WorldWideScience

Sample records for analysis yields potential

  1. Analysis on Wheat Yield in China Based on the Prediction of Yield Potential

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The maximum yield growth range of wheat yield per unit in China is analyzed from three aspects including photosynthesis production potential of wheat,the changing trend of per unit wheat in the previous years and potential of distribution area agricultural crops.In the paper,the potential of using light,the external potential of historical yield evolution tend and AEZ (agricultural ecological zone) are applied to calculate the per unit yield potential of Chinese wheat.The results assume that the maximum growth range of per unit yield in different stages was different:before 1991,the growth range was 10%;before 1996,the growth range was 9%;before 2000,the growth range was 8%.Any variety of wheat and planting technology higher than the above growth range can only be promoted in restricted area and has the statistical error.The results are of reference significance to Chinese wheat production.

  2. Optimal yield-related attributes of irrigated rice for high yield potential based on path analysis and stability analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganghua Li

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Improvement of yield in rice (Oryza sativa L. is vital for ensuring food security in China. Both rice breeders and growers need an improved understanding of the relationship between yield and yield-related traits. New indica cultivars (53 in 2007 and 48 in 2008 were grown in Taoyuan, Yunnan province, to identify important components contributing to yield. Additionally, two standard indica rice cultivars with similar yield potentials, II You 107 (a large-panicle type and Xieyou 107 (a heavy-panicle type, were planted in Taoyuan, Yunnan province and Nanjing, Jiangsu province, from 2006 to 2008 to evaluate the stability of yield and yield-related attributes. Growth duration (GD, leaf area index (LAI, panicles per m2 (PN, and spikelets per m2 (SM were significantly and positively correlated with grain yield (GY over all years. Sequential path analysis identified PN and panicle weight (PW as important first-order traits that influenced grain yield. All direct effects were significant, as indicated by bootstrap analysis. Yield potential varied greatly across locations but not across years. Plant height (PH, days from heading to maturity (HM, and grain weight (GW were stable traits that showed little variation across sites or years, whereas GD (mainly the pre-heading period, PHP and PN varied significantly across locations. To achieve a yield of 15 t ha− 1, a cultivar should have a PH of 110–125 cm, a long GD with HM of approximately 40 days, a PN of 300–400 m− 2, and a GW of 29–31 mg.

  3. A multi-model analysis of change in potential yield of major crops in China under climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Y.; Tang, Q.; Liu, X.

    2015-02-01

    Climate change may affect crop growth and yield, which consequently casts a shadow of doubt over China's food self-sufficiency efforts. In this study, we used the projections derived from four global gridded crop models (GGCropMs) to assess the effects of future climate change on the yields of the major crops (i.e., maize, rice, soybean and wheat) in China. The GGCropMs were forced with the bias-corrected climate data from five global climate models (GCMs) under Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 8.5, which were made available through the Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project (ISI-MIP). The results show that the potential yields of the crops would decrease in the 21st century without carbon dioxide (CO2) fertilization effect. With the CO2 effect, the potential yields of rice and soybean would increase, while the potential yields of maize and wheat would decrease. The uncertainty in yields resulting from the GGCropMs is larger than the uncertainty derived from GCMs in the greater part of China. Climate change may benefit rice and soybean yields in high-altitude and cold regions which are not in the current main agricultural area. However, the potential yields of maize, soybean and wheat may decrease in the major food production area. Development of new agronomic management strategies may be useful for coping with climate change in the areas with a high risk of yield reduction.

  4. Do soil organic carbon levels affect potential yields and nitrogen use efficiency? An analysis of winter wheat and spring barley field trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oelofse, Myles; Markussen, Bo; Knudsen, Leif;

    2015-01-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) is broadly recognised as an important parameter affecting soil quality, and can therefore contribute to improving a number of soil properties that influence crop yield. Previous research generally indicates that soil organic carbon has positive effects on crop yields, but...... in many studies it is difficult to separate the effect of nutrients from the effect of SOC in itself. The aim of this study was to analyze whether the SOC content, in itself, has a significant effect on potential yields of commonly grown cereals across a wider range of soil types in Denmark. The...... yield, the yield with no fertiliser N application and the N use efficiency would be positively affected by SOC level. A statistical model was developed to explore relationships between SOC and potential yield, yields at zero N application and N use efficiency (NUE). The model included a variety of...

  5. Simulating potential growth and yield of oil palm with PALMSIM

    OpenAIRE

    Hoffmann, M.P.; Vera, A.C.; Wijk, van, A.J.; Giller, K.E.; Oberthur, R.; Donough, C.; Whitbread, A.M.; Fisher, M. J.

    2014-01-01

    The growing demand for palm oil can be met by reducing the gap between potential yield and actual yield. Simulation models can quantify potential yield, and therefore indicate the scope for intensification. A relatively simple physiological approach was used to develop PALMSIM, which is a model that simulates, on a monthly time step, the potential growth of oil palm as determined by solar radiation in high rainfall environments. The model was used to map potential yield for Indonesia and Mala...

  6. Simulating potential growth and yield of oil palm with PALMSIM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoffmann, M.P.; Vera, A.C.; Wijk, van M.T.; Giller, K.E.; Oberthur, R.; Donough, C.; Whitbread, A.M.; Fisher, M.J.

    2014-01-01

    The growing demand for palm oil can be met by reducing the gap between potential yield and actual yield. Simulation models can quantify potential yield, and therefore indicate the scope for intensification. A relatively simple physiological approach was used to develop PALMSIM, which is a model that

  7. Optimizing rice yields while minimizing yield-scaled global warming potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittelkow, Cameron M; Adviento-Borbe, Maria A; van Kessel, Chris; Hill, James E; Linquist, Bruce A

    2014-05-01

    To meet growing global food demand with limited land and reduced environmental impact, agricultural greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are increasingly evaluated with respect to crop productivity, i.e., on a yield-scaled as opposed to area basis. Here, we compiled available field data on CH4 and N2 O emissions from rice production systems to test the hypothesis that in response to fertilizer nitrogen (N) addition, yield-scaled global warming potential (GWP) will be minimized at N rates that maximize yields. Within each study, yield N surplus was calculated to estimate deficit or excess N application rates with respect to the optimal N rate (defined as the N rate at which maximum yield was achieved). Relationships between yield N surplus and GHG emissions were assessed using linear and nonlinear mixed-effects models. Results indicate that yields increased in response to increasing N surplus when moving from deficit to optimal N rates. At N rates contributing to a yield N surplus, N2 O and yield-scaled N2 O emissions increased exponentially. In contrast, CH4 emissions were not impacted by N inputs. Accordingly, yield-scaled CH4 emissions decreased with N addition. Overall, yield-scaled GWP was minimized at optimal N rates, decreasing by 21% compared to treatments without N addition. These results are unique compared to aerobic cropping systems in which N2 O emissions are the primary contributor to GWP, meaning yield-scaled GWP may not necessarily decrease for aerobic crops when yields are optimized by N fertilizer addition. Balancing gains in agricultural productivity with climate change concerns, this work supports the concept that high rice yields can be achieved with minimal yield-scaled GWP through optimal N application rates. Moreover, additional improvements in N use efficiency may further reduce yield-scaled GWP, thereby strengthening the economic and environmental sustainability of rice systems. PMID:24115565

  8. Effect of nitrogen and water deficit type on the yield gap between the potential and attainable wheat yield

    OpenAIRE

    Jiangang Liu; Guangyao Wang; Thorp Kelly; Yaoyao Zhang; Meng Yang; Qingquan Chu

    2015-01-01

    Water deficit and N fertilizer are the two primary limiting factors for wheat yield in the North China plain, the most important winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) production area in China. Analyzing the yield gap between the potential yield and the attainable yield can quantify the potential for increasing wheat production and exploring the limiting factors to yield gap in the high-yielding farming region of North China Plain. The Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer (DSSAT) ...

  9. Economics and yields of energy plantations: Status and potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was carried out to: determine the factors affecting the cost of energy conversion feedstocks in short rotation intensive culture plantations of trees; determine the factors influencing biomass yield; identify interrelationships between the previous two objectives; present estimates of potential biomass yields and associated economics; and to identify gaps in the knowledge of the economics and yields of biomass production and their interrelationships. Reported costs for most aspects had a wide range. Currently, yields of 10-15 dry Mg/hectare/y are readily achievable. Using the cost and yield data, and assuming a biomass price of $40/dry Mg, a series of cash flow analyses were performed. For the low cost inputs, all scenarios were marginally profitable. For the high cost inputs, none of the scenarios were profitable. A current scenario, using figures for contract farming, was not profitable, however this system would break even with a yield of 23.3 dry Mg/hectare/y, within the range of some production clones. A future scenario using farm labour with increased productivity, product values, and machinery efficiencies yielded a profit-making situation. The addition of incentives increased profitability. There is great potential for the production of woody biomass in Canada as a feedstock for energy and other products. Continued and more intensive breeding and selection to develop high yielding stress tolerant clones, cost efficient harvesting systems, continued research into optimization of planting density, rotation length and cultural techniques, and characterization of promising clones with respect to nutrient-use efficiency, site requirements and pest/disease resistance are important areas for further work. 81 refs., 3 figs., 13 tabs

  10. Increasing yield potential of hybrid rice through molecular breeding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Deng Qiyun; Yuan Longping; Liang Fengshan; Zhuang Wen; Li Jiming; Wang Yueguang; Duan Meijuan; Xiong Yuedong; Wang Bin

    2005-01-01

    @@ Rice is the staple food for more than half of the world population. The utilization of the wild abortive cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) in 1970s has significantly raised rice yield potential. But the world's annual rice production will have to increase 70 percent over the next 30 years, to keep up with the demends of the growing population.

  11. Potential Energy Surfaces and Quantum Yields for Photochromic Diarylethene Reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoto Hatakeyama

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Photochromic diarylethenes (DAEs are among the most promising molecular switching systems for future molecular electronics. Numerous derivatives have been synthesized recently, and experimental quantum yields (QYs have been reported for two categories of them. Although the QY is one of the most important properties in various applications, it is also the most difficult property to predict before a molecule is actually synthesized. We have previously reported preliminary theoretical studies on what determines the QYs in both categories of DAE derivatives. Here, reflecting theoretical analyses of potential energy surfaces and recent experimental results, a rational explanation of the general guiding principle for QY design is presented for future molecular design.

  12. Effect of nitrogen and water deficit type on the yield gap between the potential and attainable wheat yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangang Liu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Water deficit and N fertilizer are the two primary limiting factors for wheat yield in the North China plain, the most important winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. production area in China. Analyzing the yield gap between the potential yield and the attainable yield can quantify the potential for increasing wheat production and exploring the limiting factors to yield gap in the high-yielding farming region of North China Plain. The Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer (DSSAT model was used to identify methods to increase the grain yield and decrease the gap. In order to explore the impact of N and cultivars on wheat yield in the different drought types, the climate conditions during 1981 to 2011 growing seasons was categorized into low, moderate, and severe water deficit classes according to the anomaly percentage of the water deficit rate during the entire wheat growing season. There are differences (P < 0.0001 in the variations of the potential yields among three cultivars over 30 yr. For all three water deficit types, the more recent cultivars Jimai22 and Shijiazhuang8 had higher yields compared to the older 'Jinan17'. As the N fertilizer rate increased, the yield gap decreased more substantially during the low water deficit years because of the significant increase in attainable yield. Overall, the yield gaps were smaller with less water stress. Replacement of cultivars and appropriate N fertilizer application based on the forecasted drought types can narrow the yield gap effectively.

  13. Potential use of MODIS imagery for operational crop yield assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monitoring crop condition and yields at regional scales remains a challenge. Ground-based sampling for assessment of crop yields at regional and national scales require enormous resources. Crop yield simulation models have shown great success in predicting crop yields at field and small scales; how...

  14. Production yield analysis - a new systematic method for improvement of raw material yield

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Somsen, D.J.; Capelle, A.; Tramper, J.

    2004-01-01

    Production Yield Analysis (PYA) is a structured system approach to optimize the production yield of production processes. The paper outlines the developed method and the 10 basic steps of the PYA. The PYA-method makes it possible to calculate the Yield Index of a process. This dimensionless figure c

  15. Climatic and technological ceilings for Chinese rice stagnation based on yield gaps and yield trend pattern analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tianyi; Yang, Xiaoguang; Wang, Hesong; Li, Yong; Ye, Qing

    2014-04-01

    Climatic or technological ceilings could cause yield stagnation. Thus, identifying the principal reasons for yield stagnation within the context of the local climate and socio-economic conditions are essential for informing regional agricultural policies. In this study, we identified the climatic and technological ceilings for seven rice-production regions in China based on yield gaps and on a yield trend pattern analysis for the period 1980-2010. The results indicate that 54.9% of the counties sampled experienced yield stagnation since the 1980. The potential yield ceilings in northern and eastern China decreased to a greater extent than in other regions due to the accompanying climate effects of increases in temperature and decreases in radiation. This may be associated with yield stagnation and halt occurring in approximately 49.8-57.0% of the sampled counties in these areas. South-western China exhibited a promising scope for yield improvement, showing the greatest yield gap (30.6%), whereas the yields were stagnant in 58.4% of the sampled counties. This finding suggests that efforts to overcome the technological ceiling must be given priority so that the available exploitable yield gap can be achieved. North-eastern China, however, represents a noteworthy exception. In the north-central area of this region, climate change has increased the yield potential ceiling, and this increase has been accompanied by the most rapid increase in actual yield: 1.02 ton ha(-1) per decade. Therefore, north-eastern China shows a great potential for rice production, which is favoured by the current climate conditions and available technology level. Additional environmentally friendly economic incentives might be considered in this region. PMID:24130084

  16. Heritability analysis for seed yield and yield related components in sunflower (helianthus annuus l.) based on genetic difference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study was conducted to develop sunflower hybrids with maximum yield potential. The genetically diverse sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) inbred lines comprising 6 cytoplasmic male steriles (CMS) and 6 fertility restorers (Rf were crossed in line x tester mating design and 36F1 hybrids were obtained. The hybrids were evaluated during spring of 2003-2004 and 2004-2005 years for seed yield and yield components. The yield components included in the study were head diameter, 1000-seed weight, yield per hectare, harvest index, moisture factor and leaf area. A low to high level of genetic variability existed among the hybrids for all characters as revealed by analysis of variance. For the years 2004-2005, the highest heterotic value for yield per hectare was observed for cross combination, CMS-H55-2-2-1 x C-206R. While for 2004-2005 year, it was recorded for CMS-303 x RHA-271. The yield performance of hybrids was evaluated on the basis of genetic distance between the two parental lines. For yield and yield components, the greatest genetic distance revealed by Euclidean dissimilarity coefficient in the years 2003-2004 and 2004-2005 was observed for CMS-HAR-I x RHA-854 and CMS-64 x C-206R hybrids, respectively. This shows the existence of maximum genetic variability in these hybrids for seed yield and yield components. This study can be utilized in varietal improvement programme through heterosis breeding. (author)

  17. CHARACTER ASSOCIATION AND PATH ANALYSIS FOR YIELD AND YIELD ATTRIBUTES IN SUNFLOWER (HELIANTHUS ANNUUS L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.Venkanna

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Character association and path analysis between yield and its contributing traits were studied in 71 genotypes (15 parents, 54 hybrids and two checks of sunflower. Analysis of variance revealed that existence of significant differences among genotypes for all the characters studied. Seed yield was significant positively correlated with number of filled seeds per head, head diameter, hundredseed weight, seed filling per cent and plant height. Path coefficient analysis indicated that highest direct effects on seed yield were observed in the traits, number of filled seeds per head and hundred seed weight and hence emphasis can belaid out on these traits during selection for further improvement in seed yield in sunflower.

  18. Yield Potential of Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) Cultivars in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, Lise Christina; Flengmark, Poul Kristiansen

    2005-01-01

    In order to determine the yield potential of fibre hemp in Denmark, defined as seed yield, biomass, stem and fibre production, five cultivars were evaluated in field trials at two sites during 1998-2000. The total dry matter yield, stem yield, fibre yield, fibre percent, plant height, and seed yi...

  19. CHARACTER ASSOCIATION AND PATH ANALYSIS FOR YIELD AND YIELD ATTRIBUTES IN SUNFLOWER (HELIANTHUS ANNUUS L.)

    OpenAIRE

    V.Venkanna; D.Lokanadha Reddy; V.Thirumala Rao; B. Sathish Chandra; N.Lingaiah

    2014-01-01

    Character association and path analysis between yield and its contributing traits were studied in 71 genotypes (15 parents, 54 hybrids and two checks) of sunflower. Analysis of variance revealed that existence of significant differences among genotypes for all the characters studied. Seed yield was significant positively correlated with number of filled seeds per head, head diameter, hundredseed weight, seed filling per cent and plant height. Path coefficient analysis indicated that highest d...

  20. Yield gaps and potential agricultural growth in West and Central Africa:

    OpenAIRE

    Nin-Pratt, Alejandro; Johnson, Michael; Magalhaes, Eduardo; You, Liangzhi; DIAO, Xinshen; Chamberlin, Jordan

    2011-01-01

    The authors identify a set of development priorities for agriculture that cut across West Africa at both the country and regional levels to achieve economywide growth goals in the region. To do this we adopt a modeling and analytical framework that involves the integration of spatial analysis to identify yield gaps determining the growth potential of different agricultural activities for areas with similar conditions and an economywide multimarket model to simulate ex ante the economic effect...

  1. On ratio of ionization potential and yield work metals

    CERN Document Server

    Davydov, S Y

    2002-01-01

    One analyzes relation between I atom ionization energy and phi yield work of metals composed of these atoms. SIGMA = I - phi transition energy is presented as a sum of K kinetic and C coulomb constituents. K contribution is calculated in terns of a model of homogeneous gas of quasi-free electrons, then C is determined on the basis of the SIGMA experimental values. The calculations covering a wide range of metals have shown that dimensionless factors governing the value of C coulomb contribution differ negligibly for various groups of metals. The derived ratios are used to describe yield work of binary alloys

  2. Economics and yields of energy plantations: Status and potential, 1992-1993 update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An update is presented of a study carried out to: determine the factors affecting the cost of energy conversion feedstocks in short rotation intensive culture plantations of trees; determine the factors influencing biomass yield; identify interrelationships between the previous two objectives; present estimates of potential biomass yields and associated economics; and to identify gaps in the knowledge of the economics and yields of biomass production and their interrelationships. Developments in economics and yields in short rotation intensive silviculture for the production of biomass energy since 1991 are documented. The most substantial changes have been: the introduction of new clones in Sweden with a 20% increase in yield; illustrating the potential genetic gains achievable through selection and breeding; and halving of harvesting costs with new machinery. Harvesting costs with chipping incorporated have fallen to $51.21/dry tonne. The twin row ESM and Frobbester harvesters have lower estimated costs of $36.62 and $ 33.69 respectively. Agricultural based machines have further reduced costs to $19.42 and $26.12/dry tonne. Using these new data, three new scenarios were developed for cost of production analysis, using contract labour, farm labour or farm labour plus a subsidy. A contracted operation is now viable with an annual equivalent net value (AENV) of $35/ha. With the use of farm labour for most operations and omitting land rent, profitability increased to $127/ha. With a subsidy of $75/ha, the AENV increases to $205/ha. 25 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs

  3. Riding the Yield Curve: A Spanning Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Galvani, Valentina; Landon, Stuart

    2011-01-01

    The average return on long-term bonds exceeds the return on short-term bills by a large amount over short investment horizons. A riding-the-yield-curve investment strategy takes advantage of the higher returns on longer term bonds. This strategy involves the purchase of bonds with maturities longer than the investment horizon and the sale of these bonds, before they mature, at the end of the investment horizon. Most of the literature that evaluates this strategy compares only ex post average ...

  4. Applications of systems simulation for understanding and increasing yield potential of wheat and rice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aggarwal, P.K.

    2000-01-01

    Understanding and increasing yield potential of cereals is essential to meet the growing food demand in Asia. A crop growth simulation model -WTGROWS- was developed to quantify the climatically determined potential grain yields and yield gaps in wheat in tropics and sub-tropics. The model written in

  5. Stability analysis for yield and yield components over seasons in cowpea [Vigna unguiculata L. (Walp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarvamangala Cholin, Uma M.S., Biradar Suma and Salimath P.M.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Twenty diverse genotypes including one local check (C-152 of cowpea were evaluated over three seasons to study the stability parameters viz.,regression coefficient (bi and mean square deviations (s2di from linear regression along with per se performance for five yield related traits.Variances due to genotype, environment, genotype x environment, environment + (genotype x environment, environment (linear weresignificant for pods per plant and seed yield per plant. Based on the stability analysis, the genotype IL3 was found stable across the seasons fortest weight. Genotypes such as M17, Goa local and Bailhongal local were stable and superior across all the environments for seed yield.

  6. Determination of potential management zones from soil electrical conductivity, yield and crop data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan LI; Zhou SHI; Ci-fang WU; Hong-yi LI; Feng LI

    2008-01-01

    One approach to apply precision agriculture to optimize crop production and environmental quality is identifying management zones. In this paper, the variables of soil electrical conductivity (EC) data, cotton yield data and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data in an about 15 ha field in a coastal saline land were selected as data resources, and their spatial variabilities were firstly analyzed and spatial distribution maps constructed with geostatistics technique. Then fuzzy c-means clustering algorithm was used to define management zones, fuzzy performance index (FPI) and normalized classification entropy (NCE) were used to determine the optimal cluster numbers. Finally one-way variance analysis was performed on 224 georeferenced soil and yield sampling points to assess how well the defined management zones reflected the soil properties and productivity level. The results reveal that the optimal number of management zones for the present study area was 3 and the defined management zones provided a better description of soil properties and yield variation. Statistical analyses indicate significant differences between the chemical properties of soil samples and crop yield in each management zone, and management zone 3 presented the highest nutrient level and potential crop productivity, whereas management zone 1 the lowest. Based on these findings, we conclude that fuzzy c-means clustering approach can be used to delineate management zones by using the given three variables in the coastal saline soils, and the defined management zones form an objective basis for targeting soil samples for nutrient analysis and development of site-specific application strategies.

  7. Production potential and yield gaps of summer maize in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Tao; LU Changhe; YU Bohua

    2011-01-01

    Crop potential productivity is a key index of scientifically appraising crop production and land population-supporting capacity.This study firstly simulated the potential and waterlimited yield of summer maize in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region using WOFOST model with meteorological data of 40 years,and then analyzed yield gaps between the actual and potential yield based on statistical data at county level.The potential and water-limited yield of summer maize in the BTH region is 6854-8789 kg/hm2 and 6434-8741 kg/hm2,and the weighted average for whole region is 7861 kg/hm2 and 7185 kg/hm2,respectively.The simulated yields gradually decrease from northeast to southwest with changes in climatic conditions particularly temperature and precipitation.Annual variation of potential yield is higher in the central and southern parts than the northeastern part.Compared to potential yield,the water-limited yield has higher coefficient of variation (CV),because of precipitation effects.The actual yield of summer maize was 2537-8730 kg/hm2,regionally averaged at 5582 kg/hm2,about 70% of the potential yield,implying that the region has room to increase the yield by improving crop management and irrigation systems.

  8. Predicting spring barley yield from variety-specific yield potential, disease resistance and straw length, and from environment-specific disease loads and weed pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergård, Hanne; Kristensen, Kristian; Pinnschmidt, Hans O.; Hansen, Preben Klarskov; Hovmøller, Mogens S.

    2008-01-01

    . The extend to which increased susceptibility resulted in increased yield losses in environments with high disease loads of the respective diseases was predicted. The effect of externally determined straw length scores, weighted with weed pressure, was weaker although significant for weeds with......For low-input crop production, well-characterised varieties increase the possibilities of managing diseases and weeds. This analysis aims at developing a framework for analyzing grain yield using external varietal information about disease resistance, weed competitiveness and yield potential and...... quantifying the impact of susceptibility grouping and straw length scores (as a measure for weed competitiveness) for predicting spring barley grain yield under variable biotic stress levels. The study comprised 52 spring barley varieties and 17 environments, i.e., combinations of location, growing system and...

  9. Quantitative Genetic Analysis for Yield and Yield Components in Boro Rice (Oryza sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supriyo CHAKRABORTY

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-nine genotypes of boro rice (Oryza sativa L. were grown in a randomized block design with three replications in plots of 4m x 1m with a crop geometry of 20 cm x 20 cm between November-April, in Regional Agricultural Research Station, Nagaon, India. Quantitative data were collected on five randomly selected plants of each genotype per replication for yield/plant, and six other yield components, namely plant height, panicles/plant, panicle length, effective grains/panicle, 100 grain weight and harvest index. Mean values of the characters for each genotype were used for analysis of variance and covariance to obtain information on genotypic and phenotypic correlation along with coheritability between two characters. Path analyses were carried out to estimate the direct and indirect effects of boro rice�s yield components. The objective of the study was to identify the characters that mostly influence the yield for increasing boro rice productivity through breeding program. Correlation analysis revealed significant positive genotypic correlation of yield/plant with plant height (0.21, panicles/plant (0.53, panicle length (0.53, effective grains/panicle (0.57 and harvest index (0.86. Path analysis based on genotypic correlation coefficients elucidated high positive direct effect of harvest index (0.8631, panicle length (0.2560 and 100 grain weight (0.1632 on yield/plant with a residual effect of 0.33. Plant height and panicles/plant recorded high positive indirect effect on yield/plant via harvest index whereas effective grains/panicle on yield/plant via harvest index and panicle length. Results of the present study suggested that five component characters, namely harvest index, effective grains/plant, panicle length, panicles/plant and plant height influenced the yield of boro rice. A genotype with higher magnitude of these component characters could be either selected from the existing genotypes or evolved by breeding program for genetic

  10. PERUN system and its application for assessing the crop yield potential of the Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubrovsky, M.; Zalud, Z.; Eitzinger, J.; Trnka, M.; Semeradova, D.

    2003-04-01

    The main purpose of the first version of the computer system PERUN, which has been developed in 2001-2002 (presented in EGS 2002), is the probabilistic seasonal crop yield forecasting for a given site. The system is based on the crop growth model WOFOST (version 7, slightly modified) and the six-variate version of the stochastic weather generator Met&Roll. The system is now being enhanced to allow assessment of the crop yield potential of a larger area. As this assessment requires a great amount of meteorological, pedological and crop data to be gathered, but these data are not yet all available to the authors, the presentation will rather focus on the methodological aspects and the results of the sensitivity analysis. The presentation will consist of the following points: (i) Overview of the PERUN system. The results of the validation experiments (spring barley and winter wheat at selected Czech locations) will be presented, too. (ii) Methodology used for a spatial assessment. The assessment is based on integrating model crop yields simulated at multiple sub-regions with region-specific climatic and pedological conditions. The input daily weather series are produced by the stochastic generator. The multi-year crop model simulation is performed for each sub-region to assess the mean and variability of the model yields. (iii) Sensitivity of the regional crop production potential to uncertainties in selected input characteristics: crop cultivar, soil type, hydrological characteristics (e.g. amount of available water at the beginning of the simulation), and climatic conditions (e.g temperature, precipitation). In assessing sensitivity to climate, the climatic characteristics will be varied within the range of values typical for the territory of the Czech Republic. The crops applied in the analysis are spring barley and winter wheat. Acknowledgement: The system PERUN has been developed within the frame of project QC1316 sponsored by the Czech National Agency for

  11. Corrosion potential analysis system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiefer, Karl F.

    1998-03-01

    Many cities in the northeastern U.S. transport electrical power from place to place via underground cables, which utilize voltages from 68 kv to 348 kv. These cables are placed in seamless steel pipe to protect the conductors. These buried pipe-type-cables (PTCs) are carefully designed and constantly pressurized with transformer oil to prevent any possible contamination. A protective coating placed on the outside diameter of the pipe during manufacture protects the steel pipe from the soil environment. Notwithstanding the protection mechanisms available, the pipes remain vulnerable to electrochemical corrosion processes. If undetected, corrosion can cause the pipes to leak transformer oil into the environment. These leaks can assume serious proportions due to the constant pressure on the inside of the pipe. A need exists for a detection system that can dynamically monitor the corrosive potential on the length of the pipe and dynamically adjust cathodic protection to counter local and global changes in the cathodic environment surrounding the pipes. The northeastern United States contains approximately 1000 miles of this pipe. This milage is critical to the transportation and distribution of power. So critical, that each of the pipe runs has a redundant double running parallel to it. Invocon, Inc. proposed and tested a technically unique and cost effective solution to detect critical corrosion potential and to communicate that information to a central data collection and analysis location. Invocon's solution utilizes the steel of the casing pipe as a communication medium. Each data gathering station on the pipe can act as a relay for information gathered elsewhere on the pipe. These stations must have 'smart' network configuration algorithms that constantly test various communication paths and determine the best and most power efficient route through which information should flow. Each network station also performs data acquisition and analysis tasks that ultimately

  12. Assessment of Potential Yield andClimate Change Sensitivity of Peanut Crop in Cagayan Valley, Philippines using DSSAT Simulation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balderama, O. F.

    2013-12-01

    Peanut is a major upland crop in Cagayan Valley and a leguminous crop that requires less water and therefore, considered an important crop in improving productivity of upland and rainfed areas. However, little information is available on the potential productivity of the crop and analysis on the production constraints including climate change sensitivity. This study was aimed to determine yield potential and production constraints of peanut crop in Cagayan Valley through the use of Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer (DSSAT) simulation modeling; analyze yield gaps between simulated and actual yield levels and to provide decision support to further optimize peanut production under climate change condition. Site of experiment for model calibration and validation was located on-station at Isabela State University, Echague, Isabela. Rainfall and other climatic variables were monitored using a HOBO weather station (Automatic Weather Station) which is strategically installed inside experimental zone.The inputs required to run the CSM model include information on soil and weather conditions, crop management practices and cultivar specific genetic coefficients. In the first step,a model calibration was conducted to determine the cultivar coefficients for certain peanut cultivar that are normally grown in Cagayan Valley. Crop growth and yield simulation modeling was undertaken using the Decision Support System for Agro-Technology Transfer (DSSAT) for small seeded peanut (Pn9). An evaluation of the CSM-CROPGRO-peanut model was performed with data sets from peanut experiment conducted from December 2011 to April 2012. The model was evaluated in the estimation of potential yield of peanut under rainfed condition and low-nitrogen application. Yield potential for peanut limited only by temperature and solar radiation and no-water and nutrient stress, ranged from 3274 to 4805 kg per hectare for six planting dates (October 1, October 15, November 1, November 15

  13. Determination of potential management zones from soil electrical conductivity, yield and crop data*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Shi, Zhou; Wu, Ci-fang; Li, Hong-yi; Li, Feng

    2008-01-01

    One approach to apply precision agriculture to optimize crop production and environmental quality is identifying management zones. In this paper, the variables of soil electrical conductivity (EC) data, cotton yield data and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data in an about 15 ha field in a coastal saline land were selected as data resources, and their spatial variabilities were firstly analyzed and spatial distribution maps constructed with geostatistics technique. Then fuzzy c-means clustering algorithm was used to define management zones, fuzzy performance index (FPI) and normalized classification entropy (NCE) were used to determine the optimal cluster numbers. Finally one-way variance analysis was performed on 224 georeferenced soil and yield sampling points to assess how well the defined management zones reflected the soil properties and productivity level. The results reveal that the optimal number of management zones for the present study area was 3 and the defined management zones provided a better description of soil properties and yield variation. Statistical analyses indicate significant differences between the chemical properties of soil samples and crop yield in each management zone, and management zone 3 presented the highest nutrient level and potential crop productivity, whereas management zone 1 the lowest. Based on these findings, we conclude that fuzzy c-means clustering approach can be used to delineate management zones by using the given three variables in the coastal saline soils, and the defined management zones form an objective basis for targeting soil samples for nutrient analysis and development of site-specific application strategies. PMID:18196615

  14. Determination of potential management zones from soil electrical conductivity, yield and crop data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Shi, Zhou; Wu, Ci-fang; Li, Hong-yi; Li, Feng

    2008-01-01

    One approach to apply precision agriculture to optimize crop production and environmental quality is identifying management zones. In this paper, the variables of soil electrical conductivity (EC) data, cotton yield data and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data in an about 15 ha field in a coastal saline land were selected as data resources, and their spatial variabilities were firstly analyzed and spatial distribution maps constructed with geostatistics technique. Then fuzzy c-means clustering algorithm was used to define management zones, fuzzy performance index (FPI) and normalized classification entropy (NCE) were used to determine the optimal cluster numbers. Finally one-way variance analysis was performed on 224 georeferenced soil and yield sampling points to assess how well the defined management zones reflected the soil properties and productivity level. The results reveal that the optimal number of management zones for the present study area was 3 and the defined management zones provided a better description of soil properties and yield variation. Statistical analyses indicate significant differences between the chemical properties of soil samples and crop yield in each management zone, and management zone 3 presented the highest nutrient level and potential crop productivity, whereas management zone 1 the lowest. Based on these findings, we conclude that fuzzy c-means clustering approach can be used to delineate management zones by using the given three variables in the coastal saline soils, and the defined management zones form an objective basis for targeting soil samples for nutrient analysis and development of site-specific application strategies. PMID:18196615

  15. Estimating Sugarcane Yield Potential Using an In-Season Determination of Normalized Difference Vegetative Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard Viator

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Estimating crop yield using remote sensing techniques has proven to be successful. However, sugarcane possesses unique characteristics; such as, a multi-year cropping cycle and plant height-limiting for midseason fertilizer application timing. Our study objective was to determine if sugarcane yield potential could be estimated using an in-season estimation of normalized difference vegetative index (NDVI. Sensor readings were taken using the GreenSeeker® handheld sensor from 2008 to 2011 in St. Gabriel and Jeanerette, LA, USA. In-season estimates of yield (INSEY values were calculated by dividing NDVI by thermal variables. Optimum timing for estimating sugarcane yield was between 601–750 GDD. In-season estimated yield values improved the yield potential (YP model compared to using NDVI. Generally, INSEY value showed a positive exponential relationship with yield (r2 values 0.48 and 0.42 for cane tonnage and sugar yield, respectively. When models were separated based on canopy structure there was an increase the strength of the relationship for the erectophile varieties (r2 0.53 and 0.47 for cane tonnage and sugar yield, respectively; however, the model for planophile varieties weakened slightly. Results of this study indicate using an INSEY value for predicting sugarcane yield shows potential of being a valuable management tool for sugarcane producers in Louisiana.

  16. Global wild annual Lens collection: a potential resource for lentil genetic base broadening and yield enhancement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohar Singh

    Full Text Available Crop wild relatives (CWRs are invaluable gene sources for various traits of interest, yet these potential resources are themselves increasingly threatened by the impact of climate change as well as other anthropogenic and socio-economic factors. The prime goal of our research was to cover all aspects of wild Lens genetic resource management like species characterization, agro-morphological evaluation, diversity assessment, and development of representative sets for its enhanced utilization in lentil base broadening and yield improvement initiatives. We characterized and evaluated extensively, the global wild annual Lens taxa, originating from twenty seven counties under two agro-climatic conditions of India consecutively for three cropping seasons. Results on various qualitative and quantitative characters including two foliar diseases showed wide variations for almost all yield attributing traits including multiple disease resistance in the wild species, L. nigricans and L. ervoides accessions. The core set developed from the entire Lens taxa had maximum representation from Turkey and Syria, indicating rich diversity in accessions originating from these regions. Diversity analysis also indicated wide geographical variations across genepool as was reflected in the core set. Potential use of core set, as an initial starting material, for genetic base broadening of cultivated lentil was also suggested.

  17. Thick target PIXE analysis and yield curve calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four computer programs used for thick target proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) research at the Australian Atomic Energy Commission are discussed. Different techniques of spectrum analysis are considered and a description is given of the spectrum synthesis code PUCK used in our analysis. Attention is focused on the use of theoretical thick target yield curves as a means of obtaining quantitative information on trace element concentration. Finally, several applications indicating the versatility of thick target PIXE analysis are mentioned. (orig.)

  18. How good is good enough? Data requirements for reliable crop yield simulations and yield-gap analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grassini, P.; Bussel, van L.G.J.; Wart, van J.; Wolf, J.; Claessens, L.; Yang, H.; Boogaard, H.L.; Groot, de H.L.E.; Ittersum, van M.K.; Cassman, K.G.

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies have been published during the past two decades that use simulation models to assesscrop yield gaps (quantified as the difference between potential and actual farm yields), impact of climatechange on future crop yields, and land-use change. However, there is a wide range in quality

  19. Genetic analysis for yield and its components in hybrid pigeonpea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ch.Sreelakshmi, C.V.Sameer Kumar and D.Shivani

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Mahalanobis D2 statistics was applied to assess the divergence among the 36 hybrids and three checks of pigeonpea. The hybrids were grouped into nine clusters, where cluster I was the largest containing twenty one hybrids followed by cluster II with seven hybrids. The inter cluster distance was maximum between cluster III and VIII followed by III and VI and seed yield contributed the most (22.2 towards genetic divergence. High heritability coupled with high genetic advance as per cent of mean was noticed for seed yield, number of primary branches per plant and secondary branches per plant suggesting additive gene action controlling these traits. Seed yield showed positive correlation with all the characters studied except 100-seed weight. Genotypic path analysis revealed that the maximum direct effect on seed yield was exhibited by number of primary branches per plant, days to 50% flowering and number of pods per plant.

  20. Regional potential yields of short rotation willow plantations on agricultural land in Northern Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mola-Yudego, B. (Univ. of Eastern Finland, School of Forest Sciences, Joensuu (Finland)), email: blas.mola@uef.fi

    2010-07-01

    The development of short rotation forestry for bioenergy requires accurate and reliable yield estimates. This paper analyses the current, expected and potential regional productivity of short rotation willow plantations for six countries in Northern Europe. The estimations for present productivity are based on empirical models, using data regarding management, and local productivity based on the regional cereal yields. The estimates of expected yield rely on the current trends of yield increase from commercial willow plantations in the region. The estimates for potential yield are based on climatic restrictions. The results show potential average yields of 9.5, 6.8, 7.9, 9.0, 9.3, and 8.0 odt ha-1 yr-1 for Denmark, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Sweden, respectively. The results of the study also show that there is a wide regional variation between the different countries. In Denmark, Finland and Sweden there is a convergence between the future forecasts and the climatic potential yields in the areas of high productivity. The Baltic countries seem to present lower estimates of present productivity, reflecting possible socio-economic restrictions, although they show a high biomass potential. The methods presented in this study can be further developed in other areas where willow cultivation is considered, and can serve as a basis for future economic considerations. (orig.)

  1. A short proof that the Coulomb-gauge potentials yield the retarded fields

    CERN Document Server

    Heras, Jose A

    2011-01-01

    A short demonstration that the potentials in the Coulomb gauge yield the retarded electric and magnetic fields is presented. This demonstration is relatively simple and can be presented in an advanced undergraduate curse of electromagnetic theory,

  2. Recents declines in potential evapotranspiration over South Africa: potential causes and implications for maize yield and irrigation demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, L. D.; Caylor, K. K.; Chaney, N.; Herrera-Estrada, J. E.; Sheffield, J.; Wood, E. F.

    2014-12-01

    Recent work has identified a 31-year (1979-2010) decline in potential evapotranspiration (PET) during the maize growing season in South Africa, the world's 9th largest producer of that crop. Using a newly-developed, bias-corrected meteorological forcing dataset, we apply an attribution analysis to identify the relative role of four key physical drivers (temperature, net radiation, vapor pressure, and windspeed) in reducing atmospheric demand for water. We conduct a statistical analysis to correlate changes in these four key drivers to potential causal mechanisms, including atmospheric aerosol concentration and changes in the extent of irrigated cropland, which we identify using a novel, high accuracy landcover dataset. Finally, we use the DSSAT maize model, together with counter-factual climate scenarios, to investigate the implications of the PET decline on maize yields and maize irrigation demand. This study illustrates how improved meteorological data, better landcover maps, and crop simulation can be combined to 1) improve understanding of the linkages between the land surface and atmosphere, and 2) help inform crop and irrigation management under changing climates.

  3. Managment oriented analysis of sediment yield time compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetanova, Anna; Le Bissonnais, Yves; Raclot, Damien; Nunes, João P.; Licciardello, Feliciana; Le Bouteiller, Caroline; Latron, Jérôme; Rodríguez Caballero, Emilio; Mathys, Nicolle; Klotz, Sébastien; Mekki, Insaf; Gallart, Francesc; Solé Benet, Albert; Pérez Gallego, Nuria; Andrieux, Patrick; Moussa, Roger; Planchon, Olivier; Marisa Santos, Juliana; Alshihabi, Omran; Chikhaoui, Mohamed

    2016-04-01

    The understanding of inter- and intra-annual variability of sediment yield is important for the land use planning and management decisions for sustainable landscapes. It is of particular importance in the regions where the annual sediment yield is often highly dependent on the occurrence of few large events which produce the majority of sediments, such as in the Mediterranean. This phenomenon is referred as time compression, and relevance of its consideration growths with the increase in magnitude and frequency of extreme events due to climate change in many other regions. So far, time compression has ben studied mainly on events datasets, providing high resolution, but (in terms of data amount, required data precision and methods), demanding analysis. In order to provide an alternative simplified approach, the monthly and yearly time compressions were evaluated in eight Mediterranean catchments (of the R-OSMed network), representing a wide range of Mediterranean landscapes. The annual sediment yield varied between 0 to ~27100 Mg•km-2•a-1, and the monthly sediment yield between 0 to ~11600 Mg•km-2•month-1. The catchment's sediment yield was un-equally distributed at inter- and intra-annual scale, and large differences were observed between the catchments. Two types of time compression were distinguished - (i) the inter-annual (based on annual values) and intra- annual (based on monthly values). Four different rainfall-runoff-sediment yield time compression patterns were observed: (i) no time-compression of rainfall, runoff, nor sediment yield, (ii) low time compression of rainfall and runoff, but high compression of sediment yield, (iii) low compression of rainfall and high of runoff and sediment yield, and (iv) low, medium and high compression of rainfall, runoff and sediment yield. All four patterns were present at inter-annual scale, while at intra-annual scale only the two latter were present. This implies that high sediment yields occurred in

  4. Integration of remote sensing, RUSLE and GIS to model potential soil loss and sediment yield (SY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Kamaludin

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Land use activities within a basin serve as one of the contributing factors which cause deterioration of river water quality through its potential effect on erosion. Sediment yield in the form of suspended solid in the river water body which is transported to the coastal area occurs as a sign of lowering of the water quality. Hence, the aim of this study was to determine potential soil loss using the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE model and the sediment yield, in the Geographical Information Systems (GIS environment within selected sub-catchments of Pahang River Basin. RUSLE was used to estimate potential soil losses and sediment yield by utilizing information on rainfall erosivity (R using interpolation of rainfall data, soil erodibility (K using field measurement and soil map, vegetation cover (C using satellite images, topography (LS using DEM and conservation practices (P using satellite images. The results indicated that the rate of potential soil loss in these sub-catchments ranged from very low to extremely high. The area covered by very low to low potential soil loss was about 99%, whereas moderate to extremely high soil loss potential covered only about 1% of the study area. Sediment yield represented only 1% of the potential soil loss. The sediment yield (SY value in Pahang River turned out to be higher closer to the river mouth because of the topographic character, climate, vegetation type and density, and land use within the drainage basin.

  5. The impact of climate change on rice yield in Bangladesh: a time series analysis

    OpenAIRE

    IFTEKHAR UDDIN AHMED CHOWDHURY; MOHAMMAD ABUL EARSHAD KHAN

    2015-01-01

    Rice is the staple food of about 158 million people of Bangladesh, but the increasing climate change vulnerabilities and global warming are severely reducing the yield of various rice crops and may threaten the food security in the country. Therefore, this study is undertaken to examine the potential impact of climate change on the yield of three different rice crops (namely, Aus, Aman and Boro) in Bangladesh. A multiple regression analysis using OLS method is employed to assess the climate-c...

  6. Pod yield stability analysis of runner peanut lines using AMMI

    OpenAIRE

    Eder Jorge de Oliveira; Ignácio José de Godoy

    2006-01-01

    The interaction between genotypes and environment (GxE) can influence the selection process andrecommendation of peanut cultivars. The objective of this study was therefore to evaluate the influence of GxE interaction ofpeanut pod yield using AMMI. The yield of 18 peanut lines and the cultivars IAC Caiapo and Runner IAC 886 was assessedin 10 field trials in the state of São Paulo. Significant effects of genotypes, environments and GxE interactions were detected inthe analysis. The first AMMI ...

  7. Lower Bound Limit Analysis Of Slabs With Nonlinear Yield Criteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krabbenhøft, Kristian; Damkilde, Lars

    2002-01-01

    A finite element formulation of the limit analysis of perfectly plastic slabs is given. An element with linear moment fields for which equilibrium is satisfied exactly is used in connection with an optimization algorithm taking into account the full nonlinearity of the yield criteria. Both load and...... material optimization problems are formulated and by means of the duality theory of linear programming the displacements are extracted from the dual variables. Numerical examples demonstrating the capabilities of the method and the effects of using a more refined representation of the yield criteria are...

  8. Improved calculation of Si sputter yield via first principles derived interatomic potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, M. Z.; Freund, J. B.; Johnson, H. T.

    2009-04-01

    Silicon sputter yield under medium energy Ar+ ion bombardment is calculated via molecular dynamics, using a highly accurate interatomic potential for Ar-Si interactions derived from first-principles calculations. Unlike the widely used universal repulsive potentials such as the Moliere or ZBL parameterizations, this new potential, referred to as DFT-ArSi, is developed via localized basis density functional theory. Sputter yields for Si obtained with the DFT-ArSi potential at 500 eV and 1 keV incident energies are found to be within 6% and 2% of experimental results, respectively, while errors using existing potentials are typically on the order of 11%. The DFT-ArSi potential differs from existing empirical potentials in the ˜1 Å interatomic separation range which is shown to be the most important range for modeling low-to-medium energy ion bombardment.

  9. Using historical wafermap data for automated yield analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To be productive and profitable in a modern semiconductor fabrication environment, large amounts of manufacturing data must be collected, analyzed, and maintained. This includes data collected from in- and off-line wafer inspection systems and from the process equipment itself. This data is increasingly being used to design new processes, control and maintain tools, and to provide the information needed for rapid yield learning and prediction. Because of increasing device complexity, the amount of data being generated is outstripping the yield engineer close-quote s ability to effectively monitor and correct unexpected trends and excursions. The 1997 SIA National Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors highlights a need to address these issues through open-quotes automated data reduction algorithms to source defects from multiple data sources and to reduce defect sourcing time.close quotes SEMATECH and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory have been developing new strategies and technologies for providing the yield engineer with higher levels of assisted data reduction for the purpose of automated yield analysis. In this article, we will discuss the current state of the art and trends in yield management automation. copyright 1999 American Vacuum Society

  10. Physiological analysis of leaf senescence of two rice cultivars with different yield potential Análise fisiológica da senescência foliar de duas cultivares de arroz com diferentes potenciais de produtividade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antelmo Ralph Falqueto

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the physiological changes that occur in different leaves during the early and late grain-filling stages of two rice genotypes (Oryza sativa subsp. indica , BRS Pelota cultivar, and O. sativa subsp. japonica , BRS Firmeza cultivar, which present differences in grain yield potential. The plants were cultivated in greenhouse. Pigment content, chlorophyll fluorescence, electron transport and oxygen evolution rate were determined in the grain-filling stage, from the first to the forth leaf (top to bottom. Pigment content, photochemical efficiency of photosystem II and electron transport decreased significantly according to the position of leaves in 'BRS Pelota'. The BRS Firmeza cultivar shows higher pigment content and higher activity of the photosynthetic apparatus in comparison to 'BRS Pelota' during the grain-filling stage.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as mudanças fisiológicas que ocorrem em diferentes folhas durante o início e o final do estádio de enchimento de grãos em dois genótipos de arroz (Oryza sativa subsp. indica cultivar BRS Pelota e O. sativa subsp. japonica cultivar BRS Firmeza que apresentam diferenças no potencial de produção de grãos. As plantas foram cultivadas em casa de vegetação. Os teores de pigmentos, a fluorescência da clorofila e a taxa de liberação de oxigênio foram determinados no estádio de enchimento de grão da primeira à quarta folha (do topo à base. O teor de pigmentos, a eficiência fotoquímica do fotossistema II e o transporte de elétrons decresceram significativamente de acordo com a posição das folhas na cultivar BRS Pelota. A cultivar BRS Firmeza apresentou maior teor de pigmentos e maior atividade do aparato fotossintético em comparação à 'BRS Pelota' durante o estádio de enchimento de grão.

  11. A study on correlation and path analysis for seed yield and yield components in sunflower [Helianthus annuus (L.)

    OpenAIRE

    M.M.Pandya, P.B.Patel, A.V. Narwade

    2015-01-01

    Correlation and path coefficient analysis was carried out in 40 genotypes of sunflower [Helianthus annuus (L.)]. Association analysis between seed yield per plant and other 14 characters revealed that seed yield per plant showed highly significant and positive correlation with head diameter, number of seeds per capitula, number of filled seeds per capitula and 100 seed weight at both genotypic and phenotypic levels. These seed yield per plant also possessed positive association with days to m...

  12. Genetic analysis for fruit yield and yield attributes in okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. K. Akotkar and D. K. De

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The components of gene effects for yield and its components in okra were studied using generation mean analysis from six generations (P1, P2, F1, F2, BC1, and BC2 derived from six different genotypes. Joint scaling test was applied to detect the presence of epistasis. Epistasis was detected in both the cases. Prevalence of duplicate type of epistasis was observed in all the cases except number of fruits/ plant, fruit length in C1 (IC 3307 x IC 433645, fruit diameter, inter node length in C2 (IC- 43736 x Parbhani Kranti, fruit length, fruit diameter and fruit weight in C3 (IC-342075 X IC-332453. Additive, dominance and epistatic gene effects contribute significantly to the inheritance of various yield characters studied. The joint scaling test confirmed the inadequacy of the additive dominance model in most of the crosses for majority of the characters and indicated the presence of epistasis. Low narrow sense heritability values for most of the characters indicating that these characters are more influenced by the environment and they cannot be improved by simple selection.

  13. BRS Esteio - Common bean cultivar with black grain, high yield potential and moderate resistance to anthracnose

    OpenAIRE

    Helton Santos Pereira; Leonardo Cunha Melo; Luís Cláudio de Faria; Adriane Wendland; Maria José Del Peloso; Joaquim Geraldo Cáprio da Costa; Adriano Stephan Nascente; José Luis Cabrera Díaz; Hélio Wilson Lemos de Carvalho; Válter Martins de Almeida; Carlos Lásaro Pereira de Melo; Antônio Félix da Costa; Sheila Cristina Prucoli Posse; Mariana Cruzick de Souza Magaldi; Ângela de Fátima Barbosa Abreu

    2013-01-01

    BRS Esteio is a common bean cultivar with black grains of excellent cooking quality, suited for cultivation in 21 BrazilianStates. In 77 trials of Value for Cultivation and Use, the cultivar had a normal cycle (90 days), an average yield of 2,529 kg ha-1,which is 8.1% higher than that of the control cultivars, a high yield potential (4,702 kg ha-1), upright growth, tolerance to lodging,and moderate resistance to anthracnose.

  14. Integration of remote sensing, RUSLE and GIS to model potential soil loss and sediment yield (SY)

    OpenAIRE

    H. Kamaludin; Lihan, T.; Z. Ali Rahman; Mustapha, M.A.; Idris, W. M. R.; S. A. Rahim

    2013-01-01

    Land use activities within a basin serve as one of the contributing factors which cause deterioration of river water quality through its potential effect on erosion. Sediment yield in the form of suspended solid in the river water body which is transported to the coastal area occurs as a sign of lowering of the water quality. Hence, the aim of this study was to determine potential soil loss using the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) model and the sediment yield, in the Geographica...

  15. Evaluating the potential of mycorrhizal fungi to boost yields in field grown leeks

    Science.gov (United States)

    UMaine Cooperative Extension faculty collaborated with a local organic grower and the USDA-ARS Research Center in Wyndmoor, PA to evaluate the potential of mycorrhizal fungi to boost yields in field grown leeks using both commercially available mycorrhizal inocula and a “farm raised” mycorrhizal ino...

  16. Interrelationship and cause effect analysis among panicle yield attributing traits in lowland Traditional Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashim Chakravorty

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Yield component analysis provides a framework for identifying potentially useful traits for yield improvement. A field experiment was conducted for two consecutive years to evaluate the forty four low land traditional rice cultivars for twenty three panicle yield and its attributing traits during kharif season at the Zonal Adaptive Research Station, Krishnagar, Nadia, West Bengal, India. Significant varietal differences were observed for all the characters. Among the panicle yield attributing traits, number of primary branches per panicle, number of grains on primary branches panicle-1, number of spikelets on primary branches panicle-1, grain length, grain breadth, grain thickness, kernel breadth, kernel thickness, 100 grain weight, 100 kernel weight correlated significantly and positively with panicle yield both at the genotypic and phenotypic levels. Results of path analysis showed that the direct positive effect on panicle yield was greatest for number of spikelets on secondary branches panicle-1 (0.998 which is followed by number of grains on secondary branches panicle-1 (0.948, grain length (0.755, and number of spikelets on primary branches panicle-1 (0.625, grain thickness (0.392 and fertility % of spikelets on primary branches panicle-1 (0.378. Few characters like number of primary branches panicle-1, number of spikelets panicle-1, by number of grains on primary branches panicle-1 and grain breadth showed negative direct effect on panicle yield even though the genotypic correlation coefficients on panicle yield were positive. The study revealed that the direct selection of the above said traits might be rewarding for panicle yield improvement since they revealed a true relationship with the panicle yield.

  17. Genetic analysis for yield and yield components in spring wheat (Triticum Aestivum.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 5x5 diallel cross experiment on spring wheat (triticum aestivum L: em. Thell) was conducted to estimate the genetic information of some yield and yield components. Number of tillers per plant and grain yield per plant were controlled by over dominance type of gene action. While the characters like plant height, flag leaf area and peduncle length were additive in their genetic control. Epistatic interaction was not detected for manifestation of any character. Variety LU 26S had maximum dominant genes for no. of tillers per plant, peduncle length and grain yield per plant and maximum recessive genes for flag leaf area. While line lRG-7 appeared to have dominant genes for plant height, flag leaf area and recessive for number of tillers per plant and grain yield per plant. (author)

  18. BRS Esteio - Common bean cultivar with black grain, high yield potential and moderate resistance to anthracnose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helton Santos Pereira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available BRS Esteio is a common bean cultivar with black grains of excellent cooking quality, suited for cultivation in 21 BrazilianStates. In 77 trials of Value for Cultivation and Use, the cultivar had a normal cycle (90 days, an average yield of 2,529 kg ha-1,which is 8.1% higher than that of the control cultivars, a high yield potential (4,702 kg ha-1, upright growth, tolerance to lodging,and moderate resistance to anthracnose.

  19. Simulating potential growth and yield of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) with PALMSIM: Model description, evaluation and application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoffmann, M.; Castaneda Vera, A.; Wijk, van M.T.; Giller, K.E.; Oberthür, T.; Donough, C.; Whitbread, A.M.

    2014-01-01

    Reducing the gap between water-limited potential yield and actual yield in oil palm production systems through intensification is seen as an important option for sustainably increasing palm oil production. Simulation models can play an important role in quantifying water-limited potential yield, and

  20. Stability analysis for yield and yield components over seasons in cowpea [Vigna unguiculata L. (Walp.)

    OpenAIRE

    Sarvamangala Cholin, Uma M.S., Biradar Suma and Salimath P.M.

    2010-01-01

    Twenty diverse genotypes including one local check (C-152) of cowpea were evaluated over three seasons to study the stability parameters viz.,regression coefficient (bi) and mean square deviations (s2di) from linear regression along with per se performance for five yield related traits.Variances due to genotype, environment, genotype x environment, environment + (genotype x environment), environment (linear) weresignificant for pods per plant and seed yield per plant. Based on the stability a...

  1. A Projection of Maize-Yield Potential in the Southwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S. H.; Kim, J.; Walko, R. L.; Myoung, B.; Stack, D.; Kafatos, M.

    2014-12-01

    As human population is projected to increase by 35% by 2050, agricultural production requires substantial growth compared to the current yield levels. In the coming decades, evaluating yield potential (Yp), the yield of a crop cultivar when grown without limitation of water and nutrients with effectively controlled pest and diseases change and solely determined by climate variables, is crucial to assess food security under climate change scenarios as it is directly connected to amount of exploitable yield. In this study, Yp is estimated and projected using regional climate models (RCM) and a process-based crop model over the Southwestern United States. High-resolution (8km grid spacing at the inner domain) climate variables are obtained using dynamical downscaling with two RCMs (WRF and OLAM) driven by boundary conditions from a GCM (GFDL-ESM2M) in the 5th phase of Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) archives. 20 years of the high-resolution and bias-corrected climate data from the two RCM runs (historical (1981-2000) and future (2031-2050)) are employed on the process-based crop model, Agricultural Production Systems sIMulator (ASPIM) to assess the climate change impact on maize Yp. The potential maize yield in the future period under the RCP8.5 greenhouse gas concentrations pathways shows that the yields are significantly changed when compared to the historical period. In the generally rising temperature regime, the projected Yp shows strong geospatial variations according to the regional climate characteristics in the high-resolution RCM projections.

  2. ANALYSIS OF ENTERPRISE MARKETING POTENTIAL

    OpenAIRE

    Krіvoruchko, О.; Pіpenko, I.

    2010-01-01

    Methodological fundamentals of enterprise marketing potential analysis have been devised on the basis of substantiation of the main activities, content, sequence and direction, means and methods of their implementation. The introduced fundamentals stipulate determining the changing level of marketing potential with time, ascertaining the influence of the structure of factors, which form them correspondence between an enterprise supply and demand of market entities considering the importance o...

  3. PATH COEFFICIENT ANALYSIS OF SEVERAL COMPONENTS OIL YIELD IN SUNFLOWER (HELIANTHUS ANNUUS L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. MIjić

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of investigation was to analyse oil yield components and their relations by simple coefficient correlations as well as direct and indirect effects to oil yield by path analysis. Twenty-four sunflower hybrids were included in the investigation and their seven traits (plant height, head diameter, 1000 seed weight, hec- tolitar mass, grain yield, oil content and oil yield. Very strong positive correlation was estimated between grain yield and oil yield, strong positive correlation between hectolitar mass and oil yield, and middle corre- lation among oil yield and: 1000 seed weight, plaint height and oil content. There was no correlation between grain yields and oil content. Grain yield showed the strongest effect to oil yield. Oil content had lower effect to oil yield. Other traits showed no significant effect to oil yield, and their effect to oil yield was covered by indirect effect of grain yield.

  4. Seed yield components and their potential interaction in grasses - to what extend does seed weigth influence yield?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boelt, B; Gislum, R

     In a first-year seed crop of red fescue (Festuca rubra L.) the degree of lodging was controlled by the use of Moddus (Trinexapac-ethyl). Seed weight was found to increase by the decreasing degree of lodging prior to harvest. The higher seed weights were accompanied by higher yields even though t...... yield loss during the harvest and post-harvest processes....... In a first-year seed crop of red fescue (Festuca rubra L.) the degree of lodging was controlled by the use of Moddus (Trinexapac-ethyl). Seed weight was found to increase by the decreasing degree of lodging prior to harvest. The higher seed weights were accompanied by higher yields even though the...

  5. Sequential Path Analysis for Determination of Relationship Between Yield and Yield Components in Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum.L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohtasham MOHAMMADI

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to evaluate 295 wheat genotypes in Alpha-Lattice design with two replications. The arithmetic mean and standard deviation of grain yield was 2706 and 950 (kg/ha,respectively. The results of correlation coefficients indicated that grain yield had significant and positive association with plant height, spike length, early growth vigor and agronomic score. Whereas there were negative correlation coefficients between grain yield and days to physiological maturity and canopy temperature before and during anthesis. Path analysis indicated agronomic score and plant height had high positive direct effects on grain yield, while canopy temperature before and during anthesis, and days to maturity, wes another trait having negative direct effect on grain yield. The results of sequential path analysis showed the traits that accounted as a criteria variable for high grain yield were agronomic score, plant height, canopy temperature, spike length, chlorophyll content and early growth vigor, which were determined as first, second and third order variables and had strong effects on grain yield via one or more paths. More important, as canopy temperature, agronomic score and early growth vigor can be evaluated quickly and easily, these traits may be used for evaluation of large populations.

  6. Introduction to production yield analysis : a new tool for improvement of raw material yield

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Somsen, D.; Capelle, A.

    2002-01-01

    Mass losses during processing will result in a decrease of production yield. Losses can be separated in wanted and unwanted losses. Wanted losses are necessary to transform raw material into desired final product(s). Unwanted losses will result in additional raw material usage and generate additiona

  7. Trait association and path coefficient analysis for yield and yield attributing traits in sesame (Sesamum indicum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Renuka Goudappagoudra, R. Lokesha, and A.R.G. Ranganatha

    2011-01-01

    Correlation and path coefficient analysis was performed in one hundred and twenty F4 families of sesame, during kharif, 2010 on ten quantitative traits: days to 50 per cent flowering, days to maturity, plant height, distance from ground to first capsule, number of branches per plant, number of capsules per plant, capsule length, number of seeds per capsule, 1000 seed weight and seed yield per plant. Seed yield per plant showed significant positive association with number of capsules, number o...

  8. Assessments of Maize Yield Potential in the Korean Peninsula Using Multiple Crop Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S. H.; Myoung, B.; Lim, C. H.; Lee, S. G.; Lee, W. K.; Kafatos, M.

    2015-12-01

    The Korean Peninsular has unique agricultural environments due to the differences in the political and socio-economical systems between the Republic of Korea (SK, hereafter) and the Democratic Peoples' Republic of Korea (NK, hereafter). NK has been suffering from the lack of food supplies caused by natural disasters, land degradation and failed political system. The neighboring developed country SK has a better agricultural system but very low food self-sufficiency rate (around 1% of maize). Maize is an important crop in both countries since it is staple food for NK and SK is No. 2 maize importing country in the world after Japan. Therefore evaluating maize yield potential (Yp) in the two distinct regions is essential to assess food security under climate change and variability. In this study, we have utilized multiple process-based crop models capable of regional-scale assessments to evaluate maize Yp over the Korean Peninsula - the GIS version of EPIC model (GEPIC) and APSIM model that can be expanded to regional scales (APSIM regions). First we evaluated model performance and skill for 20 years from 1991 to 2010 using reanalysis data (Local Data Assimilation and Prediction System (LDAPS); 1.5km resolution) and observed data. Each model's performances were compared over different regions within the Korean Peninsula of different regional climate characteristics. To quantify the major influence of individual climate variables, we also conducted a sensitivity test using 20 years of climatology. Lastly, a multi-model ensemble analysis was performed to reduce crop model uncertainties. The results will provide valuable information for estimating the climate change or variability impacts on Yp over the Korean Peninsula.

  9. Analysis of shape isomer yields of 237Pu in the framework of dynamical–statistical model

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hadi Eslamizadeh

    2012-02-01

    Data on shape isomer yield for + 235U reaction at $E^{\\text{lab}}$ = 20–29 MeV are analysed in the framework of a combined dynamical–statistical model. From this analysis, information on the double humped fission barrier parameters for some Pu isotopes has been obtained and it is shown that the depth of the second potential well should be less than the results of statistical model calculations.

  10. Rosemary Aromatization of Extra Virgin Olive Oil and Process Optimization Including Antioxidant Potential and Yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erkan Karacabey

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Aromatization of olive oil especially by spices and herbs has been widely used technique throughout the ages in Mediterranean diets. The present study was focused on aromatization of olive oil by rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.. Aromatization process was optimized by response surface methodology as a function of malaxation’s conditions (temperature and time. According to authors’ best knowledge it was first time for examination of oil yield performance with antioxidant potential and pigments under effect of aromatization parameters. For all oil samples, values of the free acidity, peroxide, K232 and K270 as quality parameters fell within the ranges established for the highest quality category “extra virgin oil”. Oil yield (mL oil/kg olive paste changed from 158 to 208 with respect to design parameters. Total phenolic content and free radical scavenging activity as antioxidant potential of olive oil samples were varied in the range of 182.44 – 348.65 mg gallic acid equivalent/kg oil and 28.91 – 88.75 % inhibition of 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl-(DPPH•, respectively. Total contents of carotenoid, chlorophyll and pheophytin a as pigments in oil samples were found to be in between 0.09 – 0.48 mg carotenoid/kg oil, 0.11 – 0.96 mg chlorophyll/kg oil, 0.15 – 4.44 mg pheo α/kg oil, respectively. The proposed models for yield, pigments and antioxidant potential responses were found to be good enough for successful prediction of experimental results. Total phenolics, carotenoids and free radical scavenging activity of aromatized olive oil and oil yield were maximized to gather and optimal conditions were determined as 25°C, 84 min, and 2 % (Rosemary/olive paste; w/w.

  11. Analysis on differential expressed genes of ovarian tissue between high- and low-yield laying hen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Song, Ling-Jun; Zeng, Yong-Qing; Yang, Yun; Wang, Hui

    2013-01-01

    In order to elucidate molecular genetic mechanism of laying hen reproduction at the transcriptional level and the structure of significantly differential genes, the mRNA differential display and reverse northern dot-blot were used to detect the differential expression of genes in the ovary tissue of low-yield laying hens and high-yield laying hens in the present study. Sixteen 32-week-old CAU-pink laying hens divided into two groups were used and the laying performance was measured. The results showed that only the egg numbers were significantly different between the two groups; and from 15 primer pairs, a total of 336 bands were displayed of which 59 cDNA bands were found to be differentially expressed in both high-yield and low-yield laying hen. The sequence analysis indicated that the expression of such bands as H-AP5, H-P5, and H-P4 was significantly potentiated in high-yield laying hen using primer pairs AP5/HT11G, P5/HT11G and P4/HT11G and these transcripts had high homology (98%) to HoxDb, HoxCa, and HoxBa, respectively. The differentially expressed gene fragments may be relevant to the progression of the high-yield hens to the egg-laying stage. And further study is required to elucidate the molecular function to improve the productivity of laying hens. PMID:23947664

  12. A study on correlation and path analysis for seed yield and yield components in sunflower [Helianthus annuus (L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M.Pandya, P.B.Patel, A.V. Narwade

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Correlation and path coefficient analysis was carried out in 40 genotypes of sunflower [Helianthus annuus (L.]. Association analysis between seed yield per plant and other 14 characters revealed that seed yield per plant showed highly significant and positive correlation with head diameter, number of seeds per capitula, number of filled seeds per capitula and 100 seed weight at both genotypic and phenotypic levels. These seed yield per plant also possessed positive association with days to maturity, stem diameter, number of leaves per plant, leaf area at flowering, plant height, oil content and vacant inner diameter. The characters days to 50 per cent flowering, days to initiation of flower and number of unfilled seeds per capitula exhibited negative correlation with seed yield per plant. Path analysis indicated that days to 50 per cent flowering had highest positive direct effect on seed yield per plant followed by number of leaves per plant. The character days to initiation of flower exhibited high negative direct effects.

  13. Yield constraint analysis of rainfed lowland rice in Souteast Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Boling, A.A.

    2007-01-01

    Keywords: Fertilizer application, field hydrology, plant nutrient uptake, toposequence, weed control, yield loss.   Rainfed lowland rice yields are low and unstable due to uncertain water supply, low soil fertility, and pest infestation. To design management interventions aimed at increasing rainfed rice production, the magnitude of and variation in yield gaps associated with various constraining factors need to be assessed. This study aimed at improved understanding of spatial and temporal v...

  14. Simulating potential growth and yield of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) with PALMSIM: Model description, evaluation and application.

    OpenAIRE

    Hoffmann, Maik; Castañeda Vera, Alba; Van Wijk, M. T.; Giller, K.E.; Oberthür, T.; Donough, C.; Whitbread, A.M.

    2014-01-01

    Reducing the gap between water-limited potential yield and actual yield in oil palm production systems through intensification is seen as an important option for sustainably increasing palm oil production. Simulation models can play an important role in quantifying water-limited potential yield, and therefore the scope for intensification, but no oil palm model exists that is both simple enough and at the same time incorporates sufficient plant physiological knowledge to be generally applicab...

  15. Stochastic Frontier Yield Function Analysis to Predict Returns to a New Crop: An Example of Camelina Sativa Yields Conditional on Local Factor Levels

    OpenAIRE

    Kotsiri, Sofia; Zering, Kelly D.; Mayer, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a model that calculates the probability distribution of camelina expected yields dependent on location-related variables such as precipitation, temperature, and solar radiation, as well as nitrogen rate and others. Camelina is an oilseed crop grown in cool climate with low input requirements including little water. The application to camelina addresses challenges in analysis of potential adoption of crops with limited field data. Our data include trials...

  16. COMBINING ABILITY ANALYSIS OF YIELD COMPONENTS IN CUCUMBER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Three U.S. adapted Cucumis sativus var. sativus L. lines and one C. sativus var. hardwickii (R.) Alef. derived line were mated in a half-diallel design to determine their relative combining for several yield-related traits (yield components). The resulting six F1 progenies were evaluated in a rando...

  17. Evaluation of the development and yielding potential of Chenopodium quinoa Willd. under the climatic conditions of Europe. Part Two: Yielding potential of Chenopodium quinoa under different conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Krzysztof Gęsiński

    2012-01-01

    The evaluation of Chenopodium quinoa cultivation effects in Poland has been compared with European research results. It was found that the conditions in Europe are favorable to Chenopodium quinoa cultivation. Poland has the mean length of the vegetation period. The maximum value of this trait was found in Sweden. The conditions in Bydgoszcz (Poland) are very favorable to the cultivation for green matter and favorable as far as the seed yield is concerned. The most favorable seed yield was rec...

  18. A clone of irradiated banana cultivar 'Williams' with high yield potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efforts to improve banana in the Sudan started effectively with three IAEA mutation breeding projects. The most common banana cultivar is 'Dwarf Cavendish', which covers almost 95% of the area under banana production. This cultivar is considered as the most adapted banana cultivar to different climatic conditions, but it is prone to 'choke throat' and has low yield potential. Banana cv. 'Williams' was irradiated at the IAEA/FAO laboratories, Seibersdorf, Austria. Based on preliminary evaluation of the material, 5 mutants (i.e. W193-3, W188-3, W205-4, W206-1 and W224-4) were selected as single plants and propagated by tissue culture. Multi-location testing was carried out for these mutants with cvs. 'Dwarf Cavendish' and 'Williams as standard cultivars in a randomized complete block design with 4 replications and 25 plants per replication. Spacing was 2 x 2 m (2500 plant per ha) and one sucker was retained. The bunch weight and cumulative yield of clone 193-3 were significantly higher than all banana genotypes. The high yield of clone W193-3 in the plant crop was due to the significantly higher number of hands per bunch and larger fingers. The plant height at shooting and pseudostem girth were significantly higher in clone W193-3. The stability parameters for bunch weight of the different clones showed that clone W193-3 was stable with high yield in all environments. Clone W193-3 was released as a new banana cultivar for farmers under the names 'Albeely'. (author)

  19. Bioenergy potential of Ulva lactuca: Biomass yield, methane production and combustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruhn, Annette; Dahl, Jonas; Bangsø Nielsen, Henrik;

    2011-01-01

    The biomass production potential at temperate latitudes (56°N), and the quality of the biomass for energy production (anaerobic digestion to methane and direct combustion) were investigated for the green macroalgae, Ulva lactuca. The algae were cultivated in a land based facility demonstrating a...... production potential of 45 T (TS) ha−1 y−1. Biogas production from fresh and macerated U. lactuca yielded up to 271 ml CH4 g−1 VS, which is in the range of the methane production from cattle manure and land based energy crops, such as grass-clover. Drying of the biomass resulted in a 5–9-fold increase in...... weight specific methane production compared to wet biomass. Ash and alkali contents are the main challenges in the use of U. lactuca for direct combustion. Application of a bio-refinery concept could increase the economical value of the U. lactuca biomass as well as improve its suitability for production...

  20. Genetic Analysis of Yield and Its Components of B. napus Hybrids Using Resynthesized Rapeseed Lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Yong-guo; XIAO Ling; LU Chang-ming

    2009-01-01

    Resynthesized rapeseeds obtained by crossing the diploid parents Brassica rapa and Brassica oleracea have significant potential in hybrid breeding because of their higher genetic basis compared with Brassica napus cultivars. In this study, an 8×8 complete diallel experiment using four B. Napus cultivars (BN) and four resynthesized rapeseed lines (RS) as parents was designed to study heterosis and genetic inheritance for yield components. The results showed that heterosis for yield per plant, the number of pods per plant and number of seeds per pod were high, with means 32.77, 24.49 and 15.71%, respectively. Diallel analysis showed that both additive and dominant effects were significant for yield and yield components. All traits, except for 1 000-seed weight, were significant for b1 mean squares and exhibited directional dominance. Dominant genes had positive effects on yield per plant, pods per plant and 1000-seed weight, and negative effects on seeds per pod (r=-0.86, -0.62, -0.41, and 0.47, respectively). Narrow-sense heritability for yield per plant, pods per plant, and 1 000-seed weight and seeds per pod were 66, 31, 46 and 78% for the four traits, respectively. The F1 hybrids showed considerable yields compared to B. Napus cultivars when B. Napus cultivars and resynthesized rapeseeds were used as parents (NR hybrids), with many more pods per plant and lower seeds per pod compared with the rapeseed cultivars, indicating that the resynthesized rapeseed may be applicable in current hybrid breeding programs.

  1. Impact of high/low flows on sediment-yield and hydropower potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunji Hydropower Project is a run-of-river hydropower project, with peaking reservoir, on Indus River near Gilgit. The study aimed at the impact of high/low flows on sediment-yield and hydropower potential of Bunji Hydropower project. The flows were divided into high-low flows, on the basis of sediment-yield. High-flow months include June to September, whereas low flows from October to May. Suspended sediment-yield for high/low flows was determined at Kachura sediment gauging station by sediment-rating curve method whereas bed load for high/low flows was determined with different bed load formulas. By adding both the loads, total sediment-yield for high/low flows was determined. Then this sediment-yield was transposed to Bunji Dam site. The bed material load is determined by three equations, England Hansen (1967) equation, Ackers- White (1973) equation and Yang's (1972) unit stream power. None of the equations satisfy the observed values of load. According to the location of gauging stations i.e. Kachura and Partab Bridge on Indus River and Alam Bridge on Gilgit River, the flows for Bunji dam site were determined. From these flows, power, peak/off-peak energy was computed. Benefits for power and energy were computed with specially designed worksheet (M.S. Excel). The river cross-sections and longitudinal profile of Indus River in the project-area, surveyed for pre-feasibility study, have been used for estimating trapped sediments, and amount of flushed material. The reservoir life was determined by M.A. Churchill (1948) method. The unsluiced Bunji reservoir life by actual trap-efficiency (40 percent) is 6 year, whereas by 50 percent trap efficiency (percentage of sand is 50 percent in suspended, sediment) it is 5 years. The sluiced reservoir life on the basis of 20 percent bed-load trap efficiency is 83 years. Delta profile in reservoir is provided on monthly basis for the two years of data i.e. year 1973 and 1994 by estimating the transport slope for zero bed

  2. Prediction of yield by digital image analysis of vine

    OpenAIRE

    Bešlić Zoran S.; Todić Slavica R.; Matijašević Saša M.

    2014-01-01

    The grape yield per vine of cv. Cabernet Sauvignon (Vitis vinifera L.) was evaluated on the basis of digital image processing of vine part. Digital camera was mounted on tripod and used for taking photos of 1 x 1 m portions of canopy. The Adobe Photoshop software was used to analyse image for the colour counting of the blue pixels of grape in the quadrant region. The actual yield was obtained from the photographed vines by hand harvesting of sampled portion...

  3. A global water supply reservoir yield model with uncertainty analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Understanding the reliability and uncertainty associated with water supply yields derived from surface water reservoirs is central for planning purposes. Using a global dataset of monthly river discharge, we introduce a generalized model for estimating the mean and variance of water supply yield, Y, expected from a reservoir for a prespecified reliability, R, and storage capacity, S assuming a flow record of length n. The generalized storage–reliability–yield (SRY) relationships reported here have numerous water resource applications ranging from preliminary water supply investigations, to economic and climate change impact assessments. An example indicates how our generalized SRY relationship can be combined with a hydroclimatic model to determine the impact of climate change on surface reservoir water supply yields. We also document that the variability of estimates of water supply yield are invariant to characteristics of the reservoir system, including its storage capacity and reliability. Standardized metrics of the variability of water supply yields are shown to depend only on the sample size of the inflows and the statistical characteristics of the inflow series. (paper)

  4. Evaluation of the development and yielding potential of Chenopodium quinoa Willd. under the climatic conditions of Europe. Part Two: Yielding potential of Chenopodium quinoa under different conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Gęsiński

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of Chenopodium quinoa cultivation effects in Poland has been compared with European research results. It was found that the conditions in Europe are favorable to Chenopodium quinoa cultivation. Poland has the mean length of the vegetation period. The maximum value of this trait was found in Sweden. The conditions in Bydgoszcz (Poland are very favorable to the cultivation for green matter and favorable as far as the seed yield is concerned. The most favorable seed yield was recorded in Greece.

  5. Trait association and path coefficient analysis for yield and yield attributing traits in sesame (Sesamum indicum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renuka Goudappagoudra, R. Lokesha, and A.R.G. Ranganatha

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Correlation and path coefficient analysis was performed in one hundred and twenty F4 families of sesame, during kharif, 2010 on ten quantitative traits: days to 50 per cent flowering, days to maturity, plant height, distance from ground to first capsule, number of branches per plant, number of capsules per plant, capsule length, number of seeds per capsule, 1000 seed weight and seed yield per plant. Seed yield per plant showed significant positive association with number of capsules, number of seeds, number of branches per plant, plant height and 1000 seed weight. The magnitude of correlation was the highest in case of number of capsules per plant(r=0.7302. Number of capsules per plant, number of seeds per capsule and 1000 seed weight had high and positive direct effect on seed yield. The indirect effect of number of capsules per plant via days to 50% flowering, plant height, number of branches per plant on seed yield was high and positive. Selection for these characters may be useful in increasing seed yield in sesame.

  6. Detection of two major grain yield QTL in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under heat, drought and high yield potential environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Dion; Reynolds, Matthew; Mullan, Daniel; Izanloo, Ali; Kuchel, Haydn; Langridge, Peter; Schnurbusch, Thorsten

    2012-11-01

    A large proportion of the worlds' wheat growing regions suffers water and/or heat stress at some stage during the crop growth cycle. With few exceptions, there has been no utilisation of managed environments to screen mapping populations under repeatable abiotic stress conditions, such as the facilities developed by the International Wheat and Maize Improvement Centre (CIMMYT). Through careful management of irrigation and sowing date over three consecutive seasons, repeatable heat, drought and high yield potential conditions were imposed on the RAC875/Kukri doubled haploid population to identify genetic loci for grain yield, yield components and key morpho-physiological traits under these conditions. Two of the detected quantitative trait loci (QTL) were located on chromosome 3B and had a large effect on canopy temperature and grain yield, accounting for up to 22 % of the variance for these traits. The locus on chromosome arm 3BL was detected under all three treatments but had its largest effect under the heat stress conditions, with the RAC875 allele increasing grain yield by 131 kg ha(-1) (or phenotypically, 7 % of treatment average). Only two of the eight yield QTL detected in the current study (including linkage groups 3A, 3D, 4D 5B and 7A) were previously detected in the RAC875/Kukri doubled haploid population; and there were also different yield components driving grain yield. A number of discussion points are raised to understand differences between the Mexican and southern Australian production environments and explain the lack of correlation between the datasets. The two key QTL detected on chromosome 3B in the present study are candidates for further genetic dissection and development of molecular markers. PMID:22772727

  7. BREEDING FOR IMPROVING THE SEED YIELD AND YIELD CONTRIBUTING TRAITS IN BRASSICA NAPUS L. BY USING LINE × TESTER ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shehzad A. Kang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to estimate genetic variation, GCA and SCA in Brassica napus genotypes {Star, Golarchi, Hybripol, UAF 2, BA 0714 (lines and Range, DGL, Ayub2000 (testers} for seed yield and yield components. These genotypes were crossed in 5×3 line×tester crossing fashon (2010-2011.  Data of F1 and their parents were recorded (2011-2012 for days taken to maturity, plant height, secondary branches/plant, number of siliqua/plant, number of seeds/siliqua, 1000-seed weight, seed yield/plant, protein and oil content. The results of analysis of variance showed significant differences in different parents for all the traits. Analysis of variance for combining ability for different traits showed that mean sum of squares due to lines were significant for all the traits except 1000-seed weight and protein content whereas for testers, the mean sum of squares were non-significant for seed yield/plant. Highly significant results were found in line×tester interaction for all above mentioned traits. The estimates of SCA variance was noticed higher than GCA variance in all traits. The contributions of lines as compared to testers were greater for all traits except 1000-seed weight and protein content.

  8. Sugar Beet (Beta vulgaris L. Yields and Potential for Bioethanol Production under Irrigation Regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona C. BÂRSAN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The current study was carried out to analyse three sugar beet genotypes regarding to the economic yield and the potential to produce bioethanol, under the influence of furrow irrigation regime in specific conditions of Transylvanian Plain, North-West Romania. The research factors, genotype (‘Leila’, ‘Clementina’ and ‘Libero’ and irrigation regime were studied within a polyfactorial experimental design. The results obtained indicated that in specific climatic conditions of Transylvanian Plain, ‘Libero’ genotype had a great performance and produced the highest yields. The average production of ‘Libero’ genotype was superior than ‘Clementina’ and ‘Leila’ varieties, both in irrigated and non-irrigated conditions, as it follows: 38.98 t ha–1, respectively, 52.72 t ha–1 in the first year of research; 47.63 t ha–1, respectively, 59.73 t ha–1 (in the second year; 2014-60.87 t ha–1, respectively, 74.43 t ha–1 (in the third year. Moreover, the production increased with 11.5% under irrigated conditions for all the studied genotypes. The results also revealed the positive influence of the irrigation regime on the qualitative parameters of the bioethanol (ethanol, higher saturated monoalcohols, methanol, water, inorganic chloride, cooper, phosphorous, sulphur etc. indicating that the obtained bioethanol might be a viable alternative for fossil fuels.

  9. Trend Analysis of Rice Area and Yield in Punjab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present paper to estimated the situation of rice regarding its area and yield in Punjab, the estimation is based on time series data from 1980 to 2011. On the basis of minimum errors of accuracy measure quadratic model was selected. The estimated results revealed that there is an increasing trend in the area and yield of rice in Punjab. The area of rice was 276800 ha in 2012 abd would be 2934280 ha in 2016. Likewise results about yield indicated that it was 2438kg ha/sup -1/ in 2012 and would be 2678kg ha/sup -1/ in 2016. This increasing trend will provide a great opportunity for rice export from the country. (author)

  10. Prediction of yield by digital image analysis of vine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bešlić Zoran S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The grape yield per vine of cv. Cabernet Sauvignon (Vitis vinifera L. was evaluated on the basis of digital image processing of vine part. Digital camera was mounted on tripod and used for taking photos of 1 x 1 m portions of canopy. The Adobe Photoshop software was used to analyse image for the colour counting of the blue pixels of grape in the quadrant region. The actual yield was obtained from the photographed vines by hand harvesting of sampled portions. Linear regression was used for calculation of the correlation between blue pixels and grape weight. The relatively strong relationship between blue pixels and grape weight (R2=0.91 was obtained. Based on these results, we can recommend this simple technique for yield forecasting. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TP31063

  11. Analysis of Sovereign Yield Spreads Behavior: The French Bonds Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandar Vasilev

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of the Euro has led to price level stability and fostered growth within the European Union. Consequently, since its launch as a store of value and unit of account, there has been a clear convergence between the yield of France’s sovereign debt and German benchmark. This paper tries to estimate the effect of certain macroeconomic fundamentals on the yield spread of French 10-year bonds, relative to the German Bund of the same maturity for the period January 1999-March 2003. It reaches the conclusion that staying in line with Maastricht criteria decreases the risk premium of external debt.

  12. Statistical Analysis of Large Simulated Yield Datasets for Studying Climate Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makowski, David; Asseng, Senthold; Ewert, Frank; Bassu, Simona; Durand, Jean-Louis; Martre, Pierre; Adam, Myriam; Aggarwal, Pramod K.; Angulo, Carlos; Baron, Chritian; Basso, Bruno; Bertuzzi, Patrick; Biemath, Christian; Boogaard, Hendrik; Boote, Kenneth J.; Brisson, Nadine; Cammarano, Davide; Challinor, Andrew J.; Conijn, Sjakk J. G.; Corbeels, Marc; Deryng, Delphine; De Sanctis, Giacomo; Doltra, Jordi; Gayler, Sebastian; Goldberg, Richard A.; Grassini, Patricio; Hatfield, Jerry L.; Heng, Lee; Hoek, Steven; Hooker, Josh; Hunt, Tony L. A.; Ingwersen, Joachim; Izaurralde, Cesar; Jongschaap, Raymond E. E.; Rosenzweig, Cynthia

    2015-01-01

    Many studies have been carried out during the last decade to study the effect of climate change on crop yields and other key crop characteristics. In these studies, one or several crop models were used to simulate crop growth and development for different climate scenarios that correspond to different projections of atmospheric CO2 concentration, temperature, and rainfall changes (Semenov et al., 1996; Tubiello and Ewert, 2002; White et al., 2011). The Agricultural Model Intercomparison and Improvement Project (AgMIP; Rosenzweig et al., 2013) builds on these studies with the goal of using an ensemble of multiple crop models in order to assess effects of climate change scenarios for several crops in contrasting environments. These studies generate large datasets, including thousands of simulated crop yield data. They include series of yield values obtained by combining several crop models with different climate scenarios that are defined by several climatic variables (temperature, CO2, rainfall, etc.). Such datasets potentially provide useful information on the possible effects of different climate change scenarios on crop yields. However, it is sometimes difficult to analyze these datasets and to summarize them in a useful way due to their structural complexity; simulated yield data can differ among contrasting climate scenarios, sites, and crop models. Another issue is that it is not straightforward to extrapolate the results obtained for the scenarios to alternative climate change scenarios not initially included in the simulation protocols. Additional dynamic crop model simulations for new climate change scenarios are an option but this approach is costly, especially when a large number of crop models are used to generate the simulated data, as in AgMIP. Statistical models have been used to analyze responses of measured yield data to climate variables in past studies (Lobell et al., 2011), but the use of a statistical model to analyze yields simulated by complex

  13. Simulated potential and water-limited yields of cocoa under different agro-ecological zones in Peninsular Malaysia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zabawi, A.G.M.; Gerritsma, W.

    2009-01-01

    The yield of cocoa under potential and water-limited production levels in different agro-ecological zones was simulated using cocoa model CASE2. For both production levels, the yield was simulated using five years of elirnatic data (1991-1995) and plant data of three-year-old plant. The results show

  14. Diallel analysis of yield and quality traits of melon fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Katherine de Araújo Barros

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to estimate the general and specific combining ability of melon hybrids to identify thebest combinations. Six parents and their respective hybrids were evaluated in a complete randomized block design with threereplications. The following traits were assessed: total number of fruits, average fruit weight, yield, longitudinal diameter, transversaldiameter, flesh thickness, internal cavity size, flesh firmness, and soluble solids. The traits total fruit number, yield, flesh firmnessand soluble solids content are controlled by additive and non-additive effects, while average fruit weight, longitudinal diameter, fleshthickness, internal cavity size are controlled by additive effects. The most appropriate crosses for breeding of Cantaloupe, Honeydew, Piel del sapo, Meloa and Amarelo melon are, respectively: Gold Mine x Hy Mark, AF-646 x AF-1749, Meloa x Rochedo andAF-646 x Rochedo.

  15. Diversity of cacao trees in Waslala, Nicaragua: associations between genotype spectra, product quality and yield potential.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bodo Trognitz

    Full Text Available The sensory quality and the contents of quality-determining chemical compounds in unfermented and fermented cocoa from 100 cacao trees (individual genotypes representing groups of nine genotype spectra (GG, grown at smallholder plantings in the municipality of Waslala, Nicaragua, were evaluated for two successive harvest periods. Cocoa samples were fermented using a technique mimicking recommended on-farm practices. The sensory cocoa quality was assessed by experienced tasters, and seven major chemical taste compounds were quantified by near infrared spectrometry (NIRS. The association of the nine, partially admixed, genotype spectra with the analytical and sensory quality parameters was tested. The individual parameters were analyzed as a function of the factors GG and harvest (including the date of fermentation, individual trees within a single GG were used as replications. In fermented cocoa, significant GG-specific differences were observed for methylxanthines, theobromine-to-caffeine (T/C ratio, total fat, procyanidin B5 and epicatechin, as well as the sensory attributes global score, astringency, and dry fruit aroma, but differences related to harvest were also apparent. The potential cocoa yield was also highly determined by the individual GG, although there was significant tree-to-tree variation within every single GG. Non-fermented samples showed large harvest-to-harvest variation of their chemical composition, while differences between GG were insignificant. These results suggest that selection by the genetic background, represented here by groups of partially admixed genotype spectra, would be a useful strategy toward enhancing quality and yield of cocoa in Nicaragua. Selection by the GG within the local, genetically segregating populations of seed-propagated cacao, followed by clonal propagation of best-performing individuals of the selected GG could be a viable alternative to traditional propagation of cacao by seed from open

  16. Buffalos milk yield analysis using random regression models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S. Schierholt

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Data comprising 1,719 milk yield records from 357 females (predominantly Murrah breed, daughters of 110 sires, with births from 1974 to 2004, obtained from the Programa de Melhoramento Genético de Bubalinos (PROMEBUL and from records of EMBRAPA Amazônia Oriental - EAO herd, located in Belém, Pará, Brazil, were used to compare random regression models for estimating variance components and predicting breeding values of the sires. The data were analyzed by different models using the Legendre’s polynomial functions from second to fourth orders. The random regression models included the effects of herd-year, month of parity date of the control; regression coefficients for age of females (in order to describe the fixed part of the lactation curve and random regression coefficients related to the direct genetic and permanent environment effects. The comparisons among the models were based on the Akaike Infromation Criterion. The random effects regression model using third order Legendre’s polynomials with four classes of the environmental effect were the one that best described the additive genetic variation in milk yield. The heritability estimates varied from 0.08 to 0.40. The genetic correlation between milk yields in younger ages was close to the unit, but in older ages it was low.

  17. Search for the Higgs Boson in the H{yields} ZZ{sup (*)}{yields}4{mu} Channel in CMS Using a Multivariate Analysis; Busqueda del Boson de Higgs en el Canal H{yields} ZZ{sup (*)}{yields}4{mu} en CMS Empleando un Metodo de Analisis Multivariado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso Diaz, A.

    2007-12-28

    This note presents a Higgs boson search analysis in the CMS detector of the LHC accelerator (CERN, Geneva, Switzerland) in the H{yields} ZZ{sup (*)}{yields}4{mu} channel, using a multivariate method. This analysis, based in a Higgs boson mass dependent likelihood, constructed from discriminant variables, provides a significant improvement of the Higgs boson discovery potential in a wide mass range with respect to the official analysis published by CMS, based in orthogonal cuts independent of the Higgs boson mass. (Author) 8 refs.

  18. Genetic analysis for yield and its components in okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L. Moench

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konda Chandrasekhar Reddy4

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Combining ability variances and effects of yield and its components in okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L. Moenchwere studied through half diallel analysis of 45 F1 hybrids derived by crossing 10 nearly homozygous germplasm lines namelyP1(IC282248, P2(IC27826-A, P3(IC29119-B, P4(IC31398-A, P5(IC45732, P6(IC89819, P7(IC89976, P8(IC90107, P9(IC99716 andP10(IC111443 during mid kharif (July-October, 2009, at the Vegetable Research Station, Rajendranagar, Andhra Pradesh,India. Both additive and non-additive variances were important for a majority of the characters except plant height, fruit andshoot borer infestation on fruits and shoots and yellow vein mosaic virus infestation on plants. Genetic analysis revealed apreponderance of non-additive gene action for plant height, internodal length, days to 50% flowering, first flowering andfruiting node, fruit length and weight, total number of fruits and number of marketable fruits per plant, total yield and marketableyield per plant and yellow vein mosaic virus infestation on fruits and plants and a preponderance of additive gene actionfor number of branches per plant and fruit and shoot borer infestation on fruits and shoots. The parents P5(IC45732, P6(IC89819 and P7(IC89976 were high general combiners for total and marketable yield per plant and their associated traits,which could be exploited for developing prolific pure line varieties of okra. The crosses C23(IC29119-B × IC99716, C17(IC27826-A × IC111443, C42(IC89976 × IC111443 were superior specific combiners for total and marketable yield per plant withthe potential of being commercially exploited for the production of F1 hybrids. The cross combinations C42 (IC89976 × IC111443 and (IC27826-A × IC89819 having one of the parents with positively significant general combining ability effects fortotal yield and marketable yield per plant could be utilized in recombination breeding with single plant selection in the passinggenerations to capitalize

  19. Theoretical characterization of the potential energy surface for H + O2 yields HO2(asterisk) yields HO + O. II - The potential for H atom exchange in HO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walch, Stephen P.; Rohlfing, Celeste Mcmichael

    1989-01-01

    The results of CASSCF multireference contracted CI calculations with large ANO basis sets are presented for the exchange region of the HO2 potential-energy surface. The saddle point for H atom exchange is about 13 kcal/mol below the energy of H + O2; therefore, this region of the surface should be accessible during H + O2 recombination and methathesis reactions.

  20. Utilisation of carbon isotope discrimination in the genetic improvement of drought tolerance and yield potential in wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Improvement of drought tolerance in cereals is an important aim for cereal breeders. Drought tolerance related traits have been extensively described in cereals. Their study, however, is based on instantaneous measurements (e.g., gas exchange, fluorescence or water status parameters) which association with yield highly depends on the environmental conditions at the moment of assessment. Realizing these measurements on high numbers of plants, what is a prerequisite for genetic or molecular studies, is tedious and often unrealistic. As a consequence, little is known about the genetics of these traits, and they are not used or even taken into serious consideration in breeding programs. The emergence of isotopic methods may substantially modify the situation. The tremendous advantages of this criterion in breeding programs are related to i) its integrative value, ii) its low genotype x environment interactions and high heritability values, and iii) the easiness of sample preparation and automatization of isotopic analysis. Researches carried out at ENSA-INRA Montpellier (1993-2000) have essentially concerned durum wheat adaptation to Mediterranean conditions. They were carried out in closed collaboration with the CIMMYT/ICARDA Durum Wheat Program and breeding programs of Algeria, Tunisia and Yemen. Studies realized at CIMMYT mainly concerned yield potential and bread wheat

  1. Heat tolerance around flowering in wheat identified as a key trait for increased yield potential in Europe under climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratonovitch, Pierre; Semenov, Mikhail A

    2015-06-01

    To deliver food security for the 9 billon population in 2050, a 70% increase in world food supply will be required. Projected climatic and environmental changes emphasize the need for breeding strategies that delivers both a substantial increase in yield potential and resilience to extreme weather events such as heat waves, late frost, and drought. Heat stress around sensitive stages of wheat development has been identified as a possible threat to wheat production in Europe. However, no estimates have been made to assess yield losses due to increased frequency and magnitude of heat stress under climate change. Using existing experimental data, the Sirius wheat model was refined by incorporating the effects of extreme temperature during flowering and grain filling on accelerated leaf senescence, grain number, and grain weight. This allowed us, for the first time, to quantify yield losses resulting from heat stress under climate change. The model was used to optimize wheat ideotypes for CMIP5-based climate scenarios for 2050 at six sites in Europe with diverse climates. The yield potential for heat-tolerant ideotypes can be substantially increased in the future (e.g. by 80% at Seville, 100% at Debrecen) compared with the current cultivars by selecting an optimal combination of wheat traits, e.g. optimal phenology and extended duration of grain filling. However, at two sites, Seville and Debrecen, the grain yields of heat-sensitive ideotypes were substantially lower (by 54% and 16%) and more variable compared with heat-tolerant ideotypes, because the extended grain filling required for the increased yield potential was in conflict with episodes of high temperature during flowering and grain filling. Despite much earlier flowering at these sites, the risk of heat stress affecting yields of heat-sensitive ideotypes remained high. Therefore, heat tolerance in wheat is likely to become a key trait for increased yield potential and yield stability in southern Europe in the

  2. Winter sowing of adapted lines as a potential yield increase strategy in lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abel Barrios

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Lentil (Lens culinaris Medik. subsp. culinaris is a traditional crop in Spain although current grain yield in Spain is relatively low and unstable. The effect of an early sowing date (winter sowing on yield in the Spanish Central Plateau (meseta was analyzed comparing it to the traditional spring sowing. Yield from eleven cultivars currently available for sowing in Spain and two F6:7  populations of recombinant inbred lines (RIL, ´Precoz´ × ´WA8649041´ (89 lines and ´BGE016365´ × ´ILL1918´ (118 lines, was evaluated in winter and spring sowing dates for three seasons (2005/06, 2006/07 and 2007/08 and two localities. Yield and stability were assessed by the method of consistency of performance with some modifications. When comparing with the best currently available cultivars sown in the traditional spring sowing date, (with an estimated average yield of 43.9 g/m in our experimental conditions, winter sowing using adapted breeding lines proved to be a suitable strategy for increasing lentil yield and yield stability in the Spanish meseta, with an average yield increase of 111% (reaching an estimated yield of 92.8 g/m. Results point to that lentil production can greatly increase in the Spanish meseta if adequate plant materials, such as some of the lines analyzed, are sown at late fall.

  3. Potential yields and properties of oil from the hydrothermal liquefaction of microalgae with different biochemical content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biller, P; Ross, A B

    2011-01-01

    A range of model biochemical components, microalgae and cyanobacteria with different biochemical contents have been liquefied under hydrothermal conditions at 350 °C, ∼200 bar in water, 1M Na(2)CO(3) and 1M formic acid. The model compounds include albumin and a soya protein, starch and glucose, the triglyceride from sunflower oil and two amino acids. Microalgae include Chlorella vulgaris,Nannochloropsis occulata and Porphyridium cruentum and the cyanobacteria Spirulina. The yields and product distribution obtained for each model compound have been used to predict the behaviour of microalgae with different biochemical composition and have been validated using microalgae and cyanobacteria. Broad agreement is reached between predictive yields and actual yields for the microalgae based on their biochemical composition. The yields of bio-crude are 5-25 wt.% higher than the lipid content of the algae depending upon biochemical composition. The yields of bio-crude follow the trend lipids>proteins>carbohydrates. PMID:20599375

  4. The impact of inocula carryover and inoculum dilution on the methane yields in batch methane potential tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Matthew; Dinsdale, Richard; Guwy, Alan

    2016-05-01

    Batch studies are used to benchmark biohydrogen potential (BHP) and biomethane potential (BMP) yields from feed substrates, digestates residues and different process configurations. This study shows that BMP yields using cellulose can be biased positively by not diluting the initial sewage sludge inoculum and the bias is independent of starting inoculum volatile solids (VS) concentration. The carryover of BHP inoculum also increased the BMP yields when using cellulose as a substrate by up to 18.8%. Furthermore it was also observed that the dilution of BMP inoculum with deionised H2O reduced methane yields from cellulose by up to 132±26 N mL-CH4 g-VS(-1). Therefore it is proposed that inoculum and standard substrate controls (as used in this study) should be included in methane batch methodologies, particularly when using a pre-fermentation stage such as dark fermentation. PMID:26938808

  5. Biomethane yield of energy crops and prediction of their biochemical methane potential (BMP) with near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS)

    OpenAIRE

    Mayer, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion process produces biomethane as a renewable energy source. To optimize the energy production, energy crops with a high biomethane yield per hectare should be identified. A large number of samples of maize, tall fescue, sorghum, spelt, miscanthus, immature rye, switchgrass, sunflower and hemp was cropped. The fresh biomass yield per hectare, the volatile solid (VS) content, the biochemical composition and the biochemical methane potential (BMP) were measured. Maize (annual p...

  6. Effects of ecological and conventional agricultural intensification practices on maize yields in sub-Saharan Africa under potential climate change

    OpenAIRE

    Folberth, C.; Yang, H.; Gaiser, T.; Liu, J; X. Wang; Williams, J.; Schulin, R.

    2014-01-01

    Much of Africa is among the world's regions with lowest yields in staple food crops, and climate change is expected to make it more difficult to catch up in crop production in particular in the long run. Various agronomic measures have been proposed for lifting agricultural production in Africa and to adapt it to climate change. Here, we present a projection of potential climate change impacts on maize yields under different intensification options in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) using an agronom...

  7. Improved propene yields from catalytic cracking. The potential of medium-pore zeolites as additives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bager, Florian; Nieves Lopez Salas, Maria de las; Ernst, Stefan [Kaiserslautern Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Chemistry, Chemical Technology

    2012-06-15

    Light olefins, especially ethene and propene, are important building blocks in the petrochemical industry. Today, the major part of propene is produced via steam cracking and, to a smaller extent, obtained as a by-product from fluid catalytic cracking (FCC). The standard catalyst in the FCC process still is zeolite Y, but zeolite ZSM-5 is used since many years as an additive to increase the yield of light olefins, especially of propene. The aim of our study is to investigate the potential of medium-pore zeolites different from ZSM-5 as additives for FCC catalysts. Therefore, a series of ten-membered ring zeolites, viz. ZSM-22 (TON), ZSM-23 (MTT), EU-1 (EUO) and ZSM-5 (MFI) as reference material were synthesized under hydrothermal conditions and modified by ion exchange to obtain the Broensted-acid forms. The activity and selectivity of these catalysts in the catalytic cracking of n-octane as a model hydrocarbon were studied in a continuously operated fixed-bed flow-type reactor. The obtained results clearly demonstrate the effect of the pore architecture on the n-octane conversion and the product distribution. Compared with the three-dimensional zeolite ZSM-5, both one-dimensional zeolites lacking any intracrystalline cavities, viz. ZSM-22 and ZSM-23, exhibit a remarkable increase of monomolecular cracking, resulting in an increasing selectivity to unsaturated products. Introducing large cavities in the pore system, i. e. as in the case of zeolite EU-1, enhances the conversion in particular at lower reaction temperatures. However, these large cavities offer more space for the formation of large transition states required for the classical bimolecular cracking mechanism. As a result, a decreasing selectivity to olefins(including propene) and an increasing amount of aromatics is observed. (orig.)

  8. Effects of land cover change on moisture availability and potential crop yield in the world’s breadbaskets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The majority of the world’s food production capability is inextricably tied to global precipitation patterns. Changes in moisture availability—whether from changes in climate from anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions or those induced by land cover change (LCC)—can have profound impacts on food production. In this study, we examined the patterns of evaporative sources that contribute to moisture availability over five major global food producing regions (breadbaskets), and the potential for land cover change to influence these moisture sources by altering surface evapotranspiration. For a range of LCC scenarios we estimated the impact of altered surface fluxes on crop moisture availability and potential yield using a simplified linear hydrologic model and a state-of-the-art ecosystem and crop model. All the breadbasket regions were found to be susceptible to reductions in moisture owing to perturbations in evaporative source (ES) from LCC, with reductions in moisture availability ranging from 7 to 17% leading to potential crop yield reductions of 1–17%, which are magnitudes comparable to the changes anticipated with greenhouse warming. The sensitivity of these reductions in potential crop yield to varying magnitudes of LCC was not consistent among regions. Two variables explained most of these differences: the first was the magnitude of the potential moisture availability change, with regions exhibiting greater reductions in moisture availability also tending to exhibit greater changes in potential yield; the second was the soil moisture within crop root zones. Regions with mean growing season soil moisture fractions of saturation >0.5 typically had reduced impacts on potential crop yield. Our results indicate the existence of LCC thresholds that have the capability to create moisture shortages adversely affecting crop yields in major food producing regions, which could lead to future food supply disruptions in the absence of increased irrigation or other

  9. Variation of Potential Yield of Hybrid Population of Robusta coffee (Coffea canepor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novie Pranata Erdiansyah

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The low yield of Robusta coffee in Indonesia may be due to the use of planting materials derived from seeds. The research objective was to determine the variation of Robusta coffee yield wich local propagated by using seeds. The study was conducted in Kaliwining experimental Station of ICCRI (Indonesian Coffee andCocoa Research Institute. There were two populations observed. Number of progeny used in this study were 186 genotypes consisting of two groups from crossesBP 409 x Q 121 with 89 progenies and BP 961 x BP 409 with 81 progenies. The results showed that planting materials from seeds exhibit properties mixed results.Progeny that have the best results (yield more than 2 ton/ha not more than 5% of the total population. In both populations there is a big difference between the progenythat has high and low yield. Highest yield B population could reach 2,500 kg/ha and the C population reached 2,200 kg/ha. The lowest yield can only produce coffee270 kg/ha in populations B and 120 kg/ha in population C.Key words: Coffea canephora, hybrid, variation, yield

  10. Effects of climate change on yield potential of wheat and maize crops in the European Union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolf, J. [Department of Theoretical Production Ecology, Wageningen Agricultural University, Wageningen (Netherlands); Van Diepen, C.A. [DLO the Winand Staring Centre, Wageningen (Netherlands)

    1995-12-31

    Yields of winter wheat, silage maize and grain maize in the main arable areas of the European Union (EU) were calculated with a simulation model, WOFOST, using historical weather data and average soil characteristics. The sensitivity of the model to individual weather variables was determined. Subsequent analyses were made using climate change scenarios with and without the direct effects of increased atmospheric CO{sub 2}. The impact of crop management in a changed climate was also assessed. The various climate change scenarios used appear to yield considerably different changes in yield, both for each location and for the EU as a whole. 4 figs., 2 tabs., 6 refs.

  11. Yield Potential of Soil Water and Its Sustainability for Dryland Spring Maize with Plastic Film Mulch on the Loess Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wen; Liu, Wenzhao

    2016-04-01

    Plastic film mulch(PM) is an agronomic measure widely used in the dryland spring maize production system on the Loess Plateau of China. The measure can greatly increase yield of dryland maize due to its significant effects on soil water conservation. Few researches have been done to investigate how the yield potential is impacted by PM. The yield-water use (ET) boundary equation raised by French and Schultz provides a simple approach to calculate crop water limited yield potential and gives a benchmark for farmers in managing their crops. However, method used in building the equation is somewhat arbitrary and has no strict principle, which leads to the uncertainty of equation when it is applied. Though using PM can increase crop yield, it increases soil temperature, promotes crop growth and increases the water transpired by crop, which further leads to high water consumption as compared with crops without PM. This means that PM may lead to the overuse of soil water and hence is unsustainable in a long run. This research is mainly focused on the yield potential and sustainability of PMing for spring maize on the Loess Plateau. A principle that may be utilized by any other researchers was proposed based on French & Schultz's boundary equation and on part of quantile regression theory. We used a data set built by collecting the experimental data from published papers and analyzed the water-limited yield potential of spring maize on the Loess Plateau. Moreover, maize yield and soil water dynamics under PM were investigated by a long-term site field experiment. Results show that on the Loess Plateau, the water limited yield potential can be calculated using the boundary equation y = 60.5×(x - 50), with a platform yield of 15954 kghm-2 after the water use exceeds 314 mm. Without PMing, the water limited yield potential can be estimated by the boundary equation y = 47.5×(x - 62.3) , with a platform yield of 12840 kghm-2 when the water use exceeds 325 mm, which

  12. Sputtering yield calculations using an interatomic potential with the shell effect and a new local model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to test the availability of theoretical screening lengths and a new local electronic energy loss model proposed by Yamamura et al., the sputtering yields due to various ion impacts on monatomic materials were calculated with the ACAT code. It is found that the calculated sputtering yields at normal incidence are in good agreement with experimental data and the Yamamura's empirical sputtering formula without free parameters. (author)

  13. Dependency of global primary bioenergy crop potentials in 2050 on food systems, yields, biodiversity conservation and political stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The future bioenergy crop potential depends on (1) changes in the food system (food demand, agricultural technology), (2) political stability and investment security, (3) biodiversity conservation, (4) avoidance of long carbon payback times from deforestation, and (5) energy crop yields. Using a biophysical biomass-balance model, we analyze how these factors affect global primary bioenergy potentials in 2050. The model calculates biomass supply and demand balances for eleven world regions, eleven food categories, seven food crop types and two livestock categories, integrating agricultural forecasts and scenarios with a consistent global land use and NPP database. The TREND scenario results in a global primary bioenergy potential of 77 EJ/yr, alternative assumptions on food-system changes result in a range of 26–141 EJ/yr. Exclusion of areas for biodiversity conservation and inaccessible land in failed states reduces the bioenergy potential by up to 45%. Optimistic assumptions on future energy crop yields increase the potential by up to 48%, while pessimistic assumptions lower the potential by 26%. We conclude that the design of sustainable bioenergy crop production policies needs to resolve difficult trade-offs such as food vs. energy supply, renewable energy vs. biodiversity conservation or yield growth vs. reduction of environmental problems of intensive agriculture. - Highlights: ► Global energy crop potentials in 2050 are calculated with a biophysical biomass-balance model. ► The study is focused on dedicated energy crops, forestry and residues are excluded. ► Depending on food-system change, global energy crop potentials range from 26–141 EJ/yr. ► Exclusion of protected areas and failed states may reduce the potential up to 45%. ► The bioenergy potential may be 26% lower or 45% higher, depending on energy crop yields.

  14. Heterogeneous global crop yield response to biochar: a meta-regression analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane-Droesch, Andrew; Abiven, Samuel; Jeffery, Simon; Torn, Margaret S.

    2013-12-01

    Biochar may contribute to climate change mitigation at negative cost by sequestering photosynthetically fixed carbon in soil while increasing crop yields. The magnitude of biochar’s potential in this regard will depend on crop yield benefits, which have not been well-characterized across different soils and biochars. Using data from 84 studies, we employ meta-analytical, missing data, and semiparametric statistical methods to explain heterogeneity in crop yield responses across different soils, biochars, and agricultural management factors, and then estimate potential changes in yield across different soil environments globally. We find that soil cation exchange capacity and organic carbon were strong predictors of yield response, with low cation exchange and low carbon associated with positive response. We also find that yield response increases over time since initial application, compared to non-biochar controls. High reported soil clay content and low soil pH were weaker predictors of higher yield response. No biochar parameters in our dataset—biochar pH, percentage carbon content, or temperature of pyrolysis—were significant predictors of yield impacts. Projecting our fitted model onto a global soil database, we find the largest potential increases in areas with highly weathered soils, such as those characterizing much of the humid tropics. Richer soils characterizing much of the world’s important agricultural areas appear to be less likely to benefit from biochar.

  15. Heterogeneous global crop yield response to biochar: a meta-regression analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biochar may contribute to climate change mitigation at negative cost by sequestering photosynthetically fixed carbon in soil while increasing crop yields. The magnitude of biochar’s potential in this regard will depend on crop yield benefits, which have not been well-characterized across different soils and biochars. Using data from 84 studies, we employ meta-analytical, missing data, and semiparametric statistical methods to explain heterogeneity in crop yield responses across different soils, biochars, and agricultural management factors, and then estimate potential changes in yield across different soil environments globally. We find that soil cation exchange capacity and organic carbon were strong predictors of yield response, with low cation exchange and low carbon associated with positive response. We also find that yield response increases over time since initial application, compared to non-biochar controls. High reported soil clay content and low soil pH were weaker predictors of higher yield response. No biochar parameters in our dataset—biochar pH, percentage carbon content, or temperature of pyrolysis—were significant predictors of yield impacts. Projecting our fitted model onto a global soil database, we find the largest potential increases in areas with highly weathered soils, such as those characterizing much of the humid tropics. Richer soils characterizing much of the world’s important agricultural areas appear to be less likely to benefit from biochar. (letter)

  16. Variation of Potential Yield of Hybrid Population of Robusta coffee (Coffea canepor

    OpenAIRE

    Novie Pranata Erdiansyah; Ucu Sumirat; Priyono -

    2014-01-01

    The low yield of Robusta coffee in Indonesia may be due to the use of planting materials derived from seeds. The research objective was to determine the variation of Robusta coffee yield wich local propagated by using seeds. The study was conducted in Kaliwining experimental Station of ICCRI (Indonesian Coffee andCocoa Research Institute). There were two populations observed. Number of progeny used in this study were 186 genotypes consisting of two groups from crossesBP 409 x Q 121 with 89 pr...

  17. Registration of N6202 soybean germplasm with high protein, good yield potential, large seed and diverse pedigree

    Science.gov (United States)

    ‘N6202’ soybean [Glycine max (L.,) Merr.] was cooperatively developed and released by the USDA-ARS and the North Carolina Agricultural Research Service in 2009 as a Maturity Group VI germplasm with high-protein seed, good yield potential, large-seed size, and diverse pedigree. The unusual combinati...

  18. Optimal fertilizer N rates and yield-scaled global warming potential in drill seeded rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drill seeded rice (Oryza sativa L.) is the dominant rice cultivation practice in the USA. Although drill seeded systems can lead to significant methane and nitrous oxide emissions due to the presence of both anaerobic and aerobic soil conditions, the relationship between high-yielding management pr...

  19. Groundwater Level Effect on Redox Potential, on Cadmium Uptake and Yield of Soybean

    OpenAIRE

    Md. Zahidul Haque; Choichi Sasaki; Nobuhiko Matsuyama; Takeyuki Annaka; Chihiro Kato

    2014-01-01

    In this greenhouse experiment, we investigated the effects of two constant groundwater levels: 10 cm groundwater level (GW-10) and 40 cm groundwater level (GW-40) and one change groundwater level, which was 40-10-40 cm (GW-40-10-40) on Cadmium (Cd) uptake and seed yield of Soybean plant in Cd contaminated soils (1.57 mg·

  20. Stand establishment and yield potential of organically grown seeded and transplanted medicinal herbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field studies were conducted at Las Cruces, N.M., and Alcalde, N.M., to compare direct seeding to transplanting for stand establishment and yield estimates of calendula (Calendula officinalis L.), catnip (Nepeta cataria L.), lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.), stinging nettles (Urtica dioica L.), a...

  1. Biomass and biomass and biogas yielding potential of sorghum as affected by planting density, sowing time and cultivar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biogas from biomass is a promising renewable energy source whose importance is increasing in European as well as in other countries. A field experiment at one location (Experimental Station Giessen, Justus Liebig University of Giessen, Germany) over two years was designed to study the effect of altering sowing time (ST), planting density and cultivar on the biomass yield and chemical composition of biomass sorghum, and its potential for methane production. Of the two cultivars tested, cv. Goliath (intraspecific hybrid) was more productive with respect to biomass yield than cv. Bovital (S. bicolor x S. sudanense hybrid). ST also influenced biomass yield and most of the quality parameters measured. Delayed sowing was in general advantageous. The choice of cultivar had a marked effect on biogas and methane yield. The highest biogas and methane yields were produced by late sown cv. Bovital. Sub-optimal planting densities limited biomass accumulation of the crop, however neither the chemical composition nor the methane yield was affected by planting density. (author)

  2. Using Soil Plant Analysis Development Chlorophyll Meter for Two Growth Stages to Assess Grain Yield of Malaysian Rice (Oryza sativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asa Gholizadeh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Proper yield management in rice influences grain quality and quantity. Nitrogen site-specific management is also effective on final product of crops because excessive nitrogen application at any growth stage can reduce yield and increase disease incidence. In contrast, suboptimal nitrogen levels at discrete growth stages may substantially reduce plant productivity. The nitrogen status at specific growth stages may be used for estimating supplemental nitrogen requirements and yield potential. The SPAD chlorophyll meter is a quick and non-destructive tool used for directly measuring leaf chlorophyll and indirectly assessing the proportional parameter of leaf, plant nitrogen status and finally, grain yield. Approach: Describing within-field variability in a typical Malaysian paddy field was conducted to show the temporal variability of SPAD readings and also grain yield. Furthermore, the study aimed to introduce the rice growth stage which SPAD readings show higher relationship with grain yield. SPAD readings data was collected at two different growth stages (55 DAT and 80 DAT using a Minolta SPAD 502. Grain yield was then collected at the end of the season to compare results with SPAD values. Results: Analysis of variance, variogram and kriging were conducted to determine the variability of parameters and also their relationship. Conclusion: Variability maps of the aforementioned parameters were generated. Increasing of SPAD values with growth stage could be observed in this study. SPAD readings taken at 55 DAT had a better relationship to grain yield than those taken at 80 DAT; therefore assessment of grain yield status is better to be done at 55 DAT.

  3. Expressão do potencial de rendimento de cultivares de soja Yield potential expression of soybean genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Motta Navarro Júnior

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available A soja possui alto potencial de rendimento de grãos, mas em virtude da interação genótipo vs. ambiente esse potencial não é verificado em sua totalidade. Utilizando-se seis genótipos de soja de diferentes ciclos, objetivou-se estudar a expressão do potencial de rendimento de grãos e quantificá-lo durante a ontogenia. O experimento foi conduzido no ano agrícola 1996/97 na Estação Experimental Agronômica da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Eldorado do Sul, RS. As avaliações foram realizadas em plantas individuais e se estenderam desde o estádio de floração até o de maturação. Os resultados obtidos indicam que alto potencial de rendimento não necessariamente identifica uma planta eficiente na retenção das estruturas reprodutivas. Os potenciais de rendimento estimados na floração e no início do enchimento de grãos não se mantêm até a maturação. Genótipos com alto potencial de rendimento de grãos em R8 não apresentam os maiores potenciais de rendimento de grãos em R2 e em R5, porém, são os que apresentam as menores diferenças entre o potencial estimado em R5 e o estimado em R2.Soybean has high yield potential, which is not totally expressed due to genotype vs. environment interaction. Six soybean genotypes of different maturity groups were used with the objective of studying their yield potential expression and quantifying it during ontogeny. The experiment was conducted during the 1996/97 growing season in the Agronomic Experimental Station of the Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Eldorado do Sul, RS, Brazil. Plants were evaluated individually from flowering until maturity. Results obtained indicate that high yield potential does not necessarily mean an efficient plant in reproductive structure retention. Yield potential estimated in the flowering and beginning of grain filling stages are not maintained until maturity. Genotypes with high yield potential in the R8 stage do not present the

  4. Analysis of the spatial variability of crop yield and soil properties in small agricultural plots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vieira Sidney Rosa

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess spatial variability of soil properties and crop yield under no tillage as a function of time, in two soil/climate conditions in São Paulo State, Brazil. The two sites measured approximately one hectare each and were cultivated with crop sequences which included corn, soybean, cotton, oats, black oats, wheat, rye, rice and green manure. Soil fertility, soil physical properties and crop yield were measured in a 10-m grid. The soils were a Dusky Red Latossol (Oxisol and a Red Yellow Latossol (Ultisol. Soil sampling was performed in each field every two years after harvesting of the summer crop. Crop yield was measured at the end of each crop cycle, in 2 x 2.5 m sub plots. Data were analysed using semivariogram analysis and kriging interpolation for contour map generation. Yield maps were constructed in order to visually compare the variability of yields, the variability of the yield components and related soil properties. The results show that the factors affecting the variability of crop yield varies from one crop to another. The changes in yield from one year to another suggest that the causes of variability may change with time. The changes with time for the cross semivariogram between phosphorus in leaves and soybean yield is another evidence of this result.

  5. Influence of climate parameters and management of permanent grassland on biogas yield and GHG emission substitution potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In many regions of Europe, grassland is no longer needed for fodder production as it is not economically viable. However, due to the important role it plays in soil carbon storage, it is imperative that grassland should be maintained. The energetic use of its biomass could be an alternative means of generating income from grassland. The aim of this study is to identify the best permanent grasslands management systems for CHP production with regard to maximizing biogas yields, energy use efficiency and greenhouse gas mitigation potential. A long-term field trial was established in 1994 and managed under various nitrogen fertilizer level regimes and cutting frequencies until 2007. Annual dry matter yields ranged between 9.1 t ha−1 and 10.8 t ha−1. Based on these data the methane yields for the different cutting regimes were calculated. The highest methane yield of 288.4 L kg−1 oDM was calculated for a yearly cutting regime of four cuts. Energy and CO2 balances were calculated to assess the energy efficiency and the global-warming potential of power generation in a CHP plant using biogas produced from the different grassland management systems. The highest net energy yield (48.52 GJ per hectare per year) was calculated for a two-cut regime. Furthermore, the highest CO2 equivalent reduction potential was also documented for a cutting frequency of two cuts per year. In this case a CO2eq mass reduction of 5.1 t per hectare per year could be achieved compared to fossil fuel (consisting of a German power mix and natural gas components) reference systems. - Highlights: • The aim was to identify the best management system for CHP production. • The energetic use of grassland could be an alternative means of generating income. • Maximizing the biomass yields does not necessarily lead to maximized biogas yields. • A reduced management system minimized GHG emissions of CHP production. • A reduced management system maximized net energy yields

  6. Photoisomerization dynamics of a rhodopsin-based molecule (potential molecular switch) with high quantum yields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Roland; Jiang, Chen-Wei; Zhang, Xiu-Xing; Fang, Ai-Ping; Li, Hong-Rong; Xie, Rui-Hua; Li, Fu-Li

    2015-03-01

    It is worthwhile to explore the detailed reaction dynamics of various candidates for molecular switches, in order to understand, e.g., the differences in quantum yields and switching times. Here we report density-functional-based simulations for the rhodopsin-based molecule 4-[4-Methylbenzylidene]-5-p-tolyl-3,4-dihydro-2H-pyrrole (MDP), synthesized by Sampedro et al. We find that the photoisomerization quantum yields are remarkably high: 82% for cis-to-trans, and 68% for trans-to-cis. The lifetimes of the S1 excited state in cis-MDP in our calculations are in the range of 900-1800 fs, with a mean value of 1270 fs, while the range of times required for full cis-to-trans isomerization are 1100-2000 fs, with a mean value of 1530 fs. In trans-MDP, the calculated S1 excited state lifetimes are 860-2140 fs, with a mean value of 1330 fs, and with the full trans-to-cis isomerization completed about 200 fs later. In both cases, the dominant reaction mechanism is rotation around the central C =C bond (connected to the pyrroline ring), and de-excitation occurs at an avoided crossing between the ground state and the lowest singlet state, near the midpoint of the rotational pathway. Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China; Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities; Robert A. Welch Foundation; National Natural Science Foundation of China.

  7. Water-Saving and High-Yielding Irrigation for Lowland Rice by Controlling Limiting Values of Soil Water Potential

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The present study investigated whether an irrigation system could be established to save water and increase grain yield to enhance water productivity by proper water management at the field level in irrigated lowland rice (Oryza sativa L.). Using two field-grown rice cultivars, two irrigation systems; conventional irrigation and water-saving irrigation, were conducted.In the water-saving irrigation system, limiting values of soil water potential related to specific growth stages were proposed as irrigation indices. Compared with conventional irrigation where drainage was in mid-season and flooded at other times,the water-saving irrigation increased grain yield by 7.4% to 11.3%, reduced irrigation water by 24.5% to 29.2%, and increased water productivity (grain yield per cubic meter of irrigation water) by 43.1% to 50.3%. The water-saving irrigation significantly increased harvest index, improved milling and appearance qualities, elevated zeatin +zeatin riboside concentrations in root bleedings and enhanced activities of sucrose synthase, adenosine diphosphate glucose pyrophosphorylase, starch synthase and starch branching enzyme in grains. Our results indicate that water-saving irrigation by controlling limiting values of soil water potential related to specific growth stages can enhance physiological activities of roots and grains,reduce water input, and increase grain yield.

  8. The Effects of Climate Change on the Planting Boundary and Potential Yield for Different Rice Cropping Systems in Southern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE Qing; YANG Xiao-guang; LIU Zhi-juan; DAI Shu-wei; LI Yong; XIE Wen-juan; CHEN Fu

    2014-01-01

    Based on climate data from 254 meteorological stations, this study estimated the effects of climate change on rice planting boundaries and potential yields in the southern China during 1951-2010. The results indicated a signiifcant northward shift and westward expansion of northern boundaries for rice planting in the southern China. Compared with the period of 1951-1980, the average temperature during rice growing season in the period of 1981-2010 increased by 0.4°C, and the northern planting boundaries for single rice cropping system (SRCS), early triple cropping rice system (ETCRS), medium triple cropping rice system (MTCRS), and late triple cropping rice system (LTCRS) moved northward by 10, 30, 52 and 66 km, respectively. In addition, compared with the period of 1951-1980, the suitable planting area for SRCS was reduced by 11%during the period of 1981-2010. However, the suitable planting areas for other rice cropping systems increased, with the increasing amplitude of 3, 8, and 10%for ETCRS, MTCRS and LTCRS, respectively. In general, the light and temperature potential productivity of rice decreased by 2.5%. Without considering the change of rice cultivars, the northern planting boundaries for different rice cropping systems showed a northward shift tendency. Climate change resulted in decrease of per unit area yield for SRCS and the annual average yields of ETCRS and LTCRS. Nevertheless, the overall rice production in the entire research area showed a decreasing trend even with the increasing trend of annual average yield for MTCRS.

  9. GGE and Ammi Biplot Analysis for Field PEA Yield Stability in Snnpr State, Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Yayis Rezene; Agdew Bekele; Yasin Goa

    2014-01-01

    The experiment was conducted for two consecutive years across four locations using 16 field pea genotypes. The objective of this paper is to determine the magnitude of genotype by environment interactionand performance stability of genotypes. Analysis of variance (ANOVA), regression of genotype on the environmental mean, AMMI analysis, ASV estimation and GGE biplot analysis were carried out following their respective procedures. Pooled analysis of variance for grain yield showed significance ...

  10. MULTIPLE TRAIT ANALYSIS OF GENOTYPE BY ENVIRONMENT INTERACTION FOR MILK YIELD TRAITS IN SLOVENIAN CATTLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betka Logar

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to evaluate genotype by environment interaction (GxEI for yield traits in Holstein, Simmental and Brown breed cattle in Slovenia using multiple trait analysis. Data from Slovenian milk-recording scheme was used. The lactation records on cows having first to third calving in the period 1990-2004 and milk, protein and fat yield in 305 days were studied. The variables used to characterize the environment were herd-year averages of each trait. The multiple trait analysis was done using the highest and lowest quartiles of the environments. To study the GxEI, animal model methodology and the genetic correlation between the traits were used. GxEI was generally smaller for fat and milk yield than for protein yield. The lowest genetic correlations between high and low environments were estimated for protein yield, especially in Simmental (0.81 and in Brown (0.86 breed. In Holstein the correlation was higher, 0.94. The genetic correlations for fat yield were 0.95 for Brown and Simmental breed and 0.96 for Holstein. For milk yield the estimated genetic correlations were 0.88, 0.92 and 0.96 in Brown, Simmental and Holstein breed, respectively. Differences between variance components obtained in low and high quartile result in the rank of heritabilities from 0.04 to 0.12 in low and from 0.12 to 0.22 in high quartile.

  11. Analysis of relations between crop temperature indices and yield of different sunflower hybrids foliar treated by biopreparations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovár Marek

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The application of biological active preparations (BAPs and remote-sensing control in the management of agronomic intervention are an important part of successful crop cultivation. The effects of foliar application of two BAPs (containing amino acids or Abiestins® on yield and yield-forming, as well eco-physiological traits calculated from infrared thermographs data (crop water stress index, CWSI and index of stomatal conductance, Ig of three hybrids of sunflower were studied in field poly-factorial experiments, realised during two years (2012 and 2013. The results showed that the application of selected BAPs has contributed to an increase of the sunflower yield, in particular through an increase in the weight of thousand seeds (rp = 0.761, P < 0.001. Similarly, oil content in achenes was significantly higher in treatments with BAPs, mainly with preparation containing free amino acids. The study describes the quantitative relationship between yield and quality of sunflower production (rp = −0.41, P < 0.01. Selected hybrids of sunflower in two growth stages showed the significant differences in CWSI and Ig (both at P < 0.01, respectively. An analysis of negative linear relation between the yield of achenes and CWSI (rp = −0.654, P < 0.001 confirmed that higher value of plant stress resulted in a smaller yield and vice-versa. The opposite trend was observed between yield and Ig index (rp = 0.576, P < 0.001. The data obtained from IR thermography can be used for monitoring the physiological health of sunflower plants, as well in potential prediction and control of yield.

  12. Exploring the potential of crop specific green area index time series to improve yield estimation at regional scale

    OpenAIRE

    Duveiller, G.; De, Wit, A.; Kouadio, K.E.; Djaby, B.; Curnel, Y.; B. Tychon; P. Defourny

    2010-01-01

    Crop status, such as the Green Area Index (GAI), can be retrieved from satellite observations by modelling and inverting the radiative transfer within the canopy. Providing such information along the growing season can potentially improve crop growth modelling and yield estimation. However, such approaches have proven difficult to apply on coarse resolution satellite data due to the fragmented land cover in many parts of the World. Advances in operational crop mapping will sooner or later all...

  13. A piston-rotaxane with two potential stripes: force transitions and yield stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevick, Edith M; Williams, David R M

    2013-01-01

    We examine a rod piston-rotaxane system, where the positions of several mobile rings on the axle are controlled by an external force acting on one of the rings. This allows us to access the translational entropy of the rings. For a simple rotaxane molecule with an axle that has uniform ring-axle interactions along its length, the molecule behaves like a miniature piston filled with a one-dimensional ideal gas. We then examine the effect of two stripes on the axle, having different ring-axle interactions with the mobile rings, so that one section is of high energy (repulsive) for the rings and another section is of lower energy (or attractive). This kind of rotaxane can exhibit rapid changes in displacement or force, and in particular, this molecule can exhibit a yield stress in which the piston suddenly compresses under a small increase in the applied force. PMID:24177696

  14. A Piston-Rotaxane with Two Potential Stripes: Force Transitions and Yield Stresses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edith M. Sevick

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We examine a rod piston-rotaxane system, where the positions of several mobile rings on the axle are controlled by an external force acting on one of the rings. This allows us to access the translational entropy of the rings. For a simple rotaxane molecule with an axle that has uniform ring-axle interactions along its length, the molecule behaves like a miniature piston filled with a one-dimensional ideal gas. We then examine the effect of two stripes on the axle, having different ring-axle interactions with the mobile rings, so that one section is of high energy (repulsive for the rings and another section is of lower energy (or attractive. This kind of rotaxane can exhibit rapid changes in displacement or force, and in particular, this molecule can exhibit a yield stress in which the piston suddenly compresses under a small increase in the applied force.

  15. A meta analysis of pancreatic microarray datasets yields new targets as cancer genes and biomarkers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nalin C W Goonesekere

    Full Text Available The lack of specific symptoms at early tumor stages, together with a high biological aggressiveness of the tumor contribute to the high mortality rate for pancreatic cancer (PC, which has a five year survival rate of less than 5%. Improved screening for earlier diagnosis, through the detection of diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers provides the best hope of increasing the rate of curatively resectable carcinomas. Though many serum markers have been reported to be elevated in patients with PC, so far, most of these markers have not been implemented into clinical routine due to low sensitivity or specificity. In this study, we have identified genes that are significantly upregulated in PC, through a meta-analysis of large number of microarray datasets. We demonstrate that the biological functions ascribed to these genes are clearly associated with PC and metastasis, and that that these genes exhibit a strong link to pathways involved with inflammation and the immune response. This investigation has yielded new targets for cancer genes, and potential biomarkers for pancreatic cancer. The candidate list of cancer genes includes protein kinase genes, new members of gene families currently associated with PC, as well as genes not previously linked to PC. In this study, we are also able to move towards developing a signature for hypomethylated genes, which could be useful for early detection of PC. We also show that the significantly upregulated 800+ genes in our analysis can serve as an enriched pool for tissue and serum protein biomarkers in pancreatic cancer.

  16. Physiological Traits Associated with Wheat Yield Potential and Performance under Water-Stress in a Mediterranean Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Pozo, Alejandro; Yáñez, Alejandra; Matus, Iván A.; Tapia, Gerardo; Castillo, Dalma; Sanchez-Jardón, Laura; Araus, José L.

    2016-01-01

    Different physiological traits have been proposed as key traits associated with yield potential as well as performance under water stress. The aim of this paper is to examine the genotypic variability of leaf chlorophyll, stem water-soluble carbohydrate content and carbon isotope discrimination (Δ13C), and their relationship with grain yield (GY) and other agronomical traits, under contrasting water conditions in a Mediterranean environment. The study was performed on a large collection of 384 wheat genotypes grown under water stress (WS, rainfed), mild water stress (MWS, deficit irrigation), and full irrigation (FI). The average GY of two growing seasons was 2.4, 4.8, and 8.9 Mg ha−1 under WS, MWS, and FI, respectively. Chlorophyll content at anthesis was positively correlated with GY (except under FI in 2011) and the agronomical components kernels per spike (KS) and thousand kernel weight (TKW). The WSC content at anthesis (WSCCa) was negatively correlated with spikes per square meter (SM2), but positively correlated with KS and TKW under WS and FI conditions. As a consequence, the relationships between WSCCa with GY were low or not significant. Therefore, selecting for high stem WSC would not necessary lead to genotypes of GY potential. The relationship between Δ13C and GY was positive under FI and MWS but negative under severe WS (in 2011), indicating higher water use under yield potential and MWS conditions. PMID:27458470

  17. Yield-scaled global warming potential of two irrigation management systems in a highly productive rice system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Tarlera

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Water management impacts both methane (CH4 and nitrous oxide (N2O emissions from rice paddy fields. Although controlled irrigation is one of the most important tools for reducing CH4emission in rice production systems it can also increase N2O emissions and reduce crop yields. Over three years, CH4 and N2O emissions were measured in a rice field in Uruguay under two different irrigation management systems, using static closed chambers: conventional water management (continuous flooding after 30 days of emergence, CF30; and an alternative system (controlled deficit irrigation allowing for wetting and drying, AWDI. AWDI showed mean cumulative CH4 emission values of 98.4 kg CH4 ha−1, 55 % lower compared to CF30, while no differences in nitrous oxide emissions were observed between treatments ( p > 0.05. No yield differences between irrigation systems were observed in two of the rice seasons ( p > 0.05 while AWDI promoted yield reduction in one of the seasons ( p< 0.05. When rice yield and greenhouse gases (GHG emissions were considered together, the AWDI irrigation system allowed for lower yield-scaled total global warming potential (GWP. Higher irrigation water productivity was achieved under AWDI in two of the three rice seasons. These findings suggest that AWDI could be an option for reducing GHG emissions and increasing irrigation water productivity. However, AWDI may compromise grain yield in certain years, reflecting the importance of the need for fine tuning of this irrigation strategy and an assessment of the overall tradeoff between relationships in order to promote its adoption by farmers.

  18. Physiological traits contributed to the recent increase in yield potential of winter wheat from Henan Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Bangwei; Sanz-Sáez, Álvaro; Elazab, Abdelhalim; Shen, Tianmin; Sánchez-Bragado, Rut; Bort, Jordi; Serret, Maria Dolors; Araus, José Luis

    2014-05-01

    This experiment aims to test the traits responsible for the increase in yield potential of winter wheat released in Henan Province, China. Seven established cultivars released in the last 20 years and three advanced lines were assayed. The results showed that grain yield was positively correlated with harvest index (HI), kernel number per square meter, and aboveground biomass. In addition, the HI and aboveground biomass showed an increasing trend with the year of release. Therefore, we can conclude that bread wheat breeding advances during recent decades in Henan Province, China, have been achieved through an increase in HI, kernel number per square meter, and aboveground biomass. A higher δ(13)C seems also to be involved in these advances, which suggests a progressive improvement in constitutive water use efficiency not associated with a trend towards lower stomatal conductance in the most recent genotypes. However, genetic advance does not appear related to changes in photosynthesis rates on area basis when measured in the flag leaf or the spike, but only to a higher, whole-spike photosynthesis. Results also indirectly support the concept that under potential yield conditions, the spike contributed more than the flag leaf to kernel formation. PMID:24373600

  19. Physiological traits contributed to the recent increase in yield potential of winter wheat from Henan Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bangwei Zhou; lvaro Sanz-Sez; Abdelhalim Elazab; Tianmin Shen; Rut Snchez-Bragado; Jordi Bort; Maria Dolors Serret; Jos Luis Araus

    2014-01-01

    This experiment aims to test the traits responsible for the increase in yield potential of winter wheat released in Henan Province, China. Seven established cultivars released in the last 20 years and three advanced lines were assayed. The results showed that grain yield was positively correlated with harvest index (HI), kernel number per square meter, and aboveground biomass. In addition, the HI and aboveground biomass showed an increasing trend with the year of release. Therefore, we can conclude that bread wheat breeding advances during recent decades in Henan Province, China, have been achieved through an increase in HI, kernel number per square meter, and aboveground biomass. A higher d13C seems also to be involved in these advances, which suggests a progressive improvement in constitutive water use efficiency not associated with a trend towards lower stomatal conduc-tance in the most recent genotypes. However, genetic advance does not appear related to changes in photosynthesis rates on area basis when measured in the flag leaf or the spike, but only to a higher, whole-spike photosynthesis. Results also indirectly support the concept that under potential yield conditions, the spike contributed more than the flag leaf to kernel formation.

  20. Estimation of useful yield in surface analysis using single photon ionisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, B. V.; Pellin, M. J.; Moore, J. F.; Veryovkin, I. V.; Savina, M. R.; Tripa, C. E.

    2003-01-01

    Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), laser sputter neutral mass spectrometry (SNMS) and laser desorption photoionisation (LDPI) have been used to investigate the desorption of molecules from self-assembled monolayers of phenylsulphides. LDPI, using an F 2 excimer laser to single photon ionise gave the lowest fragmentation. A useful yield greater than 0.5% was found for analysis of diphenyldisulphide self-assembled monolayers. It is shown that using a free electron laser to postionise will lead, in the future, to analysis of many atoms and molecules with useful yields approaching 30%.

  1. Looking for Water in the Woods: Quantifying the Potential for Forest Management to Increase Regional Water Yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, S.; Kaplan, D. A.; Mclaughlin, D. L.; Cohen, M. J.

    2014-12-01

    Water scarcity presents a crucial challenge for water resource managers charged with maintaining hydrologic resources for domestic, industrial, and agricultural use while protecting natural systems. Forest lands are critical to the functioning of the hydrologic cycle in many watersheds, affecting the quantity, quality, and timing of water delivered to surface and groundwater systems. While the hydrologic impacts of forest growth and removal have been shown to be substantial in watersheds around the globe, data and models connecting forest management to water use and regional hydrology are generally lacking. We propose that water-focused forest management has the potential to deliver a "new" source of water to surface and groundwater resources. To test this hypothesis, we developed a statistical model of water yield in southeastern US pine stands as a function of forest stand structure and ecosystem water use. Model results suggest a potential increase in water yield of up to 64% for pine stands managed at lower basal areas relative to those managed according to standard silvicultural practices. At the watershed scale, the magnitude of this potential water yield enhancement is driven by existing land use and forest management; evaluated for a large watershed in NE Florida, this potential increase is in excess of 200 million gallons per day (equivalent to 20% of the anthropogenic water use in the watershed). While useful for exploration, our statistical model also highlighted critical sources of uncertainty, including the effects of climatic variation, between-site variability, water use in young pine stands, and prescribed fire. Thus, in ongoing work we are comparing the effects of specific land management actions (e.g., thinning, clearcutting, and fire) on water yield across a gradient of environmental conditions (soil type, aquifer confinement, and climate) using a novel combination of in-situ soil moisture and groundwater monitoring. These data are being used to

  2. Prediction of crop yield in Sweden based on mesoscale meteorological analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foltescu, Valentin L.

    2000-12-01

    This paper presents a prediction system for regional crop growth in Sweden, recently set up at SMHI (Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute). The system includes a state-of-the-art crop growth model, WOFOST (WOrld FOod STudies) and inputs from meteorological mesoscale analysis. The simulated crops are spring barley, spring rape, oats and winter wheat, and the period of investigation is 1985-98. The simulated water-limited grain yield is used as a predictor in the yield prediction procedure. The technological time trend describing the yearly increase of the production level is accounted for as well. Yield prediction based on crop growth modelling is justified since the ability to forecast the yield is higher compared to that using the technological time trend alone. The prediction errors are of the order of 8 to 16%, with the lowest errors for winter wheat and spring barley.

  3. Coupling crop growth and hydrologic models to predict crop yield with spatial analysis technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yangwen; Shen, Suhui; Niu, Cunwen; Qiu, Yaqin; Wang, Hao; Liu, Yu

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes climate change impact on crop yield of winter wheat, a main crop in the water-stressed Haihe River Basin in North China. An integrated analysis was carried out by coupling the World Food Studies (WOFOST) crop growth model and the distributed hydrological model describing the water and energy transfer processes in large river basins (WEP-L). Various spatial analysis technologies, including remote sensing and geographical information system, were woven together to support model calibration and validation. The WOFOST model was calibrated and validated using the winter wheat data collected in two successive years. Effort was then extended to calibrate and validate the WEP-L distributed hydrologic model for the whole basin. Such an effort was collectively supported by using the remote sensing evapotranspiration and biomass data, the in situ river flow data, and the wheat yield statistical data. With this integration, the wheat yield from 2010 to 2030 can be predicted under the given climate change impact corresponding to Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change A1B, A2, and B1 scenarios. Given the prescribed climate change scenarios, at the basin-scale, the winter wheat yield may increase in terms of the annual average; however, the long-term trend is geared toward a decreasing yield with significant fluctuations. The colder hilly areas with current lower yield may significantly increase due to possible future temperature rise while the warmer plain areas with current higher yield may slightly increase or decrease. Despite the data collected thus far, it is evident that further studies are needed to reduce the uncertainties of these predictions of climate change effect on winter wheat grain yield.

  4. Combining ability analysis for yield and some quality traits in spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Kumar and S. A. Kerkhi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Combining ability analysis was studied in a 10 × 10 diallel cross of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.. The analysis of variance for combining revealed that the variance due to gca and sca were highly significant for all the characters indicated that both the additive and non-additive gene actions were involved in the expression of the traits. The genotypes WH 1094, PBW 590 and PBW 373 were considered as the best general combiners, while hybrids DBW 58 x DBW 17, PBW 550 x PBW 373, MP 1236 x PBW 373, WH 1094 x PBW 590, PBW 590 x PBW 373, RAJ 3765 x HD 2687, PBW 590 x WH 711, MP 1236 x PBW 550, RAJ 3765 x DBW 58, HD 2687 x WH 711 and MP 1236 x WH 1094 as good specific combinations for grain yield and other yield contributing and quality traits. The promising parents namely PBW 373, PBW 590 and WH 1094 which are having high gca effects in desirable direction for yield components and for quality traits may be incorporated in crossing programme to have better genotypes for yield better and quality. The crosses PBW 550 x PBW 373, MP 1236 x PBW 373, WH 1094 x PBW 590, MP 1236 x PBW 550 and RAJ 3765 x DBW 58 which showed good sca effects for major yield and more than six yield components characters were also found superior for gluten content, ash content and showed low reaction of phenol on the grains, may be exploited for better yield and chapati quality either by exploiting them through heterosis breeding or involving them in multiple cross breeding programme for obtaining transgressive segregants and broad genetic base population in wheat for improvement in yield.

  5. Interrelationship and Path Coefficient Analysis of Yield Components in F4 Progenies of Tef (Eragrostis tef

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abel Debebe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted at Debre Zeit and Akaki during 2004-2005 cropping season on F2- derived F4 bulk families of 3 crosses, viz, DZ-01-974 x DZ-01-2786, DZ-01-974 x DZ-Cr-37 and Alba x Kaye Murri. To estimate the correlations and path coefficients between yield and yield components, 63 F4 families were taken randomly from each of the 3 crosses. The 189 F4 families, five parents and 2 checks were space planted following in 14×14 simple lattice design. Study of associations among traits indicated that yield was positively associated with shoot biomass, harvest index, lodging index and panicle kernel weight at phenotypic level at Debre Zeit. At Akaki, yield had significant positive correlation with shoot biomass, harvest index, plant height and panicle length and panicle weight. At genotypic level, grain yield per plot exhibited positive association with harvest index, shoot biomass, lodging index and panicle kernel weight at Debre Zeit. By contrast, days to heading, days to maturity, plant height and panicle length showed negative association with yield. At Akaki, kernel yield per plot was positively correlated at genotypic level with all the traits considered where lodging index had the highest correlation followed by shoot biomass, panicle kernel weight and harvest index. Path coefficient analysis at both phenotypic and genotypic levels for both the locations suggested those shoot biomass and harvest indexes are the two important yield determining traits. These two traits might be useful in indirect selection for yield improvement in the material generated from the three crosses under consideration.

  6. Interrelationship and path coefficient analysis of yield components in F4 progenies of tef (Eragrostis tef).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debebe, Abel; Singh, Harijat; Tefera, Hailu

    2014-01-01

    This experiment was conducted at Debre Zeit and Akaki during 2004-2005 cropping season on F2-derived F4 bulk families of three crosses, viz, DZ-01-974 x DZ-01-2786, DZ-01-974 x DZ-Cr-37 and Alba x Kaye Murri. To estimate the correlations and path coefficients between yield and yield components, 63 F4 families were taken randomly from each of the three crosses. The 189 F4 families, five parents and two checks were space planted following in 14 x 14 simple lattice design. Study of associations among traits indicated that yield was positively associated with shoot biomass, harvest index, lodging index and panicle kernel weight at phenotypic level at Debre Zeit. At Akaki, yield had significant positive correlation with shoot biomass, harvest index, plant height, panicle length and panicle weight. At genotypic level, grain yield per plot exhibited positive association with harvest index, shoot biomass, lodging index and panicle kernel weight at Debre Zeit. By contrast, days to heading, days to maturity, plant height and panicle length showed negative association with yield. At Akaki, kernel yield per plot was positively correlated at genotypic level with all the traits considered where lodging index had the highest correlation followed by shoot biomass, panicle kernel weight and harvest index. Path coefficient analysis at both phenotypic and genotypic levels for both the locations suggested those shoot biomass and harvest indexes are the two important yield determining traits. These two traits might be useful in indirect selection for yield improvement in the material generated from the three crosses under consideration. PMID:24783784

  7. AMMI analysis of the adaptability and yield stability of yellow passion fruit varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eder Jorge de Oliveira

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available High yield stability and adaptability of yellow passion fruit varieties (Passiflora edulis Sims. f. flavicarpa Deg. are highly desirable attributes when exploring different environments. This study aimed to evaluate the adaptability and yield stability of yellow passion fruit varieties using AMMI (additive main effects and multiplicative interaction and other ancillary statistics. Twelve varieties were evaluated in eight environments. Analysis of variance showed effects attributable to the varieties (G, environment (E and their interaction (G × E. The first two multiplicative components of the interaction accounted for 69% of the sum of squares. The scores of the principal interaction components showed high variability for the environments relative to the variety effects. High varietal phenotypic stability was observed in three environments; which can be used in yellow passion fruit breeding programs for initial selection trials. A biplot-AMMI analysis and yield stability index incorporating the AMMI stability value and yield capacity in a single non-parametric index were useful for discriminating genotypes with superior and stable fruit yield. AMMI analysis also allowed for the identification of more productive varieties in specific environments, leading to significant increase in passion fruit productivity.

  8. Local conditions for the Pauli potential in order to yield self-consistent electron densities exhibiting proper atomic shell structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The local conditions for the Pauli potential that are necessary in order to yield self-consistent electron densities from orbital-free calculations are investigated for approximations that are expressed with the help of a local position variable. It is shown that those local conditions also apply when the Pauli potential is given in terms of the electron density. An explicit formula for the Ne atom is given, preserving the local conditions during the iterative procedure. The resulting orbital-free electron density exhibits proper shell structure behavior and is in close agreement with the Kohn-Sham electron density. This study demonstrates that it is possible to obtain self-consistent orbital-free electron densities with proper atomic shell structure from simple one-point approximations for the Pauli potential at local density level

  9. The smallest degree sum that yields potentially Kr,r-graphic sequences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YlN; Jianhua(尹建华); LI; Jiongsheng(李炯生)

    2002-01-01

    We consider a variation of a classical Turán-type extremal problem as follows: Determine the smallest even integer σ(Kr,r, n) such that every n-term graphic sequence π = (d1, d2,..., dn) with term sum σ(π) = d1 + d2 +…+ dn ≥σ(Kr,r, n) is potentially Kr,r-graphic, where Kr,r is an r × r complete bipartite graph, i.e. πr has a realization G containing Kr,r as its subgraph. In this paper, the values σ(Kr,r,n) for even r and n ≥ 4r2 - r - 6 and for odd r and n ≥ 4r2 + 3r - 8 are determined.

  10. Project "Lupi-Breed": Improving yield potential, yield stability and seed quality of lupins as protein plants: Work package: Weed suppression and intercropping

    OpenAIRE

    Böhm, Herwart

    2015-01-01

    The overall goal of the project, which has been started in spring 2015, is to improve productivity of narrow-leafed sweet lupin (Lupinus angustifolius) and yellow sweet lupin (L. luteus) with regard to kernel yield, yield stability, and seed composition. In addition, the question shall be addressed whether the narrow genetic basis of current breeding materials may be broadened by including genebank accessions as plant genetic resources. Another task is to optimize lupin cultivation systems fo...

  11. Linkages and Interactions Analysis of Major Effect Drought Grain Yield QTLs in Rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vikram, Prashant; Swamy, B. P. Mallikarjuna; Dixit, Shalabh; Trinidad, Jennylyn; Sta Cruz, Ma Teresa; Maturan, Paul C.; Amante, Modesto; Kumar, Arvind

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative trait loci conferring high grain yield under drought in rice are important genomic resources for climate resilient breeding. Major and consistent drought grain yield QTLs usually co-locate with flowering and/or plant height QTLs, which could be due to either linkage or pleiotropy. Five mapping populations used for the identification of major and consistent drought grain yield QTLs underwent multiple-trait, multiple-interval mapping test (MT-MIM) to estimate the significance of pleiotropy effects. Results indicated towards possible linkages between the drought grain yield QTLs with co-locating flowering and/or plant height QTLs. Linkages of days to flowering and plant height were eliminated through a marker-assisted breeding approach. Drought grain yield QTLs also showed interaction effects with flowering QTLs. Drought responsiveness of the flowering locus on chromosome 3 (qDTY3.2) has been revealed through allelic analysis. Considering linkage and interaction effects associated with drought QTLs, a comprehensive marker-assisted breeding strategy was followed to develop rice genotypes with improved grain yield under drought stress. PMID:27018583

  12. Diagnostic Yield of Chromosomal Microarray Analysis in an Autism Primary Care Practice: Which Guidelines to Implement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrew, Susan G.; Peters, Brittany R.; Crittendon, Julie A.; Veenstra-VanderWeele, Jeremy

    2012-01-01

    Genetic testing is recommended for patients with ASD; however specific recommendations vary by specialty. American Academy of Pediatrics and American Academy of Neurology guidelines recommend G-banded karyotype and Fragile X DNA. The American College of Medical Genetics recommends Chromosomal Microarray Analysis (CMA). We determined the yield of…

  13. Analysis of coelom development in the sea urchin Holopneustes purpurescens yielding a deuterostome body plan

    OpenAIRE

    Morris, Valerie B.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT An analysis of early coelom development in the echinoid Holopneustes purpurescens yields a deuterostome body plan that explains the disparity between the pentameral plan of echinoderms and the bilateral plans of chordates and hemichordates, the three major phyla of the monophyletic deuterostomes. The analysis shows an early separation into a medial hydrocoele and lateral coelomic mesoderm with an enteric channel between them before the hydrocoele forms the pentameral plan of five pri...

  14. Determination of carrier yields for neutron activation analysis using energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, R.G.; Wandless, G.A.

    1984-01-01

    A new method is described for determining carrier yield in the radiochemical neutron activation analysis of rare-earth elements in silicate rocks by group separation. The method involves the determination of the rare-earth elements present in the carrier by means of energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis, eliminating the need to re-irradiate samples in a nuclear reactor after the gamma ray analysis is complete. Results from the analysis of USGS standards AGV-1 and BCR-1 compare favorably with those obtained using the conventional method. ?? 1984 Akade??miai Kiado??.

  15. Yielding the yield-stress analysis: a study focused on the effects of elasticity on the settling of a single spherical particle in simple yield-stress fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraggedakis, D; Dimakopoulos, Y; Tsamopoulos, J

    2016-06-28

    The sedimentation of a single particle in materials that exhibit simultaneously elastic, viscous and plastic behavior is examined in an effort to explain phenomena that contradict the nature of purely yield-stress materials. Such phenomena include the loss of the fore-and-aft symmetry with respect to an isolated settling particle under creeping flow conditions and the appearance of the "negative wake" behind it. Despite the fact that similar observations have been reported in studies involving viscoelastic fluids, researchers conjectured that thixotropy is responsible for these phenomena, as the aging of yield-stress materials is another common feature. By means of transient calculations, we study the effect of elasticity on both the fluidized and the solid phase. The latter is considered to behave as an ideal Hookean solid. The material properties of the model are determined under the isotropic kinematic hardening framework via Large Amplitude Oscillatory Shear (LAOS) measurements. In this way, we are able to predict accurately the unusual phenomena observed in experiments with simple yield-stress materials, irrespective of the appearance of slip on the particle surface. Viscoelasticity favors the formation of intense shear and extensional stresses downstream of the particle, significantly changing the entrapment mechanism in comparison to that observed in viscoplastic fluids. Therefore, the critical conditions under which the entrapment of the particle occurs deviate from the well-known criterion established theoretically by Beris et al. (1985) and verified experimentally by Tabuteau et al. (2007) for similar materials under conditions that elastic effects are negligible. Our predictions are in quantitative agreement with published experimental results by Holenberg et al. (2012) on the loss of the fore-aft symmetry and the formation of the negative wake in Carbopol with well-characterized rheology. Additionally, we propose simple expressions for the Stokes drag

  16. Effects of ecological and conventional agricultural intensification practices on maize yields in sub-Saharan Africa under potential climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Much of Africa is among the world’s regions with lowest yields in staple food crops, and climate change is expected to make it more difficult to catch up in crop production in particular in the long run. Various agronomic measures have been proposed for lifting agricultural production in Africa and to adapt it to climate change. Here, we present a projection of potential climate change impacts on maize yields under different intensification options in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) using an agronomic model, GIS-based EPIC (GEPIC). Fallow and nutrient management options taken into account are (a) conventional intensification with high mineral N supply and a bare fallow, (b) moderate mineral N supply and cowpea rotation, and (c) moderate mineral N supply and rotation with a fast growing N fixing tree Sesbania sesban. The simulations suggest that until the 2040s rotation with Sesbania will lead to an increase in yields due to increasing N supply besides improving water infiltration and soils’ water holding capacity. Intensive cultivation with a bare fallow or an herbaceous crop like cowpea in the rotation is predicted to result in lower yields and increased soil erosion during the same time span. However, yields are projected to decrease in all management scenarios towards the end of the century, should temperature increase beyond critical thresholds. The results suggest that the effect of eco-intensification as a sole means of adapting agriculture to climate change is limited in Sub-Saharan Africa. Highly adverse temperatures would rather have to be faced by improved heat tolerant cultivars, while strongly adverse decreases in precipitation would have to be faced by expanding irrigation where feasible. While the evaluation of changes in agro-environmental variables like soil organic carbon, erosion, and soil humidity hints that these are major factors influencing climate change resilience of the field crop, no direct relationship between these factors, crop yields

  17. Effects of ecological and conventional agricultural intensification practices on maize yields in sub-Saharan Africa under potential climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folberth, Christian; Yang, Hong; Gaiser, Thomas; Liu, Junguo; Wang, Xiuying; Williams, Jimmy; Schulin, Rainer

    2014-04-01

    Much of Africa is among the world’s regions with lowest yields in staple food crops, and climate change is expected to make it more difficult to catch up in crop production in particular in the long run. Various agronomic measures have been proposed for lifting agricultural production in Africa and to adapt it to climate change. Here, we present a projection of potential climate change impacts on maize yields under different intensification options in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) using an agronomic model, GIS-based EPIC (GEPIC). Fallow and nutrient management options taken into account are (a) conventional intensification with high mineral N supply and a bare fallow, (b) moderate mineral N supply and cowpea rotation, and (c) moderate mineral N supply and rotation with a fast growing N fixing tree Sesbania sesban. The simulations suggest that until the 2040s rotation with Sesbania will lead to an increase in yields due to increasing N supply besides improving water infiltration and soils’ water holding capacity. Intensive cultivation with a bare fallow or an herbaceous crop like cowpea in the rotation is predicted to result in lower yields and increased soil erosion during the same time span. However, yields are projected to decrease in all management scenarios towards the end of the century, should temperature increase beyond critical thresholds. The results suggest that the effect of eco-intensification as a sole means of adapting agriculture to climate change is limited in Sub-Saharan Africa. Highly adverse temperatures would rather have to be faced by improved heat tolerant cultivars, while strongly adverse decreases in precipitation would have to be faced by expanding irrigation where feasible. While the evaluation of changes in agro-environmental variables like soil organic carbon, erosion, and soil humidity hints that these are major factors influencing climate change resilience of the field crop, no direct relationship between these factors, crop yields, and

  18. Paclobutrazol treatment as a potential strategy for higher seed and oil yield in field-grown camelina sativa L. Crantz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Sumit

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Camelina (Camelina sativa L. Crantz is a non-food oilseed crop which holds promise as an alternative biofuel energy resource. Its ability to grow in a variety of climatic and soil conditions and minimal requirements of agronomical inputs than other oilseed crops makes it economically viable for advanced biofuel production. We designed a study to investigate the effect of paclobutrazol [2RS, 3RS-1-(4-Chlorophenyl-4,4-dimethyl-2-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-ylpentan-3-ol] (PBZ, a popular plant growth regulator, on the seed and oil yield of Camelina sativa (cv. Celine. Results A field-based micro-trial setup was established in a randomized block design and the study was performed twice within a span of five months (October 2010 to February 2011 and five different PBZ treatments (Control: T0; 25 mg l-1: T1; 50 mg l-1: T2; 75 mg l-1: T3; 100 mg l-1: T4; 125 mg l-1: T5 were applied (soil application at the time of initiation of flowering. PBZ at 100 mg l-1 concentration (T4 resulted in highest seed and oil yield by 80% and 15%, respectively. The seed yield increment was mainly due to enhanced number of siliques per plant when compared to control. The PBZ - treated plants displayed better photosynthetic leaf gas exchange characteristics, higher chlorophyll contents and possessed dark green leaves which were photosynthetically active for a longer period and facilitated higher photoassimilation. Conclusion We report for the first time that application of optimized PBZ dose can be a potential strategy to achieve higher seed and oil yield from Camelina sativa that holds great promise as a biofuel crop in future.

  19. Genotypic performance, character correlations and path analysis of pod yield in Abelmoschus caillei (A. Chev. Stevels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher O. Alake

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Direct selection based on pod yield is often a problem in West African okra (Abelmoschus caillei (A. Chev. Stevels breeding programs. Information on inter-relationships among traits to implement indirect selection for pod yield is needed. Objectives of this study were to evaluate the performance of West African okra varieties in two cropping seasons prevailing in Nigeria, and to determine the associations among main agronomic characters and their influence on pod yield. Twenty-five genotypes were grown in two planting seasons at the Research Farm of the Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta in 2008-2009 using a randomized complete-block design with three replications. Sixteen plant characters were measured. The data were subjected to variance, correlation and path analyses. Four genotypes, viz., CEN 010, CEN 012, NGAE-96-04 and AGA 97/066-5780 demonstrated potential for high pod yield. CEN 012 and AGA 97/066-5780 in addition, demonstrated early flowering higher number of pods. Character associations varied between planting seasons. The dependence of pod yield on final plant height, number of branches per plant, number of pods per branch, number of pods per plant, number of ridges per pod, weight of 250 seeds, pod length and seed weight per plant was noted in both planting seasons. In both seasons, number of pods per plant exhibited a high positive direct effect on pod yield. In conclusion, the trait of most interest for improving pod yield under early and late-season conditions was number of pods per plant.

  20. An analysis of cropland mask choice and ancillary data for annual corn yield forecasting using MODIS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Yang; Campbell, James B.; Taff, Gregory N.; Zheng, Baojuan

    2015-06-01

    The Midwestern United States is one of the world's most important corn-producing regions. Monitoring and forecasting of corn yields in this intensive agricultural region are important activities to support food security, commodity markets, bioenergy industries, and formation of national policies. This study aims to develop forecasting models that have the capability to provide mid-season prediction of county-level corn yields for the entire Midwestern United States. We used multi-temporal MODIS NDVI (normalized difference vegetation index) 16-day composite data as the primary input, with digital elevation model (DEM) and parameter-elevation relationships on independent slopes model (PRISM) climate data as additional inputs. The DEM and PRISM data, along with three types of cropland masks were tested and compared to evaluate their impacts on model predictive accuracy. Our results suggested that the use of general cropland masks (e.g., summer crop or cultivated crops) generated similar results compared with use of an annual corn-specific mask. Leave-one-year-out cross-validation resulted in an average R2 of 0.75 and RMSE value of 1.10 t/ha. Using a DEM as an additional model input slightly improved performance, while inclusion of PRISM climate data appeared not to be important for our regional corn-yield model. Furthermore, our model has potential for real-time/early prediction. Our corn yield esitmates are available as early as late July, which is an improvement upon previous corn-yield prediction models. In addition to annual corn yield forecasting, we examined model uncertainties through spatial and temporal analysis of the model's predictive error distribution. The magnitude of predictive error (by county) appears to be associated with the spatial patterns of corn fields in the study area.

  1. Synthetic Aperture Radar (sar) and Optical Imagery Data Fusion: Crop Yield Analysis in Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, S. M.

    2012-08-01

    With the expanding energy crisis and rising food prices, crop yield analysis in Southeast Asia is an increasingly important topic in this region. Rice is the most important food crop in Southeast Asia and the ability to accurately predict crop yields during a growing season is useful for decision-makers, aid providers, and commercial trade organizations. The use of optical satellite image data by itself is difficult due to the almost constant cloud in many parts of Southeast Asia. However, Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR), or SAR data, which can image the Earth's surface through cloud cover, is suitable for many agricultural purposes, such as the detection of rice fields, and the identification of different crop species. Crop yield analysis is difficult in this region due to many factors. Rice cropping systems are often characterized by the type of rice planted, the size of rice field, the sowing dates for different fields, different types of rice cropping systems from one area to another, as well as cultural practices such as sowing and transplanting. This paper will discuss the use of SAR data fused with optical imagery to improve the ability to perform crop yield analysis on rice crops in Southeast Asia.

  2. The interquark potential: a QCD lattice analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on a QCD analysis of the potential between heavy quarks. Our calculation includes light quark loops and is carried out on a 163x24 lattice for couplings β=5.35 and 5.15 and a quark mass amq=0.010. We generated lattice configurations using a hybrid Monte Carlo algorithm for NF=4 flavors of staggered fermions. We can explore distances between 0.12 fm and 0.9 fm for these parameters. The shape of the resulting potential is well described by the superposition of a term proportional to 1/R and a linear confinement potential. This full QCD potential is compared to results obtained from quenched approximation simulations on lattices of the same size and with the same value of the cutoff. We discuss a rough estimate of the QCD coupling. (orig.)

  3. An evaluation of the potential yield of indium recycled from end-of-life LCDs: A case study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hengguang; Gu, Yifan; Wu, Yufeng; Zhang, Yi-Nan; Wang, Wei

    2015-12-01

    With the advances in electronics and information technology, China has gradually become the largest consumer of household appliances (HAs). Increasingly, end-of-life (EOL) HAs are generated in China. EOL recycling is a promising strategy to reduce dependence on virgin production, and indium is one of the recycled substances. The potential yield of indium recycling has not been systematically evaluated in China thus far. This paper estimates the potential yield of recycled indium from waste liquid crystal displays (LCDs) in China during the period from 2015 to 2030. The quantities of indium that will be used to produce LCDs are also predicted. The estimates focus on the following three key LCD waste sources: LCD TVs, desktop computers and portable computers. The results show that the demand for indium will be increasing in the near future. It is expected that 350 tonnes of indium will be needed to produce LCDs in China in 2035. The indium recycled from EOL LCDs, however, is much less than the demand and only accounts for approximately 48% of the indium demand. The sustainable index of indium is always less than 0.5. Therefore, future indium recycling efforts should focus on the development of recycling technology and the improvement of the relevant policy. PMID:26277718

  4. Interrelationships between morphometric variables and rounded fish body yields evaluated by path analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Vilhena Reis Neto

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to verify which morphometric measures and ratios are more directly associated with the weight and body yields of rounded fish. A total of 225 specimens of rounded fish (59 pacus, 61 tambaquis, 52 tambacus and 53 paquis with average weight of 972.43 g (±115.52 g were sampled, stunned, slaughtered, weighed, measured, and processed for morphometric and processing yield analysis. The morphometric measures taken were: standard length (CP; head length (CC; head height (AC; body height (A1; and body width (L1. For completeness, the following morphometric ratios were calculated: CC/CP, AC/CP, A1/CP, L1/CP, CC/A1, AC/A1, L1/A1, CC/AC and L1/CC. The yields of carcass, filet, rib and filet with rib were estimated after processing. Initially, a "stepwise" procedure was performed in order to eliminate multicollinearity problems among the morphometric variables, and the phenotypic correlations were then calculated for the dependent variables (weight and body yields and independent variables (morphometric measurements and ratios. These correlations were later deployed in direct and indirect effects through path analysis, and the direct and indirect contributions of each variable were measured in percentage terms. The CC and A1 measures were important for determining the weight of rounded fish. The CC/A1 ratio was the variable most directly associated with carcass yield. For filet, filet with rib and rib yields, the L1/CC ratio was found to be more appropriate and can be used directly.

  5. Mathematical and statistical analysis of the effect of boron on yield parameters of wheat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rawashdeh, Hamzeh [Water Management and Environment Research Department, National Center for Agricultural Research and Extension, P.O. Box 639, Baqa 19381 (Jordan); Sala, Florin [Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, Faculty of Agriculture, Banat University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine “Regele Mihai I al României” from Timişoara, Timişoara, 300645 (Romania); Boldea, Marius [Mathematics and Statistics, Faculty of Agriculture, Banat University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine “Regele Mihai I al României” from Timisoara, Timişoara, 300645 (Romania)

    2015-03-10

    The main objective of this research is to investigate the effect of foliar applications of boron at different growth stages on yield and yield parameters of wheat. The contribution of boron in achieving yield parameters is described by second degree polynomial equations, with high statistical confidence (p<0.01; F theoretical < F calculated, according to ANOVA test, for Alfa = 0.05). Regression analysis, based on R{sup 2} values obtained, made it possible to evaluate the particular contribution of boron to the realization of yield parameters. This was lower for spike length (R{sup 2} = 0.812), thousand seeds weight (R{sup 2} = 0.850) and higher in the case of the number of spikelets (R{sup 2} = 0.936) and the number of seeds on a spike (R{sup 2} = 0.960). These results confirm that boron plays an important part in achieving the number of seeds on a spike in the case of wheat, as the contribution of this element to the process of flower fertilization is well-known. In regards to productivity elements, the contribution of macroelements to yield quantity is clear, the contribution of B alone being R{sup 2} = 0.868.

  6. Estimation of variation and correlation analysis for yield components in black currant cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakonjac Vera

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Creating genotypes that will be characterized by high yields, good quality and other favorable agronomic characters is a major objective of most currant breeding programs worldwide. For easier and faster achievement of these goals and identification of superior genotypes suitable for use as parents in future hybridization programs, study of genetic parameters seems to be obligatory. In this regard, the aims of our study were to estimate components of variability and heritability, and do correlation analysis for yield components in order to determine efficient strategies for improving yield in black currant breeding programs. Significant differences between cultivars were established for all studied traits. A high proportion of genotypic variance was found with bush width, no. of shoots per bush, bunch weight and berry weight indicating that genetic improvement for these traits through breeding was achievable. Opposite, seasonal variance was high for bush height, no. of bunch per bush and yield. The high heritability coefficients (0.80-0.94 detected for all traits studied reflect the close agreement between their phenotypic and genotypic values. Also, most pairs of traits were similarly correlated at both phenotypic and genotypic levels. So, yield was significantly and positively correlated with bush height, no of bunch per bush and bunch weight. These results imply a rapid response of black currants to selection. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 46013 i FP7 Project AREA 316004

  7. Global warming potential and greenhouse gas intensity in rice agriculture driven by high yields and nitrogen use efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoxu; Xu, Xin; Liu, Yinglie; Wang, Jinyang; Xiong, Zhengqin

    2016-05-01

    Our understanding of how global warming potential (GWP) and greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI) is affected by management practices aimed at food security with respect to rice agriculture remains limited. In the present study, a field experiment was conducted in China to evaluate the effects of integrated soil-crop system management (ISSM) on GWP and GHGI after accounting for carbon dioxide (CO2) equivalent emissions from all sources, including methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions, agrochemical inputs and farm operations and sinks (i.e., soil organic carbon sequestration). The ISSM mainly consisted of different nitrogen (N) fertilization rates and split, manure, Zn and Na2SiO3 fertilization and planting density for the improvement of rice yield and agronomic nitrogen use efficiency (NUE). Four ISSM scenarios consisting of different chemical N rates relative to the local farmers' practice (FP) rate were carried out, namely, ISSM-N1 (25 % reduction), ISSM-N2 (10 % reduction), ISSM-N3 (FP rate) and ISSM-N4 (25 % increase). The results showed that compared with the FP, the four ISSM scenarios significantly increased the rice yields by 10, 16, 28 and 41 % and the agronomic NUE by 75, 67, 35 and 40 %, respectively. In addition, compared with the FP, the ISSM-N1 and ISSM-N2 scenarios significantly reduced the GHGI by 14 and 18 %, respectively, despite similar GWPs. The ISSM-N3 and ISSM-N4 scenarios remarkably increased the GWP and GHGI by an average of 69 and 39 %, respectively. In conclusion, the ISSM strategies are promising for both food security and environmental protection, and the ISSM scenario of ISSM-N2 is the optimal strategy to realize high yields and high NUE together with low environmental impacts for this agricultural rice field.

  8. Grain yield increase in cereal variety mixtures: A meta-analysis of field trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiær, Lars Pødenphant; Skovgaard, Ib; Østergård, Hanne

    2009-01-01

    grain yield. To investigate the prevalence and preconditions for positive mixing effects, reported grain yields of variety mixtures and pure variety stands were obtained from previously published variety trials, converted into relative mixing effects and combined using meta-analysis. Furthermore...... meeting the criteria for inclusion in the meta-analysis; on the other hand, nearly 200 studies were discarded. The accepted studies reported results on both winter and spring types of each crop species. Relative mixing effects ranged from 30% to 100% with an overall meta-estimate of at least 2.7% (p <0...... between crop types. All analyzed models had large unexplained variation between mixing effects, indicating that the variables retrievable from the published studies explained only a minority of the differences among mixtures and trials. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved...

  9. Study of the Higgs boson discovery potential in the process pp{yields}H/A{yields}{mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -}/{tau}{sup +}{tau}{sup -} with the ATLAS detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dedes, Georgios

    2008-04-22

    In this thesis, the discovery potential of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN for the heavy neutral Higgs bosons H/A of theMinimal Supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model of particle physics (MSSM) in the decay channels H/A{yields}{tau}{sup +}{tau}{sup -}{yields}e/{mu}+X and H/A{yields}{mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -} has been studied. The ATLAS detector is designed to study the full spectrum of the physics phenomena occuring in the proton-proton collisions at 14 TeV center-of-mass energy and to provide answers to the question of the origin of particle masses and of electroweak symmetry breaking. For the studies, the ATLAS muon spectrometer plays an important role. The spectrometer allows for a precise muon momentum measurement independently of other ATLAS subdetectors. The performance of the muon spectrometer depends strongly on the performance of the muon tracking detectors, the Monitored Drift Tube Chambers (MDT). Computer programs have been developed in order to test and verify the ATLAS muon spectrometer simulation, an essential ingredient for data analysis. In addition, dedicated programs for the monitoring of the quality of the data collected by the muon spectrometer have been developed and tested with data from cosmic ray muons. High-quality cosmic ray muon data have been used for the calibration of the MDT-chambers. A new calibration method, called analytical autocalibration, has been tested. The proposed method achieved the required accuracy of 20 {mu}m in the determination of the space-to-drift-time relationship of the drift tubes of the MDT chambers with only 2000 muon tracks per chamber. Reliable muon detector simulation and calibration are essential for the study of the MSSM Higgs boson decays H/A{yields}{tau}{sup +}{tau}{sup -}{yields}e/{mu}+X and H/A{yields}{mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -} and of the corresponding background processes. The signal selection and background rejection requirements have been optimized for maximum signal

  10. Comparative analysis of the 178m2Hf yield at reactions with different projectiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The long-lived high-spin 178m2Hf K-isomer can be produced in nuclear reactions with different projectiles. The reaction yields and cross-sections have been measured in a series of experiments and the results are now overviewed. The systematics of isomer-to-ground state ratios are drawn and real production capabilities are estimated for the best reactions. Such a summary is relevant to the significance of the isomer studies both for the nuclear-science knowledge and for possible applications. Potential isomer applications have been earlier stressed in popular publications with probably overestimated expectations. The real possibilities are restricted in part by the production yield and by other shortcomings as well

  11. Genetic analysis of yield and yield related traits in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. under well-watered and water-stressed conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darvishzadeh Reza

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Drought stress is one of the factors which influence sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. production. Breeding for tolerance to drought stress has become a major focus. In the present investigation, combining ability, gene action and genetic analysis of several characteristics were studied in six pure lines of sunflower and their 15 hybrids. The materials were evaluated in two separate experiments using a randomized complete block design (RCBD with three replications in two states (well-watered and water-stressed under controlled conditions. Comparison of mean values exhibited that under water- stressed condition the average performance of sunflower genotypes were decreased for all studied traits. In well-watered condition the highest value for seed yield per plant (SY was observed in the cross 'LR4´LR25', whereas in water-stressed condition the highest value for this trait was observed in the hybrid 'C104´LR25'. Combining ability analysis revealed that most of agronomical traits such as head diameter, number of achene per head, head weight and seed yield inherited differently in stressed and non-stressed conditions. In water-stressed conditions, the non-additive effects played a more important role for controlling the number of achene per head (NA, seed yield per plant (SY, head diameter (HD, and days from flowering to physiological maturity (DFM than additive. Based on results yield improvement for water-stressed conditions requires selection under drought conditions. In well-watered condition, the cross 'LR4´C10' showed the best SCA value for seed yield per plant (SY. In water-stressed conditions, 'RHA266´C100' had the highest SCA for seed yield per plant (SY and number of achene (NA per head.

  12. A Global Analysis of Light and Charge Yields in Liquid Xenon

    CERN Document Server

    Lenardo, Brian; Szydagis, Matthew; Tripathi, Mani

    2014-01-01

    We present an updated model of light and charge yields from nuclear recoils in liquid xenon with a simultaneously constrained parameter set. A global analysis is performed using measurements of electron and photon yields compiled from all available historical data, as well as measurements of the ratio of the two. These data sweep over energies from 1 - 300 keV and external applied electric fields from 0 - 4060 V/cm. The model is constrained by constructing global cost functions and using a gradient descent minimizer, a simulated annealing algorithm, and a Markov Chain Monte Carlo approach to optimize and find confidence intervals on all free parameters in the model. This analysis contrasts with previous work in that we do not unnecessarily exclude data sets nor impose artificially conservative assumptions, do not use spline functions, and reduce the number of parameters used in NEST v0.98. We report our results and the calculated best-fit charge and light yields. These quantities are crucial to understanding ...

  13. A meta-analysis of responses of wheat yield formation to elevated ozone concentration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG ZhaoZhong; KOBAYASHI Kazuhiko; WANG XiaoKe; FENG ZongWei

    2009-01-01

    The meta-analysis method was applied to quantitatively investigate effects of the elevated ozone con-centration ([O3]) on chlorophyll concentration, gas exchange and yield components of wheat. There were 39 effective references through Web of Science (ISI, USA) and Chinese journal full-text database (CNKI, China). The results of meta-analysis indicated that elevated [O3] decreased grain yield, grain weight, grain number per ear, ear number per plant and harvest index by 26%, 18%, 11%, 5% and 11%,respectively, relative to ambient air. The decrease in leaf physiological characters was much greater than that in yield when wheat was expose to elevated [O3], while light-saturated photosynthetic rate (Asat), stomatal conductance (Gs) and chlorophyll content (ChI) decreased by 40%, 31%, and 46%,respectively. The responses to elevated [O3] between spring wheat and winter wheat were similar. Most of the variables showed a linear decrease trend with an increase of [O3]. The most significant decrease for Asat, Gs and Chl was found in grain filling stage. Elevated [CO2] could significantly ameliorated or offset the detrimental effects caused by elevated [O3].

  14. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis Reveals Different Silk Yields of Two Silkworm Strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Juan; Qin, Sheng; Yu, Huanjun; Zhang, Jing; Liu, Na; Yu, Ye; Hou, Chengxiang; Li, Muwang

    2016-01-01

    Cocoon and silk yields are the most important characteristics of sericulture. However, few studies have examined the genes that modulate these features. Further studies of these genes will be useful for improving the products of sericulture. JingSong (JS) and Lan10 (L10) are two strains having significantly different cocoon and silk yields. In the current study, RNA-Seq and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) were performed on both strains in order to determine divergence of the silk gland, which controls silk biosynthesis in silkworms. Compared with L10, JS had 1375 differentially expressed genes (DEGs; 738 up-regulated genes and 673 down-regulated genes). Nine enriched gene ontology (GO) terms were identified by GO enrichment analysis based on these DEGs. KEGG enrichment analysis results showed that the DEGs were enriched in three pathways, which were mainly associated with the processing and biosynthesis of proteins. The representative genes in the enrichment pathways and ten significant DEGs were further verified by qPCR, the results of which were consistent with the RNA-Seq data. Our study has revealed differences in silk glands between the two silkworm strains and provides a perspective for understanding the molecular mechanisms determining silk yield. PMID:27159277

  15. Three-Dimensional Analysis of Rolling by Twin Shear Stress Yield Criterion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO De-wen; XIE Ying-jie; LIU Xiang-hua; WANG Guo-dong

    2006-01-01

    Using the twin shear stress yield criterion, the surface integral of the co-line vectors, and the integration depending on upper limit, Kobayashi's three-dimensional velocity field of rolling was analyzed and an analytical expression of rolling torque and single force was obtained. Through redoing the same experiment of rolling pure lead as Sims, the calculated results by the above expression were compared with those of Kobayashi and Sims formulae. The results show that the twin shear stress yield criterion is available for rolling analysis and the calculated results by the new formula are a little higher than those by Kobayashi and Sims ones if the reduction ratio is less than 30%.

  16. Genetic Analysis and Combining Ability Studies for Yield Related Characters in Rapeseed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aamar Shehzad

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Combining ability analysis has a key position in rapeseed breeding. To estimate the combining ability effects for yield controlling traits in rapeseed, three testers and five lines were crossed using line × tester design in randomized complete block design with three replications. Mean sum of squares of analysis of variances for genotypes were significant for all of the traits; indicating the presence of significant genetic variation. All the interactions between lines and testers exhibited significant results of mean sum of squares for combining ability. Line ‘Duncled’ was found good general combiner for decreased Plant height (PH:-2.0, Days taken to 50% flowering (DF: -15.8 and Days taken to maturity (DM:-3.4 while tester ‘Punjab Sarson” for increased Number of seed/siliqua (SS: 2.2, Number of siliquae/plant (SP: 2.2 and decreased DF (-3.0 traits. Significant general and specific combining ability effects were observed. The best hybrid combination on the basis of specific combining ability effects was “Durre-NIFA × ZN-M-6” for Seed yield/plant (SY: 2.7, DF (-6.1 and DM (-3.5. PH (-0.2, Siliqua length (SL: -0.1, SS (-0.03 and SY (0.2 showed non-additive genetic effects. The half of the characters revealed additive and remaining half showed non-additive genetic effects. The present study unveiled the importance of both type of genetic effects demanding the application of integrated breeding approaches for exploiting the variability. ‘Punjab Sarson × ZN-M-6’ exposed maximum SS (30 and SP (837. Maximum SY (75.9g and minimum DF (64 were showed by ‘Legend × Duncled’. The present research delivers valuable information of genotypes for promoting yield by means of improving yield related characters.

  17. Energy development potential: An analysis of Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper develops an indicator for the energy development potential (EDP) of 27 Brazilian states. This indicator uses data on a state's infrastructure and its supply of and demand for energy. The indicator measures the data for three periods: the first part of the 1990s, which is a period of low economic growth; the first part of the 2000s, which is a period of high economic growth but with a historical crisis in the Brazilian energy sector; and 2009–2011, which is a period of economic growth after the energy crisis. Using a factor analysis, we are able to identify three factors for EDP. They are the demand for energy, the supply of renewable energy, and the supply of nonrenewable energy. We use these factors to classify the Brazilian states according to their EDP and to perform an exploratory spatial data analysis (ESDA) by using the Moran indicators and the local indicators of spatial association (LISA). - Highlights: • This paper deals with the spatial dimension of the Brazilian energy sector. • We construct an index of the energy development potential for Brazilian states. • Energy issues are defined over time and space, thus have spatial dimensions. • The spatial results show that there are two well-defined spatial patterns

  18. Yield component analysis and recombinative heterosis of complex characters in QPM maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Thanga Hemavathy, N.Subbaraman, S.M.Ibrahim and K.Balaji

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Component analysis is the analysis of variation of complex character based on the variation of its components. For assessing the variation,components should be arranged in ontogenetical order. This allows determination of the mutually independent contributions of the components tothe variation of complex character. Component analysis provides the necessary data for the exploitation of recombinative heterosis in plantbreeding. Recombinative heterosis is the phenomenon where in, the progeny value of a complex character exceeds the mid parental value as aresult of the multiplicative relationship between the complex character and its component traits. It is suggested that this form of heterosis may bean important cause of specific combining ability. As such, it may be involved in the heterosis of complex characters in F1 hybrids and in thehybrid- vigor encountered in interspecific hybrid populations. It is demonstrated how recombinative heterosis may be explained by a quantitativegenetical model involving additive inheritance of the component traits. Current study was focused to predict progeny performance for thecomplex character from parental data for the component traits. This requires regression of individual components on the preceding primarycharacters. The contribution of the coefficient for yield component C3 (single seed weight to variance of log yield was maximum in the parentsCML 189, UMI 814, CML 145, UMI 524, CML 141 followed by the coefficient C2 (number of kernels per row which was maximum in theparents UMI 427 and UMI 814. In the present investigation, 35 hybrid combinations were tested for progeny prediction value. Application of thisprocedure revealed that among the 35 crosses, five crosses exceeded the predicted mid parental value. The predicted values can serve as a basisfor the selection of promising combinations. The crosses that exhibited higher values for grain yield per plant was predicted in the combination ofCML 142 x UMI

  19. Genetic analysis and hybrid vigor study of grain yield and other quantitative traits in auto tetraploid rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genetic analysis and genotype-by-environment interaction for important traits of auto tetraploid rice were evaluated by additive, dominance and additive X additive model. It was show n that genetic effects had more influence on grain yield and other quantitative traits of auto tetraploid rice than genotypic environment interaction. Plant height, panicle length, seed set , grain yield, dry matter production and 1000-grain weight we re mainly regulated by dominance variance. Additive and additive X additive gene action constructed the main proportion of genetic variance for heading date (flowering), number of panicles, grains per panicle, grain length, however grain width was supposed to be affected by additive X additive and dominance variance. Flag leaf length and width, fresh weight, peduncle length, unfilled grains and awn length were greatly influenced by genotypic environment interaction. Heading date produced highly negative heterosis over mid parent (H pm) and better parent ( H pb), whereas H pm and H pb were detected to be highly positive and significant for grain yield, seed set, peduncle length, filled grains and 1000-grain weight in F/sub 1/ and F/sub 2/ generations. The results indicated that auto tetraploid hybrids 96025 X Jackson (indica/japonica), 96025 X Linglun (indica/indica) and Linglun X Jackson (indica/japonica) showed highly significant hybrid vigor with improved seed set percentage and grain yield. These results suggest that intra-specific auto tetraploid rice hybrids have more hybrid vigor as compared to intra-sub specific auto tetraploid rice hybrids and auto tetraploid rice has the potential to be used for further studies and commercial application. (author)

  20. The effect of paratuberculosis on milk yield--A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAloon, Conor G; Whyte, Paul; More, Simon J; Green, Martin J; O'Grady, Luke; Garcia, AnaBelen; Doherty, Michael L

    2016-02-01

    Bovine paratuberculosis is a disease characterized by chronic granulomatous enteritis causing protein-losing enteropathy. Adverse effects on animal productivity are key drivers in the attempt to control paratuberculosis at the farm level. Economic models require an accurate estimation of the production effects associated with paratuberculosis. The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate the effect of paratuberculosis on milk production. A total of 20 effect estimates from 15 studies were included in the final meta-analysis. Substantial between-study heterogeneity was observed. Subgroup analysis by case definition and study design was carried out to investigate heterogeneity. The majority of between-study variation was attributed to studies that defined cases on serology. Calculation of a pooled effect estimate was only appropriate for studies that defined cases by organism detection. A reduction in milk yield, corrected for lactation number and herd of origin of 1.87 kg/d, equivalent to 5.9% of yield, was associated with fecal culture or PCR positivity in individual cows. PMID:26686704

  1. Generation mean analysis of grain yield and its related traits in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. S. Raikwar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Generation mean analysis was performed using three crosses namely DL 88 x K 560, K 603 x Azad, RD 2552 x NDB 1020 to study the nature and magnitude of gene effects for yield and its component characters in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.. The F1, F2, BC1 and BC2 of these crosses along with P1 and P2 were studied for six morphological traits. Additive x additive (i epistatic effect was more important and higher than the dominance x dominance (l epistatic effect in the inheritance of no. of effective tillers/plant in DL88 x K560, length of main spike and grain yield/plant in RD 2552 x NDB1020. The length of main spike, weight of grains/main spike, 1000-grain weight and grain yield/plant were significantly higher in RD 2552 x NDB 1020.Thus, these characters were mainly under the control of dominance x dominance (l type of epistasis. Therefore, selection for these characters would be fruitful, if delayed till dominance and epistasis effects are reduced to minimum. The additive × additive (i type gene interaction and duplicate epistasis also seen in this trait suggest the possibilities of obtaining transgressive segregants in later generations. The study revealed the importance of both additive and non-additive types of gene interaction for all the traits studied.

  2. Use of Selection Indices Based on Multivariate Analysis for Improving Grain Yield in Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hossein SABOURI; Babak RABIEI; Maryam FAZLALIPOUR

    2008-01-01

    In order to study selection indices for improving rice grain yield, a cross was made between an Iranian traditional rice (Oryza sativa L.) variety, Tarommahalli and an improved indica rice variety, Khazar in 2006. The traits of the parents (30 plants), F1 (30 plants) and F2 generations (492 individuals) were evaluated at the Rice Research institute of Iran (RRII) during 2007. Heritabilities of the number of panicles per plant, plant height, days to heading and panicle exsertion were greater than that of grain yield. The selection indices were developed using the results of multivariate analysis. To evaluate selection strategies to maximize grain yield, 14 selection indices were calculated based on two methods (optimum and base) and combinations of 12 traits with various economic weights. Results of selection indices showed that selection for grain weight, number of panicles per plant and panicle length by using their phenotypic and/or genotypic direct effects (path coefficient) as economic weights should serve as an effective selection criterion for using either the optimum or base index.

  3. Energy inputs - yield relationship and cost analysis of kiwifruit production in Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohammadi, Ali; Rafiee, Shahin; Mohtasebi, Seyed Saeid [Department of Agricultural Machinery Engineering, Faculty of Agricultural Engineering and Technology, University of Tehran, Karaj (Iran); Rafiee, Hamed [Department of Agricultural Economics, Faculty of Agricultural Economics and Development, University of Tehran, Karaj (Iran)

    2010-05-15

    This study examines energy consumption of inputs and output used in kiwifruit production, and to find relationship between energy inputs and yield in Mazandaran, Iran. For this purpose, the data were collected from 86 kiwifruit orchards which were selected based on random sampling method. The results indicated that total energy inputs were 30285.62 MJ ha{sup -1}. About 47% of this was generated by total fertilizer including farmyard manure, 28% from diesel fuel and machinery. About 70% of the total energy inputs used in kiwifruit production was indirect while only about 30% was direct. Econometric estimation results revealed that energy inputs of human labour, water for irrigation, total fertilizer and machinery contributed significantly to the yield. The impact of human labour energy (0.17) was found the highest among the other inputs in kiwifruit production. The results also showed that direct, indirect and renewable and non-renewable, energy forms had a positive impact on output level. Cost analysis showed that total cost of kiwifruit production was obtained as 6063.81 ha{sup -1}. The productivity (4.05 kg {sup -1}) was obtained by dividing kiwifruit yield by total production cost. (author)

  4. Genetic analysis for yield and its components in okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench)

    OpenAIRE

    Konda Chandrasekhar Reddy4; Mutyala Ganesh; Kadiyala Haribabu2; Medagam Thirupathi Reddy; Hameedunnisa Begum; Reddivenkatagari Subbararama Krishna Reddy1; Jampala Dilip Babu1

    2012-01-01

    Combining ability variances and effects of yield and its components in okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench)were studied through half diallel analysis of 45 F1 hybrids derived by crossing 10 nearly homozygous germplasm lines namelyP1(IC282248), P2(IC27826-A), P3(IC29119-B), P4(IC31398-A), P5(IC45732), P6(IC89819), P7(IC89976), P8(IC90107), P9(IC99716) andP10(IC111443) during mid kharif (July-October), 2009, at the Vegetable Research Station, Rajendranagar, Andhra Pradesh,India. Both addit...

  5. Cluster analysis of breeding values for milk yield and lactation persistency in Guzerá cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Diego Augusto Campos da Cruz; Rodrigo Pelicioni Savegnago; Annaíza Braga Bignardi Santana; Maria Gabriela Campolina Diniz Peixoto; Frank Angelo Tomita Bruneli; Lenira El Faro

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to explore the pattern of genetic lactation curves of Guzerá cattle using cluster analysis. Test-day milk yields of 5,274 first-lactation Guzerá cows were recorded in a progeny test. A total of 34,193 monthly records were analyzed with a random regression animal model using Legendre polynomials to fit additive genetic and permanent environmental random effects and mean trends. Hierarchical and non-hierarchical cluster analyses were performed based on the EB...

  6. Pyrolysis of hazelnut shells in a fixed-bed tubular reactor. Yields and structural analysis of bio-oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puetuen, A.E.; Oezcan, A.; Puetuen, E. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Yunusemre Campus, Anadolu University, 26470 Eskisehir (Turkey)

    1999-09-01

    Fixed-bed pyrolysis experiments have been conducted on a sample of hazelnut shells to determine the possibility of being a potential source of renewable fuels and chemical feedstocks. The effects of pyrolysis temperature and well-sweep gas atmosphere (N{sub 2}) on the pyrolysis yields and chemical compositions have been investigated. The maximum bio-oil yield of 23.1 wt.% was obtained in N{sub 2} atmosphere at a pyrolysis temperature of 500C and heating rate of 7 K min{sup -1}. The pyrolysis products were characterised by elemental analysis and various chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques and also compared with currently utilised transport fuels by simulated distillation. Bio-oil was then fractionated into pentane soluble and insoluble compounds (asphaltenes). Pentane soluble was then solvent fractionated into pentane, toluene, ether and methanol subfractions by fractionated column chromatography. The aliphatic and low-molecular-weight aromatic subfractions of the bio-oil were then analyzed by capillary column gas-liquid chromatography and GC/MS. Further structural analysis of bio-oil and aromatic and polar subfractions FTIR and {sup 1}H-NMR spectra were obtained. The chemical characterization has shown that the bio-oil obtained from hazelnut shells was quite similar to the crude oil and shale oil

  7. QTL analysis of novel genomic regions associated with yield and yield related traits in new plant type based recombinant inbred lines of rice (Oryza sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marathi Balram

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rice is staple food for more than half of the world’s population including two billion Asians, who obtain 60-70% of their energy intake from rice and its derivatives. To meet the growing demand from human population, rice varieties with higher yield potential and greater yield stability need to be developed. The favourable alleles for yield and yield contributing traits are distributed among two subspecies i.e., indica and japonica of cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.. Identification of novel favourable alleles in indica/japonica will pave way to marker-assisted mobilization of these alleles in to a genetic background to break genetic barriers to yield. Results A new plant type (NPT based mapping population of 310 recombinant inbred lines (RILs was used to map novel genomic regions and QTL hotspots influencing yield and eleven yield component traits. We identified major quantitative trait loci (QTLs for days to 50% flowering (R2 = 25%, LOD = 14.3, panicles per plant (R2 = 19%, LOD = 9.74, flag leaf length (R2 = 22%, LOD = 3.05, flag leaf width (R2 = 53%, LOD = 46.5, spikelets per panicle (R2 = 16%, LOD = 13.8, filled grains per panicle (R2 = 22%, LOD = 15.3, percent spikelet sterility (R2 = 18%, LOD = 14.24, thousand grain weight (R2 = 25%, LOD = 12.9 and spikelet setting density (R2 = 23%, LOD = 15 expressing over two or more locations by using composite interval mapping. The phenotypic variation (R2 ranged from 8 to 53% for eleven QTLs expressing across all three locations. 19 novel QTLs were contributed by the NPT parent, Pusa1266. 15 QTL hotpots on eight chromosomes were identified for the correlated traits. Six epistatic QTLs effecting five traits at two locations were identified. A marker interval (RM3276-RM5709 on chromosome 4 harboring major QTLs for four traits was identified. Conclusions The present study reveals that favourable alleles for

  8. Genetic analysis of inheritance and mutual relationships among yield components, morphological-biological traits and yield of green mass of red clover (Trifolium pratense L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasiljević Sanja

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Diallel crosses involving five divergent red clover genotypes (two varieties Junior and Diana, and three populations, Vlaška, BL-3 and M-11 were made at the Experiment Field of the Forage Crops Department of the Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops in Novi Sad. During the 2001-2002 period, progenies obtained in the crosses were tested for stem length, stem thickness, length of central lamina, yield of green mass per plant, start of flowering persistence and growth habit. The analysis of phenotypic variance showed that the additive gene action played the dominant role in the inheritance of stem length, yield of green mass per plant and growth habit. Partial dominance was the most frequent mode of inheritance. A larger contribution of dominant variance to total genotypic variance and low values of narrow sense heritability (hn2 were obtained for stem thickness (16.67% and 23.07% respectively. In both study years (2001-2002, using path coefficient analysis, we observed significant direct effects of stem length on green mass yield per plant (9.09*, and 6.23*, respectively.

  9. Accuracy Analysis of Anisotropic Yield Functions based on the Root-Mean Square Error

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, Hoon; Lou, Yanshan; Bae, Gihyun; Lee, Changsoo

    2010-06-01

    This paper evaluates the accuracy of popular anisotropic yield functions based on the root-mean square error (RMSE) of the yield stresses and the R-values. The yield functions include Hill48, Yld89, Yld91, Yld96, Yld2000-2d, BBC2000 and Yld2000-18p yield criteria. Two kind steels and five kind aluminum alloys are selected for the accuracy evaluation. The anisotropic coefficients in yield functions are computed from the experimental data. The downhill simplex method is utilized for the parameter evaluation for the yield function except Hill48 and Yld89 yield functions after the error functions are constructed. The yield stresses and the R-values at every 15°from the rolling direction (RD) and the yield stress and R-value at equibiaxial tension conditions are predicted from each yield function. The predicted yield stresses and R-values are then compared with the experimental data. The root-mean square errors (RMSE) are computed to quantitatively evaluate the yield function. The RMSEs are calculated for the yield stresses and the R-values separately because the yield stress difference is much smaller that the difference in the R-values. The RMSEs of different yield functions are compared for each material. The Hill48 and Yld89 yield functions are the worst choices for the anisotropic description of the yield stress anisotropy while Yld91 yield function is the last choice for the modeling of the R-value directionality. Yld2000-2d and BBC2000 yield function have the same accuracy on the modeling of both the yield stress anisotropy and the R-value anisotropy. The best choice is Yld2000-18 yield function to accurately describe the yield tress and R-value directionalities of sheet metals.

  10. Analysis of the thermal profiles and the charcoal gravimetric yield in three variations of rectangular brick

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Rogerio Lima Mota de; Alves Junior, Edson; Mulina, Bruno Henrique Oliveira; Borges, Valerio Luiz; Carvalho, Solidonio Rodrigues de [Federal University of Uberlandia - UFU, MG (Brazil). School of Mechanical Engineering - FEMEC], e-mails: rogerio@mecanica.ufu.br, edson@mec.ufu.br, vlborges@mecanica.ufu.br, srcarvalho@mecanica.ufu.br

    2010-07-01

    Charcoal assumes a major role in Brazilian economic scenario. The procedure for obtaining charcoal consists in carbonization of wood at certain specific temperatures in kilns. This ancient process has a few joined technologies and the kilns for such practice do not have any control instruments, in their great majority, becoming dependent on the ability of its operators. However, in recent decades several studies have been developed to improve the practice as well as the equipment that involve and control the stages of charcoal production. In this sense, this work proposes the analysis of the thermal profiles and the gravimetric yield in three variations of a rectangular brick kiln called RAC220: traditional (without any type of instrumentation), instrumented with thermal sensors (RTD PT100) and adapted with gasifier. The goal is to correlate temperature, gravimetric yield and quality of the produced charcoal. Immediate analyses were performed to determine the amount of fixed carbon, volatile gases and ashes contents in charcoal. Through such measurement procedures, together with statistical analysis, the aim is to identify an important tool to reduce the time of charcoal production and also contributes to minimize losses and to increase the thermal efficiency of the production process. (author)

  11. [Comparison of potential yield and resource utilization efficiency of main food crops in three provinces of Northeast China under climate change].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-yu; Yang, Xiao-guang; Sun, Shuang; Xie, Wen-juan

    2015-10-01

    Based on the daily data of 65 meteorological stations from 1961 to 2010 and the crop phenology data in the potential cultivation zones of thermophilic and chimonophilous crops in Northeast China, the crop potential yields were calculated through step-by-step correction method. The spatio-temporal distribution of the crop potential yields at different levels was analyzed. And then we quantified the limitations of temperature and precipitation on the crop potential yields and compared the differences in the climatic resource utilization efficiency. The results showed that the thermal potential yields of six crops (including maize, rice, spring wheat, sorghum, millet and soybean) during the period 1961-2010 deceased from west to east. The climatic potential yields of the five crops (spring wheat not included) were higher in the south than in the north. The potential yield loss rate due to temperature limitations of the six crops presented a spatial distribution pattern and was higher in the east than in the west. Among the six main crops, the yield potential loss rate due to temperature limitation of the soybean was the highest (51%), and those of the other crops fluctuated within the range of 33%-41%. The potential yield loss rate due to water limitation had an obvious regional difference, and was high in Songnen Plain and Changbai Mountains. The potential yield loss rate of spring wheat was the highest (50%), and those of the other four rainfed crops fluctuated within the range of 8%-10%. The solar energy utilization efficiency of the six main crops ranged from 0.9% to 2.7%, in the order of maize> sorghum>rice>millet>spring wheat>soybean. The precipitation utilization efficiency of the maize, sorghum, spring wheat, millet and soybean under rainfed conditions ranged from 8 to 35 kg . hm-2 . mm-1, in the order of maize>sorghum>spring wheat>millet>soybean. In those areas with lower efficiency of solar energy utilization and precipitation utilization, such as Changbai

  12. CYCLIC RECURRENCE ASSESSMENT OF GRAIN YIELD TIME SERIES USING PHASE ANALYSIS INSTRUMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Temirov A. A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An algorithm of phase analysis as the instrument of nonlinear dynamics' methods used to study cyclic recurrence of time series is viewed in current article. The existing classical econometric methods for estimating cyclic recurrence developed for random systems which dynamics matches to the normal distribution. However, there also exists non-random systems characterized by trends, periodic and non-periodic cycles called quasicycles. An example of computing process of identifying quasicycles is illustrated on time series of all grain yields in Russia for the last 119 years. Phase portrait of this time series is illustrated in twodimension space. As a result, the phase portrait consists of 22 frequently unstable quasicycles which tottality forms a strange attractor. Quasicycles have quantitative (length and quality (configuration characteristics. Their combination defines very important characteristic called trend-stability. Phase analysis is a powerful form of analysis of time series to assess cyclic recurrence and is a tool for pre-forecasting analysis. Fuzzy sets' mathematical apparatus is also used in this article. An algorithm of formation of fuzzy sets' quasicycles' length is also presented here. Quasicycles' statistics are presented in tables, geometric patterns and in the form of fuzzy sets

  13. Simple models of cassava [Manihot utilissima] attainable yield estimation for regional-level productivity analysis in northeast Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to estimate cassava productivity in Northeast Thailand, notorious for its low and unstable agricultural production, simple yield models were developed using water use efficiency (WUE) and radiation conversion efficiency (Cs). In the WUE model, daily dry matter production was estimated by the WUE and transpiration, whereas in the Cs model, by absorbed solar radiation, Cs and LAI. Daily transpiration was estimated by LAI and evapotranspiration, which was estimated from air temperature and solar radiation. The effect of water stress was incorporated through the calculation of actual transpiration in the WUE model, and through a water stress index, i.e. the ratio of actual against potential transpiration in the Cs model. Several experiments, conducted in an experimental farm in Khon Kaen University, located in Northeast Thailand, provided parameters necessary for the models. Validations in the experimental farm and a farmers' field indicated that the models developed were able to estimate the growth and yield of cassava to an acceptable level. Although both models were equally successful, the WUE model seems preferable for application in regional level productivity analysis, because of its simplicity

  14. Surface analysis by glow discharge spectrometry: cathode zone and sputtering yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Applications of the glow discharge optical spectroscopy for surface analysis are numerous. Moreover, this method enables to get qualitative and semi-quantitative results which are already significant. However, we should improve our knowledge of the physical parameters involved in the glow discharge lamp mechanisms and learn to handle such phenomena. The problems can be divided into two categories: sputtering of the target under argon ions accelerated in the cathode dark space, and luminous emission of torn away species which reach the negative glow region. Our aim was to take stock of the present theoretical knowledge which can be applied to the specific self-maintained glow discharge plasma. Moreover, we tried to link together (often roughly) the basic discharge parameters, i.e. current intensity I, voltage of the lamp Vg, pressure of the gas p. Specially a comparison between theoretical and experimental results was established concerning the pure target sputtering yields. The contribution of the argon ions striking the cathode is estimated taking into account their energetic distribution. The role of the fast argon neutrals produced by charge exchange with the ions is important; we evaluated their energetic distribution and their contribution to sputtering. The total theoretical sputtering yield is inferred: the comparison with experimental results is presented. The role of the gas temperature is emphasized

  15. Quantitative and Genetic Analysis of Yield and Seed Quality Components in New Winter Wheat Varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bede

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Long term genetic examination, selection of right parents for crossing and directed selection programs in hybrid population resulted with creation of new winter wheat varieties Kruna, Lara, Lenta, Perla and Astra. In examination conducted in few years period time all new cultivars shown considerably higher yield than standard variety Žitarka. 1000 kernel weight and hectoliter mass almost in all new varieties were on standard level. In new varieties ear was significantly longer than in standard variety Žitarka. From that we can conclude that increasing of the ear length have important influence on increasing of seed yield in new varieties. By the farinografic and extensografic quality index, protein content in seed, sedimentation values of flour and content of wet gluten varieties Lara, Kruna, Perla and especially Lenta can be classify in high quality winter wheat varieties. Results of genotype analysis of new varieties point on known varieties Žitarka and Slavonija. These varieties served as gene donators for some important economic traits in crossing for creating of new varieties.

  16. Yield stability and adaptability of maize hybrids based on GGE biplot analysis characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Balestre

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate stability and adaptability of the grain yield of commercial intervarietalmaize hybrids by the GGE (Genotype and Genotype by Environment Interaction biplot and AMMI (Additive Main Effects andMultiplicative Interaction analyses. Two intervarietal hybrids (BIO 2 and BIO4 were evaluated together with single, doubleand three-way cross hybrids. The performance of the intervarietal hybrid BIO 4 was superior to all double and three-waycross hybrids and outmatched the single-cross hybrids by 43%. In terms of stability, BIO 2 was more stable than BIO4, whichis desirable, but biological stability, which is not necessarily desirable, was also observed, since the yield was below theenvironmental mean. The graphical GGE biplot analysis was superior to the AMMI1 since a greater portion of the sum ofsquares of GE and G+GE was captured and the predictive accuracy was higher. On the other hand, the AMMI2 graphoutperformed the GGE biplot in predictive accuracy and explanation of G + GE and GE, although the difference in accuracywas smaller than between GGE2 and AMMI1.

  17. Dalitz-plot analysis of B{sup 0} {yields} anti-D{sup 0} {pi}+ {pi}-

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roney, Michael [BABAR, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, P.O.Box 3055 Stn Csc, Victoria, BC V8W 3P6 (Canada); Latham, Thomas [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry, CV4 7AL (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-01

    Constraints on the CKM Unitarity Triangle angle {beta} can be obtained from a time-dependent Dalitz-plot analysis of the decay B{sup 0} {yields} D {pi}+ {pi}-. We present preliminary results of an analysis of the B{sup 0} {yields} D {pi}+ {pi}- Dalitz plot using the final BaBar dataset, consisting of around 471 million BB-bar pairs. (author)

  18. Computer analysis of effects of altering jet fuel properties on refinery costs and yields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breton, T.; Dunbar, D.

    1984-01-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the adequacy of future U.S. jet fuel supplies, the potential for large increases in the cost of jet fuel, and to what extent a relaxation in jet fuel properties would remedy these potential problems. The results of the study indicate that refiners should be able to meet jet fuel output requirements in all regions of the country within the current Jet A specifications during the 1990-2010 period. The results also indicate that it will be more difficult to meet Jet A specifications on the West Coast, because the feedstock quality is worse and the required jet fuel yield (jet fuel/crude refined) is higher than in the East. The results show that jet fuel production costs could be reduced by relaxing fuel properties. Potential cost savings in the East (PADDs I-IV) through property relaxation were found to be about 1.3 cents/liter (5 cents/gallon) in January 1, 1981 dollars between 1990 and 2010. However, the savings from property relaxation were all obtained within the range of current Jet A specifications, so there is no financial incentive to relax Jet A fuel specifications in the East. In the West (PADD V) the potential cost savings from lowering fuel quality were considerably greater than in the East. Cost savings from 2.7 to 3.7 cents/liter (10-14 cents/gallon) were found. In contrast to the East, on the West Coast a significant part of the savings was obtained through relaxation of the current Jet A fuel specifications.

  19. Impacts of rice varieties and management on yield-scaled greenhouse gas emissions from rice fields in China: A meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, H.; Huang, H.; Yao, L.; Liu, J.; He, H.; Tang, J.

    2014-07-01

    Increasing numbers of studies have suggested that a comprehensive assessment of the impacts of cropping practices on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions per unit yield (yield-scaled), rather than by land area (area-scaled), is needed to inform trade-off decisions to increase yields and reduce GHG emissions. We conducted a meta-analysis to quantify impacts of rice varieties on the global warming potential (GWP) of GHG emissions at the yield scale in China. Our results showed that significantly higher yield-scaled GWP occurred with indica rice varieties (1101.72 kg CO2 equiv. Mg-1) than japonica rice varieties (711.38 kg CO2 equiv. Mg-1). Lower yield-scaled GHG emissions occurred within 120-130 days of growth duration after transplanting (GDAT; 613.66 kg CO2 equiv. Mg-1), followed by 90-100 days of GDAT (749.72 kg CO2 equiv. Mg-1, 100-110 days of GDAT (794.29 kg CO2 equiv. Mg-1), and 70-80 days of GDAT (800.85 kg CO2 equiv. Mg-1). The fertilizer rate of 150-200 kg N ha-1 resulted in the lowest yield-scaled GWP. Consequently, appropriate cultivar choice and pairs were of vital importance in the rice cropping system. A further life cycle assessment of GHG emissions among rice varieties at the yield scale is urgently needed to develop win-win policies for rice production to achieve higher yield with lower emissions.

  20. Sequential path analysis of some yield and quality components in sugar beet grown in normal and drought conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Baradaran Firouzabadi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Through biometrical analyses of yield and its components selection indices can be generated and be used in future breeding programs. Sugar yield components were considered as the first order variables (FOV in previous path analyses studies, while white sugar yield (WSY and its related traits were the FOV here. Three lines of sugar beet (7219-P.69, BP-Karaj, 7112 were evaluated in drought and non-drought conditions. Two sequential path models were used for analysis of associations among WSY and its related traits by arraying the various variables in first-, second-, and third-order paths on the basis of their maximum direct effects and minimal collinearity. Four first-order variables, namely root diameter, sugar yield, molasses content and sugar content, revealed highest direct effects on WSY at normal condition, while root length, α-amino-N, root yield, crown dry weight, water use efficiency and Na+ were found to fit as second-order variables. Three first-order variables, namely sugar content, sugar yield and molasses content, revealed highest direct effects on white sugar yield at drought-stress condition. In this case, sugar yield had the highest direct effect on WSY. In general, the sequential path analysis was efficiently demonstrated the effects of predictor variables.

  1. The use of phenotypic correlations and factor analysis in determining characters for grain yield selection in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toker, Cengiz; Ilhan Cagirgan, M

    2004-01-01

    To our knowledge, this is the first report on the use of factor analysis in determining characters for yield selection in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.). The present investigation was undertaken to evaluate yield criteria in chickpea using phenotypic correlations and factor analysis. Factor 1 composed of biological yield, reaction to ascochyta blight (Ascochyta rabiei (Pass.) Labr.), plant height, grain yield and harvest index. Factor 2 consisted of branches and pods per plant. Factor 3 encompassed of only the grain weight. The total factors explained 92.9% of the total variance caused in the characters. The grain yield was positively and statistically significant correlated with biological yield, harvest index, plant height, branches and pods per plant, while it was negatively and statistically significant related with reaction to ascochyta blight and grain weight. Biological yield, harvest index, plant height and reaction to ascochyta blight instead of many selection criteria should previously be evaluated in selection to increase the grain yield in chickpea breeding programs. Pods per plant should be handed together with and branches per plant. Apart from the other selection criteria, the grain weight should solely be evaluated to select large grained genotypes. PMID:15198713

  2. Soil mulching significantly enhances yields and water and nitrogen use efficiencies of maize and wheat: a meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Wei; Hu, Chunsheng; Oenema, Oene

    2015-11-01

    Global crop yields are limited by water and nutrient availability. Soil mulching (with plastic or straw) reduces evaporation, modifies soil temperature and thereby affects crop yields. Reported effects of mulching are sometimes contradictory, likely due to differences in climatic conditions, soil characteristics, crop species, and also water and nitrogen (N) input levels. Here we report on a meta-analysis of the effects of mulching on wheat and maize, using 1310 yield observations from 74 studies conducted in 19 countries. Our results indicate that mulching significantly increased yields, WUE (yield per unit water) and NUE (yield per unit N) by up to 60%, compared with no-mulching. Effects were larger for maize than wheat, and larger for plastic mulching than straw mulching. Interestingly, plastic mulching performed better at relatively low temperature while straw mulching showed the opposite trend. Effects of mulching also tended to decrease with increasing water input. Mulching effects were not related to soil organic matter content. In conclusion, soil mulching can significantly increase maize and wheat yields, WUE and NUE, and thereby may contribute to closing the yield gap between attainable and actual yields, especially in dryland and low nutrient input agriculture. The management of soil mulching requires site-specific knowledge.

  3. ANALYSIS OF CHP POTENTIAL AT FEDERAL SITES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HADLEY, S.W.

    2002-03-11

    of these criteria. Executive Order 13123 directs federal facilities to use CHP when life-cycle costs indicate energy reduction goals will be met. FEMP can assist facilities to conduct this analysis. The model developed for this report estimates the magnitude of CHP that could be implemented under various performance and economic assumptions associated with different applications. This model may be useful for other energy technologies. It can be adapted to estimate the market potential in federal buildings for any energy system based on the cost and performance parameters that a user desires to assess. The model already incorporates a standard set of parameters based on available data for federal buildings including total building space, building type, energy use intensity, fuel costs, and the performance of many prime movers commonly used in CHP applications. These and other variables can be adjusted to meet user needs or updated in the future as new data become available.

  4. A meta-analysis of the yield of capsule endoscopy compared to double-balloon enteroscopy in patients with small bowel diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To compare the diagnostic yield of capsule endoscopy(CE) with that of double-balloon enteroscopy (DBE).METHODS: Pubmed, Embase, Elsevier ScienceDirect,the China Academic Journals Full-text Database, and Cochrane Controlled Trials Register were searched for the trials comparing the yield of CE with that of DBE.Outcome measure was odds ratio (OR) of the yield. Fixed or random model method was used for data analysis.RESULTS: Eight studies (n = 277) which prospectively compared the yield of CE and DBE were collected. The results of meta-analysis indicated that there was no difference between the yield of CE and DBE [170/277 vs 156/277, OR 1.21 (95% CI: 0.64-2.29)]. Based on sub analysis, the yield of CE was significantly higher than that of double-balloon enteroscopy without combination of oral and anal insertion approaches [137/219 vs 110/219, OR 1.67 (95% CI: 1.14-2.44), P < 0.01), but not superior to the yield of DBE with combination of the two insertion approaches [26/48 vs 37/48, OR 0.33 (95% CI: 0.05-2.21), P > 0.05)]. A focused meta-analysis of the fully published articles concerning obscure GI bleeding was also performed and showed similar results wherein the yield of CE was significantly higher than that of DBE without combination of oral and anal insertion approaches [118/191 vs 96/191, fixed model: OR 1.61(95% CI: 1.07-2.43), P <0.05)] and the yield of CE was significantly lower than that of DBE by oral and anal combinatory approaches [11/24 vs 21/24, fixed model:OR 0.12 (95% CI: 0.03-0.52), P < 0.01)].CONCLUSION: With combination of oral and anal approaches, the yield of DBE might be at least as high as that of CE. Decisions made regarding the initial approach should depend on patient's physical status, technology availability, patient's preferences, and potential for therapeutic endoscopy.

  5. Nanoparticles and cars : analysis of potential sources

    OpenAIRE

    Uibel Stefanie; Takemura Masaya; Mueller Daniel; Quarcoo David; Klingelhoefer Doris; Groneberg David A

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Urban health is potentially affected by particle emissions. The potential toxicity of nanoparticles is heavily debated and there is an enormous global increase in research activity in this field. In this respect, it is commonly accepted that nanoparticles may also be generated in processes occurring while driving vehicles. So far, a variety of studies addressed traffic-related particulate matter emissions, but only few studies focused on potential nanoparticles. Therefore, the presen...

  6. On-farm yield potential of local seed watermelon landraces under heat- and drought-prone conditions in Mali

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nantoume, Aminata Dolo; Christiansen, Jørgen Lindskrog; Andersen, Sven Bode;

    2012-01-01

    On-farm yield experiments were carried out in the Tombouctou region of Mali in 2009/10 under heat- and drought-prone desert conditions with three local landraces of seed-type watermelons. The landraces, named Fombou, Kaneye and Musa Musa by the farmers, exhibited distinct characteristics for fruit...... morphology, but in particular for seed traits. On average, the three landraces produced a fruit yield of 11·6 t/ha and an estimated seed yield of 364 kg/ha, with no significant differences among landraces. Kaneye showed the highest stability of fruit number/ha in different field environments, suggesting this...... landrace is the best among the three for a poor growing environment, whereas Fombou and especially Musa Musa responded positively to more favourable environments. Seed weight revealed a different trend, with Fombou as the most responsive to favourable conditions, while Kaneye and Musa Musa were less...

  7. Regression analysis for a bottom-up approach to analyzing semi-prompt fission gamma yields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Fitting the semi-prompt non-resolved photon spectrum after fission. ► Energy–time dependence can be factorized. ► Physical model, statistical model, sampling procedure. ► The best fit is: lognormal for energy and F for time. - Abstract: We present an empirical model that describes the yield of gamma rays emitted by fission in the time interval from 20 to 958 ns following a fission event. The analysis is based on experimental data from neutron-induced fission of 235U and 239Pu. The model is devised by first using regression analysis to identify likely patterns in the data and to choose plausible fitting functions. We provide statistical and physical arguments in support of time and energy independence. The intensity of the emitted gamma rays can be described as a bivariate distribution that is the product of independent variates for energy and time. We test several plausible distribution families for the energy and time variates and use maximum likelihood and minimum χ2 to estimate distribution parameters. Because of the uncertainty in the experimental data, multiple combinations of variate pairs give rise to a surface that plausibly well fits the observations well. The best-fit variate turns out to be lognormal in energy and F in time. The findings illustrated in this paper can be used to simulate gamma ray de-excitation from fission in Monte Carlo codes.

  8. Analysis of coelom development in the sea urchin Holopneustes purpurescens yielding a deuterostome body plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie B. Morris

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of early coelom development in the echinoid Holopneustes purpurescens yields a deuterostome body plan that explains the disparity between the pentameral plan of echinoderms and the bilateral plans of chordates and hemichordates, the three major phyla of the monophyletic deuterostomes. The analysis shows an early separation into a medial hydrocoele and lateral coelomic mesoderm with an enteric channel between them before the hydrocoele forms the pentameral plan of five primary podia. The deuterostome body plan thus has a single axial or medial coelom and a pair of lateral coeloms, all surrounding an enteric channel, the gut channel. Applied to the phyla, the medial coelom is the hydrocoele in echinoderms, the notochord in chordates and the proboscis coelom in hemichordates: the lateral coeloms are the coelomic mesoderm in echinoderms, the paraxial mesoderm in chordates and the lateral coeloms in hemichordates. The plan fits frog and chick development and the echinoderm fossil record, and predicts genes involved in coelomogenesis as the source of deuterostome macroevolution.

  9. Corrigendum to "Sinusoidal potential cycling operation of a direct ethanol fuel cell to improving carbon dioxide yields" [J. Power Sources 268 (5 December 2014) 439-442

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majidi, Pasha; Pickup, Peter G.

    2016-09-01

    The authors regret that Equation (5) is incorrect and has resulted in errors in Fig. 4 and the efficiencies stated on p. 442. The corrected equation, figure and text are presented below. In addition, the title should be 'Sinusoidal potential cycling operation of a direct ethanol fuel cell to improve carbon dioxide yields', and the reversible cell potential quoted on p. 441 should be 1.14 V. The authors would like to apologise for any inconvenience caused.

  10. Spatial and harvesting influence on growth, yield, quality and economic potential of Kalmegh (Andrographis paniculata Wall Ex. Nees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeev Kumar

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Andrographis paniculata, commonly known as Kalmegh, is used both in Ayurvedic and Unani system of medicines because of its immunological, antibacterial and hepatoprotective properties. This study was carried out to investigate the influence of four harvesting times (120,135,150 days after planting and at seed maturity and four planting distances (30×15, 30×10, 20×15 and 20×10 cm on growth, dry herbage biomass, seed yield and quality traits of Andrographis paniculata at CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar, India in the two years 2005 and 2006. The treatments were laid out in a split plot design with three replications. The maximum values for dry herbage biomass yield (5.14 t ha^(-1, net returns (760.00 EUR ha^(-1, B:C ratio (2.59, andrographolide content (2.63% and total yield (135.00 kg ha^(-1 were detected 135 days after planting with an optimum planting distance of 30×15 cm. However, the maximum iron content was estimated 120 days after planting. The highest dry herbage (4.58 t ha^(-1 and maximum seed yield (19.7 kg ha^(-1 were registered at plants that were lined out with a distance of 20×10 cm.

  11. Spatial variation in carbon and nitrogen in cultivated soils in Henan Province, China: potential effect on crop yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuelin; Wang, Qun; Gilliam, Frank S; Wang, Yilun; Cha, Feina; Li, Chaohai

    2014-01-01

    Improved management of soil carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) storage in agro-ecosystems represents an important strategy for ensuring food security and sustainable agricultural development in China. Accurate estimates of the distribution of soil C and N stores and their relationship to crop yield are crucial to developing appropriate cropland management policies. The current study examined the spatial variation of soil organic C (SOC), total soil N (TSN), and associated variables in the surface layer (0-40 cm) of soils from intensive agricultural systems in 19 counties within Henan Province, China, and compared these patterns with crop yield. Mean soil C and N concentrations were 14.9 g kg(-1) and 1.37 g kg(-1), respectively, whereas soil C and N stores were 4.1 kg m(-2) and 0.4 kg m(-2), respectively. Total crop production of each county was significantly, positively related to SOC, TSN, soil C and N store, and soil C and N stock. Soil C and N were positively correlated with soil bulk density but negatively correlated with soil porosity. These results indicate that variations in soil C could regulate crop yield in intensive agricultural systems, and that spatial patterns of C and N levels in soils may be regulated by both climatic factors and agro-ecosystem management. When developing suitable management programs, the importance of soil C and N stores and their effects on crop yield should be considered. PMID:25289703

  12. Potential future fisheries yields in shelf waters: a model study of the effects of climate change and ocean acidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leeuwen, S. M.; Le Quesne, W. F.; Parker, E. R.

    2016-01-01

    We applied a coupled marine water column model to three sites in the North Sea. The three sites represent different hydrodynamic regimes and are thus representative of a wider area. The model consists of a hydro-biogeochemical model (GOTM-ERSEM-BFM) coupled one way upwards to a size-structured model representing pelagic predators and detritivores (Blanchard et al., 2009). Thus, bottom-up pressures like changing abiotic environment (climate change, chemical cycling) will have an impact on fish biomass across the size spectrum. Here, we studied three different impacts of future conditions on fish yield: climatic impacts (medium emission scenario), abiotic ocean acidification impacts (reduced pelagic nitrification), and biotic ocean acidification impacts (reduced detritivore growth rate). The three impacts were studied separately and combined, and results showed that sites within different hydrodynamic regimes can respond very differently. The seasonally stratified site showed an increase in fish yields (occurring in winter and spring), with acidification effects of the same order of magnitude as climatic effects. The permanently mixed site also showed an increase in fish yield (increase in summer, decrease in winter), due to climatic effects moderated by acidification impacts. The third site, which is characterised by large inter-annual variability in thermal stratification duration, showed a decline in fish yields (occurring in winter) due to decline in the benthic system which forms an important carbon pathway at this site. All sites displayed a shift towards a more pelagic-oriented system.

  13. Adaptability and stability analysis of the juice yield of yellow passion fruit varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, E J; Freitas, J P X; Jesus, O N

    2014-01-01

    This study analyzed the genotype x environment interaction (GE) for the juice productivity (JuProd) of 12 yellow passion fruit varieties (Passiflora edulis Sims. f. flavicarpa Deg.) using additive main effects and multiplicative interaction (AMMI) model and auxiliary parameters. The experiments were conducted in eight environments of Bahia State, Brazil, using a randomized block design with three replications. Analysis of variance showed significant effects (P ≤ 0.01) for environments, genotypes, and GE interaction. The first two interaction principal component axes (IPCAs) explained 81.00% of the sum of squares of the GE interaction. The AMMI1 and AMMI2 models showed that varieties 09 and 11 were the most stable. Other parameters, namely, the AMMI stability value (ASV), yield stability (YSI), sustainability, and stability index (StI), indicated that other varieties were more stable. These varying results were certainly a consequence of methodological differences. In contrast, the ranking of varieties for each of the stability parameters showed significant positive correlations (P ≤ 0.05) between IPCA1 x (ASV, YSI), JuProd x (StI, YSI), YSI x ASV, and StI x YSI. Cluster analysis based on the genotypic profile of the effects of the GE interaction identified three groups that correlated with the distribution of varieties in the AMMI1 biplot. However, the classification of stable genotypes was limited because the association with the productivity was not included in the analysis. Variety 08 showed the most stable and productive behavior, ranking above average in half of the environments, and it should be recommended for use. PMID:25177932

  14. Estimating combining ability of yield and its components in upland cotton through line tester analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combining ability estimates are very important genetic attributes to cotton breeders in predicting improvement that could be envisaged from hybridisation and selection programmes. The crosses were attempted in a line tester mating design, which involved five female and three testers, hence 15 F1 hybrids were developed. The experiment was carried out in a randomised complete block design with four replications. The mean squares due to general combining ability (GCA) of lines and testers and specific combining ability (SCA) of lines testers interactions were significant, for all the characters studied. The significance of GCA and SCA variances suggests that both additive and non-additive genes were controlling the characters, yet additive genes of female lines were predominant because their variances were generally, higher than GCA of testers and SCA of lines * testers. Among the lines, parents CIM-506, CRIS-134 and Sadori and from testers, Bt-cotton and Sindh-1 exhibited higher GCA effects hence proved to be the best general combiners for most of the traits studied. Results further suggested that these potential parents can reliably be used in hybridisation and selection programmes for extracting desirable plants from segregating populations. The F1 hybrids like Sadori Sindh-1, Chandi Bt-cotton and Sadori BH-160 were best specific combiners for earliness (bolls formation and opening at 90 and 120 days after planting), bolls per plant, boll weight, seed cotton yield per plant, lint % and staple length. The performance of F1 hybrids per se was very well reflected in SCA effects, conferring the potentiality of F1 hybrids. (author)

  15. Correlation and path analysis of grain yield and morphological traits in test-cross populations of maize

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the goals of this paper was to determine correlation between grain yield, like the most important agronomic trait, and traits of the plant and ear that are influencing on the grain yield, in two test-cross populations, which are formed by crossing progenies of NSU1 population after 17 cycles of phenotypic recurrent selection and two testers, 568/II NS and B73. At 568/II NS test crosses, grain yield had the highest value of genotypic coefficient of correlations with kernel row number. In second studied population the highest value of coefficient of correlations also was found between grain yield and kernel row number, but that relation was negative. Path coefficient analysis provides more information among variables than do correlation coefficients. Because of that goal of this study also was founding the direct and indirect effects of morphological traits on grain yield. Desirable, high significant influence on grain yield, in path coefficient analysis, was found for ear height, in both studied populations. Plant height, in both test cross populations, kernel row number and oil content, at B73 test crosses, has high significant undesirable effect on grain yield. (author)

  16. Modeling and analysis of effects of precipitation and vegetation coverage on runoff and sediment yield in Jinsha River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun DU

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the effects of precipitation and vegetation coverage on runoff and sediment yield in the Jinsha River Basin. Results of regression analysis were taken as input variables to investigate the applicability of the adaptive network-based fuzzy inference system (ANFIS to simulating annual runoff and sediment yield. Correlation analysis indicates that runoff and sediment yield are positively correlated with the precipitation indices, while negatively correlated with the vegetation indices. Furthermore, the results of stepwise regression show that annual precipitation is the most important factor influencing the variation of runoff, followed by forest coverage, and their contributions to the variation of runoff are 69.8% and 17.3%, respectively. For sediment yield, rainfall erosivity is the most important factor, followed by forest coverage, and their contributions to the variation of sediment yield are 49.3% and 24.2%, respectively. The ANFIS model is of high precision in runoff forecasting, with a relative error of less than 5%, but of poor precision in sediment yield forecasting, indicating that precipitation and vegetation coverage can explain only part of the variation of sediment yield, and that other impact factors, such as human activities, should be sufficiently considered as well.

  17. Genetic Analysis of Grain Yield and Milling Quality Characters of Two Line Rice Hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Mahalingam and N. Nadarajan

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was laid out at Agricultural College and Research Institute, Madurai, Tamil Nadu. India and the materials for thisstudy consisted of three TGMS lines viz., TS 29, TS 6 and GD 98013 and 11 testers viz., ADT 39, ADT 41, Pusa Basmathi 1,Basmathi 370, Improved White ponni, AD 98028, GEB 24, ADT 43, ADT 45, Taroari Basmathi and Jeeraga samba. Crossing wasdone according to clipping and churning method in L X T fashion. Based on the nature of combing ability inferred from line xtester analysis, three cross combinations viz, TS 29 / ADT 41, TS 29 / Pusa Basmathi 1 and TS 29 / Basmathi 370 were selectedfor generation mean analysis study. The scaling tests indicated the presence of epitasis for all the characters and there fore sixparameters model was followed to estimate the various gene action. The scales A and C are negatively significant in all thecrossed viz., TS 29 / ADT 41, TS 29 / Pusa Basmathi 1 and TS 29 / Basmathi 370 for grains per panicle and hundred grainsweight. The scale B is negatively non significant for grains per panicle and hundred grains weight in all the three crosses. Thecrosses TS 29 / ADT 41, TS 29 / Pusa Basmathi 1 and TS 29 / Basmathi 370 showed positively significant A and C scales forgrain yield. The mean effect m was significantly positive and greater than all other effects in all the three crosses viz., TS 29 /ADT 41, TS 29 / Pusa Basmathi 1 and TS 29 / Basmathi 370 for productive tillers, hundred grain weights, graim yield, hulling percent, milling per cent and head rice recovery. A significant additive x dominance (j effect was recorded in TS 29 / Pusa Basmathi1 and TS 29 / Basmathi 370 crosses for grain yied and hulling per cent A significant additive x dominance (j was observed in TS29 / ADT 41 cross (panicle length and milling per cent. The (h and (l effects took opposite signs in all the three crossesindicating the involvement of duplicate dominant epistatic kinds of interaction for productive tillers

  18. Geomorphic Analysis - Trinity River Restoration Potential

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The goal of the Trinity River project is to identify the potential positive effects of large-scale restoration actions in a 63 kilometer reach of the Trinity River...

  19. Habitat Analysis - Trinity River Restoration Potential

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The goal of the Trinity River project is to identify the potential positive effects of large-scale restoration actions in a 63 kilometer reach of the Trinity River...

  20. SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS OF POTENTIAL GEOTHERMAL SITES

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document contains general information on the physical, chemical and radiochemical data of geothermal manifestations (wells and springs) in areas with the most probable potential for development. Information contained in this document, together with other existing data, can b...

  1. Linkages and Interactions Analysis of Major Effect Drought Grain Yield QTLs in Rice

    OpenAIRE

    Prashant Vikram; B P Mallikarjuna Swamy; Shalabh Dixit; Jennylyn Trinidad; Ma Teresa Sta Cruz; Maturan, Paul C.; Modesto Amante; Arvind Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative trait loci conferring high grain yield under drought in rice are important genomic resources for climate resilient breeding. Major and consistent drought grain yield QTLs usually co-locate with flowering and/or plant height QTLs, which could be due to either linkage or pleiotropy. Five mapping populations used for the identification of major and consistent drought grain yield QTLs underwent multiple-trait, multiple-interval mapping test (MT-MIM) to estimate the significance of pl...

  2. AN ANALYSIS OF THE YIELD-PRICE RISK ASSOCIATED WITH SPECIALTY CROPS

    OpenAIRE

    Weisensel, Ward P.; Schoney, Richard A.

    1989-01-01

    Specialty crops have been cited as means to diversify crop portfolios on the prairies. Lentils, a specialty crop, have high variability in yields and prices but are relatively uncorrelated with the yields and prices of other traditional Saskatchewan crops. In addition, yields and prices of lentils may be negatively correlated. These attributes have important but offsetting effects in crop portfolio selection. The objective of this article is to assess the relative profitability and riskiness ...

  3. Genome shuffling of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for enhanced glutathione yield and relative gene expression analysis using fluorescent quantitation reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Hua; Ma, Yanlin; Deng, Yang; Xu, Zhenbo; Liu, Junyan; Zhao, Junfeng; Dong, Jianjun; Yu, Junhong; Chang, Zongming

    2016-08-01

    Genome shuffling is an efficient and promising approach for the rapid improvement of microbial phenotypes. In this study, genome shuffling was applied to enhance the yield of glutathione produced by Saccharomyces cerevisiae YS86. Six isolates with subtle improvements in glutathione yield were obtained from populations generated by ultraviolet (UV) irradiation and nitrosoguanidine (NTG) mutagenesis. These yeast strains were then subjected to recursive pool-wise protoplast fusion. A strain library that was likely to yield positive colonies was created by fusing the lethal protoplasts obtained from both UV irradiation and heat treatments. After two rounds of genome shuffling, a high-yield recombinant YSF2-19 strain that exhibited 3.2- and 3.3-fold increases in glutathione production in shake flask and fermenter respectively was obtained. Comparative analysis of synthetase gene expression was conducted between the initial and shuffled strains using FQ (fluorescent quantitation) RT-PCR (reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction). Delta CT (threshold cycle) relative quantitation analysis revealed that glutathione synthetase gene (GSH-I) expression at the transcriptional level in the YSF2-19 strain was 9.9-fold greater than in the initial YS86. The shuffled yeast strain has a potential application in brewing, other food, and pharmaceutical industries. Simultaneously, the analysis of improved phenotypes will provide more valuable data for inverse metabolic engineering. PMID:27302037

  4. Calculation of total free energy yield as an alternative approach for predicting the importance of potential chemolithotrophic reactions in geothermal springs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodsworth, Jeremy A; McDonald, Austin I; Hedlund, Brian P

    2012-08-01

    To inform hypotheses regarding the relative importance of chemolithotrophic metabolisms in geothermal environments, we calculated free energy yields of 26 chemical reactions potentially supporting chemolithotrophy in two US Great Basin hot springs, taking into account the effects of changing reactant and product activities on the Gibbs free energy as each reaction progressed. Results ranged from 1.2 × 10(-5) to 3.6 J kg(-1) spring water, or 3.7 × 10(-5) to 11.5 J s(-1) based on measured flow rates, with aerobic oxidation of CH(4) or NH4 + giving the highest average yields. Energy yields calculated without constraining pH were similar to those at constant pH except for reactions where H(+) was consumed, which often had significantly lower yields when pH was unconstrained. In contrast to the commonly used normalization of reaction chemical affinities per mole of electrons transferred, reaction energy yields for a given oxidant varied by several orders of magnitude and were more sensitive to differences in the activities of products and reactants. The high energy yield of aerobic ammonia oxidation is consistent with previous observations of significant ammonia oxidation rates and abundant ammonia-oxidizing archaea in sediments of these springs. This approach offers an additional lens through which to view the thermodynamic landscape of geothermal springs. PMID:22443686

  5. Diallel analysis for seed yield and its component traits in Cuphea procumbens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh S.P.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The Cuphea procumbens Orteg. is an important annual plant source of medium chain fatty acids. The present study was conducted to estimate different gene systems involved in the inheritance of important quantitative traits viz. plant height, branches/plant, fruits/plant, seeds/fruit and seed yield/plant in F1 and F2 generations following 6 parents half diallel. Diallel assumptions were fulfilled for all the characters. Wr - Vr graph and component analysis revealed the major influence of over dominance for all the traits except branches/plant in F1. The arrays scattered all along the regression line below limiting parabola in two groups, Dominance and recessive and was confirmed by standardized deviation graph. The ranking on the basis of breeding value (Yr of the parents and per se performance was closely associated (r=0.83**. On the basis of ranking, parents 'NBC-01', 'NBC-25' and 'NBC-30' were found most promising and possessed more dominant alleles for most of the characters. Considering the gene action involved, the breeding plan was discussed.

  6. The Grey Analysis,Kriging and Selection Index of Flower Yield in Rugosa Rose

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yan-yan; FENG Zhen; ZHAO Lan-yong; MO Zhen-hua; ZHANG Bao

    2007-01-01

    The analysis of grey system,kriging interpolation,and integration selection index were employed to investigate the relationships between the flower yield/plant(FY)and 15 other quantitative traits of 20 rugosa rose cultivars.The result showed that:The grey relational grade(GRG)of the number of flowers/plant(NF),the number of branches/plant(NB),the width of floral bud(WB),and the weight/flower(WF)to the F Y were larger(>0.5);F Y improved with the increase of NFand NB.Moreover,the indirect selection of either trait could not achieve improvement of FY.It is necessary to improve FY by multi-trait selection.The integration selection index(ISI)equation of FY was established with the characters NF,NB,WB,and WF:I=0.3187x1-318.6x2+670.1x4+6.3x8,index heritability=0.8014,selective response of the integration breeding value =245.8811.This will provide a theoretic basis for the genetic breeding of rugosa rose.

  7. Experimental and finite element analysis of fracture criterion in general yielding fracture mechanics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D M Kulkarni; Ravi Prakash; A N Kumar

    2002-12-01

    Efforts made over the last three decades to understand the fracture behaviour of structural materials in elastic and elasto-plastic fracture mechanics are numerous, whereas investigations related to fracture behaviour of materials in thin sheets or general yielding fracture regimes are limited in number. Engineering simulative tests are being used to characterize formability and drawability of sheet metals. However, these tests do not assure consistency in quality of sheet metal products. The prevention of failure in stressed structural components currently requires fracture mechanics based design parameters like critical load, critical crack-tip opening displacement or fracture toughness. The present attempt would aim to fulfill this gap and generate more information thereby increased understanding on fracture behaviour of sheet metals. In the present investigation, using a recently developed technique for determining fracture criteria in sheet metals, results are generated on critical CTOD and fracture toughness. Finite element analysis was performed to support the results on various fracture parameters. The differences are within 1 to 4%. At the end it is concluded that magnitude of critical CTOD and/or critical load can be used as a fracture criterion for thin sheets.

  8. Economical analysis and relation between energy inputs and yield of greenhouse cucumber production in Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohammadi, Ali; Omid, Mahmoud [Department of Agricultural Machinery Engineering, Faculty of Agricultural Engineering and Technology, University of Tehran, Karaj (Iran)

    2010-01-15

    This paper studies the energy balance between the input and the output per unit area for greenhouse cucumber production. For this purpose, the data on 43 cucumber production greenhouses in the Tehran province, Iran, were collected and analyzed. The results indicated that a total energy input of 148836.76 MJ ha{sup -1} was consumed for cucumber production. Diesel fuel (with 41.94%) and chemical fertilizers (with 19.69%) were amongst the highest energy inputs for cucumber production. The energy productivity was estimated as 0.80 kg MJ{sup -1}. The ratio of energy output to energy input was approximately 0.64. Results indicate 10.93% and 89.07% of total energy input was in renewable and non-renewable forms, respectively. The regression results revealed that the contribution of energy inputs on crop yield (except for fertilizers and seeds energies) was significant. The human labour energy had the highest impact (0.35) among the other inputs in greenhouse cucumber production. Econometric analysis indicated that the total cost of production for one hectare of cucumber production was around 33425.70$. Accordingly, the benefit-cost ratio was estimated as 2.58. (author)

  9. Spatial and harvesting influence on growth, yield, quality and economic potential of Kalmegh (Andrographis paniculata Wall Ex. Nees)

    OpenAIRE

    Sanjeev Kumar; Anil Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Andrographis paniculata, commonly known as Kalmegh, is used both in Ayurvedic and Unani system of medicines because of its immunological, antibacterial and hepatoprotective properties. This study was carried out to investigate the influence of four harvesting times (120,135,150 days after planting and at seed maturity) and four planting distances (30×15, 30×10, 20×15 and 20×10 cm) on growth, dry herbage biomass, seed yield and quality traits of Andrographis paniculata at CCS Haryana Agricultu...

  10. Yield-scaled global warming potential of two irrigation management systems in a highly productive rice system

    OpenAIRE

    Silvana Tarlera; María Cristina Capurro; Pilar Irisarri; Ana Fernández Scavino; Guillermina Cantou; Alvaro Roel

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Water management impacts both methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from rice paddy fields. Although controlled irrigation is one of the most important tools for reducing CH4emission in rice production systems it can also increase N2O emissions and reduce crop yields. Over three years, CH4 and N2O emissions were measured in a rice field in Uruguay under two different irrigation management systems, using static closed chambers: conventional water management (continuous flood...

  11. Selection and popularization of a new rice cultivar Jinwan 1 with high quality and high yield potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jinwan 1, a Hsien rice cv selected from crosses between IR24, IR26 and Zhenlong 13 in 1975-79 by combining conventional breeding methods and 60 Co rays irradiation to the F1s, was officially released in 1986. It had a full growth period 110-135 days depending on different parts in Fujian, plant height 95 cm, intermediate tillering ability, compact plant type and resistance to blast and bacterial leaf blight. It produced 3 million effective tillers/ha., 100 grains/panicle, 85% fertility and 1000-grain wt 29 g when its yield was at 6-6.75 tons/ha. Its yield was 5287.5 kg/ha, with the highest 8572.5 kg/ha, on average in 16 locations in 1982 yield trials, which was 10.7% higher than that of the control Hongwan 52. Jinwan 1 had its brown rice recovery 81.9%, polished rice 76%, amylose 19.9% and protein content 9.5%, which were all higher than the standards for the first grade rice. It was planted to 600 ha. in 1

  12. Type 2 Diabetes Research Yield, 1951-2012: Bibliometrics Analysis and Density-Equalizing Mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geaney, Fiona; Scutaru, Cristian; Kelly, Clare; Glynn, Ronan W; Perry, Ivan J

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to provide a detailed evaluation of type 2 diabetes mellitus research output from 1951-2012, using large-scale data analysis, bibliometric indicators and density-equalizing mapping. Data were retrieved from the Science Citation Index Expanded database, one of the seven curated databases within Web of Science. Using Boolean operators "OR", "AND" and "NOT", a search strategy was developed to estimate the total number of published items. Only studies with an English abstract were eligible. Type 1 diabetes and gestational diabetes items were excluded. Specific software developed for the database analysed the data. Information including titles, authors' affiliations and publication years were extracted from all files and exported to excel. Density-equalizing mapping was conducted as described by Groenberg-Kloft et al, 2008. A total of 24,783 items were published and cited 476,002 times. The greatest number of outputs were published in 2010 (n=2,139). The United States contributed 28.8% to the overall output, followed by the United Kingdom (8.2%) and Japan (7.7%). Bilateral cooperation was most common between the United States and United Kingdom (n=237). Harvard University produced 2% of all publications, followed by the University of California (1.1%). The leading journals were Diabetes, Diabetologia and Diabetes Care and they contributed 9.3%, 7.3% and 4.0% of the research yield, respectively. In conclusion, the volume of research is rising in parallel with the increasing global burden of disease due to type 2 diabetes mellitus. Bibliometrics analysis provides useful information to scientists and funding agencies involved in the development and implementation of research strategies to address global health issues. PMID:26208117

  13. Type 2 Diabetes Research Yield, 1951-2012: Bibliometrics Analysis and Density-Equalizing Mapping.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona Geaney

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to provide a detailed evaluation of type 2 diabetes mellitus research output from 1951-2012, using large-scale data analysis, bibliometric indicators and density-equalizing mapping. Data were retrieved from the Science Citation Index Expanded database, one of the seven curated databases within Web of Science. Using Boolean operators "OR", "AND" and "NOT", a search strategy was developed to estimate the total number of published items. Only studies with an English abstract were eligible. Type 1 diabetes and gestational diabetes items were excluded. Specific software developed for the database analysed the data. Information including titles, authors' affiliations and publication years were extracted from all files and exported to excel. Density-equalizing mapping was conducted as described by Groenberg-Kloft et al, 2008. A total of 24,783 items were published and cited 476,002 times. The greatest number of outputs were published in 2010 (n=2,139. The United States contributed 28.8% to the overall output, followed by the United Kingdom (8.2% and Japan (7.7%. Bilateral cooperation was most common between the United States and United Kingdom (n=237. Harvard University produced 2% of all publications, followed by the University of California (1.1%. The leading journals were Diabetes, Diabetologia and Diabetes Care and they contributed 9.3%, 7.3% and 4.0% of the research yield, respectively. In conclusion, the volume of research is rising in parallel with the increasing global burden of disease due to type 2 diabetes mellitus. Bibliometrics analysis provides useful information to scientists and funding agencies involved in the development and implementation of research strategies to address global health issues.

  14. Statistical Analysis of Large Simulated Yield Datasets for Studying Climate Effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Makowski, D.; Asseng, S.; Ewert, F.; Bassu, S.; Durand, J.L.; Martre, P.; Adam, M.; Aggarwal, P.K.; Angulo, C.; Baron, C.; Basso, B.; Bertuzzi, P.; Biernath, C.; Boogaard, H.; Boote, K.J.; Brisson, N.; Cammarano, D.; Challinor, A.J.; Conijn, J.G.; Corbeels, M.; Deryng, D.; Sanctis, De G.; Doltra, J.; Gayler, S.; Goldberg, R.; Grassini, P.; Hatfield, J.L.; Heng, L.; Hoek, S.B.; Hooker, J.; Hunt, L.A.; Ingwersen, J.; Izaurralde, C.; Jongschaap, R.E.E.; Jones, J.W.; Kemanian, R.A.; Kersebaum, K.C.; Kim, S.H.; Lizaso, J.; Müller, C.; Naresh Kumar, S.; Nendel, C.; O'Leary, G.J.; Olesen, J.E.; Osborne, T.M.; Palosuo, T.; Pravia, M.V.; Priesack, E.; Ripoche, D.; Rosenzweig, C.; Ruane, A.C.; Sau, F.; Semenov, M.A.; Shcherbak, I.; Steduto, P.; Stöckle, C.O.; Stratonovitch, P.; Streck, T.; Supit, I.; Tao, F.; Teixeira, E.; Thorburn, P.; Timlin, D.; Travasso, M.; Roetter, R.P.; Waha, K.; Wallach, D.; White, J.W.; Williams, J.R.; Wolf, J.

    2015-01-01

    Many simulation studies have been carried out to predict the effect of climate change on crop yield. Typically, in such study, one or several crop models are used to simulate series of crop yield values for different climate scenarios corresponding to different hypotheses of temperature, CO2 concent

  15. Graphic analysis of yield stability in new improved lentil (Lens culinaris Medik. genotypes using nonparametric statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser SABAGHNIA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Yield stability is an interesting feature of today’s lentil breeding programs, due to the high annual variation in mean yield, particularly in the arid and semi-arid areas. The genetic effects including genetic main and genotype × environment (GE interaction effects for grain yield of eighteen lentil (Lens culinaris Medik. genotypes were studied with fourteen nonparametric stability statistics. Results of five distinct nonparametric tests of GE interaction and combined ANOVA showed there were both additive and crossover interaction types and genotypes varied significantly for grain yield. According to most of the nonparametric stability statistics, genotypes G5, G6, G8 and G18 were the most stable genotypes. Considering mean yield versus stability values via their plotting, indicates that genotypes G2, G11 and G14 following to G5, G16 and G18 were the most favorable genotypes. None of the nonparametric stability statistics were correlated with mean yield and so had static concept of stability. Our results confirmed that rankings of genotypes within environments and using mean yield information permit ease of interpretation of nonparametric results. Finally genotypes G2 (FLIP 92-12L, G11 (Gachsaran and G14 (ILL 6206 were found to be the most stable and high mean yielding genotype and thus recommended for commercial release. Such an outcome could be used to delineate predictive, more rigorous recommendation strategies as well as to help define stability concepts for lentil and other crops.

  16. EFFECT OF FOLIAR NUTRITION ON WATER POTENTIAL, PHOTOSYNTHETIC RATE, DRY MATTER PRODUCTION AND YIELD OF MUNG BEAN UNDER RECEDING SOIL MOISTURE CONDITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Siva Nageswara Rao

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted during Rabi season of 2012-13 at Regional Agricultural Research Station, Lam, Guntur, with an aim to find out the effect of foliar nutrition on water potent ial, photosynthetic rate, dry matter production and yield of mung bean under rece ding soil moisture conditions in split plot design with irrigation and no irrigation as main treatments and folia r sprays as sub treatments. Under receding soil moisture condition (moisture stress KNO 3 @ 1% proved superior over other foliar sprays by recording more plant height, leaf area, shoot dry weight, and photosyn thetic rate by maintaining high chloro phyll content, high proline and high leaf water potential. KNO 3 @ 1% gave higher yields under receding soil moisture condition compared to other foliar sprays. Under irrigated conditions urea @ 2% record ed higher yield. Among all treatments controlled (no spray under unirrigated conditions recorded lower yiel ds due to moisture stress and nutrient deficiency.

  17. Agribusiness Potentials for Bangladesh — an Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Mahboob Ali

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Bangladesh cannot sustain long-run economic progress without having a strong agricultural sector accompanied by a dynamic agribusiness sub-sector. This study has been undertaken as an exploratory study to assess the role and significance of agribusiness in Bangladesh along with the current status and future potentials. Various institutional and other weaknesses and challenges were deemed to exist in the country that prevents full realization of the potentials of this industry. At a general level, the paper recommends various structural, institutional, and market-friendly policy reforms accompanied by infrastructural developments in order to encourage entrepreneurship, innovation, and investments along with better and more effective strategic management of this sector. Such reforms are expected to promote better utilization of scarce resources to promote a strong, dynamic, and sustainable agribusiness sector that would be able to contribute substantially to industrialization and economic development of the country.

  18. Potencial produtivo de videiras cultivadas sob cobertura de plástico Yield potential of grapevine cultivated under plastic cover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Chavarria

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência do uso de cobertura de plástico sobre os componentes do rendimento da videira (Vitis vinifera L. cultivar Moscato Giallo. O experimento foi realizado nas safras 2005/2006 e 2006/2007, em Flores da Cunha, RS, em duas áreas de vinhedo, uma com cobertura de plástico impermeável e outra sem cobertura (controle. O microclima foi avaliado quanto à temperatura e umidade relativa do ar, radiação fotossinteticamente ativa e velocidade do vento próximo ao dossel vegetativo e a os cachos. A avaliação dos componentes de rendimento ocorreu em delineamento experimental inteiramente ao acaso, e foram identificadas dez plantas marcadas aleatoriamente em cada área. Avaliaram-se a produção por planta e por hectare, o número de cachos por planta e por metro quadrado, o número de sarmentos por metro quadrado, a massa e comprimento de cacho, a massa de engaço, o número de bagas por cacho, o diâmetro transversal de bagas e a relação entre massa de película e massa de polpa. Acobertura de plástico possibilita aumento na produtividade, não afeta a relação entre massa de casca e massa de polpa das bagas e favorece a estabilidade de produção, independentemente das condições meteorológicas no ciclo.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of plastic cover on the yield components of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. cultivar Moscato Giallo. The experiment was carried out in 2005/2006 and 2006/2007 crop seasons, in Flores da Cunha, RS, Brazil, in two vineyard areas, one covered with an impermeable plastic film and other without covering (control. The microclimate was evaluated in terms of air temperature, air relative humidity, photosynthetically active radiation and wind speed above canopy and close to clusters. The yield components were evaluated in a completely randomized design, in ten plants randomly selected in each area. Measures were made for production per plant, yield per

  19. Evaluation and Bulked Segregant Analysis of Major Yield QTL qtl12.1 Introgressed into Indigenous Elite Line for Low Water Availability under Water Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    N.Manikanda BOOPATHI; Gat SWAPNASHRI; P.KAVITHA; S.SATHISH; R.NITHYA; Wickneswari RATNAM; Arvind KUMAR

    2013-01-01

    Near isogenic lines carrying large-effect QTL (qtl12.1),which has a consistent influence on grain yield under upland drought stress conditions in a wide range of environments,were evaluated under water stress in the fields.The line which gave higher yield under drought was crossed with a local elite line,PMK3,and forwarded to F2:3 generation.Significant variation was found among the F2:3 lines for agronomic traits under water stress in the fields.Low to high broad sense heritability (H) for investigated traits was also found.Water stress indicators such as leaf rolling and leaf drying were negatively correlated with plant height,biomass and grain yield under stress.Bulked segregant analysis (BSA) was performed with the markers in the vicinity of qtl12.1,and RM27933 was found to be segregated perfectly well in individual components of drought resistant and drought susceptible bulks which were bulked based on yield under water stress among F2:3 lines.Hence,this simple and breeder friendly marker,RM27933,may be useful as a potentially valuable candidate marker for the transfer of the QTL qtl12.1 in the regional breeding program.Bioinformatic analysis of the DNA sequence of the qtl12.1 region was also done to identify and analyze positional candidate genes associated with this QTL and to ascertain the putative molecular basis of qtl12.1.

  20. Potential of liquid extracts of Sargassum wightii on growth, biochemical and yield parameters of cluster bean plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    N Vijayanand; S Sivasangari Ramya; S Rathinavel

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To explore biofertilizing efficiency of seaweed liquid extracts of brown alga Sargassum wightii (S. wightii) on growth, biochemical and yield parameters of Cyamopsis tetragonoloba (C. tetragonoloba). Methods: Seaweeds were made to coarse powder and stock solution was prepared. Different concentrations such as 0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5%, 2.0%, 2.5%and 5.0%were prepared and given as foliar spray. Results: Seaweed Liquid Extract (SLE) at low concentration (1.5%) exhibited promoting effect on growth and yield parameters. Differential responses in the content of photosynthetic pigments, protein, reducing sugar, ascorbic acid and in the activity of nitrate reductase were also observed in the leaves of SLE treated seedlings when compared to untreated seedlings. Higher concentrations (above 1.5%) of SLE were found to show inhibitory effect. Conclusion:The presence of micro and macro nutrients, vitamins, growth hormones and other constituents in the seaweed extract might be very much useful to the crops but their level should be appropriate to enhance growth and productivity. It may be concluded that liquid seaweed extracts could serve as cost effective eco-friendly product for sustainable agriculture.

  1. Influence of mycorrhizal fungi on phytoremediating potential and yield of sunflower in Cd and Pb polluted soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adewole M.B.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of mycorrhizal fungi in uptake of heavy metals, pollution response index and yield of sunflower in degraded soils were investigated. It was a greenhouse experiment with 2 arbuscular mycorrhizae (Glomus mosseae, Glomus intraradices and a non-inoculation that served as control. The treatments were replicated 3 times in a completely randomized design. Each of the treatment consisted of 30 pots and each pot was filled with 5 kg by weight of dried top soil. Solutions of lead acetate and cadmium sulphate at variable levels of: 0, 250, 500, 750, 1000 mg kg-1 and 0, 20, 40, 60, 80 mg kg-1 respectively were used to pollute the soils. Increase in pollution-stressed conditions significantly (P<0.05 reduced the infection of sunflower roots, and the uptake of Pb and Cd in the dry root of sunflower was also significantly (P<0.05 reduced. Also, arbuscular mycorrhizae enhanced the root infection of sunflower, increased the pollution tolerance and consequently increased the yield of sunflower.

  2. Growth, reproductive phenology and yield responses of a potential biofuel plant, Jatropha curcas grown under projected 2050 levels of elevated CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sumit; Chaitanya, Bharatula S K; Ghatty, Sreenivas; Reddy, Attipalli R

    2014-11-01

    Jatropha (Jatropha curcas) is a non-edible oil producing plant which is being advocated as an alternative biofuel energy resource. Its ability to grow in diverse soil conditions and minimal requirements of essential agronomical inputs compared with other oilseed crops makes it viable for cost-effective advanced biofuel production. We designed a study to investigate the effects of elevated carbon dioxide concentration ([CO(2)]) (550 ppm) on the growth, reproductive development, source-sink relationships, fruit and seed yield of J. curcas. We report, for the first time that elevated CO(2) significantly influences reproductive characteristics of Jatropha and improve its fruit and seed yields. Net photosynthetic rate of Jatropha was 50% higher in plants grown in elevated CO(2) compared with field and ambient CO(2) -grown plants. The study also revealed that elevated CO(2) atmosphere significantly increased female to male flower ratio, above ground biomass and carbon sequestration potential in Jatropha (24 kg carbon per tree) after 1 year. Our data demonstrate that J. curcas was able to sustain enhanced rate of photosynthesis in elevated CO(2) conditions as it had sufficient sink strength to balance the increased biomass yields. Our study also elucidates that the economically important traits including fruit and seed yield in elevated CO(2) conditions were significantly high in J. curcas that holds great promise as a potential biofuel tree species for the future high CO(2) world. PMID:24655305

  3. Yield potential and fruit quality of scallop squash (Cucurbita pepo L. var. patissonina Greb. f. radiata Nois. cultivars grown for processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugeniusz Kołota

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Scallop squash fruits may be harvested at different stages of development. Small size fruits, intended both for the fresh market and the food industry, have the highest biological value. This study was conducted to determine the yield potential of scallop squash cultivars (‘Polo F1’, ‘Disco’, ‘Gagat’, ‘Okra’, ‘Sunny Delight F1’ grown on mulched (black polyethylene foil or black agrotextile or unmulched soil, and harvested when fruits reached a diameter of 3–6 cm. Based on 3-year average data, the highest marketable and early yield was produced by ‘Sunny Delight F1’. This cultivar is also appreciated by consumers for its yellow colored skin of fruits. Another advantage of this cultivar was its high nutritional value expressed by the highest content of dry matter, vitamin C, polyphenols and minerals (K, P, Ca, Mg, with limited tendency to nitrate accumulation. Among the other cultivars tested, ‘Okra’ showed high yield potential, ‘Gagat’ was a rich source of carotenoids, and ‘Disco’ – polyphenols. Black polyethylene foil and black agrotextile appeared to be equally effective mulching materials. The benefit from the application of mulch was a significant increase in yield without any change in the chemical composition of the fruit.

  4. Quantitative Analysis of Impact of Education on Improving Farmers' Net Income and Yield Per Capita

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Jing-zhi

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze the relation between farmers' schooling and their net income and yield per capita by systemic and scientific method, concluding that improving farmers' educational level may increase their net income.

  5. Combining ability analysis for seed yield and its components in Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Mohanasundaram, N. Manivannan and P. Vindhiya varman

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Twenty four lines were crossed with two testers in an L x T mating design to estimate the combining ability for seed yield insunflower. Non-additive genetic variance played a preponderant role in the inheritance of all the characters studied viz., daysto 50 % flowering, days to maturity, plant height, head diameter, volume weight, hundred seed weight and seed yield perplant. The lines 27, 436 and tester 234A can be considered as superior parents in the present study as they recorded high per seperformance with positively significant general combining ability effect for seed yield/plant. Among the 48 hybrids evaluated,crosses viz., 234A x 436, 234A x 440 and 234A x 235 were considered as superior hybrids as they recorded high per seperformance and significant sca effect for seed yield/plant.

  6. Métodos para a estimativa do potencial de rendimento da soja durante a ontogenia Methods for estimating the soybean potential yield during ontogeny

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Leonardo Fernandes Pires

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar métodos para a estimativa do potencial de rendimento da soja durante a ontogenia. Os experimentos foram realizados em Eldorado do Sul, RS, durante as safras de 1996/1997, 1999/2000 e 2000/2001. Os tratamentos constaram de cinco cultivares de soja, FT-Saray, IAS 5, IAS 4, FT-Abyara e FEPAGRO RS-10. Cinco métodos foram utilizados para estimar o rendimento que seria obtido se todas as estruturas reprodutivas presentes no florescimento e no início do enchimento de grãos, produzissem grãos na maturação. O potencial de rendimento no florescimento e no enchimento de grãos, apresentou alta correlação com o número de flores e estruturas reprodutivas, respectivamente. Verificou-se, também, correspondência entre os métodos. Não houve, na maioria das vezes, correlações significativas entre o potencial, no florescimento e enchimento de grãos, e o rendimento de grãos na maturação. Os métodos estudados constituem ferramentas importantes para o manejo, quando utilizados para comparar o potencial de rendimento durante a ontogenia.The objective of this work was to study methods to estimate the soybean potential yield during ontogeny. The experiments were performed in Eldorado do Sul, RS, during the growing seasons of 1996/1997, 1999/2000 and 2000/2001. The treatments consisted of five soybean cultivars, FT-Saray, IAS 5, IAS 4, FT-Abyara and FEPAGRO RS-10. It was calculated the potential yield of each cultivar, by five methods, in order to estimate the yield that would be obtained if all the reproductive structures during flowering and beginning of pod filling produced grains at the maturity. Potential yield (during flowering and pod filling presented a high correlation with the number of flowers and reproductive structures, respectively. It was also found a correspondence among the methods. Most of the time, it did not occurred significant correlations between potential (during flowering and pod filling

  7. Analysis of evoked lumbosacral potentials in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delbeke, J; McComas, A J; Kopec, S J

    1978-04-01

    Surface electrodes have been used to record potentials evoked in the lumbosacral region of 15 healthy volunteers after tibial nerve stimulation. By monitoring the M waves and H reflexes in the triceps surae muslces and by comparing the responses recorded over the roots with those over the lower cord, it was possible to identify the neural substrates responsible for several of the components in the responses. The findings are compared with those of previous studies in man and in other mammalian preparations. PMID:650237

  8. ANALYSIS OF HYDROTHERMAL CONDITIONS AND THEIR IMPACT ON EARLY POTATO YIELDS

    OpenAIRE

    Elżbiata Radzka; Katarzyna Rymuza; Tomasz Lenartowicz

    2015-01-01

    The work is based on data on monthly air temperatures, monthly sums of atmospheric precipitation and early potato yields in 2000–2013 obtained from seven COBORU (Research Centre for Cultivar Testing) stations situated in east-central Poland. Hydrothermal conditions during the growing season (April–July) of early potato were described by means of the Sielianinow’s coefficient. The relationships between potato yields and the Sielianinow’s hydrothermal coefficient of the growing season were exam...

  9. Mitigating Land Use Changes From Biofuel Expansion: An Assessment of Biofuel Feedstock Yield Potential in APEC Economies

    OpenAIRE

    Elobeid, Amani E.; Tokgoz, Simla; Yu, Tun-Hsiang

    2009-01-01

    The emerging biofuel sector has drawn great interest as an alternative source of fuel for transportation. The expansion of biofuels greatly impacts world agricultural markets, since currently, the primary feedstocks for ethanol and biodiesel production are field crops and their derived products. There is great interest in the potential of countries to expand their biofuel sectors through increased production of feedstocks. The long-term potential for developing first-generation biofuels in ma...

  10. Potential Flow Analysis of Dynamic Ground Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feifel, W. M.

    1999-01-01

    Interpretation of some flight test data suggests the presence of a 'dynamic ground effect'. The lift of an aircraft approaching the ground depends on the rate of descent and is lower than the aircraft steady state lift at a same height above the ground. Such a lift deficiency under dynamic conditions could have a serious impact on the overall aircraft layout. For example, the increased pitch angle needed to compensate for the temporary loss in lift would reduce the tail strike margin or require an increase in landing gear length. Under HSR2 an effort is under way to clarify the dynamic ground effect issue using a multi-pronged approach. A dynamic ground effect test has been run in the NASA Langley 14x22 ft wind tunnel. Northup-Grumman is conducting time accurate CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) Euler analyses on the National Aerodynamic Simulator facility. Boeing has been using linear potential flow methodology which are thought to provide much needed insight in, physics of this very complex problem. The present report summarizes the results of these potential flow studies.

  11. Broussonetia papyrifera (paper mulberry): its growth, yield and potential as a fallow crop in slash-and-burn upland rice system of northern Laos

    OpenAIRE

    Saito, K; Linquist, B.; Keobualapha, B.; Shiraiwa, T.; Horie, T

    2009-01-01

    In northern Laos, shortened fallows in the slash-and-burn upland rice system are not sustainable either from a production or economic standpoint. This paper evaluates the potential for using the indigenous fast-growing tree, Broussonetia papyrifera L. Vent. (paper mulberry) as an economic fallow crop. The objectives of this study are to assess the inner bark yield of paper mulberry, and to evaluate rice productivity following paper mulberry cultivation. In addition, allometric models for esti...

  12. Analysis of Climate Change Impact on U.S. Crop Yields with Reanalysis Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwata, K.

    2014-12-01

    Increasing the world population, food security in the sense of supplying enough food has become more important. Cereals are considerable matter in food security issues, and production of cereals are heavily threatened by climate change. In 2012, terrible drought which might happen once in a hundred years, caused massive damage to the soybean and corn harvest. This event had impact on the agriculture industry in U.S., and led drastic increase of commodity price. To ensuring food security, influence of climate risk to food production should be comprehended quantitatively. We used ERA-Interim which includes temperature, dew-point, pressure, precipitation, solar radiation and wind speed product, to analyze the world condition of climate changes, and calculated warmth index and dew-point depression. Kira (1977) developed warmth index which has close relationship between distribution of plants living. Dew-point depression represents the wetness of atmosphere. Also, we analyzed crop yields statistics from USDA to clarify what kind of climate condition affect crop yields. Figure 1 shows variance distribution of warmth index. It can be said that area where contains high value of variance, is subject to extreme climatic changes. Figure 2 is a distribution map indicating whether warmth index was higher or lower than average value. In 2012, it was very hot in the wide range of the Russia and North America. Figure 3 shows correlation between yield index and ERA-Interim climate data at each month. Crop yields have been in trend of increasing because technology enhancements such as improving of breeds and cultivation have been occurred. Therefore, we calculated simple moving average as normal value and calculated yield index by dividing the normal value and annual yields (left Figure 3). If yield index was under 100, it was harvest failure in that year. In contrast, if yield index was higher than 100, it was good harvest in that year. In this result, temperature, warmth index and

  13. Diagnostic Yield of Chromosomal Microarray Analysis in a Cohort of Patients with Autism Spectrum Disorders from a Highly Consanguineous Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mamari, Watfa; Al-Saegh, Abeer; Al-Kindy, Adila; Bruwer, Zandre; Al-Murshedi, Fathiya; Al-Thihli, Khalid

    2015-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorders are a complicated group of disorders characterized with heterogeneous genetic etiologies. The genetic investigations for this group of disorders have expanded considerably over the past decade. In our study we designed a tired approach and studied the diagnostic yield of chromosomal microarray analysis on patients…

  14. Comparative analysis of mycobacterium and related actinomycetes yields insight into the evolution of mycobacterium tuberculosis pathogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McGuire Abigail

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The sequence of the pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb strain H37Rv has been available for over a decade, but the biology of the pathogen remains poorly understood. Genome sequences from other Mtb strains and closely related bacteria present an opportunity to apply the power of comparative genomics to understand the evolution of Mtb pathogenesis. We conducted a comparative analysis using 31 genomes from the Tuberculosis Database (TBDB.org, including 8 strains of Mtb and M. bovis, 11 additional Mycobacteria, 4 Corynebacteria, 2 Streptomyces, Rhodococcus jostii RHA1, Nocardia farcinia, Acidothermus cellulolyticus, Rhodobacter sphaeroides, Propionibacterium acnes, and Bifidobacterium longum. Results Our results highlight the functional importance of lipid metabolism and its regulation, and reveal variation between the evolutionary profiles of genes implicated in saturated and unsaturated fatty acid metabolism. It also suggests that DNA repair and molybdopterin cofactors are important in pathogenic Mycobacteria. By analyzing sequence conservation and gene expression data, we identify nearly 400 conserved noncoding regions. These include 37 predicted promoter regulatory motifs, of which 14 correspond to previously validated motifs, as well as 50 potential noncoding RNAs, of which we experimentally confirm the expression of four. Conclusions Our analysis of protein evolution highlights gene families that are associated with the adaptation of environmental Mycobacteria to obligate pathogenesis. These families include fatty acid metabolism, DNA repair, and molybdopterin biosynthesis. Our analysis reinforces recent findings suggesting that small noncoding RNAs are more common in Mycobacteria than previously expected. Our data provide a foundation for understanding the genome and biology of Mtb in a comparative context, and are available online and through TBDB.org.

  15. A preliminary analysis of {eta}({eta}{sup '}){yields}{pi}{sub 0{gamma}{gamma}} and {eta}{sup '{yields}{eta}{gamma}{gamma}} decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jora, Renata, E-mail: rjora@ifae.e [Grup de Fisica Teorica and IFAE, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain)

    2010-10-15

    We present preliminary results for the decay widths and the invariant mass spectra of the electromagnetic rare decays {eta}({eta}{sup '}){yields}{pi}{sub 0{gamma}{gamma}} and {eta}{sup '{yields}{eta}{gamma}{gamma}}.

  16. ANALYSIS OF TOURISTIC DEVELOPMENT POTENTIAL OF SOME NATURA 2000 SITES

    OpenAIRE

    STANCIU Mirela

    2014-01-01

    This paper performs the analysis of the tourism development potential of two sites in the Natura 2000 network. SWOT analysis concerning the potential of tourism development is made, indicating opportunities for lovers of ecotourism: visitors interested in bird species, visitors interested in flora and fauna. It also describes the potential development of tourism services under the concept of "slow tourism". It describes the possible forms of tourism that can develop in this area, presenting a...

  17. ANALYSIS OF HYDROTHERMAL CONDITIONS AND THEIR IMPACT ON EARLY POTATO YIELDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbiata Radzka

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The work is based on data on monthly air temperatures, monthly sums of atmospheric precipitation and early potato yields in 2000–2013 obtained from seven COBORU (Research Centre for Cultivar Testing stations situated in east-central Poland. Hydrothermal conditions during the growing season (April–July of early potato were described by means of the Sielianinow’s coefficient. The relationships between potato yields and the Sielianinow’s hydrothermal coefficient of the growing season were examined using multiple regression equations generated by means of the step-wise regression procedure followed by polynomial regression procedure. The average Sielianinow’s coefficient values ranged from 1.43 in April to 1.66 in May during the early potato growing season in east-central Poland. The applied statistical methods revealed that the hydrothermal factors impacted on early potato yields, particularly in the second stage of potato growth and development.

  18. Comparative analysis of the secondary electron yield from carbon nanoparticles and pure water medium

    CERN Document Server

    Verkhovtsev, Alexey; de Vera, Pablo; Surdutovich, Eugene; Guatelli, Susanna; Korol, Andrei V; Rosenfeld, Anatoly; Solov'yov, Andrey V

    2015-01-01

    The production of secondary electrons generated by carbon nanoparticles and pure water medium irradiated by fast protons is studied by means of model approaches and Monte Carlo simulations. It is demonstrated that due to a prominent collective response to an external field, the nanoparticles embedded in the medium enhance the yield of low-energy electrons. The maximal enhancement is observed for electrons in the energy range where plasmons, which are excited in the nanoparticles, play the dominant role. Electron yield from a solid carbon nanoparticle composed of fullerite, a crystalline form of C60 fullerene, is demonstrated to be several times higher than that from liquid water. Decay of plasmon excitations in carbon-based nanosystems thus represents a mechanism of increase of the low-energy electron yield, similar to the case of sensitizing metal nanoparticles. This observation gives a hint for investigation of novel types of sensitizers to be composed of metallic and organic parts.

  19. Analysis of incident-energy dependence of delayed neutron yields in actinides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasir, Mohamad Nasrun bin Mohd, E-mail: monasr211@gmail.com; Metorima, Kouhei, E-mail: kohei.m2420@hotmail.co.jp; Ohsawa, Takaaki, E-mail: ohsawa@mvg.biglobe.ne.jp; Hashimoto, Kengo, E-mail: kengoh@pp.iij4u.or.jp [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Kindai University, Kowakae, Higashi-Osaka, 577-8502 (Japan)

    2015-04-29

    The changes of delayed neutron yields (ν{sub d}) of Actinides have been analyzed for incident energy up to 20MeV using realized data of precursor after prompt neutron emission, from semi-empirical model, and delayed neutron emission probability data (P{sub n}) to carry out a summation method. The evaluated nuclear data of the delayed neutron yields of actinide nuclides are still uncertain at the present and the cause of the energy dependence has not been fully understood. In this study, the fission yields of precursor were calculated considering the change of the fission fragment mass yield based on the superposition of fives Gaussian distribution; and the change of the prompt neutrons number associated with the incident energy dependence. Thus, the incident energy dependent behavior of delayed neutron was analyzed.The total number of delayed neutron is expressed as ν{sub d}=∑Y{sub i} • P{sub ni} in the summation method, where Y{sub i} is the mass yields of precursor i and P{sub ni} is the delayed neutron emission probability of precursor i. The value of Y{sub i} is derived from calculation of post neutron emission mass distribution using 5 Gaussian equations with the consideration of large distribution of the fission fragments. The prompt neutron emission ν{sub p} increases at higher incident-energy but there are two different models; one model says that the fission fragment mass dependence that prompt neutron emission increases uniformly regardless of the fission fragments mass; and the other says that the major increases occur at heavy fission fragments area. In this study, the changes of delayed neutron yields by the two models have been investigated.

  20. Development of crossbreeding high-yield-potential strains for commercial cultivation in the medicinal mushroom Wolfiporia cocos (Higher Basidiomycetes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Xiaozhao; Wang, Xiaoxia; Bian, Yinbing; Xu, Zhangyi

    2016-07-01

    Wolfiporia cocos is a well-known medicinal mushroom, and its dried sclerotia has been widely used as a traditional medicine in China, Japan, and other Asian countries for centuries. However, long-term asexual reproduction of the breeding system in W. cocos results in a current universal degeneration of cultivated strains. To develop a W. cocos breeding program that will benefit commercial cultivation, we previously developed an optimum method for indoor induction of W. cocos fruiting bodies and clarified the nature of preponderant binuclear sexual basidiospores. In this paper, we first show that the majority of W. cocos single-spore isolates cannot form sclerotium in field cultivation. We then investigated the possibility of breeding new strains by crossbreeding. Three types of mating reactions were observed in both intra-strain pairings and inter-strain pairings, and a total of fifty-five hybrids were selected by antagonistic testing and allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Field cultivation of hybrids demonstrated that some hybrids can form sclerotium via two cultivated methods. Two new high-yield strains were identified. This report will stimulate new thinking on W. cocos and promote further extensive studies on crossbreeding in W. cocos, a new topic related to the development of more efficient protocols for the discrimination of hybrids in W. cocos. PMID:27100524

  1. Phytoremediation potential of chromium-containing tannery effluent-contaminated soil by native Indian timber-yielding tree species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manikandan, Muthu; Kannan, Vijayaraghavan; Mahalingam, Kanimozhi; Vimala, A; Chun, Sechul

    2016-01-01

    Twenty-six native Indian tree species that are used for the enhanced tree cover program of the forest department (Government of Tamilnadu, India) were screened for phytoremediation of tannery effluent-contaminated soil containing high chromium content. Out of 26 tree species tested, 10 timber-yielding tree species were selected for further phytoremediation monitoring. After a series of treatments with tannery effluent sludge, the chromium content was measured in the plant parts. The saplings of Acacia auriculiformis, Azadirachta indica, Albizzia lebbeck, Dalbergia sisso, and Thespesia populnea were identified as efficient bioaccumulators of chromium from Cr-contaminated soil. Acacia auriculiformis accumulates higher amounts of Cr in both the root and stem. Dalbergia sisso and T. populnea were found to accumulate higher quantity of Cr in the roots, whereas A. indica, A. richardiana, and A. lebbeck accumulate Cr in their stem. The stress response of the plant species was assessed by quantifying the antioxidative enzymes such as catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase, and DHAR. Activity of all the enzymes was observed to gradually increase following treatment with tannery effluent sludge. PMID:26177918

  2. Impact of Lygus spp. (Hemiptera: Miridae) on damage, yield and quality of lesquerella (Physaria fendleri), a potential new oil-seed crop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naranjo, Steven E; Ellsworth, Peter C; Dierig, David A

    2011-10-01

    Lesquerella, Physaria fendleri (A. Gray) S. Watson, is a mustard native to the western United States and is currently being developed as a commercial source of valuable hydroxy fatty acids that can be used in a number of industrial applications, including biolubricants, biofuel additives, motor oils, resins, waxes, nylons, plastics, corrosion inhibitors, cosmetics, and coatings. The plant is cultivated as a winter-spring annual and in the desert southwest it harbors large populations of arthropods, several of which could be significant pests once production expands. Lygus spp. (Hemiptera: Miridae) are common in lesquerella and are known pests of a number of agronomic and horticultural crops where they feed primarily on reproductive tissues. A 4-yr replicated plot study was undertaken to evaluate the probable impact of Lygus spp. on production of this potential new crop. Plant damage and subsequent seed yield and quality were examined relative to variable and representative densities of Lygus spp. (0.3-4.9 insects per sweep net) resulting from variable frequency and timing of insecticide applications. Increasing damage to various fruiting structures (flowers [0.9-13.9%], buds [1.2-7.1%], and seed pods [19.4-42.5%]) was significantly associated with increasing pest abundance, particularly the abundance of nymphs, in all years. This damage, however, did not consistently translate into reductions in seed yield (481-1,336 kg/ha), individual seed weight (0.5-0.7 g per 1,000 seed), or seed oil content (21.8-30.4%), and pest abundance generally explained relatively little of the variation in crop yield and quality. Negative effects on yield were not sensitive to the timing of pest damage (early versus late season) but were more pronounced during years when potential yields were lower due to weed competition and other agronomic factors. Results suggest that if the crop is established and managed in a more optimal fashion, Lygus spp. may not significantly limit yield

  3. An Empirical Analysis of the Relationship between US and Colombian Long-Term Sovereign Bond Yields

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander Guarín; José Fernando Moreno; Hernando Vargas

    2014-01-01

    We study the relationship between US and Colombian sovereign debt interest rates. We also evaluate the response of the Colombian long-term bond yield and other asset prices to shocks to the US long-term Treasury rate. Two empirical exercises are performed. First, we use a moving window linear regression to examine the link between sovereign bond yields. Second, we estimate a VARX – MGARCH model to compute the short-term response of local asset prices to foreign financial shocks. Our exercises...

  4. Analysis on Relationship between Overcast and Rainy Weather, Drought, Flood and Wheat Yield

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The research aimed to study influence of meteorological factor in late growth stage of wheat. [Method] Based on precipitation, sunshine and yield per unit of wheat in Anyang City in May of 1979-2008, the positive and negative influences of meteorological condition in late growth stage of wheat (May) on wheat yield in Anyang City were analyzed by using agricultural climatic statistical method. Moreover, the reason and defense measure of green-dry hazard in late growth stage of wheat in the city w...

  5. Climatological sensitivity analysis of crop yield to changes in temperature and precipitation using particle filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokozawa, M.; Sakurai, G.; Iizumi, T.

    2010-12-01

    The climatological sensitivities of crop yields to changes in mean temperature and precipitation during a period of the growing season were statistically examined. The sensitivity is defined as the change of yield in response to the change of climatic condition in the growth period from sowing to harvesting. The objective crops are maize and soybean, which are being cultivated in United States, Brazil and China as the world major production countries. We collected the yield data of maize and soybean on county level of United States from USDA during a period of 1980-2006, on Município level of Brazil during a period of 1990-2006 and on Xiàn level of China during a period of 1980-2005. While the data on only four provinces in China are used (Heilongjiang, Henan, Liaoning, and Shandong), total production of the four provinces reaches about 40% (maize) and 51% (soybean) to the country total (USDA 1997). We used JRA-25 reanalysis climate data distributed from the Japanese Meteorological Agency during a period of 1980 through 2006 with a resolution of 1.125° in latitude and longitude. To coincide in resolution, the crop yield data were reallocated into the same grids as climate. To eliminate economical and technical effects on yield, we detrended the time series data of yield and climate. We applied a local regression model to conduct the detrend (cubic weighting and M estimator of Tukey's bi-weight function). The time series data on the deviation from the trend were examined with the changes in temperature and precipitation for each grid using the particle filter. The particle filter used here is based on self-organizing state-space model. As a result, in the northern hemisphere, positive sensitivity, i.e. increase in temperature shifts the crop yield positively, is generally found especially in higher latitude, while negative sensitivity is found in the lower latitude. The neutral sensitivity is found in the regions where the mean temperature during growing season

  6. Agronomic Characteristics, Growth Analysis, and Yield Response of Biofield Treated Mustard, Cowpea, Horse Gram, and Groundnuts

    OpenAIRE

    Trivedi, Mahendra Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Mustard, cowpea, horse gram, and groundnuts are the seasonal pulse crops used as food and fodder in many regions of the world. In the present study, the impact of biofield energy treatment on mustard, cowpea, horse gram, and groundnuts were studied with respect to overall growth, yield, and its related yield attributes. Seeds of each crop was selected and divided in two groups, i.e. control and treated. The treated group of each seed crops was subjected to Mr. Trivedi biofield energy treatmen...

  7. Empirical Analysis of Yield Determinants in Japan’s Municipal Bond Market: Does Credit Risk Premium Exist?

    OpenAIRE

    Hattori, Takahiro; Miyake, Hiroki

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we examine the determinants of the yield spread between issuers in Japan’s municipal bond market using panel data and focus on identifying whether credit risk premium exists. The results of the panel data analysis reveal new evidence on the municipal bond market for FY 2002–2013. In the first half of the 2000s, the fundamental fiscal statistics, that is, the credit risk indicators, had no impact on the yield spreads, suggesting the absence of credit risk premium. Second, Yūbari...

  8. VCS-SSA Mainz Experiment. Measurement of the beam spin asymmetry in (e polarized p {yields} ep{gamma}) and (e polarized p {yields} ep{pi}{sup 0}). Final analysis - MEMO I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonvieille, H.; Bensafa, I. [LPC-Clermont-Fd, Universite Blaise Pascal, F-63170 Aubiere Cedex (France)

    2006-02-15

    This note gives details on the final analysis of the VCS-SSA experiment in terms of Beam Spin Asymmetry. It summarizes the changes between the first and second pass analysis. Then the measured asymmetry is presented for both channels e polarized p {yields} ep{gamma} and e polarized p {yields} ep{pi}{sup 0} including systematic studies. The final experimental result is briefly compared to some model predictions. (authors)

  9. Effect of Collection Technique on Yield of Bovine Oocytes and the Development Potential of Oocytes from Different Grades of Oocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.G Sianturi

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Oocyte collection technique is important to obtain a maximum number of oocytes to be employed on in vitro production of embryos. In this study, immature bovine oocytes were collected from slaughterhouse ovaries by two techniques: aspiration of 2- to 6-mm follicles and slicing. Following collection, oocyte qualities were classified into four categories (A, B, C, and D on the basis of cumulus attachment. Oocytes of each category were matured in vitro in CO2 incubator for 22-24 hours and cumulus expansion and maturation rates were observed. The total number of oocytes (group A+B+C+D and yield of good quality oocytes (only group A and B recovered per ovary by aspiration were 12.02 and 8.21, and by slicing were 29.38 and 19.65 (P<0.01, respectively. The total cumulus cells expansion rates of A, B, C and D oocytes were 97.1%, 88.3%, 6.0% and 20.6% respectively. Maturation rates for A, B and C categories of oocytes were 91.4%, 82.3% and 35.0% respectively while no matured oocyte was observed for group D oocytes. Maturation rates were significantly different between group A and C and also between B and C but not between A and B (P<0.05. In conclusion, slicing technique recovered more oocytes per ovary (2.4 times than that of aspiration and the best maturation rate was observed from category A oocytes which surrounded by more than 3 layers of cumulus cells. However oocytes of category A and B can be considered as good quality oocytes.

  10. Genome-Wide Association Analysis to Identify Loci for Milk Yield in Gyr Breed

    Science.gov (United States)

    A genome scan was conducted to identify QTL affecting milk yield in a Brazilian Gyr population of progeny test bulls (N=319). Data used in this study was derived from traditional genetic evaluation records computed by the Embrapa Dairy Cattleand released in May/2009 (http://www.cnpgl.embrapa.br/nova...

  11. Nutrient uptake, biomass yield and quantitative analysis of aliphatic aldehydes in cilantro plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the nutrient uptake, biomass production and yield of the major compounds in the essential oil of five genotypes of Coriandrum sativum L. The treatments were four accessions donated by the National Genetic Resources Advisory Council (NGRAC), U.S. Department...

  12. Analysis of the yielding behavior of electrorheological suspensions by controlled shear stress experiments

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pavlínek, V.; Sáha, P.; Perez-Gonzales, K.; de Vargas, L.; Stejskal, Jaroslav; Quadrat, Otakar

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 16, 1-2 (2006), s. 14-18. ISSN 1430-6395 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/06/0419 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : electrorheology * yield stress * suspensions * polyaniline Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry

  13. Analysis of photonuclear yield curves by the variable Bin Penfold-Leiss method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various standard procedures have been evolved for the unfolding photonuclear cross sections from a measured set of bremsstrahlung induced yield curves. This program uses the variable Bin Penfold-Leiss (VBPL) method of matrix inversion to obtain a set of cross section values each with its corresponding energy resolution

  14. MISSE 2 PEACE Polymers Experiment Atomic Oxygen Erosion Yield Error Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Catherine E.; Banks, Bruce A.; deGroh, Kim, K.

    2010-01-01

    Atomic oxygen erosion of polymers in low Earth orbit (LEO) poses a serious threat to spacecraft performance and durability. To address this, 40 different polymer samples and a sample of pyrolytic graphite, collectively called the PEACE (Polymer Erosion and Contamination Experiment) Polymers, were exposed to the LEO space environment on the exterior of the International Space Station (ISS) for nearly 4 years as part of the Materials International Space Station Experiment 1 & 2 (MISSE 1 & 2). The purpose of the PEACE Polymers experiment was to obtain accurate mass loss measurements in space to combine with ground measurements in order to accurately calculate the atomic oxygen erosion yields of a wide variety of polymeric materials exposed to the LEO space environment for a long period of time. Error calculations were performed in order to determine the accuracy of the mass measurements and therefore of the erosion yield values. The standard deviation, or error, of each factor was incorporated into the fractional uncertainty of the erosion yield for each of three different situations, depending on the post-flight weighing procedure. The resulting error calculations showed the erosion yield values to be very accurate, with an average error of 3.30 percent.

  15. Quantitative trait analysis of yeast biodiversity yields novel gene tools for metabolic engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hubmann, Georg; Foulquié-Moreno, Maria R.; Nevoigt, Elke; Duitama, Jorge; Meurens, Nicolas; Pais, Thiago M.; Mathé, Lotte; Saerens, Sofie; Nguyen, Huyen Thi Thanh; Swinnen, Steve; Verstrepen, Kevin J.; Concilio, Luigi; de Troostembergh, Jean-Claude; Thevelein, Johan M.

    2013-01-01

    Engineering of metabolic pathways by genetic modification has been restricted largely to enzyme-encoding structural genes. The product yield of such pathways is a quantitative genetic trait. Out of 52 Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains phenotyped in small-scale fermentations, we identified strain CBS6

  16. Path and ridge regression analysis of seed yield and seed yield components of Russian wildrye (Psathyrostachys juncea Nevski) under field conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Quanzhen; Zhang, Tiejun; Cui, Jian;

    2011-01-01

    numbers per spikelet (Y4) and seed weight (Y5) were counted and the Z were determined in field experiments from 2003 to 2006 via big sample size. Y1 was the most important seed yield component describing the Z and Y2 was the least. The total direct effects of the Y1, Y3 and Y5 to the Z were positive while...... Y4 and Y2 were weakly negative. The total effects (directs plus indirects) of the components were positively contributed to the Z by path analyses. The seed yield components Y1, Y2, Y4 and Y5 were significantly (P<0.001) correlated with the Z for 4 years totally, while in the individual years, Y2...... most important that, via ridge regression, a steady algorithm model between Z and the five yield components was founded, which can be closely estimated the seed yield via the components....

  17. Climate change impact on crop rotations of winter durum wheat and tomato in southern Italy: yield analysis and soil fertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Ventrella

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Cropping systems are affected by climate change because of the strong relationship between crop development, growth, yield, CO2 atmospheric concentration and climate conditions. The increasing temperatures and the reduction of available water resources may result in negative impacts on the agricultural activity in Mediterranean environments than other areas. In this study the CERES-Wheat and CROPGRO-Tomato models were used to assess the effects of climate change on winter wheat (Triticum durum L. and processing tomato (Lycopersicon aesculentum Mill. in one of most productive areas of Italy, located in the northern part of the Puglia region. In particular we have compared three different General Circulation Models (HadCM3, CCSM3, ECHAM5 subjected to a statistical downscaling under two future IPCC scenarios (B1 and A2. The analysis was carried out at regional scale repeating the simulations for seven homogeneous area characterizing the spatial variability of the region. In the second part of the study, considering only HadCM3 data set, climate change impact on long-term sequences of the two crops combined in three crop rotations were evaluated in terms of yield performances and soil fertility as indicated by the soil organic content of carbon and nitrogen. The comparison between GCMs showed no significant differences for winter durum wheat yield, while noticeable differences were found for yield and irrigation requirements of tomato. Under future scenarios, the production levels were reduced for tomato, whereas positive yield effects were observed for winter durum wheat. For winter durum wheat the simulation indicated that two- and three-year rotations, including one year of tomato cultivation, improved the cereal yield and this positive effect maintained its validity also in future scenarios. For both crops higher requirements of water and nitrogen were predicted under future scenarios. This result coupled with the decrease of yield caused

  18. Preliminary assessment of potential well yields and the potential for artificial recharge of the Elm and Middle James aquifers in the Aberdeen area, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmons, P.J.

    1987-01-01

    A complex hydrologic system exists in the glacial drift overlying the bedrock in the Aberdeen, South Dakota, area. The hydrologic system has been subdivided into three aquifers: the Elm, Middle James, and Deep James. These sand-and-gravel outwash aquifers generally are separated from each other by till or other fine-grained sediments. The Elm aquifer is the uppermost and largest of the aquifers and underlies about 204 sq mi of the study area. The maximum altitude of the top of the Elm aquifer is 1,400 ft and the minimum altitude of the bottom is 1,225 ft. The Middle James aquifer underlies about 172 sq mi of the study area. The maximum altitude of the top of the Middle James aquifer is 1,250 ft and the minimum altitude of the bottom is 1 ,150 ft. The lower-most Deep James aquifer was not evaluated. The quality of the water from the Elm and Middle James aquifer varies considerably throughout the study area. The predominant chemical constituents in the water from the aquifers are sodium and sulfate ions; however, calcium, magnesium, bicarbonate, or chloride may dominate locally. The calculated theoretical total well yield from the Elm and Middle James aquifers ranges from a minimum of 64 cu ft/sec, which may be conservative, to a maximum of 640 cu ft/sec. Based on available data, yields of 100 to 150 cu ft/sec probably can be obtained from properly sited and constructed wells. The feasibility of artificially recharging an aquifer, using the technique of water spreading, depends on the geologic and hydraulic characteristics of the aquifer and of the sediments overlying the aquifer through which the recharge water must percolate. The sites suitable for artificial recharge in the study area were defined as those areas where the average aquifer thickness was > 20 ft and the average thickness of the fine-grained sediments overlying the aquifer was artificial recharge. Infiltration rates in the study area are estimated to range from 1.3 to 4.3 ft/day. Using an infiltration

  19. Vineyard Yield Estimation Based on the Analysis of High Resolution Images Obtained with Artificial Illumination at Night

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davinia Font

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a method for vineyard yield estimation based on the analysis of high-resolution images obtained with artificial illumination at night. First, this paper assesses different pixel-based segmentation methods in order to detect reddish grapes: threshold based, Mahalanobis distance, Bayesian classifier, linear color model segmentation and histogram segmentation, in order to obtain the best estimation of the area of the clusters of grapes in this illumination conditions. The color spaces tested were the original RGB and the Hue-Saturation-Value (HSV. The best segmentation method in the case of a non-occluded reddish table-grape variety was the threshold segmentation applied to the H layer, with an estimation error in the area of 13.55%, improved up to 10.01% by morphological filtering. Secondly, after segmentation, two procedures for yield estimation based on a previous calibration procedure have been proposed: (1 the number of pixels corresponding to a cluster of grapes is computed and converted directly into a yield estimate; and (2 the area of a cluster of grapes is converted into a volume by means of a solid of revolution, and this volume is converted into a yield estimate; the yield errors obtained were 16% and −17%, respectively.

  20. GGE Biplot Analysis of Yield Stability in Multi-environment Trials of Lentil Genotypes under Rainfed Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmatollah KARIMIZADEH

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This investigation was done to study GE interaction over twelve environments for seed yield in 18 genetically diverse genotypes. Grain yield performances were evaluated for three years at four locations in Iran using a randomized complete block design. The first two principal components (IPC1 and IPC2 were used to create a two-dimensional GGE biplot that accounted percentages of 49% and 20% respectively of sums of squares of the GE interaction. The combined analysis of variance indicated that year and location were the most important sources affecting yield variation and these factors accounted for percentages of 50.0% and 33.3% respectively of total G+E+GE variation. The GGE biplot suggested the existence of three lentil mega-environments with wining genotypes G1, G11 and G14. According to the ideal-genotype biplot, genotype G1 was the better genotype demonstrating high mean yield and high stability of performance across test locations. The average tester coordinate view indicated that genotype G1 had the highest average yield, and genotypes G1 and G12 recorded the best stability. The study revealed that a GGE biplot graphically displays interrelationships between test locations as well as genotypes and facilitates visual comparisons.

  1. Vineyard yield estimation based on the analysis of high resolution images obtained with artificial illumination at night.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Font, Davinia; Tresanchez, Marcel; Martínez, Dani; Moreno, Javier; Clotet, Eduard; Palacín, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a method for vineyard yield estimation based on the analysis of high-resolution images obtained with artificial illumination at night. First, this paper assesses different pixel-based segmentation methods in order to detect reddish grapes: threshold based, Mahalanobis distance, Bayesian classifier, linear color model segmentation and histogram segmentation, in order to obtain the best estimation of the area of the clusters of grapes in this illumination conditions. The color spaces tested were the original RGB and the Hue-Saturation-Value (HSV). The best segmentation method in the case of a non-occluded reddish table-grape variety was the threshold segmentation applied to the H layer, with an estimation error in the area of 13.55%, improved up to 10.01% by morphological filtering. Secondly, after segmentation, two procedures for yield estimation based on a previous calibration procedure have been proposed: (1) the number of pixels corresponding to a cluster of grapes is computed and converted directly into a yield estimate; and (2) the area of a cluster of grapes is converted into a volume by means of a solid of revolution, and this volume is converted into a yield estimate; the yield errors obtained were 16% and -17%, respectively. PMID:25860071

  2. Metabolic regulation of triacylglycerol accumulation in the green algae: identification of potential targets for engineering to improve oil yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncalves, Elton C; Wilkie, Ann C; Kirst, Matias; Rathinasabapathi, Bala

    2016-08-01

    The great need for more sustainable alternatives to fossil fuels has increased our research interests in algal biofuels. Microalgal cells, characterized by high photosynthetic efficiency and rapid cell division, are an excellent source of neutral lipids as potential fuel stocks. Various stress factors, especially nutrient-starvation conditions, induce an increased formation of lipid bodies filled with triacylglycerol in these cells. Here we review our knowledge base on glycerolipid synthesis in the green algae with an emphasis on recent studies on carbon flux, redistribution of lipids under nutrient-limiting conditions and its regulation. We discuss the contributions and limitations of classical and novel approaches used to elucidate the algal triacylglycerol biosynthetic pathway and its regulatory network in green algae. Also discussed are gaps in knowledge and suggestions for much needed research both on the biology of triacylglycerol accumulation and possible avenues to engineer improved algal strains. PMID:26801206

  3. Multivariate Analysis of Grain Yield and Its Attributing Traits in Different Maize Hybrids Grown under Heat and Drought Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Fawad; Kanwal, Naila; Ahsan, Muhammmad; Ali, Qurban; Bibi, Irshad; Niazi, Nabeel Khan

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate F1 single cross-maize hybrids in four crop growing seasons (2010-2012). Morphological traits and physiological parameters of twelve maize hybrids were evaluated (i) to construct seed yield equation and (ii) to determine grain yield attributing traits of well-performing maize genotype using a previously unexplored method of two-way hierarchical clustering. In seed yield predicting equation photosynthetic rate contributed the highest variation (46%). Principal component analysis data showed that investigated traits contributed up to 90.55% variation in dependent structure. From factor analysis, we found that factor 1 contributed 49.6% variation (P stomata conductance, substomata CO2 absorption rate, and photosynthetic rate). The results of two-way hierarchical clustering demonstrated that Cluster III had outperforming genotype H12 (Sultan × Soneri) along with its most closely related traits (photosynthetic rate, stomata conductance, substomata CO2 absorption rate, chlorophyll contents, leaf area, and fresh stem weight). Our data shows that H12 (Sultan × Soneri) possessed the highest grain yield per plant under environmentally stress conditions, which are most likely to exist in arid and semiarid climatic conditions, such as in Pakistan. PMID:26798554

  4. Multivariate Analysis of Grain Yield and Its Attributing Traits in Different Maize Hybrids Grown under Heat and Drought Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fawad Ali

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to evaluate F1 single cross-maize hybrids in four crop growing seasons (2010–2012. Morphological traits and physiological parameters of twelve maize hybrids were evaluated (i to construct seed yield equation and (ii to determine grain yield attributing traits of well-performing maize genotype using a previously unexplored method of two-way hierarchical clustering. In seed yield predicting equation photosynthetic rate contributed the highest variation (46%. Principal component analysis data showed that investigated traits contributed up to 90.55% variation in dependent structure. From factor analysis, we found that factor 1 contributed 49.6% variation (P<0.05 with primary important traits (i.e., number of leaves per plant, plant height, stem diameter, fresh leaves weight, leaf area, stomata conductance, substomata CO2 absorption rate, and photosynthetic rate. The results of two-way hierarchical clustering demonstrated that Cluster III had outperforming genotype H12 (Sultan × Soneri along with its most closely related traits (photosynthetic rate, stomata conductance, substomata CO2 absorption rate, chlorophyll contents, leaf area, and fresh stem weight. Our data shows that H12 (Sultan × Soneri possessed the highest grain yield per plant under environmentally stress conditions, which are most likely to exist in arid and semiarid climatic conditions, such as in Pakistan.

  5. Zinc-phosphorus relationship in soils as measured by dry matter yield and plant analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of placement of P and Zn with seed on dry matter yield and absorption of these elements by barley was studied in three soils under controlled greenhouse conditions.Dry matter yield showed significant variation at 50 and 100 kg/ha levels of P but Zn effect was not significant. Total uptake of P and percent of P in plants derived from fertilizer did not significantly but utilization of fertilizer P and P content in plants differed significantly at two levels of P application. Uptake of Zn, percent Zn in plant derived from fertilizer and Zn content in plants differed significantly at 10 and 20 kg/ha levels of Zn application but utilization of fertilizer Zn did not differ. The placement of P and Zn together did not show any antagonism on their absorption by barley as well as on the A-values of soils. (author)

  6. Measurements and analysis of excitation coefficients and secondary electron yields in Townsend dark discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we review our study of excitation coefficients in rare gases and in methane, some of the excitation cross sections that were obtained, the spatial profiles of emission (with absolute calibration) and secondary electron yields. The data for excitation coefficients have been analysed to produce the cross section data in some cases. The spatial profiles of emission at the low currents were used to establish the importance of the non-hydrodynamic relaxation and the contributions of heavy particles and reflected electrons. These data were also used to get more reliable secondary electron yields for rare gases. The spatial emission profiles at higher currents have been applied to obtain field profiles and make comparisons with hybrid models. In particular, we present in this paper, the emission coefficients in krypton and we discuss the wide range of interconnected applications of excitation coefficients and spatial emission profiles

  7. An association analysis between OXT genotype and milk yield and flow in Italian Mediterranean river buffalo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauciullo, Alfredo; Cosenza, Gianfranco; Steri, Roberto; Coletta, Angelo; Jemma, Lazzaro; Feligini, Maria; Di Berardino, Dino; Macciotta, Nicolò P P; Ramunno, Luigi

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate possible associations between three SNPs at the oxytocin locus (AM234538: g.28C>T; g.204A>G and g.1627G>T) and two productive traits, milk yield and milkability, in Italian Mediterranean river buffaloes. Effects of parity, calving season and month of production were also evaluated. A total of 41 980 test-day records belonging to 219 lactations of 163 buffalo cows were investigated. The allele call rate was 98·8% and the major allele frequency for all the investigated loci was 0·76. The OXT genotype was significantly associated with milk yield (P=0·029). The TT genotype showed an average daily milk yield approximately 1·7 kg higher than GT buffaloes. Such a difference represents about 23% more milk/d. A large dominance effect (-1·17±0·43 kg) was estimated, whereas the contribution of OXT genotype (r(2)(OXT)) to the total phenotypic variance in milk yield was equal to 0·06. The TT genotype showed higher values also for the milk flow, even though the estimated difference did not reach a level of statistical significance (P=0·07). Such an association, among the first reported for the oxytocin locus in ruminants, should be tested on a population scale and possible effects on milk composition traits should be evaluated in order to supply useful indications for the application of marker-assisted selection programmes in river buffaloes. PMID:22280971

  8. Empirical analysis of relation between credit premia and government yield term structure

    OpenAIRE

    Pehkonen, Pauli

    2014-01-01

    This Master's thesis contributes to the existing literature by studying the relation between credit premia - corporate bond spreads and corporate credit default swap (CDS) premia - and government yield term structure components, which focus on the level and the slope. My sample centers on the Euro-denominated investment grade credit premia by using Markit's iBoxx corporate bond indices and iTraxx corporate CDS indices. For bond indices the time period of study is September 2002 - October 2013...

  9. Spatial dimensions of precision agriculture: a spatial econometric analysis of millet yield on Sahelian coversands

    OpenAIRE

    FLORAX Raymond J.g.m.; Voortman, Roelf L.; Brouwer, Joost

    2002-01-01

    The identification of local soil variability caused by within-field differences of macronutrients and ecological features is of paramount importance for the effectiveness of precision agriculture. We present several spatial statistical and econometric techniques to capture local differences in soil variation, ecological characteristics, and yield more effectively than the analytical techniques traditionally used in agronomy. The application of these techniques is illustrated in a case study d...

  10. Parameters of AMMI Model for Yield Stability Analysis in Durum Wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Naser Sabaghnia; Mohtasham Mohammadi; Rahmatollah Karimizadeh

    2013-01-01

    The improvement of new genotypes with acceptable yield stability in different environments is an important issue in breeding programs. In order to study genotype × environment (GE) interaction and to determine the most stable durum wheat genotypes, field experiments were conducted with 20 genotypes for three years (2007-2009). Results showed highly significant GE interaction indicating the possibility of selection for the most stable genotypes. The AMMI (additive main effect and multiplicativ...

  11. Defaults & Returns on High Yield Bonds: Analysis Through 1998 and Default Outlook for 1999-2001

    OpenAIRE

    Edward I. Altman; Diane Cooke; Vellore Kishore

    1999-01-01

    Nineteen-ninety-eight was a mixed performance year for the high yield bond market in the United States, with much below average returns and spreads over default-risk-free Treasury Bonds but continued relatively low default rates and losses and another record year of new insurance. Returns and new insurance were excellent through the first seven months of the year but returns reversed and new issues dried up, temporarily, in the wake of August's Russians default and the emerging market turmoil...

  12. Synergistic yield of dual energy forms through biocatalyzed electrofermentation of waste: Stoichiometric analysis of electron and carbon distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel BEF (biocatalyzed electrofermentor) is designed by hybridizing the functional properties of both MFC (microbial fuel cell) and acidogenic fermentation process (AFP). This prototype facilitates potential synergy between the electrogenic and acidogenic processes to recover biohydrogen and bioelectricity with simultaneous wastewater treatment. The BEF was operated in three circuitry modes of operation viz., OC (open circuit), SC (short circuit) and CC (closed circuit) and the performance was compared with a control (without electrode assembly) with DSW (designed synthetic wastewater) having an organic load of 5000 mgL−1. In comparison with other test conditions, CC mode with fixed external resistance (300 Ω) gave highest yields of power density (72 mW m−2) and biohydrogen production (343 mL). Besides, the BEF performance was sustained by the innate buffering capacity and the substrate-linked dehydrogenase enzyme activity. The CC mode comparatively excelled because it facilitates congenial ambiance for the enriched EAB (electroactive bacteria) resulting high rate of metabolic activity that paves way for higher substrate degradation and product conversion efficiency. The empirical analysis of electron and carbon distribution was in good agreement with the experimental results. The electron delivery kinetics studied using voltammetric technique confirmed electron transfer by the membrane bound redox mediators. The designed biocatalyzed electrofermentation unravels the scope to harness dual forms of energy along with waste remediation. - Highlights: • Novel hybrid reactor for harnessing bioelectricity and biohydrogen simultaneously. • System buffering was critical factor during acidogenic–electrogeneic processes. • Electron-carbon balance revealed the rationale for substrate distribution. • Closed circuitry operation was efficient for electron delivery supported by voltammograms

  13. Comparative analysis of the secondary electron yield from carbon nanoparticles and pure water medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The issue of enhancing the radiosensitivity of tumors is important in radiotherapy. The production of secondary electrons generated by carbon nanoparticles and pure water medium irradiated by fast protons is studied by means of model approaches and Monte Carlo simulations. It is demonstrated that due to a prominent collective response to an external field, the nanoparticles embedded in the medium enhance the yield of low-energy electrons. The maximal enhancement is observed for electrons in the energy range where plasmons, which are excited in the nanoparticles, play the dominant role. The electron yield from a solid carbon nanoparticle composed of fullerite, a crystalline form of C60 fullerene, is demonstrated to be several times higher than that from liquid water. Decay of plasmon excitations in carbon-based nano-systems thus represents a mechanism of increasing the low-energy electron yield, similar to the case of sensitizing metal nanoparticles. This observation gives a hint for investigation of novel types of sensitizers to be composed of metallic and organic parts. (authors)

  14. Slow pyrolysis of rice straw: analysis of products properties, carbon and energy yields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jinje; Lee, Yongwoon; Ryu, Changkook; Park, Young-Kwon

    2014-03-01

    Among many uses of rice straw, application of its biochar from pyrolysis to the soil is receiving greater interest for increased crop productivity and sequestration of CO2. This study investigated slow pyrolysis of rice straw at 300-700°C to characterize the yields and detailed composition of the biochar, bio-oil and non-condensable gases. Biochar was analyzed for pH, microscopic surface area and pore volume distribution. Although the mass yield for the organic fraction was only about 25% above 500°C, biochar was the primary product of pyrolysis containing 40% of energy and 45% of carbon from the straw. The utilization of by-products (bio-oil and gases) as energy resources was essential, since the sum of energy yield was about 60%. The gases could be burned to produce the heat for an auto-thermal pyrolysis process, but the heat balance was significantly influenced by the moisture content of the raw material. PMID:24423650

  15. Potential ecological impacts analysis of California high speed rail

    OpenAIRE

    Cameron, Dick; White, Mike; Stallcup, Jerre Ann; Penrod, Kristeen

    2005-01-01

    The Nature Conservancy and the Conservation Biology Institute conducted an analysis of the potential environmental impacts of the proposed California High Speed Rail project as detailed in the 2004 Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Report. The analysis intended to match the scale of the programmatic EIR in order to inform comments and to create a synoptic view of the project with select focal examples of potential impact areas for non-governmental organization partners and funders. An i...

  16. Temporal Variations of Water Productivity in Irrigated Corn: An Analysis of Factors Influencing Yield and Water Use across Central Nebraska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Tony; Yang, Haishun; Ray, Chittaranjan

    2016-01-01

    Water Productivity (WP) of a crop defines the relationship between the economic or physical yield of the crop and its water use. With this concept it is possible to identify disproportionate water use or water-limited yield gaps and thereby support improvements in agricultural water management. However, too often important qualitative and quantitative environmental factors are not part of a WP analysis and therefore neglect the aspect of maintaining a sustainable agricultural system. In this study, we examine both the physical and economic WP in perspective with temporally changing environmental conditions. The physical WP analysis was performed by comparing simulated maximum attainable corn yields per unit of water using the crop model Hybrid-Maize with observed data from 2005 through 2013 from 108 farm plots in the Central Platte and the Tri Basin Natural Resource Districts of Nebraska. In order to expand the WP analysis on external factors influencing yields, a second model, Maize-N, was used to estimate optimal nitrogen (N)-fertilizer rate for specific fields in the study area. Finally, a vadose zone flow and transport model, HYDRUS-1D for simulating vertical nutrient transport in the soil, was used to estimate locations of nitrogen pulses in the soil profile. The comparison of simulated and observed data revealed that WP was not on an optimal level, mainly due to large amounts of irrigation used in the study area. The further analysis illustrated year-to-year variations of WP during the nine consecutive years, as well as the need to improve fertilizer management to favor WP and environmental quality. In addition, we addressed the negative influence of groundwater depletion on the economic WP through increasing pumping costs. In summary, this study demonstrated that involving temporal variations of WP as well as associated environmental and economic issues can represent a bigger picture of WP that can help to create incentives to sustainably improve

  17. Temperature and precipitation effects on wheat yield across a European transect: a crop model ensemble analysis using impact response surfaces

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pirttioja, N. K.; Carter, T. R.; Fronzek, S.; Bindi, M.; Hoffmann, H. D.; Palosuo, T.; Ruiz-Ramos, M.; Tao, F.; Trnka, Miroslav; Acutis, M.; Asseng, S.; Baranowski, P.; Basso, B.; Bodin, P.; Buis, S.; Cammarano, D.; Deligios, P.; Destain, M. F.; Dumont, B.; Ewert, F.; Ferrise, R.; Francois, L.; Gaiser, T.; Hlavinka, Petr; Jacquemin, I.; Kersebaum, K. C.; Kollas, C.; Krzyszczak, J.; Lorite, I. J.; Minet, J.; Minquez, M. I.; Montesino, M.; Moriondo, M.; Müller, C.; Nendel, C.; Öztürk, I.; Perego, A.; Rodriguez, A.; Ruane, A. C.; Ruget, F.; Sanna, M.; Semenov, M. A.; Slawinski, C.; Stratonovitch, P.; Supit, I.; Waha, K.; Wang, E.; Wu, L.; Zhao, Z.; Rötter, R. P.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 65, č. 31 (2015), s. 87-105. ISSN 0936-577X R&D Projects: GA MZe QJ1310123; GA MŠk(CZ) LD13030 Grant ostatní: German Federal Ministries of Education and Research , and Food and Agriculture(DE) 2812ERA115 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : climate * crop model * impact response surface * IRS * sensitivity analysis * wheat * yield Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.496, year: 2014

  18. Potential forcing of CO{sub 2}, technology and climate changes in maize (Zea mays) and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) yield in southeast Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, L C; Justino, F; Oliveira, L J C; Sediyama, G C; Lemos, C F [Department of Agricultural Engineering, Federal University of Vicosa, PH Rolfs S/N, Vicosa, MG, 36570 000 (Brazil); Ferreira, W P M [Embrapa Milho e Sorgo, Rodovia MG 424, km 45, Caixa Postal 285, CEP 35701-970 Sete Lagoas, MG (Brazil)], E-mail: fjustino@ufv.br

    2009-01-15

    Based upon sensitivity experiments, this study aims to investigate the impact of increased atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration, climate changes, and ongoing technological advancements on bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and maize (Zea mays) yield. This investigation assumes that the atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration evolves according to the A2 scenario. For these analyses we have used climate data as projected by climate simulations conducted with the HadCM3 climate model for both present day and greenhouse warming conditions. The results demonstrated that warming conditions associated with increased greenhouse gases as delivered by the HadCM3 model lead to reductions in the potential productivity of maize and beans for the years 2050 and 2080 by up to 30%. This thermal response is, however, damped by the highly efficient CO{sub 2} fertilization effect which is expected to increase bean productivity as compared to present day conditions. A similar investigation for maize yield revealed a different picture. It has been found that the CO{sub 2} fertilization feedback is much weaker and cannot cancel out the thermal effect. We have found, therefore, that climate changes as simulated to occur in the future are not favorable for increasing the maize yield in southeast Brazil. By the inclusion of the third forcing evaluated, representing technological advancements, it is demonstrated that improvements in the crop system reduce the negative effect associated with warmer climate conditions for both crops. We conclude that appropriate soil and technological management as well as genetic improvements may very likely induce an increase in bean and maize yield despite the unfavorable future climate conditions.

  19. Photosynthetic characterization of peanut varieties differing in yield potential%不同产量水平花生品种光合作用特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高国庆; 李杨瑞; 韩柱强; 钟瑞春; 周翠球

    2001-01-01

    用Li-6400手持式光合作用分析系统,测定了8个具有不同产量水平花生品种4个生长时期的光合速率和相关的光合参数.结果表明,7个产量潜力较高的品种,尽管相互之间的产量差异在10%以上,但其光合强度(Pn)却没有明显差别,而引自印度的低产品种Isgv-9的光合强度则明显较低.所有品种中,位于主茎倒数第二或第三片完全展开的叶片,在荚果充实期(播种后52 d)光合强度最大.叶片气孔导度(Cond)和胞间CO2浓度(Ci)与Pn显著相关,秋季夜间低温和Cond与Ci的降低,与生长后期(播种后88 d)花生叶片光合强度的降低有关.叶片烫伤处理导致叶片光合作用、气孔导度和蒸腾速率迅速降低,而Ci却急剧升高,说明处理刺激了呼吸作用的进行.本研究的结果说明,对于产量潜力达到较高水平的花生品种,光合作用本身不是进一步提高产量的限制因素.%Leaf photosynthesis and related traits at 4 growth stages of 8 peanut varieties difference in yield potential were studied using Li-6400 portable photosynthesis system.No significant difference in photosynthesis rate(Pn)was found among the 7 varieties with high yield potential,although their yield difference may be more than 10%,while one variety,Isgv-9,an Indian origin,had lower yield potential and significantly lower leaf Pn.The highest Pn occurred at the last second or third fully expended leaf and at pod enlarging stage(52 days after planting,DAP).Leaf stomata conductance(Cond)and intercellular CO2 concentration(Ci)were found to be higly correlated with Pn,and low night temperature and decrease of Cond and Ci is responsible for the low Pn in late growth stage(88 DAP).Leaf petiole girdling by hot water resulted in immediate dropdown of Pn,Cond and transpiration rate(Trmmol)but sharp increase of Ci,indicating a stimulated respiration.It is concluded that,for the peanut varieties with high yield potential,leaf Pn coordinates well with the

  20. Yield analysis in gamma ray induced advance generation mutants of short grain aromatic non-Basmati rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yield analysis was made in a population comprising 18 advance generation (M4) morphologically distinct induced mutants along with their two mother genotypes, derived from Gobindabhog, a popular short grain aromatic non-basmati rice variety of West Bengal. The estimates of genotypic and phenotypic coefficients of variation were high for flag leaf angle; moderate for straw weight, harvest index, grain yield and flag leaf length; and low for days to flower, panicle length, plant height, panicle number, spikelet number, spikelet fertility (per cent), grain number, test weight. The estimates of heritability in broad sense were very high for days to flower, flag leaf angle, plant height, spikelet fertility per cent, test weight, flag leaf length and straw weight moderate for grain number, spikelet number, harvest index, grain yield and panicle length; and low for panicle number. The estimates of genetic advance as per cent of mean were high for flag leaf angle; moderate for straw weight and harvest index; and low for the remaining characters. The results of phenotypic and genotypic coefficients of variation, heritability and genetic advance revealed flag leaf angle, grain number, straw weight and grain yield per plant would be useful traits for selection

  1. GGE-Biplot Analysis of Grain Yield of Faba Bean Genotypes in Southern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fekadu Gurmu, Ersulo Lire, Asrat Asfaw, Fitsum Alemayehu, Yeyis Rezene, Daniel Ambachew

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A Genotype x Environment (GxE interaction study was conducted in Southern Ethiopia in 2007 and 2008 using 16 faba bean genotypes in a randomized complete block design with three replications. The objectives of the study were to determine the magnitude of G x E interaction and to identify high yielding and stable or specifically adapted genotypes for target environment(s. A GGE-Biplot was used to analyse G x E interaction and stability of the genotypes based on the trait grain yield (kg ha-1. Genotypic difference was found to be significant (P < 0.05 and (P < 0.001 for each environment and across environments, respectively. Location main effect was also highly significant (P < 0.001, but year main effect was not significant. Genotype x Locations (GL and Location x Years (LY were significant. Genotypes G3 and G8 were specifically adapted to Hossana and Waka while G11 was specifically adapted to Angacha and Bule. G5 was the most stable genotype with wider adaptation to all the test environments and can be recommended for wider production in similar high land environments of the Southern Region of Ethiopia.

  2. Analysis of heat stress in UK dairy cattle and impact on milk yields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Robert J. H.; Mead, Naomi E.; Willett, Kate M.; Parker, David E.

    2014-05-01

    Much as humans suffer from heat-stress during periods of high temperature and humidity, so do dairy cattle. Using a temperature-humidity index (THI), we investigate the effect of past heatwaves in the UK on heat-stress in dairy herds. Daily THI data derived from routine meteorological observations show that during the summer, there has been an average of typically 1 day per year per station over the past 40 years when the THI has exceeded the threshold for the onset of mild heat-stress in dairy cattle. However, during the heatwaves of 2003 and 2006, this threshold was exceeded on typically 5 days on average in the Midlands, south and east of England. Most dairy cattle are in the west and north of the country and so did not experience the severest heat. Milk yield data in the south-west of England show that a few herds experienced decreases in yields during 2003 and 2006. We used the 11-member regional climate model ensemble with the A1B scenario from UKCP09 to investigate the possible future change in days exceeding the THI threshold for the onset of mild heat-stress. The number of days where the THI exceeds this threshold could increase to over 20 days yr-1 in southern parts of England by the end of the century.

  3. Energy Efficiency Analysis and Modeling the Relationship between Energy Inputs and Wheat Yield in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fakher Kardoni

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Wheat is the dominant cereal crop constituting the first staple food in Iran. This paper studies the energy consumption patterns and the relationship between energy inputs and yield for Wheat production in Iranian agriculture during the period 1986 – 2008. The results indicated that total energy inputs in irrigated and dryland wheat production increased from 29.01 and 9.81 GJ ha-1 in 1986 to 44.67 and 12.35 GJ ha-1 in 2008, respectively. Similarly, total output energy rose from 28.87 and 10.43 GJ ha-1 in 1986 to 58.53 and 15.77 GJ ha-1 in 2008, in the same period. Energy efficiency indicators, input– output ratio, energy productivity, and net energy have improved over the examined period. The results also revealed that nonrenewable, direct, and indirect energy forms had a positive impact on the output level. Moreover, the regression results showed the significant effect of irrigation water and seed energies in irrigated wheat and human labor and fertilizer in dryland wheat on crop yield. Results of this study indicated that improvement of fertilizer efficiency and reduction of fuel consumption by modifying tillage, harvest method, and other agronomic operations can significantly affect the energy efficiency of wheat production in Iran.

  4. Analysis of effects of updated decay and fission yield data on ORIGEN 2 results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Work has been performed to improve the accuracy of ORIGEN2 results by updating both the decay library and the fission yield data in the cross-section library. This effort was performed under the auspices of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to ensure that ORIGEN2 uses the most up-to-date data. The impact of the new data was then quantitatively evaluated by solving a set of standard light water reactor (LWR) problems solved with ORIGEN2. The ORIGEN code, developed at ORNL in the late 1960's, is a point depletion code used to determine the composition and characteristics of spent fuel. The results from calculations performed with the code often form the basis for the study and design of reprocessing plants, spent-fuel shipping casks, waste treatment systems, and disposal facilities. The decay data were updated using data from ENDF/B-VI; fission yield data were updated using data from ENDF/B-V. The impact of these new data was then evaluated

  5. Analysis of heat stress in UK dairy cattle and impact on milk yields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Much as humans suffer from heat-stress during periods of high temperature and humidity, so do dairy cattle. Using a temperature-humidity index (THI), we investigate the effect of past heatwaves in the UK on heat-stress in dairy herds. Daily THI data derived from routine meteorological observations show that during the summer, there has been an average of typically 1 day per year per station over the past 40 years when the THI has exceeded the threshold for the onset of mild heat-stress in dairy cattle. However, during the heatwaves of 2003 and 2006, this threshold was exceeded on typically 5 days on average in the Midlands, south and east of England. Most dairy cattle are in the west and north of the country and so did not experience the severest heat. Milk yield data in the south-west of England show that a few herds experienced decreases in yields during 2003 and 2006. We used the 11-member regional climate model ensemble with the A1B scenario from UKCP09 to investigate the possible future change in days exceeding the THI threshold for the onset of mild heat-stress. The number of days where the THI exceeds this threshold could increase to over 20 days yr−1 in southern parts of England by the end of the century. (letters)

  6. Reliability analysis for cementless hip prosthesis using a new optimized formulation of yield stress against elasticity modulus relationship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We develop a new formulation between the yield stress and Young’s modulus of bone. • We validate the optimized formulation for cortical and trabecular bone. • We integrate the reliability analysis into artificially hip replacement design. - Abstract: Using classical design optimization methods for implant-bone studies does not completely guarantee a safety and satisfactory performance, due in part to the randomness of bone properties and loading. Here, the material properties of the different bone layers are considered as uncertain parameters. So their corresponding yield stress values will not be deterministic, that leads to integrate variable limitations into the optimization process. Here there is a strong need to find a reliable mathematical relationship between yield stress and material properties of the different bone layers. In this work, a new optimized formulation for yield stress against elasticity modulus relationship is first developed. This model is based on some experimental results. A validation of the proposed formulation is next carried out to show its accuracy for both bone layers (cortical and cancellous). A probabilistic sensitivity analysis is then carried out to show the role of each input parameter with respect to the limit state function. The new optimized formulation is next integrated into a reliability analysis problem in order to assess the reliability level of the stem–bone study where we deal with variable boundary limitations. An illustrative application is considered as a bi-dimensional example (contains only two variables) in order to present the results in an illustrative 2D space. Finally, a multi-variable problem considering several daily loading cases on a hip prosthesis shows the applicability of the proposed strategy

  7. Genotype by environment interaction and yield stability analysis of quality protein maize genotypes in Terai Region of Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiban Shrestha

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Grain yield stability for the new maize genotypes is an important target in maize breeding programs. The main objective of this study was to identify stable high yielding quality protein maize (QPM genotypes under various locations and years in terai region of Nepal. Six quality protein maize genotypes along with Poshilo Makai-1 (Standard Check and Farmer’s Variety (Local Check were tested at three different locations namely Ayodhyapuri-2, Devendrapur, Madi, Chitwan; Rajahar-8, Bartandi, Rajahar, Nawalparasi; Mangalpur-2, Rampur, Chitwan during 2011 and 2012 spring and winter seasons under rainfed condition. The experiment was conducted using Randomized Complete Block Design with two replications in farmer’s fields. There was considerable variation among genotypes and environments for grain yield. The analysis of variance showed that mean squares of environments (E was highly significant and genotypes (G and genotype x environment interaction (GEI were non significant. The genotypes S03TLYQ- AB02 and RampurS03FQ02 respectively produced the higher mean grain yield 5422±564 kg/ha and 5274±603 kg/ha across the locations. Joint regression analysis showed that RampurS03FQ02 and S03TLYQ-AB02 with regression coefficient 1.10 and 1.22 respectively are the most stable genotypes over the tested environments. The coefficient of determination (R2 for genotypes Rampur S03FQ02 and S03TLYQ-AB02 were as high as 0.954, confirming their high predictability to stability. Further confirmation from GGE biplot analysis showed that maize genotype S03TLYQ-AB02 followed by Rampur S03FQ02 were more stable and adaptive genotypes across the tested environments. Thus these genotypes could be recommended to farmers for general cultivation.

  8. Analysis of the Contribution of Total Factor Productivity to Agricultural Yield in Anhui Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    By analyzing data concerning agricultural development from 1981 to 2010 in Anhui Province,the total factor productivity and growth rate of agriculture from 1981 to 2010 are estimated empirically.By dividing years from 1981 to 2010 into several subintervals,this paper evaluates and analyzes initial stage of reform and opening up,soft landing stage,the stage of financial crisis,the stage of subprime mortgage crisis and the impact of all factors on total factor growth rate of agriculture.Then it analyzes the contribution of growth of total factor productivity to total yield of agricultural economy.The research finds that the growth of total factor productivity in Anhui Province is significant to agricultural development.

  9. Combining ability analysis for yield and its components in popcorn (Zea mays var. everta Sturt.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayabharathi A

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A line x tester set was obtained by crossing 8 lines with 3 testers in popcorn. The resultant 24 derived F1s were evaluatedalong with 11 parents to estimate general and specific combining ability variances and effects for 14 characters. The resultsshowed predominant role of non-additive gene action for all the characters studied. Based on both per se and gca, thegenotypes UPC 5, UPC 4, UPC 1 among lines and Amber popcorn, Bangalore popcorn among the testers were proved asgood general combiners for yield and quality traits. High per se, significant sca, standard heterosis exhibited by three hybridsviz., UPC 9 x Amber popcorn, UPC 8 x Amber popcorn and UPC 1 x UPC 6 could be used for exploitation of heterosis foryield and quality characters.

  10. A Preliminary Study on Rainfall Interception Loss and Water Yield Analysis on Arabica Coffee Plants in Central Aceh Regency, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Benara

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Rainfall interception loss from plants or trees can reduce a net rainfall as source of water yield. The amount of rainfall interception loss depends on kinds of plants and hydro-meteorological characteristics. Therefore, it is important to study rainfall interception loss such as from Arabica Coffee plantation which is as main agricultural commodity for Central Aceh Regency. In this study, rainfall interception loss from Arabica Coffee plants was studied in Kebet Village of Central Aceh Regency, Indonesia from January 20 to March 9, 2011. Arabica coffee plants used in this study was 15 years old, height of 1.5 m and canopy of 4.567 m2. Rainfall interception loss was determined based on water balance approach of daily rainfall, throughfall, and stemflow data. Empirical regression equation between rainfall interception loss and rainfall were adopted as a model to estimate rainfall interception loss from Arabica Coffee plantation, which the coefficient of correlation, r is 0.98. In water yield analysis, this formula was applied and founded that Arabica Coffee plants intercept 76% of annual rainfall or it leaved over annual net rainfall 24% of annual rainfall. Using this net rainfall, water yield produced from Paya Bener River which is the catchment area covered by Arabica Coffee plantation was analyzed in a planning of water supply project for water needs domestic of 3 sub-districts in Central Aceh Regency. Based on increasing population until year of 2025, the results showed that the water yield will be not enough from year of 2015. However, if the catchment area is covered by forest, the water yield is still enough until year of 2025

  11. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Latex Reveals Molecular Mechanisms Underlying Increased Rubber Yield in Hevea brasiliensis Self-Rooting Juvenile Clones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui-Liang; Guo, Dong; Zhu, Jia-Hong; Wang, Ying; Chen, Xiong-Ting; Peng, Shi-Qing

    2016-01-01

    Rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) self-rooting juvenile clones (JCs) are promising planting materials for rubber production. In a comparative trial between self-rooting JCs and donor clones (DCs), self-rooting JCs exhibited better performance in rubber yield. To study the molecular mechanism associated with higher rubber yield in self-rooting JCs, we sequenced and comparatively analyzed the latex of rubber tree self-rooting JCs and DCs at the transcriptome level. Total raw reads of 34,632,012 and 35,913,020 bp were obtained from the library of self-rooting JCs and DCs, respectively, by using Illumina HiSeq 2000 sequencing technology. De novo assemblies yielded 54689 unigenes from the library of self-rooting JCs and DCs. Among 54689 genes, 1716 genes were identified as differentially expressed between self-rooting JCs and DCs via comparative transcript profiling. Functional analysis showed that the genes related to the mass of categories were differentially enriched between the two clones. Several genes involved in carbohydrate metabolism, hormone metabolism and reactive oxygen species scavenging were up-regulated in self-rooting JCs, suggesting that the self-rooting JCs provide sufficient molecular basis for the increased rubber yielding, especially in the aspects of improved latex metabolisms and latex flow. Some genes encoding epigenetic modification enzymes were also differentially expressed between self-rooting JCs and DCs. Epigenetic modifications may lead to gene differential expression between self-rooting JCs and DCs. These data will provide new cues to understand the molecular mechanism underlying the improved rubber yield of H. brasiliensis self-rooting clones. PMID:27555864

  12. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Latex Reveals Molecular Mechanisms Underlying Increased Rubber Yield in Hevea brasiliensis Self-Rooting Juvenile Clones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui-Liang; Guo, Dong; Zhu, Jia-Hong; Wang, Ying; Chen, Xiong-Ting; Peng, Shi-Qing

    2016-01-01

    Rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) self-rooting juvenile clones (JCs) are promising planting materials for rubber production. In a comparative trial between self-rooting JCs and donor clones (DCs), self-rooting JCs exhibited better performance in rubber yield. To study the molecular mechanism associated with higher rubber yield in self-rooting JCs, we sequenced and comparatively analyzed the latex of rubber tree self-rooting JCs and DCs at the transcriptome level. Total raw reads of 34,632,012 and 35,913,020 bp were obtained from the library of self-rooting JCs and DCs, respectively, by using Illumina HiSeq 2000 sequencing technology. De novo assemblies yielded 54689 unigenes from the library of self-rooting JCs and DCs. Among 54689 genes, 1716 genes were identified as differentially expressed between self-rooting JCs and DCs via comparative transcript profiling. Functional analysis showed that the genes related to the mass of categories were differentially enriched between the two clones. Several genes involved in carbohydrate metabolism, hormone metabolism and reactive oxygen species scavenging were up-regulated in self-rooting JCs, suggesting that the self-rooting JCs provide sufficient molecular basis for the increased rubber yielding, especially in the aspects of improved latex metabolisms and latex flow. Some genes encoding epigenetic modification enzymes were also differentially expressed between self-rooting JCs and DCs. Epigenetic modifications may lead to gene differential expression between self-rooting JCs and DCs. These data will provide new cues to understand the molecular mechanism underlying the improved rubber yield of H. brasiliensis self-rooting clones. PMID:27555864

  13. 4种典型土壤上玉米产量潜力的实现程度及其因素分析%Potential maize yield realization and related driving factors in four typical soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯鹏; 陈新平; 崔振岭; 李世清; 王伟; 叶优良; 陈远学; 张福锁

    2012-01-01

    region in the Loess Plateau, fluvo-aquic soil region in North China Plain and the purple soil region in Southwest China) were analyzed to demonstrate whether and how soil conditions limit maize potential yield realization. The results showed that in all the 4 experimental sites (852-farm in Heilongjiang Province, Changwu in Shaanxi Province, Wenxian in Henan Province and Jianyang in Sichuan Province), maize yields under the best management practices were 10.7 t·hm-2,14.1 t·hm-2,9.2 t·hm-2 and 6.7 t·hm-2 in 2009, which were 92%, 104%, 84% and 78% of yield potentials in the respective regions. Correlation analysis showed that soil physical property (bulk density) and root dry matter density were significantly negatively and positively related with realization degree of potential yield, respectively. Soil physical property (bulk density) and fertility (organic matter) had significant effects on maize potential yield realization. A moderate bulk density and high organic matter content of 69.3 g·kg-1 under tillage conditions were beneficial to roots growth, and furthermore, led to 92% yield potential realization in the 852-farm, Heilongjiang Province. Low soil bulk density of 1.15 g·cm-3 under tillage conditions led to the highest root growth and 104% yield potential realization in Changwu, Shaanxi Province. In contrast, high soil bulk densities, especially in the 10-20 cm soil layer with the highest bulk density of 1.53 g·cm-3 went against roots growth, and led to only 84% yield potential realization in Wenxian, Henan Province. Low soil organic matter and high soil bulk density in soil profiles led to only 78% yield potential realization in Jianyang, Sichuan Province. It was therefore concluded that different soil quality improvement strategies needed to be adopted in different regions to realize maize yield potential and balanced yield increase over large areas across China.

  14. Study of gene effects for yield and its component traits in bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L. by generation mean analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Radha Rani, K. Ravinder Reddy and Ch. Surrender Raju

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was carried out to study the nature and magnitude of gene effects for yield and yield attributing traits in bitter gourd by generation mean analysis involving six generations (P1, P2, F1, F2, BC1 and BC2 at Model orchard, College of Horticulture, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad during summer 2011. The results revealed the presence of additive, dominance gene effects and epistatic interactions for all the characters except for vine length in cross IC-470550 × IC-470558 indicating the importance of both additive and non-additive gene actions in the expression of the characters. The greater magnitude of dominance gene effect as compare to additive effect for most of the traits suggest that heterosis breeding may be more useful. Biparental mating which could exploit both additive and non-additive type of gene effects is also suggested for the improvement of the traits in bitter gourd.

  15. Proteomic Analysis of the Response of Liangyoupeijiu (Super High-Yield Hybrid Rice) Seedlings to Cold Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ping-Fang Yang; Xiao-Juan Li; Yu Liang; Yu-Xiang Jing; Shi-Hua Shen; Ting-Yun Kuang

    2006-01-01

    Liangyoupeijiu is a super high-yield hybrid rice. Despite its advantages with respect to yield and grain quality, it is sensitive to cold, which keeps it from being widely cultivated. We subjected Liangyoupeijiu seedlings to 4 ℃ cold treatment, then extracted the leaf proteins. After 2-D gel electrophoresis separation and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry analysis, a series of differentially displayed proteins were identified. Some metabolism-associated proteins were found among the downregulated proteins, such as carbamoyl phosphate synthetase, transketolase 1, dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase. The upregulated proteins included both stress-resistance proteins such as nucleoside diphosphate kinase Ⅰ and proteins that are negative for rice growth, such as FtsH-like protein, plastid fusion and/or translocation factor (Pftf) and actin. Our results indicate that cold may inhibit Liangyoupeijiu growth through decreasing metabolic activity and damaging cell structure.

  16. Factor analysis for yield contributing traits in maize (Zea mays L.)

    OpenAIRE

    B. Bharathiveeramani and M. Prakash

    2012-01-01

    Data collected on 17 traits from 144 inbred lines derived using 4 different base populations of unknown pedigree weresubjected to factor analysis. Sixteen factors were extracted using principal component analysis as extraction method. Out of16, only 5 factors had eigen value greater than one and these factors alone accounted for 78.3% of total variance. Theloadings of each variable onto each factor was analysed from the rotated factor matrix obtained through varimax rotation.First factor acco...

  17. Development and Analysis of Global, High-Resolution Diagnostic Metrics for Vegetation Monitoring, Yield Estimation and Famine Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, B. T.; Zhang, P.; Myneni, R.

    2008-12-01

    Drought, through its impact on food scarcity and crop prices, can have significant economic, social, and environmental impacts - presently, up to 36 countries and 73 million people are facing food crises around the globe. Because of these adverse affects, there has been a drive to develop drought and vegetation- monitoring metrics that can quantify and predict human vulnerability/susceptibility to drought at high- resolution spatial scales over the entire globe. Here we introduce a new vegetation-monitoring index utilizing data derived from satellite-based instruments (the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer - MODIS) designed to identify the vulnerability of vegetation in a particular region to climate variability during the growing season. In addition, the index can quantify the percentage of annual grid-point vegetation production either gained or lost due to climatic variability in a given month. When integrated over the growing season, this index is shown to be better correlated with end-of-season crop yields than traditional remotely-sensed or meteorological indices. In addition, in-season estimates of the index, which are available in near real-time, provide yield forecasts comparable to concurrent in situ objective yield surveys, which are only available in limited regions of the world. Overall, the cost effectiveness and repetitive, near-global view of earth's surface provided by this satellite-based vegetation monitoring index can potentially improve our ability to mitigate human vulnerability/susceptibility to drought and its impacts upon vegetation and agriculture.

  18. Viscous Potential Flow Analysis of Electrohydrodynamic Rayleigh-Taylor Instability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awasthi Mukesh Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A linear analysis of Rayleigh-Taylor instability in the presence of tangential electric field has been carried out using viscous potential flow theory. In viscous potential flow theory, viscosity is not zero but viscous term in the Navier- Stokes equation is zero as vorticity is zero. Viscosity enters through normal stress balance and tangential stresses are not considered in viscous flow theory. A dispersion relation has been obtained and stability criterion has been given in the terms of critical value of electric field. It has been observed that tangential electric field influences stability of the system. A comparison between the results obtained by viscous potential analysis and inviscid potential flow has been made and found that viscosity reduces the growth of instability.

  19. The yield gap of major food crops in family agriculture in the tropics: Assessment and analysis through field surveys and modelling

    OpenAIRE

    Affholder, F.; Poeydebat, C.; Corbeels, M; Scopel, E.; Tittonell, P.A.

    2013-01-01

    Yield gaps of major food crops are wide under rainfed family agriculture in the tropics. Their magnitude and causes vary substantially across agro-ecological, demographic and market situations. Methods to assess yield gaps should cope with spatio-temporal variability of bio-physical conditions, management practices, and data scarcity under smallholder conditions. Particularly challenging is to determine the most relevant methods for estimating potential (Yp) and water-limited (Yw) yields agai...

  20. Viscous Potential Flow Analysis of Electrohydrodynamic Rayleigh-Taylor Instability

    OpenAIRE

    Awasthi Mukesh Kumar; Yadav Dhananjay; G.S. Agrawal

    2014-01-01

    A linear analysis of Rayleigh-Taylor instability in the presence of tangential electric field has been carried out using viscous potential flow theory. In viscous potential flow theory, viscosity is not zero but viscous term in the Navier- Stokes equation is zero as vorticity is zero. Viscosity enters through normal stress balance and tangential stresses are not considered in viscous flow theory. A dispersion relation has been obtained and stability criterion has been given in the terms of cr...

  1. Natural Pigment Production by Monascus purpureus: Improving the yield in a bioreactor based on statistical analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atieh Seyedin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available AbstractDue to the especial properties such as high growth rates, easy extraction as well as high yields, using microorganisms in comparison to other sources is more chosen for pigment production. Pigments are used in food industries as natural colorants and preservatives, they also have pharmaceutical applications. In this study, fungus Monascus purpureus PTCC 5303 have been used to produce red, orange and yellow pigments. At first significant variables were screened based on plackett-Burman design and then the optimized value of two effectivefactors such as yeast extract and K2HPO4 concentrations wasoptimized byresponse surface method. Optimal levels of factors were found to be 2/75 g/L yeast extract and1/5 g/LK2HPO4 respectively. Antimicrobial activity of pigments was evaluated on Gram-positive foodborne bacteria under optimal conditionswhich resultsshowed inhibitory effects. Moreover Pigments production at optimal conditions in a bioreactor was evaluatedand the rate of production of red, orange and yellow pigments, 2.05, 1.55 and 0.78 (ODU/ml were observed respectively.  

  2. Genetic analysis on some yield traits of pea (Pisum sativum L. crosses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VALENTIN KOSEV

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The trial was carried during 2011-2013 on the second experimental field of the Institute of Forage Crops – Pleven, Bulgaria. Eight generations (P1, P2, F1, F2, RC1 and each reciprocal generation from a cross between the Shtambovii and Pleven 10 varieties were sown in this study. Five traits were evaluated: number of pods and seeds per plant, seed weight per plant, plant weight and number of fertile nodes per plant were used as components of yield. Positive true heterosis for the investigated traits was found in all hybrids of F1 generations. At F1BC - Shtamboviii х Pleven 10 was observed negative heterosis effects for number of pods and seeds per plant and seed weight per plant, and F1BC - Pleven 10 х Shtambovii for plant weight and number of fertile nodes per plant. In F2 the plants from Shtamboviii х Pleven 10 had the strongest depression for number of seeds per plant and from Pleven 10 х Shtambovii for plant weight. High level on the indices of transgression was found for all traits. All traits except plant weight and number of fertile nodes per plant had epistatic gene effects. The results showed that for plant weight selection will be more effective if it starts in later hybrid generations. Traits number of fertile nodes and seeds per plant were the characteristics with the highest values for selection.

  3. Fusion-neutron-yield, activation measurements at the Z accelerator: Design, analysis, and sensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, K. D., E-mail: kdhahn@sandia.gov; Ruiz, C. L.; Fehl, D. L.; Chandler, G. A.; Knapp, P. F.; Smelser, R. M.; Torres, J. A. [Sandia National Laboratories, Diagnostics and Target Physics, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87123 (United States); Cooper, G. W.; Nelson, A. J. [Department of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131 (United States); Leeper, R. J. [Los Alamos National Laboratories, Plasma Physics Group, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

    2014-04-15

    We present a general methodology to determine the diagnostic sensitivity that is directly applicable to neutron-activation diagnostics fielded on a wide variety of neutron-producing experiments, which include inertial-confinement fusion (ICF), dense plasma focus, and ion beam-driven concepts. This approach includes a combination of several effects: (1) non-isotropic neutron emission; (2) the 1/r{sup 2} decrease in neutron fluence in the activation material; (3) the spatially distributed neutron scattering, attenuation, and energy losses due to the fielding environment and activation material itself; and (4) temporally varying neutron emission. As an example, we describe the copper-activation diagnostic used to measure secondary deuterium-tritium fusion-neutron yields on ICF experiments conducted on the pulsed-power Z Accelerator at Sandia National Laboratories. Using this methodology along with results from absolute calibrations and Monte Carlo simulations, we find that for the diagnostic configuration on Z, the diagnostic sensitivity is 0.037% ± 17% counts/neutron per cm{sup 2} and is ∼ 40% less sensitive than it would be in an ideal geometry due to neutron attenuation, scattering, and energy-loss effects.

  4. Net global warming potential and greenhouse gas intensity in rice agriculture driven by high yields and nitrogen use efficiency: a 5 year field study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X.; Zhou, Z.; Liu, Y.; Xu, X.; Wang, J.; Zhang, H.; Xiong, Z.

    2015-11-01

    Our understanding of how net global warming potential (NGWP) and greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI) is affected by management practices aimed at food security with respect to rice agriculture remains limited. In the present study, a 5 year field experiment was conducted in China to evaluate the effects of integrated soil-crop system management (ISSM) on NGWP and GHGI after accounting for carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from all sources (methane, CH4, and nitrous oxide, N2O, emissions, agrochemical inputs, Ei, and farm operations, Eo) and sinks (i.e., soil organic carbon, SOC, sequestration). For the improvement of rice yield and agronomic nitrogen use efficiency (NUE), four ISSM scenarios consisting of different nitrogen (N) fertilization rates relative to the local farmers' practice (FP) rate were carried out, namely, N1 (25 % reduction), N2 (10 % reduction), N3 (FP rate) and N4 (25 % increase). The results showed that compared with the FP, the four ISSM scenarios, i.e., N1, N2, N3 and N4, significantly increased the rice yields by 10, 16, 28 and 41 % and the agronomic NUE by 75, 67, 86 and 82 %, respectively. In addition, compared with the FP, the N1 and N2 scenarios significantly reduced the GHGI by 14 and 18 %, respectively, despite similar NGWPs. The N3 and N4 scenarios remarkably increased the NGWP and GHGI by an average of 67 and 36 %, respectively. In conclusion, the ISSM strategies are promising for both food security and environmental protection, and the ISSM scenario of N2 is the optimal strategy to realize high yields and high NUE together with low environmental impacts for this agricultural rice field.

  5. Assessment of germplasm using multivariate analysis for grain yield and quality traits in spring wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Present study was designed to find diversity patterns among fourteen lines of hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Nine quantitative traits were determined phenotypically. Moreover the grain properties were also determined by laboratory procedures. Cluster analysis categorized cultivars into four groups. Based on Principal Component Analysis (PCA), the first seven components explained over 88% of genetic variation. Cluster analysis based on PCA using the first seven principal components indicated four separate groups of genotypes, with the maximum genetic distance observed between the genotypes in each cluster. Grain diameter, grain weight, gluten content, protein content, fiber, fat and starch contributed towards significant principal components (PCs). The genotypes 88146, Fareed-06, 6317 and 88132 were concluded as more diverse parents. Diverse parents from various clusters are helpful in planning and broadening the breeding programme by planning the crosses and increased use of heterosis and genetic diversity especially for grain quality in Pakistan. (author)

  6. Biomass yielding potential of naturally regenerated Prosopis juliflora tree stands at three varied ecosystems in southern districts of Tamil Nadu, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraswathi, K; Chandrasekaran, S

    2016-05-01

    Fuel energy demand is of great concern in recent times due to the depletion of fossil fuel resources. Biomass serves as widely available primary renewable energy source. Hence, a study was performed to assess the above-ground biomass yielding capability of fuel wood tree Prosopis juliflora in three varied ecosystems viz., coastal, fallow land and riparian ecosystems in southern districts of Tamil Nadu. The results showed that the biomass production potential and above-ground net primary productivity of P. juliflora depend on the age of the tree stands and the nature of ecosystem. A higher biomass yield was observed for P. juliflora trees with 5 to 10 years old when compared to less than 5 years of their age. Among the three ecosystems, the maximum biomass production was recorded in riparian ecosystem. The stands with less than 5-year-old P. juliflora trees gave 1.40 t/ha, and 5- to 10-year-old tree stands produced 27.69 t/ha in riparian ecosystem. Above-ground net primary productivity of both the age groups was high in fallow land ecosystem. In riparian ecosystem, the wood showed high density and low sulphur content than the other two ecosystems. Hence, P. juliflora biomass can serve as an environmentally and economically feasible fuel as well as their utilization proffers an effective means to control its invasiveness. PMID:26797948

  7. Evaluation of fission product yields from fission spectrum n+239Pu using a meta analysis of benchmark data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwick, Mark B.

    2009-10-01

    Los Alamos conducted a dual fission-chamber experiment in the 1970s in the Bigten critical assembly to determine fission product data in a fast (fission neutron spectrum) environment, and this defined the Laboratory's fission basis today. We describe how the data from this experiment are consistent with other benchmark fission product yield measurements for 95,97Zr, 140Ba, 143,144Ce, 137Cs from the NIST-led ILRR fission chamber experiments, and from Maeck's mass-spectrometry data. We perform a new evaluation of the fission product yields that is planned for ENDF/B-VII.1. Because the measurement database for some of the FPs is small—especially for 147Nd and 99Mo—we use a meta-analysis that incorporates insights from other accurately-measured benchmark FP data. The %-relative changes compared to ENDF/B-VI are small for some FPs (less than 1% for 95Zr, 140Ba, 144Ce), but are larger for 99Mo (3%) and 147Nd (5%). We suggest an incident neutron energy dependence to the 147Nd fission product yield that accounts for observed differences in the FPY at a few-hundred keV average energy in fast reactors versus measurements made at higher average energies.

  8. Potential demand and cost-benefit analysis of electric cars

    OpenAIRE

    Zito, Pietro; Salerno, Silvia

    2004-01-01

    In this study an analysis of electric family car performances is carried out. In particular, the aim of this research is to appraise the possibility of introducing electric cars in urban mobility and the evaluation of its economic feasibility. First of all, we determined the potential electric car demand, which was forecasted using a stated preference (SP) analysis. The survey was carried out at the University of Palermo considering a particular target of consumer: “the hybrid hou...

  9. Comparison of Artificial Neural Networks and GIS Based Solar Analysis for Solar Potential Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konakoǧlu, Berkant; Usta, Ziya; Cömert, Çetin; Gökalp, Ertan

    2016-04-01

    Nowadays, estimation of solar potential plays an important role in planning process for sustainable cities. The use of solar panels, which produces electricity directly from the sun, has become popular in accordance with developing technologies. Since the use of solar panels enables the users to decrease costs and increase yields, the use of solar panels will be more popular in the future. Production of electricity is not convenient for all circumstances. Shading effects, massive clouds and rainy weather are some factors that directly affect the production of electricity from solar energy. Hence, before the installation of solar panels, it is crucial to conduct spatial analysis and estimate the solar potential of the place that the solar panel will be installed. There are several approaches to determine the solar potential. Examination of the applications in the literature reveals that the applications conducted for determining the solar potential are divided into two main categories. Solar potential is estimated either by using artificial neural network approach in which statistical parameters such as the duration of sun shine, number of clear days, solar radiation etc. are used, or by spatial analysis conducted in GIS approaches in which spatial parameters such as, latitude, longitude, slope, aspect etc. are used. In the literature, there are several studies that use both approaches but the literature lacks of a study related to the comparison of these approaches. In this study, Karadeniz Technical University campus has been selected as study area. Monthly average values of the number of clear sky days, air temperature, atmospheric pressure, relative humidity, sunshine duration and solar radiation parameters obtained for the years between 2005 and 2015 will be used to perform artificial neural network analysis to estimate the solar potential of the study area. The solar potential will also be estimated by using GIS-based solar analysis modules. The results of

  10. Seismic response analysis of RCC structure with yielding dampers using linearization techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passive energy dissipating devices like elasto-plastic dampers (EPDs) can be used for retrofitting of structures subjected to seismic loads. A model of reinforced concrete structure is tested on shake table with and without EPDs attached in its frames. Using a finite element model of the structure, linear and nonlinear time history analysis is carried out using Newmark's time integration technique. However, the most viable approach used by designers is response spectrum approach. Hence equivalent linearization techniques are used to address the nonlinearity of dampers and iterative response spectrum method is used for evaluating the response of the structure using equivalent damping and stiffness. The analytical maximum storey response of the structure is compared with experimental values and time history analysis values. It has been concluded that, iterative response spectrum technique using equivalent linearization techniques is simple and results in reasonably acceptable response of the structures retrofitted with energy dissipaters.

  11. CYCLIC RECURRENCE ASSESSMENT OF GRAIN YIELD TIME SERIES USING PHASE ANALYSIS INSTRUMENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Temirov A. A.

    2016-01-01

    An algorithm of phase analysis as the instrument of nonlinear dynamics' methods used to study cyclic recurrence of time series is viewed in current article. The existing classical econometric methods for estimating cyclic recurrence developed for random systems which dynamics matches to the normal distribution. However, there also exists non-random systems characterized by trends, periodic and non-periodic cycles called quasicycles. An example of computing process of identifying quasicycles i...

  12. States' Potential Enrollment of Adult Students: A Stochastic Frontier Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titus, Marvin A.; Pusser, Brian

    2011-01-01

    This study shows that financial aspects of state higher education policies, particularly tuition, have an impact on the level of enrollment of adult undergraduates within a state. This study also demonstrates how stochastic frontier analysis (SFA) can be utilized to examine the "potential" maximum enrollment of adult learners in postsecondary…

  13. ANALYSIS OF TOURISTIC DEVELOPMENT POTENTIAL OF SOME NATURA 2000 SITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela STANCIU

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper performs the analysis of the tourism development potential of two sites in the Natura 2000 network. SWOT analysis concerning the potential of tourism development is made, indicating opportunities for lovers of ecotourism: visitors interested in bird species, visitors interested in flora and fauna. It also describes the potential development of tourism services under the concept of "slow tourism". It describes the possible forms of tourism that can develop in this area, presenting a positive or negative impact on the environment and describe the type of interested visitors. The paper describes the main objectives of tourism development that should be included in the local development strategy promoted by the GAL’s in the area.

  14. Yield analysis of large-scale adiabatic-quantum-flux-parametron logic: The effect of the distribution of the critical current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We performed yield analysis of adiabatic-quantum-flux-parametron (AQFP) circuits. • Monte Carlo simulations were conducted assuming the distribution of the critical current. • We made an analytical model for the circuit yield of large-scale AQFP circuits. • AQFP integrated circuits containing more than 1 million gates can be realized. • The standard deviation of the critical current should be less than 1%. - Abstract: We performed yield analysis of large-scale adiabatic-quantum-flux-parametron (AQFP) circuits using circuit simulations based on the Monte Carlo method assuming the distribution of the critical current of Josephson junctions. Based on the simulation results, we also made an analytical model for the circuit yield of large-scale AQFP circuits. The yield analysis indicates that AQFP integrated circuits containing 1 million gates can be realized when the interconnect inductance is about 40 pH and the normalized standard deviation of the critical current is less than 1%

  15. Analysis of Yield Stability of Wheat Genotypes Using New Crop Properties Balance Index (CPBI Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vali FEIZIASL

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The study of some important crop characteristics in a population and the consideration of the limitations and possibilities is a general way to define suitable genotypes. Data collected over six years in the cold winter experiment stations of Iran were used to determine to optimal levels of characteristics and the stability parameters of wheat varieties under rainfed conditions. The boundary lines method allowed the determination of optimal levels of days to heading, days to physiological maturity, duration of grain filling, plant height and thousand kernel weight which were 221.2 days, 259.6 days, 33.8 days, 62.5 centimeter and 28.3 grams, respectively. These data were closely equivalent to optimal levels determined using averaging method. The results showed also that the released cultivars in each location had similar maximum crop properties balance index (CPBI. The maximum CPBIs in Maragheh, Kurdestan, Zanjan, Ardabil and Uromeh regions were 155, 270, 150, 182 and 440, respectively. The analysis of adaptation of commonly grown winter wheat varieties showed that �Sardari� is more suitable for regions with cold winters and cool springs along with spring precipitation; �Sabalan� variety is adapted to cold winters and relatively temperate spring with abundant spring precipitation; and �Azar-2� cultivar is suitable for cold falls and temperate springs along with fall-spring precipitation and minimum winter precipitation.

  16. Distribution of genes associated with yield potential and water-saving in Chinese Zone II wheat detected by developed functional markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhenxian; Shi, Zhanliang; Zhang, Aimin; Guo, Jinkao

    2015-03-01

    Functional markers (FMs) developed from sequence polymorphisms are present in allelic variants of a functional gene at a locus and are directly associated with phenotypic variations. In this study, FM linked to Rht-B1, Rht-D1, TaCwi-A1, TaSus2-2B, TaGW2-6A and Dreb-B1 genes conferring to yield potential and water-saving were selected to analyse the distribution in 102 wheat varieties, most of which were authorized in the past decade and adapted to grow in Zone II of China. First, the semidwarfing genes Rht-B1b and Rht-D1b (mutant alleles) conferring to grain yield were analysed. The frequencies of favourable alleles Rht-B1b and Rht-D1b were 32.4 and 58.8%, respectively. Comparing with the previous report, the frequency of Rht-B1b among cultivars in this study is similar to the frequency among cultivars released in the 1990s, while the frequency of Rht-D1b is slightly lower than the previous report 63.9%. Twelve (11.8%) cultivars neither contained Rht-B1b nor Rht-D1b, while only Yumai 66 contained both semidwarfing genes. Linyuan8 and Xinong 928 are heterozygous at RhtB1 locus and Zhengmai 9023 is heterozygous at both RhtB1 and Rht-D1 loci. Second, the TaCwi-A1, TaSus2-2B and TaGW2-6A genes considered as candidate genes related to grain weight were detected. We found that the frequencies of the favourable alleles were 76.5, 56.9 and 69.6%, respectively. Among the 102 wheat varieties, 30 contained all the three favourable genes, 45 contained two of the three favourable genes and 27 contained only one. There are eight wheat varieties (7.8%) in hybrid state at the TaCWI-A1 locus. Third, the designed FM linked to water-saving gene Dreb-B1 were validated on 102 wheat varieties. The results showed that the haplotypes of 47 wheat varieties at the Dreb-B1 locus were same as that of Opata 85, and 55 wheat varieties showed the signal expected for W7984 (Opata 85 and W7984 are parents of the ITMI mapping population). This information will be useful for the wheat breeding

  17. Distribution of genes associated with yield potential and water-saving in Chinese Zone II wheat detected by developed functional markers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Zhenxian Gao; Zhanliang Shi; Aimin Zhang; Jinkao Guo

    2015-03-01

    Functional markers (FMs) developed from sequence polymorphisms are present in allelic variants of a functional gene at a locus and are directly associated with phenotypic variations. In this study, FM linked to Rht-B1, Rht-D1, TaCwi-A1, TaSus2-2B, TaGW2-6A and Dreb-B1 genes conferring to yield potential and water-saving were selected to analyse the distribution in 102 wheat varieties, most of which were authorized in the past decade and adapted to grow in Zone II of China. First, the semi-dwarfing genes Rht-B1b and Rht-D1b (mutant alleles) conferring to grain yield were analysed. The frequencies of favourable alleles Rht-B1b and Rht-D1b were 32.4 and 58.8%, respectively. Comparing with the previous report, the frequency of Rht-B1b among cultivars in this study is similar to the frequency among cultivars released in the 1990s, while the frequency of Rht-D1b is slightly lower than the previous report 63.9%. Twelve (11.8%) cultivars neither contained Rht-B1b nor Rht-D1b, while only Yumai 66 contained both semidwarfing genes. Linyuan8 and Xinong 928 are heterozygous at RhtB1 locus and Zhengmai 9023 is heterozygous at both RhtB1 and Rht-D1 loci. Second, the TaCwi-A1, TaSus2-2B and TaGW2-6A genes considered as candidate genes related to grain weight were detected. We found that the frequencies of the favourable alleles were 76.5, 56.9 and 69.6%, respectively. Among the 102 wheat varieties, 30 contained all the three favourable genes, 45 contained two of the three favourable genes and 27 contained only one. There are eight wheat varieties (7.8%) in hybrid state at the TaCWI-A1 locus. Third, the designed FM linked to water-saving gene Dreb-B1 were validated on 102 wheat varieties. The results showed that the haplotypes of 47 wheat varieties at the Dreb-B1 locus were same as that of Opata 85, and 55 wheat varieties showed the signal expected for W7984 (Opata 85 and W7984 are parents of the ITMI mapping population). This information will be useful for the wheat breeding

  18. Candidate gene association analysis for milk yield, composition, urea nitrogen and somatic cell scores in Brown Swiss cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecchinato, A; Ribeca, C; Chessa, S; Cipolat-Gotet, C; Maretto, F; Casellas, J; Bittante, G

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate 96 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from 54 candidate genes, and test the associations of the polymorphic SNPs with milk yield, composition, milk urea nitrogen (MUN) content and somatic cell score (SCS) in individual milk samples from Italian Brown Swiss cows. Milk and blood samples were collected from 1271 cows sampled once from 85 herds. Milk production, quality traits (i.e. protein, casein, fat and lactose percentages), MUN and SCS were measured for each milk sample. Genotyping was performed using a custom Illumina VeraCode GoldenGate approach. A Bayesian linear animal model that considered the effects of herd, days in milk, parity, SNP genotype and additive polygenic effect was used for the association analysis. Our results showed that 14 of the 51 polymorphic SNPs had relevant additive effects on at least one of the aforementioned traits. Polymorphisms in the glucocorticoid receptor DNA-binding factor 1 (GRLF1), prolactin receptor (PRLR) and chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2) were associated with milk yield; an SNP in the stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD-1) was related to fat content; SNPs in the caspase recruitment domain 15 protein (CARD15) and lipin 1 (LPIN1) affected the protein and casein contents; SNPs in growth hormone 1 (GH1), lactotransferrin (LTF) and SCD-1 were relevant for casein number; variants in beta casein (CSN2), GH1, GRLF1 and LTF affected lactose content; SNPs in beta-2 adrenergic receptor (ADRB2), serpin peptidase inhibitor (PI) and SCD-1 were associated with MUN; and SNPs in acetyl-CoA carboxylase alpha (ACACA) and signal transducer and activator of transcription 5A (STAT5A) were relevant in explaining the variation of SCS. Although further research is needed to validate these SNPs in other populations and breeds, the association between these markers and milk yield, composition, MUN and SCS could be exploited in gene-assisted selection programs for genetic improvement purposes. PMID:24804775

  19. Stability and adaptability analysis of rice cultivars using environment-centered yield in two-way ANOVA model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Sumith De. Z. Abeysiriwardena

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Identification of rice varieties with wider adaptability and stability are the important aspects in varietal recommendation to achieve better economic benefits for farmers. Multi locational trails are conducted in different locations / seasons to test and identify the consistently performing varieties in wider environments and location specific high performing varieties. The interaction aspect of varieties with environment is complex and highly variable across locations. Thus, the identifying varieties under these circumstances are difficult for varietal recommendations. However, several methods have been proposed in the recent past with the complex computation requirements. But, the aid of statistical software and other programs capabilities ease the complexity to a large extent. In this study, we employed one of the established techniques called variance component analysis (VCA to make the varietal recommendation for wider adaptability for many varying environments and the location specific recommendations. In this method variety × environment interaction is portioned into components for individual varieties using yield deviation approach. The average effect of variety (environment centered yield deviation - Dk and the stability measure of each variety (variety interaction variance -Sk2 are used make the recommendations. The rice yield data of cultivars of three month maturity duration, cultivated across diverse environments during the 2002/03 wet–season in Sri Lanka was analyzed for making recommendations. Based on the results the variety At581 gave the highest D2ksk value with wide adaptability selected for general recommendation. Varieties Bg305 and At303 also had relatively higher Dk and thus these two can also be selected for general cultivation purpose.

  20. GGE biplot analysis of yield stability and test location representativeness in proso millet (Panicum miliaceum L.) genotypes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Pan-pan; ZHENG Dian-feng; FENG Bai-li; SONG Hui; KE Xi-wang; JIN Xi-jun; YIN Li-hua; LIU Yang; QU Yang; SU Wang; FENG Nai-jie

    2016-01-01

    The experiments were conducted for three consecutive years across 14 locations using 9 non-waxy proso milet genotypes and 16 locations using 7 waxy proso milet genotypes in China. The objectives of this study were to analyze yield stability and adaptability of proso milets and to evaluate the discrimination and representativeness of locations by analysis of vari-ance (ANOVA) and genotype and genotype by environment interaction (GGE) biplot methods. Grain yields of proso milet genotypes were signiifcantly inlfuenced by environment (E), genotype (G) and their interaction (G×E) (P<0.1%). G×E inter-action effect was six times higher than G effect in non-waxy group and seven times in waxy group. N04-339 in non-waxy and Neimi 6 (NM6) in waxy showed higher grain yields and stability compared with other genotypes. Also, Neimi 9 (NM9, a non-waxy cultivar) and 90322-2-33 (a waxy cultivar) showed higher adaptability in 7 and in 11 locations, respectively. For non-waxy, Dalat, Inner Mongolia (E2) and Wuzhai, Shanxi (E5) were the best sites among al the locations for maximizing the variance among candidate cultivars, and Yanchi, Ningxia (E10) had the best representativeness. Wuzhai, Shanxi (e9) and Yanchi, Ningxia (e14) were the best representative locations, and Baicheng, Jilin (e2) was better discriminating location than others for waxy genotypes. Based on our results, E10 and e14 have enhanced efifciency and accuracy for non-waxy genotypes and waxy genotypes selection, respectively in national regional test of proso milet varieties.

  1. Local influence for spatial analysis of soil physical properties and soybean yield using student's t-distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosangela Aparecida Botinha Assumpção

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The modeling and estimation of the parameters that define the spatial dependence structure of a regionalized variable by geostatistical methods are fundamental, since these parameters, underlying the kriging of unsampled points, allow the construction of thematic maps. One or more atypical observations in the sample data can affect the estimation of these parameters. Thus, the assessment of the combined influence of these observations by the analysis of Local Influence is essential. The purpose of this paper was to propose local influence analysis methods for the regionalized variable, given that it has n-variate Student's t-distribution, and compare it with the analysis of local influence when the same regionalized variable has n-variate normal distribution. These local influence analysis methods were applied to soil physical properties and soybean yield data of an experiment carried out in a 56.68 ha commercial field in western Paraná, Brazil. Results showed that influential values are efficiently determined with n-variate Student's t-distribution.

  2. Analysis of the Industry Potential in Republic of Moldova

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa BUGAIAN

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article identifies several competitive sectors of the economy that have potential to lead to sustainable economic growth for Republic of Moldova. Sectors were chosen for analysis combining quantitative and qualitative methods. A pool of sectors was selected based on export and sales performance over the last eight years. The final decision of the top sectors was based on the qualitative factors such as prevalence of the SMEs in the sector, gender makeup of the workforce and the regional presence, as well as employment levels and sales growth. The results of analysis showed that following industrial sectors: wine; textiles and apparel; information and communication technology; footwear; construction materials and furniture have the most potential for contributing to transformational growth in the Republic of Moldova economy.

  3. GIS based analysis of future district heating potential in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Steffen; Möller, Bernd

    2013-01-01

    The physical placement of buildings is important when determining the potential for DH (district heating). Good locations for DH are mainly determined by having both a large heat demand within a certain area and having access to local heat resources. In recent years, the locations of buildings in...... Denmark have been mapped in a heat atlas which includes all buildings and their heat demands. This article focuses on developing a method for assessing the costs associated with supplying these buildings with DH. The analysis is based on the existing DH areas in Denmark. By finding the heat production...... feasible to expand DH in many areas, but others would require reductions in production costs and distribution losses in order for DH expansions to be economically feasible. The analysis also shows the potential boundaries for DH expansion by including transmission and distribution costs. These boundaries...

  4. Analysis of two precipitation methods on the yield, structural features and activity of sulfated polysaccharides from Gracilaria cornea (Rhodophyta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Basto Souza

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The global demand for natural products from seaweeds has increased worldwide; however, no description of the use of isoamly alcohol (IAA for obtaining of sulfated polysaccharides (SPs has been reported. We investigated the efficiency of two precipitation methods (M in obtaining SPs from the red seaweed Gracilaria cornea. SPs enzymatically isolated were concentrated with cetylpyridinium chloride (M I or IAA (M II and extracts were examined with regard to their yield, structural features and in vitro effects on the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT using normal human plasma and standard heparin (193 IU mg-1. Yield difference reached 12.99%. Quantitative determination of sulfate was similar between the two methods (̴ 26%, but extracts revealed different pattern on charge density by agarose gel electrophoresis. Whereas both extracts revealed as agarocolloids, alternative M II was also efficient for lipids, proteins and nucleic acids according to the infrared analysis. Extracts had virtually no effect on APPT (1.95 and 2 IU mg-1 for M I and M II, respectively. The results revealed IAA as an alternative solvent for obtaining SPs from the red seaweed G. cornea, depending on the industry’ usage criterion.

  5. Neutron scattering analysis with microscopic optical model potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of microscopic optical model potentials used in the analysis of neutron scattering and analyzing power data below 100 MeV (5 ≤En≤100 MeV) is presented. The quality of the fits to the data over a wide massd (6Li-239Pu) and energy range is discussed. It is shown that reasonably good agreement with the data is obtained with only three parameters, λV, λW, and λSO, which show a smooth mass and energy dependence. These parameters are normalizing constants to the real (V), and imaginary (W) central potentials and the real spin-orbit (VSO) potential. 14 refs., 7 figs

  6. Genetic analysis of yield and yield related traits in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) under well-watered and water-stressed conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Darvishzadeh Reza; Maleki Hatami Hamid; Pirzad Alireza; Kholghi Maryam; Mandoulakani Abdollahi Babak

    2014-01-01

    Drought stress is one of the factors which influence sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) production. Breeding for tolerance to drought stress has become a major focus. In the present investigation, combining ability, gene action and genetic analysis of several characteristics were studied in six pure lines of sunflower and their 15 hybrids. The materials were evaluated in two separate experiments using a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three repli...

  7. Vector potential analysis of the helicon antenna in vacuum

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Robert W.

    2011-01-01

    The helicon antenna is a well-known device in the field of electric propulsion. Here we investigate the vector potential produced in vacuum by such an antenna with typical size parameters. Both a static and a dynamic analysis are performed. The dynamic calculation is evaluated at both the usual operating frequency and one which is slightly greater. At the higher frequency, a pulse of electromagnetic energy is found to propagate along the cylindrical axis in either direction. The possible adap...

  8. Cluster Analysis of Bioenergetic Potential in Regions of Ukraine

    OpenAIRE

    Bohdan Fedorchenko

    2014-01-01

    The research has its purpose to identify similar groups of regions most suitable for biofuel raw base development. The regions of Ukraine differ in level of economic development as well as natural and climatic conditions that are to define the possibility of growing particular crops. Thus, for evaluation of the regions bioenergetics potential the author has used cluster analysis as one of the object-features classification method. Normally, they are corn and rape that serve the raw materials ...

  9. Steam Distillation with Induction Heating System: Analysis of Kaffir Lime Oil Compound and Production Yield at Various Temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The steam temperature during the extraction process has a great influence on the essential oil quality. .This study was conducted to analyze the compound of kaffir-lime oil during extracting at different steam temperature using GC-MS analysis. The extraction was carried out by using steam distillation based on induction heating system at different extraction temperature such as 90, 95 and 100 degree Celsius, the power of the induction heating system is fixed at 1.6 kW. Increment of the steam temperature will increase the oil yield. In terms of oil composition, extraction at lower temperature resulted high concentration for four marker compounds of kaffir-lime oil which are α-pinene, sabinene, limonene, β-pinene. (author)

  10. Proton induced γ-ray emission yields for external beam analysis of F and Na in aerosol samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proton induced γ-ray emission (PIGE) is commonly used as a complementary technique of proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) for the analysis of light elements in aerosol samples. In order to get the best operating conditions of PIGE for F and Na determination in aerosol samples relative to thin reference standards in an external beam setup, the γ-ray yields of the reaction 19F (p, p' γ) 19F (Eγ=110 keV and 197 keV) and 23Na (p, p' γ) 23Na (Eγ=440 keV) were measured for incident protons in the energy range of 1.8-2.9 MeV at the external beam facility of the 1.7 MV tandem accelerator in Beijing Normal University. (authors)

  11. Using aeroelastic structures with nonlinear switching electronics to increase potential energy yield in airflow: investigating analog control circuitry for automated peak detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihalca, Alexander G.; Drosinos, Jonathan G.; Grayson, Malika; Garcia, Ephrahim

    2015-03-01

    Bending piezoelectric transducers have the ability to harvest energy from aeroelastic vibrations induced by the ambient airflow. Such harvesters can have useful applications in the operation of low power devices, and their relatively small size makes them ideal for use in urban environments over civil infrastructure. One of the areas of focus regarding piezoelectric energy harvesting is the circuit topology used to store the harvested power. This study aims to further investigate the increase in potential energy yield from the piezoelectric harvester by optimizing the circuitry connecting the piezoelectric transducer and the power storage interface. When compared to an optimal resistive load case, it has been shown that certain circuit topologies, specifically synchronized switching and discharging to a storage capacitor through an inductor (SSDCI), can increase the charging power by as much as 400% if the circuit is completely lossless. This paper proposes a strategy for making a self-sufficient SSDCI circuit capable of peak detection for the synchronized switching using analog components. Using circuit simulation software, the performance of this proposed self-sufficient circuit is compared to an ideal case, and the effectiveness of the self-sufficient circuit strategy is discussed based on these simulation results. Further investigation of a physical working model of the new circuit proposal will be developed and experimental results of the circuit's performance obtained and compared to the estimated performance from the model.

  12. Potential Analysis of Rainfall-induced Sediment Disaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing-Wen; Chen, Yie-Ruey; Hsieh, Shun-Chieh; Tsai, Kuang-Jung; Chue, Yung-Sheng

    2014-05-01

    Most of the mountain regions in Taiwan are sedimentary and metamorphic rocks which are fragile and highly weathered. Severe erosion occurs due to intensive rainfall and rapid flow, the erosion is even worsen by frequent earthquakes and severely affects the stability of hillsides. Rivers are short and steep in Taiwan with large runoff differences in wet and dry seasons. Discharges respond rapidly with rainfall intensity and flood flows usually carry large amount of sediment. Because of the highly growth in economics and social change, the development in the slope land is inevitable in Taiwan. However, sediment disasters occur frequently in high and precipitous region during typhoon. To make the execution of the regulation of slope land development more efficiency, construction of evaluation model for sediment potential is very important. In this study, the Genetic Adaptive Neural Network (GANN) was implemented in texture analysis techniques for the classification of satellite images of research region before and after typhoon or extreme rainfall and to obtain surface information and hazard log data. By using GANN weight analysis, factors, levels and probabilities of disaster of the research areas are presented. Then, through geographic information system the disaster potential map is plotted to distinguish high potential regions from low potential regions. Finally, the evaluation processes for sediment disaster after rainfall due to slope land use are established. In this research, the automatic image classification and evaluation modules for sediment disaster after rainfall due to slope land disturbance and natural environment are established in MATLAB to avoid complexity and time of computation. After implementation of texture analysis techniques, the results show that the values of overall accuracy and coefficient of agreement of the time-saving image classification for different time periods are at intermediate-high level and above. The results of GANN show that

  13. Enhanced yield of phenolic extracts from banana peels (Musa acuminata Colla AAA) and cinnamon barks (Cinnamomum varum) and their antioxidative potentials in fish oil

    OpenAIRE

    Anal, Anil Kumar; Jaisanti, Sirorat; Athapol NOOMHORM

    2012-01-01

    The bioactive compounds of banana peels and cinnamon barks were extracted by vacuum microwave and ultrasonic-assisted extraction methods at pre-determined temperatures and times. These methods enhance the yield extracts in shorter time. The highest yields of both extracts were obtained from the conditions which employed the highest temperature and the longest time. The extracts’ yield from cinnamon bark method was higher by ultrasonic than vacuum microwave method, while vacuum microwave metho...

  14. Production yield analysis in food processing. Applications in the French-fries and the poultry-processing industries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Somsen, D.J.

    2004-01-01

    Food processors face increasing demands to improve their raw material yield efficiency. To really understand the raw material yield efficiency of food processing, mass losses need to be divided in wanted (desired) and unwanted ones. The basic approach to increase the raw material yield efficiency is

  15. Metagenome-scale analysis yields insights into the structure and function of microbial communities in a copper bioleaching heap

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Xian; Niu, Jiaojiao; Liang, Yili; Liu, Xueduan; Yin, Huaqun

    2016-01-01

    Background Metagenomics allows us to acquire the potential resources from both cultivatable and uncultivable microorganisms in the environment. Here, shotgun metagenome sequencing was used to investigate microbial communities from the surface layer of low grade copper tailings that were industrially bioleached at the Dexing Copper Mine, China. A bioinformatics analysis was further performed to elucidate structural and functional properties of the microbial communities in a copper bioleaching ...

  16. Sensitivity Analysis for Model Simulations of the Effects of Irrigation Water Management on Crop Yields and Groundwater Salt Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skaggs, T. H.; Suarez, D. L.; Corwin, D. L.

    2013-12-01

    One strategy for sustaining irrigated agricultural productivity in the face of diminishing water and land availability is to make greater use of marginal quality water for crop production. In implementing such a strategy, a key factor for maintaining productivity will be soil salinity. Irrigation waters, especially recycled or otherwise marginal quality waters, contain salts that can accumulate in soils over time and reduce yields. In arid regions where rainfall is not sufficient to flush the salts from the root zone, it is necessary to apply excess irrigation water to leach the soil. To avoid wasting water, and to lessen impacts on groundwater quality, it is desirable that soil leaching be minimized to the extent possible. Classical guidelines for managing salinity are intended to be general, providing a conservative estimate of the leaching requirement that is appropriate across a range of soils and waters. A consequence of this generality is that in some cases the guidelines recommend more leaching (and hence more salt and nutrient loading to groundwater) than is necessary. A simulation modeling approach offers potential advantages over classical methods for site-specific management, but the technique is considerably more complex, and difficulties exist with respect to developing procedures for routine use. The models typically have a large number of parameters and the simulations can have a high degree of uncertainty. Global sensitivity analyses can reveal which parameter variations or uncertainties have the greatest impact on variations or uncertainties in model predictions. In this work we evaluate UNSATCHEM model parameter sensitivities in simulating a seasonal irrigated cropping scenario. Parameters sensitivities are determined with respect to three performance measures: crop yield, root zone average soil salinity, and salt loading to groundwater.

  17. Modelo para estimativa do potencial produtivo em trigo e cevada por meio do sensor GreenSeeker Model for yield potential estimation in wheat and barley using the GreenSeeker sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel S. Grohs

    2009-03-01

    Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI to shoot dry biomass at the 6-leaf-stage was developed for estimating yield potential classes for wheat and barley. The model eliminated differences between species and cultivars as no correction for these factors is necessary. The effects of surface background (corn or soybean crop residues were considered in this model. When readings are carried out before or after the recommended period, the model can be adjusted for under or overestimation. Spatial variability analysis may evaluate if yield potential zones estimated by the NDVI classes proposed in the model are related to spatial variability of shoot biomass, N rates applied and grain yield.

  18. Genetic analysis of yield and its component traits in drought tolerant genotypes of pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan L. Millspaugh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ch. Sreelakshmi, C.V. Sameer Kumar and D. Shivani

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present investigation, sufficient variability was observed in the drought tolerant pigeonpea genotypes for the traits under study. Most of theyield contributing characters showed significant positive correlation whereas, number of primary branches per plant showed significant negativecorrelation with seed yield. Days to maturity had maximum direct effect on seed yield followed by number of pods per plant and plant height andnumber of secondary branches which had negative direct effect on seed yield. Number of secondary branches per plant, number of pods per plantand days to maturity were identified as important yield components and hence, selection should be focused on these traits to improve yield indrought tolerant genotypes of pigeonpea.

  19. GIS Based Analysis of future district heating potential in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Steffen; Möller, Bernd

    2012-01-01

    The physical placement of buildings is important when determining the future potential for district heating (DH). Good locations for DH are mainly determined by having a large heat demand within a certain area combined with an access to local resources. In Denmark, the placement of buildings and...... finding the heat production cost within these areas, and adding transmission and distribution costs, the economic feasibility of supplying areas with DH is found. The result of the analysis is that the DH potential differs from area to area. In many areas it is economically feasible to expand DH, while in...... others production costs and grid losses should be reduced for DH expansions to be feasible. Including transmission and distribution costs into the calculation, gives an idea about where the boundaries for DH are. These boundaries are not static, but changes under different conditions....

  20. Energy inputs-yield relationship and sensitivity analysis of pistachio (Pistacia vera L. production in Markazi Region of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Keshavarz Afshar

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Pistachio is considered as an important agricultural commodity in Iran and ranks top amongst all exported agricultural products. Conducting an overall energy audit and economic analysis of pistachio production can provide useful information to help implement management strategies for improving energy efficiency. A study was conducted during 2009 and 2010 to evaluate the overall energy inputs and outputs and to perform an economic analysis of pistachio production in the Iranian province of Markazi. The results revealed that the total energy input for pistachio production was 54305 MJ ha-1. Electricity, followed by diesel fuel and nitrogen fertilizer application were the highest contributors to energy input in pistachio orchards. The contribution of direct energy was higher than indirect energy and share of non-renewable energy was more than renewable energy. Net energy, energy use efficiency, energy productivity and specific energy were 7522 MJ ha-1, 0.86, 0.08 kg MJ-1 and 13.69 MJ kg-1, respectively. Econometric model based on Cobb-Douglas function indicated that impacts of electricity, diesel fuel and chemical fertilizer energy inputs on pistachio yield were positive while the impact of machinery was negative. The marginal physical productivity (MPP value for diesel fuel was the highest among other variables, followed by energy inputs related to the chemicals and irrigation water. The results revealed that production of pistachios in Markazi Province, under current management practices, are not energy efficient and efforts should be made to improve energy use efficiency.

  1. Analysis of soil microbial community structure and enzyme activities associated with negative effects of pseudostellaria heterophylla consecutive monoculture on yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pseudostellaria heterophylla is an important medicinal plant in China. However, cultivation of P. heterophylla using consecutive monoculture results in significant reductions in yield and quality. In this study, terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis and measurement of soil enzyme activities were used to investigate the regulation of soil micro-ecology to identify ways to overcome the negative effects of P. heterophylla consecutive monoculture. T-RFLP analysis showed that rice/P. heterophylla (RP) and bean/P. heterophylla (BP) crop rotation systems increased the number and diversity of microbial groups in P. heterophylla rhizosphere soil. In particular, the RP and BP crop rotations increased the number and abundance of beneficial bacterial species compared with two-year consecutive monoculture of P. heterophylla. The presence of these beneficial bacteria was positively correlated with soil enzyme activities which increased in rhizosphere soils of the RP and BP crop rotation systems. The results indicated that crop rotation systems could increase activities of key soil enzymes and beneficial microbial groups and improve soil health. This study could provide a theoretical basis to resolve the problems associated with P. heterophylla consecutive monoculture. (author)

  2. Vector potential analysis of the helicon antenna in vacuum

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Robert W

    2011-01-01

    The helicon antenna is a well-known device in the field of electric propulsion. Here we investigate the vector potential produced in vacuum by such an antenna with typical size parameters. Both a static and a dynamic analysis are performed. The dynamic calculation is evaluated at both the usual operating frequency and one which is slightly greater. At the higher frequency, a pulse of electromagnetic energy is found to propagate along the cylindrical axis in either direction. The possible adaptation of the helicon antenna as a RF injection device for burning plasma is discussed.

  3. Analysis of Renewable Energy Potential on U. S. National Forest Lands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zvolanek, E. [Environmental Science Division; Kuiper, J. [Environmental Science Division; Carr, A. [Environmental Science Division; Hlava, K.

    2013-12-13

    In 2005, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) completed an assessment of the potential for solar and wind energy development on National Forest System (NFS) public lands managed by the US Department of Agriculture, U.S. Forest Service (USFS). This report provides an update of the analysis in the NREL report, and extends the analysis with additional siting factors for solar and wind energy. It also expands the scope to biomass and geothermal energy resources. Hydropower is acknowledged as another major renewable energy source on NFS lands; however, it was not analyzed in this project primarily because of the substantially different analysis that would be needed to identify suitable locations. Details about each renewable energy production technology included in the study are provided following the report introduction, including how each resource is converted to electrical power, and examples of existing power plants. The analysis approach was to use current and available Geographic Information System (GIS) data to map the distribution of the subject renewable energy resources, major siting factors, and NFS lands. For each major category of renewable energy power production, a set of siting factors were determined, including minimum levels for the renewable energy resources, and details for each of the other siting factors. Phase 1 of the analysis focused on replicating and updating the 2005 NREL analysis, and Phase 2 introduced additional siting factors and energy resources. Source data were converted to a cell-based format that helped create composite maps of locations meeting all the siting criteria. Acreages and potential power production levels for NFS units were tabulated and are presented throughout this report and the accompanying files. NFS units in the southwest United States were found to have the most potentially suitable land for concentrating solar power (CSP), especially in Arizona and New Mexico. In total, about 136,032 acres of NFS lands

  4. Protecting Privacy of Shared Epidemiologic Data without Compromising Analysis Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Cologne

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Ensuring privacy of research subjects when epidemiologic data are shared with outside collaborators involves masking (modifying the data, but overmasking can compromise utility (analysis potential. Methods of statistical disclosure control for protecting privacy may be impractical for individual researchers involved in small-scale collaborations. Methods. We investigated a simple approach based on measures of disclosure risk and analytical utility that are straightforward for epidemiologic researchers to derive. The method is illustrated using data from the Japanese Atomic-bomb Survivor population. Results. Masking by modest rounding did not adequately enhance security but rounding to remove several digits of relative accuracy effectively reduced the risk of identification without substantially reducing utility. Grouping or adding random noise led to noticeable bias. Conclusions. When sharing epidemiologic data, it is recommended that masking be performed using rounding. Specific treatment should be determined separately in individual situations after consideration of the disclosure risks and analysis needs.

  5. Forecasting the Influence of Climate Change on Agroecosystem Services: Potential Impacts on Honey Yields in a Small-Island Developing State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana L. Delgado

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Global change poses numerous challenges to developing nations and small-island developing states (SIDSs. Among these are the effects of climate change on honeybees’ provisioning services including honey production. Here we ask two questions. First, what is the relationship between honey yield and climate in a tropical environment? Second, how does yield vary spatially under current climate and future scenarios of climate change? Focusing on the island of Puerto Rico, we developed an ensemble of bioclimatic models that were used in a geographical information system to identify suitable areas for honey production under current and future scenarios of climate change. A comparison between contemporary (1998–2005 and historical (1910–1974 honey yield data revealed a reduction in average yield, including variability, over time, with current yields averaging 5.3 L/colony. Three bioclimatic variables were retained by at least three models: temperature seasonality and mean temperature of the wettest quarter were negatively correlated with honey yields whereas precipitation of the wettest month was positively correlated. The four models varied in terms of their predictions but showed that both honey yields and areas suitable for honey production will decrease under scenarios of climate change. These results illustrate the possible impacts of climate change on honey and ultimately honeybees.

  6. Sunflower yield and climatic variables

    OpenAIRE

    González J.; Mancuso N.; Ludueña P.

    2013-01-01

    A group of hybrids with higher oil yield was selected from the comparative yield trials carried out in the EEA Pergamino, during seasons 2004-2005, 2005-2006 and 2006-07. The objective was to study the associations between seed yield, oil content, oil yield and climatic variables obtained from two methods: stepwise and principal component analysis. Both methods arrived at similar results confirming the associations between yield and climatic variables. Posi...

  7. Effects of Soybean Checkoff Research Expenditures on U.S. Soybean Yields and Net Revenue: A Time Series Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Bessler, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Statistical methods are used to study relationships between research expenditures (adjusted for inflation) made from producer checkoff programs and soybean yields and net revenues in the United States for the years 1978 – 2007. Results presented are for yield and net revenue data and research expenditures for the entire United States. We find that research expenditures over the years 1994 to 2007 are responsible for a 0.95 bushel per acre per year increase in soybean yields. We calculate net ...

  8. Effect of Climate Variables on Yield of Major Food-crops in Nepal : A Time-series Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Joshi, Niraj Prakash; Maharjan, Keshav Lall; Piya Luni,

    2011-01-01

    Climate change influences crop yield vis-à-vis crop production to a greater extent in countries like Nepal where agriculture depends largely on natural circumstances. Plausible scenarios of climate change like higher temperatures and changes in precipitation will directly affect crop yields. Therefore, this study assesses the effect of observed climate variables on yield of major food-crops in Nepal, namely rice, wheat, maize, millet, barley and potato based on regression model for historical...

  9. Effect of climate variables on yield of major food-crops in Nepal -A time-series analysis-

    OpenAIRE

    Joshi, Niraj Prakash; Maharjan, Keshav Lall; Piya, Luni

    2011-01-01

    Climate change influences crop yield vis-à-vis crop production to a greater extent in countries like Nepal where agriculture depends largely on natural circumstances. Plausible scenarios of climate change like higher temperatures and changes in precipitation will directly affect crop yields. Therefore, this study assesses the effect of observed climate variables on yield of major food-crops in Nepal, namely rice, wheat, maize, millet, barley and potato based on regression model for historical...

  10. Systematic Analysis of Donor and Isolation Factor’s Impact on Human Islet Yield and Size Distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Y.; Danielson, KK; Ropski, A; Harvat, T; Barbaro, B; Paushter, D; Qi, M.; Oberholzer, J.

    2013-01-01

    Islet transplantation is a promising therapy for type I diabetes mellitus, with both islet yield and islet size playing important roles in transplant outcomes. Some key factors influencing islet yield have been identified, but with conflicting results. In this study, we analyzed 276 islet isolations performed at a single center to identify variables that influence islet yield, and additionally, influence islet size and size distribution. Pearson correlation analyses demonstrated that donor BM...

  11. Production yield analysis in food processing. Applications in the French-fries and the poultry-processing industries

    OpenAIRE

    Somsen, D.J.

    2004-01-01

    Food processors face increasing demands to improve their raw material yield efficiency. To really understand the raw material yield efficiency of food processing, mass losses need to be divided in wanted (desired) and unwanted ones. The basic approach to increase the raw material yield efficiency is to mini mise unwanted mass losses at source. Wasting raw materials should be avoided, because the largest proportion of the overall business costs is associated with the purchase of raw materials....

  12. Analysis of registered CDM projects: potential removal of evidenced bottlenecks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agosto, D.; Bombard, P.; Gostinelli, F.

    2007-07-01

    The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) has developed during its first period of implementation, a distinctive set of patterns. The authors thought of concentrating on the CDM analysis in order to highlight potential remedies or reasons for given bottlenecks. In order to establish a sort of extensive SWOT analysis for CDMs, all the 356 projects actually (November 2006) registered at UNFCCC were examined, together with all the about 1000 PDDs presented to the UNFCCC but not registered yet. The CDM projects have been studied trying to cluster projects according to relevant characteristics, both from a technical and an economic point of view. Chosen indicators are meant to identify: more convenient/more diffused energy system for a CDM; reasons for a geographical distribution of different types of projects; potentials for a future exploitation of lower used technologies in CDM. Conclusions are drawn and appropriate tables and graphs presented. (1) the Baseline Emission Factor, combined to economic patterns, is the pivotal factor that characterizes both choices of host country and technology; (2) some technologies can exploit appropriately CDM scheme, whilst other technologies, are constrained by it. (3) there are still some important weak points: grouping of non Annex I countries; crediting period; criteria for the evaluation of sustainable development. (auth)

  13. Wind energy potential analysis in Al-Fattaih-Darnah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjahjana, Dominicus Danardono Dwi Prija; Salem, Abdelkarim Ali; Himawanto, Dwi Aries

    2016-03-01

    In this paper the wind energy potential in Al-Fattaih-Darnah, Libya, had been studied. Wind energy is very attractive because it can provide a clean and renewable energy. Due mostly to the uncertainty caused by the chaotic characteristics of wind near the earth's surface, wind energy characteristic need to be investigated carefully in order to get consistent power generation. This investigation was based on one year wind data measured in 2003. As a result of the analysis, wind speed profile and wind energy potential have been developed. The wind energy potential of the location is looked very promising to generate electricity. The annual wind speed of the site is 8.21 m/s and the wind speed carrying maximum energy is 7.97 m/s. The annual power density of the site is classified into class 3. The Polaris P50-500 wind turbine can produce 768.39 M Wh/year and has capacity factor of 17.54%.

  14. Evaluation of the development and yielding potential of Chenopodium quinoa Willd. under the climatic conditions of Europe. Part one: accomodation of Chenopodium quinoa (Willd. to different conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Gęsiński

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on the evaluation of selected varieties of Chenopodium quinoa, their requirements were identified; it was shown which varieties demonstrated the best effects in what conditions. It was found that the best varieties for Europe's conditions were E-DK-4-PQCIP and RU-5-PQCIP. E-DK-4-PQCIP variety showed the best effects under the conditions of cluster II which included e.g. Bydgoszcz (Poland and cluster IV which included Southern European countries (Greece and Italy, while the best effects found in RU-5-PQCIP variety were identified in cluster I which included Sweden. E-DK-4-PQCIP variety in cluster II showed a very high yield of green matter and a mean seed yield, and in cluster IV - a very high seed yield and a high yield of green matter.

  15. Forecasting the Influence of Climate Change on Agroecosystem Services: Potential Impacts on Honey Yields in a Small-Island Developing State

    OpenAIRE

    Delgado, Diana L.; María Eglée Pérez; Alberto Galindo-Cardona; Tugrul Giray; Carla Restrepo

    2012-01-01

    Global change poses numerous challenges to developing nations and small-island developing states (SIDSs). Among these are the effects of climate change on honeybees’ provisioning services including honey production. Here we ask two questions. First, what is the relationship between honey yield and climate in a tropical environment? Second, how does yield vary spatially under current climate and future scenarios of climate change? Focusing on the island of Puerto Rico, we developed an ensemble...

  16. Meta-analysis in public health: potentials and problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John P.A. Ioannidis

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Meta-analysis has evolved as a primary tool for evidence-based medicine. Initially, meta-analysis was seen as a technique that could improve statistical power in a research world of small, underpowered studies. We increasingly recognize that meta-analysis is a critical tool that can help us measure and understand not only summary effects, but also heterogeneity (diversity and bias. Here I discuss some key themes and challenges for “meta-epidemiology”.

    These include the contrast between randomized and observational evidence; the evolutionary nature of biomedical evidence; the contrast between small and larger studies; the difficulties in appraising study “quality” and its potential impact on the study effects; and the scandal of missing even minimal, key information on the harms of interventions that are otherwise postulated to be effective. I discuss a general outlook about the validity of the evidence in medicine and public health. I suggest that we should learn to live with uncertainty, since the evidence that is available is often limited, biased, or both. This means that we should be prepared to dismiss big chunks of biomedical dogma, including perhaps whole specialties and sub-specialties of current medicine, as false, erroneous, irrelevant or even potentially dangerous for the health of individuals and populations. An effort should be made to shift the accumulation and synthesis of evidence towards answering critical public health-related questions. This paper is based on a lecture presented at the European Public Health Association 2005 annual conference in Graz, Austria.

  17. A clustering approach for the analysis of solar energy yields: A case study for concentrating solar thermal power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peruchena, Carlos M. Fernández; García-Barberena, Javier; Guisado, María Vicenta; Gastón, Martín

    2016-05-01

    The design of Concentrating Solar Thermal Power (CSTP) systems requires a detailed knowledge of the dynamic behavior of the meteorology at the site of interest. Meteorological series are often condensed into one representative year with the aim of data volume reduction and speeding-up of energy system simulations, defined as Typical Meteorological Year (TMY). This approach seems to be appropriate for rather detailed simulations of a specific plant; however, in previous stages of the design of a power plant, especially during the optimization of the large number of plant parameters before a final design is reached, a huge number of simulations are needed. Even with today's technology, the computational effort to simulate solar energy system performance with one year of data at high frequency (as 1-min) may become colossal if a multivariable optimization has to be performed. This work presents a simple and efficient methodology for selecting number of individual days able to represent the electrical production of the plant throughout the complete year. To achieve this objective, a new procedure for determining a reduced set of typical weather data in order to evaluate the long-term performance of a solar energy system is proposed. The proposed methodology is based on cluster analysis and permits to drastically reduce computational effort related to the calculation of a CSTP plant energy yield by simulating a reduced number of days from a high frequency TMY.

  18. Contribution to the design, fulfillment, and data analysis of fission fragment yields of the SOFIA experiment at GSI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The isotopic fission yields of U 238 following the SOFIA experiment, conducted at the GSI facility (Darmstadt), are presented here. This experiment takes advantage of the inverse kinematics technique at relativistic energies. Benefits are several: fission fragments are highly focused (high geometrical efficiency) and are also completely stripped, which greatly simplifies their nuclear charge measurement. The first detector of the SOFIA setup is an active target in which fission occurs via electromagnetic excitation, followed by an ionization chamber to measure the nuclear charge and the horizontal angle of both fission fragments. The masses are deduced by the bending radius measurement of the fragments, deflected by a strong magnet (ALADIN), thanks to two position detectors (MWPC), and also by a highly resolved time-of-flight measurement (40 ps FWHM) so that heavy neighboring isotopes can be separated. The data analysis shows that the main goals are achieved since the isotopic separation is reached over the whole range of the fission fragments. A strong even-odd effect is seen in the charge spectrum, which also exhibits a mean heavy charge close to Z = 54. Surprisingly, the neutron even-odd effect of the light region is seen to be very close to the one in thermal neutron induced fission. The peak-to-valley ratio of the mass spectrum confirms that the mean excitation energy at fission is close to the expected one (14 MeV). The GEF code is used for comparison and always gives results very close to ours. (author)

  19. Optimization through neuron network of the potentiality of Higgs discovery in the CMS detector via H {yields} ZZ{sup *} {yields} 4e{sup {+-}}, and study of the triggering primitives of the electromagnetic calorimeter; Optimisation par reseaux de neurones du potentiel de decouverte du boson de Higgs dans le canal H {yields} ZZ{sup *} {yields} 4e{sup {+-}} sur le detecteur CMS, et etude des primitives de declenchement du calorimetre electromagnetique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bimbot, St

    2006-10-15

    The first chapter presents the theoretical background on which the Higgs mechanism is based within the framework of the standard model. The second chapter reviews the past and present attempts aiming at the discovery of the Higgs boson. The specific features of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and of one of its detector: the CMS (Compact Muon Solenoid) detector are given in the third chapter. The author details the track detector and the ECAL electronic calorimeter that are key components of CMS in the detection of the Higgs boson via the following decay channel: H {yields} ZZ{sup *} {yields} 2e{sup +}2e{sup -} (where Z and Z{sup *} represents the Z{sup O} boson in a real state and in a virtual state respectively). The chapters 4 and 5 are dedicated to the calibration of the ECAL calorimeter via the use of an electron beam and to the triggering system. The data analysis that will lead to the reconstruction of the events detected by CMS is presented in the chapter 6. The last chapter is devoted to the optimization of the extraction of the Higgs boson signal from an abundant background noise. (A.C.)

  20. The multielement potential of fast neutron cyclic activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cyclic neutron activation analysis (CNAA) has, in recent years been developed as a useful analytical tool for the assay of short-lived isotopes in single element situations. The work described in this paper investigates the potential of the technique for composite samples having a wide range of elements that produce short-lived and long-lived isotopes on neutron irradiation. Accelerator-derived neutrons with average energies of 3 MeV, 6 MeV and 14 MeV were employed in what has been dubbed 'Fast Neutron Cyclic Neutron Activation Analysis' (FNCAA). The approach to multi-element analysis entailed: determination of cycle parameters in single element samples via the reactions 27Al(n,p)27Mg(9.6 min,Eγ=840keV), and 137Ba(n,n'γ137mBa(2.3 min,Eγ137mBa(2.3 min,Eγ=662 keV), a test of the method on a composite rock sample, determination of analytical sensitivities using both powdered kale and rock standards and a comparison of analytical results with other techniques. The results obtained in all these measurements are presented and discussed. (author) 10 refs.; 3 figs.; 5 tabs

  1. Chitosan in Combination with Chemical Fertilizer on Agronomic Traits and Some Physiological Responses Relating to Yield Potential of Rice (Oryza sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prapurt Promsomboon

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chitosan can be used to stimulate growth and enhance yield in many crop species. This experiment was to study efficacy of chitosan as fertilizer supplement to stimulate growth and enhance rice yield. The experimental design was randomized complete block design with four treatments, i.e., Tr1; chitosan at the concentration of 80 mg L-1 in combination with mixed chemical fertilizer between urea (46-0-0 and 16-20-0 at the rate of 312.5 kg ha-1, Tr2; mixed chemical fertilizer between urea (46-0-0 and 16-20-0 at the rate of 312.5 kg ha-1, Tr3; chitosan spraying at the concentration of 80 mg L-1 and Tr4; no application of chitosan and mixed chemical fertilizer and five replications was performed. It was conducted in a greenhouse of Agricultural Technology and Agro-Industry Faculty, Rajamangala University of Technology Suvarnnaphumi, during April to August, 2011. The results revealed that application of chitosan in combination with mixed chemical fertilizer showed positive effects on leaf greenness, dry weight, yield and yield components of rice plants, however did not significantly differ from those of application of mixed chemical fertilizer alone. Application of chitosan alone and no application of both mixed chemical fertilizer and chitosan had poor effects on growth, yield and yield components of rice plants. From this study, it is suggested that rice yield can be enhanced by application of chitosan in combination with chemical fertilizer (as farmer practices.

  2. On isogeometric yield envelopes.

    OpenAIRE

    Coombs, W.M.

    2015-01-01

    In numerical analysis the failure of engineering materials is controlled through specifying yield envelopes (or surfaces) that bound the allowable stress in the material. Simple examples include the prismatic von Mises (circle) and Tresca (hexagon) yield surfaces. However, each surface is distinct and requires a specific equation describing the shape of the surface to be formulated in each case. These equations impact on the numerical implementation (specifically relating to st...

  3. Full empirical potential curves for the X1Σ+ and A1Π states of CH+ from a direct-potential-fit analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    All available “conventional” absorption/emission spectroscopic data have been combined with photodissociation data and translational spectroscopy data in a global analysis that yields analytic potential energy and Born-Oppenheimer breakdown functions for the X1Σ+ and A1Π states of CH+ and its isotopologues that reproduce all of the data (on average) within their assigned uncertainties. For the ground X1Σ+ state, this fully quantum mechanical “Direct-Potential-Fit” analysis yielded an improved empirical well depth of De = 34 362.8(3) cm−1 and equilibrium bond length of re = 1.128 462 5 (58) Å. For the A1Π state, the resulting well depth and equilibrium bond length are De = 10 303.7(3) cm−1 and re = 1.235 896 (14) Å, while the electronic isotope shift from the hydride to the deuteride is ΔTe = − 5.99(±0.08) cm−1

  4. ANALYSIS OF RURAL TOURISM POTENTIAL OF REGION CRISANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BARBU IONEL

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we will present a SWOT analysis on the potential of rural tourism in the region Crisana. Crisana region is a historical region delimited at north by the river Somes and Maramures region, at west by the river Tisa, at south by the Mures river and Banat region, and at east by the peaks of the Apuseni Mountains and Transylvania region. Crisana Region stretches on both Romania and Hungary, and we will refer only to the Romanian side of it. Crisana region has an area of 17,717 km2 and if we refer to the current counties, this region includes much of Arad county, without the area between the river Mures and Timis county, north of Hunedoara county Bihor county and part of western Salaj county

  5. Numerical analysis of 3-D potential flow in centrifugal turbomachines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daiguji, H.

    1983-09-01

    A numerical method is developed for analysing a three-dimensional steady incompressible potential flow through an impeller in centrifugal turbomachines. The method is the same as the previous method which was developed for the axial flow turbomachines, except for some treatments in the downstream region. In order to clarify the validity and limitation of the method, a comparison with the existing experimental data and numerical results is made for radial flow compressor impellers. The calculated blade surface pressure distributions almost coincide with the quasi-3-D calculation by Krimerman and Adler (1978), but are different partly from the quasi-3-D calculation using one meridional flow analysis. It is suggested from this comparison that the flow through an impeller with high efficiency near the design point can be predicted by this fully 3-D numerical method.

  6. Potential of isotope analysis (C, Cl) to identify dechlorination mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cretnik, Stefan; Thoreson, Kristen; Bernstein, Anat; Ebert, Karin; Buchner, Daniel; Laskov, Christine; Haderlein, Stefan; Shouakar-Stash, Orfan; Kliegman, Sarah; McNeill, Kristopher; Elsner, Martin

    2013-04-01

    Chloroethenes are commonly used in industrial applications, and detected as carcinogenic contaminants in the environment. Their dehalogenation is of environmental importance in remediation processes. However, a detailed understanding frequently accounted problem is the accumulation of toxic degradation products such as cis-dichloroethylene (cis-DCE) at contaminated sites. Several studies have addressed the reductive dehalogenation reactions using biotic and abiotic model systems, but a crucial question in this context has remained open: Do environmental transformations occur by the same mechanism as in their corresponding in vitro model systems? The presented study shows the potential to close this research gap using the latest developments in compound specific chlorine isotope analysis, which make it possible to routinely measure chlorine isotope fractionation of chloroethenes in environmental samples and complex reaction mixtures.1,2 In particular, such chlorine isotope analysis enables the measurement of isotope fractionation for two elements (i.e., C and Cl) in chloroethenes. When isotope values of both elements are plotted against each other, different slopes reflect different underlying mechanisms and are remarkably insensitive towards masking. Our results suggest that different microbial strains (G. lovleyi strain SZ, D. hafniense Y51) and the isolated cofactor cobalamin employ similar mechanisms of reductive dechlorination of TCE. In contrast, evidence for a different mechanism was obtained with cobaloxime cautioning its use as a model for biodegradation. The study shows the potential of the dual isotope approach as a tool to directly compare transformation mechanisms of environmental scenarios, biotic transformations, and their putative chemical lab scale systems. Furthermore, it serves as an essential reference when using the dual isotope approach to assess the fate of chlorinated compounds in the environment.

  7. Flood Risk Analysis and Flood Potential Losses Assessment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The heavy floods in the Taihu Basin showed increasing trend in recent years. In thiswork, a typical area in the northern Taihu Basin was selected for flood risk analysis and potentialflood losses assessment. Human activities have strong impact on the study area' s flood situation (asaffected by the polders built, deforestation, population increase, urbanization, etc. ), and havemade water level higher, flood duration shorter, and flood peaks sharper. Five years of differentflood return periods [(1970), 5 (1962), 10 (1987), 20 (1954), 50 (1991)] were used to cal-culate the potential flood risk area and its losses. The potential flood risk map, economic losses,and flood-impacted population were also calculated. The study's main conclusions are: 1 ) Humanactivities have strongly changed the natural flood situation in the study area, increasing runoff andflooding; 2) The flood risk area is closely related with the precipitation center; 3) Polder construc-tion has successfully protected land from flood, shortened the flood duration, and elevated waterlevel in rivers outside the polders; 4) Economic and social development have caused flood losses toincrease in recent years.

  8. Analysis of classifiers performance for classification of potential microcalcification

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. N., Arun K.; Sheshadri, H. S.

    2013-07-01

    Breast cancer is a significant public health problem in the world. According to the literature early detection improve breast cancer prognosis. Mammography is a screening tool used for early detection of breast cancer. About 10-30% cases are missed during the routine check as it is difficult for the radiologists to make accurate analysis due to large amount of data. The Microcalcifications (MCs) are considered to be important signs of breast cancer. It has been reported in literature that 30% - 50% of breast cancer detected radio graphically show MCs on mammograms. Histologic examinations report 62% to 79% of breast carcinomas reveals MCs. MC are tiny, vary in size, shape, and distribution, and MC may be closely connected to surrounding tissues. There is a major challenge using the traditional classifiers in the classification of individual potential MCs as the processing of mammograms in appropriate stage generates data sets with an unequal amount of information for both classes (i.e., MC, and Not-MC). Most of the existing state-of-the-art classification approaches are well developed by assuming the underlying training set is evenly distributed. However, they are faced with a severe bias problem when the training set is highly imbalanced in distribution. This paper addresses this issue by using classifiers which handle the imbalanced data sets. In this paper, we also compare the performance of classifiers which are used in the classification of potential MC.

  9. Rapid Prototyping of NASA's Solar and Meteorological Data For Regional Level Modeling of Agricultural and Bio-fuel Crop Phenology and Yield Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoell, J. M.; Stackhouse, P. W.; Eckman, R. S.

    2006-12-01

    Global demand for food, feedstock and bio-fuel crops is expanding rapidly due to population growth, increasing consumption of these products (especially in developing countries), and more recently skyrocketing use of these crops to produce ethanol as a bio-fuel. As a result, there are growing concerns, both in the US and world wide, about the ability to meet the projected demand for agricultural/bio-fuel crops without expanding production areas into environmentally sensitive regions. Concurrently, there are increasing concerns over the negative impact of global warming on crop yields. Accurate ecophysiological crop models have been developed for many of the food and bio-fuel crops and serve as the back-bone in sophisticated Decision Support Systems (DSS). These DSS's are increasingly being used to address the balance between the need to increase production/efficiency and environmental concerns, as well as the impact of global warming on crop production. Realistic application of these agricultural DSS's requires accurate environmental data on time scales ranging from hours to decades. To date only sparse surface measurements are used that typically do not measure solar irradiance. NASA's Prediction of Worldwide Energy Resource (POWER) project, which has as one of its objectives the development of data products for agricultural applications, currently provides a climatological data base of meteorological parameters and surface solar energy fluxes on a global 1-degree latitude by 1- degree longitude grid. NASA is also developing capabilities to produce near-real time data sets specifically designed for application by agricultural DSS's. In this presentation, we discuss the development of 1-degree global data products which combine the climatological data in the POWER project archive (http://earth-www.larc.nasa.gov/power), near real time (2 to 3 day lag) meteorological data from the Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) quick-look products, and global solar energy

  10. Generating Property-Directed Potential Invariants By Backward Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrien Champion

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the issue of lemma generation in a k-induction-based formal analysis of transition systems, in the linear real/integer arithmetic fragment. A backward analysis, powered by quantifier elimination, is used to output preimages of the negation of the proof objective, viewed as unauthorized states, or gray states. Two heuristics are proposed to take advantage of this source of information. First, a thorough exploration of the possible partitionings of the gray state space discovers new relations between state variables, representing potential invariants. Second, an inexact exploration regroups and over-approximates disjoint areas of the gray state space, also to discover new relations between state variables. k-induction is used to isolate the invariants and check if they strengthen the proof objective. These heuristics can be used on the first preimage of the backward exploration, and each time a new one is output, refining the information on the gray states. In our context of critical avionics embedded systems, we show that our approach is able to outperform other academic or commercial tools on examples of interest in our application field. The method is introduced and motivated through two main examples, one of which was provided by Rockwell Collins, in a collaborative formal verification framework.

  11. Determining Balıkesir’s Energy Potential Using a Regression Analysis Computer Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bedri Yüksel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Solar power and wind energy are used concurrently during specific periods, while at other times only the more efficient is used, and hybrid systems make this possible. When establishing a hybrid system, the extent to which these two energy sources support each other needs to be taken into account. This paper is a study of the effects of wind speed, insolation levels, and the meteorological parameters of temperature and humidity on the energy potential in Balıkesir, in the Marmara region of Turkey. The relationship between the parameters was studied using a multiple linear regression method. Using a designed-for-purpose computer program, two different regression equations were derived, with wind speed being the dependent variable in the first and insolation levels in the second. The regression equations yielded accurate results. The computer program allowed for the rapid calculation of different acceptance rates. The results of the statistical analysis proved the reliability of the equations. An estimate of identified meteorological parameters and unknown parameters could be produced with a specified precision by using the regression analysis method. The regression equations also worked for the evaluation of energy potential.

  12. Growth analysis and yield of two varieties of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) as influenced by different weed control methods

    OpenAIRE

    Olayinka, Bolaji U.; Etejere, Emmanuel O.

    2015-01-01

    Field trials were carried out to evaluate the effects of seven weed management strategies on the growth and yield of two groundnut varieties (Samnut 10 and MK 373) for two successive seasons (2010–2011). The experimental layout was a split plot complete randomized block design with three replications. The two groundnut varieties showed identical pattern of results for leaf area index, dry matter accumulation, relative growth rate, net assimilation rate and crop growth rate as well as yield. A...

  13. The Potential Use of Summer Rainfall Enhancement in Illinois. Part I: A Field Experiment to Define Responses of Crop Yields to Increased Rainfall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Changnon, Stanley A.; Hollinger, Steven E.

    1993-03-01

    An assessment was made of factors affecting the use of cloud seeding to increase summer (June-August) rainfall for improved corn and soybean yields in Illinois. Crop yields from a five-year agricultural field experiment involving nine levels of rain increases were compared with yields produced under natural rainfall. The sampled years (1987 91) included a wide range of summer weather conditions, including extremely hot and dry (1988) and very wet and cool (1990). Since the types of growing seasons sampled represented only 30% of all types, caution must be used in interpreting the results and applying them to other years.Additional water of 10%, 25%, or 40% of each day's actual rainfall was applied after each rain. Additional water was also applied only to certain rains, depending on whether they were light, moderate, or heavy. The best treatment, based on performance in all years and considering both treated and untreated crops, was a 25% rain increase applied on days with moderate rain (2.5 mm 2.53 cm). However, it was only marginally better than the natural rainfall. The best treatment for soybeans alone, based on the average yields for 1987 90, was the natural, unmodified rainfall, whereas that for corn was 10% 40% increases only on heavy-rain days. In general, rain increases of 10% had little yield effect, and 40% increases applied in all years were found damaging in wetter years. However, in extremely dry summers, the 40% rain increases were the best for both crops. The best treatment in any given summer varied by the type and timing of rain conditions and crop. Selection of the best treatment to use in any summer would require the capability to predict the amount and timing of summer rainfall by 1 June.

  14. Yield Mapping in Salix; Skoerdekartering av salix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Christoffer; Gilbertsson, Mikael; Rogstrand, Gustav; Thylen, Lars

    2004-09-01

    The most common species for energy forest production is willow. Willow is able to produce a large amount of biomass in a short period of time. Growing willow has a potential to render a good financial result for the farmer if cultivated on fields with the right conditions and plenty of water. Under the right conditions growing willow can give the farmer a net income of 3,000 SEK (about 430 USD) per hectare and year, which is something that common cereal crops cannot compete with. However, this is not the common case since willow is often grown as a substitute crop on fields where cereal crop yield is low. The aim of this study was to reveal if it is possible to measure yield variability in willow, and if it is possible to describe the reasons for yield variation both within the field but also between different fields. Yield mapping has been used in conventional farming for about a decade. The principles for yield mapping are to continuously measure the yield while registering location by the use of GPS when harvesting the field. The collected data is then used to search for spatial variations within the field, and to try to understand the reasons for this variation. Since there is currently no commercial equipment for yield mapping in willow, a yield mapping system had to be developed within this project. The new system was installed on a Claas Jaguar harvester. The principle for yield mapping on the Claas Jaguar harvester is to measure the distance between the feeding rollers. This distance is correlated to the flow through the harvester. The speed and position of the machine was registered using GPS. Knowing the working width of the harvester this information was used to calculate the yield. All collected data was stored on a PDA computer. Soil samples were also collected from the yield mapped fields. This was to be able to test yield against both physical and chemical soil parameters. The result shows that it is possible to measure spatial variations of yield in

  15. An analysis of the sponge Acanthostrongylophora igens’ microbiome yields an actinomycete that produces the natural product manzamine A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Leigh Waters

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Sponges have generated significant interest as a source of bioactive and elaborate secondary metabolites that hold promise for the development of novel therapeutics for the control of an array of human diseases. However, research and development of marine natural products can often be hampered by the difficulty associated with obtaining a stable and sustainable production source. Herein we report the first successful characterization and utilization of the microbiome of a marine invertebrate to identify a sustainable production source for an important natural product scaffold. Through molecular-microbial community analysis, optimization of fermentation conditions and MALDI-MS imaging, we provide the first report of a sponge-associated bacterium (Micromonospora sp. that produces the manzamine class of antimalarials from the Indo-Pacific sponge Acanthostrongylophora ingens (Thiele, 1899 (Class Demospongiae, Order Haplosclerida, Family Petrosiidae. These findings suggest that a general strategy of analysis of the macroorganism’s microbiome could significantly transform the field of natural products drug discovery by gaining access to not only novel drug leads, but the potential for sustainable production sources and biosynthetic genes at the same time.

  16. Ecosystem-management-based Management Models of Fast-growing and High-yield Plantation and Its Eco-economic Benefits Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The paper expounded the basic concept and principles of ecosystem management,and analyzed the state and trend of industrial plantation ecosystem management in other countries.Based on the analysis of typical case studies,the eco-economic benefits were evaluated for the management models of fast-growing and high-yield plantations.

  17. Identification and Evolutionary Analysis of Potential Candidate Genes in a Human Eating Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullegama, Saman; Wyckoff, Gerald J.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to find genes linked with eating disorders and associated with both metabolic and neural systems. Our operating hypothesis was that there are genetic factors underlying some eating disorders resting in both those pathways. Specifically, we are interested in disorders that may rest in both sleep and metabolic function, generally called Night Eating Syndrome (NES). A meta-analysis of the Gene Expression Omnibus targeting the mammalian nervous system, sleep, and obesity studies was performed, yielding numerous genes of interest. Through a text-based analysis of the results, a number of potential candidate genes were identified. VGF, in particular, appeared to be relevant both to obesity and, broadly, to brain or neural development. VGF is a highly connected protein that interacts with numerous targets via proteolytically digested peptides. We examined VGF from an evolutionary perspective to determine whether other available evidence supported a role for the gene in human disease. We conclude that some of the already identified variants in VGF from human polymorphism studies may contribute to eating disorders and obesity. Our data suggest that there is enough evidence to warrant eGWAS and GWAS analysis of these genes in NES patients in a case-control study. PMID:27088090

  18. Yield enhancement with DFM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paek, Seung Weon; Kang, Jae Hyun; Ha, Naya; Kim, Byung-Moo; Jang, Dae-Hyun; Jeon, Junsu; Kim, DaeWook; Chung, Kun Young; Yu, Sung-eun; Park, Joo Hyun; Bae, SangMin; Song, DongSup; Noh, WooYoung; Kim, YoungDuck; Song, HyunSeok; Choi, HungBok; Kim, Kee Sup; Choi, Kyu-Myung; Choi, Woonhyuk; Jeon, JoongWon; Lee, JinWoo; Kim, Ki-Su; Park, SeongHo; Chung, No-Young; Lee, KangDuck; Hong, YoungKi; Kim, BongSeok

    2012-03-01

    A set of design for manufacturing (DFM) techniques have been developed and applied to 45nm, 32nm and 28nm logic process technologies. A noble technology combined a number of potential confliction of DFM techniques into a comprehensive solution. These techniques work in three phases for design optimization and one phase for silicon diagnostics. In the DFM prevention phase, foundation IP such as standard cells, IO, and memory and P&R tech file are optimized. In the DFM solution phase, which happens during ECO step, auto fixing of process weak patterns and advanced RC extraction are performed. In the DFM polishing phase, post-layout tuning is done to improve manufacturability. DFM analysis enables prioritization of random and systematic failures. The DFM technique presented in this paper has been silicon-proven with three successful tape-outs in Samsung 32nm processes; about 5% improvement in yield was achieved without any notable side effects. Visual inspection of silicon also confirmed the positive effect of the DFM techniques.

  19. Analysis of the Pauli potential of atoms and ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The square root of the electron density satisfies a Schroedinger equation that contains a correction term called Pauli potential in addition to the usual one-body potential of the density functional theory. Earlier exact one-body potential was determined from the electron density for two- and three-level systems. The Pauli potential and the kinetic energy density corresponding to the Pauli potential are determined for several atoms and ions with several electrons. Properties of the Pauli potential are discussed. (author) 16 refs.; 10 figs

  20. Monte Carlo analysis of direct measurements of the fission neutron yield per absorption by 233U and 235U of monochromatic neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monte Carlo analysis of the measurements of Smith et al. of the number of fission neutrons produced per neutron absorbed, eta, for 2200 m/sec neutrons absorbed by 233U and 235U yields: eta2200233 = 2.2993 +- 0.0082 and eta2200235 = 2.0777 +- 0.0064. The standard deviations include Monte Carlo, cross section, and experimental uncertainties. The Monte Carlo analysis was confirmed by calculating measured quantities used by the experimentalists in determining eta2200

  1. Potential Improvements in Human Reliability Analysis for Fire Risk Assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of numerous fire risk assessments (FRA) and the experience gained from actual fire events have shown that fire can be a significant contributor to nuclear power plant (NPP) risk. However, on the basis of reviews of the FRAs performed for the Individual Plant External Events Examination (IPEEE) program in the U.S. and on recent research performed by U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to support increased use of risk information in regulatory decision making [e.g., Ref. 1, 2], it has become clear that improved modelling and quantification of human performance during fire events requires a better treatment of the special environment and response context produced by fires. This paper describes fire-related factors that have been identified as potentially impacting human performance, discusses to what extent such factors were modelled in the IPEEE FRAs, discusses prioritization of the factors likely to be most important to a realistic assessment of plant safety, and discusses which factors are likely to need additional research and development in order to allow adequate modelling in the human reliability analysis (HRA) portions of FRAs. The determination of which factors need to be modelled and the improvement of HRA related approaches for modelling such factors are critical aspects of the NRC's plan to improve FRA methods, tools, and data and to update a number of existing FRAs. (authors)

  2. Genetic Component Analysis for Yield and Morphological Traits in Pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.) Genotypes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main objectives of present investigation were to find out the extent of genetic variability, heritability (bs), component of variance and genetic advance for yield and yield related traits of pearl millet, Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br. For this purpose twenty five (25) pearl millet (local and exotic) germplasm accessions were evaluated in a Randomized Complete Block Design having three replications at Arid Zone Research Institute, PARC, D.I. Khan, Pakistan during 2013. Highly significant (P<0.01) differences were observed for all the traits except days to maturity which was mere significant (P<0.05). A substantial amount of genetic variability among the genotypes revealed that accessions under studies belonged to diversified sources indicating the expediency of genotypes for future breeding of millet varieties. The line MS-3 proved its superiority through producing the highest grain yield of 132.70 g/plant. High genotypic (68.06) as well as phenotypic co-efficient of variation (71.50) were recorded for grain yield. Moderate to high heritability was recorded for number of leaves per plant (47.11), leaf area index (46.75), days to heading (69.34) and days to maturity (68.58). Avery high heritability (89.54 percentage) was recorded for 1000- grain weight and grain yield. The high heritability amalgamated with high genetic advance (171.04) as percent of mean was recorded for grain yield indicating the least environmental effect and presence of more additive gene effect leading to crop improvement through simple selection. (author)

  3. An Econometric Analysis of U.S. Crop Yield and Cropland Acreage: Implications for the Impact of Climate Change

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Haixiao; Khanna, Madhu

    2010-01-01

    A SIGNIFICANTLY REVISED/UPDATED AND EDITED VERSION OF THIS PAPER WAS PUBLISHED AS: Citation: Miao, Ruiqing, Madhu Khanna and Haixiao Huang. “Responsiveness of Crop Yield and Acreage to Prices and Climate.” American Journal of Agricultural Economics (2015) doi: 10.1093/ajae/aav025 Abstract: We investigate the effect of crop price and climate variables on rainfed corn and soybean yields and acreage in the United States using a large panel dataset for the 1977–2007 period. Instrumental variables...

  4. Genetic Analysis of Protein Yield, Udder Health, and Female Fertility in First-Parity Danish Holstein Cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch, L H; Norberg, E

    2008-01-01

    Genetic parameters for protein yield, clinical mastitis, SCS, number of inseminations (NI), and days from first to last insemination (FLI) were estimated for first-parity Danish Holstein cows. The objective was to estimate genetic correlations between the five traits mentioned above and to study...

  5. Transcriptome analysis suggests that starch synthesis may proceed via multiple metabolic routes in high yielding potato cultivars.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kacper Piotr Kaminski

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Glucose-6-phosphate is imported into the amyloplast of potato tubers and thought to constitute the precursor for starch synthesis in potato tubers. However, recently it was shown that glucose-1-phosphate can also be imported into the amyloplast and incorporated into starch via an ATP independent mechanism under special conditions. Nonetheless, glucose-6-phosphate is believed to be the quantitatively important precursor for starch synthesis in potato. PRINCIPAL FINDING: Potato tubers of the high yielding cv Kuras had low gene expression of plastidial phophoglucomutase (PGM and normal levels of transcripts for other enzymes involved in starch metabolism in comparison with medium and low yielding cultivars as determined by DeepSAGE transcriptome profiling. The decrease in PGM activity in Kuras was confirmed by measuring the enzyme activity from potato tuber extracts. Contrary to expectations, this combination lead to a higher level of intracellular glucose-1-phosphate (G1P in Kuras suggesting that G1P is directly imported into plastids and can be quantitatively important for starch synthesis under normal conditions in high yielding cultivars. SIGNIFICANCE: This could open entirely new possibilities for metabolic engineering of the starch metabolism in potato via the so far uncharacterized G1P transporter. The perspectives are to increase yield and space efficiency of this important crop. In the light of the increasing demands imposed on agriculture to support a growing global population this presents an exciting new possibility.

  6. Homogeneity analysis of high yield manufacturing process of mems-based pzt thick film vibrational energy harvesters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lei, Anders; Xu, Ruichao; Pedersen, C.M.;

    2011-01-01

    This work presents a high yield wafer scale fabrication of MEMS-based unimorph silicon/PZT thick film vibrational energy harvesters aimed towards vibration sources with peak frequencies in the range of a few hundred Hz. By combining KOH etching with mechanical front side protection, SOI wafer to...

  7. A potential method for non-invasive acute myocardial infarction detection based on saliva Raman spectroscopy and multivariate analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Gang; Chen, Maowen; Chen, Yuanxiang; Huang, Zufang; Lin, Jinyong; Lin, Jia; Xu, Zhihong; Wu, Shanshan; Huang, Wei; Weng, Guoxing; Chen, Guannan

    2015-12-01

    Raman spectroscopy (RS) was employed for human saliva biochemical analysis with the aim to develop a rapidly non-invasive test for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) detection. High-quality Raman spectra were obtained from human saliva samples of 46 AMI patients and 43 healthy controls. Significant differences in Raman intensities of prominent bands were observed between AMI and normal saliva. The tentative assignment of the observed Raman bands indicated constituent and conformational differences between the two groups. Furthermore, principal component analysis (PCA) combined with linear discriminant analysis (LDA) was employed to analyze and classify the Raman spectra acquired from AMI and healthy saliva, yielding a diagnostic sensitivity of 80.4% and specificity of 81.4%. The results from this exploratory study demonstrated the feasibility and potential for developing RS analysis of human saliva into a clinical tool for rapid AMI detection and screening.

  8. Burst analysis tool for developing neuronal networks exhibiting highly varying action potential dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fikret Emre eKapucu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose a firing statistics based neuronal network burst detection algorithm for neuronal networks exhibiting highly variable action potential dynamics. Electrical activity of neuronal networks is generally analyzed by the occurrences of spikes and bursts both in time and space. Commonly accepted analysis tools employ burst detection algorithms based on predefined criteria. However, maturing neuronal networks, such as those originating from human embryonic stem cells (hESC, exhibit highly variable network structure and time-varying dynamics. To explore the developing burst/spike activities of such networks, we propose a burst detection algorithm which utilizes the firing statistics based on interspike interval (ISI histograms. Moreover, the algorithm calculates interspike interval thresholds for burst spikes as well as for pre-burst spikes and burst tails by evaluating the cumulative moving average and skewness of the ISI histogram. Because of the adaptive nature of the proposed algorithm, its analysis power is not limited by the type of neuronal cell network at hand. We demonstrate the functionality of our algorithm with two different types of microelectrode array (MEA data recorded from spontaneously active hESC-derived neuronal cell networks. The same data was also analyzed by two commonly employed burst detection algorithms and the differences in burst detection results are illustrated. The results demonstrate that our method is both adaptive to the firing statistics of the network and yields successful burst detection from the data. In conclusion, the proposed method is a potential tool for analyzing of hESC-derived neuronal cell networks and thus can be utilized in studies aiming to understand the development and functioning of human neuronal networks and as an analysis tool for in vitro drug screening and neurotoxicity assays.

  9. High yield growth and purification of human parainfluenza type 3 virus and initial analysis of viral structural proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guskey, L E; Bergtrom, G

    1981-05-01

    Structural proteins from a large-plaque variant (LPV) of human parainfluenza type 3 virus were analysed by electrophoresis on Laemmli-type polyacrylamide gels. High virus concentrations were obtained by growth in BS-C-1 cells cultivated on microcarrier beads. Purification of the virus in composite equilibrium gradients of potassium tartrate:glycerol resulted in 25% recovery of input infectivity and a preparation containing less than 0.08% of input host cell protein and RNA. Parainfluenza type 3 virus equilibrated at a density of 1.20 g/ml in these gradients. Analysis by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of 3H-glucosamine-labelled virus taken from peak gradient fractions revealed 8 or 9 major virion peptides, ranging in mol. wt. from 17 x 10(3) to 125 x 10(3) (17K to 125K), two of which were glycoproteins. The sum of the estimated mol. wt. of these peptides, 501.5K to 570.5K, does not exceed the estimated genomic potential of other paramyxoviruses. PMID:6270242

  10. Estimativa do potencial produtivo em trigo utilizando sensor óptico ativo para adubação nitrogenada em taxa variável Wheat yield potential estimation using active optical sensor for site-specific nitrogen fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Bredemeier

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A adubação nitrogenada em trigo é baseada no potencial produtivo da cultura, teor de matéria orgânica do solo e cultura antecessora. A definição do potencial produtivo é complexa, pois este varia com as condições meteorológicas de cada ano específico. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a relação entre o índice de vegetação por diferença normalizada (NDVI, medido por sensor óptico ativo e o rendimento de grãos em quatro cultivares de trigo, visando a desenvolver procedimentos para a adubação nitrogenada em cobertura em taxa variável. O experimento foi realizado em campo em 2009. Foram avaliados o NDVI em diferentes estádios de desenvolvimento e o rendimento de grãos. As leituras do NDVI ao longo do ciclo ativo foram eficientes em identificar variações de produtividade do trigo. Assim, o potencial de produtividade pode ser estimado através de medições desse índice durante a ontogenia da planta. Pode-se adotar um modelo único para descrever a relação entre NDVI e potencial produtivo para as cultivares testadas neste trabalho.Nitrogen fertilization in spring wheat is based on yield potential, soil organic matter content and previous crop. Yield potential definition is difficult, since it is affected by weather conditions. The objective of this research was to evaluate the relationship between Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI measured by an active sensor and grain yield of four wheat cultivars. The experiment was carried out at field conditions in 2009. NDVI in different growth stages and grain yield were evaluated. NDVI measured was efficient to detect growth variability generated by N availability and correlated well with grain yield for all cultivars tested, indicating that yield potential can be estimated by NDVI evaluations during crop ontogeny. One single model for the relationship between NDVI and yield potential can be used considering cultivars used in this research.

  11. The Ozone Component of Global Change:Potential Effects on Agricultural and Horticultural Plant Yield,Product Quality and Interactions with Invasive Species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fitzgerald Booker; Russell Muntifering; Margaret McGrath; Kent Burkey; Dennis Decoteau; Edwin Fiscus; William Manning; Sagar Krupa; Arthur Chappelka; David Grantz

    2009-01-01

    The productivity,product quality and competitive ability of important agricultural and horticultural plants in many regions of the world may be adversely affected by current and anticipated concentrations of groundlevel ozone (O3).Exposure to elevated O3 typically results in suppressed photosynthesis,accelerated senescence,decreased growth and lower yields.Various approaches used to evaluate O3 effects generally concur that current yield losses range from 5% to 15% among sensitive plants.There is,however,considerable genetic variability in plant responses to O3.To illustrate this,we show that ambient O3 concentrations in the eastern United States cause substantially different levels of damage to otherwise similar snap bean cultivars.Largely undesirable effects of O3 can also occur in seed and fruit chemistry as well as in forage nutritive value,with consequences for animal production.Ozone may alter herbicide efficacy and foster establishment of some invasive species.We conclude that current and projected levels of O3 in many regions worldwide are toxic to sensitive plants of agricultural and horticultural significance.Plant breeding that incorporates O3 sensitivity into selection strategies will be increasingly necessary to achieve sustainable production with changing atmospheric composition,while reductions in O3 precursor emissions will likely benefit world food production and reduce atmospheric concentrations of an important greenhouse gas.

  12. Analysis of phenomenological potentials for a quarkonium-like system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The comparison is made of the numerical results of quark-antiquark bound state spectra in a non-relativistic approximation for interaction effective potentials. The discussion of several aspects attached to the scalar and vetor nature of the confinant potential is made. The results obtained are compared with recent data on the PSI family. (L.C.)

  13. Sowing time on Soybean yield potential in Uberlândia-MGÉpoca de semeadura no Potencial produtivo de Soja em Uberlândia-MG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Divina Lemes Hamawaki

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The work was done in Uberlândia (MG to evaluate the performance of seven soybeans cultivars sowed in four different times: October 30th, November 15th, December 14th and 31st during the 2001/2002 season. The cultivars utilized were: DM-118 early-maturing, DM-247, DM-Victoria, DM-339, medium late cycle and DM-309, DM-98C81 and DM-Noble cycle Late. The statistical design was a randomized blocks in a factorial scheme (7 cultivars x 4 times with three replications. The evaluated characteristics were: yield, number of days for flowering, number of days for maturing, plant height, first bean height and plant laying. For the most evaluated cultivars, sowing beyond December 14th in Uberlandia region presented yield losses for earlier cultivars as DM-118 as well for the later ones as DM Vitória, compared to sowing in 30th October. The time for flowering and maturing and plant height had effect on the yield.O trabalho foi feito em Uberlândia, com o objetivo de avaliar o comportamento de sete cultivares de soja em quatro épocas distintas de semeadura: 30 de Outubro, 15 de Novembro, 14 e 31 de Dezembro, na safra 2001/02. As cultivares utilizadas foram: DM-118 de ciclo precoce, DM-247, DM-Vitória, DM-339, de ciclo semitardio e DM-309, DM-98C81 e DM-Nobre de ciclo tardio. O delineamento utilizado foi o de blocos casualizados em esquema fatorial (7 cultivares x 4 épocas com três repetições. As características avaliadas foram: produtividade, número de dias para floração e maturação, altura de plantas na maturação, inserção da primeira vagem e acamamento. Para a maioria das cultivares, a semeadura realizada a partir de 14 de dezembro na região de Uberlândia provocou queda na produtividade, tanto para as cultivares mais precoces quanto para mais tardia, DM Vitória, quando comparada a semeadura em 30 de outubro. O período para o florescimento, maturação e a altura de plantas interferiram na produtividade. Há decréscimo de altura de

  14. Analysis of Yield Components of F1 Hybrids of Crosses between Spring and Winter Wheat Types (Triticum aestivum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marijana Barić

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available F1 hybrids were produced using the German spring wheat variety Remus as a female parent and eight Croatian wheat varieties (six winter and two spring types as male parents. The heterosis (MP-mid parent, BP-better parent for five yield components was investigated in eight cross combinations. Data are based on field trial. All the combinations tested gave average heterosis (MP, BP for 1000-grain weight (14.38%, 6.12% and grain weight per spike (11.47%, 3.68%. The highest heterosis (MP, BP was found for 1000-grain weight (35.27%, 28.42% in the hybrid Remus/Sivka and for grain weight per spike (20. 45%, 19.1% in the hybrid Remus/Dukat. These data showed that the spring wheat variety Remus could be used in cross combinations for improvement of yield through higher 1000-grain weight and grain weight per spike.

  15. A Preliminary Study on Rainfall Interception Loss and Water Yield Analysis on Arabica Coffee Plants in Central Aceh Regency, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Reza Benara; Maimun Rizalihadi; B.C. Alfiansyah Yulianur

    2012-01-01

    Rainfall interception loss from plants or trees can reduce a net rainfall as source of water yield. The amount of rainfall interception loss depends on kinds of plants and hydro-meteorological characteristics. Therefore, it is important to study rainfall interception loss such as from Arabica Coffee plantation which is as main agricultural commodity for Central Aceh Regency. In this study, rainfall interception loss from Arabica Coffee plants was studied in Kebet Village of Central Aceh Regen...

  16. Biological hydrogen production by Anabaena sp. – Yield, energy and CO2 analysis including fermentative biomass recovery

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Ana F.; Marques, Ana C.; Batista, Ana Paula; Marques, Paula Alexandra; de Gouveia, L.; Carla M. Silva

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents laboratory results of biological production of hydrogen by photoautrotophic cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. Additional hydrogen production from residual Cyanobacteria fermentation was achieved by Enterobacter aerogenes bacteria. The authors evaluated the yield of H2 production, the energy consumption and CO2 emissions and the technological bottlenecks and possible improvements of the whole energy and CO2 emission chain. The authors did not attempt to extrapolate the results to...

  17. Bayesian analysis of the predictive power of the yield curve using a vector autoregressive model with multiple structural breaks

    OpenAIRE

    Katsuhiro Sugita

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we analyze the predictive power of the yield curve on output growth using a vector autoregressive model with multiple structural breaks in the intercept term and the volatility. To estimate the model and to detect the number of breaks, we apply a Bayesian approach with Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm. We find strong evidence of three structural breaks using the US data.

  18. Exploitation of high-yields in hard-rock aquifers: downscaling methodology combining GIS and multicriteria analysis to delineate field prospecting zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachassagne, P; Wyns, R; Bérard, P; Bruel, T; Chéry, L; Coutand, T; Desprats, J F; Le Strat, P

    2001-01-01

    Based on research work in the Truyère River catchment of the Massif Central (Lozère Department, France), a methodology has been developed for delineating favorable prospecting zones of a few square kilometers within basement areas of several hundred, if not thousand, square kilometers for the purpose of sitting high-yield water wells. The methodology adopts a functional approach to hard-rock aquifers using a conceptual model of the aquifer structure and of the functioning of the main aquifer compartments: the alterites (weathered and decayed rock), the underlying weathered-fissured zone, and the fractured bedrock. It involves an economically feasible method of mapping the thickness and spatial distribution of the alterites and the weathered-fissured zone, on which the long-term exploitation of the water resource chiefly depends. This method is used for the first time in hydrogeology. The potential ground water resources were mapped by GIS multicriteria analysis using parameters characterizing the structure and functioning of the aquifer, i.e., lithology and hydrogeological properties of the substratum, nature and thickness of the alterites and weathered-fissured zone, depth of the water table, slope, fracture networks and present-day tectonic stresses, and forecasted ground water quality. The methodology involves a coherent process of downscaling that, through applying methods that are increasingly precise but also increasingly costly, enables the selection of sites with diminishing surface areas as the work advances. The resulting documents are used for ground water exploration, although they can also be applied to the broader domain of land-use management. PMID:11447857

  19. Genetic Analysis of Carbon Isotope Discrimination and its Relation to Yield in a Wheat Doubled Haploid Population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xianshan Wu; Xiaoping Chang; Ruilian Jing

    2011-01-01

    Carbon isotope discrimination (△13C) is considered a useful indicator for indirect selection of grain yield (GY) in cereals.Therefore,it is important to evaluate the genetic variation in △13C and its relationship with GY.A doubled haploid (DH) population derived from a cross of two common wheat varieties,Hanxuan 10 (H10) and Lumai 14 (L14),was phenotyped for △13C in the flag leaf,GY and yield associated traits in two trials contrasted by water availability,specifically,rain-fed and irrigated.Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) were identified by single locus and two locus QTL analyses.QTLs for △13C were located on chromosomes 1A,2B,3B,5A,7A and 7B,and QTLs for other traits on all chromosomes except 1A,4D,5A,5B and 6D.The population selected for high △13C had an increased frequency of QTL for high △13C,GY and number of spikes per plant (NSP) when grown under rain-fed conditions and only for high △13C and NSP when grown under irrigated conditions,which was consistent with agronomic performance of the corresponding trait values in the high △13C progeny; that is,significantly greater than that in the low △13C.Therefore,selection for △13C was beneficial in increasing grain yield in rain-fed environments.

  20. Genotype-environment interaction and analysis of yield stability in trial with tomato crop in drought condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Boicet Fabre

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The present work was developed in the UBPC “The Coast”, belonging to the Miscellaneous Crops Enterprise of Campechuela municipality, Granma province, during the period from November to March of the year 2010 – 2011. It was carried out in a reddish brown fersialitic soil, according with the new genetic classification of the soils of Cuba MINAGRI, (2000, with the objective of studying and evaluating the influence of different organic fertilizers in the growth, development and yield in the cultivation of onion, variety Texas Early Grain. For this reason it was necessary to work on blocks with 4 treatments and 4 replies. The treatments applied were: treatment 1 (vermicompost, treatment 2 (cow dung, treatment 3 (cachaça and treatment 4 (control, those were applied in a solid way. The growth variables that were evaluated were number of leaves, height of the plant, equatorial diameter, polar diameter and fresh weight of the bulb. The yield was also evaluated in t.ha -1 per treatment. High yields are achieved with the application of organic fertilizer, among 27 and 30 t.ha -1, this is an alternative for the sustainable production of this product which is highly demanded by the population.

  1. Quantitative Genetics and Functional-Structural Plant Growth Models: Simulation of Quantitative Trait Loci Detection for Model Parameters and Application to Potential Yield Optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Letort, Veronique; Cournède, Paul-Henry; De Reffye, Philippe; Courtois, Brigitte; 10.1093/aob/mcm197

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims: Prediction of phenotypic traits from new genotypes under untested environmental conditions is crucial to build simulations of breeding strategies to improve target traits. Although the plant response to environmental stresses is characterized by both architectural and functional plasticity, recent attempts to integrate biological knowledge into genetics models have mainly concerned specific physiological processes or crop models without architecture, and thus may prove limited when studying genotype x environment interactions. Consequently, this paper presents a simulation study introducing genetics into a functional-structural growth model, which gives access to more fundamental traits for quantitative trait loci (QTL) detection and thus to promising tools for yield optimization. Methods: The GreenLab model was selected as a reasonable choice to link growth model parameters to QTL. Virtual genes and virtual chromosomes were defined to build a simple genetic model that drove the settings ...

  2. Breeding for Grass Seed Yield

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boelt, Birte; Studer, Bruno

    2010-01-01

    Seed yield is a trait of major interest for many fodder and amenity grass species and has received increasing attention since seed multiplication is economically relevant for novel grass cultivars to compete in the commercial market. Although seed yield is a complex trait and affected by...... agricultural practices as well as environmental factors, traits related to seed production reveal considerable genetic variation, prerequisite for improvement by direct or indirect selection. This chapter first reports on the biological and physiological basics of the grass reproduction system, then highlights...... important aspects and components affecting the seed yield potential and the agronomic and environmental aspects affecting the utilization and realization of the seed yield potential. Finally, it discusses the potential of plant breeding to sustainably improve total seed yield in fodder and amenity grasses....

  3. Preliminary phytochemical analysis and cytotoxic potential of Cucumis trigonus Roxb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balakrishnan Arunachalam

    2012-02-01

    Conclusion: These results conclude that the ethanolic fruit extract of Cucumis trigonus possess a good phytochemical strength and also an effective cytotoxic potential. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2012; 1(1.000: 13-18

  4. Potentialities of Economic Analysis of International Trade Law

    OpenAIRE

    Orgoník, Martin

    2009-01-01

    This contribution discusses pros and cons of economic analysis of law, so called Law and Economics, in International Trade Law. The paper focuses on capacity and feasibility of conducting such analysis, briefly touches some key topics from perspective of Law and Economics (such as background economic theory, different conceptions of efficiency etc.) and tries to answer the question: Why should lawyers know something about economic analysis of law?

  5. Analysis of shock relations for steady potential flow models

    OpenAIRE

    Sanderse, Benjamin; Koren, Barry

    2013-01-01

    Potential flow models remain to be practically relevant, for both physical and numerical reasons. Detailed knowledge of their difference with rotational and viscous flow models is still important. In the present paper, this knowledge is reviewed and extended. Normal and oblique shock relations for the steady full potential equation and steady transonic small disturbance equation are derived. Among others, the deficiencies in conservation of mass and momentum across shock waves are analyzed in...

  6. Analysis of the demographic potential in function of tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Mijalce Gjorgievski

    2011-01-01

    Man is the prime mover of the overall social economic and political life of the entire globe and therefore he is studied from various aspects depending on the needs of what we want to obtain information on the demographic potential and its features. In this paper, the subject of study will be processing potential through its demographic characteristics (number condition, age structure, natural increase, economic activity, religious composition, etc.) for the tourism economy. We know that the ...

  7. Orbital spectral variables, growth analysis and sugarcane yield Variáveis espectrais orbitais, indicadoras de desenvolvimento e produtividade da cana-de-açúcar

    OpenAIRE

    Maurício dos Santos Simões; Jansle Vieira Rocha; Rubens Augusto de Camargo Lamparelli

    2009-01-01

    Temporal analysis of crop development in commercial fields requires tools for large area monitoring, such as remote sensing. This paper describes the temporal evolution of sugar cane biophysical parameters such as total biomass (BMT), yield (TSS), leaf area index (LAI), and number of plants per linear meter (NPM) correlated to Landsat data. During the 2000 and 2001 cropping seasons, a commercial sugarcane field in Araras, São Paulo state, Brazil, planted with the SP80-1842 sugarcane variety i...

  8. Further analysis of pp {yields}3{pi}{sup 0}, {eta}{eta}{pi}{sup 0} and {eta}{pi}{sup 0} {pi}{sup 0} at rest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abele, A.; Adomeit, J.; Armstrong, D.S.; Baker, C.A.; Batty, C.J.; Benayoun, M.; Berdoz, A.; Beuchert, K.; Bischoff, S.; Bluem, P.; Braune, K.; Bugg, D.V.; Case, T.; Cooper, A.R.; Cramer, O.; Crowe, K.M.; Dietz, H.P.; Djaoshvili, N.; Duennweber, W.; Engelhardt, D.; Englert, M.; Faessler, M.A.; Haddock, R.P.; Heinsius, F.H.; Herz, M.; Hessey, N.P.; Hidas, P.; Holtzhaussen, C.; Illinger, P.; Jamnik, D.; Kaemmle, B.; Kammel, P.; Kiel, T.; Koch, H.; Kolo, C.; Lakata, M.; Matthaey, H.; McCrady, R.; Meier, J.; Meyer, C.A.; Montanet, L.; Pinder, C.N.; Pinter, G.; Regenfus, C.; Reissmann, J.; Roethel, W.; Schmidt, P.; Scott, I.; Seibert, R.; Strassburger, C.; Strohbusch, U.; Suffert, M.; Thoma, U.; Tischhaeuser, M.; Voelcker, C.; Walther, D.; Zou, B. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)]|[Universitaet Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany)]|[Universitaet Bonn, D-53115 Bonn (Germany)]|[Academy of Science, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary)]|[Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot OX11 0QX (United Kingdom)]|[CERN, CH-1211 Geneve (Switzerland)]|[Universitaet Hamburg, D-22761 Hamburg (Germany)]|[Universitaet Karlsruhe, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany)]|[Queen Mary and Westfield College, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom)]|[University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90024 (United States)]|[Universitaet Muenchen, D-80799 Muenchen (Germany)]|[LPNHE Paris VI, VII, F-75252 Paris (France)]|[Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States)]|[Centre de Recherches Nucleaires, F-67037 Strasbourg (France)

    1996-11-25

    A fresh analysis is reported of high statistics Crystal Barrel data on pp {yields}3{pi}{sup 0}, {eta}{eta}{pi}{sup 0}, {eta}{pi}{sup 0} {pi}{sup 0} and {eta}{eta}`{pi}{sup 0} at rest. This analysis is made fully consistent with CERN-Munich data on {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} {yields}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} up to a mass of 1900 MeV, with GAMS data on {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} {yields}{pi}{sup 0} {pi}{sup 0}, and with BNL and ANL data on {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{yields}KK, which are fitted simultaneously. There is evidence for an I = 0, J{sup PC} = 2{sup ++} resonance with weak ({<=}7%) coupling to {pi}{pi}, strong coupling to both {rho}{rho} and {omega}{omega} and pole position 1534 - i90 MeV. This resonance agrees qualitatively with GAMS and VES data on {pi}{pi}{yields}{omega}{omega}, previously interpreted in terms of a resonance at 1590-1640 MeV. New masses and widths for (A) f{sub 0}(1370) and (B) f{sub 0}(1500), fitted to all eight data sets, are M{sub A} = 1300 {+-}15 MeV, {Gamma}{sub A}= 230 {+-}15 MeV, M{sub B} = 1500 {+-}8 MeV, {Gamma}{sub B} = 132 {+-}15 MeV. Branching ratios to {pi}{pi} and {eta}{eta} are given, and differ significantly from earlier determinations because of a new procedure. (orig.).

  9. Rx for low cash yields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobe, Chris

    2003-10-01

    Certain strategies can offer not-for-profit hospitals potentially greater investment yields while maintaining stability and principal safety. Treasury inflation-indexed securities can offer good returns, low volatility, and inflation protection. "Enhanced cash" strategies offer liquidity and help to preserve capital. Stable value "wrappers" allow hospitals to pursue higher-yielding fixed-income securities without an increase in volatility. PMID:14560584

  10. Association Analysis of SSR Markers with Phenology, Grain, and Stover-Yield Related Traits in Pearl Millet (Pennisetum glaucum (L. R. Br.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baskaran Kannan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pearl millet is a staple food crop for millions of people living in the arid and semi-arid tropics. Molecular markers have been used to identify genomic regions linked to traits of interest by conventional QTL mapping and association analysis. Phenotypic recurrent selection is known to increase frequencies of favorable alleles and decrease those unfavorable for the traits under selection. This study was undertaken (i to quantify the response to recurrent selection for phenotypic traits during breeding of the pearl millet open-pollinated cultivar “CO (Cu 9” and its four immediate progenitor populations and (ii to assess the ability of simple sequence repeat (SSR marker alleles to identify genomic regions linked to grain and stover yield-related traits in these populations by association analysis. A total of 159 SSR alleles were detected across 34 selected single-copy SSR loci. SSR marker data revealed presence of subpopulations. Association analysis identified genomic regions associated with flowering time located on linkage group (LG 6 and plant height on LG4, LG6, and LG7. Marker alleles on LG6 were associated with stover yield, and those on LG7 were associated with grain yield. Findings of this study would give an opportunity to develop marker-assisted recurrent selection (MARS or marker-assisted population improvement (MAPI strategies to increase the rate of gain for pearl millet populations undergoing recurrent selection.

  11. Analysis of Yield Components of F1 Hybrids of Crosses between Spring and Winter Wheat Types (Triticum aestivum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Marijana Barić; Hrvoje Šarčević; Snježana Kereša

    2004-01-01

    F1 hybrids were produced using the German spring wheat variety Remus as a female parent and eight Croatian wheat varieties (six winter and two spring types) as male parents. The heterosis (MP-mid parent, BP-better parent) for five yield components was investigated in eight cross combinations. Data are based on field trial. All the combinations tested gave average heterosis (MP, BP) for 1000-grain weight (14.38%, 6.12%) and grain weight per spike (11.47%, 3.68%). The highest heterosis (MP, BP)...

  12. 辽宁省玉米高产潜力探索及创建"超高产田"关键技术研究%Exploration of Maize High-yielding Potential and Technology for Creation of"Super High-yielding Plots"in Liaoning Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王延波; 赵海岩

    2015-01-01

    Maize yield potential exploration and small area of super-high-yielding creation work were carried out by Liaoning Grain Productive Technology Engineering Team in the project area of western Liaoning province from 2006 to 2014. The results of geographical distribution, planting varieties, plant population, yield and yield com?ponents and key field management in 32 trial plots, which yield was equal to or above 15000 kg/ha were showed that, high yielding plots usually distributed at 40.82°-42.07° N and below 1 000 m elevation. Average yield of high-yielding plot was 16 630.5 kg/ha, which plant density of 75%plot was 6.75 × 104 plant/ha. Harvest ear number was positively related to yield. Seed yield of Liaodan565 was from 15 025.5 to 18 822.2 kg/ha, the harvest ear number was from 69 800 to 93 200 ear/ha, the kernel number per ear was from 453 to 510, the 1 000-kernel weight was from 422.5 to 463.9 g, kernel weight per ear was from 190.3 to 233.6 g. High yielding technology was mainly about that, choosing high density tolerant and high-yielding variety, increasing plant population, higher water and fertiliz?er supply, scientific management and plastic film mulching.%2006~2014年,辽宁省粮食丰产科技工程项目组在辽西项目区开展玉米高产潜力探索及小面积超高产田创建工作.对经过严格测产且产量达到和超过15 000 kg/hm2的32个地块的地理分布、种植品种、种植密度、产量和产量构成因素及创建关键技术进行分析.结果表明,从纬度看,高产田均出现在40.82°~42.07° N范围内;从海拔看,高产田出现在1 000 m以下.玉米高产田的平均产量为16 630.5 kg/hm2,75%以上高产田块的种植密度超过6.75×104株/hm2,收获穗数与产量呈正相关关系.辽单565产量为15 025.5~18 822.2 kg/hm2,收获穗数69 800~93 200穗/hm2,穗粒数453~510粒,千粒重422.5~463.9 g,穗粒重190.3~233.6 g.高产关键技术是采用耐密型高产稳产品种,合理提高密度,充足

  13. Comparative Proteomic Analysis of saccharopolyspora spinosa SP06081 and PR2 strains reveals the differentially expressed proteins correlated with the increase of spinosad yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Saccharopolyspora spinosa produces the environment-friendly biopesticide spinosad, a mixture of two polyketide-derived macrolide active ingredients called spinosyns A and D. Therefore considerable interest is in the improvement of spinosad production because of its low yield in wild-type S. spinosa. Recently, a spinosad-hyperproducing PR2 strain with stable heredity was obtained from protoplast regeneration of the wild-type S. spinosa SP06081 strain. A comparative proteomic analysis was performed on the two strains during the first rapid growth phase (RG1) in seed medium (SM) by using label-free quantitative proteomics to investigate the underlying mechanism leading to the enhancement of spinosad yield. Results In total, 224 proteins from the SP06081 strain and 204 proteins from the PR2 strain were unambiguously identified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis, sharing 140 proteins. A total of 12 proteins directly related to spinosad biosynthesis were identified from the two strains in RG1. Comparative analysis of the shared proteins revealed that approximately 31% of them changed their abundance significantly and fell in all of the functional groups, such as tricarboxylic acid cycles, glycolysis, biosynthetic processes, catabolic processes, transcription, translation, oxidation and reduction. Several key enzymes involved in the synthesis of primary metabolic intermediates used as precursors for spinosad production, energy supply, polyketide chain assembly, deoxysugar methylation, and antioxidative stress were differentially expressed in the same pattern of facilitating spinosad production by the PR2 strain. Real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that four of five selected genes showed a positive correlation between changes at the translational and transcriptional expression level, which further confirmed the proteomic analysis. Conclusions The present study is the first comprehensive and

  14. Statistical Analysis of Plant Bioelectric Potential for Communication with Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimbo, Tatsuya; Oyabu, Takashi; Hirobayashi, Shigeki; Takenaka, Kozaburo

    The bioelectric potential of a foliage plant changes according to an occupant’s behavior, for example entering the room in which the plant is installed, as well as watering and touching the plant. The potential shows the impulse responses due to the behaviors. In this study, the integrated values of the bioelectric potential were adopted to identify those behaviors. There are two types of values. Those were derived by integrating the bioelectric potential characteristics for a minute (vm1) and for an hour (vh1) respectively. The histogram of the values vm1 for the steady state perfectly took a normal distribution. The frequencies of vm1 for the behaviors were different compared with the steady state distribution. The system can identify the behaviors by examining the frequency table of vm1. Conversely, it is thought the plant gives us some suggestions using bioelectric potential characteristics. A clue for communication between humans and plants was also obtained. The vh1 becomes higher as the average room temperature (tr) becomes lower. There was a negative correlation between vm1 and tr. There were two groups in the scatter diagram of the variables vm1 and tr.

  15. A Potential Correlation Between the Temperature of the Pacific Ocean and Data from Google Trends May Yield a Warning Sign for the Outbreak of Zika

    OpenAIRE

    Isea, Raul

    2016-01-01

    There has been a large number of reported cases of the occurrence of Zika in different countries in 2016 and it is necessary to develop an early warning system to initiate preventive campaigns against the disease. A potential early warning system based on the rise in ocean temperature of the Pacific Ni\\~no Index is proposed. The efficacy is verified using data for the outbreak in Colombia as obtained from Google Trends.

  16. Analytical analysis of surface potential for grooved-gate MOSFET

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Xiao-Ju; Gong Xin; Wang Jun-Ping; Hao Yue

    2006-01-01

    The improvement of the characteristics of grooved-gate MOSFETs compared to the planar devices is attributed to the corner effect of the surface potential along the channel. In this paper we propose an analytical model of the surface potential distribution based on the solution of two-dimensional Poisson equation in cylindrical coordinates utilizing the cylinder approximation and the structure parameters such as the concave corner θ0. The relationship between the minimum surface potential and the structure parameters is theoretically analysed. Results confirm that the bigger the concave corner, the more obvious the corner effect. The corner effect increases the threshold voltage of the grooved-gate MOSFETs, so the better is the short channel effect (SCE) immunity.

  17. Statistical analysis of the relationship between climate-induced maize yield and rainy-season precipitation across Inner Mongolia, North China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jin; Chen, Xin; Zhou, Limin; Xue, Yan; Lin, Jie

    2016-06-01

    Exploring possible relationships between climate-induced maize yield and rainy-season precipitation under climate change is fundamental to science-based decision for food security in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region (IMAR). To determine the relationship of maize yield with precipitation variables across IMAR during 1960-2012, we selected 11 precipitation indices of rainy season and divided IMAR into four sub-regions—west, middle, east, and northeast using principal component analysis and K-means clustering methods. Results show that climate-induced maize yield is more sensitive to precipitation variability in the west and middle IMAR. The most important precipitation factor that limits maize yield is moderate precipitation days in these two sub-regions. Moreover, west and middle Inner Mongolia was dominated by decreasing precipitation during the rainy season. Furthermore, the El Niño/La Niña-Southern Oscillation cycle has the significant influence on the rainy-season precipitation in the west and middle IMAR.

  18. Gene expression analysis and SNP/InDel discovery to investigate yield heterosis of two rubber tree F1 hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dejun; Zeng, Rizhong; Li, Yan; Zhao, Manman; Chao, Jinquan; Li, Yu; Wang, Kai; Zhu, Lihuang; Tian, Wei-Min; Liang, Chengzhi

    2016-01-01

    As an important industrial material, natural rubber is mainly harvested from the rubber tree. Rubber tree breeding is inefficient, expensive and time-consuming, whereas marker-assisted selection is a feasible method for early selection of high-yield hybrids. We thus sequenced and analyzed the transcriptomes of two parent rubber trees (RRIM 600 and PR 107) and their most productive hybrids (RY 7-33-97 and RY 7-20-59) to understand their gene expression patterns and genetic variations including single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and small insertions/deletions (InDels). We discovered >31,000 genetic variations in 112,702 assembled unigenes. Our results showed that the higher yield in F1 hybrids was positively associated with their higher genome heterozygosity, which was further confirmed by genotyping 10 SNPs in 20 other varieties. We also showed that RY 7-33-97 and RY 7-20-59 were genetically closer to RRIM 600 and PR 107, respectively, in agreement with both their phenotypic similarities and gene expression profiles. After identifying ethylene- and jasmonic acid-responsive genes at the transcription level, we compared and analyzed the genetic variations underlying rubber biosynthesis and the jasmonic acid and ethylene pathways in detail. Our results suggest that genome-wide genetic variations play a substantive role in maintaining rubber tree heterosis. PMID:27108962

  19. Genetic analysis to identify good combiners for ToLCV resistance and yield components in tomato using interspecific hybridization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ramesh K. Singh; N. Rai; Major Singh; S. N. Singh; K. Srivastava

    2014-12-01

    The interspecific hybridization for tomato leaf curl virus (ToLCV) resistance was carried out among 10 genetically diverse tomato genotypes (diversified by 50 SSR markers). Among the 10 parents, four susceptible cultivars of Solanum lycopersicum were crossed with six resistant wilds, such as S. pimpinellifolium, S. habrochaites, S. chemielewskii, S. ceraseforme, S. peruvianum and S. chilense in a line × tester mating design. All the 24 hybrids and their parents were grown in the field and glasshouse conditions to determine the general-combining abilities (GCA) and specific-combining abilities (SCA). The variances due to SCA and GCA showed both additive and nonadditive gene effects. Based on GCA estimates, EC-520061 and WIR-5032 were good general combiners while based on SCA estimates, PBC × EC-520061 and PBC × EC-521080 were best specific combiners for coefficient of infection and fruit yield per plant in both the environments. These lines could be selected and utilized in ToLCV resistance and high yield breeding programme for improving the traits.

  20. Gene expression analysis and SNP/InDel discovery to investigate yield heterosis of two rubber tree F1 hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dejun; Zeng, Rizhong; Li, Yan; Zhao, Manman; Chao, Jinquan; Li, Yu; Wang, Kai; Zhu, Lihuang; Tian, Wei-Min; Liang, Chengzhi

    2016-01-01

    As an important industrial material, natural rubber is mainly harvested from the rubber tree. Rubber tree breeding is inefficient, expensive and time-consuming, whereas marker-assisted selection is a feasible method for early selection of high-yield hybrids. We thus sequenced and analyzed the transcriptomes of two parent rubber trees (RRIM 600 and PR 107) and their most productive hybrids (RY 7-33-97 and RY 7-20-59) to understand their gene expression patterns and genetic variations including single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and small insertions/deletions (InDels). We discovered >31,000 genetic variations in 112,702 assembled unigenes. Our results showed that the higher yield in F1 hybrids was positively associated with their higher genome heterozygosity, which was further confirmed by genotyping 10 SNPs in 20 other varieties. We also showed that RY 7-33-97 and RY 7-20-59 were genetically closer to RRIM 600 and PR 107, respectively, in agreement with both their phenotypic similarities and gene expression profiles. After identifying ethylene- and jasmonic acid–responsive genes at the transcription level, we compared and analyzed the genetic variations underlying rubber biosynthesis and the jasmonic acid and ethylene pathways in detail. Our results suggest that genome-wide genetic variations play a substantive role in maintaining rubber tree heterosis. PMID:27108962

  1. Time series analysis in astronomy: Limits and potentialities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vio, R.; Kristensen, N.R.; Madsen, Henrik; Wamsteker, W.

    2005-01-01

    priori physical model there are not many possibilities to obtain interpretable results. For this reason, the practice to develop more and more sophisticated statistical methods of time series analysis is not productive. Only techniques of data analysis developed in a specific physical context can be......In this paper we consider the problem of the limits concerning the physical information that can be extracted from the analysis of one or more time series ( light curves) typical of astrophysical objects. On the basis of theoretical considerations and numerical simulations, we show that with no a...... expected to provide useful results. The field of stochastic dynamics appears to be an interesting framework for such an approach. In particular, it is shown that modelling the experimental time series by means of the stochastic differential equations (SDE) represents a valuable tool of analysis. For...

  2. Comparative Fingerprint and Extraction Yield of Medicinal Herb Phenolics with Hepatoprotective Potential, as Determined by UV-Vis and FT-MIR Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona ZAVOI

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed to compare the polyphenolic composition of six medicinal herbs, from wild flora of Romania. The plants investigated, Cynara scolimus (artichoke, Taraxacum officinalis (dandelion, Chelidonium majus (celandine, Hypericum perforatum (St. John’s wort, Silybum marianum (Mary thistle and Lycopodium clavatum (Wolf’s claw are known, to have hepatoprotective action. Using in parallel glycerol-water, ethanol-water and methanol, the solvent-dependence of the extract fingerprint and composition in bioactive molecules was studied by UV-Vis and Infrared (FT-MIR spectrometry. The extraction yields, calculated as an extraction factor (EF were superior in acidic methanol comparative to glycerin and ethanol, favorising the increase in phenolic acids against flavonoid derivatives . Based on the differences of polarity between the three solvents used, higher EF values were obtained for dandelion, artichoke, celandine and St. John wort, more rich in phenolic acids than flavonoids. Mary thistle and Wolf’s claw had lower concentrations of phenolics, but higher content of lignans and terpenoids. Based on the FT-MIR peaks from 8 regions, for each plant extract, has been determined the fingerprint region between 900 and 1500 cm-1and identified the specific functional groups. A good, significant correlation was found between the concentration of total phenolics calculated by UV-Vis spectrometry and FTIR methods, after calibration with gallic acid. The value of the MIR signal at 1743 cm-1 may be considered a good indicator of phenolics concentration in such extracts. Combined UV-Vis and FTIR spectroscopy are recommended as rapid and reliable tools to investigate the fingerprint and to predict the composition of medicinal plants or to evaluate the quality and authenticity of different standardized formulas.

  3. Diallel Analysis of Yield and It’s related Traits in Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. under Well-watered and Water-stressed Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Kholghi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available 800x600 Drought stress is one of the factors which influence sunflower production. Hence, breeding for tolerance to drought stress has become a major focus. In this paper, combining ability, gene action and genetic analysis of several characteristics were studied for five sunflower inbred lines and their ten hybrids (fifteen genotypes. The materials were evaluated in two separate experiments using a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD with three replications in well-watered and waterstressed states and in field condition. Data were analyzed by Griffing’s diallel analysis model 1 (fixed effects and method 2 (parents and crosses. Combined analysis of experiments revealed significant differences among genotypes for all studied traits. Combining ability analysis revealed that in well-watered conditions, general and specific combining abilities (GCA and SCA effects were significant for all studied traits except for the leaf number. In water-stressed condition, GCA and SCA effects were significant for all studied traits except for the head and stem diameter. The Griffing diallel analysis showed that the genotype LR4 could be considered as the best combiner with the highest GCA effect for seed yield per plant, number of filled seed, stem diameter and head diameter in the sunflower breeding programs. In both water treatment conditions the cross ‘RHA266xLR4’ showed the highest positive SCA effects and the highest mean value for seed yield per plant. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE FA

  4. Diallel Analysis of Yield and It’s related Traits in Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. under Well-watered and Water-stressed Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Kholghi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Drought stress is one of the factors which influence sunflower production. Hence, breeding for tolerance to drought stress has become a major focus. In this paper, combining ability, gene action and genetic analysis of several characteristics were studied for five sunflower inbred lines and their ten hybrids (fifteen genotypes. The materials were evaluated in two separate experiments using a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD with three replications in well-watered and waterstressed states and in field condition. Data were analyzed by Griffing’s diallel analysis model 1 (fixed effects and method 2 (parents and crosses. Combined analysis of experiments revealed significant differences among genotypes for all studied traits. Combining ability analysis revealed that in well-watered conditions, general and specific combining abilities (GCA and SCA effects were significant for all studied traits except for the leaf number. In water-stressed condition, GCA and SCA effects were significant for all studied traits except for the head and stem diameter. The Griffing diallel analysis showed that the genotype LR4 could be considered as the best combiner with the highest GCA effect for seed yield per plant, number of filled seed, stem diameter and head diameter in the sunflower breeding programs. In both water treatment conditions the cross ‘RHA266xLR4’ showed the highest positive SCA effects and the highest mean value for seed yield per plant.

  5. Resistência à ferrugem da folha e potencial produtivo em genótipos de trigo Leaf rust resistance and grain yield potential in wheat genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Carlos Felicio

    2008-12-01

    o Paulo, Brazil, during 2003-2005 crop seasons. The evaluation of the genotypes to the causal agent of leaf rust was made at the seedling stage in greenhouse, where the genotypes were individually inoculated with spores of 12 races of Puccinia triticina, which represented the spectrum of pathogen virulence occurring in Brazil and under natural infection out in the field. Grain yield of each genotype was evaluated in the different regions and in a group of experiments, as well as the stability and adaptability. The genotypes 8 (BH1146// AA"S"/WIN"S"/3/BUC/FKL//MYNA/VUL, 12 and 14 (BH1146//AA"S"/WIN"S"/3/VEE //DOVE/BUC showed resistance the physiologic races of Puccinia triticina in greenhouse in the seedling stage. The genotypes 4, 5, 8, 12, 13, 16 e 20 and the cultivar IAC 1004 (T. durum presented leaf rust resistance, under natural disease infection conditions. The highest grain yields were obtained by the genotypes 8 (BH1146// AA"S"/WIN"S"/3/BUC/FKL//MYNA/VUL, 7 (BH1146//AA"S"/WIN"S"/3/HANN*2/ PRL and 18 (CMH75.A.66/SERI/ 3/BH1146// AA"S"/WIN"S". Genotype 16 (KAUZ/3/ BH1146//AA"S"/WIN"S" presented the lowest yield.

  6. Analysis of cross sections using various nuclear potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relevant astrophysical reaction rates which are derived from the reaction cross sections are necessary input to the reaction network. In this work, we analyse several theoretical models of the nuclear potential which give better prediction of the cross sections for some selected reactions

  7. Stability analysis of the inverse transmembrane potential problem in electrocardiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Martin; Mardal, Kent-André; Nielsen, Bjørn Fredrik

    2010-10-01

    In this paper we study some mathematical properties of an inverse problem arising in connection with electrocardiograms (ECGs). More specifically, we analyze the possibility for recovering the transmembrane potential in the heart from ECG recordings, a challenge currently investigated by a growing number of groups. Our approach is based on the bidomain model for the electrical activity in the myocardium, and leads to a parameter identification problem for elliptic partial differential equations (PDEs). It turns out that this challenge can be split into two subproblems: the task of recovering the potential at the heart surface from body surface recordings; the problem of computing the transmembrane potential inside the heart from the potential determined at the heart surface. Problem (1), which can be formulated as the Cauchy problem for an elliptic PDE, has been extensively studied and is well known to be severely ill-posed. The main purpose of this paper is to prove that problem (2) is stable and well posed if a suitable prior is available. Moreover, our theoretical findings are illuminated by a series of numerical experiments. Finally, we discuss some aspects of uniqueness related to the anisotropy in the heart.

  8. First Generation College Student Leadership Potential: A Mixed Methods Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hojan-Clark, Jane M.

    2010-01-01

    This mixed methods research compared the leadership potential of traditionally aged first generation college students to that of college students whose parents are college educated. A college education provides advantages to those who can obtain it (Baum & Payea, 2004; Black Issues in Higher Education, 2005; Education and the Value of Knowledge,…

  9. Event Related Potential Analysis of Stimulus Over-Selectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Phil; Savile, Amy; Truzoli, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    Stimulus over-selectivity is a phenomenon often displayed by individuals with many forms of developmental and intellectual disabilities, and also by individuals lacking such disabilities who are under cognitive strain. It occurs when only one of potentially many aspects of the environment controls behavior. Adult participants were trained and…

  10. Geospatial Analysis of Renewable Energy Technical Potential on Tribal Lands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doris, E.; Lopez, A.; Beckley, D.

    2013-02-01

    This technical report uses an established geospatial methodology to estimate the technical potential for renewable energy on tribal lands for the purpose of allowing Tribes to prioritize the development of renewable energy resources either for community scale on-tribal land use or for revenue generating electricity sales.

  11. Analysis of shock relations for steady potential flow models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanderse, B.; Koren, B.

    2013-01-01

    Potential flow models remain to be practically relevant, for both physical and numerical reasons. Detailed knowledge of their difference with rotational and viscous flow models is still important. In the present paper, this knowledge is reviewed and extended. Normal and oblique shock relations for t

  12. Single-sweep spectral analysis of contact heat evoked potentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tine M; Graversen, Carina; Frøkjaer, Jens B;

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: The cortical response to nociceptive thermal stimuli recorded as contact heat evoked potentials (CHEPs) may be altered by morphine. However, previous studies have averaged CHEPs over multiple stimuli, which are confounded by jitter between sweeps. Thus, the aim was to assess single-sweep ch...

  13. Product Analysis in Target Market : Potential of Chinese Electric Motorcycle in Southern Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Ye, Jing

    2012-01-01

    Ye, Jing 2012. Product Analysis in Target Market. Potential of Chinese Electric Motorcycle in Southern Finland. Bachelor’s Thesis. Kemi-Tornio University of Applied Sciences. Business and Culture. Pages 61. The thesis investigates potential of Chinese electric motorcycles in Southern Finland market through a product analysis. The objective of the thesis is to understand market situation and search market potential of Chinese electric motorcycles through a product analysis. The target marke...

  14. Quantitative analysis of some mechanisms affecting the yield of oxidative phosphorylation: dependence upon both fluxes and forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigoulet, M; Leverve, X; Fontaine, E; Ouhabi, R; Guérin, B

    1998-07-01

    The purpose of this work was to show how the quantitative definition of the different parameters involved in mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation makes it possible to characterize the mechanisms by which the yield of ATP synthesis is affected. Three different factors have to be considered: (i) the size of the different forces involved (free energy of redox reactions and ATP synthesis, proton electrochemical difference); (ii) the physical properties of the inner mitochondrial membrane in terms of leaks (H+ and cations); and finally (iii) the properties of the different proton pumps involved in this system (kinetic properties, regulation, modification of intrinsic stoichiometry). The data presented different situations where one or more of these parameters are affected, leading to a different yield of oxidative phosphorylation. (1) By manipulating the actual flux through each of the respiratory chain units at constant protonmotive force in yeast mitochondria, we show that the ATP/O ratio decreases when the flux increases. Moreover, the highest efficiency was obtained when the respiratory rate was low and almost entirely controlled by the electron supply. (2) By using almitrine in different kinds of mitochondria, we show that this drug leads to a decrease in ATP synthesis efficiency by increasing the H+/ATP stoichiometry ofATP synthase (Rigoulet M et al. Biochim Biophys Acta 1018: 91-97, 1990). Since this enzyme is reversible, it was possible to test the effect of this drug on the reverse reaction of the enzyme i.e. extrusion of protons catalyzed by ATP hydrolysis. Hence, we are able to prove that, in this case, the decrease in efficiency of oxidative phosphorylation is due to a change in the mechanistic stoichiometry of this proton pump. To our knowledge, this is the first example of a modification in oxidative phosphorylation yield by a change in mechanistic stoichiometry of one of the proton pumps involved. (3) In a model of polyunsaturated fatty acid deficiency

  15. Genotype-environmental interaction and stability analysis of some yield components in field peas (Pisum Sativum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genotype-environment interaction and assessment of the adaptation of the genotypes to a range of environments is presented. Some of the yield components (number of pods/plant, number of seeds/plant and seed weight/plant) were analysed by means of statistical techniques in three cultivars Auralia, Borek and Virtus and six mutant lines of field peas (Pisum sativurn L.). Differences in response to the environment were found among genotypes for the characters studied; a large proportion of these interactions was accounted for by linear regression. Using two stability parameters, regression coefficient (bi) and stability variance (erf), only one genotype cv Auralia could be considered widely adapted to seed weight/plant. Other stable genotypes were identified as suitable for poor/or favourable environmental conditions. The importance of genotype-environment interactions in breeding strategies is discussed

  16. Dynamical analysis of Schrodinger operators with growing sparse potentials

    CERN Document Server

    Tcheremchantsev, S

    2003-01-01

    We consider Scr\\"odinger operators in l^2(Z^+) with potentials of the form V(n)=S(n)+Q(n). Here S is a sparse potential: S(n)=n^{1-\\eta \\over 2 \\eta}, 0<\\eta <1, for n=L_N and S(n)=0 else, where L_N is a very fast growing sequence. The real function Q(n) is compactly supported. We give a rather complete description of the (time-averaged) dynamics exp(-itH) \\psi for different initial states \\psi. In particular, for some \\psi we calculate explicitely the "intermittency function" \\beta_\\psi^- (p) which turns out to be nonconstant. As a particular corollary of obtained results, we show that the spectral measure restricted to (-2,2) has exact Hausdorff dimension \\eta for all boundary conditions, improving the result of Jitomirskaya and Last.

  17. AN ANALYSIS OF THE ENTREPRENEURIAL POTENTIAL IN OLTENIA TOURIST REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionuţ Cosmin BĂLOI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Tourism can bring an attractive horizon for Romania: the projects can generate jobs, cooperation between the touristic destinations, the increase of living standards and local people revenues. This paper treats an issue of tourist business administration and seeks to assess the actual potential of tourist resources and determining the differences between the Oltenia's actual touristic exploitation and their growth potential. We develop a model of evaluate the tourist resources, the industry efficiency and also their attractiveness for entrepreneurial initiatives. Their quantification can be statistically correlated leading to a rethinking of models that shape the parameters of regional competitiveness. The synthetic and the graphic tools highlights the most important features of the competitiveness of tourism for the region of Oltenia.

  18. Potential analysis of stable processes and its extensions

    CERN Document Server

    Stos, Andrzej

    2009-01-01

    Stable Lévy processes and related stochastic processes play an important role in stochastic modelling in applied sciences, in particular in financial mathematics. This book is about the potential theory of stable stochastic processes. It also deals with related topics, such as the subordinate Brownian motions (including the relativistic process) and Feynman–Kac semigroups generated by certain Schroedinger operators. The authors focus on classes of stable and related processes that contain the Brownian motion as a special case. This is the first book devoted to the probabilistic potential theory of stable stochastic processes, and, from the analytical point of view, of the fractional Laplacian. The introduction is accessible to non-specialists and provides a general presentation of the fundamental objects of the theory. Besides recent and deep scientific results the book also provides a didactic approach to its topic, as all chapters have been tested on a wide audience, including young mathematicians at a C...

  19. ANALYSIS OF THE DEMOGRAPHIC POTENTIAL IN FUNCTION OF TOURISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijalce Gjorgievski

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Man is the prime mover of the overall social economic and political life of the entire globe and therefore he is studied from various aspects depending on the needs of what we want to obtain information on the demographic potential and its features.In this paper, the subject of study will be processing potential through its demographic characteristics (number condition, age structure, natural increase, economic activity, religious composition, etc. for the tourism economy. We know that the basic elements of tourism are the natural and cultural wealth that detect, evaluate and put into operation in tourism. However, it has its function, the basic factor are the people who need to visit those places, so it is very important to understand the demographic characteristics of people in every region of the globe in order to come to some understanding of the habits, needs and affinities of people depending on age, nationality and religious affiliation, etc. when choosing their travel destination.

  20. A resurgence analysis for cubic and quartic anharmonic potentials

    CERN Document Server

    Gahramanov, Ilmar

    2016-01-01

    In this work we explicitly show resurgence relations between perturbative and one instanton sectors of the resonance energy levels for cubic and quartic anharmonic potentials in one-dimensional quantum mechanics. Both systems satisfy the Dunne-Unsal relation and hence we are able to derive one-instanton non-perturbative contributions with the fluctuation terms to the energy merely from the perturbative data. We confirm our results with previous results obtained by Zinn-Justin et al.

  1. An analysis of potential improvements within Lithuanian sawlog supply

    OpenAIRE

    Puodžiūnas, Mindaugas

    2013-01-01

    The wood supply from the forest to the industry is often characterized by high variability caused by the divergent structure of forest products, seasonality and uneven geographical distribution of forest resources and forest products industries. Based on previous knowledge on wood supply this thesis aimed to identify existing wood supply patterns and strategies in the Lithuanian state forest sector, to evaluate supply chain performance for sawmills and to examine potential improvements for ro...

  2. Analysis of 1-Minute Potentially Available Fluoride from Dentifrice

    OpenAIRE

    Carey, Clifton M.; Holahan, Erin C; Schmuck, Burton D

    2014-01-01

    Previous reports found that some fluoride-containing dentifrices do not release effective concentrations of fluoride during brushing. Failure to release fluoride can be due to dentifrice matrix components that interfere with the solubilization of the fluoride salts during brushing. A new generation of dentifrices has the capability to precipitate beneficial fluoride salts during tooth brushing. Therefore, a method that assesses the potentially available fluoride during the 1-minute brushing i...

  3. Viscous potential flow analysis of peripheral heavy ion collisions

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Du-Juan; Néda, Zoltán; Csernai, Laszlo

    2013-01-01

    The conditions for the development of a Kelvin-Helmholtz instability (KHI) for the quark-gluon plasma (QGP) flow in a peripheral heavy ion collision is investigated. The projectile and target side particles are separated by an energetically motivated hypothetical surface, characterized with a phenomenological surface tension. In such a view, a classical potential flow approximation is considered and the onset of the KHI is studied. The growth rate of the instability is computed as a function ...

  4. Viscous potential flow analysis of peripheral heavy ion collisions

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, D. J.; Néda, Z.; Csernai, L. P.

    2013-01-01

    The conditions for the development of a Kelvin-Helmholtz Instability (KHI) for the Quark-gluon Plasma (QGP) flow in a peripheral heavy-ion collision is investigated. The projectile and target side particles are separated by an energetically motivated hypothetical surface, characterized with a phenomenological surface tension. In such a view, a classical potential flow approximation is considered and the onset of the KHI is studied. The growth rate of the instability is computed as function of...

  5. Potential flow analysis of glaze ice accretions on an airfoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaguli, R. J.

    1984-01-01

    The results of an analytical/experimental study of the flow fields about an airfoil with leading edge glaze ice accretion shapes are presented. Tests were conducted in the Icing Research Tunnel to measure surface pressure distributions and boundary layer separation reattachment characteristics on a general aviation wing section to which was affixed wooden ice shapes which approximated typical glaze ice accretions. Comparisons were made with predicted pressure distributions using current airfoil analysis codes as well as the Bristow mixed analysis/design airfoil panel code. The Bristow code was also used to predict the separation reattachment dividing streamline by inputting the appropriate experimental surface pressure distribution.

  6. Comparative and quantitative analysis of antioxidant and scavenging potential of Indigofera tinctoria Linn. extracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rashmi Singh; Shatruhan Sharma; Veena Sharma

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare and elucidate the antioxidant efifcacy of ethanolic and hydroethanolic extracts ofIndigofera tinctoriaLinn. (Fabaceae family). METHODS: Variousin-vitro antioxidant assays and free radical-scavenging assays were done. Quantitative measurements of various phytoconstituents, reductive abilities and chelating potential were carried out along with standard compounds. Half inhibitory concentration (IC50) values for ethanol and hydroethanol extracts were analyzed and compared with respective standards. RESULTS: Hydroethanolic extracts showed considerably more potent antioxidant activity in comparison to ethanol extracts. Hydroethanolic extracts had lower IC50 values than ethanol extracts in the case of DPPH, metal chelation and hydroxyl radical-scavenging capacity (829, 659 and 26.7 μg/mL) but had slightly higher values than ethanol in case of SO2- and NO2-scavenging activity (P< 0.001vs standard). Quantitative measurements also showed that the abundance of phenolic and lfavonoid bioactive phytoconstituents were signiifcantly (P< 0.001) greater in hydroethanol extracts (212.920 and 149.770 mg GAE and rutin/g of plant extract respectively) than in ethanol extracts (211.691 and 132.603 mg GAE and rutin/g of plant extract respectively). Karl Pearson’s correlation analysis (r2) between various antioxidant parameters and bioactive components also associated the antioxidant potential ofI. tinctoria with various phytoconstituents, especialy phenolics, lfavonoids, saponins and tannins. CONCLUSION: This study may be helpful to draw the attention of researchers towards the hydroethanol extracts ofI. tinctoria, which has a high yield, and great prospects in herbal industries to produce inexpensive and powerful herbal products.

  7. Time series analysis in astronomy: Limits and potentialities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vio, R.; Kristensen, N.R.; Madsen, Henrik;

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we consider the problem of the limits concerning the physical information that can be extracted from the analysis of one or more time series ( light curves) typical of astrophysical objects. On the basis of theoretical considerations and numerical simulations, we show that with no a...

  8. Energy inputs-yield relationship and sensitivity analysis of pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) production in Markazi Region of Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Keshavarz Afshar, R.; a Alipour; Hashemi, M.; M. Ansari Jovini; D. Pimentel

    2013-01-01

    Pistachio is considered as an important agricultural commodity in Iran and ranks top amongst all exported agricultural products. Conducting an overall energy audit and economic analysis of pistachio production can provide useful information to help implement management strategies for improving energy efficiency. A study was conducted during 2009 and 2010 to evaluate the overall energy inputs and outputs and to perform an economic analysis of pistachio production in the Iranian province of Mar...

  9. Assessment of the Potential Impacts of Wheat Plant Traits across Environments by Combining Crop Modeling and Global Sensitivity Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casadebaig, Pierre; Zheng, Bangyou; Chapman, Scott; Huth, Neil; Faivre, Robert; Chenu, Karine

    2016-01-01

    A crop can be viewed as a complex system with outputs (e.g. yield) that are affected by inputs of genetic, physiology, pedo-climatic and management information. Application of numerical methods for model exploration assist in evaluating the major most influential inputs, providing the simulation model is a credible description of the biological system. A sensitivity analysis was used to assess the simulated impact on yield of a suite of traits involved in major processes of crop growth and development, and to evaluate how the simulated value of such traits varies across environments and in relation to other traits (which can be interpreted as a virtual change in genetic background). The study focused on wheat in Australia, with an emphasis on adaptation to low rainfall conditions. A large set of traits (90) was evaluated in a wide target population of environments (4 sites × 125 years), management practices (3 sowing dates × 3 nitrogen fertilization levels) and CO2 (2 levels). The Morris sensitivity analysis method was used to sample the parameter space and reduce computational requirements, while maintaining a realistic representation of the targeted trait × environment × management landscape (∼ 82 million individual simulations in total). The patterns of parameter × environment × management interactions were investigated for the most influential parameters, considering a potential genetic range of +/- 20% compared to a reference cultivar. Main (i.e. linear) and interaction (i.e. non-linear and interaction) sensitivity indices calculated for most of APSIM-Wheat parameters allowed the identification of 42 parameters substantially impacting yield in most target environments. Among these, a subset of parameters related to phenology, resource acquisition, resource use efficiency and biomass allocation were identified as potential candidates for crop (and model) improvement. PMID:26799483

  10. Assessment of the Potential Impacts of Wheat Plant Traits across Environments by Combining Crop Modeling and Global Sensitivity Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Casadebaig

    Full Text Available A crop can be viewed as a complex system with outputs (e.g. yield that are affected by inputs of genetic, physiology, pedo-climatic and management information. Application of numerical methods for model exploration assist in evaluating the major most influential inputs, providing the simulation model is a credible description of the biological system. A sensitivity analysis was used to assess the simulated impact on yield of a suite of traits involved in major processes of crop growth and development, and to evaluate how the simulated value of such traits varies across environments and in relation to other traits (which can be interpreted as a virtual change in genetic background. The study focused on wheat in Australia, with an emphasis on adaptation to low rainfall conditions. A large set of traits (90 was evaluated in a wide target population of environments (4 sites × 125 years, management practices (3 sowing dates × 3 nitrogen fertilization levels and CO2 (2 levels. The Morris sensitivity analysis method was used to sample the parameter space and reduce computational requirements, while maintaining a realistic representation of the targeted trait × environment × management landscape (∼ 82 million individual simulations in total. The patterns of parameter × environment × management interactions were investigated for the most influential parameters, considering a potential genetic range of +/- 20% compared to a reference cultivar. Main (i.e. linear and interaction (i.e. non-linear and interaction sensitivity indices calculated for most of APSIM-Wheat parameters allowed the identification of 42 parameters substantially impacting yield in most target environments. Among these, a subset of parameters related to phenology, resource acquisition, resource use efficiency and biomass allocation were identified as potential candidates for crop (and model improvement.

  11. Yielding and its adaptability of several promising bulk cocoa clones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dedy Suhendi

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Yielding and its adaptability are considered to be an important criteria for clones recommendation. An experiment to evaluate yield and its adaptability of several promising bulk cocoa clones has been executed during 1996—2003 in three locations having different altitude and type of climate, consisted of Jatirono(450 m asl., B type of climate, Kalisepanjang (275 m asl., C type of climate and Kalitelepak (145 m asl., B type of climate. Randomized completely block design (RCBD was used in each location with 14 promising clones and four replications. Recommended clones of ICS 60 and GC 7 were used as standard. The promising clones were originated from mother trees selection with the main criteria of yield. Observations were conducted on yield and its components as well as bean characteristics. Determination of adaptability of each clone by using yield performance and its stability. Statistical analysis was done by using combined analysis. The results showed that KW 30 and KW 48 perform higher yield (2.3 ton/ha than that of standard clone (1.7 ton/ha as well as consistant yield stability between location and over years. There for, the two clones performed good adaptability. KW 30 and KW 48 also perform good yield components, and high percentage of fat content i.e 55%. So, those clones are potential to be recommended for commercial planting materials. Key words : bulk cocoa, yield, clone, stability, adaptability.

  12. Viscous potential flow analysis of peripheral heavy ion collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, D J; Csernai, L P

    2013-01-01

    The conditions for the development of a Kelvin-Helmholtz Instability (KHI) for the Quark-gluon Plasma (QGP) flow in a peripheral heavy-ion collision is investigated. The projectile and target side particles are separated by an energetically motivated hypothetical surface, characterized with a phenomenological surface tension. In such a view, a classical potential flow approximation is considered and the onset of the KHI is studied. The growth rate of the instability is computed as function of phenomenological parameters characteristic for the QGP fluid: viscosity, surface tension and flow layer thickness.

  13. Unlocking thin bed potential: gas identification through downhole fluid analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loi, D.; Mazzoni, S.; Gigliotti, M.; Baio, C.; Borghi, M.; Baldini, D.; Italiano, F. [Schlumberger (United States)

    2011-07-01

    Thin beds have been recently proposed as an alternative to multilayer sand reservoirs for countering the decline in production from offshore gas fields. However, this approach is still not applied because of difficulties in identifying gas bearing zones. This paper presents a critical review of existing thin bed evaluation techniques and describes a successful case history in the Adriatic sea in which wireline formation testing (RFT) technology, using a dual packer string with downhole fluid analysis capabilities, including fluid density measurement, was used to distinguish gas zones from water zones. This approach gave a 100% success ratio for downhole fluid analysis stations in a tight environment and provided an effective way to acquire reservoir pressure without supercharging effects and allow the operator to confirm gas presence in several thin bed levels. Moreover, this approach also helps to improve optimization of completion techniques (FracPack and High Rate Water Pack) and saves the cost of multiple well testings, thus reducing total costs.

  14. Risk analysis for power systems : overview and potential benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Hilber, Patrik; Wallnerström, Carl Johan; Rosenlind, Johanna; Setréus, Johan; Schönborg, Niclas

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides a mapping and sample of recently developed risk assessment techniques that are available for the distribution system operator. Three estimates on the value of more detailed risk analysis are desccribed. I.e. component reliability importance indices can be used to divversify the maintenance efforts, gaining better expected system performance at no cost. Furthermore, components that are assumed to be relatively harmless (based on average values) are identified as critical fo...

  15. CFD Analysis of Cavitation Erosion Potential in Hydraulic Machinery

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sedlář, M.; Zima, Patrik; Müller, M.

    Brno : University of Technology, 2009 - (Rudolf, P.), s. 205-214 ISBN 978-80-214-3947-4. [IAHR International Meeting of the Workgroup on Cavitation and Dynamic Problems in Hydraulic Machinery and Systems /3./. Brno (CZ), 14.10.2009-16.10.2009] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA101/07/1612 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : cavitation erosion * bubble dynamics * CFD analysis Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics

  16. Heritability, Correlation and Path Analysis among Yield and Yield Attributing Traits for Drought Tolerance in an Interspecific Cross Derived from Oryza sativa x O. glaberrima Introgression Line under Contrasting Moisture Regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surapaneni SAIKUMAR

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Drought is a major constraint for rainfed lowland and upland rice productivity throughout world. A backcross inbred population derived from ‘Swarna’ and ‘WAB450-I-B-P-157-2-1’ (Oryza sativa L. x O. glaberrima was evaluated under both irrigated and lowland drought stresses for yield and yield related traits across three different seasons. Significant differences were found among all the analyzed traits. Coefficients of variation were recorded relatively high for filled grains per panicle, spikelet fertility, test weight, harvest index and grain yield and low for panicle length under both conditions during the study interval. Broad sense heritability varied from 0.28 (panicle number to 0.83 (plant height under stress and 0.31 (test weight to 0.86 (plant height under control. However, heritability estimates for grain yield and harvest index were found to be similar under both conditions. Traits such as filled grains per panicle, spikelet fertility, harvest index and grain yield recorded higher values of both heritability, as well as genetic advance under both conditions, indicating the suitability of these traits as selection criteria to derive high yielding genotypes for drought prone regions. Harvest index exhibited maximum positive direct effect on grain yield under both the conditions; in addition, filled grains per panicle, spikelet fertility and biomass had positive direct effect on grain yield under both irrigated and lowland drought stresses state. Hence, for improving the rice yield under lowland drought ecology, a genotype should posses a large number of panicles per plant, filled grains per panicle, high spikelet fertility and maintains higher biomass and harvest index.

  17. Analysis of potential evapotranspiration using limited weather data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valipour, Mohammad

    2014-09-01

    The most important weather variations are temperature (T), relative humidity (RH), and wind speed (u) for evapotranspiration models in limited data conditions. This study aims to compare three T-based formula, T/RH-based formula, and T/RH/u-based formula to detect the performance of them under limited data and different weather conditions. For this purpose, weather data were gathered from 181 synoptic stations in 31 provinces of Iran. The potential evapotranspiration was compared with the FAO Penman-Monteith method. The results showed that T-based formula, T/RH-based formula, and T/RH/u-based formula estimated potential evapotranspiration with R 2 >0.93 for 6, 12, and 30 provinces of Iran, respectively. They are more suitable for southeast of Iran (YA, KE, SB, and SK). The best precise method was the T/RH/u-based formula for SK and GO. Finally, a list of the best performance of each method has been presented to use other regions and next researches according to values of temperature, relative humidity, and wind speed. The best weather conditions to use the formulas are 14-26 °C and 2.50-3.50 m/s for temperature and wind speed, respectively.

  18. The potential of shared value creation: a theoretical analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Danciu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The urgent issues economy, environment and society are facing need new approaches which allow a well-balanced sharing of value created by the economy. A step forward is the concept of shared value creation. This paper aims to analyze the main features, the content of strategy of shared value creation and to propose the social innovation as main strategic way of shared value creation. At the beginning, the drivers and challenges of shared value creation are investigated in a systematized manner, in order to better understand why this new way of doing business is needed. Then, the concept and the three levels of shared value creation are investigated as sources of economic, environmental and social benefits that a business creates. These benefits depend on how efficient and diligent the company works. We are advancing the social innovation as main strategy having the greatest potential to create value with economic, environmental and social benefits. Finally, a framework for measurement of shared value creation is included. This framework is aiming at giving a tool for checking up the potential the shared value creation has for solving environmental and social issues.

  19. In-situ stress analysis with X-Ray diffraction for yield locus characterization of sheet metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A main problem in the field of sheet metal characterization is the inhomogeneous plastic deformation in the gauge regions of specimens which causes the analytically calculated stresses to differ from the sought state of stress acting in the middle of the gauge region. To overcome this problem, application of X-Ray diffraction is analyzed. For that purpose a mobile X-ray diffractometer and an optical strain measurement system are mounted on a universal tensile testing machine. This enables the recording of the whole strain and stress history of a material point. The method is applied to uniaxial tension tests, plane strain tension tests and shear tests to characterize the interstitial free steel alloy DC06. The applicability of the concepts of stress factors is verified by uniaxial tension tests. The experimentally obtained values are compared with the theoretical values calculated with crystal elasticity models utilizing the orientation distribution functions (ODF). The relaxation problem is addressed which shows itself as drops in the stress values with the strain kept at a constant level. This drop is analyzed with elasto-viscoplastic material models to correct the measured stresses. Results show that the XRD is applicable to measure the stresses in sheet metals with preferred orientation. The obtained yield locus is expressed with the Yld2000–2D material model and an industry oriented workpiece is analyzed numerically. The comparison of the strain distribution on the workpiece verifies the identified material parameters

  20. Statistical model analysis of hadron yields in proton-nucleus and heavy-ion collisions at SIS 18 energies

    CERN Document Server

    Agakishiev, G; Balanda, A; Belver, D; Belyaev, A; Berger-Chen, J C; Blanco, A; Böhmer, M; Boyard, J L; Cabanelas, P; Castro, E; Chernenko, S; Destefanis, M; Dohrmann, F; Dybczak, A; Epple, E; Fabbietti, L; Fateev, O; Finocchiaro, P; Fonte, P; Friese, J; Fröhlich, I; Galatyuk, T; Garzon, J A; Gernhäuser, R; Gilardi, C; Göbel, K; Golubeva, M; Gonzalez-Diaz, D; Guber, F; Gumberidze, M; Heinz, T; Hennino, T; Holzmann, R; Ierusalimov, A; Iori, I; Ivashkin, A; Jurkovic, M; Kämpfer, B; Karavicheva, T; Koenig, I; Koenig, W; Kolb, B W; Kornakov, G; Kotte, R; Krasa, A; Krizek, F; Krücken, R; Kuc, H; Kühn, W; Kugler, A; Kurepin, A; Ladygin, V; Lalik, R; Lange, J S; Lang, S; Lapidus, K; Lebedev, A; Liu, T; Lopes, L; Lorenz, M; Maier, L; Mangiarotti, A; Markert, J; Metag, V; Michalska, B; Michel, J; Moriniere, E; Mousa, J; Müntz, C; Münzer, R; Naumann, L; Pachmayer, Y C; Palka, M; Parpottas, Y; Pechenov, V; Pechenova, O; Pietraszko, J; Przygoda, W; Ramstein, B; Rehnisch, L; Reshetin, A; Rustamov, A; Sadovsky, A; Salabura, P; Scheib, T; Schmah, A; Schuldes, H; Schwab, E; Siebenson, J; Sobolev, Yu G; Spataro, S; Spruck, B; Ströbele, H; Stroth, J; Sturm, C; Tarantola, A; Teilab, K; Tlusty, P; Traxler, M; Trebacz, R; Tsertos, H; Vasiliev, T; Wagner, V; Weber, M; Wendisch, C; Wisniowski, M; Wüstenfeld, J; Yurevich, S; Zanevsky, Y

    2015-01-01

    The HADES data from p+Nb collisions at center of mass energy of $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$= 3.2 GeV are analyzed by employing a statistical model. Accounting for the identified hadrons $\\pi^0$, $\\eta$, $\\Lambda$, $K^{0}_{s}$, $\\omega$ allows a surprisingly good description of their abundances with parameters $T_{chem}=(99\\pm11)$ MeV and $\\mu_{b}=(619\\pm34)$ MeV, which fits well in the chemical freeze-out systematics found in heavy-ion collisions. In supplement we reanalyze our previous HADES data from Ar+KCl collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$= 2.6 GeV with an updated version of the statistical model. We address equilibration in heavy-ion collisions by testing two aspects: the description of yields and the regularity of freeze-out parameters from a statistical model fit. Special emphasis is put on feed-down contributions from higher-lying resonance states which have been proposed to explain the experimentally observed $\\Xi^-$ excess present in both data samples.

  1. Analysis of strengthening in AA6111 during the early stages of aging: Atom probe tomography and yield stress modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, a series of aging treatments has been conducted on AA6111 alloy samples for various times at ambient temperature (so-called natural aging) and at temperatures between 60 and 180 °C (artificially aged). The time at artificial ageing was chosen such that samples with approximately the same yield stress were produced. The microstructures of these alloy samples have been carefully characterized using atom probe tomography together with advanced cluster-finding techniques in order to obtain quantitative information about the changes in distribution of both the solute clusters and early-stage precipitates that are formed. The size distribution of clusters has been mapped onto the glide plane and then the stress necessary for a dislocation to pass through the range of obstacles has been estimated using an areal glide model where the dislocation–obstacle interaction strength has been assumed to be related to the obstacle size on the glide plane. It is demonstrated that the contribution of cluster strengthening during artificial aging at higher temperatures is dominated by the high number density of small clusters (Guinier radius <1 nm), whereas the situation during room temperature natural aging is more complex

  2. Wing analysis using a transonic potential flow computational method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henne, P. A.; Hicks, R. M.

    1978-01-01

    The ability of the method to compute wing transonic performance was determined by comparing computed results with both experimental data and results computed by other theoretical procedures. Both pressure distributions and aerodynamic forces were evaluated. Comparisons indicated that the method is a significant improvement in transonic wing analysis capability. In particular, the computational method generally calculated the correct development of three-dimensional pressure distributions from subcritical to transonic conditions. Complicated, multiple shocked flows observed experimentally were reproduced computationally. The ability to identify the effects of design modifications was demonstrated both in terms of pressure distributions and shock drag characteristics.

  3. Sequential path analysis for determining interrelationships between yield and related traits in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. under normal and abiotic stress conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayat Mahdi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work the relationships between yield and its related traits were investigated in tobacco genotypes under normal and abiotic stress conditions (Orobanche aegyptiaca weed at Urmia Tobacco Research Centre, Iran, during 2006-2009 cropping seasons. The experimental design was a randomized complete block design (RCBD with three replications in each condition every year. Analysis of variance revealed extent genetic variability among the genotypes for most of the traits studied. In comparison with normal condition, the mean value of studied traits decreased in stress condition. LAI and FD showed the maximum and minimum diminution in the mean values under stress condition compared to normal one so known as more sensitive and more tolerant traits, respectively. Based on CV values, the traits FD and DLYP showed the minimum and maximum variation among traits in both normal and stress conditions. Correlation analysis revealed significant and positive correlations between DLYP with all studied traits in both normal and stress conditions. Path analysis detected the traits including biomass, APDW and DWR as the first-order variables at normal condition and biomass, APDW, DWR and harvest index as the first-order variables under abiotic stress condition. Based on results, the traits such as biomass, APDW, DWR detected as more important factors in both conditions can be used in tobacco breeding programs for increasing yield. Abbreviation: aerial part fresh weight without leaves weight (APFW, aerial part dry weight without leaves weight (APDW, biomass (BIO, coefficient of variation (CV, dry weight of root (DWR, flowering date (FD, fresh weight of leaf (FWL, fresh weight of root (FWR, harvest index (HI, leaf area index (LAI, dry leaf yield per plant (DLYP, number of leaf (NL, plant height (PH, randomized complete block design (RCBD, standard deviation (Std.

  4. Assessment of some homogeneous methods for the regional analysis of suspended sediment yield in the south and southeast of the Caspian Sea

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hossein Kheirfam; Mehdi Vafakhah

    2015-08-01

    Regional analysis of suspended sediment yield (SSY) is commonly used to estimate sediment at a particular site where little or no information is available on sediment yield. In this research, the efficiency of three input selection and homogenization methods were evaluated in the estimation of SSY. Therefore, 42 sediment measurement stations and their upstream watersheds were selected and sediment rating curve was estimated by using regression models for each station. Mean annual SSY was estimated by using sediment rating curve and daily discharge. In the present study, in order to determine the independent variables in sediment yield, 11 physiographical, one climatic and two hydrologic variables of whole study watersheds were selected. Then the most effective independent variables were selected by using principal component analysis (PCA), Gamma test (GT) and stepwise regression (SR) techniques. After reducing 14 input variables to five (using PCA and GT) and two (using SR techniques), they are divided into homogeneous areas by Andrew curve (AC), cluster analysis (CA) and canonical discriminate function (CDFs) techniques. The watersheds were divided into two (using PCA-AC), three (using PCA-CA, PCA-CDFs and GT-CDFs), four (using GT-CA, GT-AC and SR-CA) and five (using SR-AC) homogenous regions. Multiple regression models to estimate mean annual SSY as a function of five (using PCA and GT) and two (using SR techniques) watershed characteristics were built in each homogeneous region, and compared to actual mean annual SSY in each station using relative error (RE), efficiency coefficients (CE) and relative root mean square error (RRMSE). The results showed that preprocessing the input variables by means of PCA and GT techniques has improved the homogeneous stations determination and the development models. According to the results, the best technique for determining homogeneous watersheds was AC technique with RE=49.24%, RRMSE=43.75% and CE=71.04%.

  5. 宁夏灌区扁豆农艺及产量性状分析%Analysis on Agronomic and Yield Traits of Lentils in Irrigation of Ningxia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    The article is analysis lentils agronomic and yield traits in irrigation of Ningxia ,The results showed that lentils needs from planting to maturity about 80 d in irrigation.The correlation analysis showed growth peri⁃od and the number of pods per plant with plant height was significantly negatively correlated,But stem branches and 1000-grains weight with yileld was a significant positive correlation.The principal component analysis showed three main components,were yield,1000-grains weight and the number of grain per pod. The pods per plant,the number of grain per pod were no significant differences,but 1000- grains weight was significant difference in va⁃rieties.the change of yield was mainly due to the changes caused by the grain weight.%  对宁夏灌区引种扁豆的农艺及产量性状进行分析,结果表明,宁夏灌区引种的扁豆从播种到成熟需要80d左右;株高与生育期、单株荚数呈显著负相关;小区产量与主茎分枝、千粒重均呈显著正相关;主成分分析表现为3个主成分,分别是产量主成分、千粒重主成分和荚粒数主成分;产量及其构成因素分析表明单株荚数、单荚粒数品种间均无显著差异,而千粒重差异显著,产量的变化主要是由千粒重的变化引起的。

  6. Improved ethanol yield and reduced minimum ethanol selling price (MESP by modifying low severity dilute acid pretreatment with deacetylation and mechanical refining: 2 Techno-economic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Ling

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our companion paper discussed the yield benefits achieved by integrating deacetylation, mechanical refining, and washing with low acid and low temperature pretreatment. To evaluate the impact of the modified process on the economic feasibility, a techno-economic analysis (TEA was performed based on the experimental data presented in the companion paper. Results The cost benefits of dilute acid pretreatment technology combined with the process alternatives of deacetylation, mechanical refining, and pretreated solids washing were evaluated using cost benefit analysis within a conceptual modeling framework. Control cases were pretreated at much lower acid loadings and temperatures than used those in the NREL 2011 design case, resulting in much lower annual ethanol production. Therefore, the minimum ethanol selling prices (MESP of the control cases were $0.41-$0.77 higher than the $2.15/gallon MESP of the design case. This increment is highly dependent on the carbohydrate content in the corn stover. However, if pretreatment was employed with either deacetylation or mechanical refining, the MESPs were reduced by $0.23-$0.30/gallon. Combing both steps could lower the MESP further by $0.44 ~ $0.54. Washing of the pretreated solids could also greatly improve the final ethanol yields. However, the large capital cost of the solid–liquid separation unit negatively influences the process economics. Finally, sensitivity analysis was performed to study the effect of the cost of the pretreatment reactor and the energy input for mechanical refining. A 50% cost reduction in the pretreatment reactor cost reduced the MESP of the entire conversion process by $0.11-$0.14/gallon, while a 10-fold increase in energy input for mechanical refining will increase the MESP by $0.07/gallon. Conclusion Deacetylation and mechanical refining process options combined with low acid, low severity pretreatments show improvements in ethanol yields and

  7. Analysis of spectral effects on the energy yield of different PV (photovoltaic) technologies: The case of four specific sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work is aimed at looking into the impact of the solar spectrum distribution on the energy yield of some PV (photovoltaic) materials on both monthly and annual time scales. The relative spectral responses of eight different PV solar cells – representative of each considered technology – have been selected. Modeling solar spectra in four sites located in the north hemisphere together with a 12-month experimental campaign in which spectral irradiances were periodically recorded in two of these sites located in Spain have provided highly interesting results. Regardless of the site, the considered amorphous silicon and cadmium telluride PV cells experience the most noticeable modeled and experimental variations of their monthly spectral gains, whilst flatter seasonal ones are identified in the remaining considered PV technologies. Thus, the maximum monthly variations of these spectral gains take place in the a-Si PV cell, ranging from −16% (winter) to 4% (summer) in Stuttgart. Anyway, the monthly spread of the spectral effects decreases as the latitude of the site does. Last, the impact of the solar spectrum distribution is remarkably reduced when the period of integration is enlarged up to a year. In fact, annual spectral gains keep below 2.2% for all the studied technologies and sites. - Highlights: • Monthly and annual spectral effects on eight different PV (photovoltaic) technologies studied. • Modeled spectra in four sites combined with relative spectral responses. • Measured spectra (12 months) in two sites combined with relative spectral responses. • Higher bandgap technologies: noticeable monthly variations in their spectral gains. • Annual spectral gains keep below 2.2% for all the studied technologies and sites

  8. Chemical analysis and potential health risks of hookah charcoal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsayed, Yehya; Dalibalta, Sarah; Abu-Farha, Nedal

    2016-11-01

    Hookah (waterpipe) smoking is a very common practice that has spread globally. There is growing evidence on the hazardous consequences of smoking hookah, with studies indicating that its harmful effects are comparable to cigarette smoking if not worse. Charcoal is commonly used as a heating source for hookah smoke. Although charcoal briquettes are thought to be one of the major contributors to toxicity, their composition and impact on the smoke generated remains largely unidentified. This study aims to analyze the elemental composition of five different raw synthetic and natural charcoals by using Carbon-Hydrogen-Nitrogen (CHN) analysis, inductively coupled plasma (ICP), and scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-Ray spectrometry (SEM-EDS). Elemental analysis showed that the raw charcoals contain heavy metals such as zinc, iron, cadmium, vanadium, aluminum, lead, chromium, manganese and cobalt at concentrations similar, if not higher than, cigarettes. In addition, thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (TD-GC-MS) was used to analyze the chemical composition of the smoke produced from burning the charcoal samples. The smoke emitted from charcoal was found to be the source of numerous compounds which could be hazardous to health. A total of seven carcinogens, 39 central nervous system depressants and 31 respiratory irritants were identified. PMID:27343945

  9. Economic Analysis of Sorghum Silage Potential for Dairy Industry in the Texas High Plains

    OpenAIRE

    Obembe, Oladipo S.; Almas, Lal K.; Guerrero, Bridget L.; Lust, David G.

    2014-01-01

    The objective is to evaluate the economic feasibility and potential water savings to a dairy of replacing corn silage with BMR sorghum silage; and to estimate the potential economic benefits and water savings (current & future) to the region from adoption of this practice. Economic analysis was conducted for different scenarios to estimate irrigated sorghum silage potential in the Texas High Plains to meet the feed requirements of ever growing dairy industry. Sensitivity analysis was also con...

  10. Evaluation of the Depth-dependent Yield Strength of Ion-irradiated F82H Steels Using a FE Analysis and Nano indentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The irradiation damage level depends on the depth from the specimen surface in an ion-irradiation test, and a more detailed approach is needed to evaluate the material property changes in depth (dose level). In this paper, changes in the depth-dependent yield strength and damage level of irradiated and unirradiated F82H steels were predicted using nano indentation and FE modeling techniques by dividing the damaged region into several layers. Moreover, the applicability of the reverse algorithm, which is to obtain stress-strain curves of the target material, was evaluated. In this study, the elastic-plastic material properties for unirradiated and irradiated F82H steel were characterized. Ion-irradiation generated a depth dependent damage zone from the surface at the nanometer scale, and the material properties are changed owing to the relative irradiation level. Nano indentation tests were conducted at various indentation loads and irradiation levels. To find the material property change of the damage zone, an FE analysis was applied. The damage zone was divided into five layers, and the elastic modulus and work hardening coefficient were fixed at 150GPa and 0.05 based on preliminary FE analyses. The unknown parameter for an irradiated specimen, i. e., yield strength, was evaluated in a few trial simulations using simple power law expressions, by comparing with the experimentally measured L-h curves. We found that the computed yield strength of the irradiated F82H steel is almost identical with the experimentally measured L-h curves. The obtained parameters in the power law expression are A = 500 and p = 0.2 for 3 dpa and A = 500 and p = 0.7 for 10 dpa, respectively. In summary, this work showed that the yield strengths of an ion-irradiated region, which vary with depth, can be evaluated by combining nano indentation tests with an FE modeling, as proposed in this study

  11. Novel, non-destructive cereal quality analysis: potential for triticale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manley, Marena

    2014-01-01

    Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy, NIR hyperspectral imaging and X-ray computed technology (XCT) can each in its own way contribute to the effective analysis of whole grain triticale. With NIR spectroscopy only giving an average result, NIR hyperspectral imaging gives spatial as well as spectral information of a sample. Chemical information as well as the localisation of the chemical compounds is thus obtained. XCT advanced on these two techniques in that it allows three dimensional (3D) visualisation of the internal structure of a sample. The availability of X-ray microcomputed tomography (microCT) instruments and now also nanoCT instruments allow high resolution images of the microstructure of samples to be obtained. These techniques, reviewed in this paper, can be used in association, each with their own advantages and disadvantages, to most effectively analyse whole grain triticale. PMID:26072581

  12. Computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA): capabilities and potential developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amann, Rupert P; Waberski, Dagmar

    2014-01-01

    Computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA) systems have evolved over approximately 40 years, through advances in devices to capture the image from a microscope, huge increases in computational power concurrent with amazing reduction in size of computers, new computer languages, and updated/expanded software algorithms. Remarkably, basic concepts for identifying sperm and their motion patterns are little changed. Older and slower systems remain in use. Most major spermatology laboratories and semen processing facilities have a CASA system, but the extent of reliance thereon ranges widely. This review describes capabilities and limitations of present CASA technology used with boar, bull, and stallion sperm, followed by possible future developments. Each marketed system is different. Modern CASA systems can automatically view multiple fields in a shallow specimen chamber to capture strobe-like images of 500 to >2000 sperm, at 50 or 60 frames per second, in clear or complex extenders, and in process data apparently are available. PMID:24274405

  13. Local influence for spatial analysis of soil physical properties and soybean yield using student's t-distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Rosangela Aparecida Botinha Assumpção; Miguel Angel Uribe Opazo; Manuel Galea

    2011-01-01

    The modeling and estimation of the parameters that define the spatial dependence structure of a regionalized variable by geostatistical methods are fundamental, since these parameters, underlying the kriging of unsampled points, allow the construction of thematic maps. One or more atypical observations in the sample data can affect the estimation of these parameters. Thus, the assessment of the combined influence of these observations by the analysis of Local Influence is essential. The purpo...

  14. Meta-analysis of strategies to control nitrate leaching in irrigated agricultural systems and their effects on crop yield.

    OpenAIRE

    Quemada Saenz-Badillos, Miguel; Baranski, M; Nobel-de Lange, M. N. J.; Vallejo Garcia, Antonio; Cooper, J M

    2013-01-01

    Nitrate leaching (NL) is an important N loss process in irrigated agriculture that imposes a cost on the farmer and the environment. A meta-analysis of published experimental results from agricultural irrigated systems was conducted to identify those strategies that have proven effective at reducing NL and to quantify the scale of reduction that can be achieved. Forty-four scientific articles were identified which investigated four main strategies (water and fertilizer management, use of cove...

  15. Effects of Cropping System and Cowpea Variety on Symbiotic Potential and Yields of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp and Pearl Millet (Pennisetum glaucum L. in the Sudano-Sahelian Zone of Mali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoumana Kouyaté

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Many cowpea varieties (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp have been proposed by research in Mali. None of these varieties were investigated for their symbiotic potential in terms of root nodulation and mycorrhizal infection. An experiment was conducted at Cinzana Research Station, from 2007 to 2009 with an objective to identify a cowpea variety with high symbiotic potential which may improve millet/cowpea cropping global production. Randomized complete block (RCBD design with a factorial combination of 3 cowpea varieties (IT89KD-374, CZ1-94-23-1, and CZ11-94-5C and 2 cropping systems (millet/cowpea intercropping and cowpea-millet rotation was used. On farm test was conducted to evaluate CZ11-94-5C and IT89KD-374 nodulation performance. Cowpea variety CZ11-94-5-C had the highest nodule number and nodule weight. Millet/cowpea alternate rows intercropping (1/1, only, had a significant influence on cowpea root infection rates by mycorrhizae, on the 45th day after emergence. IT89KD-374 gave the best cowpea grain yield (1540 kg ha−1 in sole crop. The highest millet grain yield (1650 kg ha−1 was obtained under CZ11-94-5C-millet rotation. Farmers' fields assessments results confirmed CZ11-94-5C performance on research station. The CZ11-94-5C cowpea variety needs to be more characterized.

  16. Comparing Yields and Profitability in MARD's High- and Low-Input Maize Programs 1997/98 Survey Results and Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Howard, Julie A.; Jeje, Jose Jaime; Kelly, Valerie A.; Boughton, Duncan

    2000-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results from data collected during the study’s second year, 1997/98. The analysis is based on a sample of 210 smallholder farmers in Nampula Province using three different sets of production practices: the DNER/Sasakawa- Global 2000 Program (DNER/SG) high-input package (improved open-pollinated maize, 100 kg/ha each 12-24-12 and urea fertilizer on credit); improved planting and weeding practices only (using local seed, without fertilizer); and a control group of farm...

  17. The Analysis Of The Strain Influence On Some Yield Elemnts On An Assortment Of Isogenic Wheat Varieties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Păniţă, Ovidiu

    2015-09-01

    In the years 2012-2014 on Banu-Maracine DRS were tested an assortment consists of 25 isogenic lines of common wheat (Triticum aestivum ssp.vulgare), with the combination of Rht1&rht8 genes, the analyzed characters being the hight of the strain (cm), the number of seeds/spike, seeds weight/spike (g), no. of spikes/m2, weight of a thousand seeds (WTS) (g) and no. of emerged plants/m2. Based on recorded data and statistical processing of those, they were identified a numbers of links between these characters, links quantified by using the correlation. Regarding the classification based on the average high of the strain, it was found that that there is a strong link between some characters too. Based on component analysis, the no. of seeds/spike and the seeds weight/spikes are components that influence in excess of 83% variance analysis, a total of five genotypes having positive scores for both factors.

  18. Does parametric fMRI analysis with SPM yield valid results? An empirical study of 1484 rest datasets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eklund, Anders; Andersson, Mats; Josephson, Camilla; Johannesson, Magnus; Knutsson, Hans

    2012-07-01

    The validity of parametric functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) analysis has only been reported for simulated data. Recent advances in computer science and data sharing make it possible to analyze large amounts of real fMRI data. In this study, 1484 rest datasets have been analyzed in SPM8, to estimate true familywise error rates. For a familywise significance threshold of 5%, significant activity was found in 1%-70% of the 1484 rest datasets, depending on repetition time, paradigm and parameter settings. This means that parametric significance thresholds in SPM both can be conservative or very liberal. The main reason for the high familywise error rates seems to be that the global AR(1) auto correlation correction in SPM fails to model the spectra of the residuals, especially for short repetition times. The findings that are reported in this study cannot be generalized to parametric fMRI analysis in general, other software packages may give different results. By using the computational power of the graphics processing unit (GPU), the 1484 rest datasets were also analyzed with a random permutation test. Significant activity was then found in 1%-19% of the datasets. These findings speak to the need for a better model of temporal correlations in fMRI timeseries. PMID:22507229

  19. Energy production from tannery solid wastes : thermal balance, models of process yields and economic analysis; Produzione di energia da residui conciariprocesso e analisi di fattibilita`

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manzo, G; Grasso, G.; Bufalo, G. [Stazione Sperimentale per l`Industria delle Pelli e Materie Concianti, Naples (Italy)

    1996-01-01

    Present paper deals with a modeling approach to the recovery of thermal energy, chromium and compost from tannery solid wastes, by incineration to ash and biomethanization to digested biomass. A thermal balance on the whole industrial Italian production of tanning residues firstly quantifies the impact of the matter. A model was successively developed in order to compute the caloric content of the different kinds of residues, starting from their elementary composition. Proper models of the process yields, for both the incineration and biomethanization, were also derived. Finally an economic cost analysis of the incineration process was presented, conveniently disaggregated on the single cost elements. This analysis was based on the previously obtained data both of heat and chromium recovery and on matter-balance data of a typical tanning process (chromium shoe upper produced from salted bovine hide).

  20. Crop yield risk analysis and mitigation of smallholder farmers at quaternary catchment level: Case study of B72A in Olifants river basin, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magombeyi, Manuel S.; Taigbenu, Akpofure E.

    Currently, Sub-Sahara is experiencing increased frequency of disasters either as floods or droughts which depletes the scarce resources available to sustain increasing populations. Success in preventing food shortages in the African continent can only be achieved by understanding the vulnerability and risk of the majority of smallholder farmers under rainfed and supplementary irrigation coupled with appropriate interventions. Increased frequency of floods, droughts and dry spells pose an increasing threat to the smallholder farmers’ food security and water resources availability in B72A quaternary catchment of the Olifants river basin in South Africa. This paper links maize crop yield risk and smallholder farmer vulnerability arising from droughts by applying a set of interdisciplinary indicators (physical and socio-economic) encompassing gender and institutional vulnerabilities. For the study area, the return period of droughts and dry spells was 2 years. The growing season for maize crop was 121 days on average. Soil water deficit during critical growth stages may reduce potential yields by up to 62%, depending on the length and severity of the moisture deficit. To minimize grain yield loss and avoid total crop failures from intra-seasonal dry spells, farmers applied supplementary irrigation either from river water or rainwater harvested into small reservoirs. Institutional vulnerability was evidenced by disjointed water management institutions with lack of comprehension of roles of higher level institutions by lower level ones. Women are most hit by droughts as they derived more than 90% of their family income from agriculture activities. An enhanced understanding of the vulnerability and risk exposure will assist in developing technologies and policies that conform to the current livelihood strategies of smallholder, resource-constrained farmers. Development of such knowledge base for a catchment opens avenues for computational modeling of the impacts of