text Available Lodging is one of the constraints that limit wheat yields and quality due to the unexpected bending or breaking stems on wheat (Triticum aestivum L. production worldwide. In addition to choosing lodging resistance varieties, husbandry practices also have a significant effect on lodging. Nitrogen management is one of the most common and efficient methods. A field experiment with Yangmai 20 as research material (a widely-used variety was conducted to study the effects of different nitrogen levels and ratios on culm morphological, anatomical characters and chemical components and to explore the nitrogen application techniques for lodging tolerance and high yield. Results showed that some index of basal internodes, such as stem wall thickness, filling degree, lignin content, cellulose content, water-soluble carbohydrate (WSC and WSC/N ratio, were positively and significantly correlated with culm lodging-resistant index (CLRI. As the increase of nitrogen level and basal nitrogen ratio, the basal internodes became slender and fragile with the thick stem wall, while filling degree, chemical components and the strength of the stem decreased gradually, which significantly increased the lodging risk. The response of grain yield to nitrogen doses was quadratic and grain yield reached the highest at the nitrogen ratio of 50%:10%:20%:20% (the ratio of nitrogen amount applied before sowing, at tillering stage, jointing stage and booting stage respectively, abbreviated as 5:1:2:2. These results suggested that for Yangmai 20, the planting density of 180×104ha-1, nitrogen level of 225 kg ha-1, and the ratio of 5: 1: 2: 2 effectively increased lodging resistance and grain yield. This combination of planting density and nitrogen level and ratio could effectively relieve the contradiction between high-yielding and anti-lodging.

  19. Genetic variability, correlation and path analysis of yield contributing characters in sweet potato (ipomoea batatas lam.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hossain, M.D.; Rabbani, M.G.; Mollah, M.L.R.

    2000-01-01

    Evaluation of 30 sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas Lam.) genotypes for yield contributing characters and tuber yield per plant revealed high phenotypic and genotypic coefficient of variation (PCV and GCV, respectively) for number of tubers per plant, average tuber weight and tuber yield per plant. The heritability and genetic advance were higher for tuber yield per plant, average tuber weight and number of tubers per plant. These three characters also reflected high heritability as well as high genetic advance. As high positive significant correlation, as well as positive direct effect of average tuber weight and number of tubers per plant on tuber yield per plant were found, these characters should be given prime importance for selecting high yielding sweet potato genotypes. (author)

  20. Will C3 crops enhanced with the C4 CO2-concentrating mechanism live up to their full potential (yield)?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driever, S.M.; Kromdijk, J.

    2013-01-01

    Sustainably feeding the world’s growing population in future is a great challenge and can be achieved only by increasing yield per unit land surface. Efficiency of light interception and biomass partitioning into harvestable parts (harvest index) has been improved substantially via plant breeding in

  1. Spatial and harvesting influence on growth, yield, quality and economic potential of Kalmegh (Andrographis paniculata Wall Ex. Nees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeev Kumar

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Andrographis paniculata, commonly known as Kalmegh, is used both in Ayurvedic and Unani system of medicines because of its immunological, antibacterial and hepatoprotective properties. This study was carried out to investigate the influence of four harvesting times (120,135,150 days after planting and at seed maturity and four planting distances (30×15, 30×10, 20×15 and 20×10 cm on growth, dry herbage biomass, seed yield and quality traits of Andrographis paniculata at CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar, India in the two years 2005 and 2006. The treatments were laid out in a split plot design with three replications. The maximum values for dry herbage biomass yield (5.14 t ha^(-1, net returns (760.00 EUR ha^(-1, B:C ratio (2.59, andrographolide content (2.63% and total yield (135.00 kg ha^(-1 were detected 135 days after planting with an optimum planting distance of 30×15 cm. However, the maximum iron content was estimated 120 days after planting. The highest dry herbage (4.58 t ha^(-1 and maximum seed yield (19.7 kg ha^(-1 were registered at plants that were lined out with a distance of 20×10 cm.

  2. Growth, radiation use efficiency and yield potential of enset (Ensete ventricosum) at different sites in southern Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsegaye, A.; Struik, P.C.

    2003-01-01

    Knowledge on the physiological parameters that determine the growth of enset (Ensete ventricosum) and on how these parameters develop over time and affect yield under field conditions is scarce. Field experiments were carried out at three sites in southern Ethiopia using suckers of several clones to

  3. Spatial variation in carbon and nitrogen in cultivated soils in Henan Province, China: potential effect on crop yield.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuelin Zhang

    Full Text Available Improved management of soil carbon (C and nitrogen (N storage in agro-ecosystems represents an important strategy for ensuring food security and sustainable agricultural development in China. Accurate estimates of the distribution of soil C and N stores and their relationship to crop yield are crucial to developing appropriate cropland management policies. The current study examined the spatial variation of soil organic C (SOC, total soil N (TSN, and associated variables in the surface layer (0-40 cm of soils from intensive agricultural systems in 19 counties within Henan Province, China, and compared these patterns with crop yield. Mean soil C and N concentrations were 14.9 g kg(-1 and 1.37 g kg(-1, respectively, whereas soil C and N stores were 4.1 kg m(-2 and 0.4 kg m(-2, respectively. Total crop production of each county was significantly, positively related to SOC, TSN, soil C and N store, and soil C and N stock. Soil C and N were positively correlated with soil bulk density but negatively correlated with soil porosity. These results indicate that variations in soil C could regulate crop yield in intensive agricultural systems, and that spatial patterns of C and N levels in soils may be regulated by both climatic factors and agro-ecosystem management. When developing suitable management programs, the importance of soil C and N stores and their effects on crop yield should be considered.

  4. Identification of cocoa trees combining high yield potential and resistance to diseases in segregating progenies In Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diseases and low yielding planting material are the main factors limiting production of “fine” or “flavour” cocoa in Ecuador. This makes it necessary to develop modern varieties capable of overcoming these limitations. During the 1960s and 1970s INIAP tested several progenies from selected crosses...

  5. Evaluating the potential nitrogen savings without yield loss using variable nitrogen application strategies in a heterogeneous winter wheat field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Rasmus Nyholm; Sørensen, Claus Aage Grøn; Søgaard, Henning Tangen

    During a single growth season, a plot trial was carried out in a selected heterogeneous field in Denmark in an attempt to estimate the optimal variable nitrogen rate applied to winter wheat. 61 Nitrogen/grain yield dose–response curves were estimated using five nitrogen application rates (30, 90,...

  6. Cross-Continental Comparisons of Grain Yields Under Climate Change: Potential for Agricultural Adaptation to Offset Losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, K. A.; Twine, T. E.; Ummenhofer, C. C.; Girvetz, E. H.; Chhetri, N.; McCarthy, H. R.; Xu, H.

    2011-12-01

    Variations in the timing and magnitude of warming and changes in precipitation patterns will have differential effects on the yields of staple grains under climate change. Modeling these changes accurately at the regional scale is important to prioritize adaptation measures to continue to provide food for a growing global population. We used climate projections from five IPCC AR4 CMIP3 climate models (BCCR-BCM2.0, CSIRO-Mk3.5, IPSL-CM4v1, CCSR-MIROC3.2-medres, and NCAR-CCSM3) and three emissions scenarios (B1, A1b, and A2) to obtain a robust estimate of future climate possibilities. Key modeled hydroclimatic variables impacting yield were compared with 20th century observational data to assess the model's representation of the mean state, seasonal cycle, and interannual to decadal variability for four sites located in Iowa, USA; Punjab, India; Free State, South Africa; and the Murray Darling Basin, Australia. We used the process-based model Agro-IBIS to project climate change impacts to annual yield and growing season net primary productivity of maize (USA and India) and winter wheat (South Africa and Australia) in these regions. Changes in productivity at each of the four sites are related to current climate variability and projected changes, taking into account model performance and limiting factors for growth in the different regions. Relative changes in maize/wheat yields in the four regions between three periods (the late 20th and mid- and late-21st century) can be attributed to progressively changing local climate conditions and linked to large-scale circulation changes. For example, India is projected to experience the greatest warming along with a decrease in mean precipitation, which might substantially decrease yields, while under some scenarios of warming and increased mean precipitation, Iowa is predicted to experience yield increases. In addition to mean changes, frequency and magnitude of high- and low-yield years are assessed for the three periods

  7. Do organic inputs matter – a meta-analysis of additional yield effects for arable crops in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Hijbeek, R.; Ittersum, van, M.K.; Berge, Ten, H.F.M.; Gort, G.; Spiegel, H.; Whitmore, A.P.

    2017-01-01

    Background and aims: Organic inputs have a positive effect on the soil organic matter balance. They are therefore an important asset for soil fertility and crop growth. This study quantifies the additional yield effect due to organic inputs for arable crops in Europe when macro-nutrients are not a limiting factor. Methods: A meta-analysis was performed using data from 20 long-term experiments in Europe. Maxima of yield response curves to nitrogen were compared, with and without organic inputs...

  8. Simulation of corn yields and parameters uncertainties analysis in Hebei and Sichuang, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, A.; Xue, Y.; Hartman, M. D.; Chandran, A.; Qiu, B.; Liu, Y.

    2016-12-01

    Corn is one of most important agricultural production in China. Research on the impacts of climate change and human activities on corn yields is important in understanding and mitigating the negative effects of environmental factors on corn yields and maintaining the stable corn production. Using climatic data, including daily temperature, precipitation, and solar radiation from 1948 to 2010, soil properties, observed corn yields, and farmland management information, corn yields in Sichuang and Hebei Provinces of China in the past 63 years were simulated using the Daycent model, and the results was evaluated using Root mean square errors, bias, simulation efficiency, and standard deviation. The primary climatic factors influencing corn yields were examined, the uncertainties of climatic factors was analyzed, and the uncertainties of human activity parameters were also studied by changing fertilization levels and cultivated ways. The results showed that: (1) Daycent model is capable to simulate corn yields in Sichuang and Hebei provinces of China. Observed and simulated corn yields have the similar increasing trend with time. (2) The minimum daily temperature is the primary factor influencing corn yields in Sichuang. In Hebei Province, daily temperature, precipitation and wind speed significantly affect corn yields.(3) When the global warming trend of original data was removed, simulated corn yields were lower than before, decreased by about 687 kg/hm2 from 1992 to 2010; When the fertilization levels, cultivated ways were increased and decreased by 50% and 75%, respectively in the Schedule file in Daycent model, the simulated corn yields increased by 1206 kg/hm2 and 776 kg/hm2, respectively, with the enhancement of fertilization level and the improvement of cultivated way. This study provides a scientific base for selecting a suitable fertilization level and cultivated way in corn fields in China.

  9. Potential of deficit irrigation, irrigation cut-offs, and crop thinning to maintain yield and fruit quality with less water in northern highbush blueberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drought and mandatory water restrictions are limiting the availability of irrigation water in many important blueberry growing regions, including Oregon, Washington, and California. New strategies are needed to maintain yield and fruit quality with less water. Three potential options, including defi...

  10. Application of a crop growth model (SUCROS-87) to assess the effect of moisture on yield potential of durum wheat in Ethiopia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simane, B.; Keulen, van H.; Stol, W.; Struik, P.C.

    1994-01-01

    A spring wheat growth model (SUCROS-87) was used to identify moisture stress periods during the growing seasons and simulate yield potentials of durum wheat (Triticum turgidum var. durum) in six durum wheat growing regions of Ethiopia. The start of the rainy season and distribution of rainfall were

  11. Quality of white cabbage yield and potential risk of ground water nitrogen pollution, as affected by nitrogen fertilisation and irrigation practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maršić, Nina Kacjan; Sturm, Martina; Zupanc, Vesna; Lojen, Sonja; Pintar, Marina

    2012-01-15

    The effect of different fertilisation (broadcast solid NPK application and fertigation with water-soluble fertiliser) and irrigation practices (sprinkler and drip irrigation) on yield, the nitrate content in cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L.) and the cabbage N uptake was detected, in order to assess the potential risk for N losses, by cultivation on sandy-loam soil. The N rate applied on the plots was 200 kg N ha(-1). The highest yield (93 t ha(-1)) and nitrate content (1256 mg kg(-1) DW) were found with treatments using broadcast fertilisation and sprinkler irrigation. On those plots the negative N balance (-30 kg N ha(-1)) was recorded, which comes mainly from the highest crop N uptake (234 kg N ha(-1)) indicating the lowest potential for N losses. In terms of yield quality and the potential risk for N losses, broadcast fertilisation combined with sprinkler irrigation proved to be the most effective combination among the tested practices under the given experimental conditions. The importance of adequate irrigation is also evident, namely in plots on which 50% drip irrigation was applied, the lowest yield was detected and according to the positive N balance, a higher potential for N losses is expected. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Analysis of factors affecting milk yield of Ankole cows grazed on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of seasonal rainfall (RF) and maximum temperature (Tm) variations on milk yield of Ankole cows grazed solely on range pastures were investigated. The resulting changes in herbage growth (HG), herbage yields (HY), herbage crude protein CPh) and neutral detergent fibre (NDF), as well as body condition score ...

  13. Double-balloon enteroscopy and capsule endoscopy have comparable diagnostic yield in small-bowel disease: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasha, Shabana F; Leighton, Jonathan A; Das, Ananya; Harrison, M Edwyn; Decker, G Anton; Fleischer, David E; Sharma, Virender K

    2008-06-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the diagnostic yield of capsule endoscopy (CE) with double-balloon enteroscopy (DBE) in small-bowel (SB) disease using meta-analysis. We performed a search of studies comparing CE with DBE in SB disease. Data on diagnostic yield of CE and DBE were extracted, pooled, and analyzed. The weighted incremental yield (IY(W)) (yield of CE--yield of DBE) of CE over DBE and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for pooled data were calculated using a fixed-effect model (FEM) for analyses without, and a random-effect model (REM) for analyses with, significant heterogeneity. Eleven studies compared CE and DBE; the pooled overall yield for CE and DBE was 60% (n = 397) and 57% (n = 360), respectively (IY(W), 3%; 95% CI, -4% to 10%; P = .42; FEM). Ten studies reported vascular findings; the pooled yield for CE and DBE was 24% (n = 371) and 24% (n = 364), respectively (IY(W), 0%; 95% CI, -5% to 6%; P = .88; REM). Nine studies reported inflammatory findings; the pooled yield for CE and DBE was 18% (n = 343) and 16% (n = 336), respectively (IY(W), 0%; 95% CI, -5% to 6%; P = .89; FEM). Nine studies reported polyps/tumors; the pooled yield for CE and DBE was 11% (n = 343) and 11% (n = 336), respectively (IY(W), -1%; 95% CI, -5% to 4%; P = .76; FEM). CE and DBE have comparable diagnostic yield in SB disease, including obscure gastrointestinal bleeding. CE should be the initial diagnostic test because of its noninvasive quality, tolerance, ability to view the entire SB, and for determining the initial route of DBE. Because of its therapeutic capabilities, DBE may be indicated in patients with a positive finding on CE requiring a biopsy or therapeutic intervention, if suspicion for a SB lesion is high despite a negative CE, and in patients with active bleeding.

  14. Diallel analysis for seed yield and its component traits in Cuphea procumbens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh S.P.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The Cuphea procumbens Orteg. is an important annual plant source of medium chain fatty acids. The present study was conducted to estimate different gene systems involved in the inheritance of important quantitative traits viz. plant height, branches/plant, fruits/plant, seeds/fruit and seed yield/plant in F1 and F2 generations following 6 parents half diallel. Diallel assumptions were fulfilled for all the characters. Wr - Vr graph and component analysis revealed the major influence of over dominance for all the traits except branches/plant in F1. The arrays scattered all along the regression line below limiting parabola in two groups, Dominance and recessive and was confirmed by standardized deviation graph. The ranking on the basis of breeding value (Yr of the parents and per se performance was closely associated (r=0.83**. On the basis of ranking, parents 'NBC-01', 'NBC-25' and 'NBC-30' were found most promising and possessed more dominant alleles for most of the characters. Considering the gene action involved, the breeding plan was discussed.

  15. Calculation of total free energy yield as an alternative approach for predicting the importance of potential chemolithotrophic reactions in geothermal springs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodsworth, Jeremy A; McDonald, Austin I; Hedlund, Brian P

    2012-08-01

    To inform hypotheses regarding the relative importance of chemolithotrophic metabolisms in geothermal environments, we calculated free energy yields of 26 chemical reactions potentially supporting chemolithotrophy in two US Great Basin hot springs, taking into account the effects of changing reactant and product activities on the Gibbs free energy as each reaction progressed. Results ranged from 1.2 × 10(-5) to 3.6 J kg(-1) spring water, or 3.7 × 10(-5) to 11.5 J s(-1) based on measured flow rates, with aerobic oxidation of CH(4) or NH4 + giving the highest average yields. Energy yields calculated without constraining pH were similar to those at constant pH except for reactions where H(+) was consumed, which often had significantly lower yields when pH was unconstrained. In contrast to the commonly used normalization of reaction chemical affinities per mole of electrons transferred, reaction energy yields for a given oxidant varied by several orders of magnitude and were more sensitive to differences in the activities of products and reactants. The high energy yield of aerobic ammonia oxidation is consistent with previous observations of significant ammonia oxidation rates and abundant ammonia-oxidizing archaea in sediments of these springs. This approach offers an additional lens through which to view the thermodynamic landscape of geothermal springs. © 2012 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Type 2 Diabetes Research Yield, 1951-2012: Bibliometrics Analysis and Density-Equalizing Mapping.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona Geaney

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to provide a detailed evaluation of type 2 diabetes mellitus research output from 1951-2012, using large-scale data analysis, bibliometric indicators and density-equalizing mapping. Data were retrieved from the Science Citation Index Expanded database, one of the seven curated databases within Web of Science. Using Boolean operators "OR", "AND" and "NOT", a search strategy was developed to estimate the total number of published items. Only studies with an English abstract were eligible. Type 1 diabetes and gestational diabetes items were excluded. Specific software developed for the database analysed the data. Information including titles, authors' affiliations and publication years were extracted from all files and exported to excel. Density-equalizing mapping was conducted as described by Groenberg-Kloft et al, 2008. A total of 24,783 items were published and cited 476,002 times. The greatest number of outputs were published in 2010 (n=2,139. The United States contributed 28.8% to the overall output, followed by the United Kingdom (8.2% and Japan (7.7%. Bilateral cooperation was most common between the United States and United Kingdom (n=237. Harvard University produced 2% of all publications, followed by the University of California (1.1%. The leading journals were Diabetes, Diabetologia and Diabetes Care and they contributed 9.3%, 7.3% and 4.0% of the research yield, respectively. In conclusion, the volume of research is rising in parallel with the increasing global burden of disease due to type 2 diabetes mellitus. Bibliometrics analysis provides useful information to scientists and funding agencies involved in the development and implementation of research strategies to address global health issues.

  17. Potential use of river suspended-sediment observations to evaluate the effects of seismic shaking on sediment yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avşar, Ulaş

    2014-05-01

    It has been empirically proved that large earthquakes (M>6) trigger landslides and shattering of landscapes, which increase the sediment yield in drainage basins and hence sediment delivery to the rivers. Besides the historical records reporting eyewitness accounts of muddy rivers after earthquakes, this phenomenon was also supported by quantitative analyses on the suspended sediment load of rivers before and after the Chi-Chi Earthquake (Mw=7.6) in 1999 in Taiwan. Observations and understanding of this phenomenon is crucial to trace the sedimentological fingerprints of paleoearthquakes in marine and lacustrine sedimentary sequences. This study presents the evaluation of the publicly available river discharge and suspended-sediment concentration measurements to assess the possible effects of earthquakes on sediment yields in Turkey. For this purpose, measurements from 10 hydrometric stations are utilized, which are located near the epicentres of the 1998 Adana-Ceyhan Earthquake (Mw=6.2), the 1999 İzmit Earthquake (Mw=7.4) and the 1999 Düzce Earthquake (Mw=7.2). The dataset contains ca. 1600 measurements between 1991 and 2005. At only a few stations, anomalies in sediment concentration are observed immediately after the earthquakes. On the other hand, at most of the stations, the data through longer periods after the earthquakes (3-4 years) reveal slight increases in sediment concentration. The low temporal resolution of the measurements (every 20-30 days) limits the observation of possible sudden increase in sediment concentration immediately after the earthquakes. According to the preliminary results, sediment yield seems to be affected from seismic shaking. However, for more robust results, longer-term measurements with higher temporal resolution are required. The future study will focus on a quantitative evaluation and modelling on expected sediment yield after seismic shaking.

  18. Yield responses of crops to changes in environment and management practices: Model sensitivity analysis. II. Rice, wheat, and potato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terjung, W. H.; Hayes, J. T.; O'Rourke, P. A.; Todhunter, P. E.

    1984-12-01

    This paper is a continuation of our prior examination of yield responses of maize (Terjung et al., 1984b). The analysis of the response of the model YIELD to changes in a variety of basic environmental and decision-making inputs was continued for paddy rice, winter wheat, and early potato. As before, temperature, solar radiation, and relative humidity regimes were analyzed during a growing season along with different water application strategies, irrigation frequencies, soil types, and wind regimes. Among the results, yield decreased on the average by 4.9% (rice) and 6.0% (wheat) per 1‡ (C) increase in air temperature. A 1% change in solar radiation resulted in an average of 1% (wheat) and 0.4% (rice) change in yield. Analogous changes in relative humidity caused yield changes of about 0.8% and nothing for wheat and rice, respectively. For all crops, the relationship between irrigation frequency and yield increase was near-linear for large irrigation intervals. This linearity vanished under high frequency waterings. With respect to irrigation amounts, 1 mm/ha of applied water was related, on the average, to 75 (potato), 19 (grain corn), 8 (rice), and 6 kg/ha (wheat) of harvestable yield.

  19. Genetic variability, correlation and path coefficients of yield and its components analysis in pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Duch Ex Poir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GM Mohsin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Genetic variability, correlation and path coefficient were studied for yield and yield component traits in twenty one diverse genotypes of pumpkin. Highest genotypic coefficient of variation was recorded for fruit length (cm, single fruit weight (kg, Brix (% and yield per plant (kg. Heritability estimates in broad sense were higher for almost all the characters. The characters namely, fruit length, single fruit weight, yield per plant and brix% had high genotypic coefficient of variation coupled with heritability gave high genetic advance expressed as percentage of mean ranged from 76.84 to 96.06 which indicated that these characters were less influenced by environment confirming additive gene action, and therefore, selection of these characters would be more effective for yield improvement of pumpkins. Total six traits likely fruit length, fruit diameter, flesh thickness, single fruit weight and number of fruits per plant were positively and significantly associated with yield per plant. Path coefficient analysis also revealed maximum contribution of single fruit weight (0.869 to yield and this was followed by the contribution of number of fruit per plant (0.527 at genotypic level.

  20. Metagenomic analysis of microbial communities yields insight into impacts of nanoparticle design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metch, Jacob W.; Burrows, Nathan D.; Murphy, Catherine J.; Pruden, Amy; Vikesland, Peter J.

    2018-01-01

    Next-generation DNA sequencing and metagenomic analysis provide powerful tools for the environmentally friendly design of nanoparticles. Herein we demonstrate this approach using a model community of environmental microbes (that is, wastewater-activated sludge) dosed with gold nanoparticles of varying surface coatings and morphologies. Metagenomic analysis was highly sensitive in detecting the microbial community response to gold nanospheres and nanorods with either cetyltrimethylammonium bromide or polyacrylic acid surface coatings. We observed that the gold-nanoparticle morphology imposes a stronger force in shaping the microbial community structure than does the surface coating. Trends were consistent in terms of the compositions of both taxonomic and functional genes, which include antibiotic resistance genes, metal resistance genes and gene-transfer elements associated with cell stress that are relevant to public health. Given that nanoparticle morphology remained constant, the potential influence of gold dissolution was minimal. Surface coating governed the nanoparticle partitioning between the bioparticulate and aqueous phases.

  1. ANALYSIS OF CHP POTENTIAL AT FEDERAL SITES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HADLEY, S.W.

    2002-03-11

    of these criteria. Executive Order 13123 directs federal facilities to use CHP when life-cycle costs indicate energy reduction goals will be met. FEMP can assist facilities to conduct this analysis. The model developed for this report estimates the magnitude of CHP that could be implemented under various performance and economic assumptions associated with different applications. This model may be useful for other energy technologies. It can be adapted to estimate the market potential in federal buildings for any energy system based on the cost and performance parameters that a user desires to assess. The model already incorporates a standard set of parameters based on available data for federal buildings including total building space, building type, energy use intensity, fuel costs, and the performance of many prime movers commonly used in CHP applications. These and other variables can be adjusted to meet user needs or updated in the future as new data become available.

  2. AMMI Analysis of Yields and Oil Content in Some Linseed (Linum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    environment interaction (GEI) among the varieties for ... environments. The AMMI selections for oil content and yield per environment included Kassa-2 in all ...... of varieties and environments in field pea (Pisum sativum L.). J. Genet. Breed. 54: 183-191.

  3. Prediction of foal carcass composition and wholesale cut yields by using video image analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo, J M; Guedes, C M; Agregán, R; Sarriés, M V; Franco, D; Silva, S R

    2018-01-01

    This work represents the first contribution for the application of the video image analysis (VIA) technology in predicting lean meat and fat composition in the equine species. Images of left sides of the carcass (n=42) were captured from the dorsal, lateral and medial views using a high-resolution digital camera. A total of 41 measurements (angles, lengths, widths and areas) were obtained by VIA. The variation of percentage of lean meat obtained from the forequarter (FQ) and hindquarter (HQ) carcass ranged between 5.86% and 7.83%. However, the percentage of fat (FAT) obtained from the FQ and HQ carcass presented a higher variation (CV between 41.34% and 44.58%). By combining different measurements and using prediction models with cold carcass weight (CCW) and VIA measurement the coefficient of determination (k-fold-R 2) were 0.458 and 0.532 for FQ and HQ, respectively. On the other hand, employing the most comprehensive model (CCW plus all VIA measurements), the k-fold-R 2 increased from 0.494 to 0.887 and 0.513 to 0.878 with respect to the simplest model (only with CCW), while precision increased with the reduction in the root mean square error (2.958 to 0.947 and 1.841 to 0.787) for the hindquarter fat and lean percentage, respectively. With CCW plus VIA measurements is possible to explain the wholesale value cuts yield variation (k-fold-R 2 between 0.533 and 0.889). Overall, the VIA technology performed in the present study could be considered as an accurate method to assess the horse carcass composition which could have a role in breeding programmes and research studies to assist in the development of a value-based marketing system for horse carcass.

  4. Analysis of yield of retinal imaging in a rural diabetes eye care model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padmaja Kumari Rani

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study is to analyze the yield of retinal images obtained in a rural diabetes eye care model. Methods: An analysis of a sample of nonmydriatic fundus photography (NMFP of posterior segment ophthalmic images, obtained by an indigenous equipment (3 nethra-Forus Royal, was done in a district-wide rural diabetic retinopathy (DR screening program; a trained optometrist did the initial image grading. DR and diabetic macular edema (DME were classified based on international DR and DME severity scale. The agreement between the optometrist and retina specialist was very good (κ = 0.932; standard error = 0.030; 95% confidence interval = 0.874–0.991. Results: Posterior segment images of 2000 eyes of 1000 people with diabetes mellitus (DM were graded. The mean age of the participants was 55.7 ± 11.5 standard deviation years. Nearly 42% of the screened participants (n = 420/1000 needed referral. The most common referable posterior segment abnormality was DR (8.2%. The proportion of people with any form of DR was seen in 110/1225 eyes, and sight-threatening DR was seen in 35/1225 eyes. About 62% of posterior segment images were gradable. The reasons for ungradable posterior segment images (34% were small pupil, unfocused/partially available field of images, and cataract. Conclusion: A NMFP model was able to detect referable posterior segment abnormalities in a rural diabetes eye care program. Reasons found for ungradability of images in the present study can be addressed while designing future DR screening programs in the rural areas.

  5. Correlation and path analysis of seed yield and its components in sesame

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavan, G.V.; Chopde, P.R. (Marathwada Agricultural Univ., Parbhani (India))

    1981-09-01

    A study of 82 M/sub 2/ progenies of 'No. 58-2', 'No. 85' and 'D 7-11-1' varieties of sesame (Sesamum indicum Linn.) irradiated with 25,50,75 and 100 kr gamma-rays and grown in the rainy season of 1977 revealed very strong phenotypic and genotypic associations among seed yield/plant, number of primary branches, days to 50% flowering and length of capsule. Genotypic correlations were higher than phenotypic correlations. Seed yield/plant was highly correlated with the number of branches (0.989) and capsules/plant (0.977). The number of seeds/capsule was negatively correlated with seed yield/plant. The number of primary branches, days to 50% flowering, plant height and length of capsule were correlated positively with the number of capsules/plant but negatively with the number of seeds/capsule except length of capsule and plant height. The number of seeds/capsule had a positive association with the length of the capsule and plant height. The length of capsule had a direct effect on yield. Other characters also had a positive direct effect on yield except the number of seed/capsule. But the number of seeds/capsule had a negative direct effect on yield and positive indirect effect through the length of the capsule.

  6. Stability analysis of oil yield in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) progenies in different environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafii, M Y; Jalani, B S; Rajanaidu, N; Kushairi, A; Puteh, A; Latif, M A

    2012-10-04

    We evaluated 38 dura x pisifera (DP) oil palm progenies in four locations in Malaysia for genotype by environment interaction and genotypic stability studies. The DP progenies derived from crosses between pisifera palms of AVROS, Serdang S27B, Serdang 29/36, and Lever Cameroon were chosen to be the males' parent and Deli dura palms designated as females' parent. All the locations differed in terms of soil physical and chemical properties, and the soil types ranged from coastal clay to inland soils. The genotype by environment interaction and stability of the individual genotypes were analyzed for oil yield trait using several stability techniques. A genotype by environment interaction was detected for oil yield and it had a larger variance component than genotypic variance (σ(2)(gl)/σ(2)(g) = 139.7%). Genotype by environment interaction of oil yield was largely explained by a non-linear relationship between genotypic and environmental values. Overall assessment of individual genotypic stability showed that seven genotypes were highly stable and had consistent performance over the environments for the oil yield trait [total individual genotype stability scored more than 10 and mean oil yielded above the average of the environment (genotype means are more than 34.37 kg·palm(-1)·year(-1))]. These genotypes will be useful for oil palm breeding and tissue culture programs for developing high oil yielding planting materials with stable performance.

  7. Potencial produtivo de videiras cultivadas sob cobertura de plástico Yield potential of grapevine cultivated under plastic cover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Chavarria

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência do uso de cobertura de plástico sobre os componentes do rendimento da videira (Vitis vinifera L. cultivar Moscato Giallo. O experimento foi realizado nas safras 2005/2006 e 2006/2007, em Flores da Cunha, RS, em duas áreas de vinhedo, uma com cobertura de plástico impermeável e outra sem cobertura (controle. O microclima foi avaliado quanto à temperatura e umidade relativa do ar, radiação fotossinteticamente ativa e velocidade do vento próximo ao dossel vegetativo e a os cachos. A avaliação dos componentes de rendimento ocorreu em delineamento experimental inteiramente ao acaso, e foram identificadas dez plantas marcadas aleatoriamente em cada área. Avaliaram-se a produção por planta e por hectare, o número de cachos por planta e por metro quadrado, o número de sarmentos por metro quadrado, a massa e comprimento de cacho, a massa de engaço, o número de bagas por cacho, o diâmetro transversal de bagas e a relação entre massa de película e massa de polpa. Acobertura de plástico possibilita aumento na produtividade, não afeta a relação entre massa de casca e massa de polpa das bagas e favorece a estabilidade de produção, independentemente das condições meteorológicas no ciclo.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of plastic cover on the yield components of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. cultivar Moscato Giallo. The experiment was carried out in 2005/2006 and 2006/2007 crop seasons, in Flores da Cunha, RS, Brazil, in two vineyard areas, one covered with an impermeable plastic film and other without covering (control. The microclimate was evaluated in terms of air temperature, air relative humidity, photosynthetically active radiation and wind speed above canopy and close to clusters. The yield components were evaluated in a completely randomized design, in ten plants randomly selected in each area. Measures were made for production per plant, yield per

  8. Relationship between rice yield and climate variables in southwest Nigeria using multiple linear regression and support vector machine analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguntunde, Philip G; Lischeid, Gunnar; Dietrich, Ottfried

    2018-03-01

    This study examines the variations of climate variables and rice yield and quantifies the relationships among them using multiple linear regression, principal component analysis, and support vector machine (SVM) analysis in southwest Nigeria. The climate and yield data used was for a period of 36 years between 1980 and 2015. Similar to the observed decrease (P  1 and explained 83.1% of the total variance of predictor variables. The SVM regression function using the scores of the first principal component explained about 75% of the variance in rice yield data and linear regression about 64%. SVM regression between annual solar radiation values and yield explained 67% of the variance. Only the first component of the principal component analysis (PCA) exhibited a clear long-term trend and sometimes short-term variance similar to that of rice yield. Short-term fluctuations of the scores of the PC1 are closely coupled to those of rice yield during the 1986-1993 and the 2006-2013 periods thereby revealing the inter-annual sensitivity of rice production to climate variability. Solar radiation stands out as the climate variable of highest influence on rice yield, and the influence was especially strong during monsoon and post-monsoon periods, which correspond to the vegetative, booting, flowering, and grain filling stages in the study area. The outcome is expected to provide more in-depth regional-specific climate-rice linkage for screening of better cultivars that can positively respond to future climate fluctuations as well as providing information that may help optimized planting dates for improved radiation use efficiency in the study area.

  9. Relationship between rice yield and climate variables in southwest Nigeria using multiple linear regression and support vector machine analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguntunde, Philip G.; Lischeid, Gunnar; Dietrich, Ottfried

    2018-03-01

    This study examines the variations of climate variables and rice yield and quantifies the relationships among them using multiple linear regression, principal component analysis, and support vector machine (SVM) analysis in southwest Nigeria. The climate and yield data used was for a period of 36 years between 1980 and 2015. Similar to the observed decrease ( P 1 and explained 83.1% of the total variance of predictor variables. The SVM regression function using the scores of the first principal component explained about 75% of the variance in rice yield data and linear regression about 64%. SVM regression between annual solar radiation values and yield explained 67% of the variance. Only the first component of the principal component analysis (PCA) exhibited a clear long-term trend and sometimes short-term variance similar to that of rice yield. Short-term fluctuations of the scores of the PC1 are closely coupled to those of rice yield during the 1986-1993 and the 2006-2013 periods thereby revealing the inter-annual sensitivity of rice production to climate variability. Solar radiation stands out as the climate variable of highest influence on rice yield, and the influence was especially strong during monsoon and post-monsoon periods, which correspond to the vegetative, booting, flowering, and grain filling stages in the study area. The outcome is expected to provide more in-depth regional-specific climate-rice linkage for screening of better cultivars that can positively respond to future climate fluctuations as well as providing information that may help optimized planting dates for improved radiation use efficiency in the study area.

  10. Analysis of Climate Change Impact on U.S. Crop Yields with Reanalysis Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwata, K.

    2014-12-01

    Increasing the world population, food security in the sense of supplying enough food has become more important. Cereals are considerable matter in food security issues, and production of cereals are heavily threatened by climate change. In 2012, terrible drought which might happen once in a hundred years, caused massive damage to the soybean and corn harvest. This event had impact on the agriculture industry in U.S., and led drastic increase of commodity price. To ensuring food security, influence of climate risk to food production should be comprehended quantitatively. We used ERA-Interim which includes temperature, dew-point, pressure, precipitation, solar radiation and wind speed product, to analyze the world condition of climate changes, and calculated warmth index and dew-point depression. Kira (1977) developed warmth index which has close relationship between distribution of plants living. Dew-point depression represents the wetness of atmosphere. Also, we analyzed crop yields statistics from USDA to clarify what kind of climate condition affect crop yields. Figure 1 shows variance distribution of warmth index. It can be said that area where contains high value of variance, is subject to extreme climatic changes. Figure 2 is a distribution map indicating whether warmth index was higher or lower than average value. In 2012, it was very hot in the wide range of the Russia and North America. Figure 3 shows correlation between yield index and ERA-Interim climate data at each month. Crop yields have been in trend of increasing because technology enhancements such as improving of breeds and cultivation have been occurred. Therefore, we calculated simple moving average as normal value and calculated yield index by dividing the normal value and annual yields (left Figure 3). If yield index was under 100, it was harvest failure in that year. In contrast, if yield index was higher than 100, it was good harvest in that year. In this result, temperature, warmth index and

  11. Evaluation and Bulked Segregant Analysis of Major Yield QTL qtl12.1 Introgressed into Indigenous Elite Line for Low Water Availability under Water Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Manikanda BOOPATHI

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Near isogenic lines carrying large-effect QTL (qtl12.1, which has a consistent influence on grain yield under upland drought stress conditions in a wide range of environments, were evaluated under water stress in the fields. The line which gave higher yield under drought was crossed with a local elite line, PMK3, and forwarded to F2:3 generation. Significant variation was found among the F2:3 lines for agronomic traits under water stress in the fields. Low to high broad sense heritability (H for investigated traits was also found. Water stress indicators such as leaf rolling and leaf drying were negatively correlated with plant height, biomass and grain yield under stress. Bulked segregant analysis (BSA was performed with the markers in the vicinity of qtl12.1, and RM27933 was found to be segregated perfectly well in individual components of drought resistant and drought susceptible bulks which were bulked based on yield under water stress among F2:3 lines. Hence, this simple and breeder friendly marker, RM27933, may be useful as a potentially valuable candidate marker for the transfer of the QTL qtl12.1 in the regional breeding program. Bioinformatic analysis of the DNA sequence of the qtl12.1 region was also done to identify and analyze positional candidate genes associated with this QTL and to ascertain the putative molecular basis of qtl12.1.

  12. Combining farm typology and yield gap analysis to identify major variables limiting yields in the highland coffee systems of Llano Bonito, Costa Rica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bhattarai, Sanjeeb; Alvarez, Stéphanie; Gary, Christian; Rossing, Walter; Tittonell, Pablo; Rapidel, Bruno

    2017-01-01

    Yield variability in space and time is a well-known phenomenon in the highland coffee production systems of Costa Rica. Our objective was to systematically unravel variations and gaps in yields due to the combined effects of farm resources and major production variables in a region of premium

  13. Growth, reproductive phenology and yield responses of a potential biofuel plant, Jatropha curcas grown under projected 2050 levels of elevated CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sumit; Chaitanya, Bharatula S K; Ghatty, Sreenivas; Reddy, Attipalli R

    2014-11-01

    Jatropha (Jatropha curcas) is a non-edible oil producing plant which is being advocated as an alternative biofuel energy resource. Its ability to grow in diverse soil conditions and minimal requirements of essential agronomical inputs compared with other oilseed crops makes it viable for cost-effective advanced biofuel production. We designed a study to investigate the effects of elevated carbon dioxide concentration ([CO(2)]) (550 ppm) on the growth, reproductive development, source-sink relationships, fruit and seed yield of J. curcas. We report, for the first time that elevated CO(2) significantly influences reproductive characteristics of Jatropha and improve its fruit and seed yields. Net photosynthetic rate of Jatropha was 50% higher in plants grown in elevated CO(2) compared with field and ambient CO(2) -grown plants. The study also revealed that elevated CO(2) atmosphere significantly increased female to male flower ratio, above ground biomass and carbon sequestration potential in Jatropha (24 kg carbon per tree) after 1 year. Our data demonstrate that J. curcas was able to sustain enhanced rate of photosynthesis in elevated CO(2) conditions as it had sufficient sink strength to balance the increased biomass yields. Our study also elucidates that the economically important traits including fruit and seed yield in elevated CO(2) conditions were significantly high in J. curcas that holds great promise as a potential biofuel tree species for the future high CO(2) world. © 2014 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  14. Yield potential and fruit quality of scallop squash (Cucurbita pepo L. var. patissonina Greb. f. radiata Nois. cultivars grown for processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugeniusz Kołota

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Scallop squash fruits may be harvested at different stages of development. Small size fruits, intended both for the fresh market and the food industry, have the highest biological value. This study was conducted to determine the yield potential of scallop squash cultivars (‘Polo F1’, ‘Disco’, ‘Gagat’, ‘Okra’, ‘Sunny Delight F1’ grown on mulched (black polyethylene foil or black agrotextile or unmulched soil, and harvested when fruits reached a diameter of 3–6 cm. Based on 3-year average data, the highest marketable and early yield was produced by ‘Sunny Delight F1’. This cultivar is also appreciated by consumers for its yellow colored skin of fruits. Another advantage of this cultivar was its high nutritional value expressed by the highest content of dry matter, vitamin C, polyphenols and minerals (K, P, Ca, Mg, with limited tendency to nitrate accumulation. Among the other cultivars tested, ‘Okra’ showed high yield potential, ‘Gagat’ was a rich source of carotenoids, and ‘Disco’ – polyphenols. Black polyethylene foil and black agrotextile appeared to be equally effective mulching materials. The benefit from the application of mulch was a significant increase in yield without any change in the chemical composition of the fruit.

  15. CERES-Maize model-based simulation of climate change impacts on maize yields and potential adaptive measures in Heilongjiang Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yumei; Wu, Wenxiang; Ge, Quansheng

    2015-11-01

    Climate change would cause negative impacts on future agricultural production and food security. Adaptive measures should be taken to mitigate the adverse effects. The objectives of this study were to simulate the potential effects of climate change on maize yields in Heilongjiang Province and to evaluate two selected typical household-level autonomous adaptive measures (cultivar changes and planting time adjustments) for mitigating the risks of climate change based on the CERES-Maize model. The results showed that flowering duration and maturity duration of maize would be shortened in the future climate and thus maize yield would reduce by 11-46% during 2011-2099 relative to 1981-2010. Increased CO2 concentration would not benefit maize production significantly. However, substituting local cultivars with later-maturing ones and delaying the planting date could increase yields as the climate changes. The results provide insight regarding the likely impacts of climate change on maize yields and the efficacy of selected adaptive measures by presenting evidence-based implications and mitigation strategies for the potential negative impacts of future climate change. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Dual-component video image analysis system (VIASCAN) as a predictor of beef carcass red meat yield percentage and for augmenting application of USDA yield grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannell, R C; Tatum, J D; Belk, K E; Wise, J W; Clayton, R P; Smith, G C

    1999-11-01

    An improved ability to quantify differences in the fabrication yields of beef carcasses would facilitate the application of value-based marketing. This study was conducted to evaluate the ability of the Dual-Component Australian VIASCAN to 1) predict fabricated beef subprimal yields as a percentage of carcass weight at each of three fat-trim levels and 2) augment USDA yield grading, thereby improving accuracy of grade placement. Steer and heifer carcasses (n = 240) were evaluated using VIASCAN, as well as by USDA expert and online graders, before fabrication of carcasses to each of three fat-trim levels. Expert yield grade (YG), online YG, VIASCAN estimates, and VIASCAN estimated ribeye area used to augment actual and expert grader estimates of the remaining YG factors (adjusted fat thickness, percentage of kidney-pelvic-heart fat, and hot carcass weight), respectively, 1) accounted for 51, 37, 46, and 55% of the variation in fabricated yields of commodity-trimmed subprimals, 2) accounted for 74, 54, 66, and 75% of the variation in fabricated yields of closely trimmed subprimals, and 3) accounted for 74, 54, 71, and 75% of the variation in fabricated yields of very closely trimmed subprimals. The VIASCAN system predicted fabrication yields more accurately than current online yield grading and, when certain VIASCAN-measured traits were combined with some USDA yield grade factors in an augmentation system, the accuracy of cutability prediction was improved, at packing plant line speeds, to a level matching that of expert graders applying grades at a comfortable rate.

  17. Métodos para a estimativa do potencial de rendimento da soja durante a ontogenia Methods for estimating the soybean potential yield during ontogeny

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Leonardo Fernandes Pires

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar métodos para a estimativa do potencial de rendimento da soja durante a ontogenia. Os experimentos foram realizados em Eldorado do Sul, RS, durante as safras de 1996/1997, 1999/2000 e 2000/2001. Os tratamentos constaram de cinco cultivares de soja, FT-Saray, IAS 5, IAS 4, FT-Abyara e FEPAGRO RS-10. Cinco métodos foram utilizados para estimar o rendimento que seria obtido se todas as estruturas reprodutivas presentes no florescimento e no início do enchimento de grãos, produzissem grãos na maturação. O potencial de rendimento no florescimento e no enchimento de grãos, apresentou alta correlação com o número de flores e estruturas reprodutivas, respectivamente. Verificou-se, também, correspondência entre os métodos. Não houve, na maioria das vezes, correlações significativas entre o potencial, no florescimento e enchimento de grãos, e o rendimento de grãos na maturação. Os métodos estudados constituem ferramentas importantes para o manejo, quando utilizados para comparar o potencial de rendimento durante a ontogenia.The objective of this work was to study methods to estimate the soybean potential yield during ontogeny. The experiments were performed in Eldorado do Sul, RS, during the growing seasons of 1996/1997, 1999/2000 and 2000/2001. The treatments consisted of five soybean cultivars, FT-Saray, IAS 5, IAS 4, FT-Abyara and FEPAGRO RS-10. It was calculated the potential yield of each cultivar, by five methods, in order to estimate the yield that would be obtained if all the reproductive structures during flowering and beginning of pod filling produced grains at the maturity. Potential yield (during flowering and pod filling presented a high correlation with the number of flowers and reproductive structures, respectively. It was also found a correspondence among the methods. Most of the time, it did not occurred significant correlations between potential (during flowering and pod filling

  18. Analysis of factors determining sediment yield variability in the highlands of northern Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamene, L.; Park, S. J.; Dikau, R.; Vlek, P. L. G.

    2006-06-01

    In many developing countries, sustainable land management and water resources development are threatened by soil erosion and sediment-related problems. In response to such threats, there is an urgent need for improved catchment-based erosion control and sediment management strategies. The design and implementation of such strategies require data on erosion rates and understanding of the factors that control the delivery of sediment through the catchment system. In this study, reservoir sedimentation and corresponding catchment attribute data were used to investigate the major factors controlling sediment yield variability in a mountainous dryland region of northern Ethiopia. Sediment yield data were acquired for representative 11 catchments above reservoirs. Geomorphological and anthropogenic catchment attributes were extracted for each reservoir from different sources including digital elevation models, satellite images and field surveys. Different statistical analyses such as Pearson's correlation, principal components and multiple regression were implemented to analyze the relationship between sediment yield and catchment characteristics and to determine the major factors controlling the variability of sediment yield. The results show that terrain form, gully erosion, surface lithology, and land cover explain most of the variability in sediment yield among the catchments. The implications of the results, for relevant management intervention targeted at ameliorating the major causative factors of erosion, are also outlined.

  19. Habitat Analysis - Trinity River Restoration Potential

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The goal of the Trinity River project is to identify the potential positive effects of large-scale restoration actions in a 63 kilometer reach of the Trinity River...

  20. Geomorphic Analysis - Trinity River Restoration Potential

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The goal of the Trinity River project is to identify the potential positive effects of large-scale restoration actions in a 63 kilometer reach of the Trinity River...

  1. YIELD POTENTIAL AND MINERAL COMPOSITION OF WHITE CLOVER (TRIFOLIUM REPENS L.-TALL FESCUE (FESTUCA ARUNDINACEA SCHREB. MIXTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A TEKELI

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available White clover was sown with tall fescue as tall fescue 25 %+white clover 75 %, tall fescue 50 %+white clover 50 %, tall fescue 75 %+white clover 25 %, 100% tall fescue and white clover. Plots were 2.5 x 5.0 m, arranged in a randomized block design with three replicates. Row distance 25 cm and sowing rates 10 kg ha-1 (white clover and 20 kg ha-1 (tall fescue were used. Plots were mowed about 5 cm (stubble height and then allowed to re-grow to 25-30 cm (plant height. The green fodder yield, dry matter, crude protein, crude cellulose, K/P, Ca/P, Ca/Mg, K/Mg and Ca/K ratios were determined.

  2. Potential link between fruit yield, quality parameters and phytohormonal changes in preharvest UV-C treated strawberry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yanqun; Charles, Marie Thérèse; Luo, Zisheng; Roussel, Dominique; Rolland, Daniel

    2017-07-01

    Preharvest ultraviolet-C (UV-C) treatment of strawberry is a very new approach, and little information is available on the effect of this treatment on plant growth regulators. In this study, the effect of preharvest UV-C irradiations at three different doses on strawberry yield, fruit quality parameters and endogenous phytohormones was investigated simultaneously. The overall marketable yield of strawberry was not affected by the preharvest UV-C treatments, although more aborted and misshapen fruits were found in UV-C treated groups than in the untreated control. The fruits in the high dose group were firmer and had approximately 20% higher sucrose content and 15% higher ascorbic acid content than the control, while fruits from the middle and low dose groups showed no significant changes in these parameters. The lower abscisic acid (ABA) content found in the fruits in the high UV-C group may be associated with those quality changes. The citric acid content decreased only in the low dose group (reduction of 5.8%), with a concomitant 37% reduction in jasmonic acid (JA) content, compared to the control. The antioxidant status of fruits that received preharvest UV-C treatment was considered enhanced based on their oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and malondialdehyde (MDA) content. In terms of aroma, three volatile alcohols differed significantly among the various treatments with obvious activation of alcohol acyltransferase (AAT) activity. The observed synchronous influence on physiological indexes and related phytohormones suggests that preharvest UV-C might affect fruit quality via the action of plant hormones. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Identification of loci associated with embryo yield in microspore culture of Brassica rapa by segregation distortion analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitashiba, Hiroyasu; Taguchi, Kumiko; Kaneko, Ikuyo; Inaba, Kiyofumi; Yokoi, Shuji; Takahata, Yoshihito; Nishio, Takeshi

    2016-10-01

    We identified three physical positions associated with embryo yield in microspore culture of Brassica rapa by segregation distortion analysis. We also confirmed their genetic effects on the embryo yield. Isolated microspore culture is well utilized for the production of haploid or doubled-haploid plants in Brassica crops. Brassica rapa cv. 'Ho Mei' is one of the most excellent cultivars in embryo yield of microspore culture. To identify the loci associated with microspore embryogenesis, segregation analysis of 154 DNA markers anchored to B. rapa chromosomes (A01-A10) was performed using a population of microspore-derived embryos obtained from an F1 hybrid between 'CR-Seiga', a low yield cultivar in microspore-derived embryos, and 'Ho Mei'. Three regions showing significant segregation distortion with increasing 'Ho Mei' alleles were detected on A05, A08 and A09, although these regions showed the expected Mendelian segregation ratio in an F2 population. The additive effect of alleles in these regions on embryo yield was confirmed in a BC3F1 population. One region on A08 containing Br071-5c had a higher effect than the other regions. Polymorphism of nucleotide sequences around the Br071-5c locus was investigated to find the gene possibly responsible for efficient embryogenesis from microspores.

  4. Yield of active screening for tuberculosis among asylum seekers in Germany: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozorgmehr, Kayvan; Razum, Oliver; Saure, Daniel; Joggerst, Brigitte; Szecsenyi, Joachim; Stock, Christian

    2017-03-23

    All asylum seekers in Germany undergo upon-entry screening for tuberculosis TB, but comprehensive evidence on the yield is lacking. We compared the national estimates with the international literature in a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies reporting the yield of TB, defined as the fraction of active TB cases detected among asylum seekers screened in Germany upon entry. We searched 11 national and international databases for empirical studies and the internet for grey literature published in English or German without restrictions on publication time. Among 1,253 screened articles, we identified six articles reporting the yield of active TB based on German data, ranging from 0.72 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.45-1.10) to 6.41 (95% CI: 4.19-9.37) per 1,000 asylum seekers. The pooled estimate across all studies was 3.47 (95% CI: 1.78-5.73; I 2  = 94.9%; p asylum seekers. This estimate was in line with international evidence (I 2  = 0%; p for heterogeneity 0.55). The meta-analysis of available international estimates resulted in a pooled yield of 3.04 (95% CI: 2.24-3.96) per 1,000. This study provides an estimate across several German federal states for the yield of TB screening in asylum seekers. Further research is needed to develop more targeted screening programmes. This article is copyright of The Authors, 2017.

  5. Diagnostic Yield of Chromosomal Microarray Analysis in a Cohort of Patients with Autism Spectrum Disorders from a Highly Consanguineous Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mamari, Watfa; Al-Saegh, Abeer; Al-Kindy, Adila; Bruwer, Zandre; Al-Murshedi, Fathiya; Al-Thihli, Khalid

    2015-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorders are a complicated group of disorders characterized with heterogeneous genetic etiologies. The genetic investigations for this group of disorders have expanded considerably over the past decade. In our study we designed a tired approach and studied the diagnostic yield of chromosomal microarray analysis on patients…

  6. Association mapping analysis of fiber yield and quality traits in Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ademe, Mulugeta Seyoum; He, Shoupu; Pan, Zhaoe; Sun, Junling; Wang, Qinglian; Qin, Hongde; Liu, Jinhai; Liu, Hui; Yang, Jun; Xu, Dongyong; Yang, Jinlong; Ma, Zhiying; Zhang, Jinbiao; Li, Zhikun; Cai, Zhongmin; Zhang, Xuelin; Zhang, Xin; Huang, Aifen; Yi, Xianda; Zhou, Guanyin; Li, Lin; Zhu, Haiyong; Pang, Baoyin; Wang, Liru; Jia, Yinhua; Du, Xiongming

    2017-12-01

    Fiber yield and quality are the most important traits for Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). Identifying high yield and good fiber quality genes are the prime concern of researchers in cotton breeding. Association mapping offers an alternative and powerful method for detecting those complex agronomic traits. In this study, 198 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were used to screen markers associated with fiber yield and quality traits with 302 elite Upland cotton accessions that were evaluated in 12 locations representing the Yellow River and Yangtze River cotton growing regions of China. Three subpopulations were found after the estimation of population structure. The pair-wise kinship values varied from 0 to 0.867. Only 1.59% of the total marker locus pairs showed significant linkage disequilibrium (LD, p cotton molecular breeding programs.

  7. Path and ridge regression analysis of seed yield and seed yield components of Russian wildrye (Psathyrostachys juncea Nevski) under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Quanzhen; Zhang, Tiejun; Cui, Jian; Wang, Xianguo; Zhou, He; Han, Jianguo; Gislum, René

    2011-04-18

    The correlations among seed yield components, and their direct and indirect effects on the seed yield (Z) of Russina wildrye (Psathyrostachys juncea Nevski) were investigated. The seed yield components: fertile tillers m(-2) (Y(1)), spikelets per fertile tillers (Y(2)), florets per spikelet(-) (Y(3)), seed numbers per spikelet (Y(4)) and seed weight (Y(5)) were counted and the Z were determined in field experiments from 2003 to 2006 via big sample size. Y(1) was the most important seed yield component describing the Z and Y(2) was the least. The total direct effects of the Y(1), Y(3) and Y(5) to the Z were positive while Y(4) and Y(2) were weakly negative. The total effects (directs plus indirects) of the components were positively contributed to the Z by path analyses. The seed yield components Y(1), Y(2), Y(4) and Y(5) were significantly (Pridge regression, a steady algorithm model between Z and the five yield components was founded, which can be closely estimated the seed yield via the components.

  8. Analysis of incident-energy dependence of delayed neutron yields in actinides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasir, Mohamad Nasrun bin Mohd, E-mail: monasr211@gmail.com; Metorima, Kouhei, E-mail: kohei.m2420@hotmail.co.jp; Ohsawa, Takaaki, E-mail: ohsawa@mvg.biglobe.ne.jp; Hashimoto, Kengo, E-mail: kengoh@pp.iij4u.or.jp [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Kindai University, Kowakae, Higashi-Osaka, 577-8502 (Japan)

    2015-04-29

    The changes of delayed neutron yields (ν{sub d}) of Actinides have been analyzed for incident energy up to 20MeV using realized data of precursor after prompt neutron emission, from semi-empirical model, and delayed neutron emission probability data (P{sub n}) to carry out a summation method. The evaluated nuclear data of the delayed neutron yields of actinide nuclides are still uncertain at the present and the cause of the energy dependence has not been fully understood. In this study, the fission yields of precursor were calculated considering the change of the fission fragment mass yield based on the superposition of fives Gaussian distribution; and the change of the prompt neutrons number associated with the incident energy dependence. Thus, the incident energy dependent behavior of delayed neutron was analyzed.The total number of delayed neutron is expressed as ν{sub d}=∑Y{sub i} • P{sub ni} in the summation method, where Y{sub i} is the mass yields of precursor i and P{sub ni} is the delayed neutron emission probability of precursor i. The value of Y{sub i} is derived from calculation of post neutron emission mass distribution using 5 Gaussian equations with the consideration of large distribution of the fission fragments. The prompt neutron emission ν{sub p} increases at higher incident-energy but there are two different models; one model says that the fission fragment mass dependence that prompt neutron emission increases uniformly regardless of the fission fragments mass; and the other says that the major increases occur at heavy fission fragments area. In this study, the changes of delayed neutron yields by the two models have been investigated.

  9. Comparative analysis of mycobacterium and related actinomycetes yields insight into the evolution of mycobacterium tuberculosis pathogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McGuire Abigail

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The sequence of the pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb strain H37Rv has been available for over a decade, but the biology of the pathogen remains poorly understood. Genome sequences from other Mtb strains and closely related bacteria present an opportunity to apply the power of comparative genomics to understand the evolution of Mtb pathogenesis. We conducted a comparative analysis using 31 genomes from the Tuberculosis Database (TBDB.org, including 8 strains of Mtb and M. bovis, 11 additional Mycobacteria, 4 Corynebacteria, 2 Streptomyces, Rhodococcus jostii RHA1, Nocardia farcinia, Acidothermus cellulolyticus, Rhodobacter sphaeroides, Propionibacterium acnes, and Bifidobacterium longum. Results Our results highlight the functional importance of lipid metabolism and its regulation, and reveal variation between the evolutionary profiles of genes implicated in saturated and unsaturated fatty acid metabolism. It also suggests that DNA repair and molybdopterin cofactors are important in pathogenic Mycobacteria. By analyzing sequence conservation and gene expression data, we identify nearly 400 conserved noncoding regions. These include 37 predicted promoter regulatory motifs, of which 14 correspond to previously validated motifs, as well as 50 potential noncoding RNAs, of which we experimentally confirm the expression of four. Conclusions Our analysis of protein evolution highlights gene families that are associated with the adaptation of environmental Mycobacteria to obligate pathogenesis. These families include fatty acid metabolism, DNA repair, and molybdopterin biosynthesis. Our analysis reinforces recent findings suggesting that small noncoding RNAs are more common in Mycobacteria than previously expected. Our data provide a foundation for understanding the genome and biology of Mtb in a comparative context, and are available online and through TBDB.org.

  10. Comparative analysis of Mycobacterium and related Actinomycetes yields insight into the evolution of Mycobacterium tuberculosis pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Abigail Manson; Weiner, Brian; Park, Sang Tae; Wapinski, Ilan; Raman, Sahadevan; Dolganov, Gregory; Peterson, Matthew; Riley, Robert; Zucker, Jeremy; Abeel, Thomas; White, Jared; Sisk, Peter; Stolte, Christian; Koehrsen, Mike; Yamamoto, Robert T; Iacobelli-Martinez, Milena; Kidd, Matthew J; Maer, Andreia M; Schoolnik, Gary K; Regev, Aviv; Galagan, James

    2012-03-28

    The sequence of the pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) strain H37Rv has been available for over a decade, but the biology of the pathogen remains poorly understood. Genome sequences from other Mtb strains and closely related bacteria present an opportunity to apply the power of comparative genomics to understand the evolution of Mtb pathogenesis. We conducted a comparative analysis using 31 genomes from the Tuberculosis Database (TBDB.org), including 8 strains of Mtb and M. bovis, 11 additional Mycobacteria, 4 Corynebacteria, 2 Streptomyces, Rhodococcus jostii RHA1, Nocardia farcinia, Acidothermus cellulolyticus, Rhodobacter sphaeroides, Propionibacterium acnes, and Bifidobacterium longum. Our results highlight the functional importance of lipid metabolism and its regulation, and reveal variation between the evolutionary profiles of genes implicated in saturated and unsaturated fatty acid metabolism. It also suggests that DNA repair and molybdopterin cofactors are important in pathogenic Mycobacteria. By analyzing sequence conservation and gene expression data, we identify nearly 400 conserved noncoding regions. These include 37 predicted promoter regulatory motifs, of which 14 correspond to previously validated motifs, as well as 50 potential noncoding RNAs, of which we experimentally confirm the expression of four. Our analysis of protein evolution highlights gene families that are associated with the adaptation of environmental Mycobacteria to obligate pathogenesis. These families include fatty acid metabolism, DNA repair, and molybdopterin biosynthesis. Our analysis reinforces recent findings suggesting that small noncoding RNAs are more common in Mycobacteria than previously expected. Our data provide a foundation for understanding the genome and biology of Mtb in a comparative context, and are available online and through TBDB.org.

  11. Nutrient uptake, biomass yield and quantitative analysis of aliphatic aldehydes in cilantro plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the nutrient uptake, biomass production and yield of the major compounds in the essential oil of five genotypes of Coriandrum sativum L. The treatments were four accessions donated by the National Genetic Resources Advisory Council (NGRAC), U.S. Department...

  12. MISSE 2 PEACE Polymers Experiment Atomic Oxygen Erosion Yield Error Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Catherine E.; Banks, Bruce A.; deGroh, Kim, K.

    2010-01-01

    Atomic oxygen erosion of polymers in low Earth orbit (LEO) poses a serious threat to spacecraft performance and durability. To address this, 40 different polymer samples and a sample of pyrolytic graphite, collectively called the PEACE (Polymer Erosion and Contamination Experiment) Polymers, were exposed to the LEO space environment on the exterior of the International Space Station (ISS) for nearly 4 years as part of the Materials International Space Station Experiment 1 & 2 (MISSE 1 & 2). The purpose of the PEACE Polymers experiment was to obtain accurate mass loss measurements in space to combine with ground measurements in order to accurately calculate the atomic oxygen erosion yields of a wide variety of polymeric materials exposed to the LEO space environment for a long period of time. Error calculations were performed in order to determine the accuracy of the mass measurements and therefore of the erosion yield values. The standard deviation, or error, of each factor was incorporated into the fractional uncertainty of the erosion yield for each of three different situations, depending on the post-flight weighing procedure. The resulting error calculations showed the erosion yield values to be very accurate, with an average error of 3.30 percent.

  13. Trend Analysis of Climate Change Factors and Yield of Yam in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... in Bayelsa State should as a matter of priority guide policy makers in the state in particular and Nigeria in general. Emphasis must be renewed for increased yam production in the state to forestall hunger and food insecurity situation. Keywords: Climate Change, Trend, Yield of yam, Temperature, Rainfall, Bayelsa State.

  14. Genetic analysis of Test Day Milk Yields of Brown Swiss cattle raised ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 3696 Test Day Milk Yield (TDMY) records of Brown Swiss cows raised at Konuklar State Farm in the Konya Province of Turkey were used for estimating phenotypic and genetic parameters for TDMY. The phenotypic and genetic parameters were estimated by an MTDFREML programme using a Single Trait Animal ...

  15. Analysis of the yielding behavior of electrorheological suspensions by controlled shear stress experiments

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pavlínek, V.; Sáha, P.; Perez-Gonzales, K.; de Vargas, L.; Stejskal, Jaroslav; Quadrat, Otakar

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 16, 1-2 (2006), s. 14-18 ISSN 1430-6395 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/06/0419 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : electrorheology * yield stress * suspensions * polyaniline Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry

  16. Plant growth analysis used as secondary traits in selection for high yield on groundnut

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manshuri, A.G.; Nugrahaeni

    1996-01-01

    Groundnut growth and yield can be expressed as the product to solar radiation interception (Qi), conversion efficiency of radiation to total dry matter (Ek) and partitioning efficiency to economic yield (Ep) or harvest index. Groundnut genotypes differ in characters related to Qi, Ek and Ep, and the characters have the possibility to be used as secondary traits in selection for high yield. Extinction coefficient (k) and leaf area index (LAI) are the influential factors in increasing Qi. Variability in leaf size lead to the description of the existence of variability in k value within the genotypes under study. LAI three is the level necessary to attain 90 percent total radiation absorption in groundnut. An increased of LAI exceeding four would be inefficient for increasing the fraction of radiation absorption. Convertion efficiency of radiation to total dry matter (Ek) related to the rate of plant photosynthesis and respiration, inspite of the need study the field, however, the study was still limited. Harvest index can be used as a secondary trait to identify high yield genotypes. There was a positive correlation between pod yield and harvest index. An increased of harvest index by 1 percent caused an increased of dry pod as high as 0.365 g/plant. ICG 1697, ICGV 86844 and ICGV 87161 gave yield more than 3.5 t/ha, and their total dry matter (TDM) were 49.2, 52.5 and 40.7 g/plant, whereas their harvest indexes (HI) were 0.47, 0.46 and 0.55, respectively. Theoretically, improvement of the groundnut pod yield can be attained by using variety which has TDM 52.5 g/plant and HI 0.55. Using HI as secondary selection criteria, five genotypes were selected, i.e., G/C/LM-88-B-25 (HI 0.59), local Irian and local Lombok (HI 0.57), ICGV 87161 and LM/ICGV 87165-B-2-1 (HI 0.55). Two genotypes were selected for their high TDM, namely ICGV 86844 and LM/ICGV 87165-88-B-82 [in

  17. Path and ridge regression analysis of seed yield and seed yield components of Russian wildrye (Psathyrostachys juncea Nevski under field conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quanzhen Wang

    Full Text Available The correlations among seed yield components, and their direct and indirect effects on the seed yield (Z of Russina wildrye (Psathyrostachys juncea Nevski were investigated. The seed yield components: fertile tillers m(-2 (Y(1, spikelets per fertile tillers (Y(2, florets per spikelet(- (Y(3, seed numbers per spikelet (Y(4 and seed weight (Y(5 were counted and the Z were determined in field experiments from 2003 to 2006 via big sample size. Y(1 was the most important seed yield component describing the Z and Y(2 was the least. The total direct effects of the Y(1, Y(3 and Y(5 to the Z were positive while Y(4 and Y(2 were weakly negative. The total effects (directs plus indirects of the components were positively contributed to the Z by path analyses. The seed yield components Y(1, Y(2, Y(4 and Y(5 were significantly (P<0.001 correlated with the Z for 4 years totally, while in the individual years, Y(2 were not significant correlated with Y(3, Y(4 and Y(5 by Peason correlation analyses in the five components in the plant seed production. Therefore, selection for high seed yield through direct selection for large Y(1, Y(2 and Y(3 would be effective for breeding programs in grasses. Furthermore, it is the most important that, via ridge regression, a steady algorithm model between Z and the five yield components was founded, which can be closely estimated the seed yield via the components.

  18. Consumer Attitudes, Market Potential and Microbiological Analysis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to explore consumers' attitudes and market potential for a fermented dairy product-kefir. It was also intended to produce experimental kefir and undertake nutritional, microbial, texture and viscosity analyses as well as sensory quality evaluation. In order to meet the objectives, a direct questionnaire ...

  19. The Effect of Test Machine Compliance on the Measured Shear Punch Yield Stress as Predicted Using Finite Element Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toloczko, Mychailo; Abe, Katsunori; Hamilton, Margaret L.; Garner, Francis A.; Kurtz, Richard J.

    2001-10-01

    In previous research involving the use of the shear punch test, it was assumed that the displacement of the punch tip was only slightly different than the crosshead displacement. The present work explores this assumption and its ramifications by simulating the shear punch test with finite element analysis (FEA). The simulations suggest that punch tip displacement is much less than previously assumed, and that for the test frames which have been used, crosshead displacement is over an order of magnitude greater than punch tip displacement. This difference in displacements is thought to be due to test machine and punch compliance, and a simple elasticity calculation of the compliance of the punch, the test machine, and a specimen gives a result which is in agreement with the FEA simulations. The effect of using punch tip displacement on the observed effective shear yield stress was evaluated using FEA simulated shear punch tests on several different metals. Yield was measured at several different offset shear strains with a 1.0% offset shear yield strength measurement providing the best correlation with 0.2% offset uniaxial yield strength. When using the 1.0% offset shear yield values, the previously observed material-to-material variability in the tensile-shear correlation all but disappeared. Based on this work, it appears that the material-to-material variations in prior correlations between uniaxial yield strength and shear yield strength is due to a combination of large test machine compliance and material-to-material differences in the work hardening exponent.

  20. Cluster Analysis of Acute Care Use Yields Insights for Tailored Pediatric Asthma Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abir, Mahshid; Truchil, Aaron; Wiest, Dawn; Nelson, Daniel B; Goldstick, Jason E; Koegel, Paul; Lozon, Marie M; Choi, Hwajung; Brenner, Jeffrey

    2017-09-01

    We undertake this study to understand patterns of pediatric asthma-related acute care use to inform interventions aimed at reducing potentially avoidable hospitalizations. Hospital claims data from 3 Camden city facilities for 2010 to 2014 were used to perform cluster analysis classifying patients aged 0 to 17 years according to their asthma-related hospital use. Clusters were based on 2 variables: asthma-related ED visits and hospitalizations. Demographics and a number of sociobehavioral and use characteristics were compared across clusters. Children who met the criteria (3,170) were included in the analysis. An examination of a scree plot showing the decline in within-cluster heterogeneity as the number of clusters increased confirmed that clusters of pediatric asthma patients according to hospital use exist in the data. Five clusters of patients with distinct asthma-related acute care use patterns were observed. Cluster 1 (62% of patients) showed the lowest rates of acute care use. These patients were least likely to have a mental health-related diagnosis, were less likely to have visited multiple facilities, and had no hospitalizations for asthma. Cluster 2 (19% of patients) had a low number of asthma ED visits and onetime hospitalization. Cluster 3 (11% of patients) had a high number of ED visits and low hospitalization rates, and the highest rates of multiple facility use. Cluster 4 (7% of patients) had moderate ED use for both asthma and other illnesses, and high rates of asthma hospitalizations; nearly one quarter received care at all facilities, and 1 in 10 had a mental health diagnosis. Cluster 5 (1% of patients) had extreme rates of acute care use. Differences observed between groups across multiple sociobehavioral factors suggest these clusters may represent children who differ along multiple dimensions, in addition to patterns of service use, with implications for tailored interventions. Copyright © 2017 American College of Emergency Physicians

  1. Diagnostic yield of methylene blue chromoendoscopy for detecting specialized intestinal metaplasia and dysplasia in Barrett's esophagus: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngamruengphong, Saowanee; Sharma, Virender K; Das, Ananya

    2009-05-01

    The reported yield of methylene-blue (MB) chromoendoscopy targeted biopsy in detecting specialized intestinal metaplasia (SIM) and, more importantly, dysplasia in patients with Barrett's esophagus (BE) has shown variable results. To perform a meta-analysis of published studies for assessment of the diagnostic yield of techniques of chromoendoscopy compared with conventional 4-quadrant random biopsy (RB) in detection of SIM and dysplasia in patients with BE. A literature search of the MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Databases was performed, along with a search of PubMed and a manual search of cross-references of eligible articles. Data on yield of both modalities were extracted and analyzed to estimate weighted incremental yield (IY) and 95% CIs of MB over RB using a fixed-effects or random-effects model, as appropriate, based on whether homogeneity or heterogeneity, respectively, was indicated by Cochrane's Q chi(2) test. A total of 450 patients with BE were reported in 9 studies included in the meta-analysis. There was no significant IY with MB over RB for detection of SIM (IY 4%; 95% CI, -7% to 16%; 6 studies, n = 251), dysplasia (IY 9%; 95% CI, -1% to 20%; 9 studies, n = 450), and high-grade dysplasia and/or early cancer (IY 5%; 95% CI, -1% to 10%; 8 studies, n = 405). Only data on MB were analyzed because of limited availability of data for other chromoendoscopy dyes, minor variations in inclusion and exclusion criteria, and the small sample size, and because differences in application technique could have led to an underestimation of the diagnostic yield of MB chromoendoscopy. The technique of MB chromoendoscopy has only a comparable yield with RB for the detection of SIM and dysplasia during endoscopic evaluation of patients with BE.

  2. Vineyard Yield Estimation Based on the Analysis of High Resolution Images Obtained with Artificial Illumination at Night

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davinia Font

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a method for vineyard yield estimation based on the analysis of high-resolution images obtained with artificial illumination at night. First, this paper assesses different pixel-based segmentation methods in order to detect reddish grapes: threshold based, Mahalanobis distance, Bayesian classifier, linear color model segmentation and histogram segmentation, in order to obtain the best estimation of the area of the clusters of grapes in this illumination conditions. The color spaces tested were the original RGB and the Hue-Saturation-Value (HSV. The best segmentation method in the case of a non-occluded reddish table-grape variety was the threshold segmentation applied to the H layer, with an estimation error in the area of 13.55%, improved up to 10.01% by morphological filtering. Secondly, after segmentation, two procedures for yield estimation based on a previous calibration procedure have been proposed: (1 the number of pixels corresponding to a cluster of grapes is computed and converted directly into a yield estimate; and (2 the area of a cluster of grapes is converted into a volume by means of a solid of revolution, and this volume is converted into a yield estimate; the yield errors obtained were 16% and −17%, respectively.

  3. Vineyard Yield Estimation Based on the Analysis of High Resolution Images Obtained with Artificial Illumination at Night

    Science.gov (United States)

    Font, Davinia; Tresanchez, Marcel; Martínez, Dani; Moreno, Javier; Clotet, Eduard; Palacín, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a method for vineyard yield estimation based on the analysis of high-resolution images obtained with artificial illumination at night. First, this paper assesses different pixel-based segmentation methods in order to detect reddish grapes: threshold based, Mahalanobis distance, Bayesian classifier, linear color model segmentation and histogram segmentation, in order to obtain the best estimation of the area of the clusters of grapes in this illumination conditions. The color spaces tested were the original RGB and the Hue-Saturation-Value (HSV). The best segmentation method in the case of a non-occluded reddish table-grape variety was the threshold segmentation applied to the H layer, with an estimation error in the area of 13.55%, improved up to 10.01% by morphological filtering. Secondly, after segmentation, two procedures for yield estimation based on a previous calibration procedure have been proposed: (1) the number of pixels corresponding to a cluster of grapes is computed and converted directly into a yield estimate; and (2) the area of a cluster of grapes is converted into a volume by means of a solid of revolution, and this volume is converted into a yield estimate; the yield errors obtained were 16% and −17%, respectively. PMID:25860071

  4. Potential for the slow growing coral Diploastrea heliopora to yield multi-century Western Pacific Warm Pool climate records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maupin, C. R.; Quinn, T. M.; Taylor, F. W.

    2009-12-01

    Coral-based stable isotope records of climate variability have begun to provide insight into behavior of the Western Pacific Warm Pool (WPWP), a planetary heat and moisture source and the center of action for the largest source of interannual climate variability on the planet, the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). However, no multi-century stable isotope records from the WPWP exist, as the commonly utilized Porites spp. corals from the WPWP region tend to have a relatively short lifespan (< 200 years). Therefore, development of stable isotope records from the longer lived and slower growing (< 0.5 cm yr-1) coral Diploastrea heliopora is a critical step in generating multi-century WPWP-based climate records and examining modern behavior of ENSO in the context of the immediate preindustrial period. However, previous work has emphasized the difficulty of sampling the intricate skeleton of D. heliopora. Here we have utilized a computer controlled micro-milling stage to extract approximately monthly resolved samples from the columnella of individual polyps of cores collected from a D. heliopora colony from off of Olasana Island (8°07.92’ S, 156°54.50’ E), Western Province, Solomon Islands. The Western Province lies within the WPWP, under the South Pacific Convergence Zone, and ENSO-related variability is exhibited by instrumental salinity, rainfall and temperature time series. The ENSO events contained within the resulting preliminary 52-year (1939-1991) time series of δ18O generated from the Olasana D. heliopora colony are unambiguous, and the ENSO-band filtered time series is strongly correlated with the NINO 3.4 index. Additionally, δ18O variations are highly reproducible between individual polyps sampled. These results suggest that careful sampling of this rarely utilized coral can yield robust, multi-century time series of climate variability from D. heliopora from the WPWP.

  5. The results of an experimental indoor hydroponic Cannabis growing study, using the 'Screen of Green' (ScrOG) method-Yield, tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and DNA analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Glenys; Hansen, Sean; Connor, Mark; Poulsen, Helen; McGovern, Catherine; Stacey, Janet

    2010-10-10

    The results of an indoor hydroponic Cannabis growth study are presented. It is intended that this work will be of assistance to those with an interest in determining an estimation of yield and value of Cannabis crops. Three cycles of six plants were grown over a period of 1 year in order to ascertain the potential yield of female flowering head material from such an operation. The cultivation methods used were selected to replicate typical indoor hydroponic Cannabis growing operations, such as are commonly encountered by the New Zealand Police. The plants were also tested to ascertain the percentage of the psychoactive chemical Δ-9 tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) present in the flowering head material, and were genetically profiled by STR analysis. Phenotypic observations are related to the data collected. The inexperience of the growers was evidenced by different problems encountered in each of the three cycles, each of which would be expected to negatively impact the yield and THC data obtained. These data are therefore considered to be conservative. The most successful cycle yielded an average of 881g (31.1oz) of dry, groomed female flowering head per plant, and over the whole study the 18 plants yielded a total of 12,360g (436.0oz), or an average of 687g (24.2oz) of dry head per plant. THC data shows significant intra-plant variation and also demonstrates inter-varietal variation. THC values for individual plants ranged from 4.3 to 25.2%. The findings of this study and a separate ESR research project illustrate that the potency of Cannabis grown in New Zealand has dramatically increased in recent years. DNA analysis distinguished distinct groups in general agreement with the phenotypic variation observed. One plant however, exhibiting a unique triallelic pattern at two of the five loci tested, while remaining phenotypically indistinguishable from three other plants within the same grow. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Online evaluation of a commercial video image analysis system (Computer Vision System) to predict beef carcass red meat yield and for augmenting the assignment of USDA yield grades. United States Department of Agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannell, R C; Belk, K E; Tatum, J D; Wise, J W; Chapman, P L; Scanga, J A; Smith, G C

    2002-05-01

    Objective quantification of differences in wholesale cut yields of beef carcasses at plant chain speeds is important for the application of value-based marketing. This study was conducted to evaluate the ability of a commercial video image analysis system, the Computer Vision System (CVS) to 1) predict commercially fabricated beef subprimal yield and 2) augment USDA yield grading, in order to improve accuracy of grade assessment. The CVS was evaluated as a fully installed production system, operating on a full-time basis at chain speeds. Steer and heifer carcasses (n = 296) were evaluated using CVS, as well as by USDA expert and online graders, before the fabrication of carcasses into industry-standard subprimal cuts. Expert yield grade (YG), online YG, CVS estimated carcass yield, and CVS measured ribeye area in conjunction with expert grader estimates of the remaining YG factors (adjusted fat thickness, percentage of kidney-pelvic-heart fat, hot carcass weight) accounted for 67, 39, 64, and 65% of the observed variation in fabricated yields of closely trimmed subprimals. The dual component CVS predicted wholesale cut yields more accurately than current online yield grading, and, in an augmentation system, CVS ribeye measurement replaced estimated ribeye area in determination of USDA yield grade, and the accuracy of cutability prediction was improved, under packing plant conditions and speeds, to a level close to that of expert graders applying grades at a comfortable rate of speed offline.

  7. Path and ridge regression analysis of seed yield and seed yield components of Russian wildrye (Psathyrostachys juncea Nevski) under field conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Quanzhen; Zhang, Tiejun; Cui, Jian

    2011-01-01

    numbers per spikelet (Y4) and seed weight (Y5) were counted and the Z were determined in field experiments from 2003 to 2006 via big sample size. Y1 was the most important seed yield component describing the Z and Y2 was the least. The total direct effects of the Y1, Y3 and Y5 to the Z were positive while...... were not significant correlated with Y3, Y4 and Y5 by Peason correlation analyses in the five components in the plant seed production. Therefore, selection for high seed yield through direct selection for large Y1, Y2 and Y3 would be effective for breeding programs in grasses. Furthermore......The correlations among seed yield components, and their direct and indirect effects on the seed yield (Z) of Russina wildrye (Psathyrostachys juncea Nevski) were investigated. The seed yield components: fertile tillers m-2 (Y1), spikelets per fertile tillers (Y2), florets per spikelet- (Y3), seed...

  8. Spatiotemporal analysis the precipitation extremes affecting rice yield in Jiangsu province, southeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jin; Islam, A. R. M. Towfiqul; Zhang, Fangmin; Hu, Zhenghua

    2017-10-01

    With the increasing risk of meteorological disasters, it is of great importance to analyze the spatiotemporal changes of precipitation extremes and its possible impact on rice productivity, especially in Jiangsu province, southeast China. In this study, we explored the relationships between rice yield and extreme precipitation indices using Mann-Kendall trend test, Pettitt's test, and K-means clustering methods. This study used 10 extreme precipitation indices of the rice growing season (May to October) based on the daily precipitation records and rice yield data at 52 meteorological stations during 1961-2012 in Jiangsu province. The main findings were as follows: (1) correlation results indicated that precipitation extremes occurred in the months of July, August, and October, which had noticeable adverse effects on rice yield; (2) the maximum 7-day precipitation of July and the number of rainy days of August and October should be considered as three key indicators for the precipitation-induced rice meteorological disasters; and (3) most of the stations showed an increasing trends for the maximum 7-day precipitation of July and the number of rainy days of August, while the number of rainy days of October in all the stations demonstrated a decreasing trend. Moreover, Jiangsu province could be divided into two major sub-regions such as north and south areas with different temporal variations in the three key indicators.

  9. A comparative analysis of three habitat suitability models for commercial yield estimation of Tapes philippinarum in a North Adriatic coastal lagoon (Sacca di Goro, Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincenzi, Simone; Caramori, Graziano; Rossi, Remigio; De Leo, Giulio A

    2007-01-01

    Habitat Suitability (HS) models have been extensively used by conservation planners to estimate the spatial distribution of threatened species and of species of commercial interest. In this work we compare three HS models for the estimation of commercial yield potential and the identification of suitable sites for Tapes philippinarum rearing in the Sacca di Goro lagoon (Italy) on the basis of six environmental factors. The habitat suitability index (HSI) is based on expert opinion while the habitat suitability conditional (HSC) is calibrated on observational data. The habitat suitability mixed (HSM) model is a two-part model combining expert knowledge and regression analysis: the first component of the model uses logistic regression to identify the areas in which clams are likely to be present; the second part applies the same parameter-specific suitability functions of the HSI model only in the areas previously identified as productive by the logistic component. The HS models were validated on an independent data set and estimates of potential yield of the Goro lagoon were compared. The effectiveness of the three approaches is then discussed in terms of predicted yield and identification of suitable sites for farming.

  10. Equity yields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrugt, E.; van Binsbergen, J.H.; Koijen, R.S.J.; Hueskes, W.

    2013-01-01

    We study a new data set of dividend futures with maturities up to ten years across three world regions: the US, Europe, and Japan. We use these asset prices to construct equity yields, analogous to bond yields. We decompose the equity yields to obtain a term structure of expected dividend growth

  11. A Multidisciplinary Phenotyping and Genotyping Analysis of a Mapping Population Enables Quality to Be Combined with Yield in Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariafe Calingacion

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study a mapping population (F8 of ca 200 progeny from a cross between the commercial rice varieties Apo and IR64 has been both genotyped and phenotyped. A genotyping-by-sequencing approach was first used to identify 2,681 polymorphic SNP markers which gave dense coverage of the genome with a good distribution across all 12 chromosomes. The coefficient of parentage was also low, at 0.13, confirming that the parents are genetically distant from each other. The progeny, together with both parents, were grown under irrigated and water restricted conditions in a randomised block design. All grain was harvested to determine variation in yield across the population. The grains were then polished following standard procedures prior to performing the phenotyping analyses. A Gas Chromatography—Mass Spectrometry approach was used to determine the volatile biochemical profiles of each line and after data curation and processing, discriminatory metabolites were putatively identified based on in-house and commercial spectral libraries. These data were used to predict the potential role of these metabolites in determining differences in aroma between genotypes. A number of QTLs for yield and for individual metabolites have been identified. Following these combined multi-disciplinary analyses, it proved possible to identify a number of lines which appeared to combine the favourable aroma attributes of IR64 with the favourable (higher yield potential of Apo. As such, these lines are excellent candidates to assess further as potential genotypes to work up into a new variety of rice which has both good yield and good quality, thus meeting the needs of both farmer and consumer alike.

  12. Genome-wide analysis of esophageal adenocarcinoma yields specific copy number aberrations that correlate with prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankel, Adam; Armour, Nicola; Nancarrow, Derek; Krause, Lutz; Hayward, Nicholas; Lampe, Guy; Smithers, B Mark; Barbour, Andrew

    2014-04-01

    The incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) has been increasing rapidly for the past 3 decades in Western (Caucasian) populations. Curative treatment is based around esophagectomy, which has a major impact on quality of life. For those suitable for treatment with curative intent, 5-year survival is ∼30%. More accurate prognostic tools are therefore needed, and copy number aberrations (CNAs) may offer the ability to act as prospective biomarkers in this regard. We performed a genome-wide examination of CNAs in 54 samples of EAC using single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays. Our aims were to describe frequent regions of CNA, to define driver CNAs, and to identify CNAs that correlated with survival. Regions of frequent amplification included oncogenes such as EGFR, MYC, KLF12, and ERBB2, while frequently deleted regions included tumor suppressor genes such as CDKN2A/B, PTPRD, FHIT, and SMAD4. The genomic identification of significant targets in cancer (GISTIC) algorithm identified 24 regions of gain and 28 regions of loss that were likely to contain driver changes. We discovered 61 genes in five regions that, when stratified by CNA type (gain or loss), correlated with a statistically significant difference in survival. Pathway analysis of the genes residing in both the GISTIC and prognostic regions showed they were significantly enriched for cancer-related networks. Finally, we discovered that copy-neutral loss of heterozygosity is a frequent mechanism of CNA in genes currently targetable by chemotherapy, potentially leading to under-reporting of cases suitable for such treatment. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Assessment of bioethanol yield by S. cerevisiae grown on oil palm residues: Monte Carlo simulation and sensitivity analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samsudin, Mohd Dinie Muhaimin; Mat Don, Mashitah

    2015-01-01

    Oil palm trunk (OPT) sap was utilized for growth and bioethanol production by Saccharomycescerevisiae with addition of palm oil mill effluent (POME) as nutrients supplier. Maximum yield (YP/S) was attained at 0.464g bioethanol/g glucose presence in the OPT sap-POME-based media. However, OPT sap and POME are heterogeneous in properties and fermentation performance might change if it is repeated. Contribution of parametric uncertainty analysis on bioethanol fermentation performance was then assessed using Monte Carlo simulation (stochastic variable) to determine probability distributions due to fluctuation and variation of kinetic model parameters. Results showed that based on 100,000 samples tested, the yield (YP/S) ranged 0.423-0.501g/g. Sensitivity analysis was also done to evaluate the impact of each kinetic parameter on the fermentation performance. It is found that bioethanol fermentation highly depend on growth of the tested yeast. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Development of high yield reassortants for influenza type B viruses and analysis of their gene compositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Jianhua; Orff, Edward J; Fulvini, Andrew A; Huang, Liling; Onodera, Shiroh; Pokorny, Barbara A; Malewicz, Andrew; Primakov, Patricia; Bucher, Doris J

    2015-02-11

    A critical step in producing the annual inactivated influenza vaccine is the development of high yield (hy) seed viruses by reassortment for improved growth in ovo. Although hy reassortants for type A influenza viruses have been developed for many years, hy B influenza reassortant virus development for vaccine production has proven difficult. In this study, we have developed fourteen hy influenza type B reassortants as vaccine candidate strains with B/Lee/40 as the donor virus. Upon characterization by the Influenza Division at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the verification of HA by sequencing, all B reassortants were found to be antigenically indistinguishable from the wild type (wt) parents and suitable for vaccine production. However, only one hy reassortant seed virus from this group was used by a manufacturer for vaccine production. In general, hy reassortants showed an increase in hemagglutination (HA) titers over their wt parents by approximately 8 fold (range 1-32 fold). Gene compositions of the hy B reassortants were analyzed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and the wt origin of the HA and neuraminidase (NA) were confirmed. However, in contrast to hy A reassortants which require the M gene (hy donor A/PR/8/34) for high yield, all fourteen hy B reassortants obtained the NP gene from the hy donor strain (B/Lee/40). The parental source for the remaining genes varied among the hy B reassortants. The results indicate that the B/Lee/40 NP and PB1 gene segments are important contributors to high yield growth in influenza B reassortant viruses for both Yamagata and Victoria lineages. The B/Lee/40 PB2 gene along with wt NS gene also contributed to the improved growth for hy reassortants of Yamagata lineage. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Trochanteric entry femoral nails yield better femoral version and lower revision rates-A large cohort multivariate regression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Richard S; Gage, Mark J; Galos, David K; Donegan, Derek J; Liporace, Frank A

    2017-06-01

    Intramedullary nailing (IMN) has become the standard of care for the treatment of most femoral shaft fractures. Different IMN options include trochanteric and piriformis entry as well as retrograde nails, which may result in varying degrees of femoral rotation. The objective of this study was to analyze postoperative femoral version between three types of nails and to delineate any significant differences in femoral version (DFV) and revision rates. Over a 10-year period, 417 patients underwent IMN of a diaphyseal femur fracture (AO/OTA 32A-C). Of these patients, 316 met inclusion criteria and obtained postoperative computed tomography (CT) scanograms to calculate femoral version and were thus included in the study. In this study, our main outcome measure was the difference in femoral version (DFV) between the uninjured limb and the injured limb. The effect of the following variables on DFV and revision rates were determined via univariate, multivariate, and ordinal regression analyses: gender, age, BMI, ethnicity, mechanism of injury, operative side, open fracture, and table type/position. Statistical significance was set at ptrochanteric entry nails (n=67). Univariate regression analysis revealed that a lower BMI was significantly associated with a lower DFV (p=0.006). Controlling for possible covariables, multivariate analysis yielded a significantly lower DFV for trochanteric entry nails than piriformis or retrograde nails (7.9±6.10 vs. 9.5±7.4 vs. 9.4±7.8°, ptrochanteric entry nails also had a significantly lower revision rate, even when controlling for all other variables (ptrochanteric nails had a significantly lower DFV and a lower revision rate, even after regression analysis. However, this is not to state that the other nail types exhibited abnormal DFV. Translation to the clinical impact of a few degrees of DFV is also unknown. Future studies to more in-depth study the intricacies of femoral version may lead to improved technology in addition to

  16. Analysis and computation of statistic fluctuations in ICF neutron yield measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Zhongjie; Zheng Zhijian; Yi Rongqing; Liu Shenye; Ding Yongkun; Deng Caibo

    2011-01-01

    The plastic scintillation detector is used to measure the yield of DD neutrons or DT neutrons. Fast neutrons incident on the scintillator give rise to recoil protons. Because the range of the recoil protons is usually small compared with the dimensions of the scintillator, their full energy is deposited in the scintillator. The statistic fluctuation of the protons' number and that of the protons' total energy are two sources of the measurement uncertainty. Based on DT neutrons, this paper presents the algorithms to compute the probability density functions of the two statistic fluctuations. The algorithms are applicable to the related computation for other fast monoenergetic neutrons in the plastic scintillator. (authors)

  17. Monte Carlo analysis of accelerator-driven systems studies on spallation neutron yield and energy gain

    CERN Document Server

    Hashemi-Nezhad, S R; Westmeier, W; Bamblevski, V P; Krivopustov, M I; Kulakov, B A; Sosnin, A N; Wan, J S; Odoj, R

    2001-01-01

    The neutron yield in the interaction of protons with lead and uranium targets has been studied using the LAHET code system. The dependence of the neutron multiplicity on target dimensions and proton energy has been calculated and the dependence of the energy amplification on the proton energy has been investigated in an accelerator-driven system of a given effective multiplication coefficient. Some of the results are compared with experimental findings and with similar calculations by the DCM/CEM code of Dubna and the FLUKA code system used in CERN. (14 refs).

  18. Temperature and precipitation effects on wheat yield across a European transect: a crop model ensemble analysis using impact response surfaces

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pirttioja, N. K.; Carter, T. R.; Fronzek, S.; Bindi, M.; Hoffmann, H. D.; Palosuo, T.; Ruiz-Ramos, M.; Tao, F.; Trnka, Miroslav; Acutis, M.; Asseng, S.; Baranowski, P.; Basso, B.; Bodin, P.; Buis, S.; Cammarano, D.; Deligios, P.; Destain, M. F.; Dumont, B.; Ewert, F.; Ferrise, R.; Francois, L.; Gaiser, T.; Hlavinka, Petr; Jacquemin, I.; Kersebaum, K. C.; Kollas, C.; Krzyszczak, J.; Lorite, I. J.; Minet, J.; Minquez, M. I.; Montesino, M.; Moriondo, M.; Müller, C.; Nendel, C.; Öztürk, I.; Perego, A.; Rodriguez, A.; Ruane, A. C.; Ruget, F.; Sanna, M.; Semenov, M. A.; Slawinski, C.; Stratonovitch, P.; Supit, I.; Waha, K.; Wang, E.; Wu, L.; Zhao, Z.; Rötter, R. P.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 65, č. 31 (2015), s. 87-105 ISSN 0936-577X R&D Projects: GA MZe QJ1310123; GA MŠk(CZ) LD13030 Grant - others:German Federal Ministries of Education and Research, and Food and Agriculture(DE) 2812ERA115 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : climate * crop model * impact response surface * IRS * sensitivity analysis * wheat * yield Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 1.690, year: 2015

  19. Temporal Variations of Water Productivity in Irrigated Corn: An Analysis of Factors Influencing Yield and Water Use across Central Nebraska.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Carr

    Full Text Available Water Productivity (WP of a crop defines the relationship between the economic or physical yield of the crop and its water use. With this concept it is possible to identify disproportionate water use or water-limited yield gaps and thereby support improvements in agricultural water management. However, too often important qualitative and quantitative environmental factors are not part of a WP analysis and therefore neglect the aspect of maintaining a sustainable agricultural system. In this study, we examine both the physical and economic WP in perspective with temporally changing environmental conditions. The physical WP analysis was performed by comparing simulated maximum attainable corn yields per unit of water using the crop model Hybrid-Maize with observed data from 2005 through 2013 from 108 farm plots in the Central Platte and the Tri Basin Natural Resource Districts of Nebraska. In order to expand the WP analysis on external factors influencing yields, a second model, Maize-N, was used to estimate optimal nitrogen (N-fertilizer rate for specific fields in the study area. Finally, a vadose zone flow and transport model, HYDRUS-1D for simulating vertical nutrient transport in the soil, was used to estimate locations of nitrogen pulses in the soil profile. The comparison of simulated and observed data revealed that WP was not on an optimal level, mainly due to large amounts of irrigation used in the study area. The further analysis illustrated year-to-year variations of WP during the nine consecutive years, as well as the need to improve fertilizer management to favor WP and environmental quality. In addition, we addressed the negative influence of groundwater depletion on the economic WP through increasing pumping costs. In summary, this study demonstrated that involving temporal variations of WP as well as associated environmental and economic issues can represent a bigger picture of WP that can help to create incentives to sustainably

  20. Method and analysis for determining yielding of titanium alloy with nonlinear Rayleigh surface waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Shifeng; Zhang, Lei; Mirshekarloo, Meysam Sharifzadeh; Chen, Shuting; Chen, Yi Fan; Wong, Zheng Zheng; Shen, Zhiyuan; Liu, Huajun; Yao, Kui, E-mail: k-yao@imre.a-star.edu.sg

    2016-07-04

    Methods for determining yielding of titanium (Ti) alloy material with second harmonic Rayleigh ultrasonic wave are investigated. Both piezoelectric angle beam transducers and high frequency laser scanning vibrometer (LSV) are used to detect ultrasonic signals in the Ti alloy specimens with different plastic strain levels. Technical features and outcomes with use of piezoelectric transducers and LSV are compared. The method using piezoelectric transducers, with much higher signal-to-noise ratio than LSV, has been further improved by deploying two transducers with central frequencies corresponding to the fundamental and second order harmonic signals respectively to improve the testing reliability and accuracy. Both the techniques using piezoelectric transducer and LSV demonstrate consistently that the acoustic nonlinearity increases with plastic strain, and the second harmonic Rayleigh ultrasonic wave can be utilized for effective determination of yielding in Ti alloy. Our experiments further show that the acoustic nonlinearity increases gradually with plastic strain at small plastic strain level, and there is a more significant increase of acoustic nonlinearity when the plastic strain reaches a higher level. Microscopic investigations using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) are conducted for clarifying the relationship between the observed acoustic nonlinearity and micro-structural changes.

  1. Analysis of heat stress in UK dairy cattle and impact on milk yields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Robert J. H.; Mead, Naomi E.; Willett, Kate M.; Parker, David E.

    2014-05-01

    Much as humans suffer from heat-stress during periods of high temperature and humidity, so do dairy cattle. Using a temperature-humidity index (THI), we investigate the effect of past heatwaves in the UK on heat-stress in dairy herds. Daily THI data derived from routine meteorological observations show that during the summer, there has been an average of typically 1 day per year per station over the past 40 years when the THI has exceeded the threshold for the onset of mild heat-stress in dairy cattle. However, during the heatwaves of 2003 and 2006, this threshold was exceeded on typically 5 days on average in the Midlands, south and east of England. Most dairy cattle are in the west and north of the country and so did not experience the severest heat. Milk yield data in the south-west of England show that a few herds experienced decreases in yields during 2003 and 2006. We used the 11-member regional climate model ensemble with the A1B scenario from UKCP09 to investigate the possible future change in days exceeding the THI threshold for the onset of mild heat-stress. The number of days where the THI exceeds this threshold could increase to over 20 days yr-1 in southern parts of England by the end of the century.

  2. Acetosolv pulping of Eucalyptus globulus wood. Pt. 1. The effect of operational variables on pulp yield, pulp lignin content and pulp potential glucose content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vazquez, G. [Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Univ. of Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Antorrena, G. [Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Univ. of Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Gonzalez, J. [Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Univ. of Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

    1995-07-01

    The HCl-catalysed delignification of Eucalyptus globulus wood by aqueous acetic acid was optimized in accordance with an incomplete 3x3x3 factorial design with HCl concentration (0-0.05%), temperature (120-160 C) and reaction time (1-4 h) as independent variables and pulp yield, pulp lignin content and pulp potential glucose content as dependent variables. Empirical equations derived from the results satisfactorily predict the influence of the independent variables on these characteristics of the delignification process and the delignified pulps. (orig.)

  3. Diallel Analysis using Hayman Method to Study Genetic Parameters of Yield Components in Pepper(Capsicum annuum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUHAMAD SYUKUR

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available One method to obtain genetic information is the diallel cross analysis. The objective of this study was to eavluate the genetic parameters of six inbred pepper (Capsicum annuum L. using full diallel crosses. The experiment was conducted at IPB Experiment Field, Cikabayan, Darmaga. The design was randomized complete block design (RCBD using three replications as blocks. Data from generation F1 and parents were analyzed using the Hayman Method. Results indicated that no epistatic effects were significant for all the traits assessed. Additive genetic effects were larger than the dominant effects for yield per plant, fruit length, and diameter fruit traits. Dominant genetic effects were larger than the additive effects for fruit weight traits. Narrow-sense and broad-sense heritability were high for all the traits assessed. The character of the yield per plant, fruit weight and fruit diameter shows that there were more dominant genes in the parents. There were more recessive genes in parents for the fruit length character. IPB C7 parent was the most recessive genes containing control characters in the yield per plant. In the new improved varieties of high yielding, IPB C7 could be crossed with IPB C9. Employing individual or mass selection breeding should be successful in developing high-productivity lines in this population.

  4. Yield and Water Productivity Responses to Irrigation Cut-off Strategies after Fruit Set Using Stem Water Potential Thresholds in a Super-High Density Olive Orchard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis E. Ahumada-Orellana

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available An increase in the land area dedicated to super-high density olive orchards has occurred in Chile in recent years. Such modern orchards have high irrigation requirements, and optimizing water use is a priority. Moreover, this region presents low water availability, which makes necessary to establish irrigation strategies to improve water productivity. An experiment was conducted during four consecutive growing seasons (2010–2011 to 2013–2014 to evaluate the responses of yield and water productivity to irrigation cut-off strategies. These strategies were applied after fruit set using midday stem water potential (Ψstem thresholds in a super-high density olive orchard (cv. Arbequina, located in the Pencahue Valley, Maule Region, Chile. The experimental design was completely randomized with four irrigation cut-off treatments based on the Ψstem thresholds and four replicate plots per treatment (five trees per plot. Similar to commercial growing conditions in our region, the Ψstem in the T1 treatment was maintained between -1.4 and -2.2 MPa (100% of actual evapotranspiration, while T2, T3 and T4 treatments did not receive irrigation from fruit set until they reached a Ψstem threshold of approximately -3.5, -5.0, and -6.0 MPa, respectively. Once the specific thresholds were reached, irrigation was restored and maintained as T1 in all treatments until fruits were harvested. Yield and its components were not significantly different between T1 and T2, but fruit yield and total oil yield, fruit weight, and fruit diameter were decreased by the T3 and T4 treatments. Moreover, yield showed a linear response with water stress integral (SΨ, which was strongly influenced by fruit load. Total oil content (% and pulp/stone ratio were not affected by the different irrigation strategies. Also, fruit and oil water productivities were significantly greater in T1 and T2 than in the T3 and T4. Moreover, the T2, T3, and T4 treatments averaged 37, 51, and 72 days

  5. Yield and Water Productivity Responses to Irrigation Cut-off Strategies after Fruit Set Using Stem Water Potential Thresholds in a Super-High Density Olive Orchard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahumada-Orellana, Luis E.; Ortega-Farías, Samuel; Searles, Peter S.; Retamales, Jorge B.

    2017-01-01

    An increase in the land area dedicated to super-high density olive orchards has occurred in Chile in recent years. Such modern orchards have high irrigation requirements, and optimizing water use is a priority. Moreover, this region presents low water availability, which makes necessary to establish irrigation strategies to improve water productivity. An experiment was conducted during four consecutive growing seasons (2010–2011 to 2013–2014) to evaluate the responses of yield and water productivity to irrigation cut-off strategies. These strategies were applied after fruit set using midday stem water potential (Ψstem) thresholds in a super-high density olive orchard (cv. Arbequina), located in the Pencahue Valley, Maule Region, Chile. The experimental design was completely randomized with four irrigation cut-off treatments based on the Ψstem thresholds and four replicate plots per treatment (five trees per plot). Similar to commercial growing conditions in our region, the Ψstem in the T1 treatment was maintained between -1.4 and -2.2 MPa (100% of actual evapotranspiration), while T2, T3 and T4 treatments did not receive irrigation from fruit set until they reached a Ψstem threshold of approximately -3.5, -5.0, and -6.0 MPa, respectively. Once the specific thresholds were reached, irrigation was restored and maintained as T1 in all treatments until fruits were harvested. Yield and its components were not significantly different between T1 and T2, but fruit yield and total oil yield, fruit weight, and fruit diameter were decreased by the T3 and T4 treatments. Moreover, yield showed a linear response with water stress integral (SΨ), which was strongly influenced by fruit load. Total oil content (%) and pulp/stone ratio were not affected by the different irrigation strategies. Also, fruit and oil water productivities were significantly greater in T1 and T2 than in the T3 and T4. Moreover, the T2, T3, and T4 treatments averaged 37, 51, and 72 days without

  6. Applicability of multiple yield model to earthquake response analysis for foundation rock of large-scale structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshinaka, Ryunoshin; Iwata, Naoki; Sasaki, Takeshi

    2012-01-01

    The authors are analyzed the large-scale structure build on the discontinuous rock foundation by earthquake response analysis with non-linear FEM considering the rock joint system using the actual earthquake record. The earthquake response analysis was performed by equivalent continuum finite element method as Multiple Yield Model (MYM) introducing cyclic loading elastic-plastic deformation characteristics of rock joints, and the analytical results were compared with the observed earthquake response. As a result, adequate modeling of discontinuities and appropriate setting of mechanical properties of rock and discontinuities give the good results corresponding with the observations. We confirmed the applicability of MYM to earthquake response. (author)

  7. Potential forcing of CO{sub 2}, technology and climate changes in maize (Zea mays) and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) yield in southeast Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, L C; Justino, F; Oliveira, L J C; Sediyama, G C; Lemos, C F [Department of Agricultural Engineering, Federal University of Vicosa, PH Rolfs S/N, Vicosa, MG, 36570 000 (Brazil); Ferreira, W P M [Embrapa Milho e Sorgo, Rodovia MG 424, km 45, Caixa Postal 285, CEP 35701-970 Sete Lagoas, MG (Brazil)], E-mail: fjustino@ufv.br

    2009-01-15

    Based upon sensitivity experiments, this study aims to investigate the impact of increased atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration, climate changes, and ongoing technological advancements on bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and maize (Zea mays) yield. This investigation assumes that the atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration evolves according to the A2 scenario. For these analyses we have used climate data as projected by climate simulations conducted with the HadCM3 climate model for both present day and greenhouse warming conditions. The results demonstrated that warming conditions associated with increased greenhouse gases as delivered by the HadCM3 model lead to reductions in the potential productivity of maize and beans for the years 2050 and 2080 by up to 30%. This thermal response is, however, damped by the highly efficient CO{sub 2} fertilization effect which is expected to increase bean productivity as compared to present day conditions. A similar investigation for maize yield revealed a different picture. It has been found that the CO{sub 2} fertilization feedback is much weaker and cannot cancel out the thermal effect. We have found, therefore, that climate changes as simulated to occur in the future are not favorable for increasing the maize yield in southeast Brazil. By the inclusion of the third forcing evaluated, representing technological advancements, it is demonstrated that improvements in the crop system reduce the negative effect associated with warmer climate conditions for both crops. We conclude that appropriate soil and technological management as well as genetic improvements may very likely induce an increase in bean and maize yield despite the unfavorable future climate conditions.

  8. Potential forcing of CO2, technology and climate changes in maize (Zea mays) and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) yield in southeast Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, L. C.; Justino, F.; Oliveira, L. J. C.; Sediyama, G. C.; Ferreira, W. P. M.; Lemos, C. F.

    2009-01-01

    Based upon sensitivity experiments, this study aims to investigate the impact of increased atmospheric CO2 concentration, climate changes, and ongoing technological advancements on bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and maize (Zea mays) yield. This investigation assumes that the atmospheric CO2 concentration evolves according to the A2 scenario. For these analyses we have used climate data as projected by climate simulations conducted with the HadCM3 climate model for both present day and greenhouse warming conditions. The results demonstrated that warming conditions associated with increased greenhouse gases as delivered by the HadCM3 model lead to reductions in the potential productivity of maize and beans for the years 2050 and 2080 by up to 30%. This thermal response is, however, damped by the highly efficient CO2 fertilization effect which is expected to increase bean productivity as compared to present day conditions. A similar investigation for maize yield revealed a different picture. It has been found that the CO2 fertilization feedback is much weaker and cannot cancel out the thermal effect. We have found, therefore, that climate changes as simulated to occur in the future are not favorable for increasing the maize yield in southeast Brazil. By the inclusion of the third forcing evaluated, representing technological advancements, it is demonstrated that improvements in the crop system reduce the negative effect associated with warmer climate conditions for both crops. We conclude that appropriate soil and technological management as well as genetic improvements may very likely induce an increase in bean and maize yield despite the unfavorable future climate conditions.

  9. Thermal and electrical energy yield analysis of a directly water cooled photovoltaic module

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mtunzi Busiso

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrical energy of photovoltaic modules drops by 0.5% for each degree increase in temperature. Direct water cooling of photovoltaic modules was found to give improved electrical and thermal yield. A prototype was put in place to analyse the field data for a period of a year. The results showed an initial high performance ratio and electrical power output. The monthly energy saving efficiency of the directly water cooled module was found to be approximately 61%. The solar utilisation of the naturally cooled photovoltaic module was found to be 8.79% and for the directly water cooled module its solar utilisation was 47.93%. Implementation of such systems on households may reduce the load from the utility company, bring about huge savings on electricity bills and help in reducing carbon emissions.

  10. Diallel analysis of maize inbred lines for grain yield, oil and protein content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir José Klein Werle

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the combining ability and heterotic effects on grain yield (GY, oil content (OC and crude protein (CP in tropical and temperate maize lines. Hybrids and inbred lines were evaluated in a complete diallel scheme without reciprocals, in two experiments in randomized blocks with three replications. The partitioning of the sum of squares for general (GCA and specific (SCA combining ability indicated that both additive and non-additive effects were involved in the genetic control of the studied traits. The estimates of the quadratic components showed predominance of non-additive genetic effects in the trait control. However, for OC and CP, the non-additive effect had a clearly negative influenc

  11. Comprehensive analysis of large α yields observed in 6Li-induced reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Jin; Moro, Antonio M.

    2017-04-01

    Background: Large α yields have been reported over the years in reactions with 6Li and 7Li projectiles. Previous theoretical analyses have shown that the elastic breakup (EBU) mechanism (i.e., projectile breakup leaving the target in its ground state) is able to account only for a small fraction of the total α -inclusive breakup cross sections, pointing toward the dominance of nonelastic breakup (NEB) mechanisms. Purpose: We aim to provide a systematic study of the α -inclusive cross sections observed in nuclear reactions induced by 6Li projectiles. In addition to estimating the total α singles' cross sections, it is our goal to evaluate angular and energy distributions of these α particles and compare them with experimental data, when available. Method: We compute separately the EBU and NEB components of the inclusive breakup cross sections. For the former, we use the continuum-discretized coupled-channels (CDCC) method, which treats this mechanism to all orders. For the NEB part, we employ the model proposed by Ichimura et al. [Phys. Rev. C 32, 431 (1985)], 10.1103/PhysRevC.32.431, within the distorted-wave Born approximation (DWBA). Results: Overall, the sum of the computed EBU and NEB cross sections is found to reproduce very well the measured singles' cross sections. In all cases analyzed, we find that the inclusive breakup cross section is largely dominated by the NEB component. Conclusions: The presented method provides a global and systematic description of inclusive breakup reactions induced by 6Li projectiles. It provides also a natural explanation of the previously observed underestimation of the measured α yields by CDCC calculations. The method used here can be extended to other weakly bound projectiles, including halo nuclei.

  12. Recycling as a strategy against rare earth element criticality: a systemic evaluation of the potential yield of NdFeB magnet recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rademaker, Jelle H; Kleijn, René; Yang, Yongxiang

    2013-09-17

    End-of-life recycling is promoted by OECD countries as a promising strategy in the current global supply crisis surrounding rare earth elements (REEs) so that dependence on China, the dominant supplier, can be decreased. So far the feasibility and potential yield of REE recycling has not been systematically evaluated. This paper estimates the annual waste flows of neodymium and dysprosium from permanent magnets, the main deployment of these critical REEs, during the 2011-2030 period. The estimates focus on three key permanent magnet waste flows: wind turbines, hybrid and electric vehicles, and hard disk drives (HDDs) in personal computers (PCs). This is a good indication of the end-of-life recycling of neodymium and dysprosium maximum potential yield. Results show that for some time to come, waste flows from permanent magnets will remain small relative to the rapidly growing global REE demand. Policymakers therefore need to be aware that during the next decade recycling is unlikely to substantially contribute to global REE supply security. In the long term, waste flows will increase sharply and will meet a substantial part of the total demand for these metals. Future REE recycling efforts should, therefore, focus on the development of recycling technology and infrastructure.

  13. Homogeneity analysis of high yield manufacturing process of mems-based pzt thick film vibrational energy harvesters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lei, Anders; Xu, Ruichao; Pedersen, C.M.

    2011-01-01

    This work presents a high yield wafer scale fabrication of MEMS-based unimorph silicon/PZT thick film vibrational energy harvesters aimed towards vibration sources with peak frequencies in the range of a few hundred Hz. By combining KOH etching with mechanical front side protection, SOI wafer...... to accurately define the thickness of the silicon part of the harvester and a silicon compatible PZT thick film screen-printing technique, we are able to fabricate energy harvesters on wafer scale with a yield higher than 90%. The characterization of the fabricated harvesters is focused towards the full wafer....../mass-production aspect; hence the analysis of uniformity in harvested power and resonant frequency....

  14. Genetic parameters and path analysis of yield and its components in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Arup

    dysentery (Nadkarni, 1927). India ranks first in okra production which contributes 67% of the total world production (Anonymous, 2010). However, the productivity. (10.6 ton/ha) is much less than the potential productivity. Several reasons for low productivity include use of local unimproved cultivars, less adoption of existing.

  15. Natural Pigment Production by Monascus purpureus: Improving the yield in a bioreactor based on statistical analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atieh Seyedin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available AbstractDue to the especial properties such as high growth rates, easy extraction as well as high yields, using microorganisms in comparison to other sources is more chosen for pigment production. Pigments are used in food industries as natural colorants and preservatives, they also have pharmaceutical applications. In this study, fungus Monascus purpureus PTCC 5303 have been used to produce red, orange and yellow pigments. At first significant variables were screened based on plackett-Burman design and then the optimized value of two effectivefactors such as yeast extract and K2HPO4 concentrations wasoptimized byresponse surface method. Optimal levels of factors were found to be 2/75 g/L yeast extract and1/5 g/LK2HPO4 respectively. Antimicrobial activity of pigments was evaluated on Gram-positive foodborne bacteria under optimal conditionswhich resultsshowed inhibitory effects. Moreover Pigments production at optimal conditions in a bioreactor was evaluatedand the rate of production of red, orange and yellow pigments, 2.05, 1.55 and 0.78 (ODU/ml were observed respectively.  

  16. Quantum yield and lifetime data analysis for the UV curable quantum dot nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Cheng

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The quantum yield (QY and lifetime are the important parameters for the photoluminescent materials. The data here report the changes of the QY and lifetime for the quantum dot (QD nanocomposite after the UV curing of the urethane acrylate prepolymer. The data were collected based on the water soluble CdTe QDs and urethane acrylate prepolymer. Colloidal QDs were in various concentration from 0.5×10−3 molL−1 to 10×10−3 molL−1, and 1% (wt% 1173 was the photoinitiator. The QY before the curing was 56.3%, 57.8% and 58.6% for the QDs 510 nm, 540 nm and 620 nm, respectively. The QY after the curing was changed to 8.9%, 9.6% and 13.4% for the QDs 510 nm, 540 nm and 620 nm, respectively. Lifetime data showed that the lifetime was changed from 23.71 ns, 24.55 ns, 23.52 ns to 1.29 ns, 2.74 ns, 2.45 ns for the QDs 510 nm, 540 nm and 620 nm, respectively.

  17. Econometric Analysis of Effects of Nitrogenous Fertilizer Usage on Tomato Yield in Tokat, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilge Gözener

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the effects of nitrogen fertilizer application on tomato yield by using econometric models. The data obtained by questionnaire from 53 farmers who produce tomatoes in Tokat province constitute the main material of the study. The Simple Random Sampling Method was used to determine the sample size with a 90% confidence interval and 10% margin of error. Nine models were tried to determine the best model to explain the effect of nitrogenous fertilizer usage in tomato cultivation. The data in the models were used to calculate the growers’ optimal fertilizer amount of use (physical optimum and economical optimum values were calculated and the results were compared to the ones suggested by the experts. As a result, through the statistical studies, quadratic model was found to be the most suitable one. It has been determined that tomato farmers use less (10.54 kg da-1 or excess (23.48 kg da-1 N fertilizer than the level at which economic optimum is achieved.

  18. Genetic analysis on some yield traits of pea (Pisum sativum L. crosses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VALENTIN KOSEV

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The trial was carried during 2011-2013 on the second experimental field of the Institute of Forage Crops – Pleven, Bulgaria. Eight generations (P1, P2, F1, F2, RC1 and each reciprocal generation from a cross between the Shtambovii and Pleven 10 varieties were sown in this study. Five traits were evaluated: number of pods and seeds per plant, seed weight per plant, plant weight and number of fertile nodes per plant were used as components of yield. Positive true heterosis for the investigated traits was found in all hybrids of F1 generations. At F1BC - Shtamboviii х Pleven 10 was observed negative heterosis effects for number of pods and seeds per plant and seed weight per plant, and F1BC - Pleven 10 х Shtambovii for plant weight and number of fertile nodes per plant. In F2 the plants from Shtamboviii х Pleven 10 had the strongest depression for number of seeds per plant and from Pleven 10 х Shtambovii for plant weight. High level on the indices of transgression was found for all traits. All traits except plant weight and number of fertile nodes per plant had epistatic gene effects. The results showed that for plant weight selection will be more effective if it starts in later hybrid generations. Traits number of fertile nodes and seeds per plant were the characteristics with the highest values for selection.

  19. Conformational analysis of a Chlamydia-specific disaccharide {alpha}-Kdo-(2{sup {yields}}8)-{alpha}-Kdo-(2{sup {yields}}O)-allyl in aqueous solution and bound to a monoclonal antibody: Observation of intermolecular transfer NOEs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sokolowski, Tobias; Haselhorst, Thomas; Scheffler, Karoline [Medizinische Universitaet, Institut fuer Chemie (Germany); Weisemann, Ruediger [Bruker Analytik GmbH, Silberstreifen (Germany); Kosma, Paul [Institut fuer Chemie der Universitaet fuer Bodenkultur Wien (Austria); Brade, Helmut; Brade, Lore [Forschungszentrum Borstel, Zentrum fuer Medizin und Biowissenschaften Parkallee 22 (Germany); Peters, Thomas [Medizinische Universitaet, Institut fuer Chemie (Germany)

    1998-07-15

    The disaccharide {alpha}-Kdo-(2{sup {yields}}8)-{alpha}-Kdo (Kdo: 3-deoxy-d-manno-oct-2-ulosonic acid) represents a genus-specific epitope of the lipopolysaccharide of the obligate intracellular human pathogen Chlamydia. The conformation of the synthetically derived disaccharide {alpha}-Kdo-(2{sup {yields}}8)-{alpha}-Kdo-(2{sup {yields}}O)-allyl was studied in aqueous solution, and complexed to a monoclonal antibody S25-2. Various NMR experiments based on the detection of NOEs (or transfer NOEs) and ROEs (or transfer ROEs) were performed. A major problem was the extensive overlap of almost all {sup 1}H NMR signals of {alpha}-Kdo-(2{sup {yields}}8)-{alpha}-Kdo-(2{sup {yields}}O)-allyl. To overcome this difficulty, HMQC-NOESY and HMQC-trNOESY experiments were employed. Spin diffusion effects were identified using trROESY experiments, QUIET-trNOESY experiments and MINSY experiments. It was found that protein protons contribute to the observed spin diffusion effects. At 800 MHz, intermolecular trNOEs were observed between ligand protons and aromatic protons in the antibody binding site. From NMR experiments and Metropolis Monte Carlo simulations, it was concluded that {alpha}-Kdo-(2{sup {yields}}8)-{alpha}-Kdo-(2{sup {yields}}O)-allyl in aqueous solution exists as a complex conformational mixture. Upon binding to the monoclonal antibody S25-2, only a limited range of conformations is available to {alpha}-Kdo-(2{sup {yields}}8)-{alpha}-Kdo-(2{sup {yields}}O)-allyl. These possible bound conformations were derived from a distance geometry analysis using transfer NOEs as experimental constraints. It is clear that a conformation is selected which lies within a part of the conformational space that is highly populated in solution. This conformational space also includes the conformation found in the crystal structure. Our results provide a basis for modeling studies of the antibody-disaccharide complex.

  20. Genetic analysis for sooty mold resistance and heart of palm yield in Archontophoenix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bovi Marilene Leão Alves

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Archontophoenix palms, utilized both as ornamental species and as a source of high-quality heart of palm, are susceptible to sooty mold, a disease coupled with aphid infestation, which affects photosynthesis and causes unpleasant, darkish palm appearance. Scoring rates for sooty mold resistance and three growth traits were assessed under field conditions in 24 open-pollinated half-sibs families, 28 months after planting, aiming to identify genetic variability for sooty mold resistance; estimate genetic parameters for this trait and plant height, diameter and number of leaves; estimate genetic and phenotypic correlation for the four traits and evaluate selection methods for heart of palm production through multi-trait index selection based on growth traits. There were genetic differences among families for all traits. The low coefficient of variation for sooty mold (9.48% indicates that the visual rating method adopted was effective and feasible for comparing aphid plus sooty mold infestation levels in Archontophoenix. Narrow sense heritability estimates were low and medium for growth traits (0.10, 0.26 and 0.26 for leaves number, plant diameter and height, respectively and very high (0.91 for sooty mold resistance. Genetic correlation was found between sooty mold resistance and plant height. This positive relationship indicates that culling of very susceptible palms can be done possibily without interference in the follow up indirect selection for heart of palm yield. Some selection strategies were presented, showing that possible genetic gain could range from 6.23 to 11.83%, depending on the selection method adopted and on the effective restriction of the population size.

  1. Analysis of factors which limited the spatial variation of barley yield on the forest-steppe chernozems of Kursk region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belik, Anton; Vasenev, Ivan; Jablonskikh, Lidia; Bozhko, Svetlana

    2017-04-01

    The crop yield is the most important indicator of the efficiency of agricultural production. It is the function that depends on a large number of groups of independent variables, such as the weather, soil fertility and overall culture agriculture. A huge number of combinations of these factors contribute to the formation of high spatial variety of crop yields within small areas, includes the slope agrolandscapes in Kursk region. Spatial variety of yield leads to a significant reduction in the efficiency of agriculture. In this connection, evaluation and analysis of the factors, which limits the yield of field crops is a very urgent proble in agroecology. The research was conducted in the period of 2003-2004 on a representative field. The typical and leached chernozems with the varying thickness and of erosion degree are dominated in soil cover. At the time of field research studied areas were busy by barley. The reseached soils have an average and increased fertility level. Chernozem typical full-face, and the leached contain an average of 4.5-6% humus, close to neutral pH, favorable values of physico-chemical parameters, medium and high content of nutrients. The eroded chernozems differs agrogenic marked declining in fertility parameters. The diversity of meso- and micro-relief in the fields and soil cover influence to significant spatial variety of fertility. For example the content of nutrients in the soil variation can be up to 5-fold level. High spatial heterogeneity of soils fertility ifluence to barley yield variety. During research on the productivity of the field varied in the range of 20-43 c/ha, and 7-44 c/ha (2004). Analysis of the factors, which limited the yield of barley, showed that the first priorities occupy unregulated characterises: slope angle and the classification of soils (subtype and race of chernozem and the difference in the degree of erosion), which determines the development of erosion processes and redistribution available to plants

  2. Qualitative trait loci analysis for seed yield and component traits in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present investigation was carried out to identify the molecular markers associated with various characters in sunflower using recombinant inbred lines. Linkage analysis was carried out and five linkage groups were obtained with 19 simple sequence repeats (SSR) markers. Linkage map construction, single marker ...

  3. Uncertainty modelling and analysis of environmental systems: a river sediment yield example

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keesman, K.J.; Koskela, J.; Guillaume, J.H.; Norton, J.P.; Croke, B.; Jakeman, A.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract: Throughout the last decades uncertainty analysis has become an essential part of environmental model building (e.g. Beck 1987; Refsgaard et al., 2007). The objective of the paper is to introduce stochastic and setmembership uncertainty modelling concepts, which basically differ in the

  4. MOLECULAR ANALYSIS OF HUMAN SPERMATOZOA: POTENTIAL FOR INFERTILITY RESEARCH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon Research Conference: Mammalian Gametogenesis and Embryogenesis New London, CT, July 1-6, 2000Molecular Analysis of Human Spermatozoa: Potential for Infertility ResearchDavid Miller 1, David Dix2, Robert Reid 3, Stephen A Krawetz 3 1Reproductive ...

  5. Biomass yielding potential of naturally regenerated Prosopis juliflora tree stands at three varied ecosystems in southern districts of Tamil Nadu, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraswathi, K; Chandrasekaran, S

    2016-05-01

    Fuel energy demand is of great concern in recent times due to the depletion of fossil fuel resources. Biomass serves as widely available primary renewable energy source. Hence, a study was performed to assess the above-ground biomass yielding capability of fuel wood tree Prosopis juliflora in three varied ecosystems viz., coastal, fallow land and riparian ecosystems in southern districts of Tamil Nadu. The results showed that the biomass production potential and above-ground net primary productivity of P. juliflora depend on the age of the tree stands and the nature of ecosystem. A higher biomass yield was observed for P. juliflora trees with 5 to 10 years old when compared to less than 5 years of their age. Among the three ecosystems, the maximum biomass production was recorded in riparian ecosystem. The stands with less than 5-year-old P. juliflora trees gave 1.40 t/ha, and 5- to 10-year-old tree stands produced 27.69 t/ha in riparian ecosystem. Above-ground net primary productivity of both the age groups was high in fallow land ecosystem. In riparian ecosystem, the wood showed high density and low sulphur content than the other two ecosystems. Hence, P. juliflora biomass can serve as an environmentally and economically feasible fuel as well as their utilization proffers an effective means to control its invasiveness.

  6. VASP: a volumetric analysis of surface properties yields insights into protein-ligand binding specificity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Y Chen

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Many algorithms that compare protein structures can reveal similarities that suggest related biological functions, even at great evolutionary distances. Proteins with related function often exhibit differences in binding specificity, but few algorithms identify structural variations that effect specificity. To address this problem, we describe the Volumetric Analysis of Surface Properties (VASP, a novel volumetric analysis tool for the comparison of binding sites in aligned protein structures. VASP uses solid volumes to represent protein shape and the shape of surface cavities, clefts and tunnels that are defined with other methods. Our approach, inspired by techniques from constructive solid geometry, enables the isolation of volumetrically conserved and variable regions within three dimensionally superposed volumes. We applied VASP to compute a comparative volumetric analysis of the ligand binding sites formed by members of the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR-related lipid transfer (START domains and the serine proteases. Within both families, VASP isolated individual amino acids that create structural differences between ligand binding cavities that are known to influence differences in binding specificity. Also, VASP isolated cavity subregions that differ between ligand binding cavities which are essential for differences in binding specificity. As such, VASP should prove a valuable tool in the study of protein-ligand binding specificity.

  7. Assessment of potential suspended sediment yield in Japan in the 21st century with reference to the general circulation model climate change scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouri, Goro; Golosov, Valentin; Chalov, Sergey; Takizawa, Satoshi; Oguma, Kumiko; Yoshimura, Kei; Shiiba, Michiharu; Hori, Tomoharu; Oki, Taikan

    2013-03-01

    In recent decades, soil erosion by water has become a worldwide problem, especially with climate change and progressive declines in the ratio of natural resources to human populations. Changes in future climate will influence soil erosion, particularly suspended sediment (SS) yield, and alter the effectiveness of water resources management strategies from a water quality perspective. We qualitatively assessed future changes in SS yield in Japan. We focused on the impacts of future hydrological changes projected by two models, the Model for Interdisciplinary Research on Climate (MIROC) and the Meteorological Research Institute Atmospheric General Circulation Model (MRI-GCM), whose results have produced monthly data sets for the whole of Japan. The impacts of future climate changes on SS in Japan depend on the balance between changes in climatic and geologic factors. Methods for assessing impact using the catchment simulator were expanded to estimate the SS yield for the whole of Japan. The results indicated that SS generation will increase by the 2090s, with an 8% increase predicted using MRI-GCM data and a 24% increase using MIROC data, compared to present-day values measured by the Automated Meteorological Data Acquisition System (AMEDAS) of the Japan Meteorological Agency. Analysis by month showed the largest increases in SS in September, related to the frequency of extreme events such as typhoons. Increased SS can have negative effects on both society and the environment, including reduced crop productivity, worsened water quality, lower effective reservoir water levels, flooding and habitat destruction. Prediction of the impacts of future climate change on SS generation is crucial for effective environmental planning and management.

  8. The potential of imposed magnetic fields for enhancing ignition probability and fusion energy yield in indirect-drive inertial confinement fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, L. J.; Ho, D. D.-M.; Logan, B. G.; Zimmerman, G. B.; Rhodes, M. A.; Strozzi, D. J.; Blackfield, D. T.; Hawkins, S. A.

    2017-06-01

    We examine the potential that imposed magnetic fields of tens of Tesla that increase to greater than 10 kT (100 MGauss) under implosion compression may relax the conditions required for ignition and propagating burn in indirect-drive inertial confinement fusion (ICF) targets. This may allow the attainment of ignition, or at least significant fusion energy yields, in presently performing ICF targets on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) that today are sub-marginal for thermonuclear burn through adverse hydrodynamic conditions at stagnation [Doeppner et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 055001 (2015)]. Results of detailed two-dimensional radiation-hydrodynamic-burn simulations applied to NIF capsule implosions with low-mode shape perturbations and residual kinetic energy loss indicate that such compressed fields may increase the probability for ignition through range reduction of fusion alpha particles, suppression of electron heat conduction, and potential stabilization of higher-mode Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities. Optimum initial applied fields are found to be around 50 T. Given that the full plasma structure at capsule stagnation may be governed by three-dimensional resistive magneto-hydrodynamics, the formation of closed magnetic field lines might further augment ignition prospects. Experiments are now required to further assess the potential of applied magnetic fields to ICF ignition and burn on NIF.

  9. Potential of Genomic Selection in Mass Selection Breeding of an Allogamous Crop: An Empirical Study to Increase Yield of Common Buckwheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabe, Shiori; Hara, Takashi; Ueno, Mariko; Enoki, Hiroyuki; Kimura, Tatsuro; Nishimura, Satoru; Yasui, Yasuo; Ohsawa, Ryo; Iwata, Hiroyoshi

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate the potential of genomic selection (GS), a selection experiment with GS and phenotypic selection (PS) was performed in an allogamous crop, common buckwheat ( Fagopyrum esculentum Moench). To indirectly select for seed yield per unit area, which cannot be measured on a single-plant basis, a selection index was constructed from seven agro-morphological traits measurable on a single plant basis. Over 3 years, we performed two GS and one PS cycles per year for improvement in the selection index. In GS, a prediction model was updated every year on the basis of genotypes of 14,598-50,000 markers and phenotypes. Plants grown from seeds derived from a series of generations of GS and PS populations were evaluated for the traits in the selection index and other yield-related traits. GS resulted in a 20.9% increase and PS in a 15.0% increase in the selection index in comparison with the initial population. Although the level of linkage disequilibrium in the breeding population was low, the target trait was improved with GS. Traits with higher weights in the selection index were improved more than those with lower weights, especially when prediction accuracy was high. No trait changed in an unintended direction in either GS or PS. The accuracy of genomic prediction models built in the first cycle decreased in the later cycles because the genetic bottleneck through the selection cycles changed linkage disequilibrium patterns in the breeding population. The present study emphasizes the importance of updating models in GS and demonstrates the potential of GS in mass selection of allogamous crop species, and provided a pilot example of successful application of GS to plant breeding.

  10. Potential of Genomic Selection in Mass Selection Breeding of an Allogamous Crop: An Empirical Study to Increase Yield of Common Buckwheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiori Yabe

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the potential of genomic selection (GS, a selection experiment with GS and phenotypic selection (PS was performed in an allogamous crop, common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench. To indirectly select for seed yield per unit area, which cannot be measured on a single-plant basis, a selection index was constructed from seven agro-morphological traits measurable on a single plant basis. Over 3 years, we performed two GS and one PS cycles per year for improvement in the selection index. In GS, a prediction model was updated every year on the basis of genotypes of 14,598–50,000 markers and phenotypes. Plants grown from seeds derived from a series of generations of GS and PS populations were evaluated for the traits in the selection index and other yield-related traits. GS resulted in a 20.9% increase and PS in a 15.0% increase in the selection index in comparison with the initial population. Although the level of linkage disequilibrium in the breeding population was low, the target trait was improved with GS. Traits with higher weights in the selection index were improved more than those with lower weights, especially when prediction accuracy was high. No trait changed in an unintended direction in either GS or PS. The accuracy of genomic prediction models built in the first cycle decreased in the later cycles because the genetic bottleneck through the selection cycles changed linkage disequilibrium patterns in the breeding population. The present study emphasizes the importance of updating models in GS and demonstrates the potential of GS in mass selection of allogamous crop species, and provided a pilot example of successful application of GS to plant breeding.

  11. Combining ability analysis for grain filling duration and yield traits in spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L. em. Thell.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamaluddin

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available A diallel analysis of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. em. Thell parents (n = 11 and their F1 (n = 55 and F2 (n = 55 offspring was carried out for the following four traits: grain filling duration (GFD, GFD for growing degree days (GDD, 1000 seed weight and seed yield per plant. Analysis of variance for general combining ability (GCA and specific combining ability (SCA displayed significant F1 and F2 general and specific combining ability effects for the four traits studied. For all the traits the GCA effects were relatively more important than the SCA effects, indicating that additive genetic effects were predominant. Crosses displaying high SCA effects for grain filling duration, seed weight and yield were observed to be derived from parents having various types of GCA effects (high x high, high x low, low x low and medium x low. The single seed descent method can be applied to exploit additive gene effects whereas dominance gene effects could be valuable in hybrid wheat breeding programs. Among the parents, genotypes from the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (Centro Internacional de Mejoramiento de Maíz y Trigo, CIMMYT as well as South Asia were found to be superior general combiners for grain filling duration. Likewise, crosses involving diverse parents from CIMMYT and South Asia showed significant SCA effects for grain filling duration and other traits.

  12. Analysis of Factors Affecting the All Risk Yield: Case Study of Vilnius, Lithuanian Capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Varnelis

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Overall capitalization rate is one of the key evaluation elements in operating income approach. Deriving capitalization rates from comparable sales is the preferred method when sufficient data on sales of similar, competitive properties are available. The capitali­zation rates provide evidence of the importance of local market conditions and individual property characteristics. This paper is an empirical study of the capitalization rates for 66 commercial premises sales in down town Vilnius from 2008 III q – 2009 I q. Seeking to derive factors affecting the capitalization rate, regressive-correlative analysis of capitalization rate of various commercial premises located on various streets of downtown Vilnius was carried out. Capitalization rate depends on qualitative and quantitative characteristics of real estate, i. e. purpose, total area of premises, storey they are on and quality of decoration. At the end of study results were summarized.Article in Lithuanian

  13. Numerical analysis of MHD Casson Navier's slip nanofluid flow yield by rigid rotating disk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Khalil Ur; Malik, M. Y.; Zahri, Mostafa; Tahir, M.

    2018-03-01

    An exertion is perform to report analysis on Casson liquid equipped above the rigid disk for z bar > 0 as a semi-infinite region. The flow of Casson liquid is achieve through rotation of rigid disk with constant angular frequency Ω bar . Magnetic interaction is consider by applying uniform magnetic field normal to the axial direction. The nanosized particles are suspended in the Casson liquid and rotation of disk is manifested with Navier's slip condition, heat generation/absorption and chemical reaction effects. The obtain flow narrating differential equations subject to MHD Casson nanofluid are transformed into ordinary differential system. For this purpose the Von Karman way of scheme is executed. To achieve accurate trends a computational algorithm is develop rather than to go on with usual build-in scheme. The effects logs of involved parameters, namely magnetic field parameter, Casson fluid parameter, slip parameter, thermophoresis and Brownian motion parameters on radial, tangential velocities, temperature, nanoparticles concentration, Nusselt and Sherwood numbers are provided by means of graphical and tabular structures. It is observed that both tangential and radial velocities are decreasing function of Casson fluid parameter.

  14. Quantitative analysis of relationships between irradiation parameters and the reproducibility of cyclotron-produced 99mTc yields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanguay, J.; Hou, X.; Buckley, K.; Schaffer, P.; Bénard, F.; Ruth, T. J.; Celler, A.

    2015-05-01

    Cyclotron production of 99mTc through the 100Mo(p,2n) 99mTc reaction channel is actively being investigated as an alternative to reactor-based 99Mo generation by nuclear fission of 235U. An exciting aspect of this approach is that it can be implemented using currently-existing cyclotron infrastructure to supplement, or potentially replace, conventional 99mTc production methods that are based on aging and increasingly unreliable nuclear reactors. Successful implementation will require consistent production of large quantities of high-radionuclidic-purity 99mTc. However, variations in proton beam currents and the thickness and isotopic composition of enriched 100Mo targets, in addition to other irradiation parameters, may degrade reproducibility of both radionuclidic purity and absolute 99mTc yields. The purpose of this article is to present a method for quantifying relationships between random variations in production parameters, including 100Mo target thicknesses and proton beam currents, and reproducibility of absolute 99mTc yields (defined as the end of bombardment (EOB) 99mTc activity). Using the concepts of linear error propagation and the theory of stochastic point processes, we derive a mathematical expression that quantifies the influence of variations in various irradiation parameters on yield reproducibility, quantified in terms of the coefficient of variation of the EOB 99mTc activity. The utility of the developed formalism is demonstrated with an example. We show that achieving less than 20% variability in 99mTc yields will require highly-reproducible target thicknesses and proton currents. These results are related to the service rate which is defined as the percentage of 99mTc production runs that meet the minimum daily requirement of one (or many) nuclear medicine departments. For example, we show that achieving service rates of 84.0%, 97.5% and 99.9% with 20% variations in target thicknesses requires producing on average 1.2, 1.5 and 1.9 times the

  15. Simulation of Sediment Yield in a Semi-Arid River Basin under Changing Land Use: An Integrated Approach of Hydrologic Modelling and Principal Component Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Gyamfi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Intensified human activities over the past decades have culminated in the prevalence of dire environmental consequences of sediment yield resulting mainly from land use changes. Understanding the role that land use changes play in the dynamics of sediment yield would greatly enhance decision-making processes related to land use and water resources management. In this study, we investigated the impacts of land use and cover changes on sediment yield dynamics through an integrated approach of hydrologic modelling and principal component analysis (PCA. A three-phase land use scenario (2000, 2007 and 2013 employing the “fix-changing” method was used to simulate the sediment yield of the Olifants Basin. Contributions in the changes in individual land uses to sediment yield were assessed using the component and pattern matrixes of PCA. Our results indicate that sediment yield dynamics in the study area is significantly attributed to the changes in agriculture, urban and forested lands. Changes in agriculture and urban lands were directly proportional to sediment yield dynamics of the Olifants Basin. On the contrary, forested areas had a negative relationship with sediment yield indicating less sediment yield from these areas. The output of this research work provides a simplistic approach of evaluating the impacts of land use changes on sediment yield. The tools and methods used are relevant for policy directions on land and water resources planning and management.

  16. Comparative QTL analysis of salinity tolerance in terms of fruit yield using two Solanum populations of F7 lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalta, I; Bernet, G P; Carbonell, E A; Asins, M J

    2007-04-01

    Salt tolerance has been analysed in two populations of F(7) lines developed from a salt sensitive genotype of Solanum lycopersicum var. cerasiforme, as female parent, and two salt tolerant lines, as male parents, from S. pimpinellifolium, the P population (142 lines), and S. cheesmaniae, the C population (116 lines). Salinity effects on 19 quantitative traits including fruit yield were investigated by correlation, principal component analysis, ANOVA and QTL analysis. A total of 153 and 124 markers were genotyped in the P and C populations, respectively. Some flowering time and salt tolerance candidate genes were included. Since most traits deviated from a normal distribution, results based on the Kruskal-Wallis non-parametric test were preferred. Interval mapping methodology and ANOVA were also used for QTL detection. Eight out of 15 QTLs at each population were detected for the target traits under both control and high salinity conditions, and among them, only average fruit weight (FW) and fruit number (FN) QTLs (fw1.1, fw2.1 and fn1.2) were detected in both populations. The individual contribution of QTLs were, in general, low. After leaf chloride concentration, flowering time is the trait most affected by salinity because different QTLs are detected and some of their QTLxE interactions have been found significant. Also reinforcing the interest on information provided by QTL analysis, it has been found that non-correlated traits may present QTL(s) that are associated with the same marker. A few salinity specific QTLs for fruit yield, not associated with detrimental effects, might be used to increase tomato salt tolerance. The beneficial allele at two of them, fw8.1 (in C) and tw8.1 (for total fruit weight in P) corresponds to the salt sensitive parent, suggesting that the effect of the genetic background is crucial to breed for wide adaptation using wild germplasm.

  17. Analysis of two precipitation methods on the yield, structural features and activity of sulfated polysaccharides from Gracilaria cornea (Rhodophyta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Basto Souza

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The global demand for natural products from seaweeds has increased worldwide; however, no description of the use of isoamly alcohol (IAA for obtaining of sulfated polysaccharides (SPs has been reported. We investigated the efficiency of two precipitation methods (M in obtaining SPs from the red seaweed Gracilaria cornea. SPs enzymatically isolated were concentrated with cetylpyridinium chloride (M I or IAA (M II and extracts were examined with regard to their yield, structural features and in vitro effects on the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT using normal human plasma and standard heparin (193 IU mg-1. Yield difference reached 12.99%. Quantitative determination of sulfate was similar between the two methods (̴ 26%, but extracts revealed different pattern on charge density by agarose gel electrophoresis. Whereas both extracts revealed as agarocolloids, alternative M II was also efficient for lipids, proteins and nucleic acids according to the infrared analysis. Extracts had virtually no effect on APPT (1.95 and 2 IU mg-1 for M I and M II, respectively. The results revealed IAA as an alternative solvent for obtaining SPs from the red seaweed G. cornea, depending on the industry’ usage criterion.

  18. NGS panel analysis in 24 ectopia lentis patients; a clinically relevant test with a high diagnostic yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overwater, E; Floor, K; van Beek, D; de Boer, K; van Dijk, T; Hilhorst-Hofstee, Y; Hoogeboom, A J M; van Kaam, K J; van de Kamp, J M; Kempers, M; Krapels, I P C; Kroes, H Y; Loeys, B; Salemink, S; Stumpel, C T R M; Verhoeven, V J M; Wijnands-van den Berg, E; Cobben, J M; van Tintelen, J P; Weiss, M M; Houweling, A C; Maugeri, A

    2017-09-01

    Several genetic causes of ectopia lentis (EL), with or without systemic features, are known. The differentiation between syndromic and isolated EL is crucial for further treatment, surveillance and counseling of patients and their relatives. Next generation sequencing (NGS) is a powerful tool enabling the simultaneous, highly-sensitive analysis of multiple target genes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic yield of our NGS panel in EL patients. Furthermore, we provide an overview of currently described mutations in ADAMTSL4, the main gene involved in isolated EL. A NGS gene panel was analysed in 24 patients with EL. A genetic diagnosis was confirmed in 16 patients (67%). Of these, four (25%) had a heterozygous FBN1 mutation, 12 (75%) were homozygous or compound heterozygous for ADAMTSL4 mutations. The known European ADAMTSL4 founder mutation c.767_786del was most frequently detected. The diagnostic yield of our NGS panel was high. Causative mutations were exclusively identified in ADAMTSL4 and FBN1. With this approach the risk of misdiagnosis or delayed diagnosis can be reduced. The value and clinical implications of establishing a genetic diagnosis in patients with EL is corroborated by the description of two patients with an unexpected underlying genetic condition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Enhanced extraction yields and mobile phase separations by solvent mixtures for the analysis of metabolites in Annona muricata L. leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro de Souza, Eloana Benassi; da Silva, Renata Reis; Afonso, Sabrina; Scarminio, Ieda Spacino

    2009-12-01

    The effects of five extraction solvents and their mixtures on the yield of metabolites in crude and fractionated extracts of Annona muricata L. leaves were investigated by direct comparison. Extraction media were prepared using simplex centroid mixtures of ethanol, ethyl acetate, dichloromethane, acetone, and chloroform. The effects of the mobile phase solvent strength and the analysis wavelength on the chromatographic separation were also investigated. Solvent mixtures rather than pure solvents were found to be the most efficient extractors for the different fractions. The results indicated that the mobile phase composed of methanol/acetonitrile/water (26:27:47 v/v/v) was most suitable for the basic fraction analysis at 254 nm, whereas the mobile phase composed of methanol/acetonitrile/water (35:35:30 v/v/v) was the most adequate for the organic fraction analysis at 254 nm. The results indicated that the chromatographic profiles and number of peaks were affected by the mobile phase strength and analysis wavelength.

  20. Local influence for spatial analysis of soil physical properties and soybean yield using student's t-distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosangela Aparecida Botinha Assumpção

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The modeling and estimation of the parameters that define the spatial dependence structure of a regionalized variable by geostatistical methods are fundamental, since these parameters, underlying the kriging of unsampled points, allow the construction of thematic maps. One or more atypical observations in the sample data can affect the estimation of these parameters. Thus, the assessment of the combined influence of these observations by the analysis of Local Influence is essential. The purpose of this paper was to propose local influence analysis methods for the regionalized variable, given that it has n-variate Student's t-distribution, and compare it with the analysis of local influence when the same regionalized variable has n-variate normal distribution. These local influence analysis methods were applied to soil physical properties and soybean yield data of an experiment carried out in a 56.68 ha commercial field in western Paraná, Brazil. Results showed that influential values are efficiently determined with n-variate Student's t-distribution.

  1. Biochar and flyash inoculated with plant growth promoting rhizobacteria act as potential biofertilizer for luxuriant growth and yield of tomato plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripti; Kumar, Adarsh; Usmani, Zeba; Kumar, Vipin; Anshumali

    2017-04-01

    Overuse of agrochemical fertilizers alarmingly causes deterioration in soil health and soil-flora. Persistence of these agrochemicals exerts detrimental effects on environment, potentially inducing toxic effects on human health, thus pronouncing an urgent need for a safer substitute. The present study investigates the potential use of agricultural and industrial wastes as carrier materials, viz. biochar and flyash, respectively, for preparation of bioformulations (or biofertilizers) using two plant growth promoting rhizobacteria, Bacillus sp. strain A30 and Burkholderia sp. strain L2, and its effect on growth of Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. (tomato). The viability of strains was determined based on colony forming units (cfu) count of each bioformulation at an interval of 60 days for a period of 240 days. Seeds were coated with different carrier based bioformulations and pot experiment(s) were carried out to access its effects on plant growth parameters. Biochar based bioformulations showed higher cfu count and maximum viability for strain L2 (10 7  cfu g -1 ) at 240 days of storage. Maximum percentage of seed germination was also observed in biochar inoculated with strain L2. Significant (p < 0.05) increase in plant growth parameters (dry and fresh biomass, length, number of flowers) were ascertained from the pot experiment and amongst all bioformulations, biochar inoculated with strain L2 performed consistently thriving results for tomato yield. Furthermore, post-harvest study of this bioformulation treated soil improved physico-chemical properties and dehydrogenase activity as compared to pre-plantation soil status. Overall, we show that prepared biochar based bioformulation using Burkholderia sp. L2 as inoculum can tremendously enhance the productivity of tomato, soil fertility, and can also act as a sustainable substitute for chemical fertilizers. In addition, mixture of biochar and flyash inoculated with strain L2 also showed noteworthy results for the

  2. Steam Distillation with Induction Heating System: Analysis of Kaffir Lime Oil Compound and Production Yield at Various Temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuraida Muhammad; Zakiah Mohd Yusoff; Mohd Noor Nasriq Nordin

    2013-01-01

    The steam temperature during the extraction process has a great influence on the essential oil quality. .This study was conducted to analyze the compound of kaffir-lime oil during extracting at different steam temperature using GC-MS analysis. The extraction was carried out by using steam distillation based on induction heating system at different extraction temperature such as 90, 95 and 100 degree Celsius, the power of the induction heating system is fixed at 1.6 kW. Increment of the steam temperature will increase the oil yield. In terms of oil composition, extraction at lower temperature resulted high concentration for four marker compounds of kaffir-lime oil which are α-pinene, sabinene, limonene, β-pinene. (author)

  3. Identification of Potential Metabolic Markers for the Selection of a High-Yield Clone of Quercus acutissima in Clonal Seed Orchard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Won Kang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Quercus acutissima Carruth. is one of the most economically important deciduous tree species in Korea. The acorns of Q. acutissima are used for both food and medicinal purposes in Korea and China. In this study, we analyzed plant hormones and metabolite profiles to identify their correlation with the yield production of Q. acutissima. The contents of sucrose and inositol in the leaves of high-yield clones were significantly higher (p < 0.05 than those of low-yield clones. In addition, high-yield clones have a higher content of phosphoric acid, succinic acid, malic acid, and butane-1,3-diol in stems compared with low-yield clones. Among the identified metabolites, zeatin-9-glucoside showed highly significant negative correlations with tree height, crown volume, and acorn production. It is considered that these metabolites could be useful metabolic markers for the selection of a high yield clone of Q. acutissima.

  4. Comparison of Artificial Neural Networks and GIS Based Solar Analysis for Solar Potential Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konakoǧlu, Berkant; Usta, Ziya; Cömert, Çetin; Gökalp, Ertan

    2016-04-01

    Nowadays, estimation of solar potential plays an important role in planning process for sustainable cities. The use of solar panels, which produces electricity directly from the sun, has become popular in accordance with developing technologies. Since the use of solar panels enables the users to decrease costs and increase yields, the use of solar panels will be more popular in the future. Production of electricity is not convenient for all circumstances. Shading effects, massive clouds and rainy weather are some factors that directly affect the production of electricity from solar energy. Hence, before the installation of solar panels, it is crucial to conduct spatial analysis and estimate the solar potential of the place that the solar panel will be installed. There are several approaches to determine the solar potential. Examination of the applications in the literature reveals that the applications conducted for determining the solar potential are divided into two main categories. Solar potential is estimated either by using artificial neural network approach in which statistical parameters such as the duration of sun shine, number of clear days, solar radiation etc. are used, or by spatial analysis conducted in GIS approaches in which spatial parameters such as, latitude, longitude, slope, aspect etc. are used. In the literature, there are several studies that use both approaches but the literature lacks of a study related to the comparison of these approaches. In this study, Karadeniz Technical University campus has been selected as study area. Monthly average values of the number of clear sky days, air temperature, atmospheric pressure, relative humidity, sunshine duration and solar radiation parameters obtained for the years between 2005 and 2015 will be used to perform artificial neural network analysis to estimate the solar potential of the study area. The solar potential will also be estimated by using GIS-based solar analysis modules. The results of

  5. Modified crop model estimation of depleted and potential soybean yield=Modelo modificado de estimação da produtividade deplecionada e potencial da soja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Augusto Manfron

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite the great importance of soybeans in Brazil, there have been few applications of soybean crop modeling on Brazilian conditions. Thus, the objective of this study was to use modified crop models to estimate the depleted and potential soybean crop yield in Brazil. The climatic variable data used in the modified simulation of the soybean crop models were temperature, insolation and rainfall. The data set was taken from 33 counties (28 Sao Paulo state counties, and 5 counties from other states that neighbor São Paulo. Among the models, modifications in the estimation of the leaf area of the soybean crop, which includes corrections for the temperature, shading, senescence, CO2, and biomass partition were proposed; also, the methods of input for the model’s simulation of the climatic variables were reconsidered. The depleted yields were estimated through a water balance, from which the depletion coefficient was estimated. It can be concluded that the adaptation soybean growth crop model might be used to predict the results of the depleted and potential yield of soybeans, and it can also be used to indicate better locations and periods of tillage.Aplicações de modelos de previsão de produtividade na cultura da soja são muito raros. Assim, o objetivo desta pesquisa foi realizar a estimação da produtividade deplecionada e potencial da cultura de soja, usando modelos de previsão modificados. Os dados climáticos utilizados nos modelos de simulação foram a temperatura, precipitação e insolação. Os dados foram proveniente de 33 municípios (28 do estado de São Paulo, e cinco municípios de estados vizinhos. Dentre os modelos propostos modificados está a estimação da área foliar da soja, com correções para temperatura, sombreamento, senescência, CO2, partição de biomassa, bem como os métodos de simulação das variávies climáticas do “input” para o modelo. As produções deplecionadas foram estimadas através do balan

  6. Pathway analysis for identification of potential biomarkers in severe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To construct a cluster model or a gene signature for Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) using pathways analysis in order to identify some potential biomarkers that may be used for early detection of SJS and epidermal necrolysis (TEN) manifestations. Methods: Gene expression profiles of GSE12829 were ...

  7. Analysis of the normal optical, Michel and molecular potentials on ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Analysis of the normal optical, Michel and molecular potentials on the. 40. Ca(. 6. Li, d). 44. Ti reaction. UTTAM K MAZUMDER1, ANOCK SOMADDER2, ENAMUL HOQUE2,. YASMEEN HAQUE2, SUSANTA K DAS2,∗ and H M SEN GUPTA3. 1Department of Physics, Chandina Redwan Ahmed College, Comilla 3500, ...

  8. ANALYSIS OF TOURISTIC DEVELOPMENT POTENTIAL OF SOME NATURA 2000 SITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela STANCIU

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper performs the analysis of the tourism development potential of two sites in the Natura 2000 network. SWOT analysis concerning the potential of tourism development is made, indicating opportunities for lovers of ecotourism: visitors interested in bird species, visitors interested in flora and fauna. It also describes the potential development of tourism services under the concept of "slow tourism". It describes the possible forms of tourism that can develop in this area, presenting a positive or negative impact on the environment and describe the type of interested visitors. The paper describes the main objectives of tourism development that should be included in the local development strategy promoted by the GAL’s in the area.

  9. Breeding for Grass Seed Yield

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boelt, Birte; Studer, Bruno

    2010-01-01

    Seed yield is a trait of major interest for many fodder and amenity grass species and has received increasing attention since seed multiplication is economically relevant for novel grass cultivars to compete in the commercial market. Although seed yield is a complex trait and affected...... important aspects and components affecting the seed yield potential and the agronomic and environmental aspects affecting the utilization and realization of the seed yield potential. Finally, it discusses the potential of plant breeding to sustainably improve total seed yield in fodder and amenity grasses....

  10. Crop growth analysis and yield of a lignocellulosic biomass crop (Arundo donax L. in three marginal areas of Campania region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Impagliazzo

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The depletion of energy resources from fossil fuels and global warming have pushed to consider the agro-energy as one of the renewable energy sources for mitigation of climate change. In this context, agro-energy based on cultivation of energy crops in marginal lands allows to reduce competition with food crops and marginal lands abandonment, producing incomes for farmers. The aim of this work is to improve the knowledge on a promising crop (Arundo donax L. for the production of bio-energy in marginal lands. Therefore, the behaviour of this crop was evaluated in three study areas of Campania region, under different energy inputs: two levels of nitrogen fertilisation, N100 and N50 in Sant’Angelo dei Lombardi (SA and Bellizzi (BL. In Acerra (AC site compost fertilisation was made to verify its effect on pollutant phytoextraction. In the last year, also crop growth analysis was done in the three sites. The results showed that giant reed confirms its adaptability to low fertility soils, allowing interesting biomass yield also in marginal lands. In more fertile environments, effect of fertilisation is not significant at least in the short term. Nevertheless, nitrogen uptake (65-130 kg N ha–1, also if lower than other highyielding crops, needs to be compensated with fertilisation to avoid depletion of soil nutrient reserves and to guarantee sustainability of this cropping system. Giant reed had a positive environmental impact, due to the improvement in soil fertility (soil organic matter and nitrogen increase and to the mitigation of climate change (C storage in the soil. In marginal soils of Southern Italy this crop confirms an increasing trend of yield during the first 3-4 years. High productivity levels of this crop are related to the extremely high duration of the vegetative period and thus of the photosynthetic activity (from March to November in the Mediterranean area. These last are well expressed by the leaf area duration index, which is

  11. Analysis of chitosan/tripolyphosphate micro- and nanogel yields is key to understanding their protein uptake performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yuhang; Lapitsky, Yakov

    2017-05-15

    Chitosan/tripolyphosphate (TPP) micro- and nanogels are widely explored as vehicles for protein drug and vaccine delivery. Yet, aside from the consensus that protein uptake into these particles is enhanced by stronger protein/particle binding, factors that control their uptake performance, such as differences in the chitosan, TPP and protein concentrations, remain poorly understood. Here, we show that many of the differences in the reported association efficiencies (AE-values) for protein uptake likely reflect the largely-ignored variability in the particle yield (X Agg ), which is the fraction of the added chitosan that self-assembles into particles and (like the AE) varies with the chitosan, TPP and protein concentrations. Factors affecting X Agg are first systematically explored. The AE is then shown to scale almost linearly with the X Agg (which increases with the TPP and protein-to-chitosan ratios) until all chitosan aggregates into particles. Remarkably, the data collected at variable TPP and protein concentrations collapses onto a single AE∝X Agg curve for each protein type. Further analysis of protein/particle binding reveals this rise in AE with X Agg to reflect: (1) an increase in binding sites within the particles; and (2) a decrease in soluble (non-particulate) chitosan molecules, which form soluble protein/chitosan complexes and compete with the chitosan/TPP particles for the unassociated protein. These findings highlight the need to carefully analyze the effects of formulation parameters on chitosan/TPP particle yields and can likely be extended to other ionically crosslinked colloidal drug carriers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Quasiclassical analysis of spectra in two groups of central potentials

    CERN Document Server

    Shpatakovskaya, G V

    2001-01-01

    The method for the spectra analysis in the gravitational central potentials with the Coulomb feature in the zero (interatomic potentials) and the finite ones in the zero (potentials in the spheric clusters nuclei) is proposed. It is shown that by the degeneration removal by the orbital quantum number for the n-shell by small l the difference epsilon sub n sub l - epsilon sub n sub 0 approx = a subepsilon sub sub n sub sub 0 (l + 1/2) sup 2. The correctness of the presented formula for the internal electrons is demonstrated by the mercury atoms spectrum calculations. The reverse dependence takes place, as a rule, in the cluster potentials. The dependence of the area position with the degenerated level on the N cluster size is analyzed by the example of the Al sub N aluminium clusters. It is known that the increase in the N leads to the pressing-out of this area upwards

  13. Energy inputs-yield relationship and sensitivity analysis of pistachio (Pistacia vera L. production in Markazi Region of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Keshavarz Afshar

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Pistachio is considered as an important agricultural commodity in Iran and ranks top amongst all exported agricultural products. Conducting an overall energy audit and economic analysis of pistachio production can provide useful information to help implement management strategies for improving energy efficiency. A study was conducted during 2009 and 2010 to evaluate the overall energy inputs and outputs and to perform an economic analysis of pistachio production in the Iranian province of Markazi. The results revealed that the total energy input for pistachio production was 54305 MJ ha-1. Electricity, followed by diesel fuel and nitrogen fertilizer application were the highest contributors to energy input in pistachio orchards. The contribution of direct energy was higher than indirect energy and share of non-renewable energy was more than renewable energy. Net energy, energy use efficiency, energy productivity and specific energy were 7522 MJ ha-1, 0.86, 0.08 kg MJ-1 and 13.69 MJ kg-1, respectively. Econometric model based on Cobb-Douglas function indicated that impacts of electricity, diesel fuel and chemical fertilizer energy inputs on pistachio yield were positive while the impact of machinery was negative. The marginal physical productivity (MPP value for diesel fuel was the highest among other variables, followed by energy inputs related to the chemicals and irrigation water. The results revealed that production of pistachios in Markazi Province, under current management practices, are not energy efficient and efforts should be made to improve energy use efficiency.

  14. Analysis of soil microbial community structure and enzyme activities associated with negative effects of pseudostellaria heterophylla consecutive monoculture on yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, S.; Lin, W.X.

    2015-01-01

    Pseudostellaria heterophylla is an important medicinal plant in China. However, cultivation of P. heterophylla using consecutive monoculture results in significant reductions in yield and quality. In this study, terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis and measurement of soil enzyme activities were used to investigate the regulation of soil micro-ecology to identify ways to overcome the negative effects of P. heterophylla consecutive monoculture. T-RFLP analysis showed that rice/P. heterophylla (RP) and bean/P. heterophylla (BP) crop rotation systems increased the number and diversity of microbial groups in P. heterophylla rhizosphere soil. In particular, the RP and BP crop rotations increased the number and abundance of beneficial bacterial species compared with two-year consecutive monoculture of P. heterophylla. The presence of these beneficial bacteria was positively correlated with soil enzyme activities which increased in rhizosphere soils of the RP and BP crop rotation systems. The results indicated that crop rotation systems could increase activities of key soil enzymes and beneficial microbial groups and improve soil health. This study could provide a theoretical basis to resolve the problems associated with P. heterophylla consecutive monoculture. (author)

  15. Genetic analysis of coagulation properties, curd firming modeling, milk yield, composition, and acidity in Sarda dairy sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittante, G; Cipolat-Gotet, C; Pazzola, M; Dettori, M L; Vacca, G M; Cecchinato, A

    2017-01-01

    Sheep milk is an important source of food, especially in Mediterranean countries, and is used in large part for cheese production. Milk technological traits are important for the sheep dairy industry, but research is lacking into the genetic variation of such traits. Therefore the aim of this study was to estimate the heritability of traditional milk coagulation properties and curd firmness modeled on time t (CF t ) parameters, and their genetic relationships with test-day milk yield, composition (fat, protein, and casein content), and acidity in Sarda dairy sheep. Milk samples from 1,121 Sarda ewes from 23 flocks were analyzed for 5 traditional coagulation properties by lactodynamographic tests conducted for up to 60min: rennet coagulation time (min), curd-firming time (k 20 , min), and 3measures of curd firmness (a 30 , a 45 , and a 60 , mm). The 240 curd firmness observations (1 every 15 s) from each milk sample were recorded, and 4 parameters for each individual sample equation were estimated: rennet coagulation time estimated from the equation (RCT eq ), the asymptotic potential curd firmness (CF P ), the curd firming instant rate constant (k CF ), and the syneresis instant rate constant (k SR ). Two other derived traits were also calculated (CF max , the maximum curd firmness value; and t max , the attainment time). Multivariate analyses using Bayesian methodology were performed to estimate the genetic relationships of milk coagulation properties and CF t with the other traits; statistical inference was based on the marginal posterior distributions of the parameters of concern. The marginal posterior distribution of heritability estimates of milk yield (0.16±0.07) and composition (0.21±0.11 to 0.28±0.10) of Sarda ewes was similar to those often obtained for bovine species. The heritability of rennet coagulation time as a single point trait was also similar to that frequently obtained for cow milk (0.19±0.09), whereas the same trait calculated as an

  16. Determination of renewable energy yield from mixed waste material from the use of novel image analysis methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagland, S T; Dudley, R; Naftaly, M; Longhurst, P J

    2013-11-01

    Two novel techniques are presented in this study which together aim to provide a system able to determine the renewable energy potential of mixed waste materials. An image analysis tool was applied to two waste samples prepared using known quantities of source-segregated recyclable materials. The technique was used to determine the composition of the wastes, where through the use of waste component properties the biogenic content of the samples was calculated. The percentage renewable energy determined by image analysis for each sample was accurate to within 5% of the actual values calculated. Microwave-based multiple-point imaging (AutoHarvest) was used to demonstrate the ability of such a technique to determine the moisture content of mixed samples. This proof-of-concept experiment was shown to produce moisture measurement accurate to within 10%. Overall, the image analysis tool was able to determine the renewable energy potential of the mixed samples, and the AutoHarvest should enable the net calorific value calculations through the provision of moisture content measurements. The proposed system is suitable for combustion facilities, and enables the operator to understand the renewable energy potential of the waste prior to combustion. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Modelo para estimativa do potencial produtivo em trigo e cevada por meio do sensor GreenSeeker Model for yield potential estimation in wheat and barley using the GreenSeeker sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel S. Grohs

    2009-03-01

    Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI to shoot dry biomass at the 6-leaf-stage was developed for estimating yield potential classes for wheat and barley. The model eliminated differences between species and cultivars as no correction for these factors is necessary. The effects of surface background (corn or soybean crop residues were considered in this model. When readings are carried out before or after the recommended period, the model can be adjusted for under or overestimation. Spatial variability analysis may evaluate if yield potential zones estimated by the NDVI classes proposed in the model are related to spatial variability of shoot biomass, N rates applied and grain yield.

  18. Genotypic Variability of the Components and their Effects on the Rice Yield: Correlation and Path Analysis Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharkhawat Hossain

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Twenty modern Boro rice varieties were evaluated with a view to find variability and genetic association for grain yield and yield components characters. Genotypic and Phenotypic correlation among these characters were computed. Both genotypic and phenotypic correlation coefficients were significant between plant height and number of effective tillers per plant followed by panicle length. There was a positive significant correlation between yield and number of effective tillers per plant followed by percent filled grain per panicle. Path coefficient showed that number of effective tiller per plant and plant height are the characters that contribute largely to grain yield.

  19. Joint Analysis of Near-Isogenic and Recombinant Inbred Line Populations Yields Precise Positional Estimates for Quantitative Trait Loci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen L. Kump

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Data generated for initial quantitative trait loci (QTL mapping using recombinant inbred line (RIL populations are usually ignored during subsequent fine-mapping using near-isogenic lines (NILs. Combining both datasets would increase the number of recombination events sampled and generate better position and effect estimates. Previously, several QTL for resistance to southern leaf blight of maize were mapped in two RIL populations, each independently derived from a cross between the lines B73 and Mo17. In each case the largest QTL was in bin 3.04. Here, two NIL pairs differing for this QTL were derived and used to create two distinct F family populations that were assessed for southern leaf blight (SLB resistance. By accounting for segregation of the other QTL in the original RIL data, we were able to combine these data with the new genotypic and phenotypic data from the F families. Joint analysis yielded a narrower QTL support interval compared to that derived from analysis of any one of the data sets alone, resulting in the localization of the QTL to a less than 0.5 cM interval. Candidate genes identified within this interval are discussed. This methodology allows combined QTL analysis in which data from RIL populations is combined with data derived from NIL populations segregating for the same pair of alleles. It improves mapping resolution over the conventional approach with virtually no additional resources. Because data sets of this type are commonly produced, this approach is likely to prove widely applicable.

  20. Market potential analysis: Case of food-processing industry companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Milan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the analysis of the situation with the market potentials in domestic food-processing companies. The analysis has been performed on the basis of the data provided by surveying 150 experts from companies operating in the field of foodstuffs industry. The assessments and parameter ranks (company features are shown, which describe the situation with market potentials. Assessments and ranks of some other parameters are shown for sake of easy reference and comparison. All assessments are obtained as mean values of single assessments given by experts for the analyzed parameters. The experts quantitatively assessed the required parameters with an assessment in the 0 - 10 range according to the situation in their companies. Product quality and company's ambitions are the parameters with the best assessments and promotion and presence on foreign markets are the weakest ones.

  1. Analysis of the Industry Potential in Republic of Moldova

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa BUGAIAN

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article identifies several competitive sectors of the economy that have potential to lead to sustainable economic growth for Republic of Moldova. Sectors were chosen for analysis combining quantitative and qualitative methods. A pool of sectors was selected based on export and sales performance over the last eight years. The final decision of the top sectors was based on the qualitative factors such as prevalence of the SMEs in the sector, gender makeup of the workforce and the regional presence, as well as employment levels and sales growth. The results of analysis showed that following industrial sectors: wine; textiles and apparel; information and communication technology; footwear; construction materials and furniture have the most potential for contributing to transformational growth in the Republic of Moldova economy.

  2. Evaluation of the development and yielding potential of Chenopodium quinoa Willd. under the climatic conditions of Europe. Part one: accomodation of Chenopodium quinoa (Willd. to different conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Gęsiński

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on the evaluation of selected varieties of Chenopodium quinoa, their requirements were identified; it was shown which varieties demonstrated the best effects in what conditions. It was found that the best varieties for Europe's conditions were E-DK-4-PQCIP and RU-5-PQCIP. E-DK-4-PQCIP variety showed the best effects under the conditions of cluster II which included e.g. Bydgoszcz (Poland and cluster IV which included Southern European countries (Greece and Italy, while the best effects found in RU-5-PQCIP variety were identified in cluster I which included Sweden. E-DK-4-PQCIP variety in cluster II showed a very high yield of green matter and a mean seed yield, and in cluster IV - a very high seed yield and a high yield of green matter.

  3. Rotary District 7600 Relative Membership Growth Potential Analysis by County

    OpenAIRE

    Wodon, Quentin

    2013-01-01

    This brief applies a simple framework for assessing the relative potential for Rotary membership growth in different geographic areas. The analysis is relative in that areas are compared to each other through an econometric procedure. By design about half of the areas are considered as performing comparatively well in that they have membership rates above expectations. The other areas are considered as performing less well because they have membership rates below expectations, and thereby m...

  4. Rotary District 7770 Relative Membership Growth Potential Analysis by County

    OpenAIRE

    Wodon, Quentin

    2013-01-01

    This brief applies a simple framework for assessing the relative potential for Rotary membership growth in different geographic areas. The analysis is relative in that areas are compared to each other through an econometric procedure. By design about half of the areas are considered as performing comparatively well in that they have membership rates above expectations. The other areas are considered as performing less well because they have membership rates below expectations, and thereby m...

  5. Rotary District 7570 Relative Membership Growth Potential Analysis by County

    OpenAIRE

    Wodon, Quentin

    2013-01-01

    This brief applies a simple framework for assessing the relative potential for Rotary membership growth in different geographic areas. The analysis is relative in that areas are compared to each other through an econometric procedure. By design about half of the areas are considered as performing comparatively well in that they have membership rates above expectations. The other areas are considered as performing less well because they have membership rates below expectations, and thereby m...

  6. Rotary District 7610 Relative Membership Growth Potential Analysis by County

    OpenAIRE

    Wodon, Quentin

    2013-01-01

    This brief applies a simple framework for assessing the relative potential for Rotary membership growth in different geographic areas. The analysis is relative in that areas are compared to each other through an econometric procedure. By design about half of the areas are considered as performing comparatively well in that they have membership rates above expectations. The other areas are considered as performing less well because they have membership rates below expectations, and thereby m...

  7. Rotary District 7550 Relative Membership Growth Potential Analysis by County

    OpenAIRE

    Wodon, Quentin

    2013-01-01

    This brief applies a simple framework for assessing the relative potential for Rotary membership growth in different geographic areas. The analysis is relative in that areas are compared to each other through an econometric procedure. By design about half of the areas are considered as performing comparatively well in that they have membership rates above expectations. The other areas are considered as performing less well because they have membership rates below expectations, and thereby m...

  8. Rotary District 7690 Relative Membership Growth Potential Analysis by County

    OpenAIRE

    Wodon, Quentin

    2013-01-01

    This brief applies a simple framework for assessing the relative potential for Rotary membership growth in different geographic areas. The analysis is relative in that areas are compared to each other through an econometric procedure. By design about half of the areas are considered as performing comparatively well in that they have membership rates above expectations. The other areas are considered as performing less well because they have membership rates below expectations, and thereby m...

  9. Seismic stability analysis of rock slopes by yield design theory using the generalized Hoek-Brown criterion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belghali Mounir

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The stability of rock slope is studied using the kinematic approach of yield design theory, under the condition of plane strain and by considering the last version of the Hoek-Brown failure criterion. This criterion, which is suitable to intact rock or rock mass highly fractured regarded as isotropic and homogeneous, is widely accepted by the rock mechanics community and has been applied in numerous projects around the world. The failure mechanism used to implement the kinematic approach is a log-spiral rotational mechanism. The stability analysis is carried out under the effects of gravity forces and a surcharge applied along the upper plateau of the slope. To take account of the effects of forces developed in the rock mass during the passage of a seismic wave, the conventional pseudo-static method is adopted. This method is often used in slope stability study for its simplicity and efficiency to simulate the seismic forces. The results found are compared with published numerical solutions obtained from other approaches. The comparison showed that the results are almost equal. The maximum error found is less than 1%, indicating that this approach is effective for analyzing the stability of rock slopes. The relevance of the approach demonstrated, investigations are undertaken to study the influence of some parameters on the stability of the slope. These parameters relate to the mechanical strength of the rock, slope geometry and loading.

  10. Atomization efficiency and photon yield in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy analysis of single nanoparticles in an optical trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purohit, Pablo; Fortes, Francisco J.; Laserna, J. Javier

    2017-04-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) was employed for investigating the influence of particle size on the dissociation efficiency and the absolute production of photons per mass unit of airborne solid graphite spheres under single-particle regime. Particles of average diameter of 400 nm were probed and compared with 2 μm particles. Samples were first catapulted into aerosol form and then secluded in an optical trap set by a 532 nm laser. Trap stability was quantified before subjecting particles to LIBS analysis. Fine alignment of the different lines comprising the optical catapulting-optical trapping-laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy instrument and tuning of excitation parameters conditioning the LIBS signal such as fluence and acquisition delay are described in detail with the ultimate goal of acquiring clear spectroscopic data on masses as low as 75 fg. The atomization efficiency and the photon yield increase as the particle size becomes smaller. Time-resolved plasma imaging studies were conducted to elucidate the mechanisms leading to particle disintegration and excitation.

  11. Contribution to the design, fulfillment, and data analysis of fission fragment yields of the SOFIA experiment at GSI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellereau, Eric

    2013-01-01

    The isotopic fission yields of U 238 following the SOFIA experiment, conducted at the GSI facility (Darmstadt), are presented here. This experiment takes advantage of the inverse kinematics technique at relativistic energies. Benefits are several: fission fragments are highly focused (high geometrical efficiency) and are also completely stripped, which greatly simplifies their nuclear charge measurement. The first detector of the SOFIA setup is an active target in which fission occurs via electromagnetic excitation, followed by an ionization chamber to measure the nuclear charge and the horizontal angle of both fission fragments. The masses are deduced by the bending radius measurement of the fragments, deflected by a strong magnet (ALADIN), thanks to two position detectors (MWPC), and also by a highly resolved time-of-flight measurement (40 ps FWHM) so that heavy neighboring isotopes can be separated. The data analysis shows that the main goals are achieved since the isotopic separation is reached over the whole range of the fission fragments. A strong even-odd effect is seen in the charge spectrum, which also exhibits a mean heavy charge close to Z = 54. Surprisingly, the neutron even-odd effect of the light region is seen to be very close to the one in thermal neutron induced fission. The peak-to-valley ratio of the mass spectrum confirms that the mean excitation energy at fission is close to the expected one (14 MeV). The GEF code is used for comparison and always gives results very close to ours. (author) [fr

  12. Is Reduction in Yield Potential of Some Brassicaceous Species Due to Aphid Infestation Associated with the Changes in Stomatal Factors of Photosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Razaq, M.; Farooq, M.; Abbas, G.; Rehman, H. M.; Iqbal, M.

    2016-01-01

    Aphids cause heavy yield losses to Brassicaceous species by affecting various physiological and biochemical processes including photosynthesis. In the present study, seasonal activity of aphid population and its impact on some brassicaceous species was assessed. Three brassicaceous species (Brassica campestris, Brassica carinata, Eruca sativa) were grown in field following standard agricultural practices. Plants of control plots retained aphid free by insecticide spray, whereas treatment plots were freely allowed for aphid infestation. There was also intermediate treatment of partial aphid infestation where insecticidal spray was applied two times. Peak populations of both aphid species were observed in the 2nd week of March during which plant photosynthetic attributes were recorded. At the time of maturity, yield attributes were also recorded. From the results, it is obvious that application of insecticide significantly reduced the aphid populations on the three brassicaceous species and enhanced the crop yield. Yield losses due to aphid infestation were maximal in Brassica campestris followed by B. carinata whereas it was minimal in Eruca sativa. Yield losses in Brassica campestris and B. carinata were due to reduction in number of pods per plant, number of seeds per pod and size of seeds, whereas yield losses due to aphid infestation in Eruca sativa was mainly attributed to reduction in number of pods per plant. Although insecticidal spray reduced the aphid population and increased growth and productivity of all brassicaceous species, it did not change photosynthetic capacity of all plants except in Eruca sativa. Moreover, growth and yield reduction was not associated with stomatal factors of photosynthesis. Chlorophyll contents measured as SPAD values were reduced due to aphid infestation which is positively associated with yield reduction. Insecticidal spray increased chlorophyll contents in these three brassicaceous species by reducing aphid population

  13. Influence of texture on the analysis of thermoelastic/plastic ansisotropy and the initial yielding of Zircaloy tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisenberg, M.A.; Yen, C.F.

    1980-01-01

    Averaging procedures are developed to obtain texture factors relating the thermoelastic properties of single crystals of zirconium to polycrystalline properties. The effect of various approximations to the elastic properties of polycrystalline material and various assumed yield criteria on the transition from elastic to plastic behavior for a tube subjected to various boundary conditions is examined. It is found that thermal anisotropy has a greater effect on the elastic-plastic transitions than does elastic anisotropy. The choice of yield condition can also affect appreciably the predicted yielding behavior of a tube. (orig.)

  14. Use of Drought Index and Crop Modelling for Drought Impacts Analysis on Maize (Zea mays L.) Yield Loss in Bandung District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurniasih, E.; Impron; Perdinan

    2017-03-01

    Drought impacts on crop yield loss depend on drought magnitude and duration and on plant genotype at every plant growth stages when droughts occur. This research aims to assess the difference calculation results of 2 drought index methods and to study the maize yield loss variability impacted by drought magnitude and duration during maize growth stages in Bandung district, province of West Java, Indonesia. Droughts were quantified by the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) and the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) at 1- to 3-month lags for the January1986-December 2015 period data. Maize yield responses to droughts were simulated by AquaCrop for the January 1986-May 2016 period of growing season. The analysis showed that the SPI and SPEI methods provided similar results in quantifying drought event. Droughts during maize reproductive stages caused the highest maize yield loss.

  15. Economic analysis of potential uses of geothermal energy in agriculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cone, B.W.

    1978-02-01

    The economic feasibility and water quality considerations of the cultural practice of soil warming was evaluated using existing technical, agronomic, and economic data. It was hypothesized that it is technically and economically feasible to use geothermal energy in the cultural practice of soil warming for specific crops. The analysis attempted to reject the hypothesis. Since the hypothesis could not be rejected, the results are presented as a profit equation suitable for inclusion in the GEOCOST computer program. This determination of economic feasibility utilized heterogeneous crop yield data by comparing the elasticity of response with a normalized product-factor price ratio. Soil warming was determined to be feasible when the elasticity of production was equal to or greater than the normalized product-factor price ratio. A farm enterprise was determined profitable if net returns were positive. An empirical model in which the energy dissipation rate is a function of the difference between heat source temperature and mean monthly air temperature was transformed to utilize data describing the total heat applied during the growing season. Heat input was then measured as the total number of calories per square centimeter applied during the growing season.

  16. Analysis of yield and plant traits of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L. cultivated in temperate region in light of the possibilities of sowing in arid areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Zając

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This work is a review of selected literature on the species of Brassica with the greatest economic significance. Oilseed rape (Brassica napus ssp. oleifera currently ranks third worldwide among oilseed crops used for oil production and is the most important in the temperate zone. The manifold uses of rape include not only human consumption of oil, but also the use of post-extraction meal to feed livestock as well as industrial applications as a source of bioenergy or cellulose. The improvement in the economic position of rape among crop plants is also due to the doubling of its yield between 1970 and 2009; the average annual increase in seed yield worldwide was 27 kg ha−1 yr−1. The yield level in Europe exceeds the average yields achieved in the world, particularly in Asia. Recently, the cultivation of oilseed rape was started on a relatively large acreage in Iran where the yield amounted 2.1 t ha−1, exceeding the yields of China and India. In Poland, the acreage of oilseed rape cultivation between 1965 and 2013 increased 3–4 times, and during this period the annual increase in seed yield was 29 kg ha−1 yr−1. Under the field conditions of the temperate climate zone, winter oilseed rape yield is mainly determined by agro-climatic conditions during the growing period, the level of nitrogen fertilization, and the production potential of varieties, which is currently highest in hybrids. There is a noticeable tendency of hybrids towards formation of more siliques by individual oilseed plants. Different production categories of plants appear in a rape crop. Semi-dwarf varieties of winter rapeseed are distinguished by greater silique density, particularly on the main shoot. Moreover, these hybrids are characterized by faster growth of the root system, which enables them to take up nitrogen from the soil more efficiently.

  17. Analysis of Renewable Energy Potential on U. S. National Forest Lands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zvolanek, E. [Environmental Science Division; Kuiper, J. [Environmental Science Division; Carr, A. [Environmental Science Division; Hlava, K.

    2013-12-13

    In 2005, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) completed an assessment of the potential for solar and wind energy development on National Forest System (NFS) public lands managed by the US Department of Agriculture, U.S. Forest Service (USFS). This report provides an update of the analysis in the NREL report, and extends the analysis with additional siting factors for solar and wind energy. It also expands the scope to biomass and geothermal energy resources. Hydropower is acknowledged as another major renewable energy source on NFS lands; however, it was not analyzed in this project primarily because of the substantially different analysis that would be needed to identify suitable locations. Details about each renewable energy production technology included in the study are provided following the report introduction, including how each resource is converted to electrical power, and examples of existing power plants. The analysis approach was to use current and available Geographic Information System (GIS) data to map the distribution of the subject renewable energy resources, major siting factors, and NFS lands. For each major category of renewable energy power production, a set of siting factors were determined, including minimum levels for the renewable energy resources, and details for each of the other siting factors. Phase 1 of the analysis focused on replicating and updating the 2005 NREL analysis, and Phase 2 introduced additional siting factors and energy resources. Source data were converted to a cell-based format that helped create composite maps of locations meeting all the siting criteria. Acreages and potential power production levels for NFS units were tabulated and are presented throughout this report and the accompanying files. NFS units in the southwest United States were found to have the most potentially suitable land for concentrating solar power (CSP), especially in Arizona and New Mexico. In total, about 136,032 acres of NFS lands

  18. Protecting Privacy of Shared Epidemiologic Data without Compromising Analysis Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Cologne

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Ensuring privacy of research subjects when epidemiologic data are shared with outside collaborators involves masking (modifying the data, but overmasking can compromise utility (analysis potential. Methods of statistical disclosure control for protecting privacy may be impractical for individual researchers involved in small-scale collaborations. Methods. We investigated a simple approach based on measures of disclosure risk and analytical utility that are straightforward for epidemiologic researchers to derive. The method is illustrated using data from the Japanese Atomic-bomb Survivor population. Results. Masking by modest rounding did not adequately enhance security but rounding to remove several digits of relative accuracy effectively reduced the risk of identification without substantially reducing utility. Grouping or adding random noise led to noticeable bias. Conclusions. When sharing epidemiologic data, it is recommended that masking be performed using rounding. Specific treatment should be determined separately in individual situations after consideration of the disclosure risks and analysis needs.

  19. Protecting Privacy of Shared Epidemiologic Data without Compromising Analysis Potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cologne, J.; Nakashima, E.; Funamoto, S.; Grant, E.J.; Chen, Y.; Hiroaki Katayama, H.

    2012-01-01

    Objective. Ensuring privacy of research subjects when epidemiologic data are shared with outside collaborators involves masking (modifying) the data, but over masking can compromise utility (analysis potential). Methods of statistical disclosure control for protecting privacy may be impractical for individual researchers involved in small-scale collaborations. Methods. We investigated a simple approach based on measures of disclosure risk and analytical utility that are straightforward for epidemiologic researchers to derive. The method is illustrated using data from the Japanese Atomic-bomb Survivor population. Results. Masking by modest rounding did not adequately enhance security but rounding to remove several digits of relative accuracy effectively reduced the risk of identification without substantially reducing utility. Grouping or adding random noise led to noticeable bias. Conclusions. When sharing epidemiologic data, it is recommended that masking be performed using rounding. Specific treatment should be determined separately in individual situations after consideration of the disclosure risks and analysis needs

  20. Analysis of Potential for Titanium Liner Buckling after Proof in a Large Kevlar/Epoxy COPV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phoenix, S. Leigh; Kezirian, Michael T.

    2009-01-01

    We analyze the potential for liner buckling in a 40-in Kevlar49/epoxy overwrapped spherical pressure vessel (COPV) due to long, local depressions or valleys in the titanium liner, which appeared after proof testing (autofrettage). We begin by presenting the geometric characteristics of approximately 20 mil (0.02 in.) deep depressions measured by laser profilometry in several vessels. While such depths were more typical, depths of more than 40 mils (0.02 in.) were seen near the equator in one particular vessel. Such depressions are largely the result of overlap of the edges of overwrap bands (with rectangular cross-section prepreg tows) from the first or second wrap patterns particularly where they start and end. We then discuss the physical mechanisms of formation of the depressions during the autofrettage process in terms of uneven void compaction in the overwrap around the tow overlap lines and the resulting 10-fold increase in through-thickness stiffness of the overwrap. We consider the effects of liner plastic yielding mechanisms in the liner on residual bending moments and interface pressures with the overwrap both at the peak proof pressure (approx.6500 psi) and when reducing the pressure to 0 psi. During depressurization the Bauschinger phenomenon becomes very important whereby extensive yielding in tension reduces the magnitude of the yield threshold in compression by 30 to 40%, compared to the virgin annealed state of the liner titanium. In the absence of a depression, the liner is elastically stable in compression even at liner overwrap interface pressures nominally 6 times the approx. 1000 psi interface pressure that exists at 0 psi. Using a model based on a plate-on-an-elastic-foundation, we develop an extensive analysis of the possible destabilizing effects of a frozen-in valley. The analysis treats the modifying effects of the residual bending moments and interface pressures remaining after the proof hold as well as the Bauschinger effect on the

  1. Analysis of Petroleum Downstream Industry Potential in Riau Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomi Erfando

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Petroleum downstream industry in Riau Province is still not optimal. The data shows that from 98,892,755 barrels lifting oil each year only 62,050,000 barrels could be processed in refinery unit II Dumai operated by PT Pertamina. There is a potential of 35-40% of downstream industry. Indonesian Government through The Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources declared the construction of a mini refinery to boost oil processing output in the downstream sector. A feasibility study of development plan mini refinery is needed. The study includes production capacity analysis, product analysis, development & operational refinery  analysis and economic analysis. The results obtained by the mini refinery capacity is planned to process crude oil 6000 BOPD with the products produced are gasoline, kerosene, diesel and oil. Investment cost consist of is capital cost US $ 104419784 and operating cost US $ 13766734 each year with net profit earned US $ 12330063/year and rate of return from investment 11.63%

  2. Growth analysis and yield of two varieties of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) as influenced by different weed control methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olayinka, Bolaji U; Etejere, Emmanuel O

    Field trials were carried out to evaluate the effects of seven weed management strategies on the growth and yield of two groundnut varieties (Samnut 10 and MK 373) for two successive seasons (2010-2011). The experimental layout was a split plot complete randomized block design with three replications. The two groundnut varieties showed identical pattern of results for leaf area index, dry matter accumulation, relative growth rate, net assimilation rate and crop growth rate as well as yield. All the weed control treatments significantly enhanced the growth and yield compared with the weedy check. The weed free check had the highest growth but the highest yield was recorded from rice straw mulch at 0.1 m depth + one hand weeding at 6 weeks after sowing (WAS) due to increase in number of matured pods per plant, seed weight per plant and 100-seed weight. The results showed that rice straw mulch at 0.1 m depth + one hand weeding at 6 WAS was better agronomical practice for enhancing growth and yield of groundnut. This enhancement could be as a result of its positive influence on physiological parameters such as leaf area index, dry matter accumulation, relative growth rate, net assimilation rate and crop growth rate. Its use is also ecofriendly as it limits the need for synthetic herbicide.

  3. Analysis of registered CDM projects: potential removal of evidenced bottlenecks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agosto, D.; Bombard, P.; Gostinelli, F.

    2007-07-01

    The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) has developed during its first period of implementation, a distinctive set of patterns. The authors thought of concentrating on the CDM analysis in order to highlight potential remedies or reasons for given bottlenecks. In order to establish a sort of extensive SWOT analysis for CDMs, all the 356 projects actually (November 2006) registered at UNFCCC were examined, together with all the about 1000 PDDs presented to the UNFCCC but not registered yet. The CDM projects have been studied trying to cluster projects according to relevant characteristics, both from a technical and an economic point of view. Chosen indicators are meant to identify: more convenient/more diffused energy system for a CDM; reasons for a geographical distribution of different types of projects; potentials for a future exploitation of lower used technologies in CDM. Conclusions are drawn and appropriate tables and graphs presented. (1) the Baseline Emission Factor, combined to economic patterns, is the pivotal factor that characterizes both choices of host country and technology; (2) some technologies can exploit appropriately CDM scheme, whilst other technologies, are constrained by it. (3) there are still some important weak points: grouping of non Annex I countries; crediting period; criteria for the evaluation of sustainable development. (auth)

  4. Potential Vaccine Targets against Rabbit Coccidiosis by Immunoproteomic Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hongyan; Dong, Ronglian; Qiu, Baofeng; Jing, Jin; Zhu, Shunxing; Liu, Chun; Jiang, Yingmei; Wu, Liucheng; Wang, Shengcun; Miao, Jin; Shao, Yixiang

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to identify antigens for a vaccine or drug target to control rabbit coccidiosis. A combination of 2-dimensional electrophoresis, immunoblotting, and mass spectrometric analysis were used to identify novel antigens from the sporozoites of Eimeria stiedae . Protein spots were recognized by the sera of New Zealand rabbits infected artificially with E. stiedae . The proteins were characterized by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS) analysis in combination with bioinformatics. Approximately 868 protein spots were detected by silver-staining, and a total of 41 immunoreactive protein spots were recognized by anti- E. stiedae sera. Finally, 23 protein spots were successfully identified. The proteins such as heat shock protein 70 and aspartyl protease may have potential as immunodiagnostic or vaccine antigens. The immunoreactive proteins were found to possess a wide range of biological functions. This study is the first to report the proteins recognized by sera of infected rabbits with E. stiedae , which might be helpful in identifying potential targets for vaccine development to control rabbit coccidiosis.

  5. Analysis of some potential social effects of four coal technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, C.A.; Gould, L.C.

    1980-09-01

    This is an analysis of the potential social impacts of four coal technologies: conventional combustion, fluidized-bed combustion, liquifaction, and gasification. Because of their flexibility, and the abundance and relatively low costs of coal, the potential benefits of these technologies would seem to outweigh their potential social costs, both in the intermediate and long term. Nevertheless, the social costs of a coal industry are far more obscure and hard to quantify than the benefits. In general, however, it maybe expected that those technologies that can be deployed most quickly, that provide fuels that can substitute most easily for oil and natural gas, that are the cheapest, and that are the most thermally efficient will minimize social costs most in the intermediate term, while technologies that can guide energy infrastructure changes to become the most compatable with the fuels that will be most easily derived from inexhaustible sources (electricity and hydrogen) will minimize social costs most in the long run. An industry structured to favor eastern over western coal and plant sites in moderate sized communities, which could easily adapt to inexhaustible energy technologies (nuclear or solar) in the future, would be favored in either time period.

  6. Yield enhancement with DFM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paek, Seung Weon; Kang, Jae Hyun; Ha, Naya; Kim, Byung-Moo; Jang, Dae-Hyun; Jeon, Junsu; Kim, DaeWook; Chung, Kun Young; Yu, Sung-eun; Park, Joo Hyun; Bae, SangMin; Song, DongSup; Noh, WooYoung; Kim, YoungDuck; Song, HyunSeok; Choi, HungBok; Kim, Kee Sup; Choi, Kyu-Myung; Choi, Woonhyuk; Jeon, JoongWon; Lee, JinWoo; Kim, Ki-Su; Park, SeongHo; Chung, No-Young; Lee, KangDuck; Hong, YoungKi; Kim, BongSeok

    2012-03-01

    A set of design for manufacturing (DFM) techniques have been developed and applied to 45nm, 32nm and 28nm logic process technologies. A noble technology combined a number of potential confliction of DFM techniques into a comprehensive solution. These techniques work in three phases for design optimization and one phase for silicon diagnostics. In the DFM prevention phase, foundation IP such as standard cells, IO, and memory and P&R tech file are optimized. In the DFM solution phase, which happens during ECO step, auto fixing of process weak patterns and advanced RC extraction are performed. In the DFM polishing phase, post-layout tuning is done to improve manufacturability. DFM analysis enables prioritization of random and systematic failures. The DFM technique presented in this paper has been silicon-proven with three successful tape-outs in Samsung 32nm processes; about 5% improvement in yield was achieved without any notable side effects. Visual inspection of silicon also confirmed the positive effect of the DFM techniques.

  7. Evaluation of the effects of irrigation and fertilization on tomato fruit yield and quality: a principal component analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiukang; Xing, Yingying

    2017-03-23

    Irrigation and fertilization are key practices for improving the fruit quality and yield of vegetables grown in greenhouses. We carried out an experiment in a solar greenhouse spanning three consecutive growing seasons to evaluate the effects of irrigation and fertilization on the fruit yield and quality, water use efficiency (WUE) and fertilizer partial factor productivity (PFP) of tomatoes. Interactions between irrigation and fertilization treatments and individual factors of irrigation and fertilization significantly (p fertigation (W2F1) may be a good compromise for solar greenhouse-grown tomatoes with regard to fruit yield and quality, WUE, and PFP. The present study sheds light on the contributions of these practices, clarifies their impacts, and provides a basis for evaluating and selecting better management practices for growing greenhouse vegetables.

  8. An analysis of the sponge Acanthostrongylophora igens’ microbiome yields an actinomycete that produces the natural product manzamine A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Leigh Waters

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Sponges have generated significant interest as a source of bioactive and elaborate secondary metabolites that hold promise for the development of novel therapeutics for the control of an array of human diseases. However, research and development of marine natural products can often be hampered by the difficulty associated with obtaining a stable and sustainable production source. Herein we report the first successful characterization and utilization of the microbiome of a marine invertebrate to identify a sustainable production source for an important natural product scaffold. Through molecular-microbial community analysis, optimization of fermentation conditions and MALDI-MS imaging, we provide the first report of a sponge-associated bacterium (Micromonospora sp. that produces the manzamine class of antimalarials from the Indo-Pacific sponge Acanthostrongylophora ingens (Thiele, 1899 (Class Demospongiae, Order Haplosclerida, Family Petrosiidae. These findings suggest that a general strategy of analysis of the macroorganism’s microbiome could significantly transform the field of natural products drug discovery by gaining access to not only novel drug leads, but the potential for sustainable production sources and biosynthetic genes at the same time.

  9. An analysis of the spongeAcanthostrongylophora igens'microbiome yields an actinomycete that produces the natural product manzamine A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Amanda L; Peraud, Olivier; Kasanah, Noer; Sims, James W; Kothalawala, Nuwan; Anderson, Matthew A; Abbas, Samuel H; Rao, Karumanchi V; Jupally, Vijay R; Kelly, Michelle; Dass, Amala; Hill, Russell T; Hamann, Mark T

    2014-10-01

    Sponges have generated significant interest as a source of bioactive and elaborate secondary metabolites that hold promise for the development of novel therapeutics for the control of an array of human diseases. However, research and development of marine natural products can often be hampered by the difficulty associated with obtaining a stable and sustainable production source. Herein we report the first successful characterization and utilization of the microbiome of a marine invertebrate to identify a sustainable production source for an important natural product scaffold. Through molecular-microbial community analysis, optimization of fermentation conditions and MALDI-MS imaging, we provide the first report of a sponge-associated bacterium ( Micromonospora sp.) that produces the manzamine class of antimalarials from the Indo-Pacific sponge Acanthostrongylophora ingens (Thiele, 1899) (Class Demospongiae, Order Haplosclerida, Family Petrosiidae). These findings suggest that a general strategy of analysis of the macroorganism's microbiome could significantly transform the field of natural products drug discovery by gaining access to not only novel drug leads, but the potential for sustainable production sources and biosynthetic genes at the same time.

  10. An analysis of the sponge Acanthostrongylophora igens’ microbiome yields an actinomycete that produces the natural product manzamine A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Amanda L.; Peraud, Olivier; Kasanah, Noer; Sims, James W.; Kothalawala, Nuwan; Anderson, Matthew A.; Abbas, Samuel H.; Rao, Karumanchi V.; Jupally, Vijay R.; Kelly, Michelle; Dass, Amala; Hill, Russell T.; Hamann, Mark T.

    2016-01-01

    Sponges have generated significant interest as a source of bioactive and elaborate secondary metabolites that hold promise for the development of novel therapeutics for the control of an array of human diseases. However, research and development of marine natural products can often be hampered by the difficulty associated with obtaining a stable and sustainable production source. Herein we report the first successful characterization and utilization of the microbiome of a marine invertebrate to identify a sustainable production source for an important natural product scaffold. Through molecular-microbial community analysis, optimization of fermentation conditions and MALDI-MS imaging, we provide the first report of a sponge-associated bacterium (Micromonospora sp.) that produces the manzamine class of antimalarials from the Indo-Pacific sponge Acanthostrongylophora ingens (Thiele, 1899) (Class Demospongiae, Order Haplosclerida, Family Petrosiidae). These findings suggest that a general strategy of analysis of the macroorganism’s microbiome could significantly transform the field of natural products drug discovery by gaining access to not only novel drug leads, but the potential for sustainable production sources and biosynthetic genes at the same time. PMID:27785452

  11. Singularity analysis of potential fields to enhance weak anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, G.; Cheng, Q.; Liu, T.

    2013-12-01

    Geoanomalies generally are nonlinear, non-stationary and weak, especially in the land cover areas, however, the traditional methods of geoanomaly identification are usually based on linear theory. In past two decades, many power-law function models have been developed based on fractal concept in mineral exploration and mineral resource assessment, such that the density-area (C-A) model and spectrum-area model (S-A) suggested by Qiuming Cheng have played important roles in extracting geophysical and geochemical anomalies. Several power-law relationships are evident in geophysical potential fields, such as field value-distance, power spectrum-wave number as well as density-area models. The singularity index based on density-area model involves the first derivative transformation of the measure. Hence, we introduce the singularity analysis to develop a novel high-pass filter for extracting gravity and magnetic anomalies with the advantage of scale invariance. Furthermore, we suggest that the statistics of singularity indices can provide a new edge detection scheme for the gravity or magnetic source bodies. Meanwhile, theoretical magnetic anomalies are established to verify these assertions. In the case study from Nanling mineral district in south China and Qikou Depression in east China, compared with traditional geophysical filtering methods including multiscale wavelet analysis and total horizontal gradient methods, the singularity method enhances and extracts the weak anomalies caused by buried magmatic rocks more effectively, and provides more distinct boundary information of rocks. Moreover, the singularity mapping results have good correspondence relationship with both the outcropping rocks and known mineral deposits to support future mineral resource exploration. The singularity method based on fractal analysis has potential to be a new useful theory and technique for processing gravity and magnetic anomaly data.

  12. 6 Grain Yield

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    have stable, not too short crop duration with ... Ndiaye is located in the. Costal Delta region of Senegal. The climate of the Delta is characterized by a wet season from July to October with approximately. 200 mm of ..... Analysis of variance of the effect of site and season on maturity, grain yield and plant height of 16 rice.

  13. Analysis of rural intersection accidents caused by stop sign violation and failure to yield the right-of-way

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to (1) identify the factors that contribute to accidents caused by failure to stop and failure to yield the right-of-way at rural two-way stop-controlled intersections on the state highway system, and (2) determine w...

  14. Do organic inputs matter – a meta-analysis of additional yield effects for arable crops in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hijbeek, R.; Ittersum, van M.K.; Berge, Ten H.F.M.; Gort, G.; Spiegel, H.; Whitmore, A.P.

    2017-01-01

    Background and aims: Organic inputs have a positive effect on the soil organic matter balance. They are therefore an important asset for soil fertility and crop growth. This study quantifies the additional yield effect due to organic inputs for arable crops in Europe when macro-nutrients are not

  15. Feeding the world while reducing farmer poverty? Analysis of rice relative yield and labour productivity gaps in two Beninese villages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paresys, Lise; Saito, Kazuki; Dogliotti, Santiago; Malézieux, Eric; Huat, Joël; Kropff, Martin J.; Rossing, Walter A.H.

    2018-01-01

    Improvements in agricultural land and labour productivity are needed to meet the growing food demand and reduce farmer poverty in sub-Saharan Africa. The objectives of this study were to (i) quantify variation in labour inputs, yield and labour productivity among rice fields; (ii) elicit factors

  16. Innovation-oriented Analysis of Critical Control Points (IACCP): Sho Wishes to Solve Sweet Pepper Yield Oscillations?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepers, H.E.; Kromdijk, W.; Kooten, van O.

    2006-01-01

    A generic program for mathematical model-supported innovation profiling in fresh food supply chains is presented. Building on top of a crop growth model, strategies to address the problem of sweet pepper yield oscillations (flushes) are analysed quantitatively from both isolated or combined

  17. Vulnerability and adaptation of European farmer: a multi-level analysis of yield and income responses to climate variability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reidsma, P.; Ewert, F.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.; Leemans, R.

    2009-01-01

    Climate change will affect crop yields and consequently farmers¿ income. The underlying relationships are not well understood, particularly the importance of crop management and related factors at the farm and regional level. We analyze the impacts of trends and variability in climatic conditions

  18. Genetic Analysis of Protein Yield, Udder Health, and Female Fertility in First-Parity Danish Holstein Cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch, L H; Norberg, E

    2008-01-01

    Genetic parameters for protein yield, clinical mastitis, SCS, number of inseminations (NI), and days from first to last insemination (FLI) were estimated for first-parity Danish Holstein cows. The objective was to estimate genetic correlations between the five traits mentioned above and to study ...

  19. Transcriptome Analysis Suggests That Starch Synthesis May Proceed via Multiple Metabolic Routes in High Yielding Potato Cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminski, Kacper Piotr; Petersen, Annabeth Høgh; Sønderkær, Mads; Pedersen, Lars Haastrup; Pedersen, Henrik; Feder, Christian; Nielsen, Kåre L.

    2012-01-01

    Background Glucose-6-phosphate is imported into the amyloplast of potato tubers and thought to constitute the precursor for starch synthesis in potato tubers. However, recently it was shown that glucose-1-phosphate can also be imported into the amyloplast and incorporated into starch via an ATP independent mechanism under special conditions. Nonetheless, glucose-6-phosphate is believed to be the quantitatively important precursor for starch synthesis in potato. Principal Finding Potato tubers of the high yielding cv Kuras had low gene expression of plastidial phophoglucomutase (PGM) and normal levels of transcripts for other enzymes involved in starch metabolism in comparison with medium and low yielding cultivars as determined by DeepSAGE transcriptome profiling. The decrease in PGM activity in Kuras was confirmed by measuring the enzyme activity from potato tuber extracts. Contrary to expectations, this combination lead to a higher level of intracellular glucose-1-phosphate (G1P) in Kuras suggesting that G1P is directly imported into plastids and can be quantitatively important for starch synthesis under normal conditions in high yielding cultivars. Significance This could open entirely new possibilities for metabolic engineering of the starch metabolism in potato via the so far uncharacterized G1P transporter. The perspectives are to increase yield and space efficiency of this important crop. In the light of the increasing demands imposed on agriculture to support a growing global population this presents an exciting new possibility. PMID:23284672

  20. Preliminary analysis of biomass potentially useful for producing biodiesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabrera Cifuentes, Gerardo; Burbano Jaramillo, Juan Carlos; Garcia Melo, Jose Isidro

    2011-01-01

    Given that biodiesel is emerging as a viable solution for some energy and environmental problems, research on raw materials appropriate for its production is a matter of growing interest. In this study we present the results of research devoted to preliminary analysis on several vegetable (biomass) species potentially useful for producing biodiesel. The bioprospection zone is a region on the Colombian Pacific coast. The candidate species collected underwent different standardized ASTM tests in order for us to define properties that facilitate their evaluation. Some of the species underwent a transesterification process. Comparisons between the thermo-physical properties of the biofuels obtained and the properties of commercial diesel were carried out. Also, performance tests for these biofuels were conducted in compression ignition engines, particularly evaluating efficiency, fuel consumption, and potency at different RPMs.

  1. Analysis of water soluble polysaccharides as a potential chemotaxonomic marker for landraces in Bixa orellana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parimalan, Rangan; Mahendranath, Gondi; Giridhar, Parvatam

    2014-02-01

    Annatto tree (Bixa orellana L.) is native to Brazil and is now under cultivation in many parts of world for its reddish orange 'annatto' dye. There are three types of landraces in annatto and they are distinguished based on fruit shape i.e., ovate, conical and hemispherical, whose pigment yield differs. Since annatto pigment yield varies with landrace, it is necessary to characterize markers towards the identification of landraces. In this study, we characterized water soluble polysaccharides (WSP) of twigs from three landraces using size-exclusion chromatography (SEC), Fourier-transform Infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) and gas liquid chromatography (GLC) for their potential use as chemotaxonomic markers to distinguish the landraces. GLC analysis on WSP showed hemispherical type contained 38% rhamnose, while conical and ovate types contained 17% and 34% glucose, respectively. Thus, glucose and rhamnose content of WSP could be used to distinguish the three landraces. Further, differences in calculated molecular weight as revealed by SEC (281.8, 151.3 and 79.4 kDa for conical, hemispherical and ovate types, respectively) could also be used to distinguish the three landraces.

  2. Analysis of classifiers performance for classification of potential microcalcification

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. N., Arun K.; Sheshadri, H. S.

    2013-07-01

    Breast cancer is a significant public health problem in the world. According to the literature early detection improve breast cancer prognosis. Mammography is a screening tool used for early detection of breast cancer. About 10-30% cases are missed during the routine check as it is difficult for the radiologists to make accurate analysis due to large amount of data. The Microcalcifications (MCs) are considered to be important signs of breast cancer. It has been reported in literature that 30% - 50% of breast cancer detected radio graphically show MCs on mammograms. Histologic examinations report 62% to 79% of breast carcinomas reveals MCs. MC are tiny, vary in size, shape, and distribution, and MC may be closely connected to surrounding tissues. There is a major challenge using the traditional classifiers in the classification of individual potential MCs as the processing of mammograms in appropriate stage generates data sets with an unequal amount of information for both classes (i.e., MC, and Not-MC). Most of the existing state-of-the-art classification approaches are well developed by assuming the underlying training set is evenly distributed. However, they are faced with a severe bias problem when the training set is highly imbalanced in distribution. This paper addresses this issue by using classifiers which handle the imbalanced data sets. In this paper, we also compare the performance of classifiers which are used in the classification of potential MC.

  3. Analysis of meteorological variations on wheat yield and its estimation using remotely sensed data. A case study of selected districts of Punjab Province, Pakistan (2001-14

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafia Mumtaz

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Land management for crop production is an essential human activity that supports life on Earth. The main challenge to be faced by the agriculture sector in coming years is to feed the rapidly growing population while maintaining the key resources such as soil fertility, efficient land use, and water. Climate change is also a critical factor that impacts agricultural production. Among others, a major effect of climate change is the potential alterations in the growth cycle of crops which would likely lead to a decline in the agricultural output. Due to the increasing demand for proper agricultural management, this study explores the effects of meteorological variation on wheat yield in Chakwal and Faisalabad districts of Punjab, Pakistan and used normalised difference vegetation index (NDVI as a predictor for yield estimates. For NDVI data (2001-14, the NDVI product of Moderate Resolution Imaging spectrometer (MODIS 16-day composites data has been used. The crop area mapping has been realised by classifying the satellite data into different land use/land covers using iterative self-organising (ISO data clustering. The land cover for the wheat crop was mapped using a crop calendar. The relation of crop yield with NDVI and the impact of meteorological parameters on wheat growth and its yield has been analysed at various development stages. A strong correlation of rainfall and temperature was found with NDVI data, which determined NDVI as a strong predictor of yield estimation. The wheat yield estimates were obtained by linearly regressing the reported crop yield against the time series of MODIS NDVI profiles. The wheat NDVI profiles have shown a parabolic pattern across the growing season, therefore parabolic least square fit (LSF has been applied prior to linear regression. The coefficients of determination (R2 between the reported and estimated yield was found to be 0.88 and 0.73, respectively, for Chakwal and Faisalabad. This indicates that the

  4. Substitutional potential of mephedrone: an analysis of the subjective effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapitány-Fövény, Máté; Kertész, Máté; Winstock, Adam; Deluca, Paolo; Corazza, Ornella; Farkas, Judit; Zacher, Gábor; Urbán, Róbert; Demetrovics, Zsolt

    2013-07-01

    In the past 25-30 years, a large number of synthetic and non-synthetic drugs have appeared on the recreational scene, but with the exception of 4-methylmethcathinone (mephedrone), none of these substances reached the popularity of ecstasy [3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methylamphetamine, (MDMA)]. Authors aimed to determine the subjective effects of mephedrone in order to understand how mephedrone can serve as a potential substitute for entactogens, such as MDMA. One hundred forty-five mephedrone users--recruited by snowball method--filled out a questionnaire on their patterns of use and experienced subjective effects of mephedrone. Factor analysis revealed six factors of mephedrone-induced subjective effects: positive emotions, sensibility, adverse somatic effects, adverse psychological effects, stimulant effects, and psychedelic effects. A preference list of subjective effects indicates that mephedrone is popular primarily for its psychostimulant and entactogen effects. Latent class analysis identified two classes of mephedrone users, with closely parallel profiles. The two classes differed in severity of subjective experience in a way that was consistent across the six dimensions. By having similar subjective effects as MDMA and other entactogens, mephedrone seems able to substitute other enactogenic stimulants. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Generating Property-Directed Potential Invariants By Backward Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrien Champion

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the issue of lemma generation in a k-induction-based formal analysis of transition systems, in the linear real/integer arithmetic fragment. A backward analysis, powered by quantifier elimination, is used to output preimages of the negation of the proof objective, viewed as unauthorized states, or gray states. Two heuristics are proposed to take advantage of this source of information. First, a thorough exploration of the possible partitionings of the gray state space discovers new relations between state variables, representing potential invariants. Second, an inexact exploration regroups and over-approximates disjoint areas of the gray state space, also to discover new relations between state variables. k-induction is used to isolate the invariants and check if they strengthen the proof objective. These heuristics can be used on the first preimage of the backward exploration, and each time a new one is output, refining the information on the gray states. In our context of critical avionics embedded systems, we show that our approach is able to outperform other academic or commercial tools on examples of interest in our application field. The method is introduced and motivated through two main examples, one of which was provided by Rockwell Collins, in a collaborative formal verification framework.

  6. Transcriptome network analysis reveals potential candidate genes for ankylosing spondylitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Z-Q; Tang, J-S; Cao, X-J

    2013-12-01

    Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a chronic, inflammatory arthritis and autoimmune disease. The main symptom of AS is inflammatory spinal pain; with time, some patients develop ankylosis and spinal immobility. We aim to find cure available for ankylosing spondylitis. We used the GSE11886 series to identify potential genes that related to AS to construct a regulation network. In the network, some of TFs and target genes have been proved related with AS in previous study, such as NFKB1, STAT1, STAT4, TNFSF10, IL2RA, and IL2RB. We also found some new TFs (Franscription Factors) and target genes response to AS, such as BXDC5, and EGFR. Further analysis indicated some significant pathways are associated with AS, including antigen processing and presentation and cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, etc.; although not significant, there was evident that they play an important role in AS progression, such as apoptosis and systemic lupus erythematosus. Therefore, it is demonstrated that transcriptome network analysis is useful in identification of the candidate genes in AS.

  7. Transcriptome Analysis Suggests That Starch Synthesis May Proceed via Multiple Metabolic Routes in High Yielding Potato Cultivars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaminski, Kacper Piotr; Petersen, Annabeth Høgh; Sønderkær, Mads

    2012-01-01

    levels of transcripts for other enzymes involved in starch metabolism in comparison with medium and low yielding cultivars as determined by DeepSAGE transcriptome profiling. The decrease in PGM activity in Kuras was confirmed by measuring the enzyme activity from potato tuber extracts. Contrary......Background: Glucose-6-phosphate is imported into the amyloplast of potato tubers and thought to constitute the precursor for starch synthesis in potato tubers. However, recently it was shown that glucose-1-phosphate can also be imported into the amyloplast and incorporated into starch via an ATP...... independent mechanism under special conditions. Nonetheless, glucose-6-phosphate is believed to be the quantitatively important precursor for starch synthesis in potato. Principical finding: potato tubers of the high yielding cv Kuras had low gene expression of plastidial phophoglucomutase (PGM) and normal...

  8. Determining Balıkesir’s Energy Potential Using a Regression Analysis Computer Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bedri Yüksel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Solar power and wind energy are used concurrently during specific periods, while at other times only the more efficient is used, and hybrid systems make this possible. When establishing a hybrid system, the extent to which these two energy sources support each other needs to be taken into account. This paper is a study of the effects of wind speed, insolation levels, and the meteorological parameters of temperature and humidity on the energy potential in Balıkesir, in the Marmara region of Turkey. The relationship between the parameters was studied using a multiple linear regression method. Using a designed-for-purpose computer program, two different regression equations were derived, with wind speed being the dependent variable in the first and insolation levels in the second. The regression equations yielded accurate results. The computer program allowed for the rapid calculation of different acceptance rates. The results of the statistical analysis proved the reliability of the equations. An estimate of identified meteorological parameters and unknown parameters could be produced with a specified precision by using the regression analysis method. The regression equations also worked for the evaluation of energy potential.

  9. Estimativa do potencial produtivo em trigo utilizando sensor óptico ativo para adubação nitrogenada em taxa variável Wheat yield potential estimation using active optical sensor for site-specific nitrogen fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Bredemeier

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A adubação nitrogenada em trigo é baseada no potencial produtivo da cultura, teor de matéria orgânica do solo e cultura antecessora. A definição do potencial produtivo é complexa, pois este varia com as condições meteorológicas de cada ano específico. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a relação entre o índice de vegetação por diferença normalizada (NDVI, medido por sensor óptico ativo e o rendimento de grãos em quatro cultivares de trigo, visando a desenvolver procedimentos para a adubação nitrogenada em cobertura em taxa variável. O experimento foi realizado em campo em 2009. Foram avaliados o NDVI em diferentes estádios de desenvolvimento e o rendimento de grãos. As leituras do NDVI ao longo do ciclo ativo foram eficientes em identificar variações de produtividade do trigo. Assim, o potencial de produtividade pode ser estimado através de medições desse índice durante a ontogenia da planta. Pode-se adotar um modelo único para descrever a relação entre NDVI e potencial produtivo para as cultivares testadas neste trabalho.Nitrogen fertilization in spring wheat is based on yield potential, soil organic matter content and previous crop. Yield potential definition is difficult, since it is affected by weather conditions. The objective of this research was to evaluate the relationship between Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI measured by an active sensor and grain yield of four wheat cultivars. The experiment was carried out at field conditions in 2009. NDVI in different growth stages and grain yield were evaluated. NDVI measured was efficient to detect growth variability generated by N availability and correlated well with grain yield for all cultivars tested, indicating that yield potential can be estimated by NDVI evaluations during crop ontogeny. One single model for the relationship between NDVI and yield potential can be used considering cultivars used in this research.

  10. The value of different vegetative indices (NDVI, GAI for the assessment of yield potential of pea (Pisum sativum L. at different growth stages and under varying management practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Klimek-Kopyra

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This research evaluated the NDVI (normalized difference vegetation index and GAI (green area index in order to indicate the productivity and developmental effects of Rhizobium inoculants and microelement foliar fertilizer on pea crops. Two inoculants, Nitragina (a commercial inoculant and IUNG (a noncommercial inoculant gel and a foliar fertilizer (Photrel were studied over a 4-year period, 2009–2012. The cultivars chosen for the studies were characterized by different foliage types, namely a semileafless pea ‘Tarchalska’ and one with regular foliage, ‘Klif’. Foliar fertilizer significantly increased the length of the generative shoots and the number of fruiting nodes in comparison to the control, which in turn had a negative impact on the harvest index. Pea seed yield was highly dependent on the interaction between the years of growth and the microbial inoculant, and was greater for ‘Tarchalska’ (4.33 t ha−1. Presowing inoculation of seeds and foliar fertilization resulted in a significantly higher value of GAI at the flowering (3.91 and 3.81, respectively and maturity stages (4.82 and 4.77, respectively, whereas the value of NDVI was higher for these treatments only at the maturity stage (0.67 and 0.79, respectively. A significantly greater yield (5.0–5.4 t ha−1 was obtained after inoculation with IUNG during the dry years.

  11. Genotype-environment interaction and analysis of yield stability in trial with tomato crop in drought condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Boicet Fabre

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The present work was developed in the UBPC “The Coast”, belonging to the Miscellaneous Crops Enterprise of Campechuela municipality, Granma province, during the period from November to March of the year 2010 – 2011. It was carried out in a reddish brown fersialitic soil, according with the new genetic classification of the soils of Cuba MINAGRI, (2000, with the objective of studying and evaluating the influence of different organic fertilizers in the growth, development and yield in the cultivation of onion, variety Texas Early Grain. For this reason it was necessary to work on blocks with 4 treatments and 4 replies. The treatments applied were: treatment 1 (vermicompost, treatment 2 (cow dung, treatment 3 (cachaça and treatment 4 (control, those were applied in a solid way. The growth variables that were evaluated were number of leaves, height of the plant, equatorial diameter, polar diameter and fresh weight of the bulb. The yield was also evaluated in t.ha -1 per treatment. High yields are achieved with the application of organic fertilizer, among 27 and 30 t.ha -1, this is an alternative for the sustainable production of this product which is highly demanded by the population.

  12. Sowing time on Soybean yield potential in Uberlândia-MGÉpoca de semeadura no Potencial produtivo de Soja em Uberlândia-MG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Divina Lemes Hamawaki

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The work was done in Uberlândia (MG to evaluate the performance of seven soybeans cultivars sowed in four different times: October 30th, November 15th, December 14th and 31st during the 2001/2002 season. The cultivars utilized were: DM-118 early-maturing, DM-247, DM-Victoria, DM-339, medium late cycle and DM-309, DM-98C81 and DM-Noble cycle Late. The statistical design was a randomized blocks in a factorial scheme (7 cultivars x 4 times with three replications. The evaluated characteristics were: yield, number of days for flowering, number of days for maturing, plant height, first bean height and plant laying. For the most evaluated cultivars, sowing beyond December 14th in Uberlandia region presented yield losses for earlier cultivars as DM-118 as well for the later ones as DM Vitória, compared to sowing in 30th October. The time for flowering and maturing and plant height had effect on the yield.O trabalho foi feito em Uberlândia, com o objetivo de avaliar o comportamento de sete cultivares de soja em quatro épocas distintas de semeadura: 30 de Outubro, 15 de Novembro, 14 e 31 de Dezembro, na safra 2001/02. As cultivares utilizadas foram: DM-118 de ciclo precoce, DM-247, DM-Vitória, DM-339, de ciclo semitardio e DM-309, DM-98C81 e DM-Nobre de ciclo tardio. O delineamento utilizado foi o de blocos casualizados em esquema fatorial (7 cultivares x 4 épocas com três repetições. As características avaliadas foram: produtividade, número de dias para floração e maturação, altura de plantas na maturação, inserção da primeira vagem e acamamento. Para a maioria das cultivares, a semeadura realizada a partir de 14 de dezembro na região de Uberlândia provocou queda na produtividade, tanto para as cultivares mais precoces quanto para mais tardia, DM Vitória, quando comparada a semeadura em 30 de outubro. O período para o florescimento, maturação e a altura de plantas interferiram na produtividade. Há decréscimo de altura de

  13. Analysis of Hydropower Potential Utilization of Watercourses in Slovakia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gejguš, Mirko; Aschbacher, Christine; Sablik, Jozef

    2017-09-01

    This article analyzes the hydropower potential of watercourses in Slovakia, defining water as the most promising and most used renewable energy source. The hydro-energetic potential as a source of energy is determined by the calculation of the technically feasible potential of the watercourses, which is divided into exploited and unused. It also identifies the potential of utilizing the unused technical hydro-energetic potential.

  14. Accuracy of Protein Embedding Potentials: An Analysis in Terms of Electrostatic Potentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Jógvan Magnus Haugaard; List, Nanna Holmgaard; Kristensen, Kasper

    2015-01-01

    of an inaccurate embedding potential. In this paper, we investigate in detail the quality of the electronic component of embedding potentials designed for calculations on protein biostructures. We show that very accurate explicitly polarizable embedding potentials may be efficiently designed using fragmentation...

  15. Nonindustry-sponsored preclinical studies on statins yield greater efficacy estimates than industry-sponsored studies: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauth, David; Anglemyer, Andrew; Philipps, Rose; Bero, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Industry-sponsored clinical drug studies are associated with publication of outcomes that favor the sponsor, even when controlling for potential bias in the methods used. However, the influence of sponsorship bias has not been examined in preclinical animal studies. We performed a meta-analysis of preclinical statin studies to determine whether industry sponsorship is associated with either increased effect sizes of efficacy outcomes and/or risks of bias in a cohort of published preclinical statin studies. We searched Medline (January 1966-April 2012) and identified 63 studies evaluating the effects of statins on atherosclerosis outcomes in animals. Two coders independently extracted study design criteria aimed at reducing bias, results for all relevant outcomes, sponsorship source, and investigator financial ties. The I(2) statistic was used to examine heterogeneity. We calculated the standardized mean difference (SMD) for each outcome and pooled data across studies to estimate the pooled average SMD using random effects models. In a priori subgroup analyses, we assessed statin efficacy by outcome measured, sponsorship source, presence or absence of financial conflict information, use of an optimal time window for outcome assessment, accounting for all animals, inclusion criteria, blinding, and randomization. The effect of statins was significantly larger for studies sponsored by nonindustry sources (-1.99; 95% CI -2.68, -1.31) versus studies sponsored by industry (-0.73; 95% CI -1.00, -0.47) (p valuefinancial conflict information, use of an optimal time window for outcome assessment, accounting for all animals, inclusion criteria, blinding, and randomization. Possible reasons for the differences between nonindustry- and industry-sponsored studies, such as selective reporting of outcomes, require further study.

  16. Genome content analysis yields new insights into the relationship between the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum and its anopheline vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppenheim, Sara J; Rosenfeld, Jeffrey A; DeSalle, Rob

    2017-02-27

    The persistent and growing gap between the availability of sequenced genomes and the ability to assign functions to sequenced genes led us to explore ways to maximize the information content of automated annotation for studies of anopheline mosquitos. Specifically, we use genome content analysis of a large number of previously sequenced anopheline mosquitos to follow the loss and gain of protein families over the evolutionary history of this group. The importance of this endeavor lies in the potential for comparative genomic studies between Anopheles and closely related non-vector species to reveal ancestral genome content dynamics involved in vector competence. In addition, comparisons within Anopheles could identify genome content changes responsible for variation in the vectorial capacity of this family of important parasite vectors. The competence and capacity of P. falciparum vectors do not appear to be phylogenetically constrained within the Anophelinae. Instead, using ancestral reconstruction methods, we suggest that a previously unexamined component of vector biology, anopheline nucleotide metabolism, may contribute to the unique status of anophelines as P. falciparum vectors. While the fitness effects of nucleotide co-option by P. falciparum parasites on their anopheline hosts are not yet known, our results suggest that anopheline genome content may be responding to selection pressure from P. falciparum. Whether this response is defensive, in an attempt to redress improper nucleotide balance resulting from P. falciparum infection, or perhaps symbiotic, resulting from an as-yet-unknown mutualism between anophelines and P. falciparum, is an open question that deserves further study. Clearly, there is a wealth of functional information to be gained from detailed manual genome annotation, yet the rapid increase in the number of available sequences means that most researchers will not have the time or resources to manually annotate all the sequence data they

  17. Nutrient Balance at Integrated Nutrient Management on Lowland Rice Which is Dominated by 1:1 Clay Mineral for High Potential Rice Yields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonius Kasno

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The curve of the most recent production period of theintensification lowland rice was stating a levelling off. In the effort to increase the rice production, an improvementon intensification quality using a balance fertilizing concept was determined. The objective of this research was tostudy the nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium nutrient balance among the integrated nutrient management. The fieldexperiment was conducted in Margodadi and Mulyosari, Metro, Lampung, in dry season 2006. A randomized CompleteBlock Design was applied with ten treatments and three replications. The treatments combined of inorganic andorganic fertilizers. Phosphorus and potassium dosages and proportions were determined based on the previous researchheld in 2005, it were 100 kg SP-36 ha-1 and 80 kg KCl ha-1 in Mulyosari, and 130 kg SP-36 ha-1 and 120 kg KCl ha-1in Margodadi. At the beginning, 100 kg urea was added. The crop’s need of nitrogen was monitored using the LeafColor Chart every 7-10 days, starting from the 21st days after planting, up to the phase panical inisiation. Total ureafertilizer added was 300 kg ha-1. Organic matters consisting of 5 Mg ha-1 rice straw and 2 Mg ha-1 cow manure wereadded. Ammonium sulphate was added to provide 10 kg S ha-1 and by 5 minutes dying the seedlings on 0,05% ZnSO4solution before planting was intended to provide Zn nutrient. Micro nutrient Cu was provided by adding 5 kg ha-1CuSO4. The plot size was 5m x 5m, and Hybride Rice, PHB 71, was used as the plant indicator. Observation wasfocused on the weight of dry straw and yield and on analysing the nutrient content of straw and grain yield. The resultshowed that the weight of the yield increased from 7.44 to 7.93 Mg ha-1 by adding Cu in Mulyosari. The totalproduction of Hybride PHB 71 in the NPK treatment based on the Margodadi and Mulyosari nutrient status were 7.44and 7.00 Mg ha-1, respectively. Adding KCl 120 kg ha-1 in Margodadi and 80 kg ha-1 in Mulyosari was equal to

  18. Chemical analysis and potential health risks of hookah charcoal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elsayed, Yehya, E-mail: yelsayed@aus.edu; Dalibalta, Sarah, E-mail: sdalibalta@aus.edu; Abu-Farha, Nedal

    2016-11-01

    Hookah (waterpipe) smoking is a very common practice that has spread globally. There is growing evidence on the hazardous consequences of smoking hookah, with studies indicating that its harmful effects are comparable to cigarette smoking if not worse. Charcoal is commonly used as a heating source for hookah smoke. Although charcoal briquettes are thought to be one of the major contributors to toxicity, their composition and impact on the smoke generated remains largely unidentified. This study aims to analyze the elemental composition of five different raw synthetic and natural charcoals by using Carbon-Hydrogen-Nitrogen (CHN) analysis, inductively coupled plasma (ICP), and scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-Ray spectrometry (SEM-EDS). Elemental analysis showed that the raw charcoals contain heavy metals such as zinc, iron, cadmium, vanadium, aluminum, lead, chromium, manganese and cobalt at concentrations similar, if not higher than, cigarettes. In addition, thermal desorption-gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (TD-GC–MS) was used to analyze the chemical composition of the smoke produced from burning the charcoal samples. The smoke emitted from charcoal was found to be the source of numerous compounds which could be hazardous to health. A total of seven carcinogens, 39 central nervous system depressants and 31 respiratory irritants were identified. - Highlights: • Hookah charcoals, mainly synthetic brands, contains trace/heavy metals in concentrations exceeding those in cigarettes. • The concentration of lead in synthetic charcoal briquettes may impose adverse effects on human health. • The amount of nitrogen in synthetic charcoal is comparable to that reported in cigarettes. • Chemical profiling of smoke emitted from hookah charcoal reveals many compounds associated with potential health risks.

  19. Biomass yield and energy analysis of soybean production in relation to fertilizer-NPK and organic manure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandal, K.G.; Hati, K.M.; Misra, A.K. [Division of Soil Physics, Indian Institute of Soil Science (ICAR), Nabibagh, Berasia Road, Bhopal 462 038, Madhya Pradesh (India)

    2009-12-15

    The study attempts to quantify the root biomass and density, nodulation, crop biomass and grain yield of soybean, to analyze crop growth and energy (renewable and non-renewable) inputs in relation to fertilizer-NPK and organic manure. Observations were recorded from soybean grown with no fertilizer, NPK and NPK + FYM (farmyard manure). The root biomass (BM{sub root}) increased significantly with NPK + FYM compared to NPK and control. The trend of BM{sub root} was best fitted with a third order polynomial. Root length density was higher in NPK + FYM. Biomass of stem, petiole and leaf were significantly greater in NPK + FYM than other treatments, relative contribution to total biomass at physiological maturity were stem 29%, petiole 9%, leaf 17% and pod 46%; quadratic regression models best represented the stem, petiole and leaf biomass data. A maximum LAI of 4.88, total biomass of 633 g m{sup -2} at maturity, CGR of 18.4 g m{sup -2} d{sup -1} were recorded in NPK + FYM. Grain yields increased by 72.5 and 98.5%, and stover yields by 56.0 and 94.8% in NPK and NPK + FYM, respectively over control. Though the total energy input in NPK + FYM was greater than those in NPK and control, the share of renewable energy was much higher with greater net energy output and non-renewable energy productivity in NPK + FYM than NPK. The use efficiency of non-renewable energy was also higher in NPF + FYM. Thus, a combination of NPK-fertilizer and organic manure (FYM) could be the viable nutrient management option for soybean production. (author)

  20. Identification and Evolutionary Analysis of Potential Candidate Genes in a Human Eating Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbagh, Ubadah; Mullegama, Saman; Wyckoff, Gerald J

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to find genes linked with eating disorders and associated with both metabolic and neural systems. Our operating hypothesis was that there are genetic factors underlying some eating disorders resting in both those pathways. Specifically, we are interested in disorders that may rest in both sleep and metabolic function, generally called Night Eating Syndrome (NES). A meta-analysis of the Gene Expression Omnibus targeting the mammalian nervous system, sleep, and obesity studies was performed, yielding numerous genes of interest. Through a text-based analysis of the results, a number of potential candidate genes were identified. VGF, in particular, appeared to be relevant both to obesity and, broadly, to brain or neural development. VGF is a highly connected protein that interacts with numerous targets via proteolytically digested peptides. We examined VGF from an evolutionary perspective to determine whether other available evidence supported a role for the gene in human disease. We conclude that some of the already identified variants in VGF from human polymorphism studies may contribute to eating disorders and obesity. Our data suggest that there is enough evidence to warrant eGWAS and GWAS analysis of these genes in NES patients in a case-control study.

  1. Identification and Evolutionary Analysis of Potential Candidate Genes in a Human Eating Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ubadah Sabbagh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to find genes linked with eating disorders and associated with both metabolic and neural systems. Our operating hypothesis was that there are genetic factors underlying some eating disorders resting in both those pathways. Specifically, we are interested in disorders that may rest in both sleep and metabolic function, generally called Night Eating Syndrome (NES. A meta-analysis of the Gene Expression Omnibus targeting the mammalian nervous system, sleep, and obesity studies was performed, yielding numerous genes of interest. Through a text-based analysis of the results, a number of potential candidate genes were identified. VGF, in particular, appeared to be relevant both to obesity and, broadly, to brain or neural development. VGF is a highly connected protein that interacts with numerous targets via proteolytically digested peptides. We examined VGF from an evolutionary perspective to determine whether other available evidence supported a role for the gene in human disease. We conclude that some of the already identified variants in VGF from human polymorphism studies may contribute to eating disorders and obesity. Our data suggest that there is enough evidence to warrant eGWAS and GWAS analysis of these genes in NES patients in a case-control study.

  2. Pathway-based genome-wide association analysis of milk coagulation properties, curd firmness, cheese yield, and curd nutrient recovery in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadousis, C; Pegolo, S; Rosa, G J M; Gianola, D; Bittante, G; Cecchinato, A

    2017-02-01

    It is becoming common to complement genome-wide association studies (GWAS) with gene-set enrichment analysis to deepen the understanding of the biological pathways affecting quantitative traits. Our objective was to conduct a gene ontology and pathway-based analysis to identify possible biological mechanisms involved in the regulation of bovine milk technological traits: coagulation properties, curd firmness modeling, individual cheese yield (CY), and milk nutrient recovery into the curd (REC) or whey loss traits. Results from 2 previous GWAS studies using 1,011 cows genotyped for 50k single nucleotide polymorphisms were used. Overall, the phenotypes analyzed consisted of 3 traditional milk coagulation property measures [RCT: rennet coagulation time defined as the time (min) from addition of enzyme to the beginning of coagulation; k 20 : the interval (min) from RCT to the time at which a curd firmness of 20 mm is attained; a 30 : a measure of the extent of curd firmness (mm) 30 min after coagulant addition], 6 curd firmness modeling traits [RCT eq : RCT estimated through the CF equation (min); CF P : potential asymptotic curd firmness (mm); k CF : curd-firming rate constant (% × min -1 ); k SR : syneresis rate constant (% × min -1 ); CF max : maximum curd firmness (mm); and t max : time to CF max (min)], 3 individual CY-related traits expressing the weight of fresh curd (%CY CURD ), curd solids (%CY SOLIDS ), and curd moisture (%CY WATER ) as a percentage of weight of milk processed and 4 milk nutrient and energy recoveries in the curd (REC FAT , REC PROTEIN , REC SOLIDS , and REC ENERGY calculated as the % ratio between the nutrient in curd and the corresponding nutrient in processed milk), milk pH, and protein percentage. Each trait was analyzed separately. In total, 13,269 annotated genes were used in the analysis. The Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway databases were queried for enrichment analyses. Overall, 21 Gene Ontology and

  3. Association Analysis of SSR Markers with Phenology, Grain, and Stover-Yield Related Traits in Pearl Millet (Pennisetum glaucum (L. R. Br.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baskaran Kannan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pearl millet is a staple food crop for millions of people living in the arid and semi-arid tropics. Molecular markers have been used to identify genomic regions linked to traits of interest by conventional QTL mapping and association analysis. Phenotypic recurrent selection is known to increase frequencies of favorable alleles and decrease those unfavorable for the traits under selection. This study was undertaken (i to quantify the response to recurrent selection for phenotypic traits during breeding of the pearl millet open-pollinated cultivar “CO (Cu 9” and its four immediate progenitor populations and (ii to assess the ability of simple sequence repeat (SSR marker alleles to identify genomic regions linked to grain and stover yield-related traits in these populations by association analysis. A total of 159 SSR alleles were detected across 34 selected single-copy SSR loci. SSR marker data revealed presence of subpopulations. Association analysis identified genomic regions associated with flowering time located on linkage group (LG 6 and plant height on LG4, LG6, and LG7. Marker alleles on LG6 were associated with stover yield, and those on LG7 were associated with grain yield. Findings of this study would give an opportunity to develop marker-assisted recurrent selection (MARS or marker-assisted population improvement (MAPI strategies to increase the rate of gain for pearl millet populations undergoing recurrent selection.

  4. Mathematical methods for assessment and analysis of honey yield data for Bulgaria and the European Union for the period 1961-2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Keranova

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The objective of this work is to assess the average yields of bee honey for the period from 1961 to 2014 for all countries of the European Union. For this purpose, a single-factor analysis of variance was used. As a result of the surveys, it was found that the highest average yield of honey in the EU is in Germany (20541.91 t and Spain (20253.43 t, while the lowest yield is in Ireland (199.74 t and Luxembourg (133,2 t. Data on the production of bee honey in Bulgaria by regions from 2006 to 2014 were also analyzed, and mathematical models were made, reflecting the relationship between the respective honey yields and the survey period. The data on the basis of which the study was carried out are from the FAOSTAD database and the Agro-statistical reference book for 2000-2014 of the “Agro-statistics” Department of the Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Forestry of the Republic of Bulgaria.

  5. A comprehensive meta-analysis of plant morphology, yield, stay-green, and virus disease resistance QTL in maize (Zea mays L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yijun; Xu, Jing; Deng, Dexiang; Ding, Haidong; Bian, Yunlong; Yin, Zhitong; Wu, Yarong; Zhou, Bo; Zhao, Ye

    2016-02-01

    The meta-QTL and candidate genes will facilitate the elucidation of molecular bases underlying agriculturally important traits and open new avenues for functional markers development and elite alleles introgression in maize breeding program. A large number of QTLs attributed to grain productivity and other agriculturally important traits have been identified and deposited in public repositories. The integration of fruitful QTL becomes a major issue in current plant genomics. To this end, we first collected QTL for six agriculturally important traits in maize, including yield, plant height, ear height, leaf angle, stay-green, and maize rough dwarf disease resistance. The meta-analysis method was then employed to retrieve 113 meta-QTL. Additionally, we also isolated candidate genes for target traits by the bioinformatic technique. Several candidates, including some well-characterized genes, GA3ox2 for plant height, lg1 and lg4 for leaf angle, zfl1 and zfl2 for flowering time, were co-localized with established meta-QTL intervals. Intriguingly, in a relatively narrow meta-QTL region, the maize ortholog of rice yield-related gene GW8/OsSPL16 was believed to be a candidate for yield. Leveraging results presented in this study will provide further insights into the genetic architecture of maize agronomic traits. Moreover, the meta-QTL and candidate genes reported here could be harnessed for the enhancement of stress tolerance and yield performance in maize and translation to other crops.

  6. Statistical analysis of the relationship between climate-induced maize yield and rainy-season precipitation across Inner Mongolia, North China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jin; Chen, Xin; Zhou, Limin; Xue, Yan; Lin, Jie

    2017-08-01

    Exploring possible relationships between climate-induced maize yield and rainy-season precipitation under climate change is fundamental to science-based decision for food security in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region (IMAR). To determine the relationship of maize yield with precipitation variables across IMAR during 1960-2012, we selected 11 precipitation indices of rainy season and divided IMAR into four sub-regions—west, middle, east, and northeast using principal component analysis and K-means clustering methods. Results show that climate-induced maize yield is more sensitive to precipitation variability in the west and middle IMAR. The most important precipitation factor that limits maize yield is moderate precipitation days in these two sub-regions. Moreover, west and middle Inner Mongolia was dominated by decreasing precipitation during the rainy season. Furthermore, the El Niño/La Niña-Southern Oscillation cycle has the significant influence on the rainy-season precipitation in the west and middle IMAR.

  7. Genetic analysis and association of simple sequence repeat markers with storage root yield, dry matter, starch and β-carotene content in sweetpotato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yada, Benard; Brown-Guedira, Gina; Alajo, Agnes; Ssemakula, Gorrettie N.; Owusu-Mensah, Eric; Carey, Edward E.; Mwanga, Robert O.M.; Yencho, G. Craig

    2017-01-01

    Molecular markers are needed for enhancing the development of elite sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam) cultivars with a wide range of commercially important traits in sub-Saharan Africa. This study was conducted to estimate the heritability and determine trait correlations of storage root yield, dry matter, starch and β-carotene content in a cross between ‘New Kawogo’ × ‘Beauregard’. The study was also conducted to identify simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers associated with these traits. A total of 287 progeny and the parents were evaluated for two seasons at three sites in Uganda and genotyped with 250 SSR markers. Broad sense heritability (H2) for storage root yield, dry matter, starch and β-carotene content were 0.24, 0.68, 0.70 and 0.90, respectively. Storage root β-carotene content was negatively correlated with dry matter (r = −0.59, P < 0.001) and starch (r = −0.93, P < 0.001) content, while storage root yield was positively correlated with dry matter (r = 0.57, P = 0.029) and starch (r = 0.41, P = 0.008) content. Through logistic regression, a total of 12, 4, 6 and 8 SSR markers were associated with storage root yield, dry matter, starch and β-carotene content, respectively. The SSR markers used in this study may be useful for quantitative trait loci analysis and selection for these traits in future. PMID:28588391

  8. The potential for meta-analysis to support decision analysis in ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengersen, Kerrie; MacNeil, M Aaron; Caley, M Julian

    2015-06-01

    Meta-analysis and decision analysis are underpinned by well-developed methods that are commonly applied to a variety of problems and disciplines. While these two fields have been closely linked in some disciplines such as medicine, comparatively little attention has been paid to the potential benefits of linking them in ecology, despite reasonable expectations that benefits would be derived from doing so. Meta-analysis combines information from multiple studies to provide more accurate parameter estimates and to reduce the uncertainty surrounding them. Decision analysis involves selecting among alternative choices using statistical information that helps to shed light on the uncertainties involved. By linking meta-analysis to decision analysis, improved decisions can be made, with quantification of the costs and benefits of alternate decisions supported by a greater density of information. Here, we briefly review concepts of both meta-analysis and decision analysis, illustrating the natural linkage between them and the benefits from explicitly linking one to the other. We discuss some examples in which this linkage has been exploited in the medical arena and how improvements in precision and reduction of structural uncertainty inherent in a meta-analysis can provide substantive improvements to decision analysis outcomes by reducing uncertainty in expected loss and maximising information from across studies. We then argue that these significant benefits could be translated to ecology, in particular to the problem of making optimal ecological decisions in the face of uncertainty. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Comparative and quantitative analysis of antioxidant and scavenging potential of Indigofera tinctoria Linn. extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rashmi; Sharma, Shatruhan; Sharma, Veena

    2015-07-01

    To compare and elucidate the antioxidant efficacy of ethanolic and hydroethanolic extracts of Indigofera tinctoria Linn. (Fabaceae family). Various in-vitro antioxidant assays and free radical-scavenging assays were done. Quantitative measurements of various phytoconstituents, reductive abilities and chelating potential were carried out along with standard compounds. Half inhibitory concentration (IC50) values for ethanol and hydroethanol extracts were analyzed and compared with respective standards. Hydroethanolic extracts showed considerably more potent antioxidant activity in comparison to ethanol extracts. Hydroethanolic extracts had lower IC50 values than ethanol extracts in the case of DPPH, metal chelation and hydroxyl radical-scavenging capacity (829, 659 and 26.7 μg/mL) but had slightly higher values than ethanol in case of SO2- and NO2-scavenging activity (Pethanol extracts (211.691 and 132.603 mg GAE and rutin/g of plant extract respectively). Karl Pearson's correlation analysis (r2) between various antioxidant parameters and bioactive components also associated the antioxidant potential of I. tinctoria with various phytoconstituents, especially phenolics, flavonoids, saponins and tannins. This study may be helpful to draw the attention of researchers towards the hydroethanol extracts of I. tinctoria, which has a high yield, and great prospects in herbal industries to produce inexpensive and powerful herbal products.

  10. Measurement of ep {yields} e{prime} p{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}: experimental procedures and baryon resonance analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Ripani; V.D. Burkert; V. Mokeev; M. Battaglieri; R. De Vita; E. Golovach; M. Taiuti; et al

    2003-04-01

    The cross section for the reaction ep {yields} e{prime} p{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} was measured in the resonance region for 1.4 < W < 2.1 GeV and 0.5 < Q{sup 2} < 1.5 GeV{sup 2}/c{sup 2} using the CLAS detector at Jefferson Laboratory. The data show resonant structures not visible in previous experiments. The comparison of our data to a phenomenological prediction using available information on N* and {Delta} states shows an evident discrepancy. A better description of the data is obtained either by a sizeable change of the properties of the P{sub 13}(1720) resonance or by introducing a new baryon state, not reported in published analyses.

  11. Measurement of ep {yields} e{prime}p{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} and Baryon Resonance Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marco Ripani; et. Al.

    2003-07-01

    The cross section for the reaction ep {yields} e{prime}p{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} was measured in the resonance region for 1.4 < W < 2.1 GeV and 0.5 < Q{sup 2} < 1.5 GeV{sup 2}/c{sup 2} using the CLAS detector at Jefferson Laboratory. The data shows resonant structures not visible in previous experiments. The comparison of our data to a phenomenological prediction using available information on N* and {Delta} states shows an evident discrepancy. A better description of the data is obtained either by a sizeable change of the properties of the P{sub 13}(1720) resonance or by introducing a new baryon state, not reported in published analyses.

  12. Random regression analysis of test-day milk yields in the first and second lactations of Brazilian Gyr cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Herrera, L G; El Faro, L; Bignardi, A B; Pereira, R J; Machado, C H C; Albuquerque, L G

    2015-12-09

    The objective of the present study was to estimate the genetic parameters for test-day milk yields (TDMY) in the first and second lactations using random regression models (RRM) in order to contribute to the application of these models in genetic evaluation of milk yield in Gyr cattle. A total of 53,328 TDMY records from 7118 lactations of 5853 Gyr cows were analyzed. The model included the direct additive, permanent environmental, and residual random effects. In addition, contemporary group and linear and quadratic effects of the age of cows at calving were included as fixed effects. A random regression model fitting fourth-order Legendre polynomials for additive genetic and permanent environmental effects, with five classes of residual variance, was applied. In the first lactation, the heritabilities increased from early lactation (0.26) until TDMY3 (0.38), followed by a decrease until the end of lactation. In the second lactation, the estimates increased from the first (0.29) to the fifth test day (0.36), with a slight decrease thereafter, and again increased on the last two test days (0.34 and 0.41). There were positive and high genetic correlations estimated between first-lactation TDMY and the remaining TDMY of the two lactations. The moderate heritability estimates, as well as the high genetic correlations between half the first-lactation TDMY and all TDMY of the two lactations, suggest that the selection based only on first lactation TDMY is the best selection strategy to increase milk production across first and second lactations of Gyr cows.

  13. Antibiotic purification from fermentation broths by counter-current chromatography: analysis of product purity and yield trade-offs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, A J; Ngiam, S H; Lye, G J

    2004-12-01

    Counter-current chromatography (CCC) is a low pressure, liquid-liquid chromatographic technique which has proven to be a powerful purification tool for the high-resolution fractionation of a variety of active pharmaceutical compounds. The successful integration of CCC into either existing or new manufacturing processes requires the predictable purification of target compounds from crude, fermentation-derived, feed streams. This work examines the feasibility of CCC for the purification of fermentation-derived erythromycin A (EA) from its structurally and chemically similar analogues. At the laboratory scale, the effect of feed pre-treatment using either clarified, forward extracted (butyl acetate) or back extracted broth on EA separation was investigated. This defined the degree of impurity removal required, i.e. back extracted broth, to ensure a reproducible elution profile of EA during CCC. Optimisation and scale-up of the separation studied the effects of mobile phase flow (2-40 ml.min(-1)) and solute loading (0.1-10 g) on the attainable EA purity and yield. The results in all cases demonstrated a high attainable EA purity (>97% w/w) with throughputs up to 0.33 kg.day(-1). Secondly, a predictive scale-up model was applied demonstrating, that from knowledge of the solute distribution ratio of EA (K(EA)) at the laboratory scale, the EA elution time at the pilot scale could be predicted to within 3-10%, depending upon the solute injection volume. In addition, this study has evaluated a "fractionation diagram" approach to visually determine the effects of key operational variables on separation performance. This resulted in accurate fraction cut-point determination for a required degree of product purity and yield. Overall, the results show CCC to be a predictable and scaleable separation technique capable of handling real feed streams.

  14. Burst analysis tool for developing neuronal networks exhibiting highly varying action potential dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapucu, Fikret E; Tanskanen, Jarno M A; Mikkonen, Jarno E; Ylä-Outinen, Laura; Narkilahti, Susanna; Hyttinen, Jari A K

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we propose a firing statistics based neuronal network burst detection algorithm for neuronal networks exhibiting highly variable action potential dynamics. Electrical activity of neuronal networks is generally analyzed by the occurrences of spikes and bursts both in time and space. Commonly accepted analysis tools employ burst detection algorithms based on predefined criteria. However, maturing neuronal networks, such as those originating from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), exhibit highly variable network structure and time-varying dynamics. To explore the developing burst/spike activities of such networks, we propose a burst detection algorithm which utilizes the firing statistics based on interspike interval (ISI) histograms. Moreover, the algorithm calculates ISI thresholds for burst spikes as well as for pre-burst spikes and burst tails by evaluating the cumulative moving average (CMA) and skewness of the ISI histogram. Because of the adaptive nature of the proposed algorithm, its analysis power is not limited by the type of neuronal cell network at hand. We demonstrate the functionality of our algorithm with two different types of microelectrode array (MEA) data recorded from spontaneously active hESC-derived neuronal cell networks. The same data was also analyzed by two commonly employed burst detection algorithms and the differences in burst detection results are illustrated. The results demonstrate that our method is both adaptive to the firing statistics of the network and yields successful burst detection from the data. In conclusion, the proposed method is a potential tool for analyzing of hESC-derived neuronal cell networks and thus can be utilized in studies aiming to understand the development and functioning of human neuronal networks and as an analysis tool for in vitro drug screening and neurotoxicity assays.

  15. Burst analysis tool for developing neuronal networks exhibiting highly varying action potential dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fikret Emre eKapucu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose a firing statistics based neuronal network burst detection algorithm for neuronal networks exhibiting highly variable action potential dynamics. Electrical activity of neuronal networks is generally analyzed by the occurrences of spikes and bursts both in time and space. Commonly accepted analysis tools employ burst detection algorithms based on predefined criteria. However, maturing neuronal networks, such as those originating from human embryonic stem cells (hESC, exhibit highly variable network structure and time-varying dynamics. To explore the developing burst/spike activities of such networks, we propose a burst detection algorithm which utilizes the firing statistics based on interspike interval (ISI histograms. Moreover, the algorithm calculates interspike interval thresholds for burst spikes as well as for pre-burst spikes and burst tails by evaluating the cumulative moving average and skewness of the ISI histogram. Because of the adaptive nature of the proposed algorithm, its analysis power is not limited by the type of neuronal cell network at hand. We demonstrate the functionality of our algorithm with two different types of microelectrode array (MEA data recorded from spontaneously active hESC-derived neuronal cell networks. The same data was also analyzed by two commonly employed burst detection algorithms and the differences in burst detection results are illustrated. The results demonstrate that our method is both adaptive to the firing statistics of the network and yields successful burst detection from the data. In conclusion, the proposed method is a potential tool for analyzing of hESC-derived neuronal cell networks and thus can be utilized in studies aiming to understand the development and functioning of human neuronal networks and as an analysis tool for in vitro drug screening and neurotoxicity assays.

  16. A potential method for non-invasive acute myocardial infarction detection based on saliva Raman spectroscopy and multivariate analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Gang; Chen, Maowen; Chen, Yuanxiang; Huang, Zufang; Lin, Jinyong; Lin, Jia; Xu, Zhihong; Wu, Shanshan; Huang, Wei; Weng, Guoxing; Chen, Guannan

    2015-12-01

    Raman spectroscopy (RS) was employed for human saliva biochemical analysis with the aim to develop a rapidly non-invasive test for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) detection. High-quality Raman spectra were obtained from human saliva samples of 46 AMI patients and 43 healthy controls. Significant differences in Raman intensities of prominent bands were observed between AMI and normal saliva. The tentative assignment of the observed Raman bands indicated constituent and conformational differences between the two groups. Furthermore, principal component analysis (PCA) combined with linear discriminant analysis (LDA) was employed to analyze and classify the Raman spectra acquired from AMI and healthy saliva, yielding a diagnostic sensitivity of 80.4% and specificity of 81.4%. The results from this exploratory study demonstrated the feasibility and potential for developing RS analysis of human saliva into a clinical tool for rapid AMI detection and screening.

  17. Resistência à ferrugem da folha e potencial produtivo em genótipos de trigo Leaf rust resistance and grain yield potential in wheat genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Carlos Felicio

    2008-12-01

    o Paulo, Brazil, during 2003-2005 crop seasons. The evaluation of the genotypes to the causal agent of leaf rust was made at the seedling stage in greenhouse, where the genotypes were individually inoculated with spores of 12 races of Puccinia triticina, which represented the spectrum of pathogen virulence occurring in Brazil and under natural infection out in the field. Grain yield of each genotype was evaluated in the different regions and in a group of experiments, as well as the stability and adaptability. The genotypes 8 (BH1146// AA"S"/WIN"S"/3/BUC/FKL//MYNA/VUL, 12 and 14 (BH1146//AA"S"/WIN"S"/3/VEE //DOVE/BUC showed resistance the physiologic races of Puccinia triticina in greenhouse in the seedling stage. The genotypes 4, 5, 8, 12, 13, 16 e 20 and the cultivar IAC 1004 (T. durum presented leaf rust resistance, under natural disease infection conditions. The highest grain yields were obtained by the genotypes 8 (BH1146// AA"S"/WIN"S"/3/BUC/FKL//MYNA/VUL, 7 (BH1146//AA"S"/WIN"S"/3/HANN*2/ PRL and 18 (CMH75.A.66/SERI/ 3/BH1146// AA"S"/WIN"S". Genotype 16 (KAUZ/3/ BH1146//AA"S"/WIN"S" presented the lowest yield.

  18. Analysis of soft wall AdS/QCD potentials to obtain the melting temperature of scalar hadrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, Alfredo; Ibañez, Adolfo

    2017-11-01

    We consider an analysis of potentials related to Schrödinger-type equations for scalar fields in a 5D AdS black hole background with dilaton in order to obtain melting temperatures for different hadrons in a thermal bath. The approach does not consider calculations of spectral functions, and it is easy to yield results for hadrons with an arbitrary number of constituents. We present results for scalar mesons, glueballs, hybrid mesons and tetraquarks, and we show that mesons are more resistant to being melted in a thermal bath than other scalar hadrons, and in general the melting temperature increases when hadrons contain heavy quarks.

  19. Analysis of soft wall AdS/QCD potentials to obtain the melting temperature of scalar hadrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vega, Alfredo; Ibanez, Adolfo [Universidad de Valparaiso, Instituto de Fisica y Astronomia, Valparaiso (Chile)

    2017-11-15

    We consider an analysis of potentials related to Schroedinger-type equations for scalar fields in a 5D AdS black hole background with dilaton in order to obtain melting temperatures for different hadrons in a thermal bath. The approach does not consider calculations of spectral functions, and it is easy to yield results for hadrons with an arbitrary number of constituents. We present results for scalar mesons, glueballs, hybrid mesons and tetraquarks, and we show that mesons are more resistant to being melted in a thermal bath than other scalar hadrons, and in general the melting temperature increases when hadrons contain heavy quarks. (orig.)

  20. An initial analysis of short- and medium-range correlations potential non-Pt catalysts in CoNx

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Joe

    2010-03-01

    A potential show stopper for the development of fuel cells for the commercial automotive industry is the design of low-cost catalysts. The best catalysts are based on platinum, which is a rare and expensive noble metal. Our group has been involved in the characterization of potential materials for non-Pt catalysts. In this presentation, I will present some preliminary neutron scattering data from a nanocrystalline powder sample of CoNx. It is apparent that the diffraction data cannot be analyzed with standard Riedveld refinement, and we have to invoke pair distribution function (PDF) analysis. The PDF provides insight into short-range correlations, as it measures the probabilities of short- and mid-range interatomic distances in a material. The analysis reveals a strong incoherent scattering response, which is indicative of the presence of hydrogen in the sample. After correcting for the incoherent scattering, one obtains the normalized scattering function S(Q), whose Fourier transform yields the PDF.

  1. Analysis of phenomenological potentials for a quarkonium-like system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, H.F. de; Chanda, R.

    1979-01-01

    The comparison is made of the numerical results of quark-antiquark bound state spectra in a non-relativistic approximation for interaction effective potentials. The discussion of several aspects attached to the scalar and vetor nature of the confinant potential is made. The results obtained are compared with recent data on the PSI family. (L.C.) [pt

  2. Yielding and its adaptability of several promising bulk cocoa clones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dedy Suhendi

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Yielding and its adaptability are considered to be an important criteria for clones recommendation. An experiment to evaluate yield and its adaptability of several promising bulk cocoa clones has been executed during 1996—2003 in three locations having different altitude and type of climate, consisted of Jatirono(450 m asl., B type of climate, Kalisepanjang (275 m asl., C type of climate and Kalitelepak (145 m asl., B type of climate. Randomized completely block design (RCBD was used in each location with 14 promising clones and four replications. Recommended clones of ICS 60 and GC 7 were used as standard. The promising clones were originated from mother trees selection with the main criteria of yield. Observations were conducted on yield and its components as well as bean characteristics. Determination of adaptability of each clone by using yield performance and its stability. Statistical analysis was done by using combined analysis. The results showed that KW 30 and KW 48 perform higher yield (2.3 ton/ha than that of standard clone (1.7 ton/ha as well as consistant yield stability between location and over years. There for, the two clones performed good adaptability. KW 30 and KW 48 also perform good yield components, and high percentage of fat content i.e 55%. So, those clones are potential to be recommended for commercial planting materials. Key words : bulk cocoa, yield, clone, stability, adaptability.

  3. Analysis of strengthening in AA6111 during the early stages of aging: Atom probe tomography and yield stress modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marceau, R.K.W.; Vaucorbeil, A. de; Sha, G.; Ringer, S.P.; Poole, W.J.

    2013-01-01

    In this work, a series of aging treatments has been conducted on AA6111 alloy samples for various times at ambient temperature (so-called natural aging) and at temperatures between 60 and 180 °C (artificially aged). The time at artificial ageing was chosen such that samples with approximately the same yield stress were produced. The microstructures of these alloy samples have been carefully characterized using atom probe tomography together with advanced cluster-finding techniques in order to obtain quantitative information about the changes in distribution of both the solute clusters and early-stage precipitates that are formed. The size distribution of clusters has been mapped onto the glide plane and then the stress necessary for a dislocation to pass through the range of obstacles has been estimated using an areal glide model where the dislocation–obstacle interaction strength has been assumed to be related to the obstacle size on the glide plane. It is demonstrated that the contribution of cluster strengthening during artificial aging at higher temperatures is dominated by the high number density of small clusters (Guinier radius <1 nm), whereas the situation during room temperature natural aging is more complex

  4. Power system transient stability analysis based on branch potential characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Huan; Wang, Zengping

    2017-09-01

    Branch potential function is proposed based on the power system network preserving model. The concept of thermodynamics-entropy, is introduced to describe spatial distribution characteristics of the branch potential energy. Branch potential energy was analysed in time and space domain., with transient stability index proposed accordingly. The larger disturbance energy line fault injected to grid is, the larger branch energy entropy will be, and the more energy accumulated on key branches is, the more prone to lose stability the system will be. Simulation results on IEEE system proved its feasibility.

  5. Analysis of Vegetation Indices to Determine Nitrogen Application and Yield Prediction in Maize (Zea mays L. from a Standard UAV Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel Maresma

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The growing use of commercial unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV and the need to adjust N fertilization rates in maize (Zea mays L. currently constitute a key research issue. In this study, different multispectral vegetation indices (green-band and red-band based indices, SPAD and crop height (derived from a multispectral compact camera mounted on a UAV were analysed to predict grain yield and determine whether an additional sidedress application of N fertilizer was required just before flowering. Seven different inorganic N rates (0, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300, 400 kg·N·ha−1, two different pig slurry manure rates (Ps (150 or 250 kg·N·ha−1 and four different inorganic-organic N combinations (N100Ps150, N100Ps250, N200Ps150, N200Ps250 were applied to maize experimental plots. The spectral index that best explained final grain yield for the N treatments was the Wide Dynamic Range Vegetation Index (WDRVI. It identified a key threshold above/below 250–300 kg·N·ha−1. WDRVI, NDVI and crop height showed no significant response to extra N application at the economic optimum rate of fertilization (239.8 kg·N·ha−1, for which a grain yield of 16.12 Mg·ha−1 was obtained. This demonstrates their potential as yield predictors at V12 stage. Finally, a ranking of different vegetation indices and crop height is proposed to overcome the uncertainty associated with basing decisions on a single index.

  6. Effective lactation yield

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, Akke; Middelaar, van C.E.; Engel, B.; Knegsel, van A.T.M.; Hogeveen, H.; Kemp, B.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    To compare milk yields between cows or management strategies, lactations are traditionally standardized to 305-d yields. The 305-d yield, however, gives no insight into the combined effect of additional milk yield before calving, decreased milk yield after calving, and a possible shorter calving

  7. Permanently Hypoxic Cell Culture Yields Rat Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Cells with Higher Therapeutic Potential in the Treatment of Chronic Myocardial Infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yihua Liu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The mismatch between traditional in vitro cell culture conditions and targeted chronic hypoxic myocardial tissue could potentially hamper the therapeutic effects of implanted bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs. This study sought to address (i the extent of change to BMSC biological characteristics in different in vitro culture conditions and (ii the effectiveness of permanent hypoxic culture for cell therapy in treating chronic myocardial infarction (MI in rats. Methods: rat BMSCs were harvested and cultured in normoxic (21% O2, n=27 or hypoxic conditions (5% O2, n=27 until Passage 4 (P4. Cell growth tests, flow cytometry, and Bio-Plex assays were conducted to explore variations in the cell proliferation, phenotype, and cytokine expression, respectively. In the in vivo set-up, P3-BMSCs cultured in normoxia (n=6 or hypoxia (n=6 were intramyocardially injected into rat hearts that had previously experienced 1-month-old MI. The impact of cell therapy on cardiac segmental viability and hemodynamic performance was assessed 1 month later by 2-Deoxy-2[18F]fluoro-D-glucose (18F-FDG positron emission tomography (PET imaging and pressure-volume catheter, respectively. Additional histomorphological examinations were conducted to evaluate inflammation, fibrosis, and neovascularization. Results: Hypoxic preconditioning significantly enhanced rat BMSC clonogenic potential and proliferation without altering the multipotency. Different profiles of inflammatory, fibrotic, and angiogenic cytokine secretion were also documented, with a marked correlation observed between in vitro and in vivo proangiogenic cytokine expression and tissue neovessels. Hypoxic-preconditioned cells presented a beneficial effect on the myocardial viability of infarct segments and intrinsic contractility. Conclusion: Hypoxic-preconditioned BMSCs were able to benefit myocardial perfusion and contractility, probably by modulating the inflammation and promoting

  8. Dynamic Airline Scheduling: An Analysis of the Potentials of Refleeting and Retiming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warburg, Valdemar; Hansen, Troels G.; Larsen, Allan

    2008-01-01

    We present a Dynamic Airline Scheduling (DAS) technique which is able to change departure times and reassign aircraft types during the booking process to meet fluctuating passenger demands. The procedure is tested on several different days before departure, resulting in a significant profit...... increase for a major European airline. The results also indicate that applying DAS close to departure yields the largest potential....

  9. Dynamic Airline Scheduling: An Analysis of the Potentials of Refleeting and Retiming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warburg, Valdemar; Hansen, Troels G.; Larsen, Allan

    We present a Dynamic Airline Scheduling (DAS) technique which is able to change departure times and reassign aircraft types during the booking process to meet fluctuating passenger demands. The procedure is tested on several different days before departure, resulting in a significant profit...... increase for a major European airline. The results also indicate that applying DAS close to departure yields the largest potential....

  10. Dynamic Airline Scheduling: An Analysis of the Potentials of Refleeting and Retiming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warburg, Valdemar; Hansen, Troels G.; Larsen, Allan

    2008-01-01

    We present a Dynamic Airline Scheduling (DAS) technique which is able to change departure times and reassign aircraft types during the booking process to meet fluctuating passenger demands. The procedure is tested on several different days before departure, resulting in a significant profit incre...... increase for a major European airline. The results also indicate that applying DAS close to departure yields the largest potential....

  11. Asymptotic analysis for close evaluation of layer potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Camille; Khatri, Shilpa; Kim, Arnold D.

    2018-02-01

    We study the evaluation of layer potentials close to the domain boundary. Accurate evaluation of layer potentials near boundaries is needed in many applications, including fluid-structure interactions and near-field scattering in nano-optics. When numerically evaluating layer potentials, it is natural to use the same quadrature rule as the one used in the Nyström method to solve the underlying boundary integral equation. However, this method is problematic for evaluation points close to boundaries. For a fixed number of quadrature points, N, this method incurs O (1) errors in a boundary layer of thickness O (1 / N). Using an asymptotic expansion for the kernel of the layer potential, we remove this O (1) error. We demonstrate the effectiveness of this method for interior and exterior problems for Laplace's equation in two dimensions.

  12. Genetic Analysis of Milk Yield Using Random Regression Test Day Model in Tehran Province Holstein Dairy Cow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Seyeddokht

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this research a random regression test day model was used to estimate heritability values and calculation genetic correlations between test day milk records. a total of 140357 monthly test day milk records belonging to 28292 first lactation Holstein cattle(trice time a day milking distributed in 165 herd and calved from 2001 to 2010 belonging to the herds of Tehran province were used. The fixed effects of herd-year-month of calving as contemporary group and age at calving and Holstein gene percentage as covariate were fitted. Orthogonal legendre polynomial with a 4th-order was implemented to take account of genetic and environmental aspects of milk production over the course of lactation. RRM using Legendre polynomials as base functions appears to be the most adequate to describe the covariance structure of the data. The results showed that the average of heritability for the second half of lactation period was higher than that of the first half. The heritability value for the first month was lowest (0.117 and for the eighth month of the lactation was highest (0.230 compared to the other months of lactation. Because of genetic variation was increased gradually, and residual variance was high in the first months of lactation, heritabilities were different over the course of lactation. The RRMs with a higher number of parameters were more useful to describe the genetic variation of test-day milk yield throughout the lactation. In this research estimation of genetic parameters, and calculation genetic correlations were implemented by random regression test day model, therefore using this method is the exact way to take account of parameters rather than the other ways.

  13. Citation Analysis and Its Potential In Theological Libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenifer Gundry

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Citation analysis has played a critical role in the hard and social sciences for decades.  Where has it been in the humanities?  This essay provides a brief introduction providing an overwiew of citation analysis, its critical role in scholarship, a look at how it can play a role in theology, religion, and philosophy, and some suggestions as to roles that citation analysis can play in the future of these areas of study.

  14. Meta-analysis of the application effects of a biostimulant based on extracts of yeast and amino acids on off-season corn yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luis da Silva

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The tests were performed with a biostimulant (GAAP containing yeast extract and amino acids. The yield data of the off-season corn for meta-analysis were collected from 41 trials conducted in the states of Paraná, São Paulo, Mato Grosso, Minas Gerais, and Goiás during the 2013/2014 crop season. The tests consisted of eight treatments, with four replicates per treatment, and were conducted on 3.6 × 6.0 m plots. The treatments consisted of application of biostimulant at 2.0 L ha-1 at different times and the control (no biostimulant. The time of application corresponded to the growth stages, V8, VT, R1, (V8 + VT, (V8 + R1, (VT + R1, and (V8 + VT + R1. The influence of biostimulant application was quantified as the difference in yield, expressed as kilogram per hectare (kg ha-1, between treatments and the control (effect measurements. Meta-analysis was used to study the effects of the treatments and to calculate the probability of yield increase with product use. The meta-analysis was performed using the software R. The random effects model was used for meta-analysis because of the high heterogeneity among the studies. Next, the mixed effect model was applied to explain the high heterogeneity, considering the following subgroups: the number of applications, the timing of applications, the presence of water stress, and the region where the tests were conducted. The probability of yield increase was calculated at the levels of 2, 5, and 10 bags, each of 60 kg ha-1. The meta-analysis results for the variable "General" and the subgroups were significantly positive (p < 0.0001, with a meta-analytic estimate of 342.1 kg ha-1 and the confidence interval for 95% probability ranging between 301.2 kg ha-1 and 383.0 kg ha-1. The probability for yield greater than zero or equal to 2, 5, and 10 bags of 60 kg ha-1 in subgroup "three applications" was 91.7%, 85.4%, 71.0%, and 38.9%, respectively. These same values were estimated at 91.7%, 85.4%, 71.0%, and 39

  15. Estimation of Potential Shale Gas Yield Amount and Land Degradation in China by Landcover Distribution regarding Water-Food-Energy and Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, N.; Heo, S.; Lim, C. H.; Lee, W. K.

    2017-12-01

    Shale gas is gain attention due to the tremendous reserves beneath the earth. The two known high reservoirs are located in United States and China. According to U.S Energy Information Administration China have estimated 7,299 trillion cubic feet of recoverable shale gas and placed as world first reservoir. United States had 665 trillion cubic feet for the shale gas reservoir and placed fourth. Unlike the traditional fossil fuel, spatial distribution of shale gas is considered to be widely spread and the reserved amount and location make the resource as energy source for the next generation. United States dramatically increased the shale gas production. For instance, shale gas production composes more than 50% of total natural gas production whereas China and Canada shale gas produce very small amount of the shale gas. According to U.S Energy Information Administration's report, in 2014 United States produced shale gas almost 40 billion cubic feet per day but China only produced 0.25 billion cubic feet per day. Recently, China's policy had changed to decrease the coal powerplants to reduce the air pollution and the energy stress in China is keep increasing. Shale gas produce less air pollution while producing energy and considered to be clean energy source. Considering the situation of China and characteristics of shale gas, soon the demand of shale gas will increase in China. United States invested 71.7 billion dollars in 2013 but it Chinese government is only proceeding fundamental investment due to land degradation, limited water resources, geological location of the reservoirs.In this study, firstly we reviewed the current system and technology of shale gas extraction such as hydraulic Fracturing. Secondly, listed the possible environmental damages, land degradations, and resource demands for the shale gas extraction. Thirdly, invested the potential shale gas extraction amount in China based on the location of shale gas reservoirs and limited resources for the

  16. Impacts of plastic film mulching on crop yields, soil water, nitrate, and organic carbon in Northwestern China: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Dedi; Chen, Lei; Qu, Hongchao; Wang, Yilin; Misselbrook, Tom; Jiang, Rui

    2018-04-01

    In order to increase crop yield in semi-arid and arid areas, plastic film mulching (PFM) is widely used in Northwestern China. To date, many studies have addressed the effects of PFM on soil physical and biochemical properties in rain-fed agriculture in Northwestern China, but the findings of different studies are often contradictory. Therefore, a comprehensive review of the impacts of PFM on soil water content, soil nutrients and food production is needed. We compiled the results of 1278 observations to evaluate the overall effects of PFM on soil water content, the distribution of nitrate and soil organic carbon,