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Sample records for analysis toluca basin

  1. Chemical-morphological analysis and evaluation of the distribution of particulate matter in the Toluca Valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero G, E.T.; Sandoval P, A.; Morelos M, J.; Reyes G, L.R.

    2007-01-01

    The breathable fraction of the suspended particles is the main pollutant in the Metropolitan Area of the Toluca Valley (ZMVT), to have the bigger number of days outside of standard, especially during the winter and low water time, its registered maximum value is of 367 IMECA points in 2004. The particles present a potential risk for the lungs, its increase the chemical reactions in the atmosphere; its reduce the visibility; its increase the possibility of the precipitation, the fog and the clouds; its reduce the solar radiation, with the changes in the environmental temperature and in the biological growth rates of those plants; and it dirties the soil matters. For that reason it is very important to characterize physicochemical and morphologically by scanning electron microscopy the particulate material of the Toluca Valley, to determine to that type of particles is potentially exposed the population before drastic scenarios of air pollution of the Toluca Valley, as well as to evaluate the distribution of the one particulate material in the ZMVT. (Author)

  2. Geostatistics and multivariate analysis as a tool to characterize volcaniclastic deposits: Application to Nevado de Toluca volcano, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellotti, F.; Capra, L.; Sarocchi, D.; D'Antonio, M.

    2010-03-01

    Grain size analysis of volcaniclastic deposits is mainly used to study flow transport and depositional processes, in most cases by comparing some statistical parameters and how they change with distance from the source. In this work the geospatial and multivariate analyses are presented as a strong adaptable geostatistical tool applied to volcaniclastic deposits in order to provide an effective and relatively simple methodology for texture description, deposit discrimination and interpretation of depositional processes. We choose the case of Nevado de Toluca volcano (Mexico) due to existing knowledge of its geological evolution, stratigraphic succession and spatial distribution of volcaniclastic units. Grain size analyses and frequency distribution curves have been carried out to characterize and compare the 28-ka block-and-ash flow deposit associated to a dome destruction episode, and the El Morral debris avalanche deposit originated from the collapse of the south-eastern sector of the volcano. The geostatistical interpolation of sedimentological data allows to realize bidimensional maps draped over the volcano topography, showing the granulometric distribution, sorting and fine material concentration into the whole deposit with respect to topographic changes. In this way, it is possible to analyze a continuous surface of the grain size distribution of volcaniclastic deposits and better understand flow transport processes. The application of multivariate statistic analysis (discriminant function) indicates that this methodology could be useful in discriminating deposits with different origin or different depositional lithofacies within the same deposit. The proposed methodology could be an interesting approach to sustain more classical analysis of volcaniclastic deposits, especially where a clear field classification appears problematic because of a homogeneous texture of the deposits or their scarce and discontinuous outcrops. Our study is an example of the

  3. Morphological analysis of Nevado de Toluca volcano (Mexico): new insights into the structure and evolution of an andesitic to dacitic stratovolcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norini, Gianluca; Groppelli, Gianluca; Capra, Lucia; De Beni, Emanuela

    2004-09-01

    We present a morphological analysis of Nevado de Toluca volcano located 80 km WSW of Mexico City based on digital elevation model study, where slope and aspect maps have been generated and analysed. Aerial photograph and satellite image observations improve the morphological analysis. The synoptic view which is offered by this analysis allowed for recognition and localization of the main volcanic and tectonic features of the area. On the basis of digital elevation model value distribution and surface textures, five morphological domains were defined. The most interesting domain, south of the crater, reflects the occurrence of an ancient complex volcano distinct from the adjacent areas. Interaction between the volcanic and volcano-tectonic evolution and the basement produced the other domains. Single volcanic edifices, like lava domes and scoria cones, and eruptive fractures were recognized. Finally, flank collapse scarps opened to the east and to the north were identified and four relevant morphostructural lineaments and their possible role in the Nevado de Toluca geological and structural evolution are discussed.

  4. Chemical-morphological analysis and evaluation of the distribution of particulate matter in the Toluca Valley; Analisis quimico-mofologico y evaluacion de la distribucion de materia particulada en el Valle de Toluca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero G, E T; Sandoval P, A; Morelos M, J [ININ, 52750 La Marquesa, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Reyes G, L R [UAEH, 42184 Pachuca, Hidalgo (Mexico)

    2007-07-01

    The breathable fraction of the suspended particles is the main pollutant in the Metropolitan Area of the Toluca Valley (ZMVT), to have the bigger number of days outside of standard, especially during the winter and low water time, its registered maximum value is of 367 IMECA points in 2004. The particles present a potential risk for the lungs, its increase the chemical reactions in the atmosphere; its reduce the visibility; its increase the possibility of the precipitation, the fog and the clouds; its reduce the solar radiation, with the changes in the environmental temperature and in the biological growth rates of those plants; and it dirties the soil matters. For that reason it is very important to characterize physicochemical and morphologically by scanning electron microscopy the particulate material of the Toluca Valley, to determine to that type of particles is potentially exposed the population before drastic scenarios of air pollution of the Toluca Valley, as well as to evaluate the distribution of the one particulate material in the ZMVT. (Author)

  5. K Basin safety analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porten, D.R.; Crowe, R.D.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this accident safety analysis is to document in detail, analyses whose results were reported in summary form in the K Basins Safety Analysis Report WHC-SD-SNF-SAR-001. The safety analysis addressed the potential for release of radioactive and non-radioactive hazardous material located in the K Basins and their supporting facilities. The safety analysis covers the hazards associated with normal K Basin fuel storage and handling operations, fuel encapsulation, sludge encapsulation, and canister clean-up and disposal. After a review of the Criticality Safety Evaluation of the K Basin activities, the following postulated events were evaluated: Crane failure and casks dropped into loadout pit; Design basis earthquake; Hypothetical loss of basin water accident analysis; Combustion of uranium fuel following dryout; Crane failure and cask dropped onto floor of transfer area; Spent ion exchange shipment for burial; Hydrogen deflagration in ion exchange modules and filters; Release of Chlorine; Power availability and reliability; and Ashfall

  6. K Basin Hazard Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PECH, S.H.

    2000-01-01

    This report describes the methodology used in conducting the K Basins Hazard Analysis, which provides the foundation for the K Basins Final Safety Analysis Report. This hazard analysis was performed in accordance with guidance provided by DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U. S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports and implements the requirements of DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Report

  7. K Basin Hazard Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PECH, S.H.

    2000-08-23

    This report describes the methodology used in conducting the K Basins Hazard Analysis, which provides the foundation for the K Basins Final Safety Analysis Report. This hazard analysis was performed in accordance with guidance provided by DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U. S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports and implements the requirements of DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Report.

  8. K Basins Hazard Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WEBB, R.H.

    1999-01-01

    This report describes the methodology used in conducting the K Basins Hazard Analysis, which provides the foundation for the K Basins Safety Analysis Report (HNF-SD-WM-SAR-062/Rev.4). This hazard analysis was performed in accordance with guidance provided by DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U. S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports and implements the requirements of DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Report

  9. Sem Analysis of particles from the 28, 000 B.P El Zaguan debris avalanche deposit, Nevado de Toluca volcano, Central Mexico: evidences of flow behavior during emplacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero, L.; Capra, L.

    2008-12-01

    The Zaguan deposit originated at 28, 000 yr. B.P from the flank collapse of the Nevado de Toluca volcano, a dacitic stratovolcano of the Transmexican Volcanic Belt. A Scanning Electron Microprobe analysis (SEM) was made to some clasts of this deposit to observe microtextures produced during transport and emplacement of the debris avalanche flow. Particles from 2, 0 and -2 Φ granulometric classes were randomly selected and their surface textures were described. The textures observed were divided in two groups, collision and shear structures indicating different clast interaction. Shear textures were observed predominantly on the basal part of the deposit and consisted of parallel ridges, parallel grooves, scratches and lips. Collision textures were mainly present in the upper part of the deposit and consisted of fractures, percussion marks, and broken or grinded crystals. These characteristics, coupled with field observation, like the presence of clast dikes and deformed lacustrine megaclasts, indicate that the basal part of the debris avalanche was moving in a partially liquefied state, were particles were not able to move freely because of the confinement exerted by the upper part of the flow, so shear stresses dominated. On the contrary, the particles in the upper part were able to move freely so the principal mechanism of interaction between particles was collision. These microscopic textures are in agreement with previously described behavior of emplacement of debris avalanches of volcanic origin, that suggest a stratified flow dominated by different transport and depositional mechanism depending on flow depth and possible fluid content at their base.

  10. The 21,700 yr b.p. Lower Toluca Pumice Plinian Eruption of Nevado de Toluca Volcano (Mexico): Evidences of Magma Mixing Process as Triggering Mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capra, L.; Arce, J.; Macias, J.

    2006-05-01

    Approximately 21,700 yr B.P., after a period of quiescence of 4800 yr, Nevado de Toluca volcano erupted, producing the Lower Toluca Pumice deposit. The activity generated a 24-km-high Plinian column that lasted ~11 h and dispersed 2.3 km3 (0.8 km3 dense rock equivalent) of tephra toward the NE, blanketing the Lerma basin, an area occupied today by the city of Toluca, with up to 5 cm of ash. Subsequent eruptive pulses were sub-Plinian in style, accompanied by phreatomagmatic explosions that emplaced surge deposits. Finally, the column collapsed toward the NE with the emplacement of a pumice flow deposit. The high vesicularity of the pumice from the basal Plinian layer, up to 83% by volume, indicates that exsolution was dominantly magmatic, and that pressurization of the magma chamber was probably due to a magma mixing process. Evidence for this includes the compositional range of juvenile products (from 55 to 65 wt% SiO2), as well as the presence of two types of plagioclase, one in equilibrium and the other one with disequilibrium textures and reverse zoning. This suggests input of an andesitic liquid into the dacitic magma chamber. Based on the eruptive record, the most likely future eruptive activity at Nevado de Toluca volcano will be Plinian. Although quiet for more than 3250 yr, Plinian activity could occur after a long period of quiescence, and it could represent a hazard for the entire Toluca basin, where more than one million people live today.

  11. Miocene to Recent structural evolution of the Nevado de Toluca volcano region, Central Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Palomo, A.; Macías, J. L.; Garduño, V. H.

    2000-03-01

    Based on aerial photography, satellite imagery, and detailed field work, a geological and structural model of Nevado de Toluca and its surroundings is presented. The Nevado de Toluca volcano is built upon the intersection of three complex fault systems of different age, orientation, and kinematics. These systems from the older to the younger are: (a) The Taxco-Querétaro Fault System (NNW-SSE) with clear expression south of the volcano; (b) The San Antonio Fault System (NE-SW) that runs between the San Antonio and Nevado de Toluca volcanoes; and (c) The Tenango Fault System (E-W) located to the east of Nevado de Toluca volcano. Our field data, supported by previous studies, suggest that these systems have coexisted since the late Miocene. In addition, the stratigraphy, chronology, and kinematics of fault planes point to the existence of at least three main deformation events that have affected the region since the late Miocene. During the early Miocene, an extensional phase with the same deformation style as the Basin and Range tectonics of northern Mexico caused the formation of horsts and grabens south of Nevado de Toluca and allowed the intrusion of sub-vertical dikes oriented NW-SE and NNW-SSE. During the middle Miocene, a transcurrent episode generated NE-SW faults that presented two main motions: the first movement was left-lateral with a σ3 oriented NW-SE and later turned into normal through a counter-clockwise rotation of σ3 up to a N-S position. The latest deformation phase started during the late Pliocene and produced oblique extension ( σ3 oriented NE-SW) along E-W-trending faults that later changed to pure extension by shifting of σ3 to a N-S orientation. These faults appear to control the late Pleistocene to Holocene monogenetic volcanism, the flank collapses of Nevado de Toluca volcano and the seismic activity of the region.

  12. Volcanic hazard zonation of the Nevado de Toluca volcano, México

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capra, L.; Norini, G.; Groppelli, G.; Macías, J. L.; Arce, J. L.

    2008-10-01

    The Nevado de Toluca is a quiescent volcano located 20 km southwest of the City of Toluca and 70 km west of Mexico City. It has been quiescent since its last eruptive activity, dated at ˜ 3.3 ka BP. During the Pleistocene and Holocene, it experienced several eruptive phases, including five dome collapses with the emplacement of block-and-ash flows and four Plinian eruptions, including the 10.5 ka BP Plinian eruption that deposited more than 10 cm of sand-sized pumice in the area occupied today by Mexico City. A detailed geological map coupled with computer simulations (FLOW3D, TITAN2D, LAHARZ and HAZMAP softwares) were used to produce the volcanic hazard assessment. Based on the final hazard zonation the northern and eastern sectors of Nevado de Toluca would be affected by a greater number of phenomena in case of reappraisal activity. Block-and-ash flows will affect deep ravines up to a distance of 15 km and associated ash clouds could blanket the Toluca basin, whereas ash falls from Plinian events will have catastrophic effects for populated areas within a radius of 70 km, including the Mexico City Metropolitan area, inhabited by more than 20 million people. Independently of the activity of the volcano, lahars occur every year, affecting small villages settled down flow from main ravines.

  13. Spatiotemporal Effects of Climate Variability and Urban Growth on the "Valle de Toluca" Aquifer (Mexico)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastachi-Loza, C. A.; Diaz-Delgado, C.; Esteller, M. V.; Gomez-Albores, M. A.; Becerril, R.; Ruiz-Gomez, M. D.

    2013-05-01

    Toluca city is located in the "Valle de Toluca" at the upper course of the Lerma river basin, is an important economic center which contributes with 1.2% of Gross National Product (GNP) since it is an industrial city, The city has grown due to the economic development sustained by the "Valle de Toluca" aquifer which provides water for human consumption, industrial facilities and crop irrigation. Recent studies have shown that in the last 50 years the annual precipitation rate in Toluca has increased 122 mm, whereas the daily minimum temperature has increased 1.1 °C and the daily maximum temperature has also increased 0.8 °C. These results show a general overview of the change in the climate conditions of the city; however they do not show the spatial distribution of the change. For this reason, the aim of this work was to evaluate the spatiotemporal change of precipitation rates and urban growth in order to determine their effects over the "Valle de Toluca" aquifer. In order to detect the urban growth, a supervised classification technique has been used taking into account Landsat TM satellite images between 1973, 1986, 2000 and 2005. A yearly spatiotemporal raster set of rainfall rates from 1980 to 2010 were obtained interpolating data from 812 climatologic stations. To evaluate the effect in annual precipitation rates and urban growth over the aquifer, we interpolate data from 38 piezometers from 1980 to 2010 to obtain a spatiotemporal raster set. The piezometric values correspond to the aquifer's upper level. The spatiotemporal raster sets were analyzed with the non-parametric Theil-Sen test to determine trends in piezometric levels and precipitation rates. Finally the urban growth, spatial-temporal trends of precipitation rates and piezometric levels were displayed in a GIS and then subjectively analyzed to figure out coincidences. An increase in annual precipitation rates (+87 mm) over Toluca's Valley during the last three decades was observed specially

  14. Assessment of Spatial Variability of Heavy Metals in Metropolitan Zone of Toluca Valley, Mexico, Using the Biomonitoring Technique in Mosses and TXRF Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciela Zarazúa-Ortega

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed at assessing atmospheric deposition of heavy metals using the epiphytic moss genera Fabronia ciliaris collected from six urban sites in the Metropolitan Zone of the Toluca Valley in Mexico. The concentrations of K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Rb, Sr, and Pb were determined by total reflection X-ray fluorescence technique. Results show that the average metal concentration decrease in the following order: Fe (8207 mg/Kg > Ca (7315 mg/Kg > K (3842 mg/Kg > Ti (387 mg/Kg > Mn, Zn (191 mg/Kg > Sr (71 mg/Kg > Pb (59 mg/Kg > Cu, V (32 mg/Kg > Cr (24 mg/Kg > Rb (13 mg/Kg > Ni (10 mg/Kg. Enrichment factors show a high enrichment for Cr, Cu, Zn, and Pb which provides an evidence of anthropogenic impact in the industrial and urban areas, mainly due to the intense vehicular traffic and the fossil fuel combustion. Monitoring techniques in mosses have proved to be a powerful tool for determining the deposition of heavy metals coming from diverse point sources of pollution.

  15. Textural analysis of particles from El Zaguán debris avalanche deposit, Nevado de Toluca volcano, Mexico: Evidence of flow behavior during emplacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero, Lizeth; Capra, Lucia

    2011-02-01

    El Zaguán deposit originated at 28,000 yrs. B.P. from the flank collapse of Nevado de Toluca, a dacitic stratovolcano of the Transmexican Volcanic Belt. Scanning Electron Microprobe analyses (SEM) were performed on some particles from this deposit to observe microtextures produced during transport and emplacement of the debris avalanche flow. Particles from 2ϕ (250 μm), 0ϕ (1 mm) and - 2ϕ (4 mm) granulometric classes were randomly selected at different outcrops, and their surface textures were described. The observed textures are divided in two groups, Basal and Upper textures, each one indicating different clast interactions. Basal textures are observed predominantly in the lower part of the deposit and consist of parallel ridges, parallel grooves, scratches and lips. Upper textures are mainly present in the upper part of the deposit and consisted of fractures, percussion marks, and broken or grinded crystals. These characteristics, coupled with field observations such as the presence of clastic dikes and deformed lacustrine mega-blocks, indicate that the basal part of the debris avalanche was moving in a partially liquefied state. By contrast, the particles in the upper part were able to move freely, interacting by collision. These microscopic textures are in agreement with previously described emplacement behaviors in debris avalanches of volcanic origin, suggesting a stratified flow dominated by different transport and depositional mechanisms depending upon flow depth and possible fluid content at their base.

  16. Evaluación del uso agrícola y forestal del suelo en la cuenca del río Temascaltepec, Nevado de Toluca, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes Villers Ruiz

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available Characteristics of relief, vegetation, farmland, and forest exploitations were obtained of the Temascaltepec River Basin, in the western and southwestern slopes of the Nevado de Toluca Vulcano, in Central Mexico. The main crops were characterized for each of the 15 communities of the basin. A percentage of the land covered with forest was established for each of the 148 areas considered for forest exploitation. The majority of the forests localized between 2 000 and 3 000 m, have less than 60% of their area covered by woods. Larger cover of forests areas are constituted by Pinus and Abies–Pinus communities. The average slope dominant of the croplands is 11º and its limits are from 4.7º to 11.4 º. The main crops at regional level are corn, oat and potato. The processing and information analysis were done in a GIS PC–based software.

  17. Chemical characteristics of the crater lakes of Popocatetetl, El Chichon, and Nevado de Toluca volcanoes, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armienta, M. A.; De la Cruz-Reyna, S.; Macías, J. L.

    2000-04-01

    Three crater lakes from Mexican volcanoes were sampled and analyzed at various dates to determine their chemical characteristics. Strong differences were observed in the chemistry among the three lakes: Nevado de Toluca, considered as dormant, El Chichón at a post-eruptive stage, and Popocatépetl at a pre-eruptive stage. Not surprisingly, no influence of volcanic activity was found at the Nevado de Toluca volcano, while the other volcanoes showed a correlation between the changing level of activity and the evolution of chemical trends. Low pHs (Nevado de Toluca Sun lake. Changes with time were observed at Popocatépetl and El Chichón. Concentrations of volcanic-gas derived species like Cl-, SO42- and F- decreased irregularly at El Chichón from 1983 until 1997. Major cations concentrations also diminished at El Chichón. A 100% increase in the SO42- content was measured at Popocatépetl between 1985 and 1994. An increase in the Mg/Cl ratio between 1992 (Mg/Cl=0.085) and 1994 (Mg/Cl=0.177) was observed at Popocatépetl, before the disappearance of the crater lake in 1994. It is concluded that chemical analysis of crater lakes may provide a useful additional tool for active-volcano monitoring.

  18. East Asia basin Analysis Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terman, M.J.

    1986-01-01

    The United Nations-related Committee for Coordination of Joint Prospecting for Mineral Resources in Asian Offshore Areas (CCOP), in cooperation with the International Union of Geological Sciences and Circum-Pacific Council, is implementing the East Asia Basin Analysis Project. National and regional organizations, principally members of the ASEAN Council of Petroleum, are compiling maps at a scale of 1:2 million and stratigraphic cross sections of basins, with particular initial emphasis on defining and assessing oil and gas plays and with later analytical focus on other sedimentary minerals (e.g., coal, phosphate, evaporites, and uranium). Completion is anticipated in 1988. Two major elements of the project are being contributed from other agencies. (1) Base maps. - The US Geological Survey (USGS) has partly compiled eight sheets covering east Asia that show bathymetry, shorelines, and drainage systems. One sheet also presents topography and selected cultural features. All sheets are scheduled to be completed in 1987. (2) Geotectonic maps. - The Working Group on Studies of East Asian Tectonics and Resources (SEATAR) is now completing 10 transect studies with crustal profiles and strip maps at a scale of 1:1 million. One map for each transect shows a plate tectonic interpretation. Transect coordinators or others will be encouraged to extrapolate between the strips and complete the geotectonic interpretation (on USGS bases) in 1987. The IGCP Project 220 is also compiling on (USGS bases) the tin and tungsten granites of east Asia, emphasizing geochemical data needed to identify predictive models. Other mapping will probably follow mineral-deposit modeling workshops on ophiolotic chromite and regional symposia on oceanic massive sulfide and subvolcanic gold and base metals. Completion may be possible by 1989

  19. InSAR to support sustainable urbanization over compacting aquifers: The case of Toluca Valley, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellazzi, Pascal; Garfias, Jaime; Martel, Richard; Brouard, Charles; Rivera, Alfonso

    2017-12-01

    This paper illustrates how InSAR alone can be used to delineate potential ground fractures related to aquifer system compaction. An InSAR-derived ground fracturing map of the Toluca Valley, Mexico, is produced and validated through a field campaign. The results are of great interest to support sustainable urbanization and show that InSAR processing of open-access Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data from the Sentinel-1 satellites can lead to reliable and cost-effective products directly usable by cities to help decision-making. The Toluca Valley Aquifer (TVA) sustains the water needs of two million inhabitants living within the valley, a growing industry, an intensively irrigated agricultural area, and 38% of the water needs of the megalopolis of Mexico City, located 40 km east of the valley. Ensuring water sustainability, infrastructure integrity, along with supporting the important economic and demographic growth of the region, is a major challenge for water managers and urban developers. This paper presents a long-term analysis of ground fracturing by interpreting 13 years of InSAR-derived ground displacement measurements. Small Baseline Subset (SBAS) and Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI) techniques are applied over three SAR datasets totalling 93 acquisitions from Envisat, Radarsat-2, and Sentinel-1A satellites and covering the period from 2003 to 2016. From 2003 to 2016, groundwater level declines of up to 1.6 m/yr, land subsidence up to 77 mm/yr, and major infrastructure damages are observed. Groundwater level data show highly variable seasonal responses according to their connectivity to recharge areas. However, the trend of groundwater levels consistently range from -0.5 to -1.5 m/yr regardless of the well location and depth. By analysing the horizontal gradients of vertical land subsidence, we provide a potential ground fracture map to assist in future urban development planning in the Toluca Valley.

  20. Numerical modeling of debris avalanches at Nevado de Toluca (Mexico): implications for hazard evaluation and mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieco, F.; Capra, L.; Groppelli, G.; Norini, G.

    2007-05-01

    The present study concerns the numerical modeling of debris avalanches on the Nevado de Toluca Volcano (Mexico) using TITAN2D simulation software, and its application to create hazard maps. Nevado de Toluca is an andesitic to dacitic stratovolcano of Late Pliocene-Holocene age, located in central México near to the cities of Toluca and México City; its past activity has endangered an area with more than 25 million inhabitants today. The present work is based upon the data collected during extensive field work finalized to the realization of the geological map of Nevado de Toluca at 1:25,000 scale. The activity of the volcano has developed from 2.6 Ma until 10.5 ka with both effusive and explosive events; the Nevado de Toluca has presented long phases of inactivity characterized by erosion and emplacement of debris flow and debris avalanche deposits on its flanks. The largest epiclastic events in the history of the volcano are wide debris flows and debris avalanches, occurred between 1 Ma and 50 ka, during a prolonged hiatus in eruptive activity. Other minor events happened mainly during the most recent volcanic activity (less than 50 ka), characterized by magmatic and tectonic-induced instability of the summit dome complex. According to the most recent tectonic analysis, the active transtensive kinematics of the E-W Tenango Fault System had a strong influence on the preferential directions of the last three documented lateral collapses, which generated the Arroyo Grande and Zaguàn debris avalanche deposits towards E and Nopal debris avalanche deposit towards W. The analysis of the data collected during the field work permitted to create a detailed GIS database of the spatial and temporal distribution of debris avalanche deposits on the volcano. Flow models, that have been performed with the software TITAN2D, developed by GMFG at Buffalo, were entirely based upon the information stored in the geological database. The modeling software is built upon equations

  1. Andesite Petrogenesis in Nevado de Toluca Stratovolcano, Central Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Tuena, A.; Capra, L.; Cai, Y.; Goldstein, S. L.

    2007-05-01

    A popular model for andesite petrogenesis in continental arcs involves a hydrous parental basalt that fractionates and probably assimilates continental crust during ascent. Nevertheless, andesites erupted from polygenetic volcanoes in the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt are not entirely consistent with this scenario because: (1) they display a shift to higher SiO2 contents at similar Mg# than true basalts, (2) they trend to lower HREE and HFSE contents with increasing SiO2, and (3) they often show correlated isotopic compositions with proxies for slab inputs but not with fractionation indexes. Young andesites from Toluca stratovolcano (1-0.042 Ma) also display modest adakite-like features (Sr/YToluca rock-suite revealed that some other andesites (2.6-1 Ma) also exhibit very strong negative Ce (Ce/Ce~0.25) anomalies, fractionated HREE patterns (Gd/Yb~4.2), as well as low Zr/Sm (~12.6), and Sr/Y (~12) ratios. These features are not easily explained by low or even high pressure differentiation from a common primitive magma, unless enormous quantities of fractionating accessory minerals are taken into account. And yet these geochemical signals are almost identical to those observed in the pelagic sedimentary horizon of the subducted Cocos plate sampled at DSDP site 487, and thus provide strong evidence for slab-derived sediment contributions to the petrogenesis of Toluca andesites. Since sediment transfer to the Toluca source must have occurred in the form of a silicate melt, the new evidence brings further support to the slab melting hypothesis in the Mexican subduction zone. Interestingly, Ce/Pb ratios of the Toluca rocks display a linear positive correlation with Pb isotopes, that departs from the pelagic sediment values, and extends to the enriched Pb isotopic compositions of intraplate-type volcanic rocks from the Chichinautzin volcanic field. Thus the Toluca rocks likely represent discrete slab-derived melts coming from different portions of the subducted slab that

  2. DROUGHT ANALYSIS IN OZANA DRAINAGE BASIN

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    Marina IOSUB

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Ozana drainage basin is located at the contact between large landscape units (the Carpathian mountains, the Subcarpathian area, and the plateau region. This placement determines the existence of a complex climate in the region. Despite being small in size, and its extension on an W-E direction, differences can be observed, especially of the way extreme phenomena take place. In the case of droughts, it had different intensities in the mountains, compared to the plateau region. In order to emphasize the different distribution on the territory, several climatic indexes have been calculated, regarding dryness (De Martonne Index, Hellman criterion. The analysis of these indexes at the same monitoring stations (Pluton, Leghin and Dumbrava emphasizes the growth of the drought periods in the plateau region and the fact that they shorten in the mountain area. In the mountainous area, where the land is very well forested, the values of the De Martonne index can reach 45.4, and in the plateau regions, where the forest associations are sparse, the values dropped to 30.6. According to the Hellman criterion, several differences can be emphasized, at basin level. In the mountainous region, there is only one month that, at a multi-annual level, has stood up among the rest, as being excessively droughty, while in the median /central region of the basin, three months have been identified, that have such potential, as well as five months, at Dumbrava.

  3. Determination of elements in the atmosphere of Valle de Toluca by Neutron Activation (July 1992 - April 1993)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia S, I.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to continue with the environmental monitoring program of Valle de Toluca by means of the Neutron Activation Analysis and atomic absorption techniques. The analytical results corresponding to the period of July 1992 to April 1993, and the analyzed elements by Neutron Activation were Na, V, Br, Al and Mn, while Cr and Pb were analyzed by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy. Since the study is a joint project with the Facultad de Quimica de la Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, the purpose is to continue with this type of chemical analysis. (Author)

  4. Performance analysis of double basin solar still with evacuated tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hitesh N Panchal; Shah, P. K.

    2013-01-01

    Solar still is a very simple device, which is used for solar distillation process. In this research work, double basin solar still is made from locally available materials. Double basin solar still is made in such a way that, outer basin is exposed to sun and lower side of inner basin is directly connected with evacuated tubes to increase distillate output and reducing heat losses of a solar still. The overall size of the lower basin is about 1006 mm x 325 mm x 380 mm, the outer basin is about 1006 mm x 536 mm x 100 mm Black granite gravel is used to increase distillate output by reducing quantity of brackish or saline water in the both basins. Several experiments have conducted to determine the performance of a solar still in climate conditions of Mehsana (latitude of 23 degree 59' and longitude of 72 degree 38'), Gujarat, like a double basin solar still alone, double basin solar still with different size black granite gravel, double basin solar still with evacuated tubes and double basin solar still with evacuated tubes and different size black granite gravel. Experimental results show that, connecting evacuated tubes with the lower side of the inner basin increases daily distillate output of 56% and is increased by 60%, 63% and 67% with average 10 mm, 20 mm and 30 mm size black granite gravel. Economic analysis of present double basin solar still is 195 days. (authors)

  5. Determination of {sup 222}Rn and its physico-chemical and biological characteristics in aquifers of Toluca valley; Determinacion de {sup 222}Rn y caracteristicas fisicoquimicas y biologicas en acuiferos del Valle de Toluca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez, A.; Aranda, P.; Ceballos, S.; Cruz, D.; Jauregui, B.; Lopez, R.; Pena, P.; Salazar, S.; Segovia, N.; Tamez, E. [Instituto nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    1997-07-01

    In this work it is realized a geochemical study which includes the evaluation of {sup 222} Rn concentration in drinking water wells at Toluca city and a spring water of Almoloya de Juarez municipality at State of mexico. the same is studied about evolution of {sup 222} Rn concentration in water of the hydrating which supply it to those wells. the geochemical evaluation also covers the determination of major and minor elements or trace and the biological analysis of water. The study includes two seasonal cycles, the low water mark one and other the rainy for being able to evaluate the aquifers reloading effects in the water composition. (Author)

  6. Determination of 222Rn and its physico-chemical and biological characteristics in aquifers of Toluca valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez, A.; Aranda, P.; Ceballos, S.; Cruz, D.; Jauregui, B.; Lopez, R.; Pena, P.; Salazar, S.; Segovia, N.; Tamez, E.

    1997-01-01

    In this work it is realized a geochemical study which includes the evaluation of 222 Rn concentration in drinking water wells at Toluca city and a spring water of Almoloya de Juarez municipality at State of mexico. the same is studied about evolution of 222 Rn concentration in water of the hydrating which supply it to those wells. the geochemical evaluation also covers the determination of major and minor elements or trace and the biological analysis of water. The study includes two seasonal cycles, the low water mark one and other the rainy for being able to evaluate the aquifers reloading effects in the water composition. (Author)

  7. 5. Basin assessment and watershed analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie M. Reid; Robert R. Ziemer

    1994-01-01

    Abstract - Basin assessment is an important component of the President's Forest Plan, yet it has received little attention. Basin assessments are intended both to guide watershed analyses by specifying types of issues and interactions that need to be understood, and, eventually, to integrate the results of watershed analyses occurring within a river basin....

  8. Ventilation potential during the emissions survey in Toluca Valley, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz Angulo, A.; Peralta, O.; Jurado, O. E.; Ortinez, A.; Grutter de la Mora, M.; Rivera, C.; Gutierrez, W.; Gonzalez, E.

    2017-12-01

    During the late-spring early-summer measurements of emissions and pollutants were carried out during a survey campaign at four different locations within the Toluca Valley. The current emissions inventory typically estimates the generation of pollutants based on pre-estimated values representing an entire sector function of their activities. However, those factors are not always based direct measurements. The emissions from the Toluca Valley are rather large and they could affect the air quality of Mexico City Valley. The air masses interchange between those two valleys is not very well understood; however, based on the measurements obtained during the 3 months campaign we looked carefully at the daily variability of the wind finding a clear signal for mountain-valley breeze. The ventilation coefficient is estimated and the correlations with the concentrations at the 4 locations and in a far away station in Mexico City are addressed in this work. Finally, we discuss the implication of the ventilation capacity in air quality for the system of Valleys that include Mexico City.

  9. The 12.1 ka Middle Toluca Pumice: A dacitic Plinian subplinian eruption of Nevado de Toluca in Central Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arce, J. L.; Cervantes, K. E.; Macías, J. L.; Mora, J. C.

    2005-10-01

    The Nevado de Toluca volcano erupted explosively approximately 12.1 ka ago, producing a Plinian-subplinian eruption that deposited the Middle Toluca Pumice (MTP). The MTP consists of white and gray juvenile pumice, gray dense juvenile lapilli, and red altered lithic lapilli. The pumice is dacitic (63.54-65.06 wt.% SiO 2) with phenocrysts of plagioclase > orthopyroxene > hornblende ± ilmenite and titanomagnetite, and biotite xenocrysts set in a groundmass of rhyolitic glass (70-71 wt.% SiO 2). The MTP has a dispersal axis to the ESE covering an area of 92 km 2, with a minimum volume of 1.8 km 3 (DRE). Stratigraphic relations, grain size, componentry, and vesicularity analyses suggest that the eruption occurred in five major phases: (1) an opening magmatic phase that generated a 20-km-high Plinian column dispersed to the SE; (2) a hydromagmatic explosion followed with the establishment of a subplinian eruptive column (18-19 km high) dispersed tephra to the SE and gradually waned; (3) hydromagmatic explosions emplaced dilute pyroclastic density currents followed by the formation of an eruptive column of unknown height; (4) immediately after, a new magmatic explosion established another eruptive column; and (5) the collapse of the latter column generated two pumiceous pyroclastic density currents that were fully dilute proximally, but transformed into two granular-fluid pyroclastic currents that traveled 19 km from the source.

  10. Exergetic analysis of basin type solar still

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apurba Layek

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Simplicity of solar distillation system makes it very attractive, but the yield as well as the overall efficiency is very low. Different types of absorng materials e.g. black ink, black dye solution in brackish water and black toner on water surface were used to evaluate their effect on the yield. As the absorng material absorbs more insolation to increase brackish water temperature, increases yield as well as overall energy efficiency. To enhance the thermal performance, and to have the insight of thermal losses; exergetic analysis of all the components is done. The maximum overall energy efficiency obtained for brackish water having these absorber on brackish water are about 41.3%, 43.42% and 45.79%, while exergetic efficiency values are 5.91%, 6.34% and 7.10% respectively. Exergy destruction from basin liner is the highest compared to that from brackish water and glazing.

  11. El Catafalco de la villa de Toluca, siglo XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Eleazar Serrano Espinosa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The presence of death is constant and it is represented through a series of concepts which allude to the end of the life in this world and their passage to another life in the more there, for it has made use of a variety of performances accompanied by a relative symbolism the ritual of death. This Catafalque in the town of Toluca is characterized by death accompanied by pious literature allusive figures returning to scenes from the Holy Bible and mythological metaphors inscribed within explanatory plates, thus we see that this text seeks with his language cause a persuasive reaction in the reader in order to have a good death and to ensure the salvation of your soul.

  12. Magnetic properties of lamellar tetrataenite in Toluca iron meteorite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funaki, Minoru; Nagata, Takesi; Danon, J.

    1985-01-01

    Magnetic studies were conducted using lamellar tetrataenite extracted from the Toluca octahedrite by a diluted HCl etching technique. Natural remanent magnetization (NRM) in the lamellae is very stable against AF demagnetization and is quite intense, ranging from 2.58 to 37.42 x10 -2 emu/g. This NRM is completely demagnetized thermally at about 550 0 C. The most characteristic change in magnetic properties on heating to about 550 C 0 is a significant decrease in magnetic coercivity. This observation is consistent with the results obtained from chondrites. The paramagnetic component in lamellar tetrataenite, which is estimated by Moessbauer spectrum analyses, was not detected by conventional magnetic studies. (Author) [pt

  13. Spectral Depth Analysis of some Segments of the Bida Basin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    2017-12-16

    Dec 16, 2017 ... ABSTRACT: Spectral depth analysis was carried out on ten (10) of the 2009 total magnetic field intensity data sheets covering some segments of the Bida basin, to determine the depth to magnetic basement within the basin. The data was ... groundwater lie concealed beneath the earth surface and the ...

  14. Late Pleistocene-Holocene cataclysmic eruptions at Nevado de Toluca and Jocotitlan volcanoes, central Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macias, J.L.; Garcia, P.A.; Arce, J.L.; Siebe, C.; Espindola, J.M.; Komorowski, J.C.; Scott, K.

    1997-01-01

    This field guide describes a five day trip to examine deposits of Late Pleistocene-Holocene cataclysmic eruptions at Nevado de Toluca and Jocotitlan volcanoes in central Mexico. We will discuss the stratigraphy, petrology, and sedimentological characteristics of these deposits which provide insights into the eruptive history, type of volcanic activity, and transport and emplacement mechanisms of pyroclastic materials. These parameters will allow us to discuss the kinds of hazards and the risk that they pose to populations around these volcanoes. The area to be visited is tectonically complex thus we will also discuss the location of the volcanoes with respect to the tectonic environment. The first four days of the field trip will be dedicated to Nevado de Toluca Volcano (19 degrees 09'N; 99 degrees 45'W) located at 23 km. southwest of the City of Toluca, and is the fourth highest peak in the country, reaching an elevation of 4,680 meters above sea level (m.a.s.l.). Nevado de Toluca is an andesitic-dacitic stratovolcano, composed of a central vent excavated upon the remains of older craters destroyed by former events. Bloomfield and Valastro, (1974, 1977) concluded that the last cycle of activity occurred nearly equal 11,600 yr. ago. For this reason Nevado de Toluca has been considered an extinct volcano. Our studies, however, indicate that Nevado de Toluca has had at least two episodes of cone destruction by sector collapse as well as several explosive episodes including plinian eruptions and dome-destruction events. These eruptions occurred during the Pleistocene but a very young eruption characterized by surge and ash flows occurred ca. 3,300 yr. BP. This new knowledge of the volcano's eruptive history makes the evaluation of its present state of activity and the geological hazards necessary. This is important because the area is densely populated and large cities such as Toluca and Mexico are located in its proximity.

  15. Compaction and sedimentary basin analysis on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabasova, Leila R.; Kite, Edwin S.

    2018-03-01

    Many of the sedimentary basins of Mars show patterns of faults and off-horizontal layers that, if correctly understood, could serve as a key to basin history. Sediment compaction is a possible cause of these patterns. We quantified the possible role of differential sediment compaction for two Martian sedimentary basins: the sediment fill of Gunjur crater (which shows concentric graben), and the sediment fill of Gale crater (which shows outward-dipping layers). We assume that basement topography for these craters is similar to the present-day topography of complex craters that lack sediment infill. For Gunjur, we find that differential compaction produces maximum strains consistent with the locations of observed graben. For Gale, we were able to approximately reproduce the observed layer orientations measured from orbiter image-based digital terrain models, but only with a >3 km-thick donut-shaped past overburden. It is not immediately obvious what geologic processes could produce this shape.

  16. 222 Rn determination and physicochemical characteristic and biological in aquifers in the Toluca Valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez A, A.

    1998-01-01

    Concentration levels of 222 Rn and 226 Rn have been analyzed in water samples from boreholes belonging to the drinking water supply system around Toluca, Mexico. The 222 Rn source is the decay of 226 Rn within the solid matrix of the aquifer. The study was performed during the dry and rainy seasons. 222 Rn concentration was determined by the liquid scintillation technique, 226 Rn was determined by gamma spectrometry, the physicochemical parameters and bacteriological analysis were performed by conventional chemical techniques. Solubilized trace elements were determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma - Mass Spectrometry (Icp-Ms). The radon level fluctuations at the boreholes in Toluca city and Almoloya spring indicated differences in the radon content. At borehole Lodos Prietos 2, the temperature and radon level were systematically the highest in comparison with the other boreholes and the spring indicating a contribution of a regional flow to the water of this particular borehole. The result for 226 Rn, the average 222 Rn observed during the sampling period, no correspondence occurs between the radium and the radon content indicating that, radon is not supported by radium, but is incorporated into the water through fissures in the rocks in contact with the water. The radon levels obtained in house faucets which water is supplied by boreholes decrease as a function of the distance from the source borehole to the house. With the chemical composition of each one of the studied boreholes and spring a Piper diagram was draw indicating the kind of water. The boreholes and spring can be classified as bicarbonate calcium/magnesium. Almost no fluctuation on time was observed in the chemical species and trace elements only a slight increase was observed at the end of the rain season. At Almoloya, spring pollution with coliform bacteria and nitrates showed an anthropogenic contribution to the water deterioration probable and fertilizers and detritus. Most of the studied water

  17. 183-H Basin Mixed Waste Analysis and Testing Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this sampling and analysis report is to provide data necessary to support treatment and disposal options for the low-level mixed waste from the 183-H solar evaporation ponds. In 1973, four of the 16 flocculation and sedimentation basins were designated for use as solar evaporation basins to provide waste reduction by natural evaporation of liquid chemical wastes from the 300 Area fuel fabrication facilities. The primary purpose of this effort is to gather chemical and bulk property data for the waste in the drums/boxes of sediment removed from the basin at Central Waste Complex

  18. Isla de calor en Toluca, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Constantino Morales Méndez

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El clima de la ciudad de Toluca y del mundo ha sido modificado como consecuencia del crecimiento de su población y el aumento de las dimensiones de su distribución territorial. Las variaciones atmosféricas son más acusadas entre los espacios urbanos y rurales a medida que las ciudades son más grandes y su mancha urbana es más extensa,así como de la reducción de la vegetación, el aumento en la calefacción en casas y edificios y por la contaminación del aire. Para identificar los espacios con calor más intenso por la infraestructura urbana, se propone una metodología que consiste en la determinación de los valores de temperatura que se registraron en dos días típicos de invierno y verano, durante el día y la noche,mostrando la distribución de la isla de calor en la zona de estudio, a partir de los datos delas estaciones de la Red Automática de Monitoreo Ambiental (RAMA. Asimismo, se considera el comportamiento y variación de algunas variables atmosféricas como humedad relativa, precipitación y viento, para mostrar su comportamiento relativamente anómalo en la zona urbana.

  19. Desde Toluca a Atlacomulco, hacia Celaya y a Valladolid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Elena Suárez Argüello

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A finales del siglo XVIII en la Nueva España se acrecentó la necesidad de construir y mejorar las vías terrestres alrededor de la Ciudad de México, principalmente hacia la zona de Toluca, Atlacomulco, Celaya y Valladolid. La razón de ello fue el incremento de la población y las reformas que se impulsaron por parte de las altas autoridades. El presente texto muestra el interés en la continuidad de una vía transversal que haría más expedito el tránsito de carga y de personas entre los pueblos de las zonas al poniente de la Ciudad de México. En este trabajo se describen algunos de los problemas que los funcionarios y autoridades enfrentaron en la dirección de los proyectos, la obtención de recursos financieros y la disponibilidad de mano de obra calificada para la construcción de los caminos. Pero a pesar de los esfuerzos e inversiones realizadas durante varios años para ejecutar las obras, el camino no logró concluirse.

  20. Seismic stratigraphy and regional unconformity analysis of Chukchi Sea Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agasheva, Mariia; Karpov, Yury; Stoupakova, Antonina; Suslova, Anna

    2017-04-01

    Russian Chukchi Sea Shelf one of petroleum potential province and still one of the most uninvestigated area. North and Sough Chukchi Trough that separated by Wrangel-Hearld Arch have different origin. The main challenge is stratigraphic sequences determination that filled North and South Chukchi basins. The joint tectonic evolution of the territory as Canada basin opening and Brooks Range-Wrangel Herald orogenic events enable to expect the analogous stratigraphy sequences in Russian Part. Analysis of 2D seismic data of Russian and American Chukchi Sea represent the major seismic reflectance that traced throughout the basins. Referring to this data North Chukchi basin includes four seismic stratigraphic sequences - Franklian (pre-Mississippian), Ellesmirian (Upper Devonian-Jurassic), Beaufortian (Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous) and Brookian (Lower Cretaceous-Cenozoic), as it is in North Slope Alaska [1]. South Chukchi basin has different tectonic nature, representing only Franclian basement and Brookian sequences. Sedimentary cover of North Chukchi basins starts with Ellesmirian sequence it is marked by bright reflector that separates from chaotic folded Franklian sequence. Lower Ellesmirian sequence fills of grabens that formed during upper Devonian rifting. Devonian extension event was initiated as a result of Post-Caledonian orogenic collapse, terminating with the opening of Arctic oceans. Beaufortian sequence is distinguished in Colville basin and Hanna Trough by seismically defined clinoforms. Paleozoic and Mesozoic strata are eroded by regional Lower Cretaceous Unconformity (LCU) linked with Canada basin opening. LCU is defined at seismic by angular unconformity, tracing at most arctic basins. Lower Cretaceous erosion and uplift event are of Hauterivian to Aptian age in Brooks Range and the Loppa High uplift refer to the early Barremian. The Lower Cretaceous clinoform complex downlaps to LCU horizon and filling North Chukchi basin (as in Colville basin Alska

  1. Quality of well water at Toluca and Lerma, State of Mexico; Calidad del agua de pozos de Toluca y Lerma, Estado de Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez, A.C.; Segovia, N.; Iturbe, J.L.; Lopez, B. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Martinez, V. [CIRA, Toluca (Mexico); Armienta, M.A. [Ciudad Universitaria, IGFUNAM, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Seidel, J.L. [Universite de Montpellier, CNRS, Lab. de Geochemie (France)

    1999-07-01

    With the purpose to determine the characteristics and quality of the well water located in Toluca City and Lerma which are related with the net of potable water, it is determined physicochemical parameters, bacteriological characteristics as well as the radionuclide concentration and trace elements in water samples. Those studies can get information about possible pollutants of anthropogenic origin. In this work also were determined the isotopes {sup 222} Rn and {sup 226} Ra in the water samples. (Author)

  2. Morphometric analysis of the Marmara Sea river basins, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbaşı, Emre; Ozdemir, Hasan

    2014-05-01

    The drainage basin, the fundamental unit of the fluvial landscape, has been focus of research aimed at understanding the geometric characteristics of the master channel and its tributary network. This geometry is referred to as the basin morphometry and is nicely reviewed by Abrahams (1984). A great amount of research has focused on geometric characteristic of drainage basins, including the topology of the stream networks, and quantitative description of drainage texture, pattern, shape, and relief characteristics. Evaluation of morphometric parameters necessitates the analysis of various drainage parameters such as ordering of the various streams, measurement of basin area and perimeter, length of drainage channels, drainage density (Dd), stream frequency (Fs), bifurcation ratio (Rb), texture ratio (T), basin relief (Bh), Ruggedness number (Rn), time of concentration (Tc), hypsometric curve and integral (Hc and Hi) (Horton, 1932, Schumn, 1956, Strahler, 1957; Verstappen 1983; Keller and Pinter, 2002; Ozdemir and Bird, 2009). These morphometric parameters have generally been used to predict flood peaks, to assess sediment yield, and to estimate erosion rates in the basins. River basins of the Marmara Sea, has an area of approximately 40,000 sqkm, are the most important basins in Turkey based on their dense populations, industry and transportation systems. The primary aim of this study is to determine and analyse of morphometric characteristics of the Marmara Sea river basins using 10 m resolution Digital Elevation Model (DEM) and to evaluate of the results. For these purposes, digital 10 m contour maps scaled 1:25000 and geological maps scaled 1:100000 were used as the main data sources in the study. 10 m resolution DEM data were created using the contour maps and then drainage networks and their watersheds were extracted using D8 pour point model. Finally, linear, areal and relief morphometries were applied to the river basins using Geographic Information Systems

  3. Population structure of Phytophthora infestans in the Toluca Valley region of Central Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grünwald, N.J.; Flier, W.G.; Sturbaum, A.K.; Garay-Serrano, E.; Bosch, van den G.B.M.; Smart, C.D.; Matuszak, J.M.; Turkensteen, L.J.; Fry, W.E.

    2001-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that the population of Phytophthora infestans in the Toluca valley region is genetically differentiated according to habitat. Isolates were sampled in three habitats from (i) wild Solanum spp. (WILD), (ii) land-race varieties in low-input production systems (RURAL), and

  4. Floods in the Niger basin - analysis and attribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aich, V.; Koné, B.; Hattermann, F. F.; Müller, E. N.

    2014-08-01

    This study addresses the increasing flood risk in the Niger basin and assesses the damages that arise from flooding. Statistics from three different sources (EM-DAT, Darthmouth Flood Observatory, NatCat Munich RE) on people affected by floods show positive trends for the entire basin beginning in the 1980s. An assessment of four subregions across the Niger basin indicates even exponential trends for the Sahelian and Sudanian regions. These positive trends for flooding damage match up to a time series of annual maximum discharge (AMAX): the strongest trends in AMAX are detected in the Sahelian and Sudanian regions, where the population is also increasing the fastest and vulnerability generally appears to be very high. The joint effect of these three factors can possibly explain the exponential increase in people affected by floods in these subregions. In a second step, the changes in AMAX are attributed to changes in precipitation and land use via a data-based approach within a hypothesis-testing framework. Analysis of rainfall, heavy precipitation and the runoff coefficient shows a coherent picture of a return to wet conditions in the basin, which we identify as the main driver of the increase in AMAX in the Niger basin. The analysis of flashiness (using the Richards-Baker Index) and the focus on the "Sahel Paradox" of the Sahelian region reveal an additional influence of land-use change, but it seems minor compared to the increase in precipitation.

  5. Long term storage of explosively erupted magma at Nevado de Toluca volcano, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arce, J. L.; Gardner, J.; Macias, J. L.

    2007-12-01

    Dacitic magmas production is common in subduction-related volcanoes, occurring in those with a long period of activity as a result of the magmatic evolution. However, in this evolution many factors (i.e. crystal fractionation, assimilation, magma mixing) can interact to produce dacites. Nevado de Toluca volcano (4,680 masl; 19°09'N; 99°45'W) Central Mexico has recorded a long period of time producing dacites explosively, at least during 42 ka of activity, involving several km3 of magma, with two important Plinian-type eruptions occurred at ~21.7 ka (Lower Toluca Pumice) and ~10.5 ka (Upper Toluca Pumice). Questions like, what was the mechanism responsible to produce voluminous dacitic magma and how the volatiles and pressure changed in the Nevado de Toluca system, remain without answers. Dacites from the Lower Toluca Pumice (LTP) contain plagioclase, amphibole, iron-titanium oxides, and minor resorbed biotite, set in a glassy-vesicular matrix and the Upper Toluca Pumice (UTP) dacites contain the same mineral phases plus orthopyroxene. Ilmenite- ulvospinel geothermometry yielded a temperature of ~860°C for the LTP dacite, a little hotter than the UTP (~ 840°C). Based on hydrothermal experiments data, amphibole is stable above 100 MPa under 900°C, while plagioclase crystallizes up to 250-100 MPa at temperatures of 850-900°C. Pyroxene occurs only at pressures of 200-100 MPa with its respective temperatures of 825-900°C. Water contents in the LTP magma (2-3.5 wt %) are similar to that calculated for the UTP magma (1.3-3.6 wt %). So, there are only small changes in temperature and pressure from ~21.7 ka to 10.5 ka. It is noteworthy that orthopyroxene is absent in the LTP, however reaction-rimmed biotite (probably xenocrystic) is commonly observed in all dacites. Hence, almost all dacitic magmas seem to be stored at relatively similar pressures, water contents, and temperatures. All of these data could suggest repetitive basic magma injections producing the

  6. Pre-eruptive conditions of dacitic magma erupted during the 21.7 ka Plinian event at Nevado de Toluca volcano, Central Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arce, J. L.; Gardner, J. E.; Macías, J. L.

    2013-01-01

    The Nevado de Toluca volcano in Central Mexico has been active over the last ca. 42 ka, during which tens of km3 of pyroclastic material were erupted and two important Plinian-type eruptions occurred at ca. 21.7 ka (Lower Toluca Pumice: LTP) and ca. 10.5 ka (Upper Toluca Pumice: UTP). Samples from both the LTP and UTP contain plagioclase, amphibole, iron-titanium oxides, and minor anhedral biotite, set in a vesicular, rhyolitic, glassy matrix. In addition, UTP dacites contain orthopyroxene. Analysis of melt inclusions in plagioclase phenocrysts yields H2O contents of 2-3.5 wt.% for LTP and 1.3-3.6 wt.% for UTP samples. Ilmenite-ulvospinel geothermometry yields an average temperature of ~ 868 °C for the LTP magma (hotter than the UTP magma, ~ 842 °C; Arce et al., 2006), whereas amphibole-plagioclase geothermometry yields a temperature of 825-859 °C for the LTP magma. Water-saturated experiments using LTP dacite suggest that: (i) amphibole is stable above 100 MPa and below 900 °C; (ii) plagioclase crystallizes below 250-100 MPa at temperatures of 850-900 °C; and (iii) pyroxene is stable only below pressures of 200-100 MPa and temperatures of 825-900 °C. Comparison of natural and experimental data suggests that the LTP dacitic magma was stored at 150-200 MPa (5.8-7.7 km below the volcano summit). No differences in pressure found between 21.7 ka and 10.5 ka suggest that these two magmas were stored at similar depths. Orthopyroxene produced in lower temperature LTP experiments is compositionally different to those found in UTP natural samples, suggesting that they originated in two different magma batches. Whole-rock chemistry, petrographic features, and mineral compositions suggest that magma mixing was responsible for the generation of the dacitic Plinian LTP eruption.

  7. Geochemical Characterization of Late Pleistocene and Holocene Tephra Layers from the Basin of Mexico, Central Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Guerrero, Beatriz; Newton, Anthony J.

    1998-07-01

    In order to aid palaeoenvironmental research of Late Pleistocene and Holocene deposits of central Mexico, tephra layers collected from the sediments of the Texcoco and Chalco sub-basins, in the southern part of the Basin of Mexico, are geochemically characterized and used as stratigraphic markers. The tephra layers range in composition from basaltic andesites to rhyolites and are calc-alkaline. The tephras range in age from >34,000 to ca. 2600 14C yr B.P. New names are used informally to designate correlated tephras. The Tlahuac tephra is present in Chalco, at a depth of 18 m; in the southeastern part of Texcoco, at a depth of around 10 m; and at the Tlapacoya archaeological site, where it had been mistakenly described as basaltic. This basalt-andesite tephra is dated to at least 34,000 14C yr B.P. The Tlapacoya 1 tephra is dated to between 15,020 ± 450 and 14,430 ± 190 yr B.P. and is present in all Chalco sections. The Tlapacoya 2 tephra corresponds to the previously described "pomez gruesa con fragmentos de andesita" (ca. 14,400 yr B.P.) and is present in all Chalco and Texcoco sections. The likely source of these three tephras is the volcano Popocatepetl. Tephra II at Chalco dates to 12,520 ± 135 yr B.P. and correlates with the Upper Toluca Pumice from Nevado de Toluca volcano. These represent the first geochemical glass-shard analysis of tephras from the Basin of Mexico, and so further research is necessary before a reliable tephrochronology can be established.

  8. The Quaternary history of effusive volcanism of the Nevado de Toluca area, Central Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Orozco, R.; Arce, J. L.; Layer, P. W.; Benowitz, J. A.

    2017-11-01

    Andesite and dacite lava flows and domes, and intermediate-mafic cones from the Nevado de Toluca area were classified into five groups using field data and 40Ar/39Ar geochronology constraints. Thirty-four lava units of diverse mineralogy and whole-rock major-element geochemistry, distributed between the groups, were identified. These effusive products were produced between ∼1.5 and ∼0.05 Ma, indicating a mid-Pleistocene older-age for Nevado de Toluca volcano, coexisting with explosive products that suggest a complex history for this volcano. A ∼0.96 Ma pyroclastic deposit attests for the co-existence of effusive and explosive episodes in the mid-Pleistocene history. Nevado de Toluca initiated as a composite volcano with multiple vents until ∼1.0 Ma, when the activity began to centralize in an area close to the present-day crater. The modern main edifice reached its maximum height at ca. 50 ka after bulky, spiny domes erupted in the current summit of the crater. Distribution and geochemical behavior in major elements of lavas indicate a co-magmatic relationship between different andesite and dacite domes and flows, although unrelated to the magmatism of the monogenetic volcanism. Mafic-intermediate magma likely replenished the system at Nevado de Toluca since ca. ∼1.0 Ma and contributed to the eruption of new domes, cones, as well as effusive-explosive activity. Altogether, field and laboratory data suggest that a large volume of magma was ejected around 1 Ma in and around the Nevado de Toluca.

  9. Sampling and Analysis Plan for the 105-N Basin Water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    R.O. Mahood

    1997-01-01

    This sampling and analysis plan defines the strategy, and field and laboratory methods that will be used to characterize 105-N Basin water. The water will be shipped to the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility for treatment and disposal as part of N Reactor deactivation. These analyses are necessary to ensure that the water will meet the acceptance criteria of the ETF, as established in the Memorandum of Understanding for storage and treatment of water from N-Basin (Appendix A), and the characterization requirements for 100-N Area water provided in a letter from ETF personnel (Appendix B)

  10. The Population Structure of Phytophthora infestans from the Toluca Valley of Central Mexico Suggests Genetic Differentiation Between Populations from Cultivated Potato and Wild Solanum spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flier, Wilbert G; Grünwald, Niklaus J; Kroon, Laurens P N M; Sturbaum, Anne K; van den Bosch, Trudy B M; Garay-Serrano, Edith; Lozoya-Saldaña, Hector; Fry, William E; Turkensteen, Lod J

    2003-04-01

    ABSTRACT The population structure of Phytophthora infestans in the Toluca Valley of central Mexico was assessed using 170 isolates collected from cultivated potatoes and the native wild Solanum spp., S. demissum and S. xendinense. All isolates were analyzed for mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplotype and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) multi-locus fingerprint genotype. Isolate samples were monomorphic for mtDNA haplotype because all isolates tested were of the Ia haplotype. A total of 158 multilocus AFLP genotypes were identified among the 170 P. infestans isolates included in this study. P. infestans populations sampled in the Toluca Valley in 1997 were highly variable and almost every single isolate represented a unique genotype based on the analysis of 165 AFLP marker loci. Populations of P. infestans collected from the commercial potato-growing region in the valley, the subsistence potato production area along the slopes of the Nevado de Toluca, and the native Solanum spp. on the forested slopes of the volcano showed a high degree of genetic diversity. The number of polymorphic loci varied from 20.0 to 62.4% for isolates collected from the field station and wild Solanum spp. On average, 81.8% (135) of the AFLP loci were polymorphic. Hetero-zygosity varied between 7.7 and 19.4%. Significant differentiation was found at the population level between strains originating from cultivated potatoes and wild Solanum spp. (P = 0.001 to 0.022). Private alleles were observed in individual isolates collected from all three populations, with numbers of unique dominant alleles varying from 9 to 16 for isolates collected from commercial potato crops and native Solanum spp., respectively. Four AFLP markers were exclusively found present in isolates collected from S. demissum. Indirect estimation of gene flow between populations indicated restricted gene flow between both P. infestans populations from cultivated potatoes and wild Solanum hosts. There was no evidence

  11. Determination of the concentrations of lead in raw milk in the Valley of Toluca

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosas Vilchis, E.

    1991-01-01

    The object of the present work, undertaken under the program of Regional and Cooperative Agreement for Nuclear Science and Technology in Latin America (ARCAL IV), was to determine the amounts of lead found in raw milk using the analytic techniques of Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (AAS), Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES) and X-ray Fluorescence (FRX); so as to aid in solving problems of public health originating from elevated amounts of heavy metals in foods of animal origin. A total of thirty samples of raw milk were collected in the Valley of Toluca in Mexico, where heavy metal contaminants in the environment due to effects of rapid industrialization and urbanization, are known to have entered the food chain. The methodology, consisting in destroying organic matter in the samples by calcination, and included, in the case of AAS and ICP-AES, acid digestion. In the case of FRX, lead was extracted by ammonium 1-pyrrolidine carboditioate (APDC). The equipment to be used was calibrated and both blank and working solutions prepared in order to perform quantitative analysis. The concentrations of lead which were found in all the milk samples ranged from <0.03 to 0.31 μg/ml milk. These amounts within the maximum permissible limits, 0.5 μg/ml for all types of milk, established by the FDA. In the analysis ICP-AES gave best results as to sensitivity, precision and accuracy, followed by AAS which gave reliable results. FRX failed to detect lower limits and was, therefore, less reliable. (Author)

  12. The Upper Toluca Pumice (10.5 kyr): Product of the last major Plinian eruption of Nevado de Toluca volcano, Central Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arce, J. L.; Macias, J. L.

    2001-12-01

    The last Plinian eruption at Nevado de Toluca volcano occurred 10.5 kyr ago producing the Upper Toluca Pumice (UTP). The UTP consists of four widespread fallout layers, interbedded with pyroclastic flow and surge deposits. The UTP event occurred under open vent conditions starting with hydromagmatic explosions that emplaced a hot pyroclastic flow (F0) on the east and northern flanks of the volcano. This explosion decompressed the magmatic system allowing almost immediately the formation of a 21 km high Plinian column that was dispersed by predominant winds 5o to the NE (PC0), which waned after some time. The eruption recommenced with the establishment of three Plinian columns that were dispersed in a NE-E direction, reaching heights of 39, 42, and 28 km, and deposited fall layers (PC1, PC2, and PC3) respectively. These Plinian columns were interrupted several times by phreatomagmatic and collapse events that emplaced pyroclastic flows (F1, F2, and F3) and surges (S1, and S2), mainly on the eastern and northern flanks of the volcano. The juvenile components of the UTP sequence are white, gray and banded pumice and gray juvenile lithic clasts both of dacitic composition (63-66wt% SiO2), and minor accidental lithics. The fallout deposits (PC1 and PC2) covered a minimum area of 2000 km2 with a total volume of 14 km3 (ca. 6 km3 D.R.E.); a mass eruption rate ranging from 3\\times107 to 5\\times108 kg/s and a total mass of 1.2\\times1013 kg. The UTP emplaced 1.5 m of gravel-sized pumice in the modern City of Toluca region and ca. 20 cm of fine sand in the Mexico City region. A future event of this magnitude might represent a major catastrophe to the 30 million people living in these cities and their surroundings.

  13. Los archivos parroquiales de la Villa de Toluca, 1684-1760

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgina Yolotl GALLARDO-HURTADO

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available La parroquia de San José, en la ciudad de Toluca, cuenta con registros de bautizos a partir de 1642, de matrimonios desde 1666 y de defunciones desde 1648. La información está dividida por castas. El objetivo de este trabajo es realizar un análisis de algunas de las características demográficas de la población de la Villa de Toluca, en especial, mortalidad y fecundidad para el periodo 1684-1760. Aunque se enfrentaron diferentes problemas debidos a la calidad o carencia de información a lo largo del periodo, se pudieron obtener estimadores, como la tasa bruta de mortalidad, la tasa de mortalidad infantil y la tasa bruta de natalidad, algunas por casta, por lo que pueden compararse, sobre todo para las épocas de epidemias.

  14. Quality of well water at Toluca and Lerma, State of Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, A.C.; Segovia, N.; Iturbe, J.L.; Lopez, B.; Martinez, V.; Armienta, M.A.; Seidel, J.L.

    1999-01-01

    With the purpose to determine the characteristics and quality of the well water located in Toluca City and Lerma which are related with the net of potable water, it is determined physicochemical parameters, bacteriological characteristics as well as the radionuclide concentration and trace elements in water samples. Those studies can get information about possible pollutants of anthropogenic origin. In this work also were determined the isotopes 222 Rn and 226 Ra in the water samples. (Author)

  15. BasinVis 1.0: A MATLAB®-based program for sedimentary basin subsidence analysis and visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun Young; Novotny, Johannes; Wagreich, Michael

    2016-06-01

    Stratigraphic and structural mapping is important to understand the internal structure of sedimentary basins. Subsidence analysis provides significant insights for basin evolution. We designed a new software package to process and visualize stratigraphic setting and subsidence evolution of sedimentary basins from well data. BasinVis 1.0 is implemented in MATLAB®, a multi-paradigm numerical computing environment, and employs two numerical methods: interpolation and subsidence analysis. Five different interpolation methods (linear, natural, cubic spline, Kriging, and thin-plate spline) are provided in this program for surface modeling. The subsidence analysis consists of decompaction and backstripping techniques. BasinVis 1.0 incorporates five main processing steps; (1) setup (study area and stratigraphic units), (2) loading well data, (3) stratigraphic setting visualization, (4) subsidence parameter input, and (5) subsidence analysis and visualization. For in-depth analysis, our software provides cross-section and dip-slip fault backstripping tools. The graphical user interface guides users through the workflow and provides tools to analyze and export the results. Interpolation and subsidence results are cached to minimize redundant computations and improve the interactivity of the program. All 2D and 3D visualizations are created by using MATLAB plotting functions, which enables users to fine-tune the results using the full range of available plot options in MATLAB. We demonstrate all functions in a case study of Miocene sediment in the central Vienna Basin.

  16. Sampling and Analysis Plan for K Basins Debris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WESTCOTT, J.L.

    2000-01-01

    This Sampling and Analysis Plan presents the rationale and strategy for sampling and analysis activities to support removal of debris from the K-East and K-West Basins located in the 100K Area at the Hanford Site. This project is focused on characterization to support waste designation for disposal of waste at the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF). This material has previously been dispositioned at the Hanford Low-Level Burial Grounds or Central Waste Complex. The structures that house the basins are classified as radioactive material areas. Therefore, all materials removed from the buildings are presumed to be radioactively contaminated. Because most of the materials that will be addressed under this plan will be removed from the basins, and because of the cost associated with screening materials for release, it is anticipated that all debris will be managed as low-level waste. Materials will be surveyed, however, to estimate radionuclide content for disposal and to determine that the debris is not contaminated with levels of transuranic radionuclides that would designate the debris as transuranic waste

  17. Basin Analysis and Petroleum System Characterisation of Western Bredasdorp Basin, Southern Offshore of South Africa: Insights from a 3d Crust-Scale Basin Model - (Phase 1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonibare, W. A.; Scheck-Wenderoth, M.; Sippel, J.; Mikeš, D.

    2012-04-01

    + (Interactive Gravity and Magnetic Assistant System; Götze et al., 2010 and Schmidt et al., 2011). The ensuing model will be applied to predict the present-day deep crustal configuration and thermal field characteristics of the basin. Thereafter, 3D volumetric backstripping analysis will be performed to predict basin subsidence mechanisms (i.e. tectonic, thermal and sediment load) through time as well as to estimate paleo-water depths for paleogeographic reconstruction. The information gathered from crust-scale basin dynamics will be subsequently used at the petroleum system modelling stage to holistically assess the hydrocarbon potential of the basin in terms of source rock maturity and hydrocarbon generation, migration, timing and accumulation.

  18. {sup 222} Rn determination and physicochemical characteristic and biological in aquifers in the Toluca Valley; Determinacion de {sup 222} Rn y caracteristicas fisicoquimicas y biologicas en acuiferos del Valle de Toluca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez A, A

    1998-10-01

    Concentration levels of {sup 222} Rn and {sup 226} Rn have been analyzed in water samples from boreholes belonging to the drinking water supply system around Toluca, Mexico. The {sup 222} Rn source is the decay of {sup 226} Rn within the solid matrix of the aquifer. The study was performed during the dry and rainy seasons. {sup 222} Rn concentration was determined by the liquid scintillation technique, {sup 226} Rn was determined by gamma spectrometry, the physicochemical parameters and bacteriological analysis were performed by conventional chemical techniques. Solubilized trace elements were determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma - Mass Spectrometry (Icp-Ms). The radon level fluctuations at the boreholes in Toluca city and Almoloya spring indicated differences in the radon content. At borehole Lodos Prietos 2, the temperature and radon level were systematically the highest in comparison with the other boreholes and the spring indicating a contribution of a regional flow to the water of this particular borehole. The result for {sup 226} Rn, the average {sup 222} Rn observed during the sampling period, no correspondence occurs between the radium and the radon content indicating that, radon is not supported by radium, but is incorporated into the water through fissures in the rocks in contact with the water. The radon levels obtained in house faucets which water is supplied by boreholes decrease as a function of the distance from the source borehole to the house. With the chemical composition of each one of the studied boreholes and spring a Piper diagram was draw indicating the kind of water. The boreholes and spring can be classified as bicarbonate calcium/magnesium. Almost no fluctuation on time was observed in the chemical species and trace elements only a slight increase was observed at the end of the rain season. At Almoloya, spring pollution with coliform bacteria and nitrates showed an anthropogenic contribution to the water deterioration probable and

  19. Study of fine particles (PM2.5) during the dry-hot time in the Toluca city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosendo G, V.; Aldape U, F.

    2007-01-01

    The first obtained results of the analysis of the fine fraction particulate material (PM 2.5 ) samples collected in the Toluca City are presented. The samples analyzed are part of a more extensive campaign that contemplates the low project the one which one carries out this work and that it integrates three climatic times (dry-hot, of rains and dry-cold time) with the purpose of investigating the events of contamination in one complete year. The obtained results correspond to the dry-hot time and its include mainly the database starting from which the temporal variation graphs were obtained, the correlations among elements and the enrichment factor, as well as a multiple correlation analysis. Additionally the gravimetry was measured. Its are not observed significant episodes, however, it was found an element of the traces order, little common in other atmospheric studies as it is arsenic. From the gravimetry it was deduced that the air quality standard of fine particle, it does not violate. (Author)

  20. Formación del patrimonio gastronómico del Valle de Toluca, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Tonatiuh Romero Contreras

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Se describe la formación de la cocina patrimonial de la región de Toluca como primer paso para su investigación culinaria. Se utilizó información etnohistórica de primera mano (cronistas y la consulta de libros, recetarios, tesis y otros documentos, relacionándolos con las características ambientales y culturales del Valle de Toluca. Se identificaron las especies animales y vegetales, así como las prácticas agrícolas-culinarias que trajeron consigo los españoles y su fusión con sus similares locales, lo que produjo el mestizaje gastronómico en el Valle de Toluca expresado en sus platillos patrimoniales: barbacoas, embutidos, moles, tamales, dulces y bebidas tradicionales.

  1. Tectonic evolution of the central-eastern sector of Trans Mexican Volcanic Belt and its influence on the eruptive history of the Nevado de Toluca volcano (Mexico)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellotti, F.; Capra, L.; Groppelli, G.; Norini, G.

    2006-11-01

    The Nevado de Toluca is an andesitic to dacitic stratovolcano of Late Pliocene-Holocene age located within the central and eastern sectors of the Trans Mexican Volcanic Belt. Morphostructural analysis, aerial photograph and satellite image interpretation, structural analysis and geological fieldwork were methods used to investigate the relationship between the evolution of the volcano and the tectonic framework of its basement. The study revealed that the area of Nevado de Toluca is affected by three main fault systems that intersect close to the volcanic edifice. These are from oldest to youngest, the Taxco-Querétaro, San Antonio and Tenango fault systems. The NNW-SSE Taxco-Querétaro fault system was active in the area since Early Miocene, and is characterized by right-lateral transtensive movement. Its reactivation during Early to Middle Pleistocene was responsible for the emplacement of andesitic to dacitic lava flows and domes of La Cieneguilla Supersynthem. The NE-SW San Antonio fault system was active during Late Pliocene, before the reactivation of the Taxco-Querétaro fault system, and is characterized by extensional left-lateral oblique-slip kinematics. The youngest is the E-W Tenango fault system that has been active since Late Pleistocene. This fault system is characterized by transtensive left-lateral strike-slip movement, and partly coeval with the youngest eruptive phase, the Nevado Supersynthem, which formed the present summit cone of the Nevado de Toluca volcano. The stress re-orientation from the Taxco-Querétaro to the Tenango fault system during Late Pleistocene is responsible for the ˜ 1 Ma hiatus in the magmatic activity between 1.15 Ma and 42 ka. After this period of repose, the eruptive style drastically changed from effusive to explosive with the emission of dacitic products. The methodology presented here furnish new data that can be used to better assess the complex structural evolution of this sector of the Trans Mexican Volcanic Belt

  2. Evaluación de los bosques templados en México: una aplicación en el Parque Nacional Nevado de Toluca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes Villers Ruíz

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on In a photonterpretation and fieldwork analysis a méthodologie procedure to characterize the temperate forests in Mexico is proposed The methodology was applied in the Nevado de Toluca National Park, Three forest communities were determined; a Pinus hartwegii. b Abies religiosa and ci mixed: Abies religiosa, Alnus jorullensis. P pseudostrobus and P. hartwegii. For each community three types of covering density were delineated. Remarkable differences between number of trees, height and cover, with regard to the different density types and the three forest types were found. From dominant species analysis, subdominants species and covering percentage of the fieldwork sampling sites suggested more richness in the Abies and mixed forests than in the Pmus forests. Several impact levels caused by human activities exist: logging (mainly in Abies forest, in Pinus forests deliberately fires for grass-induced. The presence of Lipmus montanus and Penstemon gentienoides can be used as disturbed indicators.

  3. Limitations of urban development in land of social origin: the case of the metropolitan area of the city of Toluca (ZMCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiménez-Sánchez Pedro Leobardo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the occupation process of agricultural land with social origin and urban uses in the metropolitan area of the city of Toluca (ZMCT, and the barriers that the population and authorities have to face in order to regularize the settlements. A mixed research method was applied, which included the use of quantitative and qualitative methods, on the basis of a theoretical analysis, to build a methodological research model, which was applied to an empirical case in municipal and metropolitan areas. The analysis of the 14 municipalities that constitute ZMCT shows that the barriers for regularizing settlements in land of social origin are the result of legal/administrative inefficiencies due to the incapability of local city halls to address the collective needs of society.

  4. 13 Morphometric Analysis of Ogunpa and Ogbere Drainage Basins ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    `123456789jkl''''#

    form and process of drainage basins that may be widely ... ferruginous tropical soil on basement complex rock (Areola ... landuse pattern control the infiltration loss, the distribution of ... the water intercepted by Ogbere drainage basin to longer ...

  5. Identification of metals into fine particles (PM2.5) during the dry cold season in the Toluca City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez P, A. A.; Aldape U, F.

    2008-01-01

    To know the elemental content of fine particles PM 2.5 that can affect people in the Toluca City, such as metals and another, it was made a campaign collection of fine particles during dry-cold ( November 2006-March 2007). The aerosol samples were collected on Teflon filters with an equipment BGI model PQ200 mark authorized by the Environment Protection Agency (EPA), every other day with a time resolution of 24 h. The determination of the elemental composition of the samples was performed by means of the technique Particle Induced X-Ray Emission (PIXE). The results of the analysis showed consistently 13 elements S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, as, throughout the collection period. We calculated the enrich factor that separates the elements of the natural component of the anthropogenic component. The correlation matrix shows the pairs of elements that are contained in the same air mass as Vanadium and Nickel. From the results it is concluded that the sources that gave rise to these particles are the burning of fossil fuels in motor vehicles, lubricants, additives and burning tires wear of automotive vehicles, besides the products used in agricultural activities. (Author)

  6. Lead levels in the workers blood at the Toluca bus terminal.; Niveles de plomo en sangre de los trabajadores de la terminal de autobuses de Toluca.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez H, S P; Garcia G, G

    1998-06-01

    The study was carried out in order to detect the levels of lead in blood in exposed workers to the lead in their place of work, in the Toluca bus terminal. The measurement of the levels of lead in blood was carried out in a sample of 31 people of 60 workers for atomic absorption spectrometry. The lead is a general protoplasmic poison that is accumulative and produce great variety of symptoms, the lead could be absorbed inside the body for ingestion, inhalation and through the skin. Organic compounds of the lead as tetraethyl lead, penetrate the cutaneous barrier quickly. From the beginning the personal habits were evaluated, hygienic, nutritious and the environmental conditions by means of a questionnaire. The levels of lead in opposing blood, they were below them you limit permissible for personal exposed, published by the WHO. (Author).

  7. Coccidia in passerines from the Nevado de Toluca National Park, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Juan P; Salgado-Miranda, Celene; García-Conejo, Michele; Galindo-Sánchez, Karla P; Mejía-García, Cristian J; Janczur, Mariusz K; Gomes Lopes, Carlos W; Berto, Bruno P; Soriano-Vargas, Edgardo

    2014-03-01

    In this study, we found unsporulated coccidia oocysts in passerines from the Nevado de Toluca National Park, Mexico. We captured birds and took samples of their droppings during three field visits. We examined a total of 72 fecal samples and found unsporulated coccidia oocysts in 10 samples from five passerine species: Atlapetes pileatus (3), Cardelina ruber (1), Mniotilta varia (1), Oreothlypis celata (2) and Regulus calendula (3). This appears to be the first recorded study of unsporulated coccidia oocysts in passerine species from Mexico.

  8. Neutron activation analysis of minerals from Cuddapah basin geological formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagendra Kumar, P.V.; Suresh Kumar, N.; Acharya, R.; Reddy, A.V.R.; Krishna Reddy, L.

    2014-01-01

    Green and yellow serpentines along with two associated minerals namely dolomite and intrusive rock dolerite obtained from the asbestos mines of Cuddapah basin, Andhra Pradesh, India were analyzed by k 0 -based neutron activation analysis (k 0 -NAA) method. Gold ( 197 Au) was used as the single comparator. Two reference materials namely USGS W-1 (geological) and IAEA Soil-7 (environmental) were analyzed as control samples to evaluate the accuracy of the method. A total of 21 elements present at major, minor and trace concentrations were determined in serpentines as well as associated minerals. The elemental concentrations were used for distinguishing and characterizing these minerals, and also to understand the extent of segregation of elements from the associated or host mineral rocks to serpentines. (author)

  9. Analysis of sludge from Hanford K East Basin canisters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makenas, B.J. [ed.] [comp.] [DE and S Hanford, Inc., Richland, WA (United States); Welsh, T.L. [B and W Protec, Inc. (United States); Baker, R.B. [DE and S Hanford, Inc., Richland, WA (United States); Hoppe, E.W.; Schmidt, A.J.; Abrefah, J.; Tingey, J.M.; Bredt, P.R.; Golcar, G.R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1997-09-12

    Sludge samples from the canisters in the Hanford K East Basin fuel storage pool have been retrieved and analyzed. Both chemical and physical properties have been determined. The results are to be used to determine the disposition of the bulk of the sludge and to assess the impact of residual sludge on dry storage of the associated intact metallic uranium fuel elements. This report is a summary and review of the data provided by various laboratories. Although raw chemistry data were originally reported on various bases (compositions for as-settled, centrifuged, or dry sludge) this report places all of the data on a common comparable basis. Data were evaluated for internal consistency and consistency with respect to the governing sample analysis plan. Conclusions applicable to sludge disposition and spent fuel storage are drawn where possible.

  10. CARACTERIZACIÓN DE LA MATERIA ORGÁNICA DISUELTA EN AGUA SUBTERRÁNEA DEL VALLE DE TOLUCA MEDIANTE ESPECTROFOTOMETRÍA DE FLUORESCENCIA 3D

    OpenAIRE

    Rosa María FUENTES RIVAS

    2015-01-01

    La materia orgánica en el agua está compuesta por miles de componentes: partículas macroscópicas, coloides o macromoléculas disueltas. Caracterizar la materia orgánica disuelta en el agua para abastecimiento humano es esencial para establecer sus condiciones físicas y los índices de contaminación del agua. La materia orgánica disuelta en 49 muestras de agua subterránea cercanas a la zona industrial Toluca-Lerma (Valle de Toluca, Toluca, Estado de México) fueron caracterizadas a través de la d...

  11. Elementos geomorfológico-cuantitativos del piedemonte nororiental del volcán Nevado de Toluca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Miguel Espinosa Rodríguez

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A partir de un análisis cuantitativo y morfométrico, se determina la geodinámica del piedemonte nororiental del volcán Nevado de Toluca. Se destaca la relación entre el material, las formas heredadas y la energía que dinamiza el noreste del volcán.

  12. Transformación de la Estructura Urbana de la Ciudad de Toluca, Siglo XIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgina Alicia García Luna Villagrán

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available La configuración urbana de las ciudades actuales, ha sido el resultado de distintos procesos históricos influyendo en la organización del territorio, elementos como las actividades económicas y la aplicación de reformas urbanas, así como los equipamientos, servicios y los recursos humanos y físicos han sido elementos que han intervenido en las áreas urbanas, al respecto el propósito del presente trabajo consiste en describir la transformación de la estructura urbana de la ciudad de Toluca a partir de la desamortización de bienes eclesiásticos, para identificar sus principales efectos en su traza urbana, en sus espacios públicos y en el crecimiento urbano de la ciudad. Por lo anterior se logró demostrar que la desamortización ocasionó algunos cambios en la forma de la ciudad actual después de haberse vendido las propiedades del clero ya que hubo otros hechos que también impactaron en la configuración urbana de Toluca.

  13. Space, Odor, and Health in Toluca at the End of the Eighteenth Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Carmen León García

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on late eighteenth-century Toluca as an example in order to account for changes in olfactory perception as an aspect of the process of civilization. A number of examples derived from notary documents illustrate the institutional steps taken in the urbanization of Toluca in the late eighteenth century. Although it is important to consider the role of state initiatives and scientific arguments in triggering such a change, the case of Manuel Lechuga y Diego de Ortiz shows two characteristic aspects of the  social response facing sanitary reforms. The  first refers to the legal issues involved, the tradition of “good administration” (buen  gobierno, whose  attribution is to dictate laws geared toward common wellbeing. Hence Ortiz's phrasing of his argument regarding the injustice done to his zahurdas, since the best laws of the  kingdom were those  that were passed  after the pleas of cities' procurators were taken into account, men knowledgeable of everyday reality, “given that  those in power cannot guess the particular situation and individual  circumstances pertaining to each country  and trade”.  The  second  aspect involves the change of customs and perceptions, as well as the slow rate at which the health and urbanization measures that were enforced more strictly from the government were incorporated to everyday life, beginning at the period of Bourbon reforms.

  14. K West Basin Sand Filter Backwash Sample Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiskum, Sandra K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Smoot, Margaret R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Coffey, Deborah S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Pool, Karl N. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-03-01

    A sand filter is used to help maintain water clarity at the K West Basin where highly radioactive sludge is stored. Eventually that sand filter will require disposal. The radionuclide content of the solids trapped in the sand filter will affect the selection of the sand filter disposal pathway. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was contracted by the K Basin Operations & Plateau Remediation Project (operations contractor CH2M Hill) to analyze the radionuclide content of the solids collected from the backwash of the K West Basin sand filter. The radionuclide composition in the sand filter backwash solids will be used by CH2M Hill to determine if the sand filter media and retained sludge solids will be designated as transuranic waste for disposal purposes or can be processed through less expensive means. On October 19, 2015, K Basin Operations & Plateau Remediation Project staff backwashed the sand filter into the North Load-Out Pit (NLOP) and immediately collected sample slurry from a sampling tube positioned 24 in. above the NLOP floor. The 764 g sand filter backwash slurry sample, KW-105 SFBW-001, was submitted to PNNL for analysis on October 20, 2015. Solids from the slurry sample were consolidated into two samples (i.e., a primary and a duplicate sample) by centrifuging and measured for mass (0.82 g combined – wet centrifuged solids basis) and volume (0.80 mL combined). The solids were a dark brown/orange color, consistent with iron oxide/hydroxide. The solids were dried; the combined dry solids mass was 0.1113 g, corresponding to 0.0146 weight percent (wt%) solids in the original submitted sample slurry. The solids were acid-digested using nitric and hydrochloric acids. Insoluble solids developed upon dilution with 0.5 M HNO3, corresponding to an average 6.5 wt% of the initial dry solids content. The acid digestate and insoluble solids were analyzed separately by gamma spectrometry. Nominally, 7.7% of the 60Co was present

  15. 13 Morphometric Analysis of Ogunpa and Ogbere Drainage Basins ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    `123456789jkl''''#

    significance of these landscape parameters was ... reported that the geomorphic characteristics of a drainage basins play ... form and process of drainage basins that may ... tropical rain forest of Nigeria occupying an area of .... morphometric parameters such as relief, shape ... on floodplains can be pulled down while areas.

  16. Analysis of Ignition Testing on K-West Basin Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Abrefah; F.H. Huang; W.M. Gerry; W.J. Gray; S.C. Marschman; T.A. Thornton

    1999-08-10

    Approximately 2100 metric tons of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) discharged from the N-Reactor have been stored underwater at the K-Basins in the 100 Area of the Hanford Site. The spent fuel has been stored in the K-East Basin since 1975 and in the K-West Basin since 1981. Some of the SNF elements in these basins have corroded because of various breaches in the Zircaloy cladding that occurred during fuel discharge operations and/or subsequent handling and storage in the basins. Consequently, radioactive material in the fuel has been released into the basin water, and water has leaked from the K-East Basin into the soil below. To protect the Columbia River, which is only 380 m from the basins, the SNF is scheduled to be removed and transported for interim dry storage in the 200 East Area, in the central portion of the Site. However, before being shipped, the corroded fuel elements will be loaded into Multi-Canister OverPacks and conditioned. The conditioning process will be selected based on the Integrated Process Strategy (IPS) (WHC 1995), which was prepared on the basis of the dry storage concept developed by the Independent Technical Assessment (ITA) team (ITA 1994).

  17. Analysis of Ignition Testing on K-West Basin Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrefah, J.; Huang, F.H.; Gerry, W.M.; Gray, W.J.; Marschman, S.C.; Thornton, T.A.

    1999-01-01

    Approximately 2100 metric tons of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) discharged from the N-Reactor have been stored underwater at the K-Basins in the 100 Area of the Hanford Site. The spent fuel has been stored in the K-East Basin since 1975 and in the K-West Basin since 1981. Some of the SNF elements in these basins have corroded because of various breaches in the Zircaloy cladding that occurred during fuel discharge operations and/or subsequent handling and storage in the basins. Consequently, radioactive material in the fuel has been released into the basin water, and water has leaked from the K-East Basin into the soil below. To protect the Columbia River, which is only 380 m from the basins, the SNF is scheduled to be removed and transported for interim dry storage in the 200 East Area, in the central portion of the Site. However, before being shipped, the corroded fuel elements will be loaded into Multi-Canister OverPacks and conditioned. The conditioning process will be selected based on the Integrated Process Strategy (IPS) (WHC 1995), which was prepared on the basis of the dry storage concept developed by the Independent Technical Assessment (ITA) team (ITA 1994)

  18. Morphometric analysis of Suketi river basin, Himachal Himalaya, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The entire Suketi river basin has been divided into five sub-basins based on the catchment areas of ..... with equilibrium profile, where driving force is equivalent to the .... need attention for revival and sustenance by taking suitable artificial ...

  19. K Basin sludge packaging design criteria (PDC) and safety analysis report for packaging (SARP) approval plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brisbin, S.A.

    1996-01-01

    This document delineates the plan for preparation, review, and approval of the Packaging Design Crieteria for the K Basin Sludge Transportation System and the Associated on-site Safety Analysis Report for Packaging. The transportation system addressed in the subject documents will be used to transport sludge from the K Basins using bulk packaging

  20. Hydrological River Drought Analysis (Case Study: Lake Urmia Basin Rivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Nazeri Tahrudi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Drought from the hydrological viewpoint is a continuation of the meteorological drought that cause of the lack of surface water such as rivers, lakes, reservoirs and groundwater resources. This analysis, which is generally on the surface streams, reservoirs, lakes and groundwater, takes place as hydrological drought considered and studied. So the data on the quantity of flow of the rivers in this study is of fundamental importance. This data are included, level, flow, river flow is no term (5. Overall the hydrological drought studies are focused on annual discharges, maximum annual discharge or minimum discharge period. The most importance of this analysis is periodically during the course of the analysis remains a certain threshold and subthresholdrunoff volume fraction has created. In situations where water for irrigation or water of a river without any reservoir, is not adequate, the minimum flow analysis, the most important factor to be considered (4. The aim of this study is evaluatingthe statistical distributions of drought volume rivers data from the Urmia Lake’s rivers and its return period. Materials and Methods: Urmia Lake is a biggest and saltiest continued lake in Iran. The Lake Urmia basin is one of the most important basins in Iran region which is located in the North West of Iran. With an extent of 52700 square kilometers and an area equivalent to 3.21% of the total area of the country, This basin is located between the circuit of 35 degrees 40 minutes to 38 degrees 29 minutes north latitude and the meridian of 44 degrees 13 minutes to 47 degrees 53 minutes east longitude. In this study used the daily discharge data (m3s-1 of Urmia Lake Rivers. Extraction of river drought volume The drought durations were extracted from the daily discharge of 13 studied stations. The first mean year was calculated for each 365 days using the Eq 1 (14. (1 (For i=1,2,3,…,365 That Ki is aith mean year, Yijis ith day discharge in jth

  1. RAINFALL ANALYSIS IN KLANG RIVER BASIN USING CONTINUOUS WAVELET TRANSFORM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso A. G. Santos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The rainfall characteristics within Klang River basin is analyzed by the continuous wavelet transform using monthly rainfall data (1997–2009 from a raingauge and also using daily rainfall data (1998–2013 from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM. The wavelet power spectrum showed that some frequency components were presented within the rainfall time series, but the observed time series is short to provide accurate information, thus the daily TRMM rainfall data were used. In such analysis, two main frequency components, i.e., 6 and 12 months, showed to be present during the entire period of 16 years. Such semiannual and annual frequencies were confirmed by the global wavelet power spectra. Finally, the modulation in the 8–16-month and 256– 512-day bands were examined by an average of all scales between 8 and 16 months, and 256 and 512 days, respectively, giving a measure of the average monthly/daily variance versus time, where the periods with low or high variance could be identified.

  2. Drainage basin morphology and terrain analysis of the lower Benue ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... Several digital image enhancement techniques such as general contrast stretching and edge enhancement were ... Keywords: Benue, Remote Sensing, GIS, Geomorphology, River Basin ...

  3. Contratación Colectiva y Flexibilidad en las Nuevas Empresas Textiles de Toluca y Lerma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Silvia Arcineaga Arce

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Se estudia la flexibilidad de los contratos colectivos de las empresas tex tiles más modernas de Toluca, du rante el periodo de los 90’s. Se sostiene que el proceso de profunda transformación económica y productiva, así como política, presiona por el cambio de modelo de relaciones laborales. Se concluye que el modelo no se re de fine totalmente, y como tendencia se señala un nuevo acuerdo corporativista de modernización: las nuevas empresas tex tiles se incorporan a la economía globalizada con la participación de los sindicatos.

  4. Risk estimation by exposure to PM10 particles in the Toluca Valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flores R, J.H.; Pena G, P.; Balcazar, M.; Lopez M, A.; Morelos M, J.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Risk estimation to PM10 in the Toluca valley and surrounding areas was estimated, for several return periods, evaluating the occurrence probability to several interval times (1, 5, 10, 12.5, 15, 17.5 and 20 years) using the extreme values of the Gumbel-1 distribution; those intervals were employed to predict and analyze the behaviour of maximum contaminant concentrations in the study region. A high degree of risk to health due to the mean concentration of these particles is obtained from statistical considerations. The evaluation took into consideration the eight monitoring years from the Automatic Atmospheric Monitoring Network (RAMAT) and its output predicts, if present conditions maintain, this statistical relation remain invariant between the next 20 years. Such particles affect the human respiratory system, besides, present a carcinogenic potential due to the volume of hydrocarbons combustion to the atmosphere. (Author)

  5. Lead levels in the workers blood at the Toluca bus terminal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez H, S.P.; Garcia G, G.

    1998-01-01

    The study was carried out in order to detect the levels of lead in blood in exposed workers to the lead in their place of work, in the Toluca bus terminal. The measurement of the levels of lead in blood was carried out in a sample of 31 people of 60 workers for atomic absorption spectrometry. The lead is a general protoplasmic poison that is accumulative and produce great variety of symptoms, the lead could be absorbed inside the body for ingestion, inhalation and through the skin. Organic compounds of the lead as tetraethyl lead, penetrate the cutaneous barrier quickly. From the beginning the personal habits were evaluated, hygienic, nutritious and the environmental conditions by means of a questionnaire. The levels of lead in opposing blood, they were below them you limit permissible for personal exposed, published by the WHO. (Author)

  6. Precariedad laboral de jóvenes asalariados en la ciudad de Toluca, 2005-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuliana Gabriela Román-Sánchez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El nuevo contexto laboral está caracterizado por la precarización de la mano de obra, problema que afecta sobre todo a los jóvenes. Bajo este preámbulo, el objetivo del artículo es analizar las condiciones laborales de la población asalariada en la ciudad de Toluca desde una perspectiva de género. De manera precisa, se pretende estimar diferentes niveles de la precariedad laboral según grandes grupos de edad, así como de hombres y mujeres entre los 14 y 29 años de edad. Esto se realizó a través de la estimación del Índice de Precariedad Laboral con datos de la Encuesta Nacional de Ocupación y Empleo (enoe del primer trimestre de 2005 y primer trimestre de 2010.

  7. Radon 222 levels in deep well waters of Toluca municipality (county)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olguin Gutierrez, Maria Teresa.

    1990-01-01

    The levels of Radon 222 were determined in 46 deep (50-180m) wells in the city and county of Toluca, as well as the annual radiation dose that the stomach admits when ingesting such water. The method used for the quantification of Radon 222 was liquid scintillation counting. The result revealed that levels of Radon 222 in the studied area in the range of 0 to 320 pCi l -1 . In the case of the equivalent annual dose that the stomach (empty) admits due to ingestion of water from the wells, values are in an interval between 0 to 95 mrem a -1 . This values are well below the level established by the International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICRP). The wells that had the higher concentration of Radon 222 were found in the regions of Lodo Prieto, Seminario; San Antonio Buenavista and La Trinidad Huichochitlan. (Author)

  8. Sedimentary basin analysis and petroleum potential of the Cretaceous and Tertiary strata in Korea.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Son, Jin-Dam; Kwak, Young-Hoon; Bong, Pil-Yoon [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (KR)] (and others)

    1999-12-01

    Since 1992 sedimentary basin analysis to assess petroleum potential of the Cretaceous and Tertiary strata in the Korean onshore and continental shelf have been carried out. The Cretaceous non-marine strata mainly occupy the Gyeongsang Basin in southeastern part of the Korean Peninsula and small basins such as Haenam and Gyeokpo depressions in western coastal areas. The Tertiary strata are mostly distributed in Domi, Cheju, Socotra subbasins, and Okinawa Trough in the South Continental Shelf, and Kunsan and Heuksan basins in the West. The basin evolution and petroleum potential for each basins are characterized as follow. The Cretaceous Gyeongsang sediments were deposited in three subbasins including Milyang, Euisung and Yongyang subbasins. The black shales in Nakdong and Jinju formations are interpreted to contain abundant organic matter during the deposition, thermal maturity reaching up to the zone of dry gas formation. Because porosity and permeability are too low, the sandstones can act as a tight gas reservoir rather than conventional oil and gas reservoir. The latest Cretaceous strata of Haenam and Kyeokpo depressions in western coastal area are correlated into the Yuchon Volcanic Group of the Gyeongsang Basin. Petroleum potential of the Early Cretaceous basin in the West Continental Shelf could be relatively high in terms of sedimentary basin filled with thick lacustrine sediments. The Kunsan basin in the West Continental Shelf originated in the Early Cretaceous time expanded during the Paleocene time followed by regional erosion at the end of Paleocene on which Neogene sediment have been accumulated. The Paleocene-Eocene sublacustrine shales may play an major role as a source and cap rocks. South Continental Shelf Basin is subdivided by Cheju subbasin in the center, Socotra Subbasin to the west, Domi Subbasin to the northeast and Okinawa Trough to the East. The potential hydrocarbon traps associated with anticline, titled fault blocks, fault, unconformity

  9. Analysis on sequence stratigraphy and depositional systems of Mangbang formation, upper tertiary in Longchuanjiang basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Zexuan; Yao Yifeng; Chen Yong; Li Guoxin

    2004-01-01

    Longchuanjiang basin is a small Cenozoic intramontane down-faulted basin. This paper, combining the Pliocene structure, the volcanic activities and the sedimentation of the basin, analyses the sequence stratigraphy and the depositional systems of Mangbang formation (the cover of the basin). Based on the analysis of depositional systems of Mangbang formation, the depositional pattern of Pliocene in Longchuanjiang basin is set up. It is suggested that because of the fast accumulation in early down-faulted zone during Pliocene time, the alluvial fan depositional system was dominated at that time. During the middle-late period, the alluvial fan entered the lake forming a combination of fan-fandelta-lacustrine depositional systems. Authors propose a view point that the formation of Mangbang formation sequence was constrained by multistage tectonic movement, and three structural sequences were established, and system tracts were divided. (authors)

  10. Extensional Tectonic Regime of Garut Basin based on Magnetotelluric Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Handayani

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available DOI: 10.17014/ijog.v8i3.162Garut Basin are is part of Bandung-Garut Greater Basin (Bandung Zone characterized by a large basin surrounded by mountain ranges. Active volcanoes had distributed their material as pyroclastic deposits around the outer border of the zone and as lava flow deposit separating the two basins. Bouguer gravity anomaly data had also indicated the presence of several low anomaly closures at about the area of Bandung and Garut Basins that were surrounded by high gravity anomaly zones. Two magnetotelluric surveys were completed to acquire the subsurface model that might explain the tectonic evolution of studied area. The first stage was characterized sby the presence of horst - graben structures that might imply an extensional regime of the area. The next stage of evolutionwas indicated by the horizontal layering correlated to the relative non-active tectonic. In addition, a most recent structure that appeared near the surface might suggest a possible extension force as the current stage.

  11. Climate change impacts analysis on hydrological processes in the Weyib River basin in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serur, Abdulkerim Bedewi; Sarma, Arup Kumar

    2017-12-01

    The study aims to examine the variation of hydrological processes (in terms of mean annual, seasonal, and monthly) under changing climate within the Weyib River basin in Ethiopia at both basin and sub-basin level using ArcSWAT hydrologic model. The climate change impacts on temperature and precipitation characteristics within the basin have been studied using GFDL-ESM2M, CanESM2, and GFDL-ESM2G models for RCP8.5, RCP4.5, and RCP2.6 scenarios from coupled model inter-comparison project 5 (CMIP5) which have been downscaled by SDSM. The results revealed that the mean annual temperature and precipitation reveal a statistically significant (at 5% significant level) increasing trend in the nine ESM-RCP scenarios for all the future time slices. The mean annual actual evapotranspiration, baseflow, soil water content, percolation, and water availability in the stream exhibit a rise for all the ESMs-RCP scenarios in the entire basin and in all the sub-basins. However, surface runoff and potential evapotranspiration show a decreasing trend. The mean annual water availability increases between 9.18 and 27.97% (RCP8.5), 3.98 and 19.61% (RCP4.5), and 11.82 and 17.06% (RCP2.6) in the entire basin. The sub-basin level analysis reveals that the annual, seasonal, and monthly variations of hydrological processes in all the sub-basins are similar regarding direction but different in magnitude as compared to that of the entire basin analysis. In addition, it is observed that there is a larger monthly and seasonal variation in hydrological processes as compared to the variation in annual scale. The net water availability tends to decline in the dry season; this might cause water shortage in the lowland region and greater increases in an intermediate and rainy seasons; this might cause flooding to some flood prone region of the basin. Since the variation of water availability among the sub-basins in upcoming period is high, there is a scope of meeting agriculture water demand through

  12. Pago por servicios ambientales hidrológicos: caso de estudio Parque Nacional del Nevado de Toluca, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Brunett

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El potencial hídrico que representa el Parque Nacional Nevado de Toluca se ha visto disminuido por numerosos impactos antrópicos, lo que exige crear estrategias para su conservación. Este estudio tiene como objetivo estimar la disposición a pagar haciendo una encuesta en una muestra de usuarios del Valle de Toluca en el marco de un programa de Pago por Servicios Ambientales Hidrológicos. Los resultados muestran que los usuarios dispuestos a pagar rebasan el 50%, con cantidades que oscilan entre 30 y 80 pesos mensuales, sin embargo hay un sector de los encuestados que no estarían dispuestos a contribuir, pero realizarían acciones enfocadas al cuidado del medio ambiente.

  13. Pago por servicios ambientales hidrológicos: caso de estudio Parque Nacional del Nevado de Toluca, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Brunett

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El potencial hídrico que representa el Parque Nacional Nevado de Toluca se ha visto disminuido por numerosos impactos antrópicos, lo que exige crear estrategias para su conservación. Este estudio tiene como objetivo estimar la disposición a pagar haciendo una encuesta en una muestra de usuarios del Valle de Toluca en el marco de un programa de Pago por Servicios Ambientales Hidrológicos. Los resultados muestran que los usuarios dispuestos a pagar rebasan el 50%, con cantidades que oscilan entre 30 y 80 pesos mensuales, sin embargo hay un sector de los encuestados que no estarían dispuestos a contribuir, pero realizarían acciones enfocadas al cuidado del medio ambiente.

  14. EVALUATION OF PRIMARY PRODUCTIVITY AT THE WILDLIFE PROTECTED AREA, "NEVADO DE TOLUCA" MEXICO, DURING THE DRY SEASON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Martínez-Hernández

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This is the first report on grassland primary productivity for the wildlife protected area Nevado de Toluca (APFF Nevado de Toluca. We evaluated three communities in this area during dry season: Loma Alta, La Peñuela y Agua Blanca. Following Hodgson (1994, for this study we used exclusion cages. Vegetation was cut every 28 days during a five months sampling period. A randomized block design was used, where the blocks represented the grassland communities and the different months constituted treatments. The month of September showed the higher production (610.3 kg/ha DM. No significant differences were observed among communities (P >0.05. In conclusion, these communities have similar low primary productivity through the evaluation dry season months, which in addition was found lower in comparison to other areas, therefore livestock grazing in this region should be limited this season.

  15. Final Hazard Classification and Auditable Safety Analysis for the N Basin Segment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kloster, G.L.

    1998-08-01

    The purposes of this report are to serve as the auditable safety analysis (ASA) for the N Basin Segment, during surveillance and maintenance preceding decontamination and decommissioning; to determine and document the final hazard classification (FHC) for the N Basin Segment. The result of the ASA evaluation are: based on hazard analyses and the evaluation of accidents, no activity could credibly result in an unacceptable exposure to an individual; controls are identified that serve to protect worker health and safety. The results of the FHC evaluation are: potential exposure is much below 10 rem (0.46 rem), and the FHC for the N Basin Segment is Radiological

  16. Inspection and Analysis of Aluminum Storage Racks in Spent Fuel Storage Basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howell, J.P.; Nelson, D.Z.

    1998-07-01

    Aluminum-clad spent nuclear fuel is stored in water filled basins at the Savannah River Site awaiting processing or other disposition. After more than 35 years of service underwater, the aluminum storage racks that position the fuel bundles in the basin were replaced. During the removal of the racks from the basin, a failure occurred in one of the racks and the Savannah River Technology Center was asked to investigate. This paper presents results of the failure analysis and provides a discussion of the effects of corrosion on the structural integrity of the storage racks

  17. ALEXI analysis of water consumption in the Nile Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remote sensing can be used to generate diagnostic estimates of evapotranspiration (ET) that provide information regarding consumptive water use across landscapes. These satellite-based assessments can be a valuable complement to prognostic simulations of basin-scale water budgets, providing an inde...

  18. Preliminary Hazards Analysis of K-Basin Fuel Encapsulation and Storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strickland, G.C.

    1994-01-01

    This Preliminary Hazards Analysis (PHA) systematically examines the K-Basin facilities and their supporting systems for hazards created by abnormal operating conditions and external events (e.g., earthquakes) which have the potential for causing undesirable consequences to the facility worker, the onsite individual, or the public. The operational activities examined are fuel encapsulation, fuel storage and cooling. Encapsulation of sludges in the basins is not examined. A team of individuals from Westinghouse produced a set of Hazards and Operability (HAZOP) tables documenting their examination of abnormal process conditions in the systems and activities examined in K-Basins. The purpose of this report is to reevaluate and update the HAZOP in the original Preliminary Hazard Analysis of K-Basin Fuel Encapsulation and Storage originally developed in 1991

  19. Geomorphologic Analysis of Drainage Basins in Damavand Volcano Cone, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zareinejad, M.

    2011-12-01

    Damavand volcanic cone is located in the center of the Alborz chain, in the southern Caspian Sea in Iran. Damavand is a dormant volcano in Iran. It is not only the country's highest peak but also the highest mountain on the Middle East; its elevation is 5619 m. The main purpose of this paper is recognition and appraisement of drainage basins in Damavand cone from geomorphic point of view. Water causes erosion in nature in different forms and creates diverse forms on the earth surface depending on the manner of its appearance in nature. Although water is itself a former factor, it flows under morphological effect of earth surface. The difference of earth surface topography and as a result water movement on it, cause the formation of sub-basins. Identification of region drainage basins is considered as one of the requirements for Damavand cone morphometric. Thereupon, five drainage basins were identified in this research by relying on main criteria including topographic contours with 10 m intervals, drainage system, DEM map, slope map, aspect map and satellite images. (Fig 1) Area, perimeter, height classification for classifying morphological landforms in different levels, hypsometric calculations, drainage density, etc. were then calculated by using ArcGIS software. (Table 1) Damavand cone, with a height more than 5,000 meters from the sea surface, has very hard pass slopes and our purpose in this paper is to identify the effect of drainage basins conditions in the region on erosion and the formation of morphological landforms by using SPOT, ASTER, satellite images as well as papering of data in GIS environment.

  20. Analysis of the evolution of precipitation in the Haihe river basin of China under changing environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xiangyi; Liu, Jiahong; Gong, Jiaguo

    2018-02-01

    Precipitation is one of the important factors of water cycle and main sources of regional water resources. It is of great significance to analyze the evolution of precipitation under changing environment for identifying the evolution law of water resources, thus can provide a scientific reference for the sustainable utilization of water resources and the formulation of related policies and measures. Generally, analysis of the evolution of precipitation consists of three levels: analysis the observed precipitation change based on measured data, explore the possible factors responsible for the precipitation change, and estimate the change trend of precipitation under changing environment. As the political and cultural centre of China, the climatic conditions in the Haihe river basin have greatly changed in recent decades. This study analyses the evolution of precipitation in the basin under changing environment based on observed meteorological data, GCMs and statistical methods. Firstly, based on the observed precipitation data during 1961-2000 at 26 meteorological stations in the basin, the actual precipitation change in the basin is analyzed. Secondly, the observed precipitation change in the basin is attributed using the fingerprint-based attribution method, and the causes of the observed precipitation change is identified. Finally, the change trend of precipitation in the basin under climate change in the future is predicted based on GCMs and a statistical downscaling model. The results indicate that: 1) during 1961-2000, the precipitation in the basin showed a decreasing trend, and the possible mutation time was 1965; 2) natural variability may be the factor responsible for the observed precipitation change in the basin; 3) under climate change in the future, precipitation in the basin will slightly increase by 4.8% comparing with the average, and the extremes will not vary significantly.

  1. Chemical and Radiochemical Analysis of Consolidated Sludge Samples from the K East Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elmore, M.R.; Schmidt, A.J.; Silvers, K.L.; Thornton, B.M.

    2000-01-01

    This report describes results from analyses performed to characterize the consolidated sludge samples collected from the Hanford K East Basin in March and April 1999. The consolidated sludge samples were collected to provide additional material needed for the evaluation and design of systems that will be used to manage the K Basin sludge (i.e., disposition the sludge to T Plant for interim storage). The analytical results given in this report add to the knowledge on the composition of the K Basin sludge and provide specific information on this sludge necessary to plan and understand subsequent process testing. The following analyses were performed: weight percent (wt%) solids determination; uranium analysis by kinetic phosphorescence; plutonium isotope analysis by extraction chromatographic separation followed by alpha energy analysis (AEA); gross beta analysis; gamma energy analysis (GEA); and metals analysis by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES)

  2. Trace fossil analysis of lacustrine facies and basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buatois, L.A.; Mangano, M.G.

    1998-01-01

    Two ichnofacies are typical of lacustrine depositional systems. The Scoyenia ichnofacies characterizes transitional terrestrial/nonmarine aquatic substrates, periodically inundated or desiccated, and therefore is commonly present in lake margin facies. The Mermia ichnofacies is associated with well oxygenated, permanent subaqueous, fine-grained substrates of hydrologically open, perennial lakes. Bathymetric zonations within the Mermia ichnofacies are complicated by the wide variability of lacustrine systems. Detected proximal-distal trends are useful within particular lake basins, but commonly difficult to extrapolate to other lakes. Other potential ichnofacies include the typically marine Skolithos ichnofacies for high-energy zones of lakes and substrate-controlled, still unnamed ichnofacies, associated to lake margin deposits. Trace fossils are useful for sedimentologic analysis of event beds. Lacustrine turbidites are characterized by low-diversity suites, reflecting colonization by opportunistic organisms after the turbidite event. Underflow current beds record animal activity contemporaneous with nearly continuous sedimentation. Ichnologic studies may also help to distinguish between marine and lacustrine turbidites. Deep-marine turbidites host the Nereites ichnofacies that consists of high diversity of ornate grazing traces and graphoglyptids, recording highly specialized feeding strategies developed to solve the problem of the scarcity of food in the deep sea. Deep lacustrine environments contain the Mermia ichnofacies, which is dominated by unspecialized grazing and feeding traces probably related to the abundance and accessibility of food in lacustrine systems. The lower diversity of lacustrine ichnofaunas in comparison with deep-sea assemblages more likely reflects lower species diversity as a consequence of less stable conditions. Increase of depth and extent of bioturbation through geologic time produced a clear signature in the ichnofabric record of

  3. Customer Need ́s Satisfaction in the Housing Sector: the Case of the Toluca Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delgado-Hernández David Joaquín

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the construction sector faces great challenges, as the recent economic contraction has directly impacted this industry, and only companies that can offer quality products and services will survive in today’s highly competitive markets. In particular, the housing sector has to find ways to meet the needs of its customers due to the number of firms competing in this arena. There are some studies that quantify the demand for housing as well as those that reveal the number of homes sold per year in a region. However, investigations in Mexico to establish the level of cus- tomer satisfaction with their homes are still scarce. Thus, the main objective of this research is to determine the level of customer satisfaction in the Toluca Valley ́s housing sector (a region located 60 km west of Mexico City, in low income projects developed by Mexican construction companies. Having applied a questionnaire to users from seventy eight houses within eight different projects, some issues were identified that builders could improve, and take into account during the design stage of new housing developments. Among the main ones are: insulation, wall and ceil- ing materials, space distribution, and house ́s size. In contrast, residents are rela- tively satisfied with: the ease of cleaning, the aesthetics of the projects and the proximity to schools and supermarkets.

  4. La responsabilidad social en empresas del valle de toluca (méxico. un estudio exploratorio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Mercado Salgado, Ph.D

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available En un mundo globalizado, el sector empresarial no puede seguir negando la necesidad de adoptar la responsabilidad social como estrategia para alcanzar beneficios externos e internos, pues sigue latente cierto comportamiento dominante de rechazo hacia ella. Por ello, el objetivo de esta investigación exploratoria, no experimental, es describir la responsabilidad social en empresas del Valle de Toluca (México mediante cuatro componentes: ética empresarial, preservación del medio ambiente, calidad de vida en el trabajo y vinculación empresa-sociedad, en una muestra no probabilística de 31 empresas. Los resultados reflejan que las empresas se encuentran en el nivel inicial de filantropía, detectándose la voluntad de la alta dirección y de los accionistas como factores que podrían favorecer la adopción de la responsabilidad social. Queda para futuras investigaciones incrementar la muestra e incluir el desempeño económico en este tipo de estudios.

  5. Vulnerability assessment of the Toluca Valley aquifer combining a parametric approach and advective transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gárfias, J.; Llanos, H.; Franco, R.; Martel, R.

    2017-01-01

    Groundwater vulnerability assessment is an important task in water resources and land management. Depending on the availability of data and the complexity of the hydrogeological conditions, different approaches can be adopted. As an alternative, this study involves the use of a combined approach based on vulnerability methods and advective particle tracking to better understand the susceptibility to contamination in the Toluca valley aquifer. An intrinsic vulnerability map (DRASTIC) was used to identify areas that are more susceptible to ground water contamination. To estimate advective particle tracking, we developed a 3D flow model using VisualModflow and MODPATH to describe the regional flow of groundwater. The vulnerability map demonstrates the problematic application and interpretation of qualitative the vulnerability method of the parametric system group, which indicates a difference of approximately 23% when compared with the modified vulnerability map. Potential contamination sources based on landfill sites were comparatively high; approximately 76% are located in areas that could be susceptible to contamination through vertical infiltration, especially those that are located along the Lerma system of wells. Industrial parks located in the centre of the valley (83%), where continuous extraction of groundwater and land subsidence occurs, have been classified as high vulnerability zones, increasing the risk of contaminants from surface sources reaching the groundwater. In order to understand the susceptibility to contamination in the aquifer, various delineation approaches should be adopted and all the results that validate each other should be considered, thus making a good strategy for implementing different degrees of protection measures. [es

  6. Protección civil, población, vulnerabilidad y riesgo en Santiago Miltepec, Toluca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Toscana Aparicio

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo fue analizar la forma en que el nivel de gobierno municipal actúa frente a los “pequeños desastres” asociados a fenómenos naturales, entendiendo por “pequeños desastres” aquéllos que impactan en la escala local pero sus consecuencias no trascienden del ámbito municipal. Se toma como punto de partida el evento ocurrido el 30 de junio de 2006 en la delegación Santiago Miltepec de la ciudad de Toluca, Estado de México, en el que durante una intensa precipitación pluvial, grandes bloques de roca se desprendieron de las laderas del cerro El Barrigón y rodaron hasta el piedemonte del cerro afectando algunas de las viviendas ahí construidas. Este caso, como otros similares, permite observar el distanciamiento que existe entre la población y el Sistema Nacional de Protección Civil en sus diferentes niveles organizativos, así como el distanciamiento entre las diferentes instancias gubernamentales que inciden en la organización del territorio y en la prevención de desastres.

  7. paleopatológico del antiguo Valle de Toluca, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Favila Cisneros

    2008-01-01

    ciénega del Chignahuapan de la Cuenca del Alto Lerma, ahora cabecera municipal de Santa Cruz Atizapan, Estado de México, se desarrolló una sociedad isleña con un modo de vida lacustre, en la cual su equilibrio estaba determinado por la interrelación con el aprovechamiento de los recursos de la laguna y las difíciles condiciones del cenagal. El análisis morfoscópico realizado en las osamentas provenientes de los entierros del sitio arqueológico "La Campana Tepozoco" arrojó una serie de evidencias patológicas, que permiten conocer las condiciones generales de la salud de los habitantes del sitio. La presente investigación nos acerca al conocimiento de las diversas condiciones de existencia, donde el modo de vida impactó en la salud y nutrición de los miembros de esta población de la zona pantanosa de la antigua ciénega del Valle de Toluca.

  8. El observatorio metropolitano de Toluca: lecciones, propuestas y desafíos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Álvarez-Lobato

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se presentan las principales lecciones aprendidas durante la construcción del Observatorio Metropolitano de Toluca (METROSUM, se hacen propuestas puntuales orientadas a construir mejores observatorios urbanos y se identifican los desafíos más importantes que enfrentará la Red de Observatorios Urbanos Locales de México (Red OUL, que impulsa UN-Habitat y el gobierno federal mexicano. Las lecciones y las propuestas que aquí se comparten tienen como objetivo acortar la curva de aprendizaje de los interesados en la construcción de observatorios urbanos. Por su parte, los retos que se identifican pueden ser insumos útiles para diseñar las respuestas institucionales que garanticen la sostenibilidad de la Red OUL. Este artículo se inscribe en el campo de la escasa literatura especializada que trata de orientar la construcción de observatorios urbanos en países en desarrollo.

  9. Bivariate Drought Analysis Using Streamflow Reconstruction with Tree Ring Indices in the Sacramento Basin, California, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaewon Kwak

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Long-term streamflow data are vital for analysis of hydrological droughts. Using an artificial neural network (ANN model and nine tree-ring indices, this study reconstructed the annual streamflow of the Sacramento River for the period from 1560 to 1871. Using the reconstructed streamflow data, the copula method was used for bivariate drought analysis, deriving a hydrological drought return period plot for the Sacramento River basin. Results showed strong correlation among drought characteristics, and the drought with a 20-year return period (17.2 million acre-feet (MAF per year in the Sacramento River basin could be considered a critical level of drought for water shortages.

  10. Riqueza específica de vertebrados en un bosque reforestado del Parque Nacional Nevado de Toluca, México Species richness of vertebrates in a reforested woodland of the Nevado de Toluca National Park, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Mariana Sánchez-Jasso

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo documenta la riqueza específica de vertebrados de un bosque reforestado del Parque Nacional Nevado de Toluca (PNNT Estado de México, México. Se identificaron 85 especies totales, de las cuales 24 especies son endémicas de México, 14 especies se encuentran en alguna categoría de riesgo de acuerdo con la NOM-059 (SEMARNAT, 2010 y 3 especies en la lista roja de la UICN. Aun cuando la zona de estudio representa apenas el 0.42% de la superficie total del PNNT, la riqueza de vertebrados encontrada constituye el 11.37% de la riqueza total en el Estado de México, lo cual destaca la importancia de este espacio y una urgente necesidad de establecer estrategias de manejo que garanticen la conservación de las especies y su hábitat.This paper documents the richness of vertebrates in reforested woodlands inside the Nevado de Toluca National Park, State of Mexico, Mexico. A total of 85 species were identified, of which 24 species are endemic to Mexico, 14 species are in some risk category according to NOM-059-SEMARNAT-2010 and 3 species in the IUCN Red List. Even though the study area accounts for 0.42% of the total area of the Nevado de Toluca National Park, the richness of vertebrates in this area includes 11.37% of the total richness in the State of Mexico, highlighting the importance of the area and an urgent need to establish management strategies for its conservation.

  11. Parameterization and Uncertainty Analysis of SWAT model in Hydrological Simulation of Chaohe River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jie, M.; Zhang, J.; Guo, B. B.

    2017-12-01

    As a typical distributed hydrological model, the SWAT model also has a challenge in calibrating parameters and analysis their uncertainty. This paper chooses the Chaohe River Basin China as the study area, through the establishment of the SWAT model, loading the DEM data of the Chaohe river basin, the watershed is automatically divided into several sub-basins. Analyzing the land use, soil and slope which are on the basis of the sub-basins and calculating the hydrological response unit (HRU) of the study area, after running SWAT model, the runoff simulation values in the watershed are obtained. On this basis, using weather data, known daily runoff of three hydrological stations, combined with the SWAT-CUP automatic program and the manual adjustment method are used to analyze the multi-site calibration of the model parameters. Furthermore, the GLUE algorithm is used to analyze the parameters uncertainty of the SWAT model. Through the sensitivity analysis, calibration and uncertainty study of SWAT, the results indicate that the parameterization of the hydrological characteristics of the Chaohe river is successful and feasible which can be used to simulate the Chaohe river basin.

  12. Drought analysis in the Tons River Basin, India during 1969-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshram, Sarita Gajbhiye; Gautam, Randhir; Kahya, Ercan

    2018-05-01

    The primary focus of this study is the analysis of droughts in the Tons River Basin during the period 1969-2008. Precipitation data observed at four gauging stations are used to identify drought over the study area. The event of drought is derived from the standardized precipitation index (SPI) on a 3-month scale. Our results indicated that severe drought occurred in the Allahabad, Rewa, and Satna stations in the years 1973 and 1979. The droughts in this region had occurred mainly due to erratic behavior in monsoons, especially due to long breaks between monsoons. During the drought years, the deficiency of the annual rainfall in the analysis of annual rainfall departure had varied from -26% in 1976 to -60% in 1973 at Allahabad station in the basin. The maximum deficiency of annual and seasonal rainfall recorded in the basin is 60%. The maximum seasonal rainfall departure observed in the basin is in the order of -60% at Allahabad station in 1973, while maximum annual rainfall departure had been recorded as -60% during 1979 at the Satna station. Extreme dry events ( z score <-2) were detected during July, August, and September. Moreover, severe dry events were observed in August, September, and October. The drought conditions in the Tons River Basin are dominantly driven by total rainfall throughout the period between June and November.

  13. Wellbore stability analysis and its application in the Fergana basin, central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuanliang, Yan; Jingen, Deng; Baohua, Yu; Hailong, Liu; Fucheng, Deng; Zijian, Chen; Lianbo, Hu; Haiyan, Zhu; Qin, Han

    2014-02-01

    Wellbore instability is one of the major problems hampering the drilling speed in the Fergana basin. Comprehensive analysis of the geological and engineering data in this area indicates that the Fergana basin is characterized by high in situ stress and plenty of natural fractures, especially in the formations which are rich in bedding structure and have several high-pressure systems. Complex accidents such as wellbore collapse, sticking, well kick and lost circulation happen frequently. Tests and theoretical analysis reveals that the wellbore instability in the Fergana basin was influenced by multiple interactive mechanisms dominated by the instability of the bedding shale. Selecting a proper drilling fluid density and improving the sealing characteristic of the applied drilling fluid is the key to preventing wellbore instability in the Fergana basin. The mechanical mechanism of wellbore instability in the Fergana basin was analysed and a method to determine the proper drilling fluid density was proposed. The research results were successfully used to guide the drilling work of the Jida-4 well; compared with the Jida-3 well, the drilling cycle of the Jida-4 well was reduced by 32%.

  14. Caracterización de queso fresco comercializado en mercados fijos y populares de Toluca, Estado de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edaena Pamela Díaz Galindo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available La fabricación artesanal del queso, es una actividad integradora del sistema producto leche. Para evaluar las condiciones de comercialización y caracterización del queso fresco en mercados y tianguis de Toluca, Estado de México, se realizó un muestreo por conveniencia, obteniendo 64 piezas de queso fresco de mercados establecidos e itinerantes, y se aplicó una encuesta abierta a comerciantes durante el periodo agosto a octubre de 2014. La procedencia de los quesos se obtuvo de las regiones: (A Valle de Toluca, (B otros municipios de la entidad, (C de origen desconocido y (D otros estados del país. Los valores de pH y temperatura del queso se midieron en el punto de venta. El contenido de materia seca, cenizas, grasa, proteína y NaCl se realizó por métodos oficiales. El origen del queso en los mercados fue mayoritariamente de la región A; la presentación comercial común fue de forma circular con un peso de 100 a 250 g. Los rangos de los parámetros evaluados fueron: pH (4.84-6.07, humedad (42.71-66.66 %, materia seca (33.3-68.9 %, cenizas (2.65-5.24 %, grasa (12-32 %, proteína (16.81-26.62 % y NaCl (0.29-1.44 %. Las condiciones de comercialización y el abasto regional en los mercados son afectadas por un manejo inadecuado del producto y la competencia de quesos industrializados. Se concluye que el queso fresco comercializado en el municipio de Toluca, puede ser considerado un queso artesanal genuino propio de la región del valle de Toluca, que debe ser preservado por su interés como patrimonio en la gastronomía mexicana y su importancia socioeconómica y alimentaria regional.

  15. Analysis of storm runoff-sediment yield of a 1st order stream basin in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analysis of storm runoff-sediment yield of a 1st order stream basin in Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, southwestern Nigeria. ... The findings of this study will aid programme in soil erosion controls designed by the governments and individuals in forested watersheds. Key Words: Storm flow discharge, storm sediment ...

  16. Quantitative allochem compositional analysis of Lochkovian-Pragian boundary sections in the Prague Basin (Czech Republic)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Weinerová, Hedvika; Hron, K.; Bábek, O.; Šimíček, D.; Hladil, Jindřich

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 354, JUN 1 (2017), s. 43-59 ISSN 0037-0738 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-18183S Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : compositional analysis * carbonate petrography * multivariate statistics * log-ratio coordinates * Prague Basin * Lower Devonian Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy OBOR OECD: Geology Impact factor: 2.373, year: 2016

  17. K Basins Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) approval plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This document delineates the plan for preparation, review, and approval of the K Basins Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Packaging Design Criteria (PDC) document and the on-site Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP). The packaging addressed in these documents is used to transport SNF in a Multi- canister Overpack (MCO) configuration

  18. a Temporal and Spatial Analysis of Urban Heat Island in Basin City Utilizing Remote Sensing Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hsiao-Tung

    2016-06-01

    Urban Heat Island (UHI) has been becoming a key factor in deteriorating the urban ecological environment. Spatial-temporal analysis on its prototype of basin city's UHI and quantitatively evaluating effect from rapid urbanization will provide theoretical foundation for relieving UHI effect. Based on Landsat 8, ETM+ and TM images of Taipei basin areas from 1900 to 2015, this article has retrieved the land surface temperature (LST) at summer solstice of each year, and then analysed spatial-temporal pattern and evolution characters of UHI in Taipei basin in this decade. The results showed that the expansion built district, UHI area constantly expanded from centre city to the suburb areas. The prototype of UHI in Taipei basin that showed in addition to higher temperatures in the centre city also were relatively high temperatures gathered boundaries surrounded by foot of mountains side. It calls "sinking heat island". From 1900 to 2000, the higher UHI areas were different land use type change had obvious difference by public infrastructure works. And then, in next 15 years till 2015, building density of urban area has been increasing gradually. It has the trend that UHI flooding raises follow urban land use density. Hot spot of UHI in Taipei basin also has the same characteristics. The results suggest that anthropogenic heat release probably plays a significant role in the UHI effect, and must be considered in urban planning adaptation strategies.

  19. A TEMPORAL AND SPATIAL ANALYSIS OF URBAN HEAT ISLAND IN BASIN CITY UTILIZING REMOTE SENSING TECHNIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.-T. Chang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Urban Heat Island (UHI has been becoming a key factor in deteriorating the urban ecological environment. Spatial-temporal analysis on its prototype of basin city’s UHI and quantitatively evaluating effect from rapid urbanization will provide theoretical foundation for relieving UHI effect. Based on Landsat 8, ETM+ and TM images of Taipei basin areas from 1900 to 2015, this article has retrieved the land surface temperature (LST at summer solstice of each year, and then analysed spatial-temporal pattern and evolution characters of UHI in Taipei basin in this decade. The results showed that the expansion built district, UHI area constantly expanded from centre city to the suburb areas. The prototype of UHI in Taipei basin that showed in addition to higher temperatures in the centre city also were relatively high temperatures gathered boundaries surrounded by foot of mountains side. It calls “sinking heat island”. From 1900 to 2000, the higher UHI areas were different land use type change had obvious difference by public infrastructure works. And then, in next 15 years till 2015, building density of urban area has been increasing gradually. It has the trend that UHI flooding raises follow urban land use density. Hot spot of UHI in Taipei basin also has the same characteristics. The results suggest that anthropogenic heat release probably plays a significant role in the UHI effect, and must be considered in urban planning adaptation strategies.

  20. Hazard classification and auditable safety analysis for the 1300-N Emergency Dump Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kretzschmar, S.P.; Larson, A.R.

    1996-06-01

    This document combines the following four analytical functions: (1) hazards baseline of the Emergency Dump Basin (EDB) in the quiescent state; (2) preliminary hazard classification for intrusive activities (i.e., basin stabilization); (3) final hazard classification for intrusive activities; and (4) an auditable safety analysis. This document describes the potential hazards contained within the EDB at the N Reactor complex and the vulnerabilities of those hazards during the quiescent state (when only surveillance and maintenance activities take place) and during basin stabilization activities. This document also identifies the inventory of both radioactive and hazardous material in the EDB. Result is that the final hazard classification for the EDB segment intrusive activities is radiological

  1. Pleistocene cohesive debris flows at Nevado de Toluca Volcano, central Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capra, L.; Macías, J. L.

    2000-10-01

    During the Pleistocene, intense hydrothermal alteration promoted a flank failure of the southern portion of Nevado de Toluca volcano. This event produced a debris avalanche that transformed into a cohesive debris flow (Pilcaya deposit) owing to water saturation and weakness of the altered pre-avalanche rocks. The Pilcaya debris flow traveled along a narrow tectonic depression up to a distance of 40 km and then spread over a flat plain reaching up to 55 km from the volcano summit. This transition zone corresponds with a sudden break in slope from 5 to 0.5° that caused a rapid reduction in velocity and thickening of the flow that consequently reduced its competence to transport large particles. The resulting deposit thickens from 15 to 40 m, and contains boulders up to 15 m in diameter that form hummocky morphology close to the transitional zone. Sometime after the emplacement of the Pilcaya debris flow, heavy rains and superficial drainage contributed to remobilize the upper portions of the deposit causing two secondary lahars. These debris flows called El Mogote, traveled up to 75 km from the volcano. The edifice collapse generated lahars with a total volume of 2.8 km3 that devastated an approximate area of 250 km2. The area versus volume plot for both deposits shows that the magnitude of the event is comparable to other cohesive debris flows such as the Teteltzingo lahar (Pico de Orizaba, Mexico) and the Osceola mudflow (Mount Rainier, Wa). The Pilcaya debris flow represents additional evidence of debris flow transformed from a flank failure, a potentially devastating phenomenon that could threaten distant areas from the volcano previously considered without risk.

  2. Magma fluxes and recurreance rate of eruptions at Nevado de Toluca volcano (Mexico)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Gregor; Probst, Line; Arce, José L.; Caricchi, Luca

    2017-04-01

    Forecasting the frequency and size of volcanic eruptions is a long-term goal for hazard mitigation. The frequency at which a given crustal magmatic system is driven towards a critical state and the magnitude of the resulting volcanic events are linked to the supply rate of fresh magma, crustal properties, and tectonic setting. Our ability to forecast the recurrence rate of eruptions is hampered by the lack of data on key variables such as the average magma flux locally and globally. The aim of this project is to identify the average magma supply rate and injection frequency for eruptions of different magnitude and eruptive style. We centred our study at Nevado de Toluca in Mexico, a subduction-related volcano with an eruptive history spanning about 1.5 million years of comparatively well documented effusive and explosive eruptions dominantly of dacitic composition. We carry out in-situ high precision zircon geochronology for a sequence of eruptions of different magnitude to obtain a distribution of crystal ages from which average crustal magma fluxes can be calculated. Eruptive fluxes will be constrained by extracting lava flow volumes from a digital elevation model. A combination of whole rock and mineral chemistry will provide quantitative insights on petrogenetic processes and on the frequency at which intensive parameters changed within the magma reservoir before the eruptions. Our results will be integrated in a global database including other volcanic systems and literature data to attempt to identify similarities and differences between magmatic reservoirs feeding volcanic eruptions of different magnitude. The final target of this project is to identify the physical factors controlling the recurrence rate of volcanic eruptions at regional and global scale.

  3. Lightning climatology in the Congo Basin: detailed analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soula, Serge; Kigotsi, Jean; Georgis, Jean-François; Barthe, Christelle

    2016-04-01

    The lightning climatology of the Congo Basin including several countries of Central Africa is analyzed in detail for the first time. It is based on World Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN) data for the period from 2005 to 2013. A comparison of these data with the Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) data for the same period shows the WWLLN detection efficiency (DE) in the region increases from about 1.70 % in the beginning of the period to 5.90 % in 2013, relative to LIS data, but not uniformly over the whole 2750 km × 2750 km area. Both the annual flash density and the number of stormy days show sharp maximum values localized in eastern of Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and west of Kivu Lake, regardless of the reference year and the period of the year. These maxima reach 12.86 fl km-2 and 189 days, respectively, in 2013, and correspond with a very active region located at the rear of the Virunga mountain range characterised with summits that can reach 3000 m. The presence of this range plays a role in the thunderstorm development along the year. The estimation of this local maximum of the lightning density by taking into account the DE, leads to a value consistent with that of the global climatology by Christian et al. (2003) and other authors. Thus, a mean maximum value of about 157 fl km-2 y-1 is found for the annual lightning density. The zonal distribution of the lightning flashes exhibits a maximum between 1°S and 2°S and about 56 % of the flashes located below the equator in the 10°S - 10°N interval. The diurnal evolution of the flash rate has a maximum between 1400 and 1700 UTC, according to the reference year, in agreement with previous works in other regions of the world.

  4. The population structure of Phytophthora infestans from the Toluca Valley of Central Mexico suggests genetic differentiation between populations from cultivated potato and wild Solanum spp.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flier, W.G.; Grünwald, N.J.; Kroon, L.P.N.M.; Sturbaum, A.K.; Bosch, van den G.B.M.; Garay-Serrano, E.; Lozoya-Saldaña, H.; Fry, W.E.; Turkensteen, L.J.

    2003-01-01

    The Population structure of Phytophthora infestans in the Toluca Valley of central Mexico was assessed using 170 isolates collected front cultivated potatoes and the native wild Solanum spp., S. demissum and S. xedinense. All isolates were analyzed for mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplotype and

  5. Las comunidades vegetales del Zacatonal Alpino de los volcanes Popocatépetl y Nevado de Toluca, Región Central de México.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Almeida-Lenero, L.; Gimenez de Azcarate, J.; Cleef, A.M.; Gonzales Trapaga, A.

    2004-01-01

    This study of the zacatonal alpino zone of the volcanoes Popocatepetl (5452 in) and Nevado de Toluca (4690 m) in the central region of the Transmexican Volcanic Belt, is a follow-up of the study of ALMEIDA et al. (1994). This tropical alpine zacatonal represents the potential vegetation of the

  6. BASIN ANALYSIS AND PETROLEUM SYSTEM CHARACTERIZATION AND MODELING, INTERIOR SALT BASINS, CENTRAL AND EASTERN GULF OF MEXICO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest A. Mancini; Donald A. Goddard; Ronald K. Zimmerman

    2005-05-10

    The principal research effort for Year 2 of the project has been data compilation and the determination of the burial and thermal maturation histories of the North Louisiana Salt Basin and basin modeling and petroleum system identification. In the first nine (9) months of Year 2, the research focus was on the determination of the burial and thermal maturation histories, and during the remainder of the year the emphasis has basin modeling and petroleum system identification. Existing information on the North Louisiana Salt Basin has been evaluated, an electronic database has been developed, regional cross sections have been prepared, structure and isopach maps have been constructed, and burial history, thermal maturation history and hydrocarbon expulsion profiles have been prepared. Seismic data, cross sections, subsurface maps and related profiles have been used in evaluating the tectonic, depositional, burial and thermal maturation histories of the basin. Oil and gas reservoirs have been found to be associated with salt-supported anticlinal and domal features (salt pillows, turtle structures and piercement domes); with normal faulting associated with the northern basin margin and listric down-to-the-basin faults (state-line fault complex) and faulted salt features; and with combination structural and stratigraphic features (Sabine and Monroe Uplifts) and monoclinal features with lithologic variations. Petroleum reservoirs are mainly Upper Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous fluvial-deltaic sandstone facies and Lower Cretaceous and Upper Cretaceous shoreline, marine bar and shallow shelf sandstone facies. Cretaceous unconformities significantly contribute to the hydrocarbon trapping mechanism capacity in the North Louisiana Salt Basin. The chief petroleum source rock in this basin is Upper Jurassic Smackover lime mudstone beds. The generation of hydrocarbons from Smackover lime mudstone was initiated during the Early Cretaceous and continued into the Tertiary

  7. Diet of larval Ambystoma rivulare (Caudata: Ambystomatidae, a threatened salamander from the Volcán Nevado de Toluca, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio A. Lemos-Espinal

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Several species of salamander in the genus Ambystoma occur in the mountains surrounding Mexico City and are considered at risk of extinction. However, little is known about their ecology and natural history. The Toluca Stream Siredon (Ambystoma rivulare is classified as “Data Deficient” by the IUCN, and considered “Threatened” under Mexican law. From October 2013 to September 2014, we examined the diet of larval A. rivulare from a stream on the Volcán Nevado de Toluca in Mexico to provide insight into the suitability of the habitat to support this population of salamanders. Ostracods accounted for approximately 90% of all prey items consumed by larval A. rivulare. The number of ostracods found in stomachs increased with individual body size, but the proportion of ostracods in stomachs did not vary with body size. Nematodes were observed in approximately one third of the stomachs we examined. The diversity of prey in the diet of A. rivulare in the stream we studied is low and dominated by a single prey taxon, ostracods. Our results suggest that if environmental conditions in the stream change such that ostracods are negatively affected then the long-term persistence of this population of A. rivulare might be in jeopardy.

  8. Study of fine particles (PM{sub 2.5}) during the dry-hot time in the Toluca city; Estudio de las particulas finas (PM{sub 2.5}) durante la epoca seca-caliente en la ciudad de Toluca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosendo G, V. [ITT, 50000 Toluca (Mexico); Aldape U, F. [ININ, 52750 La Marquesa, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. e-mail: vero_rosen2108@yahoo.com.mx

    2007-07-01

    The first obtained results of the analysis of the fine fraction particulate material (PM{sub 2.5}) samples collected in the Toluca City are presented. The samples analyzed are part of a more extensive campaign that contemplates the low project the one which one carries out this work and that it integrates three climatic times (dry-hot, of rains and dry-cold time) with the purpose of investigating the events of contamination in one complete year. The obtained results correspond to the dry-hot time and its include mainly the database starting from which the temporal variation graphs were obtained, the correlations among elements and the enrichment factor, as well as a multiple correlation analysis. Additionally the gravimetry was measured. Its are not observed significant episodes, however, it was found an element of the traces order, little common in other atmospheric studies as it is arsenic. From the gravimetry it was deduced that the air quality standard of fine particle, it does not violate. (Author)

  9. Analysis of Taipei Basin Response for Earthquakes of Various Depths and Locations Using Empirical Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Sokolov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The response of Taipei basin upon earthquake excitation was studied using records of recent earthquakes. The strong-motion database includes records obtained at 32 stations of the Taipei TSMIP net work from 83 deep and 142 shallow earthquakes (M > 4.0 that occurred in 1992 - 2004. The characteristics of frequency-de pendent site response were obtained as spectral ratios between the actual earthquake records (horizontal components and those modelled for a hypothetical Very Hard Rock (VHR condition. The models for VHR spectra of Taiwan earthquakes had been recently proposed by Sokolov et al. (2005b, 2006. Analysis of site response characteristics and comparison with simple 1D models of the soil column resulted in the following conclusions: (1 The spectral ratios through out the basin obtained from deep earth quakes (depth > 35 km exhibit good agreement with the theoretical ratios calculated using the 1D models constructed using avail able geological and geotechnical data. (2 The spectral ratios obtained from shallow earth quakes show influence of: (a surface waves generated when travelling from distant sources to the basin and (b relatively low-frequency (< 1 - 2 Hz waves generated within the basin. (3 Some shallow earth quakes pro duce extremely high amplification at frequencies 0.3 - 1 Hz within the basin that may be dangerous for high-rise buildings and high way bridges. (4 The obtained results may be used in probabilistic seismic microzonation of the basin when many possible earth quakes located at various distances are considered. 2D and 3D simulation is necessary to model the seismic influence from particularly large earthquakes.

  10. Process-based distributed modeling approach for analysis of sediment dynamics in a river basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Kabir

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Modeling of sediment dynamics for developing best management practices of reducing soil erosion and of sediment control has become essential for sustainable management of watersheds. Precise estimation of sediment dynamics is very important since soils are a major component of enormous environmental processes and sediment transport controls lake and river pollution extensively. Different hydrological processes govern sediment dynamics in a river basin, which are highly variable in spatial and temporal scales. This paper presents a process-based distributed modeling approach for analysis of sediment dynamics at river basin scale by integrating sediment processes (soil erosion, sediment transport and deposition with an existing process-based distributed hydrological model. In this modeling approach, the watershed is divided into an array of homogeneous grids to capture the catchment spatial heterogeneity. Hillslope and river sediment dynamic processes have been modeled separately and linked to each other consistently. Water flow and sediment transport at different land grids and river nodes are modeled using one dimensional kinematic wave approximation of Saint-Venant equations. The mechanics of sediment dynamics are integrated into the model using representative physical equations after a comprehensive review. The model has been tested on river basins in two different hydro climatic areas, the Abukuma River Basin, Japan and Latrobe River Basin, Australia. Sediment transport and deposition are modeled using Govers transport capacity equation. All spatial datasets, such as, Digital Elevation Model (DEM, land use and soil classification data, etc., have been prepared using raster "Geographic Information System (GIS" tools. The results of relevant statistical checks (Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency and R–squared value indicate that the model simulates basin hydrology and its associated sediment dynamics reasonably well. This paper presents the

  11. Remote sensing based deforestation analysis in Mahanadi and Brahmaputra river basin in India since 1985.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behera, M D; Tripathi, P; Das, P; Srivastava, S K; Roy, P S; Joshi, C; Behera, P R; Deka, J; Kumar, P; Khan, M L; Tripathi, O P; Dash, T; Krishnamurthy, Y V N

    2018-01-15

    Land use and land cover (LULC) change has been recognized as a key driver of global climate change by influencing land surface processes. Being in constant change, river basins are always subjected to LULC changes, especially decline in forest cover to give way for agricultural expansion, urbanization, industrialization etc. We used on-screen digital interpretation technique to derive LULC maps from Landsat images at three decadal intervals i.e., 1985, 1995 and 2005 of two major river basins of India. Rain-fed, Mahanadi river basin (MRB) attributed to 55% agricultural area wherein glacier-fed, Brahmaputra river basin (BRB) had only 16% area under agricultural land. Though conversion of forest land for agricultural activities was the major LULC changes in both the basins, the rate was higher for BRB than MRB. While water body increased in MRB could be primarily attributed to creation of reservoirs and aquaculture farms; snow and ice melting attributed to creation of more water bodies in BRB. Scrub land acted as an intermediate class for forest conversion to barren land in BRB, while direct conversion of scrub land to waste land and crop land was seen in MRB. While habitation contributed primarily to LULC changes in BRB, the proximity zones around habitat and other socio-economic drivers contributed to LULC change in MRB. Comparing the predicted result with actual LULC of 2005, we obtained >97% modelling accuracy; therefore it is expected that the Dyna-CLUE model has very well predicted the LULC for the year 2025. The predicted LULC of 2025 and corresponding LULC changes in these two basins acting as early warning, and with the past 2-decadal change analysis this study is believed to help the land use planners for improved regional planning to create balanced ecosystem, especially in a changing climate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. THE HORTON-STRAHLER RIVER ORDER IMPLEMENTATION RELEVANCE WITHIN THE ANALYSIS OF THE ALMAŞ BASIN RELIEF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MĂDĂLINA-IOANA RUS

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The Horton-Strahler River Order Implementation Relevance within the Analysis of the Almaș Basin. The purpose of the present study/research aims at underlining the importance of the enforcement of the river order within the analysis of the Almaș basin relief. The topic was chosen based on the fact that the hydrographic networks hierarchy offers at the same time quality and quantity information, on the relief evolution tendency and also the chance to compare the Almaș tributary sub-basins ones with the others and also with other basins of the same order belonging to other morphological units. The results thus achieved offer information on the rivers order, the confluence report, the river segments density, the form/shape report. The values corresponding to the previously mentioned index, have led us to formulating the following conclusion: the evolution of the Almaș hydrographic network appears therefore strongly influenced by the lithologic sub-layer, by the presence of brittle rocks, by accentuated fragmentation and by the wide energy of the relief, nevertheless by the presence of the local subsidence area/region of Someș, from Jibou.

  13. Application of Time Series Analysis in Determination of Lag Time in Jahanbin Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seied Yahya Mirzaee

    2005-11-01

        One of the important issues that have significant role in study of hydrology of basin is determination of lag time. Lag time has significant role in hydrological studies. Quantity of rainfall related lag time depends on several factors, such as permeability, vegetation cover, catchments slope, rainfall intensity, storm duration and type of rain. Determination of lag time is important parameter in many projects such as dam design and also water resource studies. Lag time of basin could be calculated using various methods. One of these methods is time series analysis of spectral density. The analysis is based on fouries series. The time series is approximated with Sinuous and Cosines functions. In this method harmonically significant quantities with individual frequencies are presented. Spectral density under multiple time series could be used to obtain basin lag time for annual runoff and short-term rainfall fluctuation. A long lag time could be due to snowmelt as well as melting ice due to rainfalls in freezing days. In this research the lag time of Jahanbin basin has been determined using spectral density method. The catchments is subjected to both rainfall and snowfall. For short term rainfall fluctuation with a return period  2, 3, 4 months, the lag times were found 0.18, 0.5 and 0.083 month, respectively.

  14. Analysis of temporal and spatial trends of hydro-climatic variables in the Wei River Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jing; Huang, Qiang; Chang, Jianxia; Liu, Dengfeng; Huang, Shengzhi; Shi, Xiaoyu

    2015-05-01

    The Wei River is the largest tributary of the Yellow River in China. The relationship between runoff and precipitation in the Wei River Basin has been changed due to the changing climate and increasingly intensified human activities. In this paper, we determine abrupt changes in hydro-climatic variables and identify the main driving factors for the changes in the Wei River Basin. The nature of the changes is analysed based on data collected at twenty-one weather stations and five hydrological stations in the period of 1960-2010. The sequential Mann-Kendall test analysis is used to capture temporal trends and abrupt changes in the five sub-catchments of the Wei River Basin. A non-parametric trend test at the basin scale for annual data shows a decreasing trend of precipitation and runoff over the past fifty-one years. The temperature exhibits an increase trend in the entire period. The potential evaporation was calculated based on the Penman-Monteith equation, presenting an increasing trend of evaporation since 1990. The stations with a significant decreasing trend in annual runoff mainly are located in the west of the Wei River primarily interfered by human activities. Regression analysis indicates that human activity was possibly the main cause of the decline of runoff after 1970. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Field screening sampling and analysis strategy and methodology for the 183-H Solar Evaporation Basins: Phase 2, Soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antipas, A.; Hopkins, A.M.; Wasemiller, M.A.; McCain, R.G.

    1996-01-01

    This document provides a sampling/analytical strategy and methodology for Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) closure of the 183-H Solar Evaporation Basins within the boundaries and requirements identified in the initial Phase II Sampling and Analysis Plan for RCRA Closure of the 183-H Solar Evaporation Basins

  16. Temporal precipitation trend analysis at the Langat River Basin ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    analysis showed that most of the stations during the northeast monsoon (NEM) and the inter monsoon. 1 (INT1) seasons and half of ..... mator and b in linear regression analysis for annual data ..... for the financial support given for the research.

  17. drainage basin morphology and terrain analysis of the lower benue ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adebola et al.

    RADAR Topographic Mission and used to enhance geomorphic features. The analysis ... thickness of 7-10km. Keywords: Benue, Remote Sensing, GIS, Geomorphology, River ... because the stream flow, and the water quality of a river are affected by ..... Techniques for the Assessment and Analysis of Flood. Risk along the ...

  18. Geostatistical analysis of potentiometric data in Wolfcamp aquifer of the Palo Duro Basin, Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harper, W.V.; Furr, J.M.

    1986-04-01

    This report details a geostatistical analysis of potentiometric data from the Wolfcamp aquifer in the Palo Duro Basin, Texas. Such an analysis is a part of an overall uncertainty analysis for a high-level waste repository in salt. Both an expected potentiometric surface and the associated standard error surface are produced. The Wolfcamp data are found to be well explained by a linear trend with a superimposed spherical semivariogram. A cross-validation of the analysis confirms this. In addition, the cross-validation provides a point-by-point check to test for possible anomalous data

  19. Fire hazard analysis for the K basin fuel transfer system anneses project A-15

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BARILO, N.F.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of the Fuel Transfer System (FTS) is to move the spent nuclear fuel currently stored in the K East (KE) Basin and transfer it by shielded cask to the K West (KW) Basin. The fuel will then be processed through the existing fuel cleaning and loading system prior to being loaded into Multi-Canister Overpacks (MCO). The FTS operation is considered an intra-facility transfer because the spent fuel will stay within the 100 K area and between the K Basins. This preliminary Fire Hazards Analysis (FHA) for the K Basin FTS Annexes addresses fire hazards or fire-related concerns in accordance with U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) 420.1 (DOE 2000), and RLID 420.1 (DOE 1999), resulting from or related to the processes and equipment. It is intended to assess the risk from fire associated within the FTS Annexes to ensure that there are no undue fire hazards to site personnel and the public; the potential for the occurrence of a fire is minimized; process control and safety systems are not damaged by fire or related perils; and property damage from fire and related perils does not exceed an acceptable level. Consistent with the preliminary nature of the design information, this FHA is performed on a graded approach

  20. Analysis of flood inundation in ungauged basins based on multi-source remote sensing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wei; Shen, Qiu; Zhou, Yuehua; Li, Xin

    2018-02-09

    Floods are among the most expensive natural hazards experienced in many places of the world and can result in heavy losses of life and economic damages. The objective of this study is to analyze flood inundation in ungauged basins by performing near-real-time detection with flood extent and depth based on multi-source remote sensing data. Via spatial distribution analysis of flood extent and depth in a time series, the inundation condition and the characteristics of flood disaster can be reflected. The results show that the multi-source remote sensing data can make up the lack of hydrological data in ungauged basins, which is helpful to reconstruct hydrological sequence; the combination of MODIS (moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer) surface reflectance productions and the DFO (Dartmouth Flood Observatory) flood database can achieve the macro-dynamic monitoring of the flood inundation in ungauged basins, and then the differential technique of high-resolution optical and microwave images before and after floods can be used to calculate flood extent to reflect spatial changes of inundation; the monitoring algorithm for the flood depth combining RS and GIS is simple and easy and can quickly calculate the depth with a known flood extent that is obtained from remote sensing images in ungauged basins. Relevant results can provide effective help for the disaster relief work performed by government departments.

  1. Petroleum system of Northwest Java basin based on gravity data analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widianto, E.

    2018-01-01

    Energy management in the upstream oil and gas sector becomes very important for the country’s energy security. The renewal of energy resources and reserves becomes necessary and is a must. In the oil and gas industry, gravity data is usually used only for regional surveys, but with the development of instrumentation technology and gravity software development, this method can be used for assessing oil and gas survey stages from exploration to production. This study was conducted to evaluate aspects of petroleum system and exploration play concept in the part of Northwest Java Basin, covering source rock deposition regions (source kitchen area, migration direction), development of reservoirs, structural and stratigraphic trap, based on gravity data. This study uses data from Bouguer gravity anomaly map by filtering process to produce a residual map depicting sedimentation basin configuration. The mapping generated 20 sedimentary basins in Java Island with the total hydrocarbon resources of 113 BBOE (Billion Barrel of Oil Equivalent). The petroleum system analysis was conducted in the Northwest Basin section. The final map produced illustrates the condition of petroleum system and play concept that can be used as exploration direction, expectedly reducing the risk of drilling failure.

  2. A multi basin SWAT model analysis of runoff and sedimentation in the Blue Nile, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. M. Easton

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A multi basin analysis of runoff and erosion in the Blue Nile Basin, Ethiopia was conducted to elucidate sources of runoff and sediment. Erosion is arguably the most critical problem in the Blue Nile Basin, as it limits agricultural productivity in Ethiopia, degrades benthos in the Nile, and results in sedimentation of dams in downstream countries. A modified version of the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT model was developed to predict runoff and sediment losses from the Ethiopian Blue Nile Basin. The model simulates saturation excess runoff from the landscape using a simple daily water balance coupled to a topographic wetness index in ways that are consistent with observed runoff processes in the basin. The spatial distribution of landscape erosion is thus simulated more correctly. The model was parameterized in a nested design for flow at eight and sediment at three locations in the basin. Subbasins ranged in size from 1.3 to 174 000 km2, and interestingly, the partitioning of runoff and infiltrating flow could be predicted by topographic information. Model predictions showed reasonable accuracy (Nash Sutcliffe Efficiencies ranged from 0.53–0.92 with measured data across all sites except Kessie, where the water budget could not be closed; however, the timing of flow was well captured. Runoff losses increased with rainfall during the monsoonal season and were greatest from areas with shallow soils and large contributing areas. Analysis of model results indicate that upland landscape erosion dominated sediment delivery to the main stem of the Blue Nile in the early part of the growing season when tillage occurs and before the soil was wetted up and plant cover was established. Once plant cover was established in mid August landscape erosion was negligible and sediment export was dominated by channel processes and re-suspension of landscape sediment deposited early in the growing season. These results imply that targeting small

  3. Evolutionary analysis of groundwater flow: Application of multivariate statistical analysis to hydrochemical data in the Densu Basin, Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yidana, Sandow Mark; Bawoyobie, Patrick; Sakyi, Patrick; Fynn, Obed Fiifi

    2018-02-01

    An evolutionary trend has been postulated through the analysis of hydrochemical data of a crystalline rock aquifer system in the Densu Basin, Southern Ghana. Hydrochemcial data from 63 groundwater samples, taken from two main groundwater outlets (Boreholes and hand dug wells) were used to postulate an evolutionary theory for the basin. Sequential factor and hierarchical cluster analysis were used to disintegrate the data into three factors and five clusters (spatial associations). These were used to characterize the controls on groundwater hydrochemistry and its evolution in the terrain. The dissolution of soluble salts and cation exchange processes are the dominant processes controlling groundwater hydrochemistry in the terrain. The trend of evolution of this set of processes follows the pattern of groundwater flow predicted by a calibrated transient groundwater model in the area. The data suggest that anthropogenic activities represent the second most important process in the hydrochemistry. Silicate mineral weathering is the third most important set of processes. Groundwater associations resulting from Q-mode hierarchical cluster analysis indicate an evolutionary pattern consistent with the general groundwater flow pattern in the basin. These key findings are at variance with results of previous investigations and indicate that when carefully done, groundwater hydrochemical data can be very useful for conceptualizing groundwater flow in basins.

  4. Bryophytes use like atmospheric indicators of heavy metals in the metropolitan area of the Toluca Valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poblano B, J.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the concentration of Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn and Pb in species of frequent and abundant bryophytes in the Metropolitan Area of the Toluca Valley (MATV). The concentration of the studied metals was determined in two different seasons (cold-dry and warm-humid) in 11 sites of the MATV, 7 of them classified as urban areas, 2 as transition areas and 2 as protected natural areas. Only epiphyte organisms found to a superior height of 100 cm of the floor were considered and the species determination was realized in the Sciences Faculty of the Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, while the processing of the samples was carried out in the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ). The samples processing consisted on separating the bryophytes of the bark of the trees, later on each one of the samples was washed, milled and homogenized, at the end they were subjected to a digestion process accelerated by microwaves. The concentration of Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn and Pb in the bryophytes was determined applying the X-rays Fluorescence technique, using a spectrometer Tx-2000 Ital-Structures, with a detector type Si (Li), a tube of Mo (40 kV, 30 m A) with 17,4 keV like excitement energy. Each sample was analyzed six times with a counting time of 500 seconds. Additionally enrichment factors were obtained using reference soils considered as not impacted by anthropogenic activities. With the obtained results space and temporary differences were established through descriptive statistic, also the enrichment factor to infer the possible origin of the metals was calculated, as well as the sites that could represent a risk for the health. The species more frequent and abundant were F. ciliaris and L. angustata, presenting the following tendency in their metals concentration Fe>Ti>Mn>Zn>Pb>V ≅ Cu>Cr, being observed that the temporality is a factor that influences in the metals concentration and that in general F. ciliaris

  5. Drought analysis and short-term forecast in the Aison River Basin (Greece)

    OpenAIRE

    Kavalieratou, S.; Karpouzos, D. K.; Babajimopoulos, C.

    2012-01-01

    A combined regional drought analysis and forecast is elaborated and applied to the Aison River Basin (Greece). The historical frequency, duration and severity were estimated using the standardized precipitation index (SPI) computed on variable time scales, while short-term drought forecast was investigated by means of 3-D loglinear models. A quasi-association model with homogenous diagonal effect was proposed to fit the observed frequencies of class transitions of the SPI values computed on t...

  6. Velocity Model Analysis Based on Integrated Well and Seismic Data of East Java Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mubin, Fathul; Widya, Aviandy; Eka Nurcahya, Budi; Nurul Mahmudah, Erma; Purwaman, Indro; Radityo, Aryo; Shirly, Agung; Nurwani, Citra

    2018-03-01

    Time to depth conversion is an important processof seismic interpretationtoidentify hydrocarbonprospectivity. Main objectives of this research are to minimize the risk of error in geometry and time to depth conversion. Since it’s using a large amount of data and had been doing in the large scale of research areas, this research can be classified as a regional scale research. The research was focused on three horizons time interpretation: Top Kujung I, Top Ngimbang and Basement which located in the offshore and onshore areas of east Java basin. These three horizons was selected because they were assumed to be equivalent to the rock formation, which is it has always been the main objective of oil and gas exploration in the East Java Basin. As additional value, there was no previous works on velocity modeling for regional scale using geological parameters in East Java basin. Lithology and interval thickness were identified as geological factors that effected the velocity distribution in East Java Basin. Therefore, a three layer geological model was generated, which was defined by the type of lithology; carbonate (layer 1: Top Kujung I), shale (layer 2: Top Ngimbang) and Basement. A statistical method using three horizons is able to predict the velocity distribution on sparse well data in a regional scale. The average velocity range for Top Kujung I is 400 m/s - 6000 m/s, Top Ngimbang is 500 m/s - 8200 m/s and Basement is 600 m/s - 8000 m/s. Some velocity anomalies found in Madura sub-basin area, caused by geological factor which identified as thick shale deposit and high density values on shale. Result of velocity and depth modeling analysis can be used to define the volume range deterministically and to make geological models to prospect generation in details by geological concept.

  7. Long term spatial and temporal rainfall trends and homogeneity analysis in Wainganga basin, Central India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Kumar Taxak

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Gridded rainfall data of 0.5×0.5° resolution (CRU TS 3.21 was analysed to study long term spatial and temporal trends on annual and seasonal scales in Wainganga river basin located in Central India during 1901–2012. After testing the presence of autocorrelation, Mann–Kendall (Modified Mann–Kendall test was applied to non-auto correlated (auto correlated series to detect the trends in rainfall data. Theil and Sen׳s slope estimator test was used for finding the magnitude of change over a time period. For detecting the most probable change year, Pettitt–Mann–Whitney test was applied. The Rainfall series was then divided into two partial duration series for finding changes in trends before and after the change year. Arc GIS was used to explore spatial patterns of the trends over the entire basin. Though most of the grid points shows a decreasing trend in annual rainfall, only seven grids has a significant decreasing trend during 1901–2012. On the basis of seasonal trend analysis, non-significant increasing trend is observed only in post monsoon season while seven grid points show significant decreasing trend in monsoon rainfall and non-significant in pre-monsoon and winter rainfall over the last 112 years. During the study period, overall a 8.45% decrease in annual rainfall is estimated. The most probable year of change was found to be 1948 in annual and monsoonal rainfall. There is an increasing rainfall trend in the basin during the period 1901–1948, which is reversed during the period 1949–2012 resulting in decreasing rainfall trend in the basin. Homogeneous trends in annual and seasonal rainfall over a grid points is exhibited in the basin by van Belle and Hughes׳ homogeneity trend test.

  8. Locating new uranium occurrence by integrated weighted analysis in Kaladgi basin, Karnataka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sridhar, M.; Chaturvedi, A.K.; Rai, A.K.

    2014-01-01

    This study aims at identifying uranium potential zones by integrated analysis of thematic layer interpreted and derived from airborne radiometric and magnetic data, satellite data along with available ground geochemical data in western part of Kaladgi basin. Integrated weighted analysis of spatial datasets which included airborne radiometric data (eU, eTh and % K conc.), litho-structural map. hydrogeochemical U conc., and geomorphological data pertaining to study area, was attempted. The weightage analysis was done in GIS environment where different spatial dataset were brought on to a single platform and were analyzed by integration

  9. Analysis of efficiency of pollution reduction measures in rural basin using MIKE Basin model. Case study: Olšava River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaiglová Jana

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of testing the applicability of the MIKE Basin model for simulating the efficiency of scenarios for reducing water pollution. The model has been tested on the Olšava River Basin (520 km2 which is a typical rural region with a heterogeneous mix of pollution sources with variable topography and land use. The study proved that the model can be calibrated successfully using even the limited amount of data typically available in rural basins. The scenarios of pollution reduction were based on implementation and intensification of municipal wastewater treatment and conversion of arable land on fields under the risk of soil erosion to permanent grassland. The application of simulation results of these scenarios with proposed measures proved decreasing concentrations in downstream monitoring stations. Due to the practical applicability of proposed measures, these could lead to fulfilment of the water pollution limits required by the Czech and EU legislation. However, there are factors of uncertainty that are discussed that may delay or limit the effect of adopted measures in small rural basins.

  10. Landslides distribution analysis and role of triggering factors in the Foglia river basin (Central Itay)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baioni, Davide; Gallerini, Giuliano; Sgavetti, Maria

    2013-04-01

    The present work is focused on the distribution of landslides in Foglia river basin area (northern Marche-Romagna), using a heuristic approach supported by GIS tools for the construction of statistical analysis and spatial data. The study area is located in the Adriatic side of the northern Apennine in the boundary that marks the transition between the Marche and Emilia-Romagna regions. The Foglia river basin extends from the Apennines to the Adriatic sea with NE-SE trend occupying an area of about 708 km2. The purpose of this study is to investigate any relationships between factors related to the territory, which were taken into account and divided into classes, and landslides, trying to identify any possible existence of relationships between them. For this aim the study of landslides distribution was performed by using a GIS approach superimposing each thematic map, previously created, with landslides surveyed. Furthermore, we tried to isolate the most recurrent classes, to detect if at the same conditions there is a parameter that affects more than others, so as to recognize every direct relationship of cause and effect. Finally, an analysis was conducted by applying the model of uncertainty CF (Certainity Factor). In the Foglia river basin were surveyed a total of 2821 landslides occupy a total area of 155 km2, corresponding to 22% areal extent of the entire basin. The results of analysis carried out highlighted the importance and role of individual factors that led to the development of landslides analyzed. Moreover, this methodology may be applied to all orders of magnitude and scale without any problem by not requiring a commitment important, both from the economic point of view, and of human resources.

  11. Analysis of rainfall distribution in Kelantan river basin, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che Ros, Faizah; Tosaka, Hiroyuki

    2018-03-01

    Using rainfall gauge on its own as input carries great uncertainties regarding runoff estimation, especially when the area is large and the rainfall is measured and recorded at irregular spaced gauging stations. Hence spatial interpolation is the key to obtain continuous and orderly rainfall distribution at unknown points to be the input to the rainfall runoff processes for distributed and semi-distributed numerical modelling. It is crucial to study and predict the behaviour of rainfall and river runoff to reduce flood damages of the affected area along the Kelantan river. Thus, a good knowledge on rainfall distribution is essential in early flood prediction studies. Forty six rainfall stations and their daily time-series were used to interpolate gridded rainfall surfaces using inverse-distance weighting (IDW), inverse-distance and elevation weighting (IDEW) methods and average rainfall distribution. Sensitivity analysis for distance and elevation parameters were conducted to see the variation produced. The accuracy of these interpolated datasets was examined using cross-validation assessment.

  12. Lineament and Morphometric Analysis for Watershed Development of Tarali River Basin, Western India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikrant Bartakke

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Tarali river is major tributary of River Krishna, which is flowing in western India. The study area lies between latitude 17°23' to 17°38' N and longitude 73°48' to 74°7' E. The area has steep to moderate slope and elevation ranges from 584 - 1171m above mean sea level. Basin exhibits hilly and mountain terrain forming ridges and Western Ghats with deep valley, plateaus and plain. The whole area can be obtained in topographical maps i.e. 47 G/14, 47 G/15 47 K/2, 47 K/3 covering area of about 627 sq.km, acquired from Survey of India. Present study includes lineament and morphometric analysis of Tarali River basin for management and conservation of watershed.

  13. Morphometrical Analysis and Peak Runoff Estimation for the Sub-Lower Niger River Basin, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salami Adebayo Wahab

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study utilized Spatial Information Technology (SIT such as Remote Sensing (RS, a Geographical Information System (GIS, the Global Positioning System (GPS and a high-resolution Digital Elevation Model (DEM for a morphometrical analysis of five sub-basins within the Lower Niger River Basin, Nigeria. Morpho-metrical parameters, such as the total relief, relative relief, relief ratio, ruggedness number, texture ratio, elongation ratio, circularity ratio, form factor ratio, drainage density, stream frequency, sinuosity factor and bifurcation ratio, have been computed and analyzed. The study revealed that the contribution of the morphometric parameters to flooding suggest catchment No. 1 has the least concentration time and the highest runoff depth. Catchment No. 4 has the highest circularity ratio (0.35 as the most hazardous site where floods could reach a great volume over a small area.

  14. A preliminary analysis of the groundwater recharge to the Karoo formations, mid-Zambesi basin, Zimbabwe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Flemming; Owen, R.; Dahlin, T.

    2002-01-01

    A multi-disciplinary study is being carried out on recharge to the Karoo sandstone aquifer in the western part of Zimbabwe, where recharge is controlled by the presence of a thick, confining basalt layer. The aquifer is geographically extensive, and has been identified throughout the southern part......, before it dips below an impervious basalt cover. However, resistivity profiling shows that the basalt at the basin margin is weathered and fractured, and probably permeable, while the basalt deeper into the basin is fresh, solid and impermeable. Field and laboratory analysis of 22 groundwater samples......–130 mm/yr, with an average value of 25 mm/yr. Preliminary results of recharge estimate using 36Cl data suggests lower direct infiltration rates, but further studies are needed. The combination of hydro-chemical, isotopic and geophysical investigations show that the recharge area extends well beyond...

  15. X-ray diffraction analysis of clay stones, Muglad Sedimentary Basin, Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, A. E.

    1997-01-01

    This study deals with the theoretical and experimental aspects of X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique. Moreover the XRD technique has been used to investigate the clay mineral types and their distribution for samples obtained from exploration wells in the Mugald Sedimentary Basin in Western Sudan. The studied samples range in depth from 1524 m to 4572 m. The XRD analysis of samples shows that they consist of kaolinite, smectite, illite, chlorite and the mixed-layer smectite/illite. Kaolinite has higher abundance (15 - 72 %) followed by illite (7 - 34 %), smectite (11 - 76 %) and the less abundance of chlorite and the mixed-layer smectite/illite. Non-clay minerals found include quartz and cristabolite. The clay mineral types and their vertical distribution reflect various controls such as environmental, burial diagenesis, source rocks and climatic influences in the Muglad Sedimentary Basin. (author). 19 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs

  16. Final hazard classification and auditable safety analysis for the N basin segment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kloster, G.; Smith, R.I.; Larson, A.R.; Duncan, G.M.

    1996-12-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide the following: To serve as the auditable safety analysis (ASA) for the N Basin Segment, including both the quiescent state and planned intrusive activities. The ASA is developed through the realistic evaluation of potential hazards that envelope the threat to personnel. The ASA also includes the specification of the programmatic, baseline, and activity- specific controls that are necessary for the protection of workers. To determine and document the final hazard classification (FHC) for the N Basin Segment. The FHC is developed through the use of bounding accident analyses that envelope the potential exposures to personnel. The FHC also includes the specification of the special controls that are necessary to remain within the envelope of those accident analyses

  17. Pollen analysis of coal-bearing Miocene sedimentary rocks from the Seyitomer basin (Kutahya), western Anatolia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yavuz-Isik, N. [Ondokuz Mayis University, Kurupelit (Turkey). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    2007-09-15

    The late Early-Middle Miocene sequences of the Seyitomer Basin (western Anatolia) were palynologically investigated. Fifty-five taxa belonging to seven gymnospermous and 48 angiospermous pollen genera were identified in the 19 productive samples. Two pollen zones were recognised based on the changing abundance of individual tree taxa. Zone 1 is characterized by predominance of Pinus and Cedrus. Zone 2 is characterized by predominance of deciduous Quercus and evergreen Quercus and a marked reduction in representation of Taxodiaceae. The differences in the pollen spectra between Zone 1 and Zone 2 may reflect the global Middle Miocene cooling. These results are largely comparable to pollen data derived from the neighbouring areas. The vegetation of the Seyitomer Basin was dominated by trees. This palynological analysis reveals the existence of a swamp-forest developed in a subtropical to warm-temperate humid climate.

  18. Patrimonio Gastronómico e Turismo Como Estrategia de Desarrollo Local en El Alto Lerma, Toluca - México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Tonatiuh Romero Contreras

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem como objetivos descrever e caracterizar a formação da cozinha tradicional da região de Alto Lerma, a fim de reconhecer o patrimônio culinário existente, iniciando pela parte mais básica da gastronomia desta região, no Valle de Toluca, México. Assim como o potencial para o desenvolvimento local das comunidades detentoras de tal saber. A fim de alcançar tais objetivos, utilizou-se a informação geográfica, arqueológica e etnográfica de projetos publicados, bem como teses profissionais e pesquisas de campo, identificando aquelas características ou sabores que conferem o caráter regional através do tempo.

  19. RCP8.5-Based Future Flood Hazard Analysis for the Lower Mekong River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edangodage Duminda Pradeep Perera

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Climatic variations caused by the excessive emission of greenhouse gases are likely to change the patterns of precipitation, runoff processes, and water storage of river basins. Various studies have been conducted based on precipitation outputs of the global scale climatic models under different emission scenarios. However, there is a limitation in regional- and local-scale hydrological analysis on extreme floods with the combined application of high-resolution atmospheric general circulation models’ (AGCM outputs and physically-based hydrological models (PBHM. This study has taken an effort to overcome that limitation in hydrological analysis. The present and future precipitation, river runoff, and inundation distributions for the Lower Mekong Basin (LMB were analyzed to understand hydrological changes in the LMB under the RCP8.5 scenario. The downstream area beyond the Kratie gauging station, located in the Cambodia and Vietnam flood plains was considered as the LMB in this study. The bias-corrected precipitation outputs of the Japan Meteorological Research Institute atmospheric general circulation model (MRI-AGCM3.2S with 20 km horizontal resolution were utilized as the precipitation inputs for basin-scale hydrological simulations. The present climate (1979–2003 was represented by the AMIP-type simulations while the future (2075–2099 climatic conditions were obtained based on the RCP8.5 greenhouse gas scenario. The entire hydrological system of the Mekong basin was modelled by the block-wise TOPMODEL (BTOP hydrological model with 20 km resolution, while the LMB area was modelled by the rainfall-runoff-inundation (RRI model with 2 km resolution, specifically to analyze floods under the aforementioned climatic conditions. The comparison of present and future river runoffs, inundation distributions and inundation volume changes were the outcomes of the study, which can be supportive information for the LMB flood management, water policy

  20. Initial Time Of Two High Altitude Crater Lakes (Nevado De Toluca, Central Mexico Recorded In Subfossil Cladocera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szeroczyńska Krystyna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was the recognition and reconstruction of the origin of two high altitude lakes and the ecological conditions of their early existence based on subfossil Cladocera and chemical analyses. The study focused on the oldest lacustrine sediments from Lake Sol and Lake Luna, located in the crater of Volcano Nevado de Toluca (Central Mexico. The Nevado de Toluca crater developed approximately 12 ka yr BP. According to the literature, the volcano was last active approximately 3.3 ka yr BP, and the lakes developed after that eruption. The remains of nine Cladocera species were found in the bottom sediments of both lakes. The most dominant taxa were two endemic littoral species: Alona manueli and Iliocryptus nevadensis. The total frequency of Cladocera specimens in both of the sediment cores was very low. No Cladocera remains were recorded in the sediment layer at depths between 123–103 m from Lake Luna. The results of the lithological and geochemical analyses showed that this sediment layer was composed of allochthonous material, probably originating from slid down from the volcanic cone. This was suggested by the content of silica (up to 13%, iron (up to 12%, and titanium (up to 4%. The Cladocera remains recorded in the bottom sediments suggested that both reservoirs developed as freshwater lakes at the beginning of the sedimentation. The calibrated radiocarbon dates obtained for the bottom samples were 4040 to 3990 yr BP for Lake Luna (129 cm and 4485 to 4485 yr BP for Lake Sol (89 cm. The obtained ages were older than the dates of the last eruption, which occurred approximately 3300 yr BP. This result was likely related to the type of radiocarbon dated materials (charcoals.

  1. Uso racional y sostenible de los recursos hídricos del acuífero del valle de Toluca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Gárfias Soliz

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El agua subterránea constituye la principal fuente de agua potable en el valle de Toluca, esto ha inducido a una sobreexplotación del acuífero, así como la extinción de zonas húmedas y una constante degradación de la calidad del agua, por lo cual es necesario adoptar medidas de protección, realizando una evaluación cuantitativa de la evolución del acuífero y sus efectos a partir de estudios detallados en un contexto multidisciplinario y de datos fiables. En un primer paso hacia esta meta, el presente artículo tiene como finalidad plantear estrategias de ordenación de este recurso en el marco de un sistema más integrado y equitativo que conlleve a una explotación adecuada y duradera del recurso hidráulico. En consecuencia, se examinan algunas de las opciones de políticas esenciales en relación con distintos aspectos de la gestión del agua, ya que brindan considerables posibilidades de ser catalizadoras de un proceso más amplio de reforma de las políticas y la gestión de los recursos hídricos. Finalmente se describen los pasos para evolucionar hacia el uso sostenible de las aguas subterráneas en el valle de Toluca, buscando una mejora del conocimiento base en el que se adaptan los enfoques administrativos de ecosistemas y la administración en el manejo de las aguas subterráneas.

  2. Basin Irrigation Design with Multi-Criteria Analysis Focusing on Water Saving and Economic Returns: Application to Wheat in Hetao, Yellow River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingfeng Miao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The sustainability of the Hetao Irrigation System, located in the water scarce upper Yellow River basin, is a priority considering the need for water saving, increased water productivity, and higher farmers’ incomes. The upgrading of basin irrigation, the main irrigation method, is essential and includes the adoption of precise land levelling, cut-off management, improved water distribution uniformity, and adequate irrigation scheduling. With this objective, the current study focuses on upgrading wheat basin irrigation through improved design using a decision support system (DSS model, which considers land parcels characteristics, crop irrigation scheduling, soil infiltration, hydraulic simulation, and environmental and economic impacts. Its use includes outlining water saving scenarios and ranking alternative designs through multi-criteria analysis considering the priorities of stakeholders. The best alternatives concern flat level basins with a 100 and 200 m length and inflow rates between 2 and 4 L s−1 m−1. The total irrigation cost of designed projects, including the cost of the autumn irrigation, varies between 2400 and 3300 Yuan ha−1; the major cost component is land levelling, corresponding to 33–46% of total irrigation costs. The economic land productivity is about 18,000 Yuan ha−1. The DSS modelling defined guidelines to be applied by an extension service aimed at implementing better performing irrigation practices, and encouraged a good interaction between farmers and the Water Users Association, thus making easier the implementation of appropriate irrigation management programs.

  3. Hydrological evolution of Atlantis basin, Sirenum Terrae, Mars. Preliminar analysis of MOC and THEMIS images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Pablo, M. A.; Márquez, A.; Centeno, J. D.

    The Atlantis basin is one of the martian highlands areas where there was proposed the existence of an ancient lake during the early geological history of Mars [1] [2] [3] [4]. The existence of some morphological features inside the basin and in the surrounding area, allow to check the existence of liquid water in the past of the planet. On the other hand, other morphological features indicate the existence of snow and liquid groundwater in recent times. The detailed study of the geomorphologic features allows to make an approach to the hydrological evolution of the Atlantis basin. The study of the geomorphology of this region has been carried out by means of the analysis of MOC high resolution images obtained by the Mars Global Surveyor mission and the THEMIS images, in the visible spectrum, sent by Mars Odyssey spacecrafts. The most clearly morphological feature indicative of the existence of water in the surface of Mars in the past are the numerous channels that end into Atlantis basin from the highest terrains. In addiction to these fluvial channels, the existence of mass flow deposits is also indicative of the existence of water in the area. Some of these slumps are in the internal slopes of impact craters, but others cover huge extensions around the chaotic terrains of the studied area. The lobated ejecta deposits observed in the Atlantis basin region are indicative of the existence of groundwater (solid or liquid) [5]. Serrated reliefs and tables in the borders of the basins are indicative of the existence of a water sheet. Beneath this water sheet some deposits was formed which was eroded, due to the gradual desiccation of the basin, forming the tables and serrated reliefs. The existence of different chaotic terrains in the area implies the existence of huge amounts of water under the surface according to the different models of chaotic terrain formation [6] [7]. The existence of groundwater could be decided by the existence of collapses in the near to the

  4. Prospect analysis for sandstone-type uranium mineralization in the northern margin of Qaidam basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Lin; Song Xiansheng; Feng Wei; Song Zhe; Li Wei

    2010-01-01

    Affected by the regional geological structural evolution, a set of sedimentary structure, i.e. the construction of coal-bearing classic rocks which is in favor of the sandstone-type uranium mineralization has deposited in the northern margin of Qaidam Basin since Meso-Cenozoic. A NWW thrust nappe tectonic belt, i.e. the ancient tectonic belt which is the basis for the development of ancient interlayer oxidation zone formed by the tectonic reverse in late Jurassic and Cretaceous. The Mid and late Jurassic layer was buried by the weak extension in Paleogene and the depression in early Neogene. The extrusion reversal from late Neogene to Quaternary made the basin into the development era of the modern interlayer oxidation zone. It can be concluded that the layer of the northern margin of Qaidam Basin has the premise for the formation of sandstone-type uranium ore. Based on the analysis of the characteristics of the thrust belt, the structure of the purpose layer, the sand body, the hydrogeology, the interlayer oxidation zone and uranium mineralization, the results indicated that the ancient interlayer oxidation zone is the prospecting type of sandstone-type uranium ore. Beidatan and the east of Yuqia are the favorable prospective area of sandstone-type uranium mineralization. (authors)

  5. Analysis of data characterizing tide and current fluxes in coastal basins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Armenio

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Many coastal monitoring programmes have been carried out to investigate in situ hydrodynamic patterns and correlated physical processes, such as sediment transport or spreading of pollutants. The key point is the necessity to transform this growing amount of data provided by marine sensors into information for users. The present paper aims to outline that it is possible to recognize the recurring and typical hydrodynamic processes of a coastal basin, by conveniently processing some selected marine field data. The illustrated framework is made up of two steps. Firstly, a sequence of analysis with classic methods characterized by low computational cost was executed in both time and frequency domains on detailed field measurements of waves, tides, and currents. After this, some indicators of the hydrodynamic state of the basin were identified and evaluated. Namely, the assessment of the net flow through a connecting channel, the time delay of current peaks between upper and bottom layers, the ratio of peak ebb and peak flood currents and the tidal asymmetry factor exemplify results on the vertical structure of the flow, on the correlation between currents and tide and flood/ebb dominance. To demonstrate how this simple and generic framework could be applied, a case study is presented, referring to Mar Piccolo, a shallow water basin located in the inner part of the Ionian Sea (southern Italy.

  6. Analysis of data characterizing tide and current fluxes in coastal basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armenio, Elvira; De Serio, Francesca; Mossa, Michele

    2017-07-01

    Many coastal monitoring programmes have been carried out to investigate in situ hydrodynamic patterns and correlated physical processes, such as sediment transport or spreading of pollutants. The key point is the necessity to transform this growing amount of data provided by marine sensors into information for users. The present paper aims to outline that it is possible to recognize the recurring and typical hydrodynamic processes of a coastal basin, by conveniently processing some selected marine field data. The illustrated framework is made up of two steps. Firstly, a sequence of analysis with classic methods characterized by low computational cost was executed in both time and frequency domains on detailed field measurements of waves, tides, and currents. After this, some indicators of the hydrodynamic state of the basin were identified and evaluated. Namely, the assessment of the net flow through a connecting channel, the time delay of current peaks between upper and bottom layers, the ratio of peak ebb and peak flood currents and the tidal asymmetry factor exemplify results on the vertical structure of the flow, on the correlation between currents and tide and flood/ebb dominance. To demonstrate how this simple and generic framework could be applied, a case study is presented, referring to Mar Piccolo, a shallow water basin located in the inner part of the Ionian Sea (southern Italy).

  7. 105-N Basin sediment disposition phase-one sampling and analysis plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The sampling and analysis plan (SAP) for Phase 1 of the 105-N Basin sediment disposition project defines the sampling and analytical activities that will be performed for the engineering assessment phase (phase 1) of the project. A separate SAP defines the sampling and analytical activities that will be performed for the characterization phase (Phase 2) of the 105-N sediment disposition project. The Phase-1 SAP is presented in the introduction (Section 1.0), in the field sampling plan (FSP) (Section 2.0), and in the quality assurance project plan (QAPjP) (Section 3.0). The FSP defines the sampling and analytical methodologies to be performed. The QAPjP provides information on the quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) parameters related to the sampling and analytical methodologies. This SAP defines the strategy and the methods that will be used to sample and analyze the sediment on the floor of the 105-N Basin. The resulting data will be used to develop and evaluate engineering designs for collecting and removing sediment from the basin

  8. Analysis of impacts on hydrometeorological extremes in the Senegal River Basin from REMO RCM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galiano, Sandra Garcia; Osorio, Juan Diego Giraldo [Technical Univ. of Cartagena, Dept. of Thermal Engineering and Fluids, Cartagena (Spain)

    2010-06-15

    West Africa is highly vulnerable to climate variability. The precipitation latitudinal gradient determines agricultural activities. The cultivated area of the Sahel is a densely populated region, whereas flood recession agriculture is practiced in the Senegal River Valley. The present study analyses both spatial-temporal rainfall patterns of the REMO Regional Climate Model (RCM) and observed rainfall data, focusing in particular on extreme hydro-meteorological phenomena. An analysis of simulated daily rainfall data was performed to determine the frequency and magnitude of length of dry spells, as well as the extreme rainfall events. A projected annual decrease in rainfall on horizon 2050 could be explained by two factors: the decrease in the percentage of rainy days on both west and north sides of the basin, and the decrease of precipitation amount for rainy days in the southern basin. Finally, an increase in the frequency of dry spell in the monsoon season by 2050 is projected. Such findings are significant in a framework of strategies for water resources management and planning at basin scale, in order to build adaptive capacity. (orig.)

  9. Hydrologic Evaluation of TRMM Multisatellite Precipitation Analysis for Nanliu River Basin in Humid Southwestern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yinjun; Xie, Qiongying; Lu, Yuan; Hu, Baoqing

    2017-06-01

    The accuracy of Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) multi-satellite precipitation analysis (TMPA) daily accumulated precipitation products (3B42RTV7 and 3B42V7) was evaluated for a small basin (the Nanliu river basin). A direct comparison was performed against gauge observations from a period of 9 years (2000-2009) at temporal and spatial scales. The results show that the temporal-spatial precipitation characteristics of the Nanliu river basin are highly consistent with 3B42V7 relative to 3B42RTV7, with higher correlation coefficient (CC) approximately 0.9 at all temporal scales except for the daily scale and a lower relative bias percentage. 3B42V7 slightly overestimates precipitation at all temporal scales except the yearly scale; it slightly underestimates the precipitation at the daily spatial scale. The results also reveal that the precision of TMPA products increases with longer time-aggregated data, and the detection capability of daily TMPA precipitation products are enhanced by augmentation with daily precipitation rates. In addition, daily TMPA products were input into the Xin'anjiang hydrologic model; the results show that 3B42V7-based simulated outputs were well in line with actual stream flow observations, with a high CC (0.90) and Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency coefficient (NSE, 0.79), and the results adequately captured the pattern of the observed flow curve.

  10. Synoptic climatological analysis of persistent cold air pools over the Carpathian Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabóné André, Karolina; Bartholy, Judit; Pongrácz, Rita

    2016-04-01

    A persistent cold air pool (PCAP) is a winter-time, anticyclone-related weather event over a relatively large basin. During this time the air is colder near the surface than aloft. This inversion near the surface can last even for weeks. As the cold air cools down, relative humidity increases and fog forms. The entire life cycle of a PCAP depends on the large scale circulation pattern. PCAP usually appears when an anticyclone builds up after a cold front passed over the examined basin, and it is usually destructed by a coming strong cold front of another midlatitude cyclone. Moreover, the intensity of the anticyclone affects the intensity of the PCAP. PCAP may result in different hazards for the population: (1) Temperature inversion in the surface layers together with weak wind may lead to severe air pollution causing health problems for many people, especially, elderly and children. (2) The fog and/or smog during chilly weather conditions often results in freezing rain. Both fog and freezing rain can distract transportation and electricity supply. Unfortunately, the numerical weather prediction models have difficulties to predict PCAP formation and destruction. One of the reasons is that PCAP is not defined objectively with a simple formula, which could be easily applied to the numerical output data. However, according to some recommendations from the synoptic literature, the shallow convective potential energy (SCPE) can be used to mathematically describe PCAP. In this study, we used the ERA-Interim reanalysis datasets to examine this very specific weather event (i.e., PCAP) over the Carpathian Basin. The connection between the mean sea level pressure and some PCAP measures (e.g., SCPE, energy deficit, etc.) is evaluated. For instance, we used logistic regression to identify PCAP periods over the Carpathian Basin. Then, further statistical analysis includes the evaluation of the length and intensity of these PCAP periods.

  11. Analysis of the Contribution Rate of Climate Change and Anthropogenic Activity to Runoff Variation in Nenjiang Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liqin Dong

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Pettitt abrupt change test method based on ArcGIS was used to undertake change-point analysis on climatic (precipitation and potential evapotranspiration; 39 meteorological stations and runoff data (27 hydrological stations from 1954–2015 in the Nenjiang basin. The hydrological sensitivity analysis method was also used to calculate the influential component of climate change upstream, mid-stream, and downstream of the Nenjiang basin, as well as the effect of anthropogenic activities on runoff. Our results show that the upstream area has the highest contribution rate of climate change, followed by the mid-stream area; the downstream area has the lowest contribution rate. Studying climate change contribution rates in various sites in the Nenjiang basin, in addition to anthropogenic activities affecting runoff, can provide the foundation for the protection and utilization of basin water resources, as well as the conservation and restoration of wetlands.

  12. Un acercamiento hacia la caracterización del mercado potencial del aeropuerto de la Ciudad de Toluca, Estado de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Consuelo Méndez Sosa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo tiene como objetivo presentar las características del mercado potencial del aeropuerto internacional de la ciudad de Toluca, México, producto del proyecto de investigación- estudio de la oferta y demanda del mismo. Para el desarrollo de este proyecto se utilizó la corriente de pensamiento positivista y como método de trabajo la investigación de mercados propuesta por Philip Kotler; se manejó un muestreo no probabilístico por cuotas, determinando un total de 850 instrumentos aplicados en las principales plazas comerciales de las ciudades de Toluca, Metepec, Distrito Federal y zona conurbada, lo que permitió identificar el perfil del mercado potencial a través de variables demográficas, socioeconómicas, de conducta hacia el producto y psicográficas.

  13. Fracture overprinting history using Markov chain analysis: Windsor-Kennetcook subbasin, Maritimes Basin, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Morgan E.; Waldron, John W. F.

    2018-03-01

    The deformation history of the Upper Paleozoic Maritimes Basin, Atlantic Canada, can be partially unraveled by examining fractures (joints, veins, and faults) that are well exposed on the shorelines of the macrotidal Bay of Fundy, in subsurface core, and on image logs. Data were collected from coastal outcrops and well core across the Windsor-Kennetcook subbasin, a subbasin in the Maritimes Basin, using the circular scan-line and vertical scan-line methods in outcrop, and FMI Image log analysis of core. We use cross-cutting and abutting relationships between fractures to understand relative timing of fracturing, followed by a statistical test (Markov chain analysis) to separate groups of fractures. This analysis, previously used in sedimentology, was modified to statistically test the randomness of fracture timing relationships. The results of the Markov chain analysis suggest that fracture initiation can be attributed to movement along the Minas Fault Zone, an E-W fault system that bounds the Windsor-Kennetcook subbasin to the north. Four sets of fractures are related to dextral strike slip along the Minas Fault Zone in the late Paleozoic, and four sets are related to sinistral reactivation of the same boundary in the Mesozoic.

  14. How Widely Applicable is River Basin Management? An Analysis of Wastewater Management in an Arid Transboundary Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dombrowsky, Ines; Almog, Ram; Becker, Nir; Feitelson, Eran; Klawitter, Simone; Lindemann, Stefan; Mutlak, Natalie

    2010-05-01

    The basin scale has been promoted universally as the optimal management unit that allows for the internalization of all external effects caused by multiple water uses. However, the basin scale has been put forward largely on the basis of experience in temperate zones. Hence whether the basin scale is the best scale for management in other settings remains questionable. To address these questions this paper analyzes the economic viability and the political feasibility of alternative management options in the Kidron/Wadi Nar region. The Kidron/Wadi Nar is a small basin in which wastewater from eastern Jerusalem flows through the desert to the Dead Sea. Various options for managing these wastewater flows were analyzed ex ante on the basis of both a cost benefit and a multi-criteria analysis. The paper finds that due to economies of scale, a pure basin approach is not desirable from a physical and economic perspective. Furthermore, in terms of political feasibility, it seems that the option which prompts the fewest objections from influential stakeholder groups in the two entities under the current asymmetrical political setting is not a basin solution either, but a two plant solution based on an outsourcing arrangement. These findings imply that the river basin management approach can not be considered the best management approach for the arid transboundary case at hand, and hence is not unequivocally universally applicable.

  15. Ancient bronze coins from Mediterranean basin: LAMQS potentiality for lead isotopes comparative analysis with former mineral

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torrisi, L., E-mail: Lorenzo.Torrisi@unime.it [Department of Physics Science - MIFT, Messina University, V.le F.S. d’Alcontres 31, 98166 S. Agata, Messina (Italy); Italiano, A. [INFN, Sezione di Catania, Gruppo collegato di Messina (Italy); Torrisi, A. [Institute of Optoelectronics, Military University of Technology, 2 Kaliskiego Str., 00-908 Warsaw (Poland)

    2016-11-30

    Highlights: • Surface and bulk compositional elements in ancient bronze coins were investigated using XRF analysis. • Lead stable isotope {sup 204}Pb, {sup 206}Pb, {sup 207}Pb and {sup 208}Pb were measured in ancient coins with LAMQS analysis. • Lead ratios {sup 208}Pb/{sup 206}Pb and {sup 207}Pb/{sup 206}Pb, measured by LAMQS, were compared with Brettscaife.net geological database relative to the minerals in different mines of Mediterranean basin. • Bronze coins were correlated to possible ancient mining sites of minerals from which lead was extracted. - Abstract: Bronze coins coming from the area of the Mediterranean basin, dated back the II–X Cent. A.D., were analyzed using different physical analytical techniques. Characteristic X-ray fluorescence was used with electrons and photons, in order to investigate the elemental composition of both the surface layers and bulk. Moreover, the quadrupole mass spectrometry coupled to laser ablation (LAMQS technique) in high vacuum was used to analyse typical material compounds from surface contamination. Mass spectrometry, at high resolution and sensitivity, extended up to 300 amu, allowed measuring the {sup 208}Pb/{sup 206}Pb and {sup 207}Pb/{sup 206}Pb isotopic ratios into the coins. Quantitative relative analyses of these isotopic ratios identify the coin composition such as a “fingerprint” depending on the mineral used to extract the lead. Isotopic ratios in coins can be compared to those of the possible minerals used to produce the bronze alloy. A comparison between the measured isotope ratios in the analyzed coins and the literature database, related to the mineral containing Pb as a function of its geological and geophysical extraction mine, is presented. The analysis, restricted to old coins and the mines of the Mediterranean basin, indicates a possible correlation between the coin compositions and the possible geological sites of the extracted mineral.

  16. Hazard Classification and Auditable Safety Analysis for the 1300-N Emergency Dump Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kloster, G.L.

    1998-01-01

    This document combines three analytical functions consisting of (1) the hazards baseline of the Emergency Dump Basin (EDB) for surveillance and maintenance, (2) the final hazard classification for the facility, and (3) and auditable safety analysis. This document also describes the potential hazards contained within the EDB at the N Reactor complex and the vulnerabilities of those hazards. The EDB segment is defined and confirmed its independence from other segments at the site by demonstrating that no potential adverse interactions exist between the segments. No EDB hazards vulnerabilities were identified that require reliance on either active, mitigative, or protective measures; adequate facility structural integrity exists to safely control the hazards

  17. Safety analysis report for packaging (onsite) L3-181 N basin cask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adkins, H.E. Jr.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose of this Safety Analysis Report (SARP) is to authorize the onsite transfer of a Type B, Fissile Excepted, non-highway route controlled quantity in the L3-181 packaging from the N Basin to a storage/disposal facility within 200 West Area. This SARP provides the evaluation necessary to demonstrate that the L3-181 meets the requirements of the 'Hazardous Material Packaging and Shipping', WHC- CM-2-14, by meeting the applicable performance requirements for normal conditions of transport

  18. Exhumation of the North Alpine Foreland Basin- Quantitative insights from structural analysis, thermochronology and a new thermal history model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luijendijk, Elco; von Hagke, Christoph; Hindle, David

    2016-04-01

    Due to a wealth of geological and thermochronology data the northern foreland basin of the European Alps is an ideal natural laboratory for understanding the dynamics of foreland basins and their interaction with surface and geodynamic processes. We present an unprecedented compilation of thermochronological data from the basin and quantify cooling and exhumation rates in the basin by combining published and new vitrinite reflectance, apatite fission track and U-Th/He data with a new inverse burial and thermal history model. No correlation is obvious between inferred cooling and exhumation rates and elevation, relief or tectonics. We compare derived temperature histories to exhumation estimates based on the retro-deformation of Molasse basin and the Jura mountains, and to exhumation caused by drainage reorganization and incision. Drainage reorganization can explain at most 25% of the observed cooling rates in the basin. Tectonic transport of the basin's sediments over the inclined basement of the alpine foreland as the Jura mountains shortened can explain part of the cooling signal in the western part of the basin. However, overall a substantial amount of cooling and exhumation remains unexplained by known tectonic and surface processes. Our results document basin wide exhumation that may be related to slab roll-back or other lithospheric processes. Uncertainty analysis shows that thermochronometers can be explained by cooling and exhumation starting as early as the Miocene or as late as the Pleistocene. New (U-Th)/He data from key areas close to the Alpine front may provide better constraints on the timing of exhumation.

  19. GIS Analysis of Flood Vulnerable Areas In Benin- Owena River Basin, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adebayo Oluwasegun Hezekiah

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The frequency and intensity of flood disasters have become serious issues in the national development process of Nigeria as flood disasters have caused serious environmental damages, loss of human lives and other heavy economic losses;  putting the issue of disaster reduction and risk management higher on the policy agenda of affected governments, multilateral agencies and NGOs. The starting point of concrete flood disaster mitigation efforts is to identify the areas with higher risk levels and fashion out appropriate preventive and response mechanisms. This research paper explored the potentials of Geographic Information System (GIS in data capture, processing and analysis in identifying flood-prone areas for the purpose of planning for disaster mitigation and preparedness, using Benin-Owena river basin of Nigeria as a unit of analysis. The data used in this study were obtained from FORMECU and were entered and use to develop a flood risk information system. Analysis and capability of the developed system was illustrated and shown graphically. The research showed that over one thousand settlements harbouring over ten million people located in the study area are at grave risk of flooding.   Key words: Flood, Risk, Vulnerability, Geographical Information System (GIS, River -Basin

  20. Facies analysis of tuffaceous volcaniclastics and felsic volcanics of Tadpatri Formation, Cuddapah basin, Andhra Pradesh, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Sukanta; Dey, Sukanta

    2018-05-01

    The felsic volcanics, tuff and volcaniclastic rocks within the Tadpatri Formation of Proterozoic Cuddapah basin are not extensively studied so far. It is necessary to evaluate the extrusive environment of felsic lavas with associated ash fall tuffs and define the resedimented volcaniclastic components. The spatial and temporal bimodal association were addressed, but geochemical and petrographic studies of mafic volcanics are paid more attention so far. The limited exposures of eroded felsic volcanics and tuffaceous volcaniclastic components in this terrain are highly altered and that is the challenge of the present facies analysis. Based on field observation and mapping of different lithounits a number of facies are categorized. Unbiased lithogeochemical sampling have provided major and selective trace element data to characterize facies types. Thin-section studies are also carried out to interpret different syn- and post- volcanic features. The facies analysis are used to prepare a representative facies model to visualize the entire phenomenon with reference to the basin evolution. Different devitrification features and other textural as well as structural attributes typical of flow, surge and ash fall deposits are manifested in the middle, lower and upper stratigraphic levels. Spatial and temporal correlation of lithologs are also supportive of bimodal volcanism. Felsic and mafic lavas are interpreted to have erupted through the N-S trending rift-associated fissures due to lithospheric stretching during late Palaeoproterozoic. It is also established from the facies model that the volcaniclastics were deposited in the deeper part of the basin in the east. The rifting and associated pressure release must have provided suitable condition of decompression melting at shallow depth with high geothermal gradient and this partial melting of mantle derived material at lower crust must have produced mafic magmas. Such upwelling into cold crust also caused partial heat

  1. GIS environmental information analysis of the Darro River basin as the key for the management and hydrological forest restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Paz; Delgado, Expectación; Lopez-Alonso, Mónica; Poyatos, José Manuel

    2018-02-01

    This article presents analyses of soil and environmental information for the Darro River basin (Granada-Spain) preliminary to its hydrological and forestry restoration. These analyses were carried out using a geographical information system (GIS) and employing a new procedure that adapts hydrological forest-restoration methods. The complete analysis encompasses morphological conditions, soil and climate characteristics as well as vegetation and land use. The study investigates soil erosion in the basin by using Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) and by mapping erosion fragility units. The results are presented in a set of maps and their analysis, providing the starting point for river basin management and the hydrological and forestry-restoration project that was approved at the end of 2015. The presence of soft substrates (e.g. gravel and sand) indicates that the area is susceptible to erosion, particularly the areas that are dominated by human activity and have little soil protection. Finally, land use and vegetation cover were identified as key factors in the soil erosion in the basin. According to the results, river authorities have included several measures in the restoration project aimed at reducing the erosion and helping to recover the environmental value of this river basin and to include it in recreation possibilities for the community of Granada. The presented analytical approach, designed by the authors, would be useful as a tool for environmental restoration in other small Mediterranean river basins. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. [GIS and scenario analysis aid to water pollution control planning of river basin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shao-ping; Cheng, Sheng-tong; Jia, Hai-feng; Ou, Zhi-dan; Tan, Bin

    2004-07-01

    The forward and backward algorithms for watershed water pollution control planning were summarized in this paper as well as their advantages and shortages. The spatial databases of water environmental function region, pollution sources, monitoring sections and sewer outlets were built with ARCGIS8.1 as the platform in the case study of Ganjiang valley, Jiangxi province. Based on the principles of the forward algorithm, four scenarios were designed for the watershed pollution control. Under these scenarios, ten sets of planning schemes were generated to implement cascade pollution source control. The investment costs of sewage treatment for these schemes were estimated by means of a series of cost-effective functions; with pollution source prediction, the water quality was modeled with CSTR model for each planning scheme. The modeled results of different planning schemes were visualized through GIS to aid decision-making. With the results of investment cost and water quality attainment as decision-making accords and based on the analysis of the economic endurable capacity for water pollution control in Ganjiang river basin, two optimized schemes were proposed. The research shows that GIS technology and scenario analysis can provide a good guidance to the synthesis, integrity and sustainability aspects for river basin water quality planning.

  3. Characterization, analysis and dating of archaeological ceramics from the Amazon basin through nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latini, Rose Mary

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this work is to contribute to the research in the reconstruction of part of the pre-history of the Amazon Basin by means of an analytical methods combined with multivariate analysis, given a analytic basis that can be continued by the archaeological work, through the identification, classification, provenance and dating the ceramics found in different archaeological sites of the Hydro graphic Basin of the Purus river. Neutron activation analysis in conjunction multivariate statistical methods were used for the identification and classification and thermoluminescence was used for the dating. Chemical composition results were in better agreement with archaeological classification for the archaeologically define Iquiri, Quinan and Xapuri phases and less characteristics the Iaco and Jacuru archaeological phase were not well characterized. An homogeneous group was established by most of the samples collected from the Los Angeles Archaeological Site (LA) and was distinct from all the other groups analysed. The provenance studies made with ceramics collected at this site shows that they were made with clay from nearby river (Rio Ina). From the LA ceramics dating the average date of site occupation was 1660 years. The ceramic dating results from the external wall of a circular earth wall construction confirm the relation with the local pre-history. Beyond the Acre material two urns were dated from the Archaeological Site Morro Grande and Sao Jose at Araruama, Rio de Janeiro. (author)

  4. Holistic uncertainty analysis in river basin modeling for climate vulnerability assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taner, M. U.; Wi, S.; Brown, C.

    2017-12-01

    The challenges posed by uncertain future climate are a prominent concern for water resources managers. A number of frameworks exist for assessing the impacts of climate-related uncertainty, including internal climate variability and anthropogenic climate change, such as scenario-based approaches and vulnerability-based approaches. While in many cases climate uncertainty may be dominant, other factors such as future evolution of the river basin, hydrologic response and reservoir operations are potentially significant sources of uncertainty. While uncertainty associated with modeling hydrologic response has received attention, very little attention has focused on the range of uncertainty and possible effects of the water resources infrastructure and management. This work presents a holistic framework that allows analysis of climate, hydrologic and water management uncertainty in water resources systems analysis with the aid of a water system model designed to integrate component models for hydrology processes and water management activities. The uncertainties explored include those associated with climate variability and change, hydrologic model parameters, and water system operation rules. A Bayesian framework is used to quantify and model the uncertainties at each modeling steps in integrated fashion, including prior and the likelihood information about model parameters. The framework is demonstrated in a case study for the St. Croix Basin located at border of United States and Canada.

  5. Drought Characteristic Analysis Based on an Improved PDSI in the Wei River Basin of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Zou

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, to improve the efficiency of the original Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI_original, we coupled the Soil and Water Assessment tool (SWAT and PDSI_original to construct a drought index called PDSI_SWAT. The constructed PDSI_SWAT is applied in the Wei River Basin (WRB of China during 1960–2012. The comparison of the PDSI_SWAT with four other commonly used drought indices reveals the effectiveness of the PDSI_SWAT in describing the drought propagation processes in WRB. The whole WRB exhibits a dry trend, with more significant trends in the northern, southeastern and western WRB than the remaining regions. Furthermore, the drought frequencies show that drought seems to occur more likely in the northern part than the southern part of WRB. The principle component analysis method based on the PDSI_SWAT reveals that the whole basin can be further divided into three distinct sub-regions with different drought variability, i.e., the northern, southeastern and western part. Additionally, these three sub-regions are also consistent with the spatial pattern of drought shown by the drought frequency. The wavelet transform analysis method indicates that the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO events have strong impacts on inducing droughts in the WRB. The results of this study could be beneficial for a scientific water resources management and drought assessment in the current study area and also provide a valuable reference for other areas with similar climatic characteristics.

  6. Multielemental analysis of ferromanganese nodules from Central Indian Ocean Basin by PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutta, R. K.; Vijayan, V.; Ghosh, S.; Chakravortty, V.

    1997-01-01

    Ferromanganese nodules found on the Ocean bed are complex heterogeneous mixtures of several components. Two nodules from Central Indian Ocean Basin (CIOB) were analysed by proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) technique using 3UD Tandem pelletron. The precision and the accuracy of this technique for chemical analyses has been confirmed by analysing USGS Geological Standards. Thick sample targets were bombarded by 3 MeV protons for the multielemental analysis. GUPIX-96 software was used for spectral data analysis. Quantitative estimate of K, Ca, Tl, V, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, Ge, As, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, Mo, Ba, Ce, Tl and Pb has been ascertained. The occurrence of Ga, Ge, Rb and Zr in nodules from this region is reported for the first time. The role of manganese and iron oxide phases in determining the uptake of various trace elements from ocean water and bottom sediment pore water has been discussed. (author)

  7. Spectroscopic Analysis of a Theropod Dinosaur (Reptilia, Archosauria from the Ipubi Formation, Araripe Basin, Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Hermínio da Silva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Araripe Sedimentary Basin is known by the excellence of its fossils, regarding the preservation, diversity, and quantity. Here, we present a spectroscopic analysis using several experimental techniques (X-ray energy dispersion spectroscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy as well as X-ray diffraction and thermogravimetric analysis applied in small fragments of bones from the posterior members of a theropod dinosaur. The results agree regarding the different composition of the stone matrix and the fossilized bone, indicating a partial substitution of the material by elements present in the depositional environment. However, differently from what is believed to occur, there is evidence that pyritization is not the only mechanism of fossilization for a specimen of Ipubi formation, but calcification, additionally, plays an important role in the fossil production of this Formation.

  8. Chemometric Analysis of Selected Organic Contaminants in Surface Water of Langat River Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamad Rafaie Mohamed Zubir; Rozita Osman; Norashikin Saim

    2016-01-01

    Chemometric techniques namely hierarchical agglomerative cluster analysis (HACA), discriminant analysis (DA), principal component analysis (PCA) and factor analysis (FA) were applied to the distribution of selected organic contaminants (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), sterols, pesticides (chloropyrifos), and phenol) to assess the potential of using these organic contaminants as chemical markers in Langat River Basin. Water samples were collected from February 2012 to January 2013 on a monthly basis for nine monitoring sites along Langat River Basin. HACA was able to classify the sampling sites into three clusters which can be correlated to the level of contamination (low, moderate and high contamination sites). DA was used to discriminate the sources of contamination using the selected organic contaminants and relate to the existing DOE local activities groupings. Forward and backward stepwise DA was able to discriminate two and five organic contaminants variables, respectively, from the original 13 selected variables. The five significant variables identified using backward stepwise DA were fluorene, pyrene, stigmastanol, stigmasterol and phenol. PCA and FA (varimax functionality) were used to identify the possible sources of each organic contaminant based on the inventory of local activities. Five principal components were obtained with 66.5 % of the total variation. Result from FA indicated that PAHs (pyrene, fluorene, acenaphthene, benzo[a]anthracene) originated from industrial activity and socio-economic activities; while sterols (coprostanol, stigmastanol and stigmasterol) were associated to domestic sewage and local socio-economic activities. The occurrence of chloropyrifos was correlated to agricultural activities, urban and domestic discharges. This study showed that the application of chemometrics on the distribution of selected organic contaminants was able to trace the sources of contamination in surface water. (author)

  9. Stratigraphical analysis of the neoproterozoic sedimentary sequences of the Sao Francisco Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, Mariela; Lemos, Valesca Brasil

    2007-01-01

    A stratigraphic analysis was performed under the principles of Sequence Stratigraphy on the neoproterozoic sedimentary sequences of the Sao Francisco Basin (Central Brazil). Three periods of deposition separated by unconformities were recognized in the Sao Francisco Megasequence: (1) Sequences 1 and 2, a cryogenian glaciogenic sequence, followed by a distal scarp carbonate ramp, developed during stable conditions, (2) Sequence 3, a Upper Cryogenian stack homoclinal ramps with mixed carbonate-siliciclastic sedimentation, deposited under a progressive influence of compressional stresses of the Brasiliano Cycle, (3) Sequence 4, a Lower Ediacaran shallow platform dominated by siliciclastic sedimentation of molassic nature, the erosion product of the nearby uplifted thrust sheets. Each of the carbonate-bearing sequences presents a distinct δ 13 C isotopic signature. The superposition to the global curve for carbon isotopic variation allowed the recognition of a major depositional hiatus between the Paranoa and Sao Francisco Megasequences, and suggested that the glacial diamictite deposition (Jequitai Formation) took place most probably around 800 Ma. This constrains the Sao Francisco Megasequence deposition to the interval between 800 and 600 Ma (the known ages of the Brasiliano Orogeny defines the upper limit). A minor depositional hiatus (700.680 Ma) was also identified separating sequences 2 and 3. Isotopic analyses suggest that from then on, more restricted environmental conditions were established in the basin, probably associated with a first order global event, which prevailed throughout deposition of the Sequence 3. (author)

  10. The geostatistical approach for structural and stratigraphic framework analysis of offshore NW Bonaparte Basin, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahid, Ali; Salim, Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed; Yusoff, Wan Ismail Wan; Gaafar, Gamal Ragab

    2016-01-01

    Geostatistics or statistical approach is based on the studies of temporal and spatial trend, which depend upon spatial relationships to model known information of variable(s) at unsampled locations. The statistical technique known as kriging was used for petrophycial and facies analysis, which help to assume spatial relationship to model the geological continuity between the known data and the unknown to produce a single best guess of the unknown. Kriging is also known as optimal interpolation technique, which facilitate to generate best linear unbiased estimation of each horizon. The idea is to construct a numerical model of the lithofacies and rock properties that honor available data and further integrate with interpreting seismic sections, techtonostratigraphy chart with sea level curve (short term) and regional tectonics of the study area to find the structural and stratigraphic growth history of the NW Bonaparte Basin. By using kriging technique the models were built which help to estimate different parameters like horizons, facies, and porosities in the study area. The variograms were used to determine for identification of spatial relationship between data which help to find the depositional history of the North West (NW) Bonaparte Basin

  11. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis- INAA: environmental studies in Das Velhas Basin, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabelo V, M.A.; Andrade Q, M.T.; Araujo M, R.; Albernaz A, I.; Oliveira, A.H. de

    2006-01-01

    The Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis - INAA was applied to determine concentrations of several elements in unpolluted areas and in the mining and farming region of the Das Velhas Basin, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. INAA was applied using the TRIGA Mark I IPR - R1 reactor at the Nuclear Technology Development Center of the National Committee of Nuclear Energy (CDTN/CNEN), in Belo Horizonte city, Minas Gerais State. At 100 kW of potency the flux of neutrons is 6.6 10 11 n.cm -2 .s -1 . The samples analyzed were: water; sediment; gravel of gold mine and forage. The obtained results for the Das Velhas Basin in water and sediment samples - mining companies region - show a high level (μg/g) of contamination with the analyzed elements, mainly in the sediment samples. During the period of floods, in farming region hundreds of kilometers away, contamination is found in fish and forage, reaching and harming both people and animals that live in the marginal region. (Author)

  12. Statistical analysis of trends in monthly precipitation at the Limbang River Basin, Sarawak (NW Borneo), Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, M. V. Ninu; Prasanna, M. V.; Vijith, H.

    2018-05-01

    Effect of climate change in a region can be characterised by the analysis of rainfall trends. In the present research, monthly rainfall trends at Limbang River Basin (LRB) in Sarawak, Malaysia for a period of 45 years (1970-2015) were characterised through the non-parametric Mann-Kendall and Spearman's Rho tests and relative seasonality index. Statistically processed monthly rainfall of 12 well distributed rain gauging stations in LRB shows almost equal amount of rainfall in all months. Mann-Kendall and Spearman's Rho tests revealed a specific pattern of rainfall trend with a definite boundary marked in the months of January and August with positive trends in all stations. Among the stations, Limbang DID, Long Napir and Ukong showed positive (increasing) trends in all months with a maximum increase of 4.06 mm/year (p = 0.01) in November. All other stations showed varying trends (both increasing and decreasing). Significant (p = 0.05) decreasing trend was noticed in Ulu Medalam and Setuan during September (- 1.67 and - 1.79 mm/year) and October (- 1.59 and - 1.68 mm/year) in Mann-Kendall and Spearman's Rho tests. Spatial pattern of monthly rainfall trends showed two clusters of increasing rainfalls (maximas) in upper and lower part of the river basin separated with a dominant decreasing rainfall corridor. The results indicate a generally increasing trend of rainfall in Sarawak, Borneo.

  13. Consumptive Water Use Analysis of Upper Rio Grande Basin in Southern Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubinsky, Jonathan; Karunanithi, Arunprakash T

    2017-04-18

    Water resource management and governance at the river basin scale is critical for the sustainable development of rural agrarian regions in the West. This research applies a consumptive water use analysis, inspired by the Water Footprint methodology, to the Upper Rio Grande Basin (RGB) in south central Colorado. The region is characterized by water stress, high dessert conditions, declining land health, and a depleting water table. We utilize region specific data and models to analyze the consumptive water use of RGB. The study reveals that, on an average, RGB experiences three months of water shortage per year due to the unsustainable extraction of groundwater (GW). Our results show that agriculture accounts for 77% of overall water consumption and it relies heavily on an aquifer (about 50% of agricultural consumption) that is being depleted over time. We find that, even though potato cultivation provides the most efficient conversion of groundwater resources into economic value (m 3 GW/$) in this region, it relies predominantly (81%) on the aquifer for its water supply. However, cattle, another important agricultural commodity produced in the region, provides good economic value but also relies significantly less on the aquifer (30%) for water needs. The results from this paper are timely to the RGB community, which is currently in the process of developing strategies for sustainable water management.

  14. The geostatistical approach for structural and stratigraphic framework analysis of offshore NW Bonaparte Basin, Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahid, Ali, E-mail: ali.wahid@live.com; Salim, Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed, E-mail: mohamed.salim@petronas.com.my; Yusoff, Wan Ismail Wan, E-mail: wanismail-wanyusoff@petronas.com.my [Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, 32610 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia); Gaafar, Gamal Ragab, E-mail: gaafargr@gmail.com [Petroleum Engineering Division, PETRONAS Carigali Sdn Bhd, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2016-02-01

    Geostatistics or statistical approach is based on the studies of temporal and spatial trend, which depend upon spatial relationships to model known information of variable(s) at unsampled locations. The statistical technique known as kriging was used for petrophycial and facies analysis, which help to assume spatial relationship to model the geological continuity between the known data and the unknown to produce a single best guess of the unknown. Kriging is also known as optimal interpolation technique, which facilitate to generate best linear unbiased estimation of each horizon. The idea is to construct a numerical model of the lithofacies and rock properties that honor available data and further integrate with interpreting seismic sections, techtonostratigraphy chart with sea level curve (short term) and regional tectonics of the study area to find the structural and stratigraphic growth history of the NW Bonaparte Basin. By using kriging technique the models were built which help to estimate different parameters like horizons, facies, and porosities in the study area. The variograms were used to determine for identification of spatial relationship between data which help to find the depositional history of the North West (NW) Bonaparte Basin.

  15. Spatio-temporal variation analysis of hydrochemical characteristics in the Luanhe River Basin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Ying; Li, Xuyong; Wang, Huiliang; Li, Wenzan

    2013-01-01

    The analysis of river pollution and assessment of spatial and temporal variation in hydrochemistry are essential to river water pollution control in the context of rapid economic growth and growing pollution threats in China. In this study, we focused on hydrochemical characteristics of the Luanhe River Basin (China) and evaluation of 12 hydrochemical variables obtained from 32 monitoring stations during 2001-2010. In each study year, the streams were monitored in the three hydrological periods (April, August, and October) to observe differences in the impacts of agricultural activity and rainfall pattern. Multivariate statistical methods were applied to the data set, and the river water hydrochemical characteristics were assessed using the water quality identification index (WQIIM). The results showed that parameters had variable contribution to water quality status in different months except for ammonia nitrogen (NH4-N) and total nitrogen (TN), which were the most important parameters in contributing to water quality variations for all three periods. Results of WQIIM revealed that 18 sites were classified as 'meeting standard' while the other 14 sites were classified as 'not meeting standard', with most of the seriously polluted sites located in urban area, mainly due to discharge of wastewater from domestic and industrial sources. Sites with low pollution level were located primarily in smaller tributaries, whereas sites of medium and high pollution levels were in the main river channel and the larger tributaries. Our findings provide valuable information and guidance for water pollution control and water resource management in the Luanhe River Basin.

  16. Identifying the causes of water crises: A configurational frequency analysis of 22 basins world wide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, V.; Gorelick, S.; Lambin, E.; Rozelle, S.; Thompson, B.

    2010-12-01

    Freshwater "scarcity" has been identified as being a major problem world-wide, but it is surprisingly hard to assess if water is truly scarce at a global or even regional scale. Most empirical water research remains location specific. Characterizing water problems, transferring lessons across regions, to develop a synthesized global view of water issues remains a challenge. In this study we attempt a systematic understanding of water problems across regions. We compared case studies of basins across different regions of the world using configurational frequency analysis. Because water crises are multi-symptom and multi-causal, a major challenge was to categorize water problems so as to make comparisons across cases meaningful. In this study, we focused strictly on water unsustainability, viz. the inability to sustain current levels of the anthropogenic (drinking water, food, power, livelihood) and natural (aquatic species, wetlands) into the future. For each case, the causes of three outcome variables, groundwater declines, surface water declines and aquatic ecosystem declines, were classified and coded. We conducted a meta-analysis in which clusters of peer-reviewed papers by interdisciplinary teams were considered to ensure that the results were not biased towards factors privileged by any one discipline. Based on our final sample of 22 case study river basins, some clear patterns emerged. The meta-analysis suggests that water resources managers have long overemphasized the factors governing supply of water resources and while insufficient attention has been paid to the factors driving demand. Overall, uncontrolled increase in demand was twice as frequent as declines in availability due to climate change or decreased recharge. Moreover, groundwater and surface water declines showed distinct causal pathways. Uncontrolled increases in demand due to lack of credible enforcement were a key factor driving groundwater declines; while increased upstream abstractions

  17. Effect of the air pollution by heavy metals in the tree leaves in the metropolitan area of Toluca Valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ledesma O, C. I.

    2014-01-01

    Leaves of two tree species: Juniperus sp and Ligustrum sp were studied as indicators of pollution heavy metals (Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn and Pb) in the atmosphere of the Metropolitan Area of the Toluca Valley. Bio markers of catalase, superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, guaiacol, proteins and pigments were measured in order to determine the effects to atmospheric stress caused by heave metals during two periods in the year (December 2012 and May 2013). Metals were quantified in dry deposit and tissue on trees tissue leaves using the technique of Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy and Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy respectively. The results show greater response of enzyme inhibition in Juniperus sp. species, with decreased protein content and increased lipid peroxidation at sites with higher content of metals in tissue belonging to urban areas with increased industrial activity and traffic flow. In dry deposit bioavailability factor of metals was Fe>Mn> Zn> Cu>Pb for the first time of sampling and Fe>Mn> Cu> Zn>Pb for the second sampling period. (Author)

  18. AISLAMIENTO DE CEPAS NATIVAS DE TRICHODERMA SPP DE SUELOS HORTICOLAS DEL VALLE DE TOLUCA, COMO BIOCONTROL POTENCIAL DE SCLEROTINIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilda G. García-Nuñez

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la presencia de Trichoderma en siete localidades en la zona sur del Valle de Toluca, Estado de México. Esta es un área con un alto potencial en la producción de hortalizas. El estudio se dirigió al aislamiento de cepas nativas de Trichoderma a partir de muestras de suelo, identificación de factores fisiográficos, así como las propiedades físicas y químicas del suelo que determinan la ocurrencia de Trichoderma. Se evaluó el potencial de las cepas de Trichoderma para el control de Sclerotinia spp., hongo patógeno causante de la pudrición blanda en lechuga. Se aislaron once cepas, el mayor número de ellas asociadas al tipo de suelo se encontró en las localidades de San Francisco Putla y San Francisco Tetetla. El análisis de regresión logística mostró que no hay una relación entre las propiedades del suelo (materia orgánica y pH y la presencia de Trichoderma. La prueba de Tukey (p

  19. Influenza A (H1N1) was not associated with obesity in pregnant women living in Toluca, México.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendieta-Zerón, Hugo; Santillán-Benítez, Jonnathan G; Colín-Ferreira, María del Carmen; Montenegro-Cárdenas, Angela; Núñez-Delira, Cynthia N; Huitrón-Bravo, Gabriel G

    2011-12-01

    The aim was to verify whether being overweight could have played a critical role in cases of mortality caused by influenza A (H1N1) in pregnant women. This virus' prevalence was also analyzed among people suffering from acute respiratory disease being attended at the state of Mexico's Autonomous University's medical research centre. The clinical files of women having influenza A (H1N1) attending the Monica Pretelini maternal-perinatal hospital's (HMPMP) intensive care unit in Toluca, Mexico, were reviewed. According to international recommendations, clinical detection of possible new cases of this disease was kept an open as a second step. Five women suffering influenza A (H1N1) was attended at HMPMP's intensive care unit during 2009; only one survived. No differences in body mass index were found when comparing the anthropometric characteristics to another group of women affected by acute respiratory diseases; in fact, this parameter was below the limits for being overweight in both cases. No new case of influenza A (H1N1) was found after the first eight months of 2010. It could not be verified whether being overweight was a factor of higher mortality due to influenza A (H1N1) amongst pregnant women in the state of Mexico. The key to better survival for pregnant women hospitalized with influenza A (H1N1) seemed to be early treatment with oseltamivir. The cases decreased dramatically after the severe wave of the new pandemic due to unknown reasons.

  20. Buried palaeosols of the Nevado de Toluca: an alternative record of Late Quaternary environmental change in central Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedov, Sergey; Solleiro-Rebolledo, Elizabeth; Gama-Castro, Jorge E.; Vallejo-Gómez, Ernestina; González-Velázquez, Arelia

    2001-05-01

    Buried palaeosols of central Mexico, not previously analysed from a palaeopedological standpoint, have helped to develop a reliable regional model of Late Quaternary climatic change. This paper focuses upon morphological and micromorphological properties, particle-size distribution, and extractable Fe, Al and Si of seven palaeosols (named PT1-PT7) in the vicinity of the Nevado de Toluca volcano. The characteristics of Andic Cambisol PT1, similar to those of modern soils in semi-arid environments, indicate a drier climate in the first half of the Holocene. Humic Andosols PT2-PT4 are analogous to modern volcanic soils of humid forest environments. They show evidence that a moist palaeoclimate prevailed during marine oxygen isotope stages (OIS) 2 and 3. Luvisols PT5 and PT6, which are assumed to have formed at the end of marine OIS 5 to marine OIS 4, also indicate humid conditions. We attribute the differences between Andosols PT2-PT4 and Luvisols PT5-PT7 to variations in the duration in the pedogenesis rather than to changes in palaeoclimate. Micromorphological features of Andosol to Luvisol transition confirm that these soils form an evolutionary sequence. Being for the most part consistent with lacustrine records, the palaeosol properties do not reflect the episodes of drier climate during the Last Glacial Maximum, however, as shown by diatom and palynological data from lake sediments. Mesoclimate variations and/or incompleteness of soil memory, reflecting mostly periods of humid pedogenesis, probably provide the reason for this disagreement.

  1. Deterioro y conservación de los bosques del Nevado de Toluca y el rol de los actores locales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel Rolando Endara Agramont

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available El Área de Protección de Flora y Fauna Nevado de Toluca presenta una constante fragmentación de sus bosques. El objetivo de la investigación fue identificar los procesos de deterioro de sus bosques y el rol de los actores locales en su conservación. Se utilizaron los sistemas de información geográfica como base para la generación de mapas temáticos, además de la aplicación de un diagrama de flujo que define los problemas del bosque y otro que los describe y analiza para la búsqueda de soluciones. Los resultados muestran que los principales factores que inciden en el deterioro son incendios forestales, tala inmoderada, plagas y enfermedades. Finalmente se plantean estrategias y escenarios de manejo de los bosques a partir de la articulación de los actores locales.

  2. Basin-scale wind transport during the MILAGRO field campaign and comparison to climatology using cluster analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. de Foy

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The MILAGRO field campaign was a multi-agency international collaborative project to evaluate the regional impacts of the Mexico City air pollution plume as a means of understanding urban impacts on the global climate. Mexico City lies on an elevated plateau with mountains on three sides and has complex mountain and surface-driven wind flows. This paper asks what the wind transport was in the basin during the field campaign and how representative it was of the climatology. Surface meteorology and air quality data, radiosondes and radar wind profiler data were collected at sites in the basin and its vicinity. Cluster analysis was used to identify the dominant wind patterns both during the campaign and within the past 10 years of operational data from the warm dry season. Our analysis shows that March 2006 was representative of typical flow patterns experienced in the basin. Six episode types were identified for the basin-scale circulation providing a way of interpreting atmospheric chemistry and particulate data collected during the campaign. Decoupling between surface winds and those aloft had a strong influence in leading to convection and poor air quality episodes. Hourly characterisation of wind circulation during the MILAGRO, MCMA-2003 and IMADA field campaigns enables the comparisons of similar air pollution episodes and the evaluation of the impact of wind transport on measurements of the atmospheric chemistry taking place in the basin.

  3. A reassessment of the Archean-Mesoproterozoic tectonic development of the southeastern Chhattisgarh Basin, Central India through detailed aeromagnetic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, M.; Ramesh Babu, V.; Markandeyulu, A.; Raju, B. V. S. N.; Chaturvedi, A. K.; Roy, M. K.

    2017-08-01

    We constrained the geological framework over polydeformed Paleoproterozoic Sonakhan Greenstone Belt and addressed the tectonic evolution of Singhora basin in the fringes of Bastar Craton, central India by utilizing aeromagnetic data interpretation, 2.5D forward modelling and 3D magnetic susceptibility inversions. The Sonakhan Greenstone Belt exposes volcano-sedimentary sequences of the Sonakhan Group within NNW-SSE to NW-SE trending linear belts surrounded by granite gneisses, which are unconformably overlain by sedimentary rocks of Chhattisgarh Basin. The orientations of aeromagnetic anomalies are coincident with geological trends and appear to correlate with lithology and geologic structure. Regional magnetic anomalies and lineaments reveal both NNW-SSE and NE-SW trends. Prominent E-W trending linear, high amplitude magnetic anomalies are interpreted as the Trans-Chhattisgarh Aeromagnetic Lineament (TCAL). NW-SE trending aeromagnetic signatures related to Sonakhan Greenstone Belt extends below the Singhora sedimentary rocks and forms the basement in the west. The analysis suggests that TCAL is a block fault with northern block down-thrown and affected the basement rocks comprising the Sonakhan Greenstone Belt and Samblapur Granitoids. The episode of faulting represented by the TCAL is pre-Singhora sedimentation and played a vital role in basin evolution. The basement configuration image generated by estimates of depth to magnetic basement suggests a complex pattern of NNE-SSW to NE-SW trending depressions separated by a linear N-S trending basement ridge. It is inferred from the 3D magnetic susceptibility inversion that the thickness of sediments is more towards the eastern basin margin and the N-S ridge is a manifestation of post sedimentary faulting. Results of 2.5D modelling of a WNW-ESE profile across the Singhora Basin combined with results from 3D inversion suggest suggests the basin subsidence was controlled by NE-SW trending regional faults in an active

  4. A simple model analysis of terrestrial radioactivity balance in a drainage basin in Central Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minato, S.

    1998-01-01

    In-situ measurements of terrestrial gamma-ray dose rates were carried out at 252 locations for soil samples and 47 locations for rock outcrops in the Shonai River drainage region to understand the transport of soil mass and terrestrial radioactivity. The basin was divided into two parts, a bedrock and a sediment (diluvium and alluvium), for compartment analysis. A set of balance equations for soil mass and radioactivity was derived for each region to obtain the transport rate of soils from bedrock to sediment region, the removal rates from land to ocean through rivers and the leaching rates of radioactivity. The relative values of the above parameters to the production rate of soil from bedrock could be estimated from the observed gamma-ray dose rates

  5. Receiving Basin for Offsite Fuels and the Resin Regeneration Facility Safety Analysis Report, Executive Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shedrow, C.B.

    1999-11-29

    The Safety Analysis Report documents the safety authorization basis for the Receiving Basin for Offsite Fuels (RBOF) and the Resin Regeneration Facility (RRF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The present mission of the RBOF and RRF is to continue in providing a facility for the safe receipt, storage, handling, and shipping of spent nuclear fuel assemblies from power and research reactors in the United States, fuel from SRS and other Department of Energy (DOE) reactors, and foreign research reactors fuel, in support of the nonproliferation policy. The RBOF and RRF provide the capability to handle, separate, and transfer wastes generated from nuclear fuel element storage. The DOE and Westinghouse Savannah River Company, the prime operating contractor, are committed to managing these activities in such a manner that the health and safety of the offsite general public, the site worker, the facility worker, and the environment are protected.

  6. Receiving Basin for Offsite Fuels and the Resin Regeneration Facility Safety Analysis Report, Executive Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shedrow, C.B.

    1999-01-01

    The Safety Analysis Report documents the safety authorization basis for the Receiving Basin for Offsite Fuels (RBOF) and the Resin Regeneration Facility (RRF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The present mission of the RBOF and RRF is to continue in providing a facility for the safe receipt, storage, handling, and shipping of spent nuclear fuel assemblies from power and research reactors in the United States, fuel from SRS and other Department of Energy (DOE) reactors, and foreign research reactors fuel, in support of the nonproliferation policy. The RBOF and RRF provide the capability to handle, separate, and transfer wastes generated from nuclear fuel element storage. The DOE and Westinghouse Savannah River Company, the prime operating contractor, are committed to managing these activities in such a manner that the health and safety of the offsite general public, the site worker, the facility worker, and the environment are protected

  7. Virtual Crop Water Export Analysis: The Case of Greece at River Basin District Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaos Mellios

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of virtual crop water export through international trade is conducted for Greece, downscaled to the River Basin District (RBD level, in order to identify critical “hotspots” of localized water shortage in the country. A computable general equilibrium model (MAGNET was used to obtain the export shares of crops and associated irrigation water was calculated for all major crops in Greece. A distinction between virtual crop water locally consumed and traded internationally was made for all Greek RBDs. Cotton was identified as a large water consumer and virtual water exporter, while GR08 and GR10 were identified as the RBDs mostly impacted. The value of virtual water exported was calculated for all crop types and fruits and vegetables were identified as the crop most beneficial, since they consume the least water for the obtained value.

  8. A Study on Regional Frequency Analysis using Artificial Neural Network - the Sumjin River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, C.; Ahn, J.; Ahn, H.; Heo, J. H.

    2017-12-01

    Regional frequency analysis means to make up for shortcomings in the at-site frequency analysis which is about a lack of sample size through the regional concept. Regional rainfall quantile depends on the identification of hydrologically homogeneous regions, hence the regional classification based on hydrological homogeneous assumption is very important. For regional clustering about rainfall, multidimensional variables and factors related geographical features and meteorological figure are considered such as mean annual precipitation, number of days with precipitation in a year and average maximum daily precipitation in a month. Self-Organizing Feature Map method which is one of the artificial neural network algorithm in the unsupervised learning techniques solves N-dimensional and nonlinear problems and be shown results simply as a data visualization technique. In this study, for the Sumjin river basin in South Korea, cluster analysis was performed based on SOM method using high-dimensional geographical features and meteorological factor as input data. then, for the results, in order to evaluate the homogeneity of regions, the L-moment based discordancy and heterogeneity measures were used. Rainfall quantiles were estimated as the index flood method which is one of regional rainfall frequency analysis. Clustering analysis using SOM method and the consequential variation in rainfall quantile were analyzed. This research was supported by a grant(2017-MPSS31-001) from Supporting Technology Development Program for Disaster Management funded by Ministry of Public Safety and Security(MPSS) of the Korean government.

  9. Neutron Activation Analysis and Moessbauer Correlations of Archaeological Pottery from Amazon Basin for Classification Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellido, A. V. B.; Latini, R. M.; Nicoli, I.; Scorzelli, R. B.; Solorzano, P. M.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to investigate the correlation between data obtained by means of two analytical methods, instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and Moessbauer Spectroscopy of pottery samples combined with multivariate statistical analysis in order to optimize quantitative analysis in the classification studies. Ceramics recently discovered in archaeological earth circular structures sites in Acre state Brazil. 199 samples were analyzed by INAA, allowing simultaneous determination of twenty elements chemical concentrations, and 44 samples by using Moessbauer Spectroscopy, allowing the determination of fourteen hyperfine parameters. For the correlation study, data were treated by two multivariate statistical methods: cluster analysis for the classification and the principal component analysis for the data correlations. INAA data show that some of REE (rare earth elements) were the discriminating variables for this technique. Mossbauer parameters that exhibit the same behavior are being investigated, remarkable improve can be seem for the combined REE and the Mossbauer variables showing a good results considering the limited number of samples. This data matrix is being used for the understanding in the studies of classification and provenance of ceramics prehistory of the Amazonic basin.

  10. Flood Frequency Analysis For Partial Duration Series In Ganjiang River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    zhangli, Sun; xiufang, Zhu; yaozhong, Pan

    2016-04-01

    Accurate estimation of flood frequency is key to effective, nationwide flood damage abatement programs. The partial duration series (PDS) method is widely used in hydrologic studies because it considers all events above a certain threshold level as compared to the annual maximum series (AMS) method, which considers only the annual maximum value. However, the PDS has a drawback in that it is difficult to define the thresholds and maintain an independent and identical distribution of the partial duration time series; this drawback is discussed in this paper. The Ganjiang River is the seventh largest tributary of the Yangtze River, the longest river in China. The Ganjiang River covers a drainage area of 81,258 km2 at the Wanzhou hydrologic station as the basin outlet. In this work, 56 years of daily flow data (1954-2009) from the Wanzhou station were used to analyze flood frequency, and the Pearson-III model was employed as the hydrologic probability distribution. Generally, three tasks were accomplished: (1) the threshold of PDS by percentile rank of daily runoff was obtained; (2) trend analysis of the flow series was conducted using PDS; and (3) flood frequency analysis was conducted for partial duration flow series. The results showed a slight upward trend of the annual runoff in the Ganjiang River basin. The maximum flow with a 0.01 exceedance probability (corresponding to a 100-year flood peak under stationary conditions) was 20,000 m3/s, while that with a 0.1 exceedance probability was 15,000 m3/s. These results will serve as a guide to hydrological engineering planning, design, and management for policymakers and decision makers associated with hydrology.

  11. Sampling and analysis plan for the 116-C-5 retention basins characteristic dangerous waste determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, R.G.; Dunks, K.L.

    1996-03-01

    Cooling water flow from the rear face of the 100-B and 100-C reactors was diverted to large retention basins prior to discharge to the Columbia River. These retention basins delayed the release of the reactor coolant for decay of the short-lived activation products and for thermal cooling. Some of the activation products were deposited in sludge that settled in the basins and discharge lines. In addition, some contamination was deposited in soil around the basins and associated piping. The sampling objective of this project is to determine if regulated levels of leachable lead are present in the abrasive materials used to decontaminate the retention basin tank walls, in the material between the tank base plate and the concrete foundation, and in the soils immediately surrounding the perimeter of the retention basins. Sampling details, including sampling locations, frequencies, and analytical requirements, are discussed. Also described is the quality assurance plan for this project

  12. Integrated risk assessment for the natomas basin (California) analysis of loss of life and emergency management for floods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonkman, S.N.; Hiel, L.A.; Bea, R.G.; Foster, H.; Tsioulou, A.; Arroyo, P.; Stallard, T.; Harris, L.

    2012-01-01

    This article assesses the risk to life for the Natomas Basin, a low-lying, rapidly urbanizing region in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta in California. Using an empirical method, the loss of life is determined for a flood (high water), seismic, and sunny-day levee breach scenario. The analysis

  13. Sampling and analysis plan for sludge located in fuel storage canisters of the 105-K West basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, R.B.

    1997-01-01

    This Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) provides direction for the first sampling of sludge from the K West Basin spent fuel canisters. The specially developed sampling equipment removes representative samples of sludge while maintaining the radioactive sample underwater in the basin pool (equipment is described in WHC-SD-SNF-SDD-004). Included are the basic background logic for sample selection, the overall laboratory analyses required and the laboratory reporting required. These are based on requirements put forth in the data quality objectives (WHC-SD-SNF-DQO-012) established for this sampling and characterization activity

  14. Petrographic and biomarker analysis of xylite-rich coal from the Kolubara and Kostolac lignite basins (Pannonian Basin, Serbia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Đoković, Nataša; Mitrović, Danica; Životić, Dragana; Bechtel, Achim; Sachsenhofer, Reinhard F.; Stojanović, Ksenija

    2018-02-01

    The maceral and biomarker characteristics of 4 sublithotypes of xylite-rich coal (SXCs), pale yellow, dark yellow, brown and black, originating from the Kolubara and Kostolac lignite basins were determined. Based on these results, differences in sources and changes of organic matter (OM) resulting in formation of 4 SXCs were established. Conifers (particularly Cupressaceae, Taxodiaceae and Pinacea) had a significant impact on the precursor OM of all SXCs. The contribution of gymnosperm vs. angiosperm vegetation decreased in order pale yellow SXC>dark yellow SXC>brown SXC>black SXC. The distribution of non-hopanoid triterpenoids indicates that change of SXC colour from yellow to black is associated with reduced input of angiosperm plants from the Betulacea family. Differences in hopane distribution, bitumen content, proportion of short-chain n-alkanes and degree of aromatization of di- and triterpenoids of pale yellow SXC are controlled by microbial communities which took part in the diagenetic alteration of OM. The content of total huminites increased from black to pale yellow SXC, whereas contents of total liptinite and inertinite macerals showed the opposite trend. SXCs differ according to textinite/ulminite ratio, which sharply decreased from pale yellow to black SXC, reflecting increase in gelification of woody tissue. Regarding the composition of liptinite macerals, the SXCs mostly differ according to resinite/liptodetrinite and resinite/suberinite ratios, which are higher in yellow than in brown and black SXC. This result along with values of TOC/N ratio and Carbon Preference Index indicate that the contribution of well preserved woody material, including lignin tissue vs. the impact of epicuticular waxes decreased from yellow to black SXC.

  15. Petrographic and biomarker analysis of xylite-rich coal from the Kolubara and Kostolac lignite basins (Pannonian Basin, Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đoković Nataša

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The maceral and biomarker characteristics of 4 sublithotypes of xylite-rich coal (SXCs, pale yellow, dark yellow, brown and black, originating from the Kolubara and Kostolac lignite basins were determined. Based on these results, differences in sources and changes of organic matter (OM resulting in formation of 4 SXCs were established. Conifers (particularly Cupressaceae, Taxodiaceae and Pinacea had a significant impact on the precursor OM of all SXCs. The contribution of gymnosperm vs. angiosperm vegetation decreased in order pale yellow SXC>dark yellow SXC>brown SXC>black SXC. The distribution of non-hopanoid triterpenoids indicates that change of SXC colour from yellow to black is associated with reduced input of angiosperm plants from the Betulacea family. Differences in hopane distribution, bitumen content, proportion of short-chain n-alkanes and degree of aromatization of di- and triterpenoids of pale yellow SXC are controlled by microbial communities which took part in the diagenetic alteration of OM. The content of total huminites increased from black to pale yellow SXC, whereas contents of total liptinite and inertinite macerals showed the opposite trend. SXCs differ according to textinite/ulminite ratio, which sharply decreased from pale yellow to black SXC, reflecting increase in gelification of woody tissue. Regarding the composition of liptinite macerals, the SXCs mostly differ according to resinite/liptodetrinite and resinite/suberinite ratios, which are higher in yellow than in brown and black SXC. This result along with values of TOC/N ratio and Carbon Preference Index indicate that the contribution of well preserved woody material, including lignin tissue vs. the impact of epicuticular waxes decreased from yellow to black SXC.

  16. Analysis on metallogenetic conditions of sandstone-type uranium deposit in Minhe Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Minzhong; Wang Huaiwu

    2002-01-01

    Little uranium prospecting has been performed so far in Minhe basin. However, at the marginal areas of the basin uranium mineralizations and lots of aero-radioactive anomalies have been found before, and the basin shows some prospecting potential. Based on the regional geological setting, by means of interpretation of high-precision aero-magnetic, aero-radiometric and Bouguer gravimetric data, and combined with hydrodynamic, lithofacies-palaeographic and paleo-climatic analyses, authors make a comprehensive evaluation of metallogenic conditions for sandstone-type uranium deposits, and propose metallogenically favourable areas in the basin

  17. Sampling and analysis plan for sludge located on the floor and in the pits of the 105-K basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BAKER, R.B.

    1998-01-01

    This Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) provides direction for the sampling of the sludge found on the floor and in the remote pits of the 105-K Basins to provide: (1) basic data for the sludges that have not been characterized to-date and (2) representative Sludge material for process tests to be made by the SNF Project/K Basins sludge treatment process subproject. The sampling equipment developed will remove representative samples of the radioactive sludge from underwater at the K Basins, depositing them in shielded containers for transport to the Hanford Site laboratories. Included in the present document is the basic background logic for selection of the samples to meet the requirements established in the Data Quality Objectives (DQO), HNF-2033, for this sampling activity. The present document also includes the laboratory analyses, methods, procedures, and reporting that will be required to meet the DQO

  18. Glacier melting during lava dome growth at Nevado de Toluca volcano (Mexico): Evidences of a major threat before main eruptive phases at ice-caped volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capra, L.; Roverato, M.; Groppelli, G.; Caballero, L.; Sulpizio, R.; Norini, G.

    2015-03-01

    Nevado de Toluca volcano is one of the largest stratovolcanoes in the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt. During Late Pleistocene its activity was characterized by large dome growth and subsequent collapse emplacing large block and ash flow deposits, intercalated by Plinian eruptions. Morphological and paleoclimate studies at Nevado de Toluca and the surrounding area evidenced that the volcano was affected by extensive glaciation during Late Pleistocene and Holocene. During the older recognized glacial period (27-60 ka, MIS 3), the glacier was disturbed by the intense magmatic and hydrothermal activity related to two dome extrusion episodes (at 37 ka and 28 ka). Glacier reconstruction indicates maximum ice thickness of 90 m along main valleys, as at the Cano ravines, the major glacial valley on the northern slope of the volcano. Along this ravine, both 37 and 28 ka block-and-ash deposits are exposed, and they directly overlay a fluviatile sequence, up to 40 m-thick, which 14C ages clearly indicate that their emplacement occurred just before the dome collapsed. These evidences point to a clear interaction between the growing dome and its hydrothermal system with the glacier. During dome growth, a large amount of melting water was released along major glacial valleys forming thick fluvioglacial sequences that were subsequently covered by the block-and-ash flow deposits generated by the collapse of the growing dome. Even though this scenario is no longer possible at the Nevado de Toluca volcano, the data presented here indicate that special attention should be paid to the possible inundation areas from fluviatile/lahar activity prior to the main magmatic eruption at ice-capped volcanoes.

  19. GLUE Analysis and Optimal Operation for Diyala River Basin in Iraq Using Variable Infiltration Capacity Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waheed, S., Sr.; Ramirez, J.

    2017-12-01

    Uncertainty in both hydrologic behavior and model characterization is a concern for current and future water resource system planning, operation, and management. To develop optimal dam operation schemes under future uncertainty, the sensitivity of the precipitation-runoff response to changes in hydro-climatic forcing must be quantified. To achieve this purpose, accurate (observational and modeled) data should be implemented. Herein, many data sources were compared to representative hydrologic datasets. Due to limited availability of observed daily data, a random temporal cascade method was used to downscale the monthly precipitation into daily. Then, four interpolation methods were compared to transform the point into gridded data. Furthermore, a regression technique coupled with Kriging method was developed. The method is based on regressing modeled data (from VIC dataset) with the observed gridded temperature by relating the regression to the geometry of each grid. The sensitivity and identifiability of the Variable Infiltration Capacity model (VIC) for the Diyala River basin in Iraq were evaluated using GLUE technique. Diyala River is a Tigris River tributary in eastern Iraq. Its total length and basin area are about 216.5 km and 16,763.7 km2, respectively. Seven candidate parameters of VIC model (b_infilt, Ds, Ws, Dsmax, and depths of soil layer 1, 2, and 3) associated with the infiltration and surface runoff production processes are examined for 14000 random sets. The comparison between the different data showed that neither the observations from Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission nor the VIC modeled data is accurate for gridded precipitation; therefore, a downscaling technique was applied. Moreover, the comparison between four different interpolation techniques revealed that the Kriging method is the most accurate. The optimal model performance was found to be 0.731 NSCE. Also, the GLUE analysis results implied that the depth of the second soil layer depth

  20. Paleostress Analysis with Reflection Seismic Data: Example from the Songliao Basin, Northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, G.; Persaud, P.; Zhang, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Currently paleostress inversion using fault-slip data is a well established approach. However, the deformation history contained in folds has not yet been fully utilized to determine the paleostress field. By applying a 2D FFT-based algorithm to a structure or isopach map derived from reflection seismic data, we find a new way of exploiting the information preserved in folds to determine the paleostress. Our method requires that the strata have a large areal extent and are well preserved. After pre-processing the maps, we find that in the frequency-wavenumber (F-K) domain, folds with similar strikes are grouped into spectrum belts. Each belt parallels the short axis of the fold group and can therefore indicate the direction of the associated maximum horizontal stress. Some information on the relative chronology of stresses can be deduced by comparing the structure and isopach spectrum maps, e.g., if the structure spectrum map has one more spectrum belt than that of the isopach map (an approximate paleo-structure map of the corresponding stratum), we can conclude that the indicated stress postdated the deposition of the stratum. We selected three Late Cretaceous strata from a 3D seismic survey located in the intracontinental Songliao Basin, northeast China. The Songliao has experienced four episodes of deformation: mantle upwelling, rifting, postrift thermal subsidence and structural inversion (Feng et al., 2009). The selected strata were deposited during the third stage. Three structure and two isopach maps were decomposed in the F-K domain. Spectral analysis of the lower isopach map shows eight paleostress directions. We also identify a ninth paleostress in addition to the previous eight from the structure maps and the upper isopach map. The eight stress directions that exist in both the isopach and structure maps may have been active throughout the time period spanned by the strata. We interpret the ninth paleostress as being active after the deposition of the

  1. Evaluación de los bosques templados en México: una aplicación en el Parque Nacional Nevado de Toluca

    OpenAIRE

    Lourdes Villers Ruíz; Laura García del Valle; Jorge López Blanco

    1998-01-01

    Con base en un análisis de fotointerpretación y de evaluación botánica de sitios, se propone una metodología expedita que permita conocer las características generales de los bosques templados en México. La metodología fue aplicada en el parque nacional Nevado de Toluca. Se determinaron tres comunidades de bosque: a) de Pinus hartwegu. b) de Abies religiosa y c) mixto Abies religiosa. Alnas jorullensis, P pseudostrobus y P hartwegii Para cada comunidad se definieron por fotointerpretación tre...

  2. Comments on cladocerans of crater lakes of the Nevado de Toluca Volcano (Central Mexico), with the description of a new species, Alona manueli sp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinev, Artem Y; Zawisza, Edyta

    2013-01-01

    Cladoceran communities of two lakes of Nevado de Toluca Volcano, Central Mexico, were studied. A new species of Aloninae, Alona manueli sp. nov., is described. It was previously confused with Palearctic Alona intermedia Sars, 1862, but clearly differs from it in the morphology of postabdomen, head shield and head pores, and thoracic limbs. Position of Alona manueli sp. nov. within the genus is unclear, it did not belong to any species-group within Alona s. lato. Other species recorded in the studied lakes are Alona ossiani Sinev, 1998, Alonella pulchella Herrick, 1884, Chydorus belonging to sphaericus-group, Eurycercus longirostris Hann, 1982 and Pleuroxus cf. denticulatus Birge, 1879.

  3. Destrucción de tierras en el flanco oriental del Nevado de Toluca, el caso de la cuenca del arroyo El Zaguán

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Palacio-Prieto

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available Changes in landuse and the presence of an erodible lithology (pumice lapilli are the main factors controlling the accelerated erosion in the eastern slope of the Nevado de Toluca volcano, state of Mexico. A detailed geomorphological study of a small catchment allowed the recognition of several unstable sectors along the catchment, requiring prior attention in order to avoid problems due to silting in dams, roads and towns. Among the uns­table sectors, first order streams and external portions in mean­ders developed in pumice lahars and tephra ace included.

  4. La infancia callejera en Toluca : análisis desde los derechos humanos con un enfoque de los derechos del niño

    OpenAIRE

    González Hinojosa, Lizandra

    2011-01-01

    Se analiza la problemática del fenómeno de los niños en situación de calle en la Ciudad de Toluca, Estado de México, las alternativas en marcha a partir de la norma jurídica y la participación fundamentalmente de las instituciones públicas y la sociedad civil para atender éste problema, en perspectiva de lo que sucede al interior del hogar como el abandono, violencia, maltrato y pobreza, entre otras, que propician la desintegración familiar, así como condiciones exógenas como la crisis financ...

  5. El arrendamiento del diezmo y la importancia social de los hacendados arrendatarios en el valle de Toluca, según los protocolos de la Notaría No. 1 de Toluca, 1650-1700

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Elena Bribiesca Sumano

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El establecimiento de la Nueva España, dio lugar al surgimiento de una economía, que se desarrolló de manera independiente a la Corona española. En general se trató de hacer del virreinato un modelo parecido al de la Península Ibérica, sin embargo, diversos factores impidieron la aplicación de una calca perfecta, y por el contrario, dieron lugar a nuevas actividades económicas adecuadas al mundo novohispano. Una de estas fue el arrendamiento del diezmo, al que la iglesia católica tuvo que recurrir el período virreinal. A su vez, ésta estuvo estrechamente relacionada a la actividad agrícola, que dio origen a la hacienda novohispana. Hablar de diezmos y agricultura, implica hablar de estos dos actores económicos fundamentales para el entendimiento de la estructura novohispana, muestra de ello es que para la segunda mitad del siglo XVII, la institución eclesiástica y la estructura hacendaria se encontraban plenamente consolidadas, ostentando poder e influencia económica y social. En este artículo se presenta un balance historiográfico sobre las haciendas en el valle de Toluca y la dinámica del arrendamiento del diezmo, que busca establecer los primeros derroteros para una investigación que explique la estrecha relación entre la iglesia y los hacendados novohispanos a través de dicha actividad.

  6. Scenario analysis for integrated water resources planning and management under uncertainty in the Zayandehrud river basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safavi, Hamid R.; Golmohammadi, Mohammad H.; Sandoval-Solis, Samuel

    2016-08-01

    The goal of this study is to develop and analyze three scenarios in the Zayandehrud river basin in Iran using a model already built and calibrated by Safavi et al. (2015) that has results for the baseline scenario. Results from the baseline scenario show that water demands will be supplied at the cost of depletion of surface and ground water resources, making this scenario undesirable and unsustainable. Supply Management, Demand Management, and Meta (supply and demand management) scenarios are the selected scenarios in this study. They are to be developed and declared into the Zayandehrud model to assess and evaluate the imminent status of the basin. Certain strategies will be employed for this purpose to improve and rectify the current management policies. The five performance criteria of time-based and volumetric reliability, resilience, vulnerability, and maximum deficit will be employed in the process of scenario analysis and evaluation. The results obtained from the performance criteria will be summed up into a so-called 'Water Resources Sustainability Index' to facilitate comparison among the likely trade-offs. Uncertainties arising from historical data, management policies, rainfall-runoff model, demand priorities, and performance criteria are considered in the proposed conceptual framework and modeled by appropriate approaches. Results show that the Supply Management scenario can be used to improve upon the demand supply but that it has no tangible effects on the improvement of the resources in the study region. In this regard, the Demand Management scenario is found to be more effective than the water supply one although it still remains unacceptable. Results of the Meta scenario indicate that both the supply and demand management scenarios must be applied if the water resources are to be safeguarded against degradation and depletion. In other words, the supply management scenario is necessary but not adequate; rather, it must be coupled to the demand

  7. Component Analysis of Errors on PERSIANN Precipitation Estimates over Urmia Lake Basin, IRAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghajarnia, N.; Daneshkar Arasteh, P.; Liaghat, A. M.; Araghinejad, S.

    2016-12-01

    In this study, PERSIANN daily dataset is evaluated from 2000 to 2011 in 69 pixels over Urmia Lake basin in northwest of Iran. Different analytical approaches and indexes are used to examine PERSIANN precision in detection and estimation of rainfall rate. The residuals are decomposed into Hit, Miss and FA estimation biases while continues decomposition of systematic and random error components are also analyzed seasonally and categorically. New interpretation of estimation accuracy named "reliability on PERSIANN estimations" is introduced while the changing manners of existing categorical/statistical measures and error components are also seasonally analyzed over different rainfall rate categories. This study yields new insights into the nature of PERSIANN errors over Urmia lake basin as a semi-arid region in the middle-east, including the followings: - The analyzed contingency table indexes indicate better detection precision during spring and fall. - A relatively constant level of error is generally observed among different categories. The range of precipitation estimates at different rainfall rate categories is nearly invariant as a sign for the existence of systematic error. - Low level of reliability is observed on PERSIANN estimations at different categories which are mostly associated with high level of FA error. However, it is observed that as the rate of precipitation increase, the ability and precision of PERSIANN in rainfall detection also increases. - The systematic and random error decomposition in this area shows that PERSIANN has more difficulty in modeling the system and pattern of rainfall rather than to have bias due to rainfall uncertainties. The level of systematic error also considerably increases in heavier rainfalls. It is also important to note that PERSIANN error characteristics at each season varies due to the condition and rainfall patterns of that season which shows the necessity of seasonally different approach for the calibration of

  8. Duvernay shale lithofacies distribution analysis in the West Canadian Sedimentary Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Houqin; Kong, Xiangwen; Long, Huashan; Huai, Yinchao

    2018-02-01

    In the West Canadian Sedimentary Basin (WCSB), Duvernay shale is considered to contribute most of the Canadian shale gas reserve and production. According to global shale gas exploration and development practice, reservoir property and well completion quality are the two key factors determining the shale gas economics. The two key factors are strongly depending on shale lithofacies. On the basis of inorganic mineralogy theory, all available thin section, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) data were used to assist lithofacies analysis. Gamma ray (GR), acoustic (AC), bulk density (RHOB), neutron porosity (NPHI) and photoelectric absorption cross-section index (PE) were selected for log response analysis of various minerals. Reservoir representative equation was created constrained by quantitative core analysis results, and matrix mineral percentage of quartz, carbonate, feldspar and pyrite were calculated to classify shale lithofacies. Considering the horizontal continuity of seismic data, rock physics model was built, and acoustic impedance integrated with core data and log data was used to predict the horizontal distribution of different lithofacies. The results indicate that: (1) nine lithofacies can be categorized in Duvernay shale, (2) the horizontal distribution of different lithofacies is quite diversified, siliceous shale mainly occurs in Simonette area, calcareous shale is prone to develop in the vicinity of reef, while calcareous-siliceous shale dominates in Willesdon Green area.

  9. Quantitative allochem compositional analysis of Lochkovian-Pragian boundary sections in the Prague Basin (Czech Republic)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinerová, Hedvika; Hron, Karel; Bábek, Ondřej; Šimíček, Daniel; Hladil, Jindřich

    2017-06-01

    Quantitative allochem compositional trends across the Lochkovian-Pragian boundary Event were examined at three sections recording the proximal to more distal carbonate ramp environment of the Prague Basin. Multivariate statistical methods (principal component analysis, correspondence analysis, cluster analysis) of point-counted thin section data were used to reconstruct facies stacking patterns and sea-level history. Both the closed-nature allochem percentages and their centred log-ratio (clr) coordinates were used. Both these approaches allow for distinguishing of lowstand, transgressive and highstand system tracts within the Praha Formation, which show gradual transition from crinoid-dominated facies deposited above the storm wave base to dacryoconarid-dominated facies of deep-water environment below the storm wave base. Quantitative compositional data also indicate progradative-retrogradative trends in the macrolithologically monotonous shallow-water succession and enable its stratigraphic correlation with successions from deeper-water environments. Generally, the stratigraphic trends of the clr data are more sensitive to subtle changes in allochem composition in comparison to the results based on raw data. A heterozoan-dominated allochem association in shallow-water environments of the Praha Formation supports the carbonate ramp environment assumed by previous authors.

  10. Desert Dust Outbreaks over Mediterranean Basin: A Modeling, Observational, and Synoptic Analysis Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Calastrini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dust intrusions from African desert regions have an impact on the Mediterranean Basin (MB, as they cause an anomalous increase of aerosol concentrations in the tropospheric column and often an increase of particulate matter at the ground level. To estimate the Saharan dust contribution to PM10, a significant dust intrusion event that occurred in June 2006 is investigated, joining numerical simulations and specific measurements. As a first step, a synoptic analysis of this episode is performed. Such analysis, based only on meteorological and aerosol optical thickness observations, does not allow the assessment of exhaustive informations. In fact, it is not possible to distinguish dust outbreaks transported above the boundary layer without any impact at the ground level from those causing deposition. The approach proposed in this work applies an ad hoc model chain to describe emission, transport and deposition dynamics. Furthermore, physical and chemical analyses (PIXE analysis and ion chromatography were used to measure the concentration of all soil-related elements to quantify the contribution of dust particles to PM10. The comparison between simulation results and in-situ measurements show a satisfying agreement, and supports the effectiveness of the model chain to estimate the Saharan dust contribution at ground level.

  11. Morphometric analysis of Martian valley network basins using a circularity function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Wei; Howard, Alan D.

    2005-12-01

    This paper employs a circularity function to quantify the internal morphology of Martian watershed basins in Margaritifer Sinus region and to infer the primary erosional processes that led to their current geomorphologic characteristics and possible climatic conditions under which these processes operated. The circularity function describes the elongation of a watershed basin at different elevations. We have used the circularity functions of terrestrial basins that were interpreted as having been modified by (1) erosion related to primarily groundwater sapping and (2) erosion related to primarily rainfall and surface run-off, as well as the circularity functions of cratering basins on the Moon, in order to formulate discriminant functions that are able to separate the three types of landforms. The spatial pattern of the classification of Martian basins based on discriminant functions shows that basins that look morphologically similar to terrestrial fluvial basins are mostly clustered near the mainstream at low elevation, while those that look morphologically similar to terrestrial basins interpreted as groundwater sapping origin are located near the tributaries and at higher elevation. There are more of the latter than the former. This spatial distribution is inconsistent with a continuous Earth-like warm and wet climate for early Mars. Instead, it is more aligned with an overall early dry climate punctuated with episodic wet periods. Alternatively, the concentrated erosion in the mainstream could also be caused by a change of water source from rainfall to snowfall or erosion cut through a duricrust layer.

  12. Using SIMGRO for drought analysis – as demonstrated for the Taquari Basin, Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Querner, E.P.; Lanen, van H.A.J.

    2010-01-01

    Tools were developed and tested to quantify space–time development of droughts at the river basin scale. The spatial development of a hydrological drought in river basins brings different challenges to describe drought characteristics, such as: area in a drought and areal expressions for onset,

  13. New Insights into the Provenance of the Southern Junggar Basin in the Jurassic from Heavy Mineral Analysis and Sedimentary Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, T. Q.; Wu, C.; Zhu, W.

    2017-12-01

    Being a vital component of foreland basin of Central-western China, Southern Junggar Basin has observed solid evidences of oil and gas in recent years without a considerable advancement. The key reason behind this is the lack of systematic study on sedimentary provenance analysis of the Southern Junggar basin. Three parts of the Southern Junggar basin, including the western segment (Sikeshu Sag), the central segment (Qigu Fault-Fold Belt) and the eastern segment (Fukang Fault Zone), possess varied provenance systems, giving rise to difficulties for oil-gas exploration. In this study, 3468 heavy minerals data as well as the sedimentary environment analysis of 10 profiles and 7 boreholes were used to investigate the provenances of the deposits in the southern Junggar basin . Based on this research, it reveals that: Sikeshu sag initially shaped the foreland basin prototype in the Triassic and its provenance area of the sediments from the Sikeshu sag has primarily been situated in zhongguai uplift-chepaizi uplift depositional systems located in the northwestern margin of the Junggar Basin. From the early Jurassic, the key sources were likely to be late Carboniferous to early Permain post-collisional volcanic rocks from the North Tian Shan block to Centrao Tian Shan. In the Xishanyao formation, Abundant lithic metamorphic, epidote and garnet that suggests the source rocks were possibly late Carboniferous subduction-related arc volcanic rocks of the Central Tian Shan. In the Toutunhe formation, Bogda Mountains began uplifting and gradually becoming the major provenance. Moreover, the sedimentary boundaries of Junggar basin have also shifted towards the North Tian Shan again. In the late Jurassic, the conglomerates of the Kalazha formation directly overlie the fine-grained red beds of Qigu formation, which throw light on the rapid tectonic uplift of the North Tian Shan. In the eastern segment, meandering river delta and shore-lacustrine environments were fully developed

  14. The role of scenario analysis in water resources management in Yanqi Basin, Xinjiang, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, N.; Kinzelbach, W. K.; Li, W.; Dong, X.

    2011-12-01

    With the rapid increase of world population and food demand, the demand for water resources is also increasing. At the same time shifts in rain patterns due to global climate change make the water resources situation more uncertain. A global water crisis can therefore not be excluded. The socio-economic and environmental problems induced by such a water crisis are especially prominent in arid and semiarid regions. The Yanqi Basin in Xinjiang province is a typical case study in China's arid and semi-arid areas, where rainfall is scarce and evaporation is extremely high. Thus its water resources have been under great pressure to satisfy the increasing water demand of agriculture and urban and industrial expansion in the last decades. The development has been accompanied by a number of environmental problems. Yanqi Basin is an important cultivated area which is irrigated by water diverted from rivers. Because of the long-term flood irrigation and an inefficient drainage system, the groundwater level under the cultivated area rose, accelerating the phreatic evaporation and leading to increased soil salinization. Simultaneously, the water quantity and quality of Boston Lake have been impaired in past years because of the decreased river discharge and the increased salt flux contained in the drainage discharge. Thus the ecosystems depending on the inflow to and outflow from the lake suffered. The riverine forests in the downstream area were degraded due to declining groundwater levels, and aquatic life as well as downstream water users had to cope with deteriorating water quality. The big challenge for decision makers in the basin is how to balance the justified requirements of agriculture, industrial development and the ecosystem. In order to provide a scientific basis to the decision making process, a scenario analysis was adopted. Here several scenarios are proposed: the basic scenario, scenario 1, describes the status of the year 2008. A second scenario maximizes the

  15. Structural and geological analysis of the northern Pescadero basin: preliminary results based on the analysis of 2D multichannel seismic reflection profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spelz, R. M.; Ramirez-Zerpa, N. A.; Gonzalez-Fernandez, A.; Yarbuh, I.; Contreras, J.

    2017-12-01

    The Pacific-North America plate boundary along the Gulf of California is characterized by an array of right-stepping, right-lateral, transform faults connecting a series of pull-apart basins distributed along the gulf axis. Altogether, these structures accommodate an oblique-divergent component of deformation characterizing the modern tectonic regime along the gulf. The northern Pescadero complex, in the southern Gulf of California, is one of the deepest and probably least studied transtensional fault-termination basins in the gulf. The complex is bounded to the north and south by Atl and Farallon transform faults, respectively, and consists of two asymmetric, rhomboidal-shaped, basins with a series of intrabasinal high-angle normal faults and ramps connecting their depocenters. In this study we present preliminary results derived from the processing and analysis of 400 km of seismic reflection profiles, collected in 2006 onboard the R/V Francisco de Ulloa in northern Pescadero, providing new insights into the geology and internal structure of the basin. Northern Pescadero is a deep and narrow basin characterized by a maximum sedimentary infill of 1 km, and depths to the basin floor exceeding 3500 m. Deformation is chiefly accommodated by an array of self-parallel half-graben structures that appear to grow towards the northern flank of the basin. Faults-scarps located farther from the deformation axis appear to be more degraded, suggesting a progressively younger age of the half-grabens near the basin's depocenter. Another important feature revealed in the seismic images is the lack of sediments on top of the crystalline basement that floors the narrow central portion of the basin. In this area the reflectors at the basin's floor show a pronounced increase in amplitude and coherence, indicating the emplacement of magmatic extrusions. Likewise, in those areas with the greater sediment infill, the occurrence of high-amplitude reflectors, located 150 m below the

  16. Analysis of point source pollution and water environmental quality variation trends in the Nansi Lake basin from 2002 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weiliang; Liu, Xiaohui; Wang, Yufan; Guo, Xiaochun; Lu, Shaoyong

    2016-03-01

    Based on the data analysis of the water environmental quality and economic development from 2002 to 2012 in the Nansi Lake basin, the correlation and change between the water environmental quality and economic development were studied. Results showed that the GDP and wastewater emissions of point source in the Nansi Lake basin had an average annual growth of 7.30 and 7.68 %, respectively, from 2002 to 2012. The emissions of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) had the average annual decrease of 7.69 and 6.79 % in 2012, respectively, compared to 2002. Basin water quality overall improved, reaching the Class III of the "Environmental quality standards for surface water (GB3838-2002)," in which the main reason was that sewage treatment rate increased gradually and was above 90 % in 2012 (an increase of 10 % compared to 2002) with the progress of pollution abatement technology and the implementation of relevant policies and regulations. The contribution of water environmental pollution was analyzed from related cities (Ji'ning, Zaozhuang, Heze). Results indicated that Ji'ning had the largest contribution to water pollution of the Nansi Lake basin, and the pollutant from domestic sources accounted for a higher percentage compared to industrial sources. The wastewater, COD, and NH3-N mainly came from mining and washing of coal, manufacture of raw chemical materials and chemical products, papermaking industry, and food processing industry. According to the water pollution characteristics of the Nansi Lake basin, the basin pollution treatment strategy and prevention and treatment system were dissected to provide a scientific basis for prevention and control of lakeside point source pollution along the Nansi Lake.

  17. A systems engineering analysis to examine the economic impact for treatment of tritiated water in the Hanford KE-Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villegas, A.; Clark, L.; Schmidt, A.

    1995-02-01

    Federal and state agencies have established a Tri-Party Agreement (TPA) to address some key environmental issues faced at the Hanford Site. Under the TPA, the Department of Energy is currently under a consent order to reduce the tritium concentration in the spent fuel storage basin for KE-Reactor from 3.0 μCi/L to 0.3 μCi/L in the KE spent fuel storage basin, starting in 1996. The 100KE and 100KW Area fuel storage basins (K-Basins) at Hanford were built in the early 1950s to receive and provide temporary storage for irradiated fuel from the now shutdown KE and KW production reactors. In 1977, the KE-Basin began to leak at a rate of 13.5 gpm (51 L/min.), but, decreased to 0.03 to 0.05 gpm (0. 13 to 0.19 L/min.) by 1980. In 1993, the leak increased to a rate of 0.42 gpm (1.6 L/min.). This engineering analysis examines the relative costs to reduce the tritium concentration KE-Basin water using a polyphosphazene polymer membrane under development at Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The estimated cost of using the membrane to reduce the tritium concentration is compared to three no-treatment alternatives that include: (1) disposing of the tritium-contaminated water directly to the Columbia River, (2) disposing of the contaminated water to the soil at the on-site Effluent Treatment Facility, and (3) disposing of the contaminated water by evaporation using solar evaporation ponds

  18. Comparative study of risk factors related to cardiovascular disease in children from Bogotá, Colombia and Toluca, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Devia, Lizeth Johana; Monroy Romero, Paola Andrea; Almonacid Urrego, Carmen Cecilia; Orjuela, Olga Lucía; Huérfano, Myriam Judith; Mendieta Zerón, Hugo

    2014-01-01

    Currently, cardiovascular risk factors have not been studied so extensively in young people. To compare the cardiovascular risk factor between Colombian and Mexican children. This was a transversal, descriptive, comparative and clinical study. 30 children of primary school aged 6-12 from Bogotá, Colombia were matched by age with a sample of 30 children from Toluca, Mexico. Cardiovascular risk factors measured were Body Mass Index (BMI), serum lipid profile, glucose and homocystein (Hcy). Besides we applied the validated surveys formats for food (dietary history), physical activity (International Physical Activity Questionnaire, IPAQ), alcohol consumption and smoking. BMI was higher in Mexican children than in Colombian (20.43±3.35 vs 16.92±3.46) (p≤0.001). Among Mexican children, 20% (6) of them had blood glucose concentration greater than 100 mg/dl, 6.6% (2) had triglycerides greater than 200 mg/dl, 36.6% (11) had cholesterol levels greater than 170 mg/dl, 16% (53.3) had HDL lower than the recommended limits, and 60% (18) had LDL above the normal limit. For the Colombian population these percentages were of 0, 3.3, 46.6, 13.33 and 53.3 respectively. Mexican children had a stronger correlation between BMI and atherogenic indices and less physical activity than Colombian. Of the 30 Mexican children enrolled in the study only 13% had none of the cardiovascular risk factors, while in the Colombian this percentage was of 33. Latin American children are not metabolically homogeneous, Mexican children are at high risk of cardiovascular disease.

  19. The 13 ka Pelée-Type Dome Collapse at Nevado de Toluca Volcano, México.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Antonio, M.; Capra, L.; Sarocchi, D.; Bellotti, F.

    2007-05-01

    The Nevado de Toluca is an active volcano located in the central sector of the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt, 80 km southwest of Mexico City. Activity at this andesitic to dacitic stratovolcano began ca. 2.6 Ma ago. During the last 42 ka, the volcano has been characterized by different eruptive styles, including five dome collapses dated at 37, 32, 28, 26, and 13 ka and five Plinian eruptions at 42 ka, 36 ka, 21.7 ka, 12.1 ka and 10.5 ka. The 13 ka dome collapse is the youngest event of this type, and originated a 0.11 km3 block-and-ash flow deposit on the north-eastern sector of the volcano. The deposit consists of two facies: channel-like, 10 m thick, monolitologic, that is composed of up to five units, with decimetric dacitic clasts set in a sandy matrix; and a lateral facies that consists of a gray, sandy horizon, up to 4 m thick, with a 30 cm-thick surge layer at the base. The main component is a dacitic lava, with different degree of vesciculation, with mineral association of Pl-Hbl-Opx. Plagioclases show two different textures: in equilibrium, with normal zoning (core = An37-64.3, rim = An30.7-45.8) or with spongy cellular texture with inverse zoning (core = An38-43.5, rim = An45-51.2). Hornblende is normally light green, barren of oxidation. The rock matrix contains up to 53 perc. of glass with abundant microlites, indicating over-pressure on the crystallizing magma and a rapid expulsion. All these stratigraphic and petrographic features indicate that the dome was quickly extruded on the summit of the volcano, probably triggered by a magma mixing process, and its collapse was accompanied by an explosive component, being classified as a Pelée-type event.

  20. Towards an integrated analysis of rural systems: the case study of the Alento basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaranta, Giovanni; Salvia, Rosanna

    2014-05-01

    The role and the functions of rural areas are undergoing considerable change due to economic, social and environmental drivers. The outcome of the transformation is the production of highly heterogeneous landscapes, rural mosaics, which are home to varying degrees of intensity of land-use and processes of deactivation, abandonment and land degradation. The identification of rural mosaics has implications both for determining the impacts on the stock of connected natural resources and for defining measures and policies able to support the resilience of rural territories and the identification of sustainable strategies for development. The study proposes a methodology for the integrated analysis of the rural territory which combines the analysis of land cover dynamics, using GIS, with an assessment of socio-economic dynamics, reconstructed through the combined use of indicators and local history, and which is aware that the differences and peculiarities within rural territories are the result of actions taken over time and of the different adaptive strategies undertaken by communities operating in different fields, under the influence of specific ecologic and environmental conditions. The methodology, applied to a socio-ecological system which is representative of the Mediterranean basin, is proposed as a tool to support the territorialisation of polices, opening the process up to perspectives able to better comprehend the dynamic evolution of rural territories, internalising that evolution in the definition of the instruments and measures to adopt.

  1. Analysis of the Water Resources on Baseflow River Basin in Jeju Island, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, S.-K.; Jung, W.-Y.; Kang, M.-S.

    2012-04-01

    Jeju Island is a volcanic island located at the southernmost of Korea, and is the heaviest raining area in Korea, but due to its hydrological / geological characteristics different from those of inland areas, most streams are of the dry form, and it relies on groundwater for water resources. As for some streams, however, springwater is discharged at a point near the downstream of the final discharge to maintain the flow of the stream; this has been developed as the source for water supply since the past, but the studies on detail observations and analysis are yet inadequate. This study utilizes the ADCP (Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler) hydrometer to regularly observe the flow amount of base run-off stream, and the water resources of base discharge basin of Jeju Island were analyzed using the SWAT (Soil & Water Assessment Tool) model. The detail water resource analysis study using modeling and site observation with high precision for Jeju Island water resources is expected to become the foundation for efficient usage and security of water resources against future climate changes.

  2. Drought Analysis of the Haihe River Basin Based on GRACE Terrestrial Water Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhua Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Haihe river basin (HRB in the North China has been experiencing prolonged, severe droughts in recent years that are accompanied by precipitation deficits and vegetation wilting. This paper analyzed the water deficits related to spatiotemporal variability of three variables of the gravity recovery and climate experiment (GRACE derived terrestrial water storage (TWS data, precipitation, and EVI in the HRB from January 2003 to January 2013. The corresponding drought indices of TWS anomaly index (TWSI, precipitation anomaly index (PAI, and vegetation anomaly index (AVI were also compared for drought analysis. Our observations showed that the GRACE-TWS was more suitable for detecting prolonged and severe droughts in the HRB because it can represent loss of deep soil water and ground water. The multiyear droughts, of which the HRB has sustained for more than 5 years, began in mid-2007. Extreme drought events were detected in four periods at the end of 2007, the end of 2009, the end of 2010, and in the middle of 2012. Spatial analysis of drought risk from the end of 2011 to the beginning of 2012 showed that human activities played an important role in the extent of drought hazards in the HRB.

  3. Drought analysis and short-term forecast in the Aison River Basin (Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kavalieratou

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A combined regional drought analysis and forecast is elaborated and applied to the Aison River Basin (Greece. The historical frequency, duration and severity were estimated using the standardized precipitation index (SPI computed on variable time scales, while short-term drought forecast was investigated by means of 3-D loglinear models. A quasi-association model with homogenous diagonal effect was proposed to fit the observed frequencies of class transitions of the SPI values computed on the 12-month time scale. Then, an adapted submodel was selected for each data set through the backward elimination method. The analysis and forecast of the drought class transition probabilities were based on the odds of the expected frequencies, estimated by these submodels, and the respective confidence intervals of these odds. The parsimonious forecast models fitted adequately the observed data. Results gave a comprehensive insight on drought behavior, highlighting a dominant drought period (1988–1991 with extreme drought events and revealing, in most cases, smooth drought class transitions. The proposed approach can be an efficient tool in regional water resources management and short-term drought warning, especially in irrigated districts.

  4. Territorial analysis of the micro-basin and bay of the Cacaluta River, Santa María Huatulco, Oaxaca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica Rosalía Gómez Rojo

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This work is an integrated analysis if the following: the physical and bio-geographic elements, the chronological history of the population’s place, types of land ownership, its uses that are parts of the micro-basin and bay of the Cacaluta River, Santa Maria Huatulco, Oaxaca. The 55% of the study zone, falls within the boundaries of the Huatulco National Park and the remaining along the river basin adjacent to the park. This entire region harbors high biodiversity and is made up of scenic landscapes, where different interests come into play which dispute the use of the natural resources and the appropriation of lands. Among the analysis techniques employed analysis in this investigation are map-like diagrams known as choremes, which demonstrates the relationship of the above mentioned aspects of the study.

  5. Final report on the sampling and analysis of sediment cores from the L-Area oil and chemical basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-08-01

    Nine vibracores were collected in the L-Area oil and chemical basin (904-83G) during late March and early April 1985. These cores were collected for analysis of the sludge on the basin floor and the underlying sediment. Several different field and laboratory analyses were performed on each three inch segment of all the cores. These included: (1) Sediment characterization; (2) Percent moisture; (3) Dry weight; (4) Spectral gamma analysis; (5) Gross alpha and beta analysis. Detailed chemical analysis were measured on selected intervals of 2 cores (LBC-5 and 6) for complete chemical characterization of the sediments. This sampling program was conducted to provide information so that a closure plan for the basin could be developed. This report describes the methods employed during the project and provide a hard copy of the analytical results from the sample analyses. Included in the appendices are copies of all field and laboratory notes taken during the project and copies of the gas chromatograms for the petroleum hydrocarbon analysis. All chemical results were also submitted on a 5-inch floppy disk.

  6. Analysis of Post-Fire Vegetation Recovery in the Mediterranean Basin using MODIS Derived Vegetation Indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawtree, Daniel; San Miguel, Jesus; Sedano, Fernando; Kempeneers, Pieter

    2010-05-01

    The Mediterranean basin region is highly susceptible to wildfire, with approximately 60,000 individual fires and half a million ha of natural vegetation burnt per year. Of particular concern in this region is the impact of repeated wildfires on the ability of natural lands to return to a pre-fire state, and of the possibility of desertification of semi-arid areas. Given these concerns, understanding the temporal patterns of vegetation recovery is important for the management of environmental resources in the region. A valuable tool for evaluating these recovery patterns are vegetation indices derived from remote sensing data. Previous research on post-fire vegetation recovery conducted in this region has found significant variability in recovery times across different study sites. It is unclear what the primary variables are affecting the differences in the rates of recovery, and if any geographic patterns of behavior exist across the Mediterranean basin. This research has primarily been conducted using indices derived from Landsat imagery. However, no extensive analysis of vegetation regeneration for large regions has been published, and assessment of vegetation recovery on the basis of medium-spatial resolution imagery such as that of MODIS has not yet been analyzed. This study examines the temporal pattern of vegetation recovery in a number of fire sites in the Mediterranean basin, using data derived from MODIS 16 -day composite vegetation indices. The intent is to develop a more complete picture of the temporal sequence of vegetation recovery, and to evaluate what additional factors impact variations in the recovery sequence. In addition, this study evaluates the utility of using MODIS derived vegetation indices for regeneration studies, and compares the findings to earlier studies which rely on Landsat data. Wildfires occurring between the years 2000 and 2004 were considered as potential study sites for this research. Using the EFFIS dataset, all wildfires

  7. Hydrological inferences through morphometric analysis of lower Kosi river basin of India for water resource management based on remote sensing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Praveen Kumar; Chandel, Rajeev Singh; Mishra, Varun Narayan; Singh, Prafull

    2018-03-01

    Satellite based remote sensing technology has proven to be an effectual tool in analysis of drainage networks, study of surface morphological features and their correlation with groundwater management prospect at basin level. The present study highlights the effectiveness and advantage of remote sensing and GIS-based analysis for quantitative and qualitative assessment of flood plain region of lower Kosi river basin based on morphometric analysis. In this study, ASTER DEM is used to extract the vital hydrological parameters of lower Kosi river basin in ARC GIS software. Morphometric parameters, e.g., stream order, stream length, bifurcation ratio, drainage density, drainage frequency, drainage texture, form factor, circularity ratio, elongation ratio, etc., have been calculated for the Kosi basin and their hydrological inferences were discussed. Most of the morphometric parameters such as bifurcation ratio, drainage density, drainage frequency, drainage texture concluded that basin has good prospect for water management program for various purposes and also generated data base that can provide scientific information for site selection of water-harvesting structures and flood management activities in the basin. Land use land cover (LULC) of the basin were also prepared from Landsat data of 2005, 2010 and 2015 to assess the change in dynamic of the basin and these layers are very noteworthy for further watershed prioritization.

  8. EL EMPLEO PRECARIO DE JÓVENES ASALARIADOS EN MÉXICO. EL CASO DE TOLUCA, TIJUANA Y MÉRIDA (2005-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YULIANA GABRIELA ROMÁN SÁNCHEZ

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available La globalización y la reestructuración productiva han configurado una nueva dinámica en los mercados de trabajo a nivel mundial. Este nuevo contexto laboral está caracterizado por la precari- zación de las condiciones laborales, fenómeno que no es exclusivo de algún sector de la población pero que los afecta de manera diferenciada, siendo los jóvenes uno de los grupos más vulnerables. El objetivo de este artículo es analizar las condiciones laborales de la población joven asalariada de tres ciudades mexicanas: Toluca, Tijuana y Mérida. Para ello, se estimó para estas tres ciudades un índice de precariedad laboral para el primer trimestre de 2005 y 2010. Los resultados muestran que la ciudad de Toluca registra una mayor proporción de jóvenes en empleos precarios, contra la ciudad de Tijuana donde se registran mejores condiciones laborales.

  9. El patrimonio gastronómico del municipio de Toluca: el caso del pulque y las pulquerías (1841-1920

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Rojas Rivas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Se hace un esbozo de algunos elementos históricos del pulque y las pulquerías del municipio de Toluca en el periodo de 1841-1920, particularmente sobre la producción, comercialización y consumo. El método utilizado fue la microhistoria con información obtenida del Archivo Histórico del Municipio de Toluca y fuentes bibliohemerográficas. Los resultados muestran una producción significativa del pulque, la existencia de un gran número de establecimientos que lo expendían, la importancia del rol de la mujer en la comercialización y cómo el ferrocarril contribuyó a la distribución de la bebida. Se concluye que este patrimonio gastronómico fue importante para el municipio y que el consumo de la bebida era generalizado entre toda la población.

  10. Tectono-sedimentary analysis using the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility: a study of the terrestrial and freshwater Neogene of the Orava Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łoziński, Maciej; Ziółkowski, Piotr; Wysocka, Anna

    2017-10-01

    The Orava Basin is an intramontane depression filled with presumably fine-grained sediments deposited in river, floodplain, swamp and lake settings. The basin infilling constitutes a crucial record of the neoalpine evolution of the Inner/Outer Carpathian boundary area since the Neogene, when the Jurassic-Paleogene basement became consolidated, uplifted and eroded. The combination of sedimentological and structural studies with anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) measurements provided an effective tool for recognition of terrestrial environments and deformations of the basin infilling. The lithofacies-oriented sampling and statistical approach to the large dataset of AMS specimens were utilized to define 12 AMS facies based on anisotropy degree (P) and shape (T). The AMS facies allowed a distinction of sedimentary facies ambiguous for classical methods, especially floodplain and lacustrine sediments, as well as revealing their various vulnerabilities to tectonic modification of AMS. A spatial analysis of facies showed that tuffites along with lacustrine and swamp deposits were generally restricted to marginal and southern parts of the basin. Significant deformations were noticed at basin margins and within two intrabasinal tectonic zones, which indicated the tectonic activity of the Pieniny Klippen Belt after the Middle Miocene. The large southern area of the basin recorded consistent N-NE trending compression during basin inversion. This regional tectonic rearrangement resulted in a partial removal of the southernmost basin deposits and shaped the basin's present-day extent.

  11. Technical analysis of a river basin-based model of advanced power plant cooling technologies for mitigating water management challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stillwell, Ashlynn S; Clayton, Mary E; Webber, Michael E

    2011-01-01

    Thermoelectric power plants require large volumes of water for cooling, which can introduce drought vulnerability and compete with other water needs. Alternative cooling technologies, such as cooling towers and hybrid wet-dry or dry cooling, present opportunities to reduce water diversions. This case study uses a custom, geographically resolved river basin-based model for eleven river basins in the state of Texas (the Brazos and San Jacinto-Brazos, Colorado and Colorado-Brazos, Cypress, Neches, Nueces, Red, Sabine, San Jacinto, and Trinity River basins), focusing on the Brazos River basin, to analyze water availability during drought. We utilized two existing water availability models for our analysis: (1) the full execution of water rights-a scenario where each water rights holder diverts the full permitted volume with zero return flow, and (2) current conditions-a scenario reflecting actual diversions with associated return flows. Our model results show that switching the cooling technologies at power plants in the eleven analyzed river basins to less water-intensive alternative designs can potentially reduce annual water diversions by 247-703 million m 3 -enough water for 1.3-3.6 million people annually. We consider these results in a geographic context using geographic information system tools and then analyze volume reliability, which is a policymaker's metric that indicates the percentage of total demand actually supplied over a given period. This geographic and volume reliability analysis serves as a measure of drought susceptibility in response to changes in thermoelectric cooling technologies. While these water diversion savings do not alleviate all reliability concerns, the additional streamflow from the use of dry cooling alleviates drought concerns for some municipal water rights holders and might also be sufficient to uphold instream flow requirements for important bays and estuaries on the Texas Gulf coast.

  12. Utilization of Neutron Activation Analysis for geochemical study of major and trace elements in Bouregreg river basin (Morocco)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bounouira, H.; Bounakhla, M.; Embarch, K.; Choukri, A.; Cherkaoui, R.; Gaudry, A.; Treuil, M.; Chakiri, S.

    2010-01-01

    The Bouregreg river basin is located in the moroccan central massif which consists mainly of palaeozoic formations that were subject to the Hercynian orogeny. This study documents the backround geochemistry and hydrochemistry of the Bouregreg river basin, focusing on the distribution of major and trace elements, Rock samples were collected at 9 locations along the bouregreg river and its tributaries in the winter of 2005. Major (Al, fe, Mn, Na, K and Ti) and trace (Rb, Cs, Sr, Sc, Ba, Cr, V, Co, Ni, Zn, As, Sb, La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Tb, Dy, Yb, Lu, Hf, Ta, Mo, Th and U) elements were anlysed using instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). Data show that most of the geochemistry and hydrochemistry are related to regional and local geology. the geochemical heritage of geological environment in the Bouregreg river basin is very important, that results from the more compatible behaviour and the inertia of some elements during the weathering (3d transition elements (Co, Ni, Cr,...), interne transition elements f (lanthanides, Zr, Hf, Nb, Ta,...)). The geochemical homogeneity of the basin shows also heritage during the crustal accretion (magmatism-metamorphism-sedimention) and the typology of this continental area is the same that the Upper Continental Crust (UCC). Some anomalously high heavy metal analyses, particulary for As and Sb, may be related to anthropogenic activities

  13. The thermal history of the Bowen Basin: a comparison of apatite fission track analysis and vitrinite reflectance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshallsea, S.J.

    1987-01-01

    Vitrinite reflectance and apatite fission-track analysis (AFTA) are two techiques widely used to assess paleotemperatures of the order of 20-120 deg.C. in sedimentary basins. Whereas vitrinite reflectance is essentially a qualitative technique that gives an integrated measure of the entire thermal history, AFTA can reveal information on the variation of paleotemperatures through time because fission-tracks in apatite are continually produced throughout geological time. An apatite fission track study of the Upper Permian units of the Bowen Basin has offered the opportunity to compare the two paleotemperature indicators and place constraints on the timing of maximum paleotemperatures. The regional pattern of apatite fission-track ages closely coincides with the vitrinite reflectance indicating that maximum paleotemperatures have varied across the Basin with the central region of the Bowen Basin experiencing highest paleotemperatures. The reduction in apatite reflectance fission-track age with increasing reflectance represents the progressive annealing at temperatures around 60-120 deg. C. of those fission-tracks formed prior to the time of maximum temperatures. In those samples giving the youngest apatite fission-track ages all tacks were totally annealed at this time, and the fission-track age in these samples, in the range 90-120 Myr, indicate the time of cooling from the thermal maximum in the Early Cretaceous. 1 ref

  14. Sensitivity Analysis of the Surface Runoff Coefficient of HiPIMS in Simulating Flood Processes in a Large Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yueling Wang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available To simulate flood processes at the basin level, the GPU-based High-Performance Integrated Hydrodynamic Modelling System (HiPIMS is gaining interest as computational capability increases. However, the difficulty of coping with rainfall input to HiPIMS reduces the possibility of acquiring a satisfactory simulation accuracy. The objective of this study is to test the sensitivity of the surface runoff coefficient in the HiPIMS source term in the Misai basin with an area of 797 km2 in south China. To achieve this, the basin was divided into 909,824 grid cells, to each of which a Manning coefficient was assigned based on its land use type interpreted from remote sensing data. A sensitivity analysis was conducted for three typical flood processes under four types of surface runoff coefficients, assumed a priori, upon three error functions. The results demonstrate the crucial role of the surface runoff coefficient in achieving better simulation accuracy and reveal that this coefficient varies with flood scale and is unevenly distributed over the basin.

  15. Multitemporal analysis of the change of earth covering; high basin Guatiquia River - Low Sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prieto Gonzalez, Jose Luis

    1999-01-01

    One of the basic functions inside the environmental administration has been the record of the variables of the natural environment. The earth covering corresponds to one of the elements that to the registered being and analyzed, shows with more fidelity the evolution of the environment. At the present time, and from their creation in 1992, the project Guatiquia River - PRG that covers 90.000 approximately has. Located between the Cundinamarca and Meta Departments, it has looked for to obtain the necessary technical elements to achieve a sustainable handling in the area, for it, it intended to be ahead a study that allows to quantify and to analyze the changes of the earth covering, reason for which, it was ahead the present study: multitemporal analysis of the change of earth covering high basin of the Guatiquia River low sector, for a total surface of 13997.64 hectares (corresponding to 15.8% of the area of action of the Project Guatiquia River), and having as basic tools the remote perception and the geographical information systems, it was carried out the prosecution of the information of earth covering in the study area for the years 1993 and 1997 starting from which, were determined and analyzed the changes of earth covering, they were presented in cartographic documents to scale 1:25.000, corresponding to a detailed study

  16. Streamflow profile classification using functional data analysis: A case study on the Kelantan River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamaludin, Suhaila

    2017-05-01

    Extreme rainfall events such as floods and prolonged dry spells have become common phenomena in tropical countries like Malaysia. Floods are regular natural disasters in Malaysia, and happen nearly every year during the monsoon season. Recently, the magnitude of streamflow seems to have altered frequently, both spatially and temporally. Therefore, in order to have effective planning and an efficient water management system, it is advisable that streamflow data are analysed continuously over a period of time. If the data are treated as a set of functions rather than as a set of discrete values, then this ensures that they are not restricted by physical time. In addition, the derivatives of the functions may themselves be treated as functional data, which provides new information. The objective of this study is to develop a functional framework for hydrological applications using streamflow as the functional data. The daily flow series from the Kelantan River Basin were used as the main input in this study. Seven streamflow stations were employed in the analysis. Classification between the stations was done using the functional principal component, which was based on the results of the factor scores. The results indicated that two stations, namely the Kelantan River (Guillemard Bridge) and the Galas River, have a different flow pattern from the other streamflow stations. The flow curves of these two rivers are considered as the extreme curves because of their different magnitude and shape.

  17. Analysis of climate and anthropogenic impacts on runoff in the Lower Pra River Basin of Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awotwi, Alfred; Anornu, Geophrey Kwame; Quaye-Ballard, Jonathan; Annor, Thompson; Forkuo, Eric Kwabena

    2017-12-01

    The Lower Pra River Basin (LPRB), located in the forest zone of southern Ghana has experienced changes due to variability in precipitation and diverse anthropogenic activities. Therefore, to maintain the functions of the ecosystem for water resources management, planning and sustainable development, it is important to differentiate the impacts of precipitation variability and anthropogenic activities on stream flow changes. We investigated the variability in runoff and quantified the contributions of precipitation and anthropogenic activities on runoff at the LPRB. Analysis of the precipitation-runoff for the period 1970-2010 revealed breakpoints in 1986, 2000, 2004 and 2010 in the LPRB. The periods influenced by anthropogenic activities were categorized into three periods 1987-2000, 2001-2004 and 2005-2010, revealing a decrease in runoff during 1987-2000 and an increase in runoff during 2001-2004 and 2005-2010. Assessment of monthly, seasonal and annual runoff depicted a significant increasing trend in the runoff time series during the dry season. Generally, runoff increased at a rate of 9.98 × 10 7 m 3 yr -1 , with precipitation variability and human activities contributing 17.4% and 82.3% respectively. The dominant small scale alluvial gold mining activity significantly contributes to the net runoff variability in LPRB.

  18. Regional Frequency Analysis of Extreme Dry Spells during Rainy Season in the Wei River Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunxian She

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Our research analyzes the regional changes of extreme dry spell, represented by the annual maximum dry spell length (noted as AMDSL during the rainy season in the Wei River Basin (WRB of China for 1960–2014 using the L-moments method. The mean AMDSL values increase from the west to the east of the WRB, suggesting a high dry risk in the east compared to the west in the WRB. To investigate the regional frequency more reasonably, the WRB is clustered into four homogenous subregions via the K-means method and some subjective adjustments. The goodness-of-fit test shows that the GEV, PE3, and GLO distribution can be accepted as the “best-fit” model for subregions 1 and 4, subregion 2, and subregion 3, respectively. The quantiles of AMDSL under various return levels figure out a similar spatial distribution with mean AMDSL. We also find that the dry risk in subregion 2 and subregion 4 might be higher than that in subregion 1. The relationship between ENSO events and extreme dry spell events in the rainy season with cross wavelet analysis method proves that ENSO events play a critical role in triggering extreme dry events during rainy season in the WRB.

  19. Thermal analysis of large diameter container (LDC) with alternate loadings of KE Basin sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MILDON, D.T.

    2003-01-01

    A thermal analysis was performed to determine temperature distribution and hydrogen generation for a Large Diameter Container (LDC) having a two layer load configuration made up of a lower layer, consisting of sludge from the weasel pit, and an upper layer, consisting of the KE Basin canister sludge. For each alternate loading, the response of the LDC during shipping and storage in a T Plant cell was determined. Results for various alternate loadings were compared to the base case previously reported in SNF--9955 [Crea, 2002], 4 identical batches each with 60% floor, 40% canister sludge. Results for various cases are summarized in Table 5 and transient histories for each case are contained in figures as noted in the table. The thermal response and hydrogen generation rate of the base case bounds all alternate loadings except the third alternate loading, where 0.8 m 3 of canister sludge is loaded on the top of 1.2 m 3 of weasel pit sludge. For this case, the peak sludge temperature exceeded 100 C during shipping after 6.8 days (Note: sludge boiling does not occur in any case because the LDC pressurizes during transport and interstitial water is never saturated)

  20. Spatial analysis of precipitation time series over the Upper Indus Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latif, Yasir; Yaoming, Ma; Yaseen, Muhammad

    2018-01-01

    The upper Indus basin (UIB) holds one of the most substantial river systems in the world, contributing roughly half of the available surface water in Pakistan. This water provides necessary support for agriculture, domestic consumption, and hydropower generation; all critical for a stable economy in Pakistan. This study has identified trends, analyzed variability, and assessed changes in both annual and seasonal precipitation during four time series, identified herein as: (first) 1961-2013, (second) 1971-2013, (third) 1981-2013, and (fourth) 1991-2013, over the UIB. This study investigated spatial characteristics of the precipitation time series over 15 weather stations and provides strong evidence of annual precipitation by determining significant trends at 6 stations (Astore, Chilas, Dir, Drosh, Gupis, and Kakul) out of the 15 studied stations, revealing a significant negative trend during the fourth time series. Our study also showed significantly increased precipitation at Bunji, Chitral, and Skardu, whereas such trends at the rest of the stations appear insignificant. Moreover, our study found that seasonal precipitation decreased at some locations (at a high level of significance), as well as periods of scarce precipitation during all four seasons. The observed decreases in precipitation appear stronger and more significant in autumn; having 10 stations exhibiting decreasing precipitation during the fourth time series, with respect to time and space. Furthermore, the observed decreases in precipitation appear robust and more significant for regions at high elevation (>1300 m). This analysis concludes that decreasing precipitation dominated the UIB, both temporally and spatially including in the higher areas.

  1. Sampling and analysis plan for the 107-N Basin recirculation building liquid/sediment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, W.S.

    1997-02-01

    This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) defines the strategy and the field and laboratory methods that will be used to characterize the liquids and sediment within the following four 100-N buildings/areas: 1310-N valve pit area inside the Radioactive Chemical Waste Treatment Pump House (silo); 1314-N Waste Pump (Overflow) Tank at the Liquid Waste Disposal Station; 105-N Lift Station pump well and valve pit areas inside the 105-N Reactor Building; and 107-N Basin Recirculation Building. This characterization activity is being performed in support of the work scope identified in the N Reactor Deactivation Program Plan and the sampling strategy in the DQO. The characterization data will be used for comparison to decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) endpoint acceptance criteria in preparation for turnover of the above-listed facilities to the D and D project. The data will also be used for waste acceptance criteria evaluation in the selection of the appropriate disposition option for liquid and sediment currently contained in the facilities

  2. Rescaled range analysis of streamflow records in the São Francisco River Basin, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, Marcelo Vitor Oliveira; Celeste, Alcigeimes B.

    2018-01-01

    Hydrological time series are sometimes found to have a distinctive behavior known as long-term persistence, in which subsequent values depend on each other even under very large time scales. This implies multiyear consecutive droughts or floods. Typical models used to generate synthetic hydrological scenarios, widely used in the planning and management of water resources, fail to preserve this kind of persistence in the generated data and therefore may have a major impact on projects whose design lives span for long periods of time. This study deals with the evaluation of long-term persistence in streamflow records by means of the rescaled range analysis proposed by British engineer Harold E. Hurst, who first observed the phenomenon in the mid-twentieth century. In this paper, Hurst's procedure is enhanced by a strategy based on statistical hypothesis testing. The case study comprises the six main hydroelectric power plants located in the São Francisco River Basin, part of the Brazilian National Grid. Historical time series of inflows to the major reservoirs of the system are investigated and 5/6 sites show significant persistence, with values for the so-called Hurst exponent near or greater than 0.7, i.e., around 40% above the value 0.5 that represents a white noise process, suggesting that decision makers should take long-term persistence into consideration when conducting water resources planning and management studies in the region.

  3. Finite Element Analysis Of Structural And Magmatic Interactions At Mono Basin (California)

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Marra, D.; Manconi, A.; Battaglia, M.

    2010-12-01

    Mono Basin is a northward trending graben situated east of the Sierra Nevada and west of Cowtrack Mountains, extending from the northern edge of Long Valley Caldera towards the Bodie Hills. From a hydrographic perspective, the Mono Basin is defined by all streams that drain into Mono Lake. The Mono-Inyo Craters forms a prominent 25-km-long volcanic complex from the NW corner of Long Valley caldera to the southern edge of Mono Lake. The late Quaternary Hartley Springs fault occurs along the Sierran range front between June Lake and the northern border of Long Valley Caldera. Recently it has been proposed that the manifestation of the volcanic and of the tectonic activity in this area is likely interrelated. According to Bursik et al (2003), stratigraphic data suggest that during the North Mono-Inyo eruption sequence of ~1350 A.D., a series of strong earthquakes occurred across the end of the North Mono explosive phase and the beginning of the Inyo explosive phase. Moreover, geological and geomorphic features of the Hartley Springs fault are consistent with rupture of the fault during the eruption sequence. We use the Finite Element Method (FEM) to simulate a three-dimensional model and investigate the feedback mechanism between dike intrusion and slip along the Hartley Springs fault. We first validate our numerical model against the Okada (1985) analytical solution for a homogeneous and elastic flat half-space. Subsequently, we evaluate the distribution of local stress changes to study the influence of the Inyo Dike intrusion in ~1350 A.D. on Hartley Springs fault, and how the fault slip may encourage the propagation of dikes towards the surface. To this end, we considered the standard Coulomb stress change as failure criterion. Finally, we analyze the effects of the topography and of vertical and lateral heterogeneities of the crust on the distribution of local and regional stress changes. In this presentation, we highlight the preliminary results of our analysis

  4. Chemicals of emerging concern in the Great Lakes Basin: an analysis of environmental exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klecka, Gary; Persoon, Carolyn; Currie, Rebecca

    2010-01-01

    This review and statistical analysis was conducted to better understand the nature and significance of environmental exposures in the Great Lakes Basin and watershed to a variety of environmental contaminants. These contaminants of interest included current-use pesticides, pharmaceuticals, organic wastewater contaminants, alkylphenol ethoxylates, perfluorinated surfactants, flame retardants, and chlorinated paraffins. The available literature was critically reviewed and used to develop a database containing 19,611 residue values for 326 substances. In many papers, sampling locations were characterized as being downstream from municipal wastewater discharges, receiving waters for industrial facilities, areas susceptible to agricultural or urban contamination, or harbors and ports. To develop an initial assessment of their potential ecological significance, the contamination levels found were compared with currently available regulatory standards, guidelines, or criteria. This review was prepared for the IJC multi-board work group, and served as background material for an expert consultation, held in March, 2009, in which the significance of the contaminants found was discussed. Moreover, the consultation attempted to identify and assess opportunities for strengthening future actions that will protect the Great Lakes. Based on the findings and conclusions of the expert consultation, it is apparent that a wide variety of chemicals of emerging concern have been detected in environmental media (air, water, sediment, biota) from the Great Lakes Basin, although many are present at only trace levels. Although the presence of these contaminants raises concerns in the public and among the scientific community, the findings must be placed in context. Significant scientific interpretation is required to understand the extent to which these chemicals may pose a threat to the ecosystem and to human health. The ability to detect chemicals in environmental media greatly surpasses

  5. River network and watershed morphology analysis with potential implications towards basin classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugaets, Andrey; Gartsman, Boris; Bugaets, Nadezhda

    2013-04-01

    Generally, the investigation of river network composition and watersheds morphology (fluvial geomorphology), constituting one of the key patterns of land surface, is a fundamental question of Earth Sciences. Recent ideas in this research field are the equilibrium and optimal, in the sense of minimum energy expenditure, river network evolution under constant or slowly varying conditions (Rodriguez-Iturbe, Rinaldo, 1997). It follows to such network behavior as self-similarity, self-affinity and self-organization. That is to say, under relatively stable conditions the river systems tend to some "good composed" form and vice-versa. Lately appearing global free available detailed DEM covers involve new possibilities in this research field. We develop new methodology and program package for river network structure and watershed morphology detailed analysis on the base of ArcMap tools. Different characteristics of river network (e.g. ordering, coefficients of Horton's laws, Shannon entropy, fractal dimension) and basin morphology (e.g. diagrams of average elevation, slope, width and energy index against distance to outlet along streams) could be calculated to find a good indicators of intensity and non-equilibrium of watershed evolution. Watersheds are non-conservative systems in which energy is dissipated by transporting water and sediment in geomorphic adjustment of the slopes and channels. The problem of estimating the amount of energy expenditure associated with overcoming surface and system resistance is extremely complicated to solve. A simplification on a river network scale is to consider energy expenditure to be primarily associated with friction of the fluid. We propose a new technique to analyze the catchment landforms based on so-called "energy function" that is a distribution of total energy index against distance from outlet. As potential energy of water on the hillslopes is transformed into kinetic energy of the flowing fluid-sediment mixture in the runoff

  6. Sampling and analysis plan for the consolidated sludge samples from the canisters and floor of the 105-K East basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BAKER, R.B.

    1999-01-01

    This Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) provides direction for sampling of fuel canister and floor Sludge from the K East Basin to complete the inventory of samples needed for Sludge treatment process testing. Sample volumes and sources consider recent reviews made by the Sludge treatment subproject. The representative samples will be characterized to the extent needed for the material to be used effectively for testing. Sampling equipment used allows drawing of large volume sludge samples and consolidation of sample material from a number of basin locations into one container. Once filled, the containers will be placed in a cask and transported to Hanford laboratories for recovery and evaluation. Included in the present SAP are the logic for sample location selection, laboratory analysis procedures required, and reporting needed to meet the Data Quality Objectives (DQOs) for this initiative

  7. Bryophytes use like atmospheric indicators of heavy metals in the metropolitan area of the Toluca Valley; Uso de briofitas como indicadores atmosfericos de metales pesados en la zona metropolitana del Valle de Toluca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poblano B, J.

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the concentration of Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn and Pb in species of frequent and abundant bryophytes in the Metropolitan Area of the Toluca Valley (MATV). The concentration of the studied metals was determined in two different seasons (cold-dry and warm-humid) in 11 sites of the MATV, 7 of them classified as urban areas, 2 as transition areas and 2 as protected natural areas. Only epiphyte organisms found to a superior height of 100 cm of the floor were considered and the species determination was realized in the Sciences Faculty of the Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, while the processing of the samples was carried out in the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ). The samples processing consisted on separating the bryophytes of the bark of the trees, later on each one of the samples was washed, milled and homogenized, at the end they were subjected to a digestion process accelerated by microwaves. The concentration of Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn and Pb in the bryophytes was determined applying the X-rays Fluorescence technique, using a spectrometer Tx-2000 Ital-Structures, with a detector type Si (Li), a tube of Mo (40 kV, 30 m A) with 17,4 keV like excitement energy. Each sample was analyzed six times with a counting time of 500 seconds. Additionally enrichment factors were obtained using reference soils considered as not impacted by anthropogenic activities. With the obtained results space and temporary differences were established through descriptive statistic, also the enrichment factor to infer the possible origin of the metals was calculated, as well as the sites that could represent a risk for the health. The species more frequent and abundant were F. ciliaris and L. angustata, presenting the following tendency in their metals concentration Fe>Ti>Mn>Zn>Pb>V ≅ Cu>Cr, being observed that the temporality is a factor that influences in the metals concentration and that in general F. ciliaris

  8. High-resolution sedimentological and subsidence analysis of the Late Neogene, Pannonian Basin, Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhasz, E.; Muller, P.; Toth-Makk, A.; Hamor, T.; Farkas-Bulla, J.; Suto-Szentai, M.; Phillips, R.L.; Ricketts, B.

    1996-01-01

    Detailed sedimentological and paleontological analyses were carried out on more than 13,000 m of core from ten boreholes in the Late Neogene sediments of the Pannonian Basin, Hungary. These data provide the basis for determining the character of high-order depositional cycles and their stacking patterns. In the Late Neogene sediments of the Pannonian Basin there are two third-order sequences: the Late Miocene and the Pliocene ones. The Miocene sequence shows a regressive, upward-coarsening trend. There are four distinguishable sedimentary units in this sequence: the basal transgressive, the lower aggradational, the progradational and the upper aggradational units. The Pliocene sequence is also of aggradational character. The progradation does not coincide in time in the wells within the basin. The character of the relative water-level curves is similar throughout the basin but shows only very faint similarity to the sea-level curve. Therefore, it is unlikely that eustasy played any significant role in the pattern of basin filling. Rather, the dominant controls were the rapidly changing basin subsidence and high sedimentation rates, together with possible climatic factors.

  9. Engineering evaluation/cost analysis for disposal of structural concrete and soil from the 183-H Solar Evaporation Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badden, J.W.; Miller, L.R.

    1996-08-01

    This engineering evaluation/cost analysis is intended to aid the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office in selecting a preferred response action alternative for removing contaminated structural concrete and soils stockpiled next to the 183-H evaporation basin, which was conducted under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976. This EE/CA evaluates possible alternative response actions and documents the decision making process

  10. How downstream sub-basins depend on upstream inflows to avoid scarcity: typology and global analysis of transboundary rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munia, Hafsa Ahmed; Guillaume, Joseph H. A.; Mirumachi, Naho; Wada, Yoshihide; Kummu, Matti

    2018-05-01

    Countries sharing river basins are often dependent upon water originating outside their boundaries; meaning that without that upstream water, water scarcity may occur with flow-on implications for water use and management. We develop a formalisation of this concept drawing on ideas about the transition between regimes from resilience literature, using water stress and water shortage as indicators of water scarcity. In our analytical framework, dependency occurs if water from upstream is needed to avoid scarcity. This can be diagnosed by comparing different types of water availability on which a sub-basin relies, in particular local runoff and upstream inflows. At the same time, possible upstream water withdrawals reduce available water downstream, influencing the latter water availability. By developing a framework of scarcity and dependency, we contribute to the understanding of transitions between system regimes. We apply our analytical framework to global transboundary river basins at the scale of sub-basin areas (SBAs). Our results show that 1175 million people live under water stress (42 % of the total transboundary population). Surprisingly, the majority (1150 million) of these currently suffer from stress only due to their own excessive water use and possible water from upstream does not have impact on the stress status - i.e. they are not yet dependent on upstream water to avoid stress - but could still impact on the intensity of the stress. At the same time, 386 million people (14 %) live in SBAs that can avoid stress owing to available water from upstream and have thus upstream dependency. In the case of water shortage, 306 million people (11 %) live in SBAs dependent on upstream water to avoid possible shortage. The identification of transitions between system regimes sheds light on how SBAs may be affected in the future, potentially contributing to further refined analysis of inter- and intrabasin hydro-political power relations and strategic planning

  11. Characterization of the structure of the Salar de Atacama Basin through gravimetric profiles and interval velocity analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerra, J.; Bascunan, S. A.; Maksymowicz, A.; Martínez, F.; Arriagada, C.

    2017-12-01

    The structure of the basins found in the Preandean Depression in the northern Central Andes has remained elusive, partly due to a poor understanding of the structural styles and stratigraphy beneath their surface. An independent approach to the multiple interpretations of seismic lines available is the analysis of 2D gravity profiles. An E-W profile was performed across the basin, closely matching the surficial trace of previous seismic lines. The profile shows three gravimetric lows, the most relevant being one beneath the Llano de la Paciencia- Cordillera de la Sal, comprised of deformed evaporitic and terrigenous deposits of Oligocene-Early Miocene age. The structure which bounds this gravity low has a steeper dip on its eastern side, bounding the eastern side of the Cordillera de la Sal, which is at odds with previous studies that interpreted its western contact with Cretaceous outcrops as the possible basin boundary. The 3-D analyses of seismic interval velocity data around the gravimetric survey reveal a major vertical contrast in the eastern portion of the profile, interpreted as the bottom of the evaporite successions, followed to the west by a complex, narrow and deep zone of low velocities. Westward, the Cretaceous rocks record higher velocities than its post-Paleocene counterparts, and an almost uniform increase in velocity with depth. The major gravity anomaly is closely related to the Cordillera de la Sal, which consists of an array of folds and reverse faults involving Oligocene to recent deposits. We propose that the faults which generated Oligocene extension are not at the western border of the basin, but around the Cordillera de la Sal, which is the result of Miocene inversion of the same system. Strike-slip deformation was also probably a major contributor in basin formation, as shown by the narrow yet deep shape of the depocenter.

  12. Geomorphological and morphometric analysis of the river basin of Salsa, south coast of the state of Paraiba / Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbosa, M.E.; Nascimento, J.; Furrier, M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper aims to extend the knowledge on the geomorphology of the river basin of Salsa , located in the municipality of Conde, State of Paraíba / Brazil . The research was to develop guiding object thematic maps related to morphometric aspects of the basin such as fluvial hierarchy , hypsometric and slope . After obtaining the morphometric data can assess the likely tectonic influences on the morphology of this basin. Literature searches , acquisition and analysis of cartographic data (satellite imagery , topographic and thematic maps), where with the help of software SPRING 5:03 , were made the thematic maps of the basin : For this research, the following milestones have been met. In addition, there have been two topographic profiles of the area through which it was possible to further analyze the geomorphological aspects and clinográficos watershed. Already in possession of the first results of this research it was observed with the analysis of charts and topographic profiles the high level of dissection Barriers Training and dissection of this discrepancy between the left and right margins . Barriers in Education, was observed indicative of tectonics from setbacks headwater quite different slots and obsequente towards the River Salsa (SN), which is discordant from the direction of the main waterways and Training Barriers own inclination is that WE . These findings are important because the geomorphological analysis of litoestatigráfica unit is of paramount importance for the understanding of the mechanisms governing the morphology of the northeast coast, mainly in relation to the mechanisms that govern the morphology of watersheds coast of Paraiba

  13. Sensitive analysis of low-flow parameters using the hourly hydrological model for two mountainous basins in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimura, Kazumasa; Iseri, Yoshihiko; Kanae, Shinjiro; Murakami, Masahiro

    2014-05-01

    Accurate estimation of low flow can contribute to better water resources management and also lead to more reliable evaluation of climate change impacts on water resources. In the early study, the nonlinearity of low flow related to the storage in the basin was suggested by Horton (1937) as the exponential function of Q=KSN, where Q is the discharge, S is the storage, K is a constant and N is the exponent value. In the recent study by Ding (2011) showed the general storage-discharge equation of Q = KNSN. Since the constant K is defined as the fractional recession constant and symbolized as Au by Ando et al. (1983), in this study, we rewrite this equation as Qg=AuNSgN, where Qg is the groundwater runoff and Sg is the groundwater storage. Although this equation was applied to a short-term runoff event of less than 14 hours using the unit hydrograph method by Ding, it was not yet applied for a long-term runoff event including low flow more than 10 years. This study performed a sensitive analysis of two parameters of the constant Au and exponent value N by using the hourly hydrological model for two mountainous basins in Japan. The hourly hydrological model used in this study was presented by Fujimura et al. (2012), which comprise the Diskin-Nazimov infiltration model, groundwater recharge and groundwater runoff calculations, and a direct runoff component. The study basins are the Sameura Dam basin (SAME basin) (472 km2) located in the western Japan which has variability of rainfall, and the Shirakawa Dam basin (SIRA basin) (205km2) located in a region of heavy snowfall in the eastern Japan, that are different conditions of climate and geology. The period of available hourly data for the SAME basin is 20 years from 1 January 1991 to 31 December 2010, and for the SIRA basin is 10 years from 1 October 2003 to 30 September 2013. In the sensitive analysis, we prepared 19900 sets of the two parameters of Au and N, the Au value ranges from 0.0001 to 0.0100 in steps of 0

  14. Modeling and analysis of Soil Erosion processes by the River Basins model: The Case Study of the Krivacki Potok Watershed, Montenegro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vujacic, Dusko; Barovic, Goran; Mijanovic, Dragica; Spalevic, Velibor; Curovic, Milic; Tanaskovic, Vjekoslav; Djurovic, Nevenka

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this research was to study soil erosion processes in one of Northern Montenegrin watersheds, the Krivacki Potok Watershed of the Polimlje River Basin, using modeling techniques: the River Basins computer-graphic model, based on the analytical Erosion Potential Method (EPM) of Gavrilovic for calculation of runoff and soil loss. Our findings indicate a low potential of soil erosion risk, with 554 m³ yr-1 of annual sediment yield; an area-specific sediment yield of 180 m³km-2 yr-1. The calculation outcomes were validated for the entire 57 River Basins of Polimlje, through measurements of lake sediment deposition at the Potpec hydropower plant dam. According to our analysis, the Krivacki Potok drainage basin is with the relatively low sediment discharge; according to the erosion type, it is mixed erosion. The value of the Z coefficient was calculated on 0.297, what indicates that the river basin belongs to 4th destruction category (of five). The calculated peak discharge from the river basin was 73 m3s-1 for the incidence of 100 years and there is a possibility for large flood waves to appear in the studied river basin. Using the adequate computer-graphic and analytical modeling tools, we improved the knowledge on the soil erosion processes of the river basins of this part of Montenegro. The computer-graphic River Basins model of Spalevic, which is based on the EPM analytical method of Gavrilovic, is highly recommended for soil erosion modelling in other river basins of the Southeastern Europe. This is because of its reliable detection and appropriate classification of the areas affected by the soil loss caused by soil erosion, at the same time taking into consideration interactions between the various environmental elements such as Physical-Geographical Features, Climate, Geological, Pedological characteristics, including the analysis of Land Use, all calculated at the catchment scale.

  15. 2 Dimensional Hydrodynamic Flood Routing Analysis on Flood Forecasting Modelling for Kelantan River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azad Wan Hazdy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Flood disaster occurs quite frequently in Malaysia and has been categorized as the most threatening natural disaster compared to landslides, hurricanes, tsunami, haze and others. A study by Department of Irrigation and Drainage (DID show that 9% of land areas in Malaysia are prone to flood which may affect approximately 4.9 million of the population. 2 Dimensional floods routing modelling demonstrate is turning out to be broadly utilized for flood plain display and is an extremely viable device for evaluating flood. Flood propagations can be better understood by simulating the flow and water level by using hydrodynamic modelling. The hydrodynamic flood routing can be recognized by the spatial complexity of the schematization such as 1D model and 2D model. It was found that most of available hydrological models for flood forecasting are more focus on short duration as compared to long duration hydrological model using the Probabilistic Distribution Moisture Model (PDM. The aim of this paper is to discuss preliminary findings on development of flood forecasting model using Probabilistic Distribution Moisture Model (PDM for Kelantan river basin. Among the findings discuss in this paper includes preliminary calibrated PDM model, which performed reasonably for the Dec 2014, but underestimated the peak flows. Apart from that, this paper also discusses findings on Soil Moisture Deficit (SMD and flood plain analysis. Flood forecasting is the complex process that begins with an understanding of the geographical makeup of the catchment and knowledge of the preferential regions of heavy rainfall and flood behaviour for the area of responsibility. Therefore, to decreases the uncertainty in the model output, so it is important to increase the complexity of the model.

  16. Growth ring analysis of fossil coniferous woods from early cretaceous of Araripe Basin (Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etiene F. Pires

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Growth ring analysis on silicified coniferous woods from the Missão Velha Formation (Araripe Basin - Brazil has yielded important information about periodicity of wood production during the Early Cretaceous in the equatorial belt. Despite warm temperatures, dendrological data indicate that the climate was characterized by cyclical alternation of dry and rainy periods influenced by cyclical precipitations, typical of tropical wet and dry or savanna climate. The abundance of false growth rings can be attributed to both occasional droughts and arthropod damage. The present climate data agree with palaeoclimatic models that inferred summer-wet biomes for the Late Jurassic/Early Cretaceous boundary in the southern equatorial belt.A partir de análise de anéis de crescimento em lenhos de coníferas silicificadas provenientes da Formação Missão Velha(Bacia do Araripe - Brasil, obteve-se importantes informações a respeito da periodicidade de produção lenhosa duranteo início do Cretáceo, na região do equador. Apesar das estimativas de temperatura apresentarem-se elevadas, os dados dendrológicos indicam que o clima foi caracterizado pela alternância cíclica de períodos secos e chuvosos, influenciado por precipitações periódicas, típico das condições atuais de climatropical úmido e seco ou savana. A abundância de falsosanéis de crescimento pode ser atribuída tanto a secas ocasionais quanto a danos causados por artrópodes. Os dados paleoclimáticos aqui obtidos corroboram com modelos paleoclimáticos que inferem a ocorrência de um bioma de verões úmidos para o limite Neojurássico/Eocretáceo ao sul do equador.

  17. Sequence stratigraphic analysis and the origins of Tertiary brown coal lithotypes, Latrobe Valley, Gippsland Basin, Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holdgate, G R; Kershaw, A P; Sluiter, I R.K. [Monash University, Clayton, Vic. (Australia). Dept. of Earth Sciences

    1995-11-01

    Sequence analysis methods have been applied to the onshore Gippsland Basin and to the Latrobe Valley Group coal measures. In the east of the Latrobe Valley evidence for marine transgressions into the coal measures are recorded in most of the interseam sediment splits by the presence of contained foraminifer and dinoflagellates. To the west these splits pinch out into continuous coal. However, they can be followed westwards as enhanced organic sulphur levels along sharply defined boundaries between light coal lithotypes below and dark coal lithotypes above. The dark lithotype immediately overlying each of these boundaries contains the highest sulphur value and warmer climate pollen assemblages. Colorimeter and lithotype logging supports an upwards lightening cyclicity to coal colour at 12-20 m intervals through the approx. 100 m thick seams, with cycle boundaries defined at sharp planar to undulating surfaces. The lightening upward lithotype cycles together with their unique boundary conditions are interpreted as parasequences and parasequence boundaries respectively. Each major coal seam can comprise up to five parasequences and is interpreted to represent deposition during an outbuilding high stand systems tract at one of several maximum periods of Tertiary coastal onlap. Stratigraphic correlation of the sequence boundaries identified in the coal measures to the internationally dated marine Seaspray Group, provides a basis for chronostratigraphic correlation of the coal successions to the coastal onlap charts of Haq et al (1989). It appears that each major seam is confined to high standards of third order eustatic cycles. It follows that the lithotype cycles that comprise each seam are related to fourth order eustatic cycles. 49 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Analysis of trends in selected streamflow statistics for the Concho River Basin, Texas, 1916-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbie, Dana L.; Wehmeyer, Loren L.; May, Jayne E.

    2012-01-01

    The Concho River Basin is part of the upper Colorado River Basin in west-central Texas. Monotonic trends in streamflow statistics during various time intervals from 1916-2009 were analyzed to determine whether substantial changes in selected streamflow statistics have occurred within the Concho River Basin. Two types of U.S. Geological Survey streamflow data comprise the foundational data for this report: (1) daily mean discharge (daily discharge) and (2) annual instantaneous peak discharge. Trend directions are reported for the following streamflow statistics: (1) annual mean daily discharge, (2) annual 1-day minimum discharge, (3) annual 7-day minimum discharge, (4) annual maximum daily discharge, and (5) annual instantaneous peak discharge.

  19. Research Analysis of temporal and spatial characteristics of eco-environmental vulnerability in the Xianshui River basin based on GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Kun; Bai, Lin; Li, Xiao Ju; Wang, Xiao

    2018-05-01

    The Xianshui River basin is an important ecological barrier and water conservation area of Qinghai-Tibet plateau. To master the spatial and temporal differentiation of ecological environment is beneficial to the realization of the protection of regional ecological environment and the development of restoration measures. In this paper, the evaluation index system of ecological environment vulnerability was constructed from topography, climate, soil, land use and social economy. In this study, GIS and information entropy theory are combined to complete the analysis of spatial and temporal variation of vulnerability of ecological environment vulnerability in 2000-2015 years, and the main results are as follows: The ecological vulnerability of the watershed is characterized by the obvious vertical distribution, which is characterized by the gradual increase of the vulnerability of the south to the north. The evaluation results were classified as potential, micro, mild, moderate and severe, with the proportion of each grade being Micro > mild > potential > moderate > severity. The proportion of light and below accounts for more than 80% of the whole area, and the whole basin is at a medium vulnerable level. The change of overall trend indicates that the overall ecological environment of the basin has improved obviously in 15 years. The driving force factor analysis shows that the national environmental protection and restoration project is playing a significant role and plays a major driving role in the obvious improvement of the ecological environment in the basin area. However, there are still a few parts of the region that are deteriorating. This is mainly due to the special natural environment and over exploitation of hydropower resources.

  20. Multivariate stochastic analysis for Monthly hydrological time series at Cuyahoga River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    zhang, L.

    2011-12-01

    Copula has become a very powerful statistic and stochastic methodology in case of the multivariate analysis in Environmental and Water resources Engineering. In recent years, the popular one-parameter Archimedean copulas, e.g. Gumbel-Houggard copula, Cook-Johnson copula, Frank copula, the meta-elliptical copula, e.g. Gaussian Copula, Student-T copula, etc. have been applied in multivariate hydrological analyses, e.g. multivariate rainfall (rainfall intensity, duration and depth), flood (peak discharge, duration and volume), and drought analyses (drought length, mean and minimum SPI values, and drought mean areal extent). Copula has also been applied in the flood frequency analysis at the confluences of river systems by taking into account the dependence among upstream gauge stations rather than by using the hydrological routing technique. In most of the studies above, the annual time series have been considered as stationary signal which the time series have been assumed as independent identically distributed (i.i.d.) random variables. But in reality, hydrological time series, especially the daily and monthly hydrological time series, cannot be considered as i.i.d. random variables due to the periodicity existed in the data structure. Also, the stationary assumption is also under question due to the Climate Change and Land Use and Land Cover (LULC) change in the fast years. To this end, it is necessary to revaluate the classic approach for the study of hydrological time series by relaxing the stationary assumption by the use of nonstationary approach. Also as to the study of the dependence structure for the hydrological time series, the assumption of same type of univariate distribution also needs to be relaxed by adopting the copula theory. In this paper, the univariate monthly hydrological time series will be studied through the nonstationary time series analysis approach. The dependence structure of the multivariate monthly hydrological time series will be

  1. Gravity Data Analysis and Modelling for Basin Sedimen of Eastern Java Blocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khoirunnia, Luthfia

    2016-01-01

    The study of Eastern Java Basin was conducted by 3D modelling subsurface structure using gravity anomaly. The aims of this research are to describe and 3D modelling basin sedimentary system of Eastern Java Blocks based on gravity anomaly. The modelling construction was performed by inversion technique applying Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) method and Occam optimization. This projection method used equivalent central mass of Dampney with height 5.5 km and error data 1,84 × 10 -17 . Separation of residual anomaly from the complete Bouguer anomaly on a flat plane was done using the upward continuation. This process uses the principle of low pass filter which passes low frequency. Sedimentary basin appears at a depth of 0.2 km to 1.4 km, is shown by their low anomaly in the area, as well as the visible appearance of basin in 3D modeling shown in figure. The result of inversion with Occam h has an error of 1,2% and the SVD has an error of 11%. Sedimentary basin was dominant in Probolinggo, partially in Besuki and Lumajang. The formation occurs due to tectonic processes where the tectonic evolution of the material without significant lateral shift is called as the otokton models, and accompanied by the formation of the basin that follows the development of the subduction system, which is semi-concentric pattern. Sediments are dominated by volcanic sediment, the result of sedimentation because of volcanism events and types of volcanic sediments pyroclasts generally occur in a process or event explosive volcanic magma degassing (paper)

  2. Environmental geologic analysis of Rio de las Taguas basin Departmento Iglesia San Juan Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arroqui Langer, A.; Cardus, A.; Sindern, S.; Nozica, G.

    2007-01-01

    A mineral environmental research project results where it has been located in Rio de las Taguas basin, Departamento Iglesia, Provincia de San Juan, Argentina. It has been placed in frontal Andean mountain in San Juan. In this geographic framework has been developed Au and Ag mineral project in order the world scale. The aim of this article is has been related the mineral and geological units bet wen the basin chemistry as well as to carry out future measurements mines impacts in this area. (author)

  3. Estimating basin lagtime and hydrograph-timing indexes used to characterize stormflows for runoff-quality analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granato, Gregory E.

    2012-01-01

    equation using the BLF and BDF variables. The secondary dataset included data from 896 sites that have values for the BLF and IMPERV variables. This dataset was used to develop the best-fit regression equation using the BLF and IMPERV variables. Analysis of hydrograph recession ratios and basin characteristics for 41 sites indicated that recession ratios are random variables. Thus, recession ratios cannot be estimated quantitatively using multiple linear regression equations developed using the data available for these sites. The minimums of recession ratios for different streamgages are well characterized by a value of one. The most probable values and maximum values of recession ratios for different streamgages are, however, more variable than the minimums. The most probable values of recession ratios for the 41 streamgages analyzed ranged from 1.0 to 3.52 and had a median of 1.85. The maximum values ranged from 2.66 to 11.3 and had a median of 4.36.

  4. Syn-sedimentary tectonics and facies analysis in a rift setting: Cretaceous Dalmiapuram Formation, Cauvery Basin, SE India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nivedita Chakraborty

    2018-04-01

    transgressive systems tract motif to grow eventually passing upwards into the Karai Shale Formation, whose contact with the Dalmiapuram Formation is gradational. Keywords: Syn-sedimentary tectonics, Facies analysis, Carbonate shelf, Cretaceous, Dalmiapuram Formation, Cauvery Basin

  5. Parameter Identification and Uncertainty Analysis for Visual MODFLOW based Groundwater Flow Model in a Small River Basin, Eastern India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jena, S.

    2015-12-01

    The overexploitation of groundwater resulted in abandoning many shallow tube wells in the river Basin in Eastern India. For the sustainability of groundwater resources, basin-scale modelling of groundwater flow is essential for the efficient planning and management of the water resources. The main intent of this study is to develope a 3-D groundwater flow model of the study basin using the Visual MODFLOW package and successfully calibrate and validate it using 17 years of observed data. The sensitivity analysis was carried out to quantify the susceptibility of aquifer system to the river bank seepage, recharge from rainfall and agriculture practices, horizontal and vertical hydraulic conductivities, and specific yield. To quantify the impact of parameter uncertainties, Sequential Uncertainty Fitting Algorithm (SUFI-2) and Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) techniques were implemented. Results from the two techniques were compared and the advantages and disadvantages were analysed. Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient (NSE) and coefficient of determination (R2) were adopted as two criteria during calibration and validation of the developed model. NSE and R2 values of groundwater flow model for calibration and validation periods were in acceptable range. Also, the MCMC technique was able to provide more reasonable results than SUFI-2. The calibrated and validated model will be useful to identify the aquifer properties, analyse the groundwater flow dynamics and the change in groundwater levels in future forecasts.

  6. Local Lunar Gravity Field Analysis over the South Pole-aitken Basin from SELENE Farside Tracking Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goossens, Sander Johannes; Ishihara, Yoshiaki; Matsumoto, Koji; Sasaki, Sho

    2012-01-01

    We present a method with which we determined the local lunar gravity field model over the South Pole-Aitken (SPA) basin on the farside of the Moon by estimating adjustments to a global lunar gravity field model using SELENE tracking data. Our adjustments are expressed in localized functions concentrated over the SPA region in a spherical cap with a radius of 45deg centered at (191.1 deg E, 53.2 deg S), and the resolution is equivalent to a 150th degree and order spherical harmonics expansion. The new solution over SPA was used in several applications of geophysical analysis. It shows an increased correlation with high-resolution lunar topography in the frequency band l = 40-70, and admittance values are slightly different and more leveled when compared to other, global gravity field models using the same data. The adjustments expressed in free-air anomalies and differences in Bouguer anomalies between the local solution and the a priori global solution correlate with topographic surface features. The Moho structure beneath the SPA basin is slightly modified in our solution, most notably at the southern rim of the Apollo basin and around the Zeeman crater

  7. Spatial distribution level of land erosion disposition based on the analysis of slope on Central Lematang sub basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putranto, Dinar Dwi Anugerah; Sarino, Yuono, Agus Lestari

    2017-11-01

    Soil erosion is a natural process that is influenced by the magnitude of rainfall intensity, land cover, slope, soil type and soil processing system. However, it is often accelerated by human activities, such as improper cultivation of agricultural land, clearing of forest land for mining activities, and changes in topographic area due to use for other purposes such as pile materials, mined pits and so on. The Central Lematang sub-basin is part of the Lematang sub basin, at the Musi River Region Unit, South Sumatra Province, in Indonesia, which has a topographic shape with varying types of slope and altitude. The critical condition of Central Lematang sub basin has been at an alarming rate, as more than 47.5% of topographic and land use changes are dominated by coal mining activities and forest encroachment by communities. The method used in predicting erosion is by USPED (Unit Stream Power Erosion and Disposition). This is because the USPED [1] method can predict not only sediment transport but also the value of peeling (detachment) and sediment deposition. From slope analysis result, it is found that the highest erosion potential value is found on slope (8-15%) and the sediment is carried on a steep slope (15-25%). Meanwhile, the high sediment deposition area is found in the waters of 5.226 tons / ha / year, the steeper area of 2.12 tons / ha / year.

  8. STUDY OF GAS POTENCY BASED ON GRAVITY ANOMALY MODELING AND SEISMIC PROFILE ANALYSIS AT BANGGAI-SULA BASIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ediar Usman

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Banggai-Sula Basin is one of the basins with character of the micro-continent derived from northern part of Australia. Some traces the migration in the central part of Papua are slate, schist, and gneiss, current movement is facilitated by the Sorong Fault, which runs from the northern part of Papua to eastern part of Sulawesi. Results of gravity anomaly model (2D and 3D, seepage distribution, seismic and fields existing of oil and gas production in the western part of the Banggai-Sula Basin obtained a new prospect area in the northern part of Peleng Island, western part of Banggai Island, southern part of Banggai-Taliabu Islands, western and eastern part of Sulabesi Island. The new prospect area is reflected in the centre with form of the low morphology on gravity model and prospect trap on seismic data in the western part of Tolo Bay. Results of chemical analysis on the source rock of Buya Formation on Tmax vs Hydrogen Index (Tmax vs HI Diagram shows the type III kerogen quality and the Oxygen Index vs Hydrogen Index (OI vs HI Diagram shows the gas prone Type II, so that giving the impression that this area has the potential to containing the gas. The quality of the gas is included in the category of immature to mature type.

  9. Analysis on groundwater evolution and interlayer oxidation zone position at the southern margin of Yilin basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Guanghui

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses the development and evolution history of groundwater and its reworking to the interlayer oxidation zone, hydrogeochemical zonation of interlayer oxidation zone, mechanism of water-rock interaction and transportation pattern of uranium in the water in Yili Basin. It is suggested that groundwater is one of the important factors to control the development of interlayer oxidation zone and uranium mineralization. (authors)

  10. On analysis of hydrogeological characteristics and the origin of thermal water in Quan'an basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Shiyao; Wang Lianshe; Jiang Weibing

    2010-01-01

    Thermal water development of Quan'an Basin , in order to understand the hydrogeological characteristics and formation of geothermal water of the basin. This paper in the light of the occurrence of groundwater conditions, physical properties of water and hydraulic characteristics of the Basin, it described the characters of geology and hrydrogeology. According to the circumstances of tectonic movement activities, study on the formation of geothermal water and existing environmental in the west of basin Zhou Di and Nuan Shui Tang area, fracture formed by multi-period tectonic movements and fissures with deep hot water is the main reason for the formation of hot geothermal water. It analyzed the composition of the undergroundwater of the hydrogen, oxygen stable isotopes, escaping gas, water and chemical composition, it came to the conclusion that the relationship between atmospheric precipitation and geothermal water was intimate, the geothermal water supply from atmospheric precipitation. Futhermore, the long-term water dynamics observations results showed that the relationship between atmospheric precipitation and inflow of geothermal water was closed. (authors)

  11. A joint analysis of river runoff and meteorological forcing in the Karakoram, upper Indus Basin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reggiani, P.; Mukhopadhyay, B.; Rientjes, T.H.M.; Khan, A.

    2017-01-01

    Satellite‐geodetic altimetry investigations in the Karakoram have indicated slight mass gain or loss of the glaciers during the early part of 21st century. Equivalent discharge in the upper Indus Basin due to these mass changes has been estimated at 5 to 10% of mean annual flow. However, satellite

  12. Spatiotemporal analysis of hydro-meteorological drought in the Johor River Basin, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Mou Leong; Chua, Vivien P.; Li, Cheng; Brindha, K.

    2018-02-01

    Assessment of historical hydro-meteorological drought is important to develop a robust drought monitoring and prediction system. This study aims to assess the historical hydro-meteorological drought of the Johor River Basin (JRB) from 1975 to 2010, an important basin for the population of southern Peninsular Malaysia and Singapore. The Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) and Standardized Streamflow Index (SSI) were selected to represent the meteorological and hydrological droughts, respectively. Four absolute homogeneity tests were used to assess the rainfall data from 20 stations, and two stations were flagged by these tests. Results indicate the SPI duration to be comparatively low (3 months), and drier conditions occur over the upper JRB. The annual SSI had a strong decreasing trend at 95% significance level, showing that human activities such as reservoir construction and agriculture (oil palm) have a major influence on streamflow in the middle and lower basin. In addition, moderate response rate of SSI to SPI was found, indicating that hydrological drought could also have occurred in normal climate condition. Generally, the El Niño-Southern Oscillation and Madden Julian Oscillation have greater impacts on drought events in the basin. Findings of this study could be beneficial for future drought projection and water resources management.

  13. Temporal behavior of 222Radon, 226Radium and 238Uranium in deep water wells which provide Valle de Toluca with drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pena, P.; Tamez, E.; Iturbe, J.L.; Acosta, A.; Segovia, N.; Carrillo, J.; Armienta, M.

    1994-01-01

    The presence of radionuclides in underground waters may be an indication of its origin and also the sign of the hydraulic properties of the aquifers layers where circulate. Additionally, the ingestion by human beings of water with radioactive elements (Radon 222, Radium 226, Uranium 238) can give as a result the accumulation of such elements in several organs of the body producing then health damages. In this work, the concentrations of Radon 222, Radium 226 and Uranium 238, in waters coming from deep wells which provide with drinking water the Toluca Valley, were determined. For this purpose, during a year (june 1991 to August 1992) ten wells were sampled with a tracking of the radionuclides concentration as well as the physical-chemical components of water; it was established the relationship presented by the analyzed waters with the local geology and the local and regional systems. (Author)

  14. Variaciones climáticas en la Zona Metropolitana de la Ciudad de Toluca, Estado de México: 1960-2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Isabel Juan Pérez

    2010-01-01

    razón se realizó una investigación en la Zona Metropolitana de la Ciudad de Toluca y su hinterland para estudiar el comportamiento de la temperatura y la precipitación entre 1960 y 2007, y demostrar la existencia de variaciones que pueden contribuir al cambio climático. El sustento teórico de esta investigación fue la geografía ambiental, y el metodológico se basó en la estadística, trabajo de campo, el método comparativo y la cartografía automatizada. Con los resultados obtenidos se puede concluir que el clima en la zmct y su hinterland están en proceso de cambio y, de acuerdo con las investigaciones e informes de la nasa y el ipcc, éste seguirá cambiando globalmente.

  15. Nivel de adecuación del territorio para el desarrollo de especies agrícolas y forestales en el Parque Nacional Nevado de Toluca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HÉCTOR HUGO REGIL-GARCÍA

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El Parque Nacional Nevado de Toluca es una importante reserva de recursos naturales del Estado de México. En la recuperación de los ecosistemas forestales se planteó como objetivo determinar el grado de adecuación para el desarrollo de especies forestales nativas y cultivos en la zona. En este trabajo se presenta una metodología basada en la aplicación de sistemas de información geográfica (SIG para evaluar algunos requerimientos de las especies (climáticos, fisiográficos y edáficos y generar mapas criterios de adecuación. El análisis permitió obtener la ocupación óptima del suelo de cuatro especies forestales y dos especies agrícolas.

  16. Spatial-temporal Evolution of Vegetation Coverage and Analysis of it’s Future Trends in Wujiang River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jianyong; Bai, Xiaoyong; Zhou, Dequan; Qian, Qinghuan; Zeng, Cheng; Chen, Fei

    2018-01-01

    Vegetation coverage dynamics is affected by climatic, topography and human activities, which is an important indicator reflecting the regional ecological environment. Revealing the spatial-temporal characteristics of vegetation coverage is of great significance to the protection and management of ecological environment. Based on MODIS NDVI data and the Maximum Value Composites (MVC), we excluded soil spectrum interference to calculate Fractional Vegetation Coverage (FVC). Then the long-term FVC was used to calculate the spatial pattern and temporal variation of vegetation in Wujiang River Basin from 2000 to 2016 by using Trend analysis and Hurst index. The relationship between topography and spatial distribution of FVC was analyzed. The main conclusions are as follows: (1) The multi-annual mean vegetation coverage reveals a spatial distribution variation characteristic of low value in midstream and high level in other parts of the basin, owing a mean value of 0.6567. (2) From 2000 to 2016, the FVC of the Wujiang River Basin fluctuated between 0.6110 and 0.7380, and the overall growth rate of FVC was 0.0074/a. (3) The area of vegetation coverage tending to improve is more than that going to degrade in the future. Grass land, Arable land and Others improved significantly; karst rocky desertification comprehensive management project lead to persistent vegetation coverage improvement of Grass land, Arable land and Others. Residential land is covered with obviously degraded vegetation, resulting of urban sprawl; (4) The spatial distribution of FVC is positively correlated with TNI. Researches of spatial-temporal evolution of vegetation coverage have significant meaning for the ecological environment protection and management of the Wujiang River Basin.

  17. Analysis of projected water availability with current basin management plan, Pajaro Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, R. T.; Lockwood, B.; Schmid, Wolfgang

    2014-11-01

    The projection and analysis of the Pajaro Valley Hydrologic Model (PVHM) 34 years into the future using MODFLOW with the Farm Process (MF-FMP) facilitates assessment of potential future water availability. The projection is facilitated by the integrated hydrologic model, MF-FMP that fully couples the simulation of the use and movement of water from precipitation, streamflow, runoff, groundwater flow, and consumption by natural and agricultural vegetation throughout the hydrologic system at all times. MF-FMP allows for more complete analysis of conjunctive-use water-resource systems than previously possible with MODFLOW by combining relevant aspects of the landscape with the groundwater and surface-water components. This analysis is accomplished using distributed cell-by-cell supply-constrained and demand-driven components across the landscape within ;water-balance subregions; (WBS) comprised of one or more model cells that can represent a single farm, a group of farms, watersheds, or other hydrologic or geopolitical entities. Analysis of conjunctive use would be difficult without embedding the fully coupled supply-and-demand into a fully coupled simulation, and are difficult to estimate a priori. The analysis of projected supply and demand for the Pajaro Valley indicate that the current water supply facilities constructed to provide alternative local sources of supplemental water to replace coastal groundwater pumpage, but may not completely eliminate additional overdraft. The simulation of the coastal distribution system (CDS) replicates: 20 miles of conveyance pipeline, managed aquifer recharge and recovery (MARR) system that captures local runoff, and recycled-water treatment facility (RWF) from urban wastewater, along with the use of other blend water supplies, provide partial relief and substitution for coastal pumpage (aka in-lieu recharge). The effects of these Basin Management Plan (BMP) projects were analyzed subject to historical climate variations and

  18. Geohydrology, geochemistry, and groundwater simulation (1992-2011) and analysis of potential water-supply management options, 2010-60, of the Langford Basin, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voronin, Lois M.; Densmore, Jill N.; Martin, Peter; Brush, Charles F.; Carlson, Carl S.; Miller, David M.

    2013-01-01

    Groundwater withdrawals began in 1992 from the Langford Basin within the Fort Irwin National Training Center (NTC), California. From April 1992 to December 2010, approximately 12,300 acre-feet of water (averaging about 650 acre-feet per year) has been withdrawn from the basin and transported to the adjacent Irwin Basin. Since withdrawals began, water levels in the basin have declined by as much as 40 feet, and the quality of the groundwater withdrawn from the basin has deteriorated. The U.S. Geological Survey collected geohydrologic data from Langford Basin during 1992–2011 to determine the quantity and quality of groundwater available in the basin. Geophysical surveys, including gravity, seismic refraction, and time-domain electromagnetic induction surveys, were conducted to determine the depth and shape of the basin, to delineate depths to the Quaternary-Tertiary interface, and to map the depth to the water table and changes in water quality. Data were collected from existing wells and test holes, as well as 11 monitor wells that were installed at 5 sites as part of this study. Water-quality samples collected from wells in the basin were used to determine the groundwater chemistry within the basin and to delineate potential sources of poor-quality groundwater. Analysis of stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen in groundwater indicates that present-day precipitation is not a major source of recharge to the basin. Tritium and carbon-14 data indicate that most of the basin was recharged prior to 1952, and the groundwater in the basin has an apparent age of 12,500 to 30,000 years. Recharge to the basin, estimated to be less than 50 acre-feet per year, has not been sufficient to replenish the water that is being withdrawn from the basin. A numerical groundwater-flow model was developed for the Langford Basin to better understand the aquifer system used by the Fort Irwin NTC as part of its water supply, and to provide a tool to help manage groundwater resources at

  19. Quantitative analysis of the tectonic subsidence in the Potiguar Basin (NE Brazil)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Juliana A. G.; de Castro, David L.; Bertotti, Giovanni

    2018-06-01

    The Potiguar Basin, located in the Brazilian Equatorial Margin, evolved from a complex rifting process implemented during the Atlantic Ocean opening in the Jurassic/Cretaceous. Different driving mechanisms were responsible for the onset of an aborted onshore rift and an offshore rift that initiated crustal rupture and the formation of a continental transform margin. Therefore, we applied the backstripping method to quantify the tectonic subsidence during the rift and post-rift phases of Potiguar Basin formation and to analyze the spatial variation of subsidence during the two successive and distinct tectonic events responsible for the basin evolution. The parameters required to apply this methodology were extracted from 2D seismic lines and exploratory well data. The tectonic subsidence curves present periods with moderate subsidence rates (up to 300 m/My), which correspond to the evolution of the onshore Potiguar Rift (∼141 to 128 Ma). From 128-118 Ma, the tectonic subsidence curves show no subsidence in the onshore Potiguar Basin, whereas subsidence occurred at high rates (over 300 m/My) in the offshore rift. The post-rift phase began ca. 118 Ma (Aptian), when the tectonic subsidence drastically slowed to less than 35 m/My, probably related to thermal relaxation. The tectonic subsidence rates in the various sectors of the Potiguar Rift, during the different rift phases, indicate that more intense faulting occurred in the southern portion of the onshore rift, along the main border faults, and in the southeastern portion of the offshore rift. During the post-rift phase, the tectonic subsidence rates increased from the onshore portion towards the offshore portion until the continental slope. The highest rates of post-rift subsidence (up to 35 m/My) are concentrated in the central region of the offshore portion and may be related to lithospheric processes related to the continental crust rupture and oceanic seafloor spreading. The variation in subsidence rates and

  20. Identification of basin characteristics influencing spatial variation of river flows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mazvimavi, D.; Burgers, S.L.G.E.; Stein, A.

    2006-01-01

    The selection of basin characteristics that explain spatial variation of river flows is important for hydrological regionalization as this enables estimation of flow statistics of ungauged basins. A direct gradient analysis method, redundancy analysis, is used to identify basin characteristics,

  1. Distributed Leadership in Drainage Basin Management: A Critical Analysis of ‘River Chief Policy’ from a Distributed Leadership Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liuyi

    2018-02-01

    Water resources management has been more significant than ever since the official file stipulated ‘three red lines’ to scrupulously control water usage and water pollution, accelerating the promotion of ‘River Chief Policy’ throughout China. The policy launches creative approaches to include people from different administrative levels to participate and distributes power to increase drainage basin management efficiency. Its execution resembles features of distributed leadership theory, a vastly acknowledged western leadership theory with innovative perspective and visions to suit the modern world. This paper intends to analyse the policy from a distributed leadership perspective using Taylor’s critical policy analysis framework.

  2. Analysis of carbon stable isotope to determine the origin and migration of gaseous hydrocarbon in the Brazilian sedimentary basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takaki, T.; Rodrigues, R.

    1986-01-01

    The carbon isotopic composition of natural gases to determine the origin and gaseous hydrocarbon migration of Brazilian sedimentar basins is analysed. The carbon isotopic ratio of methane from natural gases depends on the process of gas formation and stage of organic matter maturation. In the geochemical surface exploration the biogenic gases are differentiated from thermogenic gases, because the last one is isotopically heavier. As the isotopic composition of methane has not changed during migration, the migrated gases from deeper and more mature source rocks are identified by its relative 13 C enrichment. The methane was separated from chromatography and and the isotopic analysis was done with mass spectrometer. (M.C.K.) [pt

  3. Study of uranium mineralization in rock samples from marwat range bannu basin by fission track analysis technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, A.Z.; Ullah, K.; Ullah, N.; Akram, M.

    2004-07-01

    The Geophysics Division, Atomic Energy Minerals Centre (AEMC), Lahore has planned a uranium exploration program in Marwat Range, Bannu Basin. In this connection 30 thin sections of rock samples, collected from four areas; namely, Darra Tang, Simukili, Karkanwal and Sheikhillah from Marwat Range, and one from Salt Range were provided to Nuclear Geology Group of Physics Research Division, PINSTECH for the study of nature and mechanism of uranium mineralization These studies are aimed to help in designing uranium exploration strategy by providing the loci of uranium sources in the Marwat and Salt Ranges. The samples have been studied using fission track analysis technique. (author)

  4. Evolving lithospheric flexure and paleotopography of the Pyrenean Orogen from 3D flexural modeling and basin analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, M. E.; van der Beek, P.; Huismans, R. S.; Muñoz, J. A.

    2017-12-01

    westward propagation of topographic growth and erosion is supported by subsidence analysis and low-temperature thermochronology data. These results have implications for surface processes and foreland basin development of the Pyrenean Orogen, inheritance of Hercynian crustal properties, and the geodynamic evolution of western Europe.

  5. Stratigraphic, regional unconformity analysis and potential petroleum plays of East Siberian Sea Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpov, Yury; Stoupakova, Antonina; Suslova, Anna; Agasheva, Mariia

    2017-04-01

    The East Siberian Sea basin (ESSB) one of the most unexplored part of the Russian Arctic shelf, extending for over 1000 km from New Siberian Islands archipelago to Wrangel Island. This region is considered as a region with probable high petroleum potential. Within the ESSB several phases of orogeny are recognized [1]: Elsmerian orogeny in Early Devonian, Early Brooks orogeny in Early Cretaceous, Late Brooks orogeny in Late Cretaceous. Two generations of the basins could be outlined. Both of these generations are controlled by the basement domains [1]: Paleozoic (post-Devonian) to Mesozoic basins preserved north of the Late Mesozoic frontal thrusts; Aptian-Albian to Quaternary basins, postdating the Verkhoyansk-Brookian orogeny, and evolving mainly over the New-Siberian-Chukchi Fold Belt. Basin is filled with siliclastic sediments and in the deepest depocentres sediments thickness exceeds 8-10 km in average. Seismic data was interpreted using methods of seismic stratigraphy. Finally, main seismic horizons were indicated and each horizon follows regional stratigraphic unconformities: mBU - in base of Cenozoic, BU - in base of Upper Cretaceous, LCU - in base of Cretaceous, JU - in middle of Jurassic, F - in top of Basement. In ESSB, we can identify Permian, Triassic, Jurassic, Cretaceous, Paleogene and Neogene seismic stratigraphy complexes. Perspective structures, investigated in ESSB were founded out by comparing seismogeological cross-sections with explored analogs in other onshore and offshore basins [2, 3, 4]. The majority of structures could be connected with stratigraphic and fault traps. The most perspective prospects are probably connected with grabens and depressions, where thickness of sediments exceed 10 km. Reservoirs in ESSB are proposed by regional geological explorations on New Siberian Islands Archipelago and Wrangel Island. Potential seals are predominantly assigned to Jurassic and Cretaceous periods. Thick clinoform units of various geometry and

  6. Analysis of the Source System of Nantun Group in Huhehu Depression of Hailar Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yue; Li, Junhui; Wang, Qi; Lv, Bingyang; Zhang, Guannan

    2017-10-01

    Huhehu Depression will be the new battlefield in Hailar Basin in the future, while at present it’s in a low exploration level. The study about the source system of Nantun group is little, so fine depiction of the source system would be significant to sedimentary system reconstruction, the reservoir distribution and prediction of favorable area. In this paper, it comprehensive uses of many methods such as ancient landform, light and heavy mineral combination, seismic reflection characteristics, to do detailed study about the source system of Nantun group in different views and different levels. The results show that the source system in Huhehu Depression is from the east of Xilinbeir bulge and the west of Bayan Moutain uplift, which is surrounded by basin. The slope belt is the main source, and the southern bulge is the secondary source. The distribution of source system determines the distribution of sedimentary system and the regularity of the distribution of sand body.

  7. The Texcoco Seismic Array: Analysis of the Seismic Movement in the Deep Sediments of Mexico Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Estrella, H.; Cardenas-Soto, M.; Lomnitz, C.

    2007-05-01

    The seismic movement in the Lake Zone of the Mexico Basin is characterized by long durations and late energy arrivals; many efforts have been made to find the origin of these late waves. In 1997 the Texcoco Seismic Array (TXC) was installed in the former Lake of Texcoco, in the northeastern part of Mexico Basin. It is a natural reserve formed by the same lacustrine clays of the Lake Zone in Mexico City, however we consider TXC as a virgin site as there are no buildings near, and there is almost no human activity. We analyzed 7 earthquakes recorded at TXC in two instrumental arrays, to identify late energy arrivals near the fundamental period and we also analyzed these pulses with F-K method to estimate the phase velocity and its origin.

  8. Controls on groundwater flow in the Bengal Basin of India and Bangladesh: regional modeling analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Holly A.; Voss, Clifford I.

    2009-11-01

    Groundwater for domestic and irrigation purposes is produced primarily from shallow parts of the Bengal Basin aquifer system (India and Bangladesh), which contains high concentrations of dissolved arsenic (exceeding worldwide drinking water standards), though deeper groundwater is generally low in arsenic. An essential first step for determining sustainable management of the deep groundwater resource is identification of hydrogeologic controls on flow and quantification of basin-scale groundwater flow patterns. Results from groundwater modeling, in which the Bengal Basin aquifer system is represented as a single aquifer with higher horizontal than vertical hydraulic conductivity, indicate that this anisotropy is the primary hydrogeologic control on the natural flowpath lengths. Despite extremely low hydraulic gradients due to minimal topographic relief, anisotropy implies large-scale (tens to hundreds of kilometers) flow at depth. Other hydrogeologic factors, including lateral and vertical changes in hydraulic conductivity, have minor effects on overall flow patterns. However, because natural hydraulic gradients are low, the impact of pumping on groundwater flow is overwhelming; modeling indicates that pumping has substantially changed the shallow groundwater budget and flowpaths from predevelopment conditions.

  9. Integrated analysis of hydrological system, use and management. Langueyu stream basin, Tandil, Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz de Galarreta, V.A.; Banda Noriega, R.B.; Barranquero, R.S.; Diaz, A.A.; Rodriguez, C.I.; Miguel, R.E.

    2010-01-01

    This work is aim to hydrological and environmental characterization of Langueyu stream basin, where Tandil city is located. This basin is developed on northern hillside of Tandilia system, in Buenos Aires province, and it drains to NE. There are two different hydrogeological units: crystalline rocks and Cenozoic sediments, which correspond with two hydrolithological characters, fissured and clastic porous, respectively. The population is supplied by groundwater sources. Water exploitation and use were analyzed, according to the growing demands from industrial, agricultural and urban uses. The impacts of intense exploitation were evaluated. High levels of nitrate were corroborated in older wells of the city, which nowadays are in use. The hydrodynamic change in a section of the stream, where it converts to influent, was detected. This disturbance of the natural relation could be a potential source of contamination to the aquifer, due to high charges of industrial and urban effluents which the stream receives. Several population sectors, which have neither a drinking water net nor a sewer system, showed microbiological and chemical water contamination. Other water impact is constituted by several abandoned quarries which have historically received wastes, mainly from foundry industries. In conclusion, water management basin does not aim to sustainable development, due to its lack of integration. It demands the knowledge of hydrological system, according with the goal to avoid water quality degradation and to guarantee its protection. (Author).

  10. Analysis of debris-flow recordings in an instrumented basin: confirmations and new findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Arattano

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available On 24 August 2006, a debris flow took place in the Moscardo Torrent, a basin of the Eastern Italian Alps instrumented for debris-flow monitoring. The debris flow was recorded by two seismic networks located in the lower part of the basin and on the alluvial fan, respectively. The event was also recorded by a pair of ultrasonic sensors installed on the fan, close to the lower seismic network. The comparison between the different recordings outlines particular features of the August 2006 debris flow, different from that of events recorded in previous years. A typical debris-flow wave was observed at the upper seismic network, with a main front abruptly appearing in the torrent, followed by a gradual decrease of flow height. On the contrary, on the alluvial fan the wave displayed an irregular pattern, with low flow depth and the main peak occurring in the central part of the surge both in the seismic recording and in the hydrographs. Recorded data and field evidences indicate that the surge observed on the alluvial fan was not a debris flow, and probably consisted in a water surge laden with fine to medium-sized sediment. The change in shape and characteristics of the wave can be ascribed to the attenuation of the surge caused by the torrent control works implemented in the lower basin during the last years.

  11. Controls on groundwater flow in the Bengal Basin of India and Bangladesh: Regional modeling analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, H.A.; Voss, C.I.

    2009-01-01

    Groundwater for domestic and irrigation purposes is produced primarily from shallow parts of the Bengal Basin aquifer system (India and Bangladesh), which contains high concentrations of dissolved arsenic (exceeding worldwide drinking water standards), though deeper groundwater is generally low in arsenic. An essential first step for determining sustainable management of the deep groundwater resource is identification of hydrogeologic controls on flow and quantification of basin-scale groundwater flow patterns. Results from groundwater modeling, in which the Bengal Basin aquifer system is represented as a single aquifer with higher horizontal than vertical hydraulic conductivity, indicate that this anisotropy is the primary hydrogeologic control on the natural flowpath lengths. Despite extremely low hydraulic gradients due to minimal topographic relief, anisotropy implies large-scale (tens to hundreds of kilometers) flow at depth. Other hydrogeologic factors, including lateral and vertical changes in hydraulic conductivity, have minor effects on overall flow patterns. However, because natural hydraulic gradients are low, the impact of pumping on groundwater flow is overwhelming; modeling indicates that pumping has substantially changed the shallow groundwater budget and flowpaths from predevelopment conditions. ?? Springer-Verlag 2009.

  12. Satellite-based Analysis of CO Variability over the Amazon Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deeter, M. N.; Emmons, L. K.; Martinez-Alonso, S.; Tilmes, S.; Wiedinmyer, C.

    2017-12-01

    Pyrogenic emissions from the Amazon Basin exert significant influence on both climate and air quality but are highly variable from year to year. The ability of models to simulate the impact of biomass burning emissions on downstream atmospheric concentrations depends on (1) the quality of surface flux estimates (i.e., emissions inventories), (2) model dynamics (e.g., horizontal winds, large-scale convection and mixing) and (3) the representation of atmospheric chemical processes. With an atmospheric lifetime of a few months, carbon monoxide (CO) is a commonly used diagnostic for biomass burning. CO products are available from several satellite instruments and allow analyses of CO variability over extended regions such as the Amazon Basin with useful spatial and temporal sampling characteristics. The MOPITT ('Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere') instrument was launched on the NASA Terra platform near the end of 1999 and is still operational. MOPITT is uniquely capable of measuring tropospheric CO concentrations using both thermal-infrared and near-infrared observations, resulting in the ability to independently retrieve lower- and upper-troposphere CO concentrations. We exploit the 18-year MOPITT record and related datasets to analyze the variability of CO over the Amazon Basin and evaluate simulations performed with the CAM-chem chemical transport model. We demonstrate that observed differences between MOPITT observations and model simulations provide important clues regarding emissions inventories, convective mixing and long-range transport.

  13. Groundwater recharge estimates of the Indian Wells Basin (California) using geochemical analysis of tritium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkner, K. E.; Hagedorn, K. B.

    2017-12-01

    Quantifying recharge in groundwater basins located in an arid climate is difficult due to the effects of evapotranspiration and generally low rates of inflow. Constraining recharge for the Indian Wells Valley (IWV) will allow a more refined assessment of groundwater sustainability in the basin. In this study, a well-mixed reservoir model, the decay rate of tritium, groundwater tritium data acquired from USGS, and atmospheric tritium data acquired from IAEA allow for calculation of renewal rate within IWV. The resulting renewal rate throughout the basin show correlation to travel time from the source of recharge to the measurement location in keeping with the well-mixed reservoir model. The renewal rate can be used with porosity and effective aquifer thickness to generate recharge rates ranging from 4.7 cm/yr to 10 cm/yr. Refinement of the porosity and effective aquifer thickness values at each sample location is necessary to constrain recharge rates. Groundwater modeling generated recharge rates (9.32 cm/yr) fall within this range. These results are in keeping with the well-mixed aquifer model and fall within a reasonable range for an arid climate, which shows the applicability of the method.

  14. Evaluation criteria for uranium potential of sedimentary basins based on analysis of host sand body and structurally reworking pattern host sand body has been subject to

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Zuyi; Guo Qingyin; Liu Hongxu

    2005-01-01

    On the basis of the introduction and the analysis of regional evaluation criteria for sandstone-type uranium deposits summarized by uranium geologists of USA and former Soviet Union, and by introducing new scientific progress in the field of sedimentology of clastic rocks, and basin geodynamics, main evaluation criteria composed of host sand body criterion and the criterion of structurally reworking pattern the host sand body has been subject to, are proposed, and the evaluation model based on analyzing the regional tectonic history and the evolution of prototype basin is set up. Finally, taking the Chaoshui basin as an example, the possibility for hosting epigenetic uranium mineralization in each horizon of the basin cover is discussed, then the main prospecting target horizon is discriminated, and potential ore-formation areas are proposed. (authors)

  15. Comparative analysis of meteorological and hydrological drought in the Pearl River basin during the period 1960-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, K.; Wu, C.; Hu, B.; Niu, J.

    2017-12-01

    Drought is one of the major natural hazards that can have devastating impacts on the regional environment, agriculture, and water resources. Previous studies have conducted the assessment of historic changes in meteorological drought over various regional scales but rarely considered hydrological drought due to limited hydrological observations. Here, we use a long-term (1960-2012) gridded hydro-meteorological data to present a comparative analysis of meteorological and hydrological drought in the Pearl River basin in southern China using the standardized precipitation index (SPI) and the standardized runoff index (SRI). The variation in SPI and SRI at four different timescales (1-, 3-, 6-, and 12-month) is investigated using the Mann-Kendall (M-K) method and continuous wavelet transform (CWT). The results indicate that the correlation between SPI and SRI is strong over the Pearl River basin and tends to be stronger at the longer timescale. Meanwhile, the periodic oscillation pattern of SPI becomes more consistent with that of SRI with the increased timescale. The SPI can be used as a substitute for SRI to represent the hydrological drought at the long-term scale. Overall there is a noticeably wetting trend mainly in the eastern parts and a significant drying trend mainly in the western regions and the downstream area of the Pearl River basin. The variability of meteorological drought is significant mainly in the eastern and western regions, while the variability of hydrological drought tends to be larger mainly in the western region. CWT analysis indicates a period of 0.75-7 years in both meteorological and hydrological droughts during the period 1960-2012 in the study region.

  16. Analysis of Potential Future Climate and Climate Extremes in the Brazos Headwaters Basin, Texas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ripendra Awal

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Texas’ fast-growing economy and population, coupled with cycles of droughts due to climate change, are creating an insatiable demand for water and an increasing need to understand the potential impacts of future climates and climate extremes on the state’s water resources. The objective of this study was to determine potential future climates and climate extremes; and to assess spatial and temporal changes in precipitation (Prec, and minimum and maximum temperature (Tmin and Tmax, respectively, in the Brazos Headwaters Basin under three greenhouse gas emissions scenarios (A2, A1B, and B1 for three future periods: 2020s (2011–2030, 2055s (2046–2065, and 2090s (2080–2099. Daily gridded climate data obtained from Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR were used to downscale outputs from 15 General Circulation Models (GCMs using the Long Ashton Research Station–Weather Generator (LARS-WG model. Results indicate that basin average Tmin and Tmax will increase; however, annual precipitation will decrease for all periods. Annual precipitation will decrease by up to 5.2% and 6.8% in the 2055s and 2090s, respectively. However, in some locations in the basin, up to a 14% decrease in precipitation is projected in the 2090s under the A2 (high emissions scenario. Overall, the northwestern and southern part of the Brazos Headwaters Basin will experience greater decreases in precipitation. Moreover, precipitation indices of the number of wet days (prec ≥ 5 mm and heavy precipitation days (prec ≥ 10 mm are projected to slightly decrease for all future periods. On the other hand, Tmin and Tmax will increase by 2 and 3 °C on average in the 2055s and 2090s, respectively. Mostly, projected increases in Tmin and Tmax will be in the upper range in the southern and southeastern part of the basin. Temperature indices of frost (Tmin < 0 °C and ice days (Tmax < 0 °C are projected to decrease, while tropical nights (Tmin > 20 °C and summer days (Tmax

  17. Analysis of gravity anomalies in the Ulleung Basin (East Sea/Sea of Japan) and its implications for the crustal structure of rift-dominated back-arc basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yoon-Mi; Lee, Sang-Mook

    2018-01-01

    The Ulleung Basin (UB), one of three major basins in the East Sea/Sea of Japan, is considered to represent a continental-rifting end-member of back-arc basin system, but is much less understood compared to the nearby Yamato Basin (YB) and Japan Basin (JB). This study examines the gravity anomalies of the UB since the variation in crustal thickness can provide important insights on the mode of extension during basin opening. Our analysis shows that the Moho depth (from the sea surface) varies from 16 km at the basin center to 22 km at the edges. However, within the central part of the basin, the crustal thickness (not including sediment) is more or less the same (10-12 km), by varying only about 10-20% of the total thickness, contrary to the previous suggestions. Our finding of anomalous but uniformly thick crust is consistent with the recent seismic results from the YB (14 km on average). A mantle residual gravity anomaly high (∼20 mGal) exists in the northeastern part of the UB. This feature is interpreted as the location of maximum extension (slightly thinner crust by ∼1 km). Together with another moderate gravity high to the southwest, the two anomalies form a NNE-SSW line, which corresponds to the direction of the major tectonic structures of the Korean Peninsula. We argue that the a massive magmatic emplacement took place extensively in the lower crust of the UB during the opening, significantly increasing its overall thickness to almost twice as that of the JB where a mid-ocean-ridge style seafloor spreading occurred. Two important post-opening processes took place after the formation of uniformly thick crust: post-rift volcanic intrusions in the north, especially in its northeast sections but had little effect on the residual gravity anomaly itself, and the deflection of crust in response to differential sediment loading towards the south, producing the median high in the basement in response to the flexural bending. We also conducted a simple test to

  18. FLOODPLAIN PLANNING BASED ON STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF TILPARA BARRAGE DISCHARGE: A CASE STUDY ON MAYURAKSHI RIVER BASIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vibhash Chandra Jha

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Floods in the West Bengal are responsible for colossal loss of human life, crops, and property. In recent years, various measures of flood control and management have been adopted. However, flooding in such rivers like Brahmani profoundly challenges flood-hazard management, because of the inadequacy of conventional data and high spatio-temporal variability of floods. To understand flood hazards and environmental change it is imperative that engineers and hydrologists utilize historical and paleoflood records to improve risk analyses as well as to estimate probable maximum flood on rivers such as these in a highly flood-prone region(Parkar,2000. The flood frequency analysis, probable peak discharge analysis, its return period analysis and floodplain zoning based on ancillary data will help better management of flood in the Mayurakshi River basin situated in the districts of Birbhum and Murshidabad.

  19. Identification, mapping, and analysis of possible evidences of active petroleum systems in the Colorado Basin, offshore Argentina, South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loegering, Markus; Anka, Zahie; Rodriguez, Jorge; Marchal, Denis; di Primio, Rolando; Vallejo, Eduardo; Kohler, Guillermina; Pangaro, Francisco

    2010-05-01

    The analysis of a dense 2D seismic reflection dataset and 12 exploration wells data, allowed us to reconstruct the geological evolution of the Colorado Basin, offshore Argentina. We identified and mapped the major syn- and post-rift seismic sequences, and their boundaries such as unconformities and regional seismic markers, present on the continental shelf and slope (water depths from 50 to 1800 m) of the Colorado Basin. Seismic-to-well log correlations, as well as integration with biostratigraphic data provided a chrono-stratigraphic framework for the interpreted horizons. The construction of isochronal (twt) maps provided a 3D spatial visualisation of the stratigraphic relationship among the sequences. The maps show a change in configuration from the break-up unconformity (130 Ma) to the present-day seafloor. The break-up unconformity displays a central EW-elongated graben which prevails on the overlying sequences up to the Miocene. The EW Colorado basin turns NW-SE towards the East, going perpendicular to the present-day continental margin (oriented NE-SW). The strong obliquity of the basin orientation related to the direction corresponding to the opening of the South Atlantic (NE-SW) suggests a structural control from the pre-rift basement on the rift and post-rift sequences. Starting from the break-up unconformity, the history of basin filling is illustrated up to the flat seafloor. The basin sag phase is represented by the sequences deposited between the break-up unconformity and the Colorado discontinuity (Aptian to Campanian). The Campanian to Eocene successions are more or less parallel- layered suggesting sequence aggradation. The distribution of liquid/gas hydrocarbon-leakage features (i.e. gas chimneys, mud volcanoes, and seabed pockmarks) should allow the definition of potential migration pathways. In this sense, a systematic mapping of these paleo- and present-day features observed in the seismic profiles has been performed and their distribution was

  20. Multiphase cooling and exhumation of the Krkonoše Piedmont Basin during Mesozoic - Cenozoic basin inversion based on apatite fission track analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Martínek, K.; Svojtka, Martin; Filip, Jiří

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 34, 4/6 (2008), s. 1353003-1353003 ISSN 0161-6951. [International Geological Congress /33./. 06.08.2008-14.08.2008, Oslo] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB3111305 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : fission track * apatite * Krkonoše Piedmont basin Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  1. Material Exchange and Migration between Pore Fluids and Sandstones during Diagenetic Processes in Rift Basins: A Case Study Based on Analysis of Diagenetic Products in Dongying Sag, Bohai Bay Basin, East China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Meng

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The exchange and migration of basin materials that are carried by pore fluids are the essence of diagenesis, which can alter physical properties of clastic rocks as well as control formation and distribution of favorable reservoirs of petroliferous basins. Diagenetic products and pore fluids, resulting from migration and exchange of basin materials, can be used to deduce those processes. In this study, 300 core samples from 46 wells were collected for preparation of casting thin sections, SEM, BSE, EDS, inclusion analysis, and isotope analysis in Dongying Sag, Bohai Bay Basin, East China. Combined with geochemical characteristics of pore fluids and geological background of the study area, the source and exchange mechanisms of materials in the pore fluids of rift basins were discussed. It was revealed that the material exchange of pore fluids could be divided into five stages. The first stage was the evaporation concentration stage during which mainly Ca2+, Mg2+, and CO32- precipitated as high-Mg calcites. Then came the shale compaction stage, when mainly Ca2+ and CO32- from shale compaction water precipitated as calcites. The third stage was the carboxylic acid dissolution stage featured by predominant dissolution of plagioclases, during which Ca2+ and Na+ entered pore fluids, and Si and Al also entered pore fluids and then migrated as clathrates, ultimately precipitating as kaolinites. The fourth stage was the organic CO2 stage, mainly characterized by the kaolinization of K-feldspar as well as dissolution of metamorphic lithic fragments and carbon cements. During this stage, K+, Fe2+, Mg2+, Ca2+, HCO3-, and CO32- entered pore fluids. The fifth stage was the alkaline fluid stage, during which the cementation of ferro-carbonates and ankerites as well as illitization or chloritization of kaolinites prevailed, leading to the precipitation of K+, Fe2+, Mg2+, Ca2+, and CO32- from pore fluids.

  2. Facies analysis and paleoenvironmental reconstruction of Upper Cretaceous sequences in the eastern Para-Tethys Basin, NW Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omidvar, M.; Safari, A.; Vaziri-Moghaddam, H.; Ghalavand, H.

    2016-07-01

    Upper Cretaceous mixed carbonate-siliciclastic sequences are among the most important targets for hydrocarbon exploration in the Moghan area, located in the eastern Para-Tethys Basin. Despite of their significance, little is known about their facies characteristics and depositional environments. Detailed facies analysis and paleoenvironmental reconstruction of these sequences have been carried out in eight surface sections. Accordingly, four siliciclastic facies, eight carbonate facies and one volcanic facies have been recognized. Detailed facies descriptions and interpretations, together with the results of facies frequency analysis, standard facies models and Upper Cretaceous depositional models of Para-Tethys Basin, have been integrated and a non-rimmed carbonate platform is presented. This platform was affected by siliciclastic influx, in the form of coastal fan delta and submarine fans in the shallow- to deep-marine parts, respectively. This model is interpreted to be shallower in the central and northeastern parts of the Moghan area. Toward the southeast and southwest, this shallow platform turns into deep marine settings along steep slopes without remarkable marginal barriers. (Author)

  3. Provenance analysis and tectonic setting of the Neoproterozoic sediments within the Taoudeni Basin, Northern Mauritania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicoll, Graeme; Straathof, Gijs; Tait, Jenny; Lo, Khalidou; Ousmane, N'diaye; El Moctar Dahmada, Mohamed; Berndt, Jasper; Key, Roger

    2010-05-01

    We have dated over 800 detrital zircon grains from the Neoproterozoic sediments within the Taoudeni Basin of Mauritania on the West African craton. This sequence of sediments preserves a relatively condensed mixed continental and marine succession as well as Neoproterozoic glacial and glacially influenced deposits. The underlying Archaean and Birimian basement of the West African craton is exposed on the Reguibat shield in the north, and on the Leo shield in the south although smaller inliers occur scattered along the Bassaride and Mauritanide belts, as well as in the core of the Anti-Atlas belt. The large West African craton is totally surrounded by Pan-African fold belts. Sedimentation within the Taoudeni basin started around 1000Ma and lasted until the end of the Carboniferous. The basin is 1000-1500 km in diameter and the sedimentary pile is on average 3000 m thick. All dated zircons in the stratigraphically lowest Char and Atar Groups are older than ~1800Ma. These groups show a strong input of 2950 and 2075Ma ages, indicating sourcing from the local underlying granitic and gneissic basement. These basal sediments also include a large input from a rare 2475Ma source. Samples from the upper Assebet El Hassiane Group contain numerous zircons of 2000-900Ma. While the Neoproterozoic Marinoan glaciogenic "Triad" Jbeliat Group and stratigraphically above formations show a large range of 3200-595Ma ages. We have also undertaken a detailed Carbon isotope profile study through the carbonates which cap the Glacial Jbeliat Group. The upper part of the Jbeliat cap carbonate displays a distinct and pronounced rise from -4.3 to +3.8 13C, followed by the final demise of carbonate productivity. This positive trend is consistent with the upper part of the globally extensive Ghaub/Nantuo/Marinoan cap carbonate sequences. This world-wide sequence is characterized by composite negative-to-positive trends up section and so this isotope stratigraphy along with the zircon data helps

  4. Mechanical analysis of the thin- versus thick-skin tectonics in the Molasse basin and Jura thrust belt (Swiss Alps)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maillot, Bertrand; Caer, Typhaine; Souloumiac, Pauline; Nussbaum, Christophe

    2014-05-01

    The Jura fold-and-thrust belt is classically interpreted as a thin-skin belt developed over a triasic décollement, which is itself topping Permo-carboniferous E-W transpressive grabens delimited by N-S strike-slip faults. These faults have been reactivated in eo-oligocene times as normal faults. Today, the basement is seismically active, suggesting that the Jura belt involves some amount of basement deformation. We tested both thin and thick-skin hypotheses using a simple rheological prototype with two potential décollements : a Triassic horizon extending below Jura and Molasse basin, and the upper-lower crust interface rooted deep south of the Alpine front close to the Penninic nappes region. Using the theory of limit analysis combined with automatic adaptive meshing, we demonstrate that the main Jura Triassic décollement can be activated with the present day topography, if its friction angle is below 5°, a counter-intuitive result, that was not foreseen by sand box models. In contrast, a thick-skin deformation involving all the upper crust is possible either only south of the Jura below the topographic depression of the Molasse basin if the upper-lower crust interface has an equivalent friction angle above 4.6°, or far beyond it towards the North, if it is weaker. Active thick-skin thrusting within the Jura belt requires further assumptions on the existence of weak zones, for which a good candidate could be the inherited eo-oligocene normal faults as previously suggested in the litterature. We also demonstrated the potential major role of the topographic depression of the Molasse basin in conveying deformation from the Alps to the Jura, and in localising thick-skin thrusting.

  5. Well Water and Subsurface Salinity of Tuba Basin Langkawi by Hydrochemical Analysis and Vertical Electrical Resistivity Survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umar Hamzah; Abdul Rahim Samsudin; Abdul Ghani Rafek; Khairul Azlan Razak

    2009-01-01

    Tuba basin is an alluvial deposit located between granitic hill in the western part of Tuba Island and the Setul formation sedimentary rocks in the eastern site of the island. This basin stretched along 3 km in the NE-SW direction with an estimated width of about 2 km. A geophysical survey using geo electrical technique was carried out to figure out the subsurface structure, to detect the presence of underground aquifers and to investigate any saltwater intrusion into these aquifers in the basin. Concentrations of several elements in the well water were also analyzed to investigate any occurrence of salt water intrusion into the coastal aquifers. For this purpose, the vertical electrical sounding surveys were carried out at 22 randomly distributed stations in the study area. Water samples were also taken from 11 wells for hydrochemical analysis in the laboratory. Our results showed that all water samples were of fresh water type. Electrical resistivity profile constructed from stations located in NE-SW direction from Teluk Berembang to Telok Bujur shows a wide range of resistivities ranging from 4 Ωm to infinity. The top layer with a thickness of 1-3 m and resistivity values of 4 - 12 Ωm is interpreted as clay zone. This layer is overlying a much thicker layer of 10-50 m with resistivity values of 2 - 280 Ωm representing sandy material that may contain fresh water or sand with brackish water. Layers with resistivity values from thousands ohm.m to infinity are interpreted as either granite or limestone bedrock. Maximum thickness observed in this resistivity survey is approximately 70 m. (author)

  6. Tocuila Mammoths, Basin of Mexico: Late Pleistocene-Early Holocene stratigraphy and the geological context of the bone accumulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Silvia; Huddart, David; Israde-Alcántara, Isabel; Dominguez-Vazquez, Gabriela; Bischoff, James

    2014-07-01

    We report new stratigraphic, tephrochronology and dating results from the Tocuila Mammoth site in the Basin of Mexico. At the site there is evidence for a thin meteorite airburst layer dated between 10,878 and 10,707 cal BC at the onset of the Younger Dryas (YD) cool period. The Upper Toluca Pumice (UTP) tephra marker, caused by a Plinian eruption of the Nevado de Toluca volcano, dated from 10,666 to 10,612 cal BC, is above that layer. The eruption must have caused widespread environmental disruption in the region with evidence of extensive reworking and channelling by the Lake Texcoco shoreline and contributed to the widespread death and/or extinction of megafaunal populations, as suggested by earlier authors, but the new work reinforces the view that both catastrophic events must have caused large environmental disruption in a short time period of around two hundred years. There is no evidence for megafauna (mammoths, sabre toothed cats, camels, bison, glyptodonts) after the UTP volcanic event and subsequent lahars in the Basin of Mexico. At Tocuila, although there are some in situ tephra markers in nearshore lake sediments, such as the Great Basaltic Ash (GBA) and the UTP Ash, there is evidence of much reworking of several tephra populations in various combinations. The mammoth bone accumulation is reworked in a lahar sequence (volcanic mudflow) derived from several source sediments but associated with the major UTP Plinian eruption. Paleoindian populations were also present in the Basin of Mexico during the YD period, where several Paleoindian skeletons were found associated with the UTP ash deposits, e.g. Metro Man, Chimalhuacan Man and Tlapacoya Man.

  7. Analysis on hydrological condition for uranium ore formation in Wuerhe district, Junggar Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Quanqing; Zhang Xinke; Ren Manchuan

    2009-01-01

    Wuerhe district is located in the northwestern part of Junggar Basin, Xinjiang. It belongs to a relative quiet area without the obvious tectonic activities and obvious subsequent tectonic activization. Through the regional uranium resources evaluation on this area, the inter-bedded oxidation zone and uranium mineralization are discovered in Cretaceous. The wall rock, the recharge-runoff-discharge mechanism of groundwater, palaeo-hydrological condition, hydrological and hydrogeochemical features of groundwater are introduced briefly, the favorable uranium ore-forming segment is summarized to be located in the fore-mountain area to the west of Ke-Xia fault terrace zone. (authors)

  8. Analysis of Eocene depositional environments - Preliminary TM and TIMS results, Wind River Basin, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stucky, Richard K.; Krishtalka, Leonard; Redline, Andrew D.; Lang, Harold R.

    1987-01-01

    Both Landsat TM and aircraft Thermal IR Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) data have been used to map the lithofacies of the Wind River Basin's Eocene physical and biological environments. Preliminary analyses of these data have furnished maps of a fault contact boundary and a complex network of fluvial ribbon channel sandstones. The synoptic view thereby emerging for Eocene fluvial facies clarifies the relationships of ribbon channel sandstones to fossil-bearing overbank/floodplain facies and certain peleosols. The utility of TM and TIMS data is thereby demonstrated.

  9. Preliminary Geologic/spectral Analysis of LANDSAT-4 Thematic Mapper Data, Wind River/bighorn Basin Area, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, H. R.; Conel, J. E.; Paylor, E. D.

    1984-01-01

    A LIDQA evaluation for geologic applications of a LANDSAT TM scene covering the Wind River/Bighorn Basin area, Wyoming, is examined. This involves a quantitative assessment of data quality including spatial and spectral characteristics. Analysis is concentrated on the 6 visible, near infrared, and short wavelength infrared bands. Preliminary analysis demonstrates that: (1) principal component images derived from the correlation matrix provide the most useful geologic information. To extract surface spectral reflectance, the TM radiance data must be calibrated. Scatterplots demonstrate that TM data can be calibrated and sensor response is essentially linear. Low instrumental offset and gain settings result in spectral data that do not utilize the full dynamic range of the TM system.

  10. Sequence Stratigraphic Framework Analysis of Putaohua Oil Reservoir in Chaochang Area of Songliao Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yan; Liu, Dameng; Yao, Yanbin

    2018-01-01

    The regional structure of the Changchang area in the Songliao Basin is located on the Chaoyangou terrace and Changchunling anticline belt in the central depression of the northern part of the Songliao Basin, across the two secondary tectonic units of the Chaoyanggou terrace and Changchunling anticline. However, with the continuous development of oil and gas, the unused reserves of Fuyu oil reservoir decreased year by year, and the oil field faced a serious shortage of reserve reserves. At the same time, during the evaluation process, a better oil-bearing display was found during the drilling and test oil in the Putao depression to the Chaoyanggou terraces, the Yudong-Taipingchuan area, and in the process of drilling and testing oil in the Putaohua reservoir. Zhao41, Zhao18-1, Shu38 and other exploration wells to obtain oil oil, indicating that the area has a further evaluation of the potential. Based on the principle of stratification, the Putao area was divided into three parts by using the core, logging and logging. It is concluded that the middle and western strata of the study area are well developed, including three sequences, one cycle from bottom to top (three small layers), two cycles (one small layer), three cycles (two small layers) Rhythm is positive-anti-positive. From the Midwest to the southeastern part of the strata, the strata are overtaken, the lower strata are missing, and the top rhythms become rhythmic.

  11. Dynamic Changes of Landscape Pattern and Vulnerability Analysis in Qingyi River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ziwei; Xie, Chaoying; He, Xiaohui; Guo, Hengliang; Wang, Li

    2017-11-01

    Environmental vulnerability research is one of the core areas of global environmental change research. Over the past 10 years, ecologically fragile zones or transition zones had been significantly affected by environmental degradation and climate change and human activities. In this paper, we analyzed the spatial and temporal changes of landscape pattern and landscape vulnerability degree in Qingyi River Basin by calculating the landscape sensitivity index and landscape restoration degree index based on Landsat images of 2005, 2010 and 2015. The results showed that: (1) The top conversion area was farmland, woodland and grassland area decreased, city land and rural residential land increased fastest. (2) The fragility of the landscape pattern along the Qingyi River gradually increased between 2005 and 2015, the downstream area was influenced by the influence of human activities. (3) Landscape pattern changes and fragility are mainly affected by urbanization. These findings are helpful for understanding the evolution of landscape pattern as well as urban ecology, which both have significant implications for urban planning and minimize the potential environmental impacts of urbanization in Qingyi River Basin.

  12. The application of apatite fission track analysis to hydrocarbon exploration of Yanqi basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Fuqiang; Liu Jiaduo; He Mingxi; Chen Gang

    2000-01-01

    The author introduces the method and principle of AFTA, i.e. annealing characteristics. Through analysing the AFT data of the six Jurassic samples from the Well Bonan-1 and the Well Yancan-1 in the Yanqi Basin, the authors conclude that in the north sag, the thickness of Cenozoic group was generally more than 2000 meters, the north sag was situated in Cenozoic compensation geothermal district, and the maximum palaeo-temperature of the middle-lower Jurassic was about 70-110 degree C in late Cenozoic; while in the south sag, the thickness of Cenozoic group was generally less than 1500 meters, the south sag was situated in Cenozoic deficient geothermal district, and the maximum palaeo-temperature of the lower middle lower Jurassic was about 80-110 degree C in latest Jurassic. The AFT ages show that in the north sag, the uplift event took place in late Cretaceous, while in the south sag, the uplift event took place in early Cretaceous. Therefore the main uplift event of the Yanqi Basin took place in Cretaceous period, and the uplift of the south was earlier than that of the north

  13. Provenance analysis of the Late Triassic Yichuan Basin: constraints from zircon U-Pb geochronology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Xianghong

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS U-Pb dating has been performed on detrital zircons from the Chunshuyao Formation sandstone of Yichuan Basin. The ages of 85 detrital zircon grains are divided into three groups: 252-290 Ma, 1740-2000 Ma, and 2400-2600 Ma. The lack of Early Paleozoic and Neoproterozoic U-Pb ages indicates that there is no input from the Qinling Orogen, because the Qinling Orogen is characterized by Paleozoic and Neoproterozoic material. In combination with previous research, we suggest that the source of the Chunshuyao Formation is most likely recycled from previous sedimentary rocks from the North China Craton. In the Late Triassic, the Funiu ancient land was uplifted which prevented source material from the Qinling Orogen. Owing to the Indosinian orogeny, the strata to the east of the North China Craton were uplifted and eroded. The Yichuan Basin received detrital material from the North China Craton.

  14. Multispectral image analysis of the Palo Duro Basin, Texas: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andre, C.G.

    1986-09-01

    The objectives of this remote sensing study of the Palo Duro Basin are to: (1) detect the surface expression of regional subsurface structure; (2) locate previously unrecognized fractures; (3) interpret the data in terms of the geologic history of the Palo Duro Basin. Linear and circular surface features were mapped from Landsat 4 Thematic Mapper and NOAA-7 Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer digital images of visible, near-infrared and thermal infrared bands. The density and orientation of features mapped are shown to be related to geological features, such as faults, structural arches, paleoerosion topography and salt dissolution zones. The approximate area covered by the three 185 km /times/ 170 km Thematic Mapper images studied extends southward from the Canadian River Breaks to the Sand Hills and eastward from the western Mountains in Oklahoma. The day and night thermal infrared images from the NOAA-7 satellite encompass an area that includes the northern half of Texas and most of the surrounding states to the east, west and north. 4 refs

  15. Analysis of wetland change in the Songhua River Basin from 1995 to 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, L H; Jiang, W G; Liu, Y H; Luo, Z L; He, X H

    2014-01-01

    Wetlands in the Songhua River Basin in both 1995 and 2008 were mapped from land use/land cover maps generated from Landsat Thematic Mapper imagery. These maps were then divided into two categories, i.e. artificial wetland and natural wetland. From 1995 to 2008, the total area of wetland in the Songhua River Basin increased from 93 072.3 km 2 to 99 179.6 km 2 a net increase of 6107.3 km 2 . The area of natural wetland decreased by 4043.7 km 2 while the area of artificial wetland increased by 10 166.2 km 2 . Swamp wetland and paddy field wetland became the dominant wetlands and the swamp wetland in the east of the Heilong River system and the north of the Wusuli River system disappeared, being transformed into paddy field wetland. The diversity of wetland landscape is worsening and the distribution of wetland landscape is becoming more unbalanced; the fragmentation of natural wetland has intensified whereas the patch connectivity of artificial wetland has increased. Changes in natural wetlands were primarily caused by climate and socio-economic changes, while changes in artificial wetland were mainly caused by the growth of population and gross domestic product

  16. Analysis of meteorological drought for Dagua river basin, Valle del Cauca, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalia González López

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Context: Extreme climatic events causes great challenges for social, economic and environmental sustainability of a region. Droughts affect agricultural activities significantly thus endangering the livelihoods and food security of rural populations, this is especially crucial for developing countries. The objective of this study is to characterize meteorological drought in Dagua river basin, Valle del Cauca. Method:  Intensity, magnitude, duration and frequency of drought events was estimated using the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI, for semi-annual and annual groupings with records of 19 stations, during the period 1982-2011 Results: At least one drought was identified in each series; the area near to the subxerofític Basin region, exhibits more frequency of extremely strong drought and lower threshold of minimum precipitation; the largest percentage of spatial coverage of drought coincides with El Niño phenomena events, such as those that occurred in 91-92 to 09-10. Conclusions: The results obtained provide an approach for prediction and characterization of drought, and offer inputs to generate strategies for planning and mitigation of their impacts.

  17. Pollution assessment in the Trancao river basin (Portugal) by PIXE, EDXRF and isotopic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinheiro, T.; Araujo, M.F.; Carreira, P.M.; Valerio, P.; Nunes, D.; Alves, L.C.

    1999-01-01

    This paper reports on the inorganic contamination assessment of a river basin and local water resources in order to establish quality standards. PIXE was applied to the elemental determination of the freeze-dried water dry residue and EDXRF was used for the evaluation of elemental content of sediments. To infer the water provenance the electrical conductivity was measured as well as the isotopic composition of surface waters using the 18 O/ 16 O ratio. The combined isotopic and elemental composition information enables to establish dominant contamination contributions from the several tributaries. Moreover, the variability observed for certain parameters, associates them with specific basin regions as for instance, dry residue mass, conductivity and Br, or S, Cl and As or Cr, Ni, Zn and Pb which permit to establish both pollution characterisation and their origin (agriculture, industrial, etc.). At certain locations, enhanced concentrations of elements as Cr, Cu, Zn and Pb are observed both in sediments and in the surface water. The elemental particular associations also permit to characterise pollution sources

  18. 2D Coda Attenuation Analysis of Active Sources: The Rockall Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sketsiou, P.; De Siena, L.; Asena, K.

    2017-12-01

    Passive seismic surveys are used for the evaluation of seismic attenuation parameters to characterise the Earth's lithosphere. Attenuation imaging is rarely applied to active datasets, attenuation being considered a hindrance than an efficient parameter when imaging reservoirs. In this study, we use one-component active source signals to study coda attenuation in the sub-basaltic North-Eastern Atlantic Margin, the Rockall Basin. Although this technique has been primarily used in volcanic and lithospheric environments, we apply it here to the oil and gas industrial setting. The Rockall Basin data consist of publicly available waveforms from the Oil and Gas Authority of the UK. The selected signals were band-passed filtered. A multiple scattering model was adopted, assuming dominant contributions from intrinsic absorption over scattering at large lapse times. The residual dependency of Q_c on the geometrical spreading factor was additionally investigated. The distribution of Q_c over a seismic line and its dependence on frequency were plotted, revealing high Q_c near a well in Rockall. The power law Q_c=Q_0(f/f_0)^\\gamma was used to express Q_c as a function of frequency.

  19. A Thermal Maturity Analysis of the Effective Cretaceous Petroleum System in the Southern Persian Gulf Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Alipour

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Commercial hydrocarbon discoveries in the Cretaceous of the southern Persian Gulf basin provide direct evidence that there is an effective petroleum system associated with the Cretaceous series. The revised models of thermal maturity in this region are needed to investigate lateral and stratigraphic variations of thermal maturity, which have not so far been addressed in detail for this part of the Persian Gulf. Such thermal maturity models are required to delineate the existing play assessment risks and to predict properties in more deeply buried undrilled sections. This study uses two dimensional basin modeling techniques to reconstruct maturity evolution of the Cenomanian Middle Sarvak source rock, presumably the most likely source for these hydrocarbons. The results indicate that an estimated 900 meter difference in the depth of burial between the southeastern high and the adjacent trough tends to be translated into noticeable variations at both temperature (135 °C versus 162 °C and vitrinite reflectance (0.91% versus 1.35%. Since the organic matter in the mentioned source rock is of reactive type II, these could cause a shift of about 18 million years in the onset of hydrocarbon generation over respective areas.

  20. Analysis of 1997–2008 groundwater level changes in the upper Deschutes Basin, Central Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gannett, Marshall W.; Lite, Kenneth E.

    2013-01-01

    Groundwater-level monitoring in the upper Deschutes Basin of central Oregon from 1997 to 2008 shows water-level declines in some places that are larger than might be expected from climate variations alone, raising questions regarding the influence of groundwater pumping, canal lining (which decreases recharge), and other human influences. Between the mid-1990s and mid-2000s, water levels in the central part of the basin near Redmond steadily declined as much as 14 feet. Water levels in the Cascade Range, in contrast, rose more than 20 feet from the mid-1990s to about 2000, and then declined into the mid-2000s, with little or no net change. An existing U.S. Geological Survey regional groundwater-flow model was used to gain insights into groundwater-level changes from 1997 to 2008, and to determine the relative influence of climate, groundwater pumping, and irrigation canal lining on observed water-level trends. To utilize the model, input datasets had to be extended to include post-1997 changes in groundwater pumping, changes in recharge from precipitation, irrigation canal leakage, and deep percolation of applied irrigation water (also known as on-farm loss). Mean annual groundwater recharge from precipitation during the 1999–2008 period was 25 percent less than during the 1979–88 period because of drying climate conditions. This decrease in groundwater recharge is consistent with measured decreases in streamflow and discharge to springs. For example, the mean annual discharge of Fall River, which is a spring-fed stream, decreased 12 percent between the 1979–88 and 1999–2008 periods. Between the mid-1990s and late 2000s, groundwater pumping for public-supply and irrigation uses increased from about 32,500 to 52,000 acre-feet per year, partially because of population growth. Between 1997 and 2008, the rate of recharge from leaking irrigation canals decreased by about 58,000 acre-feet per year as a result of lining and piping of canals. Decreases in recharge

  1. Cytogenetic analysis in Thoracocharax stellatus (Kner, 1858 (Characiformes, Gasteropelecidae from Paraguay River Basin, Mato Grosso, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Silva

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Thoracocharax stellatus (Characiformes, Gasteropelecidae is a small Neotropical species of fish, widely distributed in several rivers of South America. Evidence for karyotype heteromorphysm in populations from different geographical regions has been reported for this species. In this way, populations of T. stellatus from the Paraguay River basin were cytogenetically characterized and the results were compared with other studies performed in the same species but from different basins. The results showed a diploid number of 2n = 54 for T. stellatus, with chromosomes arranged in 6 metacentric (m, 6 submetacentric (sm, 2 subtelocentric (st and 40 acrocentric (a, for both sexes, with a simple Nucleolus Organiser Region (NOR system reported by the techniques of silver nitrate impregnation and fluorescent in situ hybridisation (FISH using 18S rDNA sequences as probe. The distribution of constitutive heterochromatin, observed by the C-band technique and Chromomycin A3 staining showed great similarity among the analyzed populations and consists mainly of discrete blocks in the pericentromeric and telomeric regions of most chromosomes. The presence of female heterogamety was also observed indicating a ZZ/ZW system with W chromosome almost totally heterochromatic. The results also show cytogenetic diversity of the group and are useful to understand the mechanisms of karyotype evolution of the family.

  2. Analysis of conflicts in the use of space in mining basin “Kolubara”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živković Marija

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Consequence of impact of the surface exploitation on the environment is manifested in the form of physical, social, and environmental conflicts. The dominant conflicts of the Kolubara lignite basin space occurs between mining and agriculture, which indicates the importance of the process of rehabilitation and revitalization of contaminated land and its effective bringing to the original purpose. Another significant conflict appears between the existing settlements and mining, infrastructural, water management and other facilities, which are located in areas of mining works, so the solution is in their displacement. As consequence of development of the mining-energy industrial system there is an adverse impact on the environment, which is reflected in the pollution of air, land, groundwater and surface water. Ecological dimension of this conflict presents clear and limiting factor for the mine development, which directly points that the economic development of mining basin “Kolubara” is directed toward the rational exploitation of natural resources (coal, water, land, ect.. In the process of harmonization of these conflicts, it is necessary to take into account that the energy policy acts at the national level, as the public interest, and therefore has priority over all other interests.

  3. Analysis of runoff for the Baltic basin with an integrated Atmospheric-Ocean-Hydrology Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.-G. Richter

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A fully integrated Atmospheric-Ocean-Hydrology Model (BALTIMOS = Baltic Integrated Model System has been developed using existing model components. Experiment and model design has been adapted to the Baltic basin with a catchment area of approximately 1 750 000 km2. A comprehensive model validation has been completed using large meteorological and hydrological measurement database. Comparing the calculated runoff from the integrated and non-integrated model system with measurements for three different representative subbasins and the entire Baltic basin, the effect of the integrated model is described. The results display a good agreement between measured and calculated runoff. The effect of the integrated model is rather negligible looking at computed mean values: There is no significant difference between mean monthly runoff of the integrated and non-integrated model during the year with the exception of spring. There is a delay of one month with regard to peak runoff for the non-integrated model in spring caused by different interactive processes during the melting period.

  4. An integrated quantitative basin analysis study of the northern part of the Arctic national Wildlife Refuge, Northeastern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Z.; Lerche, Ian

    1992-06-01

    An integrated basin analysis was conducted using one- and two-dimensional quantitative dynamic models (1-D and 2-D) in the northern part of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR), Northeastern Alaska. Exploratory well data have been used in the reconstructions of: (1) geohistory including basement subsidence, sediment deposition, change of porosity and compaction, permeability, fluid pressure and fluid flow with time and depth; (2) thermal history including heat flux evolution with time, temperature change with time and depth, and thermal maturation history; and (3) hydrocarbon generation history including the change in the amount of hydrocarbons generated with time and depth, and determining the time and depth of peak hydrocarbon generation. 1-D and 2-D basin modeling codes were used with selected wells, and also with a 18 km section, west of ANWR, with five well controls. It is concluded that: (1) the main source rock west of ANWR area matured first about 40-30 Ma ago in the south and gradually to the north about 10-8 Ma ago on the coastal plain; (2) the modeled erosion thickness at Beli Unit-1 location, northeastern Brooks Range, was 1500-3000 m and at least 3000 m at Canning River Unit B-1; and (3) an overpressure zone within the Hue shale and the lowest part of the Canning Formation caused by rapid Tertiary deposition retained porosity, increased the temperature and speeded hydrocarbon generation in the lower part of the coastal plain.

  5. Socio-economic Impact Analysis for Near Real-Time Flood Detection in the Lower Mekong River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oddo, P.; Ahamed, A.; Bolten, J. D.

    2017-12-01

    Flood events pose a severe threat to communities in the Lower Mekong River Basin. The combination of population growth, urbanization, and economic development exacerbate the impacts of these flood events. Flood damage assessments are frequently used to quantify the economic losses in the wake of storms. These assessments are critical for understanding the effects of flooding on the local population, and for informing decision-makers about future risks. Remote sensing systems provide a valuable tool for monitoring flood conditions and assessing their severity more rapidly than traditional post-event evaluations. The frequency and severity of extreme flood events are projected to increase, further illustrating the need for improved flood monitoring and impact analysis. In this study we implement a socio-economic damage model into a decision support tool with near real-time flood detection capabilities (NASA's Project Mekong). Surface water extent for current and historical floods is found using multispectral Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) 250-meter imagery and the spectral Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) signatures of permanent water bodies (MOD44W). Direct and indirect damages to populations, infrastructure, and agriculture are assessed using the 2011 Southeast Asian flood as a case study. Improved land cover and flood depth assessments result in a more refined understanding of losses throughout the Mekong River Basin. Results suggest that rapid initial estimates of flood impacts can provide valuable information to governments, international agencies, and disaster responders in the wake of extreme flood events.

  6. Time scales of magma recharge and crystal growth rate determined from Mg and Ti zoning in plagioclase phenocrysts from the Upper Toluca Pumice, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohmen, Ralf; Smith, Victoria C.; Arce, Jose Luis; Blundy, Jonathan D.

    2010-05-01

    Major and trace element zoning in plagioclase phenocrysts has the potential to stores information on the temporal evolution of the chemical environment during crystal growth, i.e. the surrounding melt composition as well as the intensive parameters temperature (T) and pressure (P), provided that equilibrium partitioning accompanies growth. However, the problem is complicated by the fact that diffusion of mobile elements changes their initial concentrations due to re-equilibration with the surrounding melt at later stages, making estimation of the pre-diffusive element profiles fraught with uncertainty. Here we present a new approach that combines the information from immobile (e.g., Ca, Ti) and mobile (e.g., Mg) elements in plagioclase to unravel the growth history and time scales of magma recharge events from the 10.5 ka Upper Toluca plinian eruption of Nevado de Toluca volcano, Mexico. Since trace elements are less sensitive to intensive parameters their variations in plagioclase phenocrysts have been used to identify open-system processes in silicic systems [1]. These phenocrysts preserve complex element patterns, such as oscillatory zoning and overgrowths, indicating multiple magma recharging events. Based on available diffusion data major elements and, for example, the trace element Ba, are effectively unchanged since crystallization, but the mobility of Mg [2] is large enough to alter the initial concentration at later growth stages. We made attempts to model the Mg zoning using two endmember cases for the growth history of the plagioclase. In the model the growth rate can either be constant until the final crystal diameter is reached or involve various short growth stages with diffusion relaxation breaks in-between. The corresponding moving boundary problem of the diffusion equation was solved numerically using the method of finite differences and a front-tracking method [3]. A particular challenge of the modelling is to estimate the initial Mg concentration

  7. Regionalization of the Upper Tana Basin of Kenya Using Stream ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Regionalization of the Upper Tana Basin of Kenya Using Stream Flow Records. ... river gauge stations in the basin using the empirical orthogonal function analysis ... the study basin to be grouped into four homogenous hydrological zones that ...

  8. Sensitivity analysis of a sediment dynamics model applied in a Mediterranean river basin: global change and management implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Canales, M; López-Benito, A; Acuña, V; Ziv, G; Hamel, P; Chaplin-Kramer, R; Elorza, F J

    2015-01-01

    Climate change and land-use change are major factors influencing sediment dynamics. Models can be used to better understand sediment production and retention by the landscape, although their interpretation is limited by large uncertainties, including model parameter uncertainties. The uncertainties related to parameter selection may be significant and need to be quantified to improve model interpretation for watershed management. In this study, we performed a sensitivity analysis of the InVEST (Integrated Valuation of Environmental Services and Tradeoffs) sediment retention model in order to determine which model parameters had the greatest influence on model outputs, and therefore require special attention during calibration. The estimation of the sediment loads in this model is based on the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE). The sensitivity analysis was performed in the Llobregat basin (NE Iberian Peninsula) for exported and retained sediment, which support two different ecosystem service benefits (avoided reservoir sedimentation and improved water quality). Our analysis identified the model parameters related to the natural environment as the most influential for sediment export and retention. Accordingly, small changes in variables such as the magnitude and frequency of extreme rainfall events could cause major changes in sediment dynamics, demonstrating the sensitivity of these dynamics to climate change in Mediterranean basins. Parameters directly related to human activities and decisions (such as cover management factor, C) were also influential, especially for sediment exported. The importance of these human-related parameters in the sediment export process suggests that mitigation measures have the potential to at least partially ameliorate climate-change driven changes in sediment exportation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Social network analysis on mangrove ecosystem management of Welu Basin, Thailand

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    Thak Thongphubate

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of social network for support mangrove ecosystem management in terms of proposed policy was studied. The results show that most samples, live in Baan Si Lamtian and Baan Paaknam Welu. Majorities of samples are women in the age range of 51-60 years old and they are fishery and have own business, respectively. The social network characteristics are the center person of the network who is the mainstay of Baan Nagoong and close-by the person on a network cultivating farmers group of Baan Si Lamtian. Two main proposed policies are hastening to the control of encroach on forests, fishing gears uses and illegal germinate aquatic animals. In addition, information including coincide planning with fishermen who set the fish traps and specify Tambon Bangchan to be the special area for aquatics management were proposed by setting the measurement with community for farm control and cultivate plot which caused shallow in the basin.

  10. Temporal behavior of {sup 222}Radon, {sup 226}Radium and {sup 238}Uranium in deep water wells which provide Valle de Toluca with drinking water; Comportamiento temporal de {sup 222}Radon, {sup 226}Radio y {sup 238}Uranio en pozos profundos que abastecen de agua potable al Valle de Toluca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pena, P; Tamez, E; Iturbe, J L; Acosta, A; Segovia, N [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Mexico City (Mexico); Carrillo, J; Armienta, M [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico City (Mexico). Inst. de Geofisica

    1994-12-31

    The presence of radionuclides in underground waters may be an indication of its origin and also the sign of the hydraulic properties of the aquifers layers where circulate. Additionally, the ingestion by human beings of water with radioactive elements (Radon 222, Radium 226, Uranium 238) can give as a result the accumulation of such elements in several organs of the body producing then health damages. In this work, the concentrations of Radon 222, Radium 226 and Uranium 238, in waters coming from deep wells which provide with drinking water the Toluca Valley, were determined. For this purpose, during a year (june 1991 to August 1992) ten wells were sampled with a tracking of the radionuclides concentration as well as the physical-chemical components of water; it was established the relationship presented by the analyzed waters with the local geology and the local and regional systems. (Author).

  11. Analysis of stream quality in the Yampa River Basin, Colorado and Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wentz, Dennis A.; Steele, Timothy Doak

    1980-01-01

    Historic data show no significant water-temperature changes since 1951 for the Little Snake or Yampa Rivers, the two major streams of the Yampa River basin in Colorado and Wyoming. Regional analyses indicate that harmonic-mean temperature is negatively correlated with altitude. No change in specific conductance since 1951 was noted for the Little Snake River; however, specific conductance in the Yampa River has increaed 14 % since that time and is attributed to increased agricultural and municipal use of water. Site-specific relationships between major inorganic constituents and specific conductance for the Little Snake and Yampa Rivers were similar to regional relationships developed from both historic and recent (1975) data. These relationships provide a means for estimating concentrations of major inorganic constituents from specific conductance, which is easily measured. Trace-element and nutrient data collected from August 1975 through September 1976 at 92 sites in the Yampa River basin indicate that water-quality degradation occurred upstream from 3 sites. The degradation resulted from underground drainage from pyritic materials that probably are associated with coal at one site, discharge from powerplant cooling-tower blowdown water at a second site, and runoff from a small watershed containing a gas field at the third site. Ambient concentrations of dissolved and total iron and manganese frequently exceeded proposed Colorado water-quality standards. The concentrations of many dissolved and total trace elements and nutrients were greatest during March 1976. These were associated with larger suspended-sediment concentrations and smaller pH values than at other times of the year. (USGS)

  12. Hydrogeochemical analysis and evaluation of groundwater in the reclaimed small basin of Abu Mina, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Zenhom E.; Atwia, Mohamed G.; El-Horiny, Mohamed M.

    2015-12-01

    Agricultural reclamation activities during the last few decades in the Western Nile Delta have led to great changes in the groundwater levels and quality. In Egypt, changing the desert land into agricultural land has been done using transferred Nile water (through irrigation canal systems) or/and groundwater. This research investigates the hydrogeochemical changes accompanying the reclamation processes in the small basin of Abu Mina, which is part of the Western Nile Delta region. In summer 2008, 23 groundwater samples were collected and groundwater levels were measured in 40 observation wells. Comparing the groundwater data of the pre-reclamation (1974) and the post-reclamation (2008) periods, groundwater seems to have been subjected to many changes: rise in water level, modification of the flow system, improvement of water quality, and addition of new salts through dissolution processes. Generally, Abu Mina basin is subdivided into two areas, recharge and discharge. The dissolution and mixing were recognized in the recharge areas, while the groundwater of the discharge region carries the signature of the diluted pre-reclamation groundwater. The salts of soil and aquifer deposits play an important role in the salt content of the post and pre-reclamation groundwater. NaCl was the predominant water type in the pre-reclamation groundwater, while CaSO4, NaCl and MgSO4 are the common chemical facies in the post-reclamation groundwater. The post-reclamation groundwater mostly indicates mixing between the pre-reclamation groundwater and the infiltrated freshwater with addition of some ions due to interaction with soil and sediments.

  13. Spatial Misfit in Participatory River Basin Management: Effects on Social Learning, a Comparative Analysis of German and French Case Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilke Borowski

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available With the introduction of river basin management, as prescribed by the European Water Framework Directive (WFD, participatory structures are frequently introduced at the hydrological scale without fully adapting them to the decision-making structure. This results in parallel structures and spatial misfits within the institutional settings of river basin governance systems. By analyzing French and German case studies, we show how social learning (SL is impeded by such misfits. We also demonstrate that river basin-scale institutions or actors that link parallel structures are essential for promoting river basins as management entities, and for encouraging SL between actors at the river basin scale. In the multi-scale, multi-level settings of river basin governance, it is difficult to fully exclude spatial misfits. Thus, it is important to take our insights into account in the current transition of water management from the administrative to the hydrological scale to get the greatest benefit from SL processes.

  14. Analysis of the Carmel Valley alluvial ground-water basin, Monterey County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapple, Glenn W.; Mitten, Hugh T.; Durbin, Timothy J.; Johnson, Michael J.

    1984-01-01

    A two-dimensional, finite-element, digital model was developed for the Carmel Valley alluvial ground-water basin using measured, computed, and estimated discharge and recharge data for the basin. Discharge data included evapotranspiration by phreatophytes and agricultural, municipal, and domestic pumpage. Recharge data included river leakage, tributary runoff, and pumping return flow. Recharge from subsurface boundary flow and rainfall infiltration was assumed to be insignificant. From 1974 through 1978, the annual pumping rate ranged from 5,900 to 9,100 acre-feet per year with 55 percent allotted to municipal use principally exported out of the valley, 44 percent to agricultural use, and 1 percent to domestic use. The pumpage return flow within the valley ranged from 900 to 1,500 acre-feet per year. The aquifer properties of transmissivity (about 5,900 feet squared per day) and of the storage coefficient (0.19) were estimated from an average alluvial thickness of 75 feet and from less well-defined data on specific capacity and grain-size distribution. During calibration the values estimated for hydraulic conductivity and storage coefficient for the lower valley were reduced because of the smaller grain size there. The river characteristics were based on field and laboratory analyses of hydraulic conductivity and on altitude survey data. The model is intended principally for simulation of flow conditions using monthly time steps. Time variations in transmissivity and short-term, highrecharge potential are included in the model. The years 1974 through 1978 (including "pre-" and "post-" drought) were selected because of the extreme fluctuation in water levels between the low levels measured during dry years and the above-normal water levels measured during the preceding and following wet years. Also, during this time more hydrologic information was available. Significantly, computed water levels were generally within a few feet of the measured levels, and computed

  15. Sobrepeso y obesidad en preescolares y escolares de una comunidad periurbana de origen otomí del Valle de Toluca, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Liliana Ceballos Juárez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo parte de un objetivo que consistió en diagnosticar el estado nutricional y detectar la incidencia de sobrepeso y obesidad en preescolares y escolares de 4 a 16 años de edad de una comunidad periurbana de origen otomí del municipio de Toluca, Estado de México. Para determinar la prevalencia, se obtuvo el Índice de Masa Corporal (IMC de 2208 preescolares y escolares de tres escuelas de diferentes niveles académicos, primaria y secundaria. En los tres niveles se analizaron las variables de sexo/género y edad, y solo en el nivel de secundaria se introdujo la variable étnica. Los resultados muestran que existen grados escolares de alerta (final de cada nivel escolar, donde la prevalencia de sobre peso aumenta, significativamente, para hombres escolares hasta la edad de 12 años. A nivel de secundaria, las mujeres son las que presentan mayor incidencia de sobrepeso y obesidad, pero el riesgo es mayor cuando no se tienen orígenes otomíes. Se concluye que el IMC puede ser un indicador útil para establecer medidas de prevención antes de los 16 años de edad, pero no suficiente. Es necesario incluir la circunferencia de cintura en la vigilancia nutricional desde la edad preescolar para tamizar a aquellos individuos con obesidad central como marcador de riesgo de enfermedad cardiovascular.

  16. Cambio de uso del suelo y vegetación en el Parque Nacional Nevado de Toluca, México, en el periodo 1972-2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Franco Maass

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Para conocer el estado de conservación del Parque Nacional Nevado de Toluca (PNNT, se analizaron los cambios en el uso del suelo y vegetación ocurridos entre 1972 y el 2000. Para ello fue preciso obtener cartografía digital mediante procesos de digitalización y fotointerpretación. Los mapas obtenidos se basaron en el sistema de clasificación del INEGI, serie 1. La aplicación de un sistema de información geográfica (SIG permitió obtener la densidad de la cobertura forestal y analizar el cambio de uso de suelo y vegetación, identificando los procesos de disminución y/o incremento en la densidad de las zonas forestales. En el periodo estudiado, poco más de 9 700 ha de bosques de pino, latifoliadas u oyamel, sufrieron pérdidas de densidad, esto representó 20% de la superficie del área natural protegida. Las zonas boscosas que mostraron incrementos apenas alcanzaron 4 800 ha. El enfoque metodológico adoptado resultó especialmente válido para obtener información detallada y con un alto nivel de precisión. Dicha información constituye un punto de partida para estudios a profundidad del parque nacional.

  17. Les grandes étapes d'évolution d'un volcan andésitique composite: Exemple du Nevado de Toluca (Méxique)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantagrel, J. M.; Robin, C.; Vincent, P.

    1981-06-01

    The Nevado de Toluca, in the middle of the Mexican volcanic belt, has been built by two very dissimilar phases. The first one that lasted more than one million years is mainly andesitic. Numerous massive and autobrecciated lava flows of this phase pass outwards into thick conglomeratic formations. The volume of this primitive volcano represents the essential part of the Nevado. After an intense periode of erosion, the second phase is of very short duration (about 100.000 years) and is dacitic in nature. Three main episode can be distinguished: 1. Eruption of important ash and pumice pyroclastic flows related to caldera collapse above a shallow magmatic reservoir. 2. Extrusions of several dacitic domes within and outside the caldera with numerous associated «nuées ardentes» surrounding the volcano. 3. Plinian eruption leading to widespread pumiceous air-fall and to the opening of the present crater inside the caldera. Extrusion of a new small dacitic dome and late phreatic explosions. This second sequence of events can be interpreted as the progressive emptying of the crustal magmatic chamber without refilling by a new magma supply. The most recent activity in the area is represented by monogenic cones and flows of basic andesites outside the central vent system of the Nevado.

  18. Sr, Nd and Pb isotope and geochemical data from the Quaternary Nevado de Toluca volcano, a source of recent adakitic magmatism, and the Tenango Volcanic Field, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Serrano, Raymundo G.; Schaaf, Peter; Solís-Pichardo, Gabriela; Hernández-Bernal, Ma. del Sol; Hernández-Treviño, Teodoro; Julio Morales-Contreras, Juan; Macías, José Luis

    2004-11-01

    Volcanic activity at Nevado de Toluca (NT) volcano began 2.6 Ma ago with the emission of andesitic lavas, but over the past 40 ka, eruptions have produced mainly lava flows and pyroclastic deposits of predominantly orthopyroxene-hornblende dacitic composition. In the nearby Tenango Volcanic Field (TVF) pyroclastic products and lava flows ranging in composition from basaltic andesite to andesite were erupted at most of 40 monogenetic volcanic centers and were coeval with the last stages of NT. All volcanic rocks in the study area are characterized by a calc-alkaline affinity that is consistent with a subduction setting. Relatively high concentrations of Sr (>460 ppm) coupled with low Y (45 km) that underlies the volcanoes of the study area, the geochemical and isotopic patterns of these rocks indicate low interaction with this crust. NT volcano was constructed at the intersection of three fault systems, and it seems that the Plio-Quaternary E-W system played an important role in the ascent and storage of magmas during the recent volcanic activity in the two regions. Chemical and textural features of orthopyroxene, amphibole and Fe-Ti oxides from NT suggest that crystallization of magmas occurred at polybaric conditions, confirming the rapid upwelling of magmas.

  19. El visitante del Parque Nacional Nevado de Toluca, México. Análisis del comportamiento en un área natural protegida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maribel Osorio García

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available El artículo expone los resultados de una investigación realizada sobre los visitantes que llegan al Parque Nacional Nevado de Toluca (PNNT ubicado en la región central de México. El estudio resulta novedoso porque se retoman las variables demográficas y psicográficas del análisis de mercado turístico para identificar los perfiles de visitantes de esta área natural. De esta manera, se realiza un análisis estadístico y cartográfico de los datos obtenidos mediante la aplicación de una encuesta estratificada que implicó hacer cruce de variables y el cálculo de desviaciones estándar para algunas de ellas. Finalmente, los resultados se confrontan a partir de los hallazgos de la aún limitada literatura científica producida en torno al visitante del turismo de naturaleza.

  20. El maguey, el pulque y las pulquerías de Toluca, Estado de México, ¿patrimonio gastronómico turístico?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Rojas Rivas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se analiza la viabilidad del maguey, pulque y pulquerías del municipio de Toluca como patrimonio gastronómico turístico. Se identificaron las zonas de producción que proveen de pulque a las pulquerías de la ciudad del mismo nombre. Se aplicaron 346 cuestionarios a habitantes, visitantes y turistas, para conocer la percepción que tienen sobre la bebida. Los resultados muestran que existe un abandono del cultivo del maguey pulquero, ya que algunos municipios aledaños son los que proveen del líquido a los vendedores. Actualmente son pocos los negocios que comercializan la bebida en el lugar, pese a lo cual se tiene una buena percepción sobre ella. Finalmente, para que este patrimonio gastronómico tenga viabilidad turística, es necesario realizar diversas acciones para mejorar la imagen y promoción del pulque y las pulquerías, y así difundir y revalorar este patrimonio en beneficio de quienes lo han preservado.

  1. Walmart en áreas periurbanas de la ciudad de Toluca, México: efectos sociales, económicos y territoriales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Estela Orozco-Hernández

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio, a través de entrevistas aplicadas a los residentes, gerentes, clientes e interpretación cartográfica, caracteriza los efectos sociales, económicos y territoriales que dos tiendas de Walmart (Adolfo López Mateos y Alfredo del Mazo generan en áreas periurbanas de la ciudad de Toluca. La penetración comercial determina la reducción de los costos de localización periférica, la formación de un mercado de lugar de alcance regional, y la organización y uso de la tecnología que mantiene las ventajas competitivas. En esta lógica, la intensidad de uso del territorio muestra la multiplicidad de agentes productivos, actividades económicas, asentamientos humanos y elementos culturales, que identifican la aglomeración comercial como determinante del hecho urbano. No obstante que las externalidades fortalecen las ventajas comparativas del lugar, y los entrevistados las califican positivamente, los efectos negativos plantean el incremento de la vulnerabilidad social y económica local, y la degradación urbana.

  2. Low Temperature Geothermal Play Fairway Analysis For The Appalachian Basin: Phase 1 Revised Report November 18, 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, Teresa E. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States); Richards, Maria C. [Southern Methodist Univ., Dallas, TX (United States); Horowitz, Franklin G. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States); Camp, Erin [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States); Smith, Jared D. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States); Whealton, Calvin A. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States); Stedinger, Jery R. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States); Hornbach, Matthew J. [Southern Methodist Univ., Dallas, TX (United States); Frone, Zachary S. [Southern Methodist Univ., Dallas, TX (United States); Tester, Jefferson W. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States); Anderson, Brian [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States); Welcker, Kelydra [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States); Chickering Pace, Catherine [Southern Methodist Univ., Dallas, TX (United States); He, Xiaoning [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States); Magnani, Maria Beatrice [Southern Methodist Univ., Dallas, TX (United States); Bolat, Rahmi [Southern Methodist Univ., Dallas, TX (United States)

    2016-11-18

    Geothermal energy is an attractive sustainable energy source. Yet project developers need confirmation of the resource base to warrant their time and financial resources. The Geothermal Play Fairway Analysis of the Appalachian Basin evaluated risk metrics that communicate the favorability of potential low-temperature geothermal energy resources in reservoirs more than 1000 m below the surface. This analysis is focused on the direct use of the heat, rather than on electricity production. Four risk factors of concern for direct-use geothermal plays in the Appalachian Basin portions of New York, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia are examined individually, and then in combination: 1) thermal resource quality, 2) natural reservoir quality, 3) induced seismicity, and 4) utilization opportunities. Uncertainty in the risk estimation is quantified. Based on these metrics, geothermal plays in the Appalachian Basin were identified as potentially viable for a variety of direct-use-heat applications. The methodologies developed in this project may be applied in other sedimentary basins as a foundation for low temperature (50-150 °C), direct use geothermal resource, risk, and uncertainty assessment. Three methods with which to combine the four risk factors were used. Among these, the averaging of the individual risk factors indicates the most favorable counties within the study area are the West Virginia counties of Monongalia, Harrison, Lewis (dubbed the Morgantown–Clarksburg play fairway), Putnam, and Kanawha (Charleston play fairway), the New York counties of Chemung and Steuben plus adjacent Bradford county in Pennsylvania (Corning–Ithaca play fairway), and the Pennsylvania counties of Mercer, Crawford, Erie, and Warren, and adjacent Chautauqua county in New York (together, the Meadville–Jamestown play fairway). These higher priority regions are surrounded by broader medium priority zones. Also worthy of additional exploration is a broad region near Pittsburgh

  3. Association analysis between spatiotemporal variation of vegetation greenness and precipitation/temperature in the Yangtze River Basin (China).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Lifang; Wang, Lunche; Singh, Ramesh P; Lai, Zhongping; Jiang, Liangliang; Yao, Rui

    2018-05-23

    The variation in vegetation greenness provides good understanding of the sustainable management and monitoring of land surface ecosystems. The present paper discusses the spatial-temporal changes in vegetation and controlling factors in the Yangtze River Basin (YRB) using Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS) Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) for the period 2001-2013. Theil-Sen Median trend analysis, Pearson correlation coefficients, and residual analysis have been used, which shows decreasing trend of the annual mean NDVI over the whole YRB. Spatially, the regions with significant decreasing trends were mainly located in parts of central YRB, and pronounced increasing trends were observed in parts of the eastern and western YRB. The mean NDVI during spring and summer seasons increased, while it decreased during autumn and winter seasons. The seasonal mean NDVI shows spatial heterogeneity due to the vegetation types. The correlation analysis shows a positive relation between NDVI and temperature over most of the YRB, whereas NDVI and precipitation show a negative correlation. The residual analysis shows an increase in NDVI in parts of eastern and western YRB and the decrease in NDVI in the small part of Yangtze River Delta (YRD) and the mid-western YRB due to human activities. In general, climate factors were the principal drivers of NDVI variation in YRB in recent years.

  4. Integrated Hydrographical Basin Management. Study Case - Crasna River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visescu, Mircea; Beilicci, Erika; Beilicci, Robert

    2017-10-01

    Hydrographical basins are important from hydrological, economic and ecological points of view. They receive and channel the runoff from rainfall and snowmelt which, when adequate managed, can provide fresh water necessary for water supply, irrigation, food industry, animal husbandry, hydrotechnical arrangements and recreation. Hydrographical basin planning and management follows the efficient use of available water resources in order to satisfy environmental, economic and social necessities and constraints. This can be facilitated by a decision support system that links hydrological, meteorological, engineering, water quality, agriculture, environmental, and other information in an integrated framework. In the last few decades different modelling tools for resolving problems regarding water quantity and quality were developed, respectively water resources management. Watershed models have been developed to the understanding of water cycle and pollution dynamics, and used to evaluate the impacts of hydrotechnical arrangements and land use management options on water quantity, quality, mitigation measures and possible global changes. Models have been used for planning monitoring network and to develop plans for intervention in case of hydrological disasters: floods, flash floods, drought and pollution. MIKE HYDRO Basin is a multi-purpose, map-centric decision support tool for integrated hydrographical basin analysis, planning and management. MIKE HYDRO Basin is designed for analyzing water sharing issues at international, national and local hydrographical basin level. MIKE HYDRO Basin uses a simplified mathematical representation of the hydrographical basin including the configuration of river and reservoir systems, catchment hydrology and existing and potential water user schemes with their various demands including a rigorous irrigation scheme module. This paper analyzes the importance and principles of integrated hydrographical basin management and develop a case

  5. Raindrop characteristics analysis (Oct 25, 2015) of natural rainfall in Zhengzhou city of Yellow River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Nana; Lin, Jing; Che, Shuhong; Yang, Xueqin; Li, Weiwei; Shen, Zhenzhou

    2018-03-01

    Raindrop characteristics, including speed and size of raindrops, in Zhengzhou city of Yellow River basin were analyzed through a natural rainfall on the loess slope. Results showed that the process of natural rainfall belonged to a parabola and counts, size and terminal velocity would increase with the rainfall intensity rising. Besides, the size and terminal velocity of natural raindrops were relatively scattered; In the process of individual rainfall, the terminal velocity and its peak value were mainly focused between 1∼5m/s and 3.4m/s, respectively. Size of raindrops were mainly consisted of 0.125-1.25mm, among which the terminal velocity of raindrops with a size of 0.125mm, 0.25mm, 0.375mm, 0.5mm, 0.75mm and 1mm were primarily 0.8-2.6m/s, 1-3.4m/s, 1.4-3.4m/s, 1.8-3.4m/s, 3-4.2m/s and 3.4-5m/s, respectively.

  6. Frasnian reef and basinal strata of West Central Alberta: A combined sedimentological and biostratigraphic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weissenberger, J.A.W. (Imperial Oil Resources Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada))

    1994-03-01

    The depositional history for the Frasnian in the Nordegg area is interpreted and illustrated on cross sections and paleogeographic maps. Carbonate deposition began with the flooding of the West Alberta Arch and the deposition of the upper Swan Hills Formation during the Lower asymmetrica Zone. Transgression in the Middle asymmetrica Zone initiated the basinal Cline Channel and Duvernay Formation shale deposition, while the time equivalent Cooking Lake Formation was deposited on the drowned Swan Hills platform. The overlying lower Leduc Formation shows backstepping and aggradational reef margin stacking patterns. Maximum relief from the carbonate platform to surrounding Duvernay Formation shale during the Upper asymmetrica Zone was 100 m. Aggradation and backstepping was repeated in the Ancyrognathus trianularis Zone, with syndepositional relief reaching 170 m at the Wapiabi Gap reef margin. Platfrom-margin profiles were controlled by physical factors such as dominant wind direction and currents. On the Ram Range the margin backstepped, but then aggraded at Cripple Creek. At Wapiabi Gap, to the north on the Bighorn Range, the margin was dominantly aggradational. Ireton Formation shale deposition was also influenced by currents. In the Lower gigas Zone, the Leduc carbonate platform reached a maximum syndepositional relief at 220 m. A change from dominantly biohermal to biostromal platform margins occurred. A prograding wedge of Ireton Formation shale filled much of the relief in the Cline Channel, while the upper Leduc platform was drowned. Finally, the progradational Nisku Formation was deposited during the Upper gigas Zone. 70 refs., 20 figs.

  7. TCLP Preparation and Analysis of K East Basin Composite Sludge Samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silvers, K.L.; Wagner, J.J.; Steele, R.T.

    2000-01-01

    Sludge samples from the Hanford K East Basin were analyzed by the Toxicity Characterization Leaching Procedure (TCLP) to assist in the appropriate Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCIL4) designation of this material. Sludge samples were collected by Fluor Hanford, Inc. using the consolidated sludge sampling system (system that allows collection of a single sample from multiple sample locations). These samples were shipped to the Postirradiation Testing Laboratory (PTL, 327 Building) and then transferred to the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Radiochemical Processing Laboratory (RPL, 325 Building) for recovery and testing. Two sludge composites were prepared, using the consolidated sludge samples, to represent K East canister sludge (sample KC Can Comp) and K East floor sludge (sample KC Floor Comp). Each composite was extracted in duplicate and analyzed in duplicate following pre-approved(a) TCLP extraction and analyses procedures. In addition, these samples and duplicates were analyzed for total RCRA metals (via acid digestion preparation). The work was conducted in accordance with the requirements of the Hanford Analytical Quality Assurance Requirements Document (HASQARD). A PNNL Quality Assurance Program compliant with J HASQARD was implemented for this effort. The results from the TCLP analyses showed that all RCRA metal concentrations were less than the TCLP limits for both the canister and floor composite samples and their respective duplicates

  8. Late quaternary dynamics in the Madeira river basin, southern Amazonia (Brazil, as revealed by paleomorphological analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ericson H. Hayakawa

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Ancient drainage systems are being increasingly documented in the Amazon basin and their characterization is crucial for reconstructing fluvial evolution in this area. Fluvial morphologies, including elongate belts, are well preserved along the Madeira River. Digital Elevation Model from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission favored the detection of these features even where they are covered by dense rainforest. These paleomorphologies are attributed to the shifting position of past tributaries of the Madeira River through avulsions. These radial paleodrainage networks produced fan-shaped morphologies that resemble distributary megafans. Distinguishing avulsive tributary systems from distributary megafans in the sedimentary record is challenging. Madeira´s paleodrainage reveals the superposition of tributary channels formed by multiple avulsions within a given time period, rather than downstream bifurcation of coexisting channels. Channel avulsion in this Amazonian area during the late Quaternary is related to tectonics due to features as: (i straight lineaments coincident with fault directions; (ii northeastward tilting of the terrain with Quaternary strata; and (iii several drainage anomalies, including frequent orthogonal drainage inflections. These characteristics altogether lead to propose that the radial paleodrainage present at the Madeira River margin results from successive avulsions of tributary channels over time due to tectonics.

  9. Analysis of over-pressure mechanisms in the Uinta Basin, Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McPherson, B.; Bredehoeft, J. [Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    1995-03-01

    Extremely high pore fluid pressures exist in the area of the Altamount/Bluebell oil field in the Uinta basin, Utah. We discuss two possible mechanisms for the cause of these over-pressures in this paper: (1) compaction disequilibrium, and (2) conversion of kerogen to liquid hydrocarbon (oil). Compaction disequilibrium occurs during periods of rapid sedimentation. If the permeability of deeply buried strata is low, then connate water within the rock matrix does not escape rapidly enough as compaction occurs; as sedimentary deposition continues, high pore fluid pressures develop. Conversion of solid kerogen to a liquid generates both a liquid and additional pore space for the liquid to occupy. If the volume of the liquid generated is just sufficient to fill the pore space generated, then there will be no accompanying effect on the pore pressure. If the liquid is less dense than the solid it replaces, then there is more liquid than pore space created; pore pressure will increase, causing flow away from the area of the reaction. Pore pressure is a sensitive measure of the balance between hydrocarbon generation and expulsion from the source into adjacent strata. If high pore pressures exist only where source rocks are thought to be generating oil, then kerogen conversion is a likely over-pressure mechanism. However, if over-pressures are found in low-permeability strata regardless of source rock proximity, then sedimentary compaction is probably a more dominant mechanism.

  10. Exploring forest infrastructures equipment through multivariate analysis: complementarities, gaps and overlaps in the Mediterranean basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Bajocco

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The countries of the Mediterranean basin face several challenges regarding the sustainability of forest ecosystems and the delivery of crucial goods and services that they provide in a context of rapid global changes. Advancing scientific knowledge and foresting innovation is essential to ensure the sustainable management of Mediterranean forests and maximize the potential role of their unique goods and services in building a knowledge-based bioeconomy in the region. In this context, the European project FORESTERRA ("Enhancing FOrest RESearch in the MediTERRAnean through improved coordination and integration” aims at reinforcing the scientific cooperation on Mediterranean forests through an ambitious transnational framework in order to reduce the existing research fragmentation and maximize the effectiveness of forest research activities. Within the FORESTERRA project framework, this work analyzed the infrastructures equipment of the Mediterranean countries belonging to the project Consortium. According to the European Commission, research infrastructures are facilities, resources and services that are used by the scientific communities to conduct research and foster innovation. To the best of our knowledge, the equipment and availability of infrastructures, in terms of experimental sites, research facilities and databases, have only rarely been explored. The aim of this paper was hence to identify complementarities, gaps and overlaps among the different forest research institutes in order to create a scientific network, optimize the resources and trigger collaborations.

  11. Multivariate Regression Analysis and Statistical Modeling for Summer Extreme Precipitation over the Yangtze River Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Gao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Extreme precipitation is likely to be one of the most severe meteorological disasters in China; however, studies on the physical factors affecting precipitation extremes and corresponding prediction models are not accurately available. From a new point of view, the sensible heat flux (SHF and latent heat flux (LHF, which have significant impacts on summer extreme rainfall in Yangtze River basin (YRB, have been quantified and then selections of the impact factors are conducted. Firstly, a regional extreme precipitation index was applied to determine Regions of Significant Correlation (RSC by analyzing spatial distribution of correlation coefficients between this index and SHF, LHF, and sea surface temperature (SST on global ocean scale; then the time series of SHF, LHF, and SST in RSCs during 1967–2010 were selected. Furthermore, other factors that significantly affect variations in precipitation extremes over YRB were also selected. The methods of multiple stepwise regression and leave-one-out cross-validation (LOOCV were utilized to analyze and test influencing factors and statistical prediction model. The correlation coefficient between observed regional extreme index and model simulation result is 0.85, with significant level at 99%. This suggested that the forecast skill was acceptable although many aspects of the prediction model should be improved.

  12. Hydrological simulation and uncertainty analysis using the improved TOPMODEL in the arid Manas River basin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Lianqing; Yang, Fan; Yang, Changbing; Wei, Guanghui; Li, Wenqian; He, Xinlin

    2018-01-11

    Understanding the mechanism of complicated hydrological processes is important for sustainable management of water resources in an arid area. This paper carried out the simulations of water movement for the Manas River Basin (MRB) using the improved semi-distributed Topographic hydrologic model (TOPMODEL) with a snowmelt model and topographic index algorithm. A new algorithm is proposed to calculate the curve of topographic index using internal tangent circle on a conical surface. Based on the traditional model, the improved indicator of temperature considered solar radiation is used to calculate the amount of snowmelt. The uncertainty of parameters for the TOPMODEL model was analyzed using the generalized likelihood uncertainty estimation (GLUE) method. The proposed model shows that the distribution of the topographic index is concentrated in high mountains, and the accuracy of runoff simulation has certain enhancement by considering radiation. Our results revealed that the performance of the improved TOPMODEL is acceptable and comparable to runoff simulation in the MRB. The uncertainty of the simulations resulted from the parameters and structures of model, climatic and anthropogenic factors. This study is expected to serve as a valuable complement for widely application of TOPMODEL and identify the mechanism of hydrological processes in arid area.

  13. Basin Scale Assessment of Landslides Geomorphological Setting by Advanced InSAR Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Bozzano

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available An extensive investigation of more than 90 landslides affecting a small river basin in Central Italy was performed by combining field surveys and remote sensing techniques. We thus defined the geomorphological setting of slope instability processes. Basic information, such as landslides mapping and landslides type definition, have been acquired thanks to geomorphological field investigations and multi-temporal aerial photos interpretation, while satellite SAR archive data (acquired by ERS and Envisat from 1992 to 2010 have been analyzed by means of A-DInSAR (Advanced Differential Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar techniques to evaluate landslides past displacements patterns. Multi-temporal assessment of landslides state of activity has been performed basing on geomorphological evidence criteria and past ground displacement measurements obtained by A-DInSAR. This step has been performed by means of an activity matrix derived from information achieved thanks to double orbital geometry. Thanks to this approach we also achieved more detailed knowledge about the landslides kinematics in time and space.

  14. Chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) variability in Barataria Basin using excitation-emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence and parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shatrughan; D'Sa, Eurico J; Swenson, Erick M

    2010-07-15

    Chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) variability in Barataria Basin, Louisiana, USA,was examined by excitation emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence combined with parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC). CDOM optical properties of absorption and fluorescence at 355nm along an axial transect (36 stations) during March, April, and May 2008 showed an increasing trend from the marine end member to the upper basin with mean CDOM absorption of 11.06 + or - 5.01, 10.05 + or - 4.23, 11.67 + or - 6.03 (m(-)(1)) and fluorescence 0.80 + or - 0.37, 0.78 + or - 0.39, 0.75 + or - 0.51 (RU), respectively. PARAFAC analysis identified two terrestrial humic-like (component 1 and 2), one non-humic like (component 3), and one soil derived humic acid like (component 4) components. The spatial variation of the components showed an increasing trend from station 1 (near the mouth of basin) to station 36 (end member of bay; upper basin). Deviations from this increasing trend were observed at a bayou channel with very high chlorophyll-a concentrations especially for component 3 in May 2008 that suggested autochthonous production of CDOM. The variability of components with salinity indicated conservative mixing along the middle part of the transect. Component 1 and 4 were found to be relatively constant, while components 2 and 3 revealed an inverse relationship for the sampling period. Total organic carbon showed increasing trend for each of the components. An increase in humification and a decrease in fluorescence indices along the transect indicated an increase in terrestrial derived organic matter and reduced microbial activity from lower to upper basin. The use of these indices along with PARAFAC results improved dissolved organic matter characterization in the Barataria Basin. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. EVIDENCE FOR LADINIAN (MIDDLE TRIASSIC PLATFORM PROGRADATION IN THE GYULAKESZI AREA, TAPOLCA BASIN, WESTERN HUNGARY: MICROFACIES ANALYSIS AND BIOSTRATIGRAPHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZSOLT RÓBERT NAGY

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A shallowing-upward carbonate sequence was studied from the outcrop at Gyulakeszi, Tapolca Basin (western Hungary, and it is interpreted as a Middle Triassic (Curionii or younger platform progradation. Two lithostratigraphic units are distinguished. Microfacies analysis and micropaleontological investigation conducted on the red nodular, cherty limestone (Vászoly and Buchenstein formations suggest that the lower unit was deposited during the Reitzi and the Secedensis ammonoid zones. The overlying white platform limestone (upper unit is typical of a prograding platform and includes gravity-driven deposits at the base followed by periplatform facies deposited in shallow marine warm waters around the fair-weather wave base. The section at Gyulakeszi was unaffected by fabric-destructive dolomitization, which is uncharacteristic of similar platform facies in the Balaton Highland. Isopachous and radiaxial fibrous calcite cement found in the grainstone and boundstone facies are indicative of early lithification and diagenesis in the marine phreatic zone. “Evinospongiae”-type cement is described for the first time from the Balaton Highland and it is similar to the outer platform cements published previously from the Alps (Italy and Austria. The progradation could have advanced over the pelagic limestones as early as the Curionii zone, which is an undocumented event in the Veszprém Plateau. Similar event, however, is well known from the Western Dolomites, where aggradation was followed by intense progradation during the Gredleri and Archelaus ammonoid zones. The length of this progradation event at Gyulakeszi, however, is ambiguous since proven Ladinian (Longobardian rocks are not exposed in the study area and were not penetrated by boreholes in the Tapolca Basin.

  16. Analysis of Critical Permeabilty, Capillary Pressure and Electrical Properties for Mesaverde Tight Gas Sandstones from Western U.S. Basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alan Byrnes; Robert Cluff; John Webb; John Victorine; Ken Stalder; Daniel Osburn; Andrew Knoderer; Owen Metheny; Troy Hommertzheim; Joshua Byrnes; Daniel Krygowski; Stefani Whittaker

    2008-06-30

    Although prediction of future natural gas supply is complicated by uncertainty in such variables as demand, liquefied natural gas supply price and availability, coalbed methane and gas shale development rate, and pipeline availability, all U.S. Energy Information Administration gas supply estimates to date have predicted that Unconventional gas sources will be the dominant source of U.S. natural gas supply for at least the next two decades (Fig. 1.1; the period of estimation). Among the Unconventional gas supply sources, Tight Gas Sandstones (TGS) will represent 50-70% of the Unconventional gas supply in this time period (Fig. 1.2). Rocky Mountain TGS are estimated to be approximately 70% of the total TGS resource base (USEIA, 2005) and the Mesaverde Group (Mesaverde) sandstones represent the principal gas productive sandstone unit in the largest Western U.S. TGS basins including the basins that are the focus of this study (Washakie, Uinta, Piceance, northern Greater Green River, Wind River, Powder River). Industry assessment of the regional gas resource, projection of future gas supply, and exploration programs require an understanding of reservoir properties and accurate tools for formation evaluation. The goal of this study is to provide petrophysical formation evaluation tools related to relative permeability, capillary pressure, electrical properties and algorithms for wireline log analysis. Detailed and accurate moveable gas-in-place resource assessment is most critical in marginal gas plays and there is need for quantitative tools for definition of limits on gas producibility due to technology and rock physics and for defining water saturation. The results of this study address fundamental questions concerning: (1) gas storage; (2) gas flow; (3) capillary pressure; (4) electrical properties; (5) facies and upscaling issues; (6) wireline log interpretation algorithms; and (7) providing a web-accessible database of advanced rock properties. The following text

  17. Multivariate hydrological frequency analysis for extreme events using Archimedean copula. Case study: Lower Tunjuelo River basin (Colombia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Wilmar

    2017-04-01

    By analyzing the spatial and temporal variability of extreme precipitation events we can prevent or reduce the threat and risk. Many water resources projects require joint probability distributions of random variables such as precipitation intensity and duration, which can not be independent with each other. The problem of defining a probability model for observations of several dependent variables is greatly simplified by the joint distribution in terms of their marginal by taking copulas. This document presents a general framework set frequency analysis bivariate and multivariate using Archimedean copulas for extreme events of hydroclimatological nature such as severe storms. This analysis was conducted in the lower Tunjuelo River basin in Colombia for precipitation events. The results obtained show that for a joint study of the intensity-duration-frequency, IDF curves can be obtained through copulas and thus establish more accurate and reliable information from design storms and associated risks. It shows how the use of copulas greatly simplifies the study of multivariate distributions that introduce the concept of joint return period used to represent the needs of hydrological designs properly in frequency analysis.

  18. Analysis of power loss data for the 200 Area Tank Farms in support of K Basin SAR work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shultz, M.V. Jr.

    1994-12-01

    An analysis of power loss data for the 200 Area Tank Farms was performed in support of K Basin safety analysis report work. The purpose of the analysis was to establish a relationship between the length of a power outage and its yearly frequency. This relationship can be used to determine whether the duration of a specific power loss is a risk concern. The information was developed from data contained in unusual occurrence reports (UORs) spanning a continuous period of 19.75 years. The average frequency of power loss calculated from the UOR information is 1.22 events per year. The mean of the power loss duration is 32.5 minutes an the median duration is 2 minutes. Nine events resulted in loss of power to both 200 East and 200 West areas simultaneously. Seven events (not necessarily the same events that resulted in loss of power to both 200 areas) resulted in outage durations exceeding 5 minutes. Approximately one-half of the events were caused by human error. The other half resulted from natural phenomena or equipment failures. None of the outages were reported to have any adverse effect on the tank farms

  19. Annual compilation and analysis of hydrologic data for Escondido Creek, San Antonio River basin, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, D.R.

    1971-01-01

    IntroductionHistory of Small Watershed Projects in TexasThe U.S. Soil Conservation Service is actively engaged in the installation of flood and soil erosion reducing measures in Texas under the authority of the "Flood Control Act of 1936 and 1944" and "Watershed Protection and Flood Prevention Act" (Public Law 566), as amended. The Soil Conservation Service has found a total of approximately 3,500 floodwater-retarding structures to be physically and economically feasible in Texas. As of September 30, 1970, 1,439 of these structures had been built.This watershed-development program will have varying but important effects on the surface and ground-water resources of river basins, especially where a large number of the floodwater-retarding structures are built. Basic hydrologic data under natural and developed conditions are needed to appraise the effects of the structures on the yield and mode of occurrence of runoff.Hydrologic investigations of these small watersheds were begun by the Geological Survey in 1951 and are now being made in 12 study areas (fig. 1). These investigations are being made in cooperation with the Texas Water Development Board, the Soil Conservation Service, the San Antonio River Authority, the city of Dallas, and the Tarrant County Water Control and Improvement District No. 1. The 12 study areas were chosen to sample watershed having different rainfall, topography, geology, and soils. In five of the study areas, (North, Little Elm, Mukewater, little Pond-North Elm, and Pin Oak Creeks), streamflow and rainfall records were collected prior to construction of the floodwater-retarding structures, thus affording the opportunity for analyses of the conditions "before and after" development. A summary of the development of the floodwater-retarding structures in each study areas of September 30, 1970, is shown in table 1.Objectives of the Texas Small Watersheds ProjectThe purpose of these investigations is to collect sufficient data to meeting the

  20. Unintended pregnancy in the amazon basin of Ecuador: a multilevel analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    San Sebastian Miguel

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been estimated that each year 80 million women in the world experience an unintended pregnancy. In Ecuador, recent research has revealed that 36.3% of total births are unintended; the research also details significant geographical, ethnic and socioeconomic variations. These studies focused on individual risk factors and were based on large national surveys where local samples, particularly from rural remote areas, were small. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of contextual and individual factors on unintended pregnancies in the Amazon Basin of Ecuador. Methods Women aged 15-44 were selected through an ongoing community-based cross-sectional survey conducted in the Orellana province between May and December 2006. Data were fitted using multilevel logistic regression, adjusting for both individual-level and community-level factors as fixed effects and allowing for heterogeneity between communities. Results The overall prevalence of unintended pregnancy was 62.7%. Two-thirds (73.7% of indigenous women reported having had at least one unintended pregnancy. Being young, single, and indigenous were significant risk factors for unintended pregnancy, alongside having low access to education and having more than two children. No relationship was found between socioeconomic status and the use of contraceptives. All the variation between communities was explained by individual-level factors. Conclusions This study showed the significance of individual factors in increasing the risk of unintended pregnancy, while the role of community factors was found to be negligible. In order for all women to be able to realize their right to reproductive autonomy, there needs to be a diverse range of solutions, with particular attention paid to cultural issues.

  1. Forensic analysis of tertiary-butyl alcohol (TBA) detections in a hydrocarbon-rich groundwater basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quast, Konrad W; Levine, Audrey D; Kester, Janet E; Fordham, Carolyn L

    2016-04-01

    Tertiary-butyl alcohol (TBA), a high-production volume (HPV) chemical, was sporadically detected in groundwater and coalbed methane (CBM) wells in southeastern Colorado's hydrocarbon-rich Raton Basin. TBA concentrations in shallow water wells averaged 75.1 μg/L, while detections in deeper CBM wells averaged 14.4 μg/L. The detection of TBA prompted a forensic investigation to try to identify potential sources. Historic and recent data were reviewed to determine if there was a discernable pattern of TBA occurrence. Supplemental samples from domestic water wells, monitor wells, CBM wells, surface waters, and hydraulic fracturing (HF) fluids were analyzed for TBA in conjunction with methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) and ethyl tertiary-butyl ether (ETBE), proxies for evidence of contamination from reformulated gasoline or associated oxygenates. Exploratory microbiological sampling was conducted to determine if methanotrophic organisms co-occurred with TBA in individual wells. Meaningful comparisons of historic TBA data were limited due to widely varying reporting limits. Mapping of TBA occurrence did not reveal any spatial patterns or physical associations with CBM operations or contamination plumes. Additionally, TBA was not detected in HF fluids or surface water samples. Given the widespread use of TBA in industrial and consumer products, including water well completion materials, it is likely that multiple diffuse sources exist. Exploratory data on stable isotopes, dissolved gases, and microbial profiling provide preliminary evidence that methanotrophic activity may be producing TBA from naturally occurring isobutane. Reported TBA concentrations were significantly below a conservative risk-based drinking water screening level of 8000 μg/L derived from animal toxicity data.

  2. Regional precipitation trend analysis at the Langat River Basin, Selangor, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palizdan, Narges; Falamarzi, Yashar; Huang, Yuk Feng; Lee, Teang Shui; Ghazali, Abdul Halim

    2014-08-01

    Various hydrological and meteorological variables such as rainfall and temperature have been affected by global climate change. Any change in the pattern of precipitation can have a significant impact on the availability of water resources, agriculture, and the ecosystem. Therefore, knowledge on rainfall trend is an important aspect of water resources management. In this study, the regional annual and seasonal precipitation trends at the Langat River Basin, Malaysia, for the period of 1982-2011 were examined at the 95 % level of significance using the regional average Mann-Kendall (RAMK) test and the regional average Mann-Kendall coupled with bootstrap (RAMK-bootstrap) method. In order to identify the homogeneous regions respectively for the annual and seasonal scales, firstly, at-site mean total annual and separately at-site mean total seasonal precipitation were spatialized into 5 km × 5 km grids using the inverse distance weighting (IDW) algorithm. Next, the optimum number of homogeneous regions (clusters) is computed using the silhouette coefficient approach. Next, the homogeneous regions were formed using the K-mean clustering method. From the annual scale perspective, all three regions showed positive trends. However, the application of two methods at this scale showed a significant trend only in the region AC1. The region AC2 experienced a significant positive trend using only the RAMK test. On a seasonal scale, all regions showed insignificant trends, except the regions I1C1 and I1C2 in the Inter-Monsoon 1 (INT1) season which experienced significant upward trends. In addition, it was proven that the significance of trends has been affected by the existence of serial and spatial correlations.

  3. Data Basin Aquatic Center: expanding access to aquatic conservation data, analysis tools, people and practical answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne-Gowey, J.; Strittholt, J.; Bergquist, J.; Ward, B. C.; Sheehan, T.; Comendant, T.; Bachelet, D. M.

    2009-12-01

    The world’s aquatic resources are experiencing anthropogenic pressures on an unprecedented scale and aquatic organisms are experiencing widespread population changes and ecosystem-scale habitat alterations. Climate change is likely to exacerbate these threats, in some cases reducing the range of native North American fishes by 20-100% (depending on the location of the population and the model assumptions). Scientists around the globe are generating large volumes of data that vary in quality, format, supporting documentation, and accessibility. Moreover, diverse models are being run at various temporal and spatial scales as scientists attempt to understand previous (and project future) human impacts to aquatic species and their habitats. Conservation scientists often struggle to synthesize this wealth of information for developing practical on-the-ground management strategies. As a result, the best available science is often not utilized in the decision-making and adaptive management processes. As aquatic conservation problems around the globe become more serious and the demand to solve them grows more urgent, scientists and land-use managers need a new way to bring strategic, science-based, and action-oriented approaches to aquatic conservation. The Conservation Biology Institute (CBI), with partners such as ESRI, is developing an Aquatic Center as part of a dynamic, web-based resource (Data Basin; http: databasin.org) that centralizes usable aquatic datasets and provides analytical tools to visualize, analyze, and communicate findings for practical applications. To illustrate its utility, we present example datasets of varying spatial scales and synthesize multiple studies to arrive at novel solutions to aquatic threats.

  4. Modelling nutrient fluxes from source to river load : a macroscopic analysis applied to the Rhine and Elbe basins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wit, de M.

    2000-01-01

    In many European rivers, including the major streams of the Rhine and Elbe basins, the nutrient load (N and P) still exceeds target levels. In this paper, a model is presented that describes the river nutrient load as a function of nutrient sources, runoff and lithology in the upstream basin. The

  5. Phenological response of vegetation to upstream river flow in the Heihe Rive basin by time series analysis of MODIS data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jia, L.; Shang, H.L.; Hu, G.; Menenti, M.

    2011-01-01

    Liquid and solid precipitation is abundant in the high elevation, upper reach of the Heihe River basin in northwestern China. The development of modern irrigation schemes in the middle reach of the basin is taking up an increasing share of fresh water resources, endangering the oasis and traditional

  6. Analysis of metallogenic conditions of sandstone type uranium deposits in interlayer oxidation zone in the northwest of Junggar basin, Xinjiang

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Shuangxing

    1997-01-01

    From various aspects such as the basin structures, structure features of the sedimentary cover, lithofacies features of basin sediments, geochemical characteristics of sedimentary rocks, regional hydrogeologic conditions and epigenetic reworking of the sedimentary cover and so on, the author analyzes the metallogenic conditions of sandstone type uranium deposits in interlayer oxidation zone in the northwest of Junggar basin. The author proposes that the area has abundant uranium sources, and possesses favourable stratigraphic combinations for the development of interlayer oxidation zone. Secondarily oxidized sandstone bodies present universally at places from the source area to stream channel facies. Reducing beds and secondarily reducing barrier are developed at the front of the secondarily oxidized sandstone body. The tectonic features of the sedimentary cover indicate that the area belongs to a relatively-stable suborogenic region and possesses secondary mobilization and reworking conditions during the uplifting and contraction stage of the basin. Epigenetic metallization is evident in the sedimentary cover of the basin

  7. A sedimentological analysis of sediments corresponding to the San Gregorio Formation )Lower Permian), located in the eastern border of the North Uruguayan Basin, Sierra Guazunambi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goso Aguilar, C.; Gama, E.

    1998-01-01

    A sedimentological analysis of sediments corresponding to the San Gregorio Formation (Lower Permian), located in the eastern border of the Norte Uruguayan Basin, Sierra Guazunambi, Cerro Largo Departament was made. Facies analysis of about 100 otucrops fand more than 1.300 meters, in an area of 45 square kilometers showed diamictites rhytmites and massive sandstones, formed by gravitational sedimentary flows. Also present are prodelta mudrocks and deltaic front sandstones.(author)

  8. Testing a river basin model with sensitivity analysis and autocalibration for an agricultural catchment in SW Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. TATTARI

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Modeling tools are needed to assess (i the amounts of loading from agricultural sources to water bodies as well as (ii the alternative management options in varying climatic conditions. These days, the implementation of Water Framework Directive (WFD has put totally new requirements also for modeling approaches. The physically based models are commonly not operational and thus the usability of these models is restricted for a few selected catchments. But the rewarding feature of these process-based models is an option to study the effect of protection measures on a catchment scale and, up to a certain point, a possibility to upscale the results. In this study, the parameterization of the SWAT model was developed in terms of discharge dynamics and nutrient loads, and a sensitivity analysis regarding discharge and sediment concentration was made. The SWAT modeling exercise was carried out for a 2nd order catchment (Yläneenjoki, 233 km2 of the Eurajoki river basin in southwestern Finland. The Yläneenjoki catchment has been intensively monitored during the last 14 years. Hence, there was enough background information available for both parameter setup and calibration. In addition to load estimates, SWAT also offers possibility to assess the effects of various agricultural management actions like fertilization, tillage practices, choice of cultivated plants, buffer strips, sedimentation ponds and constructed wetlands (CWs on loading. Moreover, information on local agricultural practices and the implemented and planned protective measures were readily available thanks to aware farmers and active authorities. Here, we studied how CWs can reduce the nutrient load at the outlet of the Yläneenjoki river basin. The results suggested that sensitivity analysis and autocalibration tools incorporated in the model are useful by pointing out the most influential parameters, and that flow dynamics and annual loading values can be modeled with reasonable

  9. O estilo de vida de pacientes hipertensos de um programa de exercício aeróbico: estudo na Cidade de Toluca, México El estilo de vida de pacientes hipertensos de un programa de ejercicio aerobio: estudio en la Ciudad de Toluca, México The life style of the hypertensive patient of a program of aerobic exercise: study in the Toluca City, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleotilde Garci Reza

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A hipertensão arterial, assintomática e desconhecida pela maioria dos seus por tadores, é importante fator de risco para complicações cardiovasculares e renais. Este é um estudo quantitativo e descritivo. Objetivou identificar os estilos de vida associados ao incremento do descontrole da pressão ar terial em pacientes hipertensos que acodem a um programa de exercício. A coleta dos dados ocorreu num centro de saúde do município do Toluca, México, durante agosto 2006 a março 2007. Foi utilizado um questionário aplicado a 200 pacientes hipertensos, através do referencial do "Modelo de Campo de Saúde da Lalonde". O estudo mostrou que o nível de pressão do grupo estudado possui relação estatisticamente significativa com o tabagismo, consumo de álcool e tratamento. A falta do controle da pressão arterial pode propiciar a evolução de doenças cardiovasculares e coronárias.La hipertensión arterial es asintomatica y desconocida por la mayorías de sus portadores y es un impor tante factor de riesgo para complicaciones cardiovasculares y renales. Este es un estudio cuantitativo y descriptivo. Con el objetivo de evaluar el estilo de vida de pacientes hiper tensos registrados en un programa de ejercicio aerobio. La colecta de los datos ocurrió en un centro de salud del municipio de Toluca, México, durante agosto de 2006 a marzo de 2007. Fue utilizado un cuestionario aplicado a 200 pacientes hiper tensos, a través del referencial del "Modelo Campo de Salud de Lalonde". El estudio muestra que existe relación estadística entre los niveles de presión ar terial, con el tabaquismo, consumo de alcohol, y el tratamiento. La falta del control de la presión arterial puede propiciar la evolución de enfermedades cardiovasculares y coronarias.Hypertension is an asymptomatic and an unnoticed disease for the majority of hypertensive individuals and an important long-term factor of risk for cardiovascular and renal complications. It is

  10. Analysis and prediction of reference evapotranspiration with climate change in Xiangjiang River Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-e Tao

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Reference evapotranspiration (ET0 is often used to estimate actual evapotranspiration in water balance studies. In this study, the present and future spatial distributions and temporal trends of ET0 in the Xiangjiang River Basin (XJRB in China were analyzed. ET0 during the period from 1961 to 2010 was calculated with historical meteorological data using the FAO Penman-Monteith (FAO P-M method, while ET0 during the period from 2011 to 2100 was downscaled from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5 outputs under two emission scenarios, representative concentration pathway 4.5 and representative concentration pathway 8.5 (RCP45 and RCP85, using the statistical downscaling model (SDSM. The spatial distribution and temporal trend of ET0 were interpreted with the inverse distance weighted (IDW method and Mann-Kendall test method, respectively. Results show that: (1 the mean annual ET0 of the XJRB is 1 006.3 mm during the period from 1961 to 2010, and the lowest and highest values are found in the northeast and northwest parts due to the high latitude and spatial distribution of climatic factors, respectively; (2 the SDSM performs well in simulating the present ET0 and can be used to predict the future ET0 in the XJRB; and (3 CMIP5 predicts upward trends in annual ET0 under the RCP45 and RCP85 scenarios during the period from 2011 to 2100. Compared with the reference period (1961–1990, ET0 increases by 9.8%, 12.6%, and 15.6% under the RCP45 scenario and 10.2%, 19.1%, and 27.3% under the RCP85 scenario during the periods from 2011 to 2040, from 2041 to 2070, and from 2071 to 2100, respectively. The predicted increasing ET0 under the RCP85 scenario is greater than that under the RCP45 scenario during the period from 2011 to 2100.

  11. Demographic monitoring and population viability analysis of two rare beardtongues from the Uinta Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaffery, Rebecca M.; Reisor, Rita; Irvine, Kathryn M.; Brunson, Jessi

    2014-01-01

    Energy development, in combination with other environmental stressors, poses a persistent threat to rare species endemic to the energy-producing regions of the Western United States. Demographic analyses of monitored populations can provide key information on the natural dynamics of threatened plant and animal populations, and how they might be affected by ongoing and future development. In the Uinta Basin in Utah and Colorado, Graham’s beardtongue (Penstemon grahamii) and White River beardtongue (Penstemon scariosus var. albifluvis) are two rare endemic wildflowers that persist on oil shale habitats heavily impacted by current energy exploration and development, and slated for expanded traditional drilling and oil shale development. We described demographic characteristics and population viability for two populations of each species that have been monitored since 2004. First, we measured population size, survival rates, transitions between life stages, and recruitment using individually marked plants at the four study areas. Then, we used matrix population models to determine stochastic population growth rates (λ) and the probability that each population would persist 50 years into the future, given current conditions. The two P. grahamii study plots had small populations averaging 70 adult plants, and relatively constant and high survival in both vegetative and flowering plants. The two P. scariosus var. albifluvis study plots had populations that averaged 120 adult plants, with high and stable survival in flowering plants and variable survival in vegetative plants. Recruitment of new seedlings into all populations was low and variable, with most recruitment occurring in one or two years. Both P. grahamii populations had λ near 1.0 (stable). One P. scariosus var. albifluvis population appeared to be declining (λ=0.97), while the other was increasing (λ=1.16). Our analyses reveal populations that appear relatively stable, but that are

  12. Determination of REE and U in agricultural soils from Jaguari River basin, Sao Paulo, by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruby, E.C.; Modesto, R.P.; Lemos, M.M.G.

    2009-01-01

    Uranium has the highest atomic weight of the naturally occurring elements. It is weakly radioactive and occurs naturally in low concentrations (a few parts per million) in soil, rock and water. The rare earth elements (REE) form the largest chemically coherent group in the periodic table. The versatility and specificity of the REE have given them a level of technological, environmental, and economic importance considerably greater than might be expected. The objective of this work was to determine the concentration of the lanthanides (La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Yb and Lu), and U, considering the soil use and occupation from the Jaguari river basin, Sao Paulo. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) was used for the REE and U analysis The study area is located in a traditional agricultural area which is nowadays one of the main industrial regions of Brazil. In order to evaluate the quality of these soils in relation to lanthanides and U levels, the obtained concentrations were compared to guiding values reported by environmental protection agencies. The 75th percentile for U in agricultural soils (2.76 mg kg- 1 ) was higher than in the control areas (1.61 mg kg -1 ), but much lower than the maximum allowed concentration for soils in The Netherlands (28.3 mg kg -1 ). The lanthanides presented concentration levels higher than the guiding values of the RIVM - -National Institute for Public Health and the Environment guidelines. (author)

  13. Shale gas characterization based on geochemical and geophysical analysis: Case study of Brown shale, Pematang formation, Central Sumatra Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haris, A.; Nastria, N.; Soebandrio, D.; Riyanto, A.

    2017-07-01

    Geochemical and geophysical analyses of shale gas have been carried out in Brown Shale, Middle Pematang Formation, Central Sumatra Basin. The paper is aimed at delineating the sweet spot distribution of potential shale gas reservoir, which is based on Total Organic Carbon (TOC), Maturity level data, and combined with TOC modeling that refers to Passey and Regression Multi Linear method. We used 4 well data, side wall core and 3D pre-stack seismic data. Our analysis of geochemical properties is based on well log and core data and its distribution are constrained by a framework of 3D seismic data, which is transformed into acoustic impedance. Further, the sweet spot of organic-rich shale is delineated by mapping TOC, which is extracted from inverted acoustic impedance. Our experiment analysis shows that organic materials contained in the formation of Middle Pematang Brown Shale members have TOC range from 0.15 to 2.71 wt.%, which is classified in the quality of poor to very good. In addition, the maturity level of organic material is ranging from 373°C to 432°C, which is indicated by vitrinite reflectance (Ro) of 0.58. In term of kerogen type, this Brown shale formation is categorized as kerogen type of II I III, which has the potential to generate a mixture of gasIoil on the environment.

  14. Micro-PIXE analysis of varied sulfide populations from the Ventersdorp Contact Reef, Witwatersrand Basin, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimold, W. U.; Przybylowicz, W.; Koeberl, C.

    1999-10-01

    Micro-PIXE spot analysis and true elemental imaging of pyrrhotite and pyrite crystals from the Ventersdorp Contact Reef (VCR) of the Witwatersrand basin, the world's most important gold resource, are reported. The objective was to evaluate the use of this technique with regard to its analytical resolution concerning the detection limits for the elements encountered in these samples and their spatial distribution. Furthermore, this project was designed to identify chemical signatures characteristic for particular textural types of VCR sulfides. Micro-PIXE is indeed a highly useful technique for the analysis of such materials and provided results that could not be obtained by optical and SEM microscopy and electron probe microanalysis (EPMA). Micro-inclusions could be made visible through elemental area scanning. Chemical zonation in the interior of apparently homogeneous grains was detected, which has obvious implications for the interpretation of the multi-stage evolution of Witwatersrand mineralization. The available data do not yet allow unambiguous chemical classification of different sulfide types (generations), but a distinct late growth of As-enriched sulfide was detected. These late overgrowths may be enriched in Ni or not. No unambiguous relation between As and Au could be observed in these samples.

  15. Irradiation of quartz grains - a new method of sedimentological analysis applied to Permian - Carboniferous arenites in the Maranhao Basin - Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carmo Faria Junior, L.E. do

    1980-01-01

    The quartz grains of sediments and sedimentary rocks change their colour in variable intensity to smoky-quartz by X-ray irradiation, Co 60 or in reactors, dependent on their temperature of cristallization. The quantity of quartz grains which were stained and which were not stained after being irradiated are related to rock types from the source areas. This method was applied for selected sandstones of different stratigraphical levels of the Permian-Carboniferous in the Maranhao Basin of Brazil. Studeis on heavy minerals of these sandstones have been done before. The heavy mineral associations of the Permian Pedra de Fogo Formation corroborate the results of the analysis of quartz grains which indicate a predominance of the metamorphic rocks in the source area. However, the heavy mineral parageneses of the Carboniferous Piaui Formation are different. This may be because the frequency of those heavy minerals depend directly on the stage of the weathering of the sandstones. It should be mentioned that heavy minerals occur in paleozoic sediments only in a small quantity, sometimes below 1% of the rock constitution. The irradiation analysis, which is applied for the predominant mineral in sandstones, appears to be most reliable. It is used here as the basis for the interpretations presented. (Author) [pt

  16. Multireaction equilibrium geothermometry: A sensitivity analysis using data from the Lower Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Jonathan M.; Hurwitz, Shaul; Lowenstern, Jacob B.; Nordstrom, D. Kirk; McCleskey, R. Blaine

    2016-01-01

    A multireaction chemical equilibria geothermometry (MEG) model applicable to high-temperature geothermal systems has been developed over the past three decades. Given sufficient data, this model provides more constraint on calculated reservoir temperatures than classical chemical geothermometers that are based on either the concentration of silica (SiO2), or the ratios of cation concentrations. A set of 23 chemical analyses from Ojo Caliente Spring and 22 analyses from other thermal features in the Lower Geyser Basin of Yellowstone National Park are used to examine the sensitivity of calculated reservoir temperatures using the GeoT MEG code (Spycher et al. 2013, 2014) to quantify the effects of solute concentrations, degassing, and mineral assemblages on calculated reservoir temperatures. Results of our analysis demonstrate that the MEG model can resolve reservoir temperatures within approximately ±15°C, and that natural variation in fluid compositions represents a greater source of variance in calculated reservoir temperatures than variations caused by analytical uncertainty (assuming ~5% for major elements). The analysis also suggests that MEG calculations are particularly sensitive to variations in silica concentration, the concentrations of the redox species Fe(II) and H2S, and that the parameters defining steam separation and CO2 degassing from the liquid may be adequately determined by numerical optimization. Results from this study can provide guidance for future applications of MEG models, and thus provide more reliable information on geothermal energy resources during exploration.

  17. Evaluación de métales y no métales en la fracción fina de partículas atmosféricas de la Zona Metropolitana del Valle de Toluca

    OpenAIRE

    Barbosa Sánchez, Ana Larissa

    2015-01-01

    La Zona Metropolitana del Valle de Toluca (ZMVT) registra altos niveles de partículas finas atmosféricas (PM2.5) que impactan procesos atmosféricos e inducen efectos adversos en la salud de la población, no obstante este contaminante ha sido insuficientemente estimado. El objetivo del trabajo fue determinar niveles de PM2.5 e identificar los elementos más frecuentes asociadas a las partículas, en cuatro localidades de la ZMVT, durante dos estaciones del año seca- fría y seca-caliente para ana...

  18. ¿Es posible evaluar la dimensión social de la sustentabilidad? Aplicación de una metodología en dos comunidades campesinas del valle de Toluca, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos E. González Esquivel

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo realiza una evaluación de los aspectos sociales de la sustentabilidad en dos comunidades campesinas del valle de Toluca, utilizando un esquema de atributos-criterios-indicadores. Una de las comunidades presentó mejores valores en atributos como estabilidad, resiliencia, equidad y autogestión; mientras que ambas comunidades obtuvieron niveles similares (de medios a al tos en los atributos de productividad, adaptabilidad y confiabilidad. La organización so cial jugó un papel preponderante en la sustentabilidad económica y ambiental del manejo de recursos naturales por las comunidades.

  19. Prototipo de vivienda de adobe con energías renovables: caso de estudio localidad de Raíces, Área Natural Protegida del Parque Nacional del Nevado de Toluca, Estado de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes Ramírez Rodríguez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Como una alternativa a la construcción de la vivienda, este artículo introduce una nueva tecnología para edificar un prototipo de casa de adobe con energías renovables. Se muestrauna metodología para su diseño que se establece a partir de las características de las viviendas de la localidad de Raíces, ubicada en el municipio de Zinacantepec, dentro del territorio del Parque Nacional del Nevado de Toluca, espacio natural protegido por Decreto en 1936.

  20. Prototipo de vivienda de adobe con energías renovables: caso de estudio localidad de Raíces, Área Natural Protegida del Parque Nacional del Nevado de Toluca, Estado de México

    OpenAIRE

    Mercedes Ramírez Rodríguez

    2013-01-01

    Como una alternativa a la construcción de la vivienda, este artículo introduce una nueva tecnología para edificar un prototipo de casa de adobe con energías renovables. Se muestrauna metodología para su diseño que se establece a partir de las características de las viviendas de la localidad de Raíces, ubicada en el municipio de Zinacantepec, dentro del territorio del Parque Nacional del Nevado de Toluca, espacio natural protegido por Decreto en 1936.

  1. Supplementary information on K-Basin sludges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MAKENAS, B.J.

    1999-01-01

    Three previous documents in this series have been published covering the analysis of: K East Basin Floor and Pit Sludge, K East Basin Canister Sludge, and K West Basin Canister Sludge. Since their publication, additional data have been acquired and analyses performed. It is the purpose of this volume to summarize the additional insights gained in the interim time period

  2. Phenological response of vegetation to upstream river flow in the Heihe Rive basin by time series analysis of MODIS data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Jia

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Liquid and solid precipitation is abundant in the high elevation, upper reach of the Heihe River basin in northwestern China. The development of modern irrigation schemes in the middle reach of the basin is taking up an increasing share of fresh water resources, endangering the oasis and traditional irrigation systems in the lower reach. In this study, the response of vegetation in the Ejina Oasis in the lower reach of the Heihe River to the water yield of the upper catchment was analyzed by time series analysis of monthly observations of precipitation in the upper and lower catchment, river streamflow downstream of the modern irrigation schemes and satellite observations of vegetation index. Firstly, remotely sensed NDVI data acquired by Terra-MODIS are used to monitor the vegetation dynamic for a seven years period between 2000 and 2006. Due to cloud-contamination, atmospheric influence and different solar and viewing angles, however, the quality and consistence of time series of remotely sensed NDVI data are degraded. A Fourier Transform method – the Harmonic Analysis of Time Series (HANTS algorithm – is used to reconstruct cloud- and noise-free NDVI time series data from the Terra-MODIS NDVI dataset. Modification is made on HANTS by adding additional parameters to deal with large data gaps in yearly time series in combination with a Temporal-Similarity-Statistics (TSS method developed in this study to seek for initial values for the large gap periods. Secondly, the same Fourier Transform method is used to model time series of the vegetation phenology. The reconstructed cloud-free NDVI time series data are used to study the relationship between the water availability (i.e. the local precipitation and upstream water yield and the evolution of vegetation conditions in Ejina Oasis from 2000 to 2006. Anomalies in precipitation, streamflow, and vegetation index are detected by comparing each year with the average year. The results showed that

  3. The deeper structure of the southern Dead Sea basin derived from neural network analysis of velocity and attenuation tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braeuer, Benjamin; Haberland, Christian; Bauer, Klaus; Weber, Michael

    2014-05-01

    The Dead Sea basin is a pull-apart basin at the Dead Sea transform fault, the boundary between the African and the Arabian plates. Though the DSB has been studied for a long time, the available knowledge - based mainly on surface geology, drilling and seismic reflection surveys - gives only a partial picture of its shallow structure. Therefore, within the framework of the international DESIRE (DEad Sea Integrated REsearch) project, a dense temporary local seismological network was operated in the southern Dead Sea area. Within 18 month of recording 650 events were detected. In addition to an already published tomography study revealing the distribution of P velocities and the Vp/Vs ratios a 2D P-wave attenuation tomography (parameter Qp) was performed. The neural network technique of Self-organizing maps (SOM) is used for the joint interpretation of these three parameters (Vp, Vp/Vs, Qp). The resulting clusters in the petrophysical parameter space are assigned to the main lithological units below the southern part of the Dead Sea basin: (1) The basin sediments characterized by strong attenuation, high vp/vs ratios and low P velocities. (2) The pre-basin sediments characterized by medium to strong attenuation, low Vp/Vs ratios and medium P velocities. (3) The basement characterized by low to moderate attenuation, medium vp/vs ratios and high P velocities. Thus, the asymmetric southern Dead Sea basin is filled with basin sediments down to depth of 7 to 12 km. Below the basin sediments, the pre-basin sediments are extending to a depth between 13 and 18 km.

  4. An analysis of prominent prospect of in-situ sandstone type uranium deposits in Yanji basins group, Jilin province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Zhidong; Zhang Shuyi

    2003-01-01

    In Mesozoic-Cenozoic era, many medium-small-sized sedimentary basins had been formed in Yanbian draped-faulted region of Jilin Province. The basement of these basins is constituted of U-riched granite body produced during late Hercynian-early Yanshan period. Uranium-mineralization has been found in coal-bearing formation, oil-bearing formation and in tint layer of red formation. On the bases of analyzing of uranium source, geologic tectonic, paleoclimatology, paleogeography, hydrogeology and reconstruction, it is concluded that there is a prominent prospect to discover large in-situ sandstone-type uranium deposits in Yanji basins. (authors)

  5. Report on Radiocarbon Analysis of Surface Sediments from the Fore-Arc Basin of Nankai Trough

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pohlman, John

    2004-01-01

    .... Radiocarbon analysis of the total organic carbon (TOC) and total inorganic carbon (TIC) on 30 sediment samples from two multicores and six piston cores was performed to investigate the fate of methane carbon in sediment of the Nankal Trough...

  6. Analysis of ancient-river systems by 3D seismic time-slice technique: A case study in northeast Malay Basin, offshore Terengganu, Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sulaiman, Noorzamzarina; Hamzah, Umar; Samsudin, Abdul Rahim [Geology Programme, School of Environmental and Natural Resource Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2014-09-03

    Fluvial sandstones constitute one of the major clastic petroleum reservoir types in many sedimentary basins around the world. This study is based on the analysis of high-resolution, shallow (seabed to 500 m depth) 3D seismic data which generated three-dimensional (3D) time slices that provide exceptional imaging of the geometry, dimension and temporal and spatial distribution of fluvial channels. The study area is in the northeast of Malay Basin about 280 km to the east of Terengganu offshore. The Malay Basin comprises a thick (> 8 km), rift to post-rift Oligo-Miocene to Pliocene basin-fill. The youngest (Miocene to Pliocene), post-rift succession is dominated by a thick (1–5 km), cyclic succession of coastal plain and coastal deposits, which accumulated in a humid-tropical climatic setting. This study focuses on the Pleistocene to Recent (500 m thick) succession, which comprises a range of seismic facies analysis of the two-dimensional (2D) seismic sections, mainly reflecting changes in fluvial channel style and river architecture. The succession has been divided into four seismic units (Unit S1-S4), bounded by basin-wide strata surfaces. Two types of boundaries have been identified: 1) a boundary that is defined by a regionally-extensive erosion surface at the base of a prominent incised valley (S3 and S4); 2) a sequence boundary that is defined by more weakly-incised, straight and low-sinuosity channels which is interpreted as low-stand alluvial bypass channel systems (S1 and S2). Each unit displays a predictable vertical change of the channel pattern and scale, with wide low-sinuosity channels at the base passing gradationally upwards into narrow high-sinuosity channels at the top. The wide variation in channel style and size is interpreted to be controlled mainly by the sea-level fluctuations on the widely flat Sunda land Platform.

  7. Analysis of ancient-river systems by 3D seismic time-slice technique: A case study in northeast Malay Basin, offshore Terengganu, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaiman, Noorzamzarina; Hamzah, Umar; Samsudin, Abdul Rahim

    2014-09-01

    Fluvial sandstones constitute one of the major clastic petroleum reservoir types in many sedimentary basins around the world. This study is based on the analysis of high-resolution, shallow (seabed to 500 m depth) 3D seismic data which generated three-dimensional (3D) time slices that provide exceptional imaging of the geometry, dimension and temporal and spatial distribution of fluvial channels. The study area is in the northeast of Malay Basin about 280 km to the east of Terengganu offshore. The Malay Basin comprises a thick (> 8 km), rift to post-rift Oligo-Miocene to Pliocene basin-fill. The youngest (Miocene to Pliocene), post-rift succession is dominated by a thick (1-5 km), cyclic succession of coastal plain and coastal deposits, which accumulated in a humid-tropical climatic setting. This study focuses on the Pleistocene to Recent (500 m thick) succession, which comprises a range of seismic facies analysis of the two-dimensional (2D) seismic sections, mainly reflecting changes in fluvial channel style and river architecture. The succession has been divided into four seismic units (Unit S1-S4), bounded by basin-wide strata surfaces. Two types of boundaries have been identified: 1) a boundary that is defined by a regionally-extensive erosion surface at the base of a prominent incised valley (S3 and S4); 2) a sequence boundary that is defined by more weakly-incised, straight and low-sinuosity channels which is interpreted as low-stand alluvial bypass channel systems (S1 and S2). Each unit displays a predictable vertical change of the channel pattern and scale, with wide low-sinuosity channels at the base passing gradationally upwards into narrow high-sinuosity channels at the top. The wide variation in channel style and size is interpreted to be controlled mainly by the sea-level fluctuations on the widely flat Sunda land Platform.

  8. Analysis of ancient-river systems by 3D seismic time-slice technique: A case study in northeast Malay Basin, offshore Terengganu, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulaiman, Noorzamzarina; Hamzah, Umar; Samsudin, Abdul Rahim

    2014-01-01

    Fluvial sandstones constitute one of the major clastic petroleum reservoir types in many sedimentary basins around the world. This study is based on the analysis of high-resolution, shallow (seabed to 500 m depth) 3D seismic data which generated three-dimensional (3D) time slices that provide exceptional imaging of the geometry, dimension and temporal and spatial distribution of fluvial channels. The study area is in the northeast of Malay Basin about 280 km to the east of Terengganu offshore. The Malay Basin comprises a thick (> 8 km), rift to post-rift Oligo-Miocene to Pliocene basin-fill. The youngest (Miocene to Pliocene), post-rift succession is dominated by a thick (1–5 km), cyclic succession of coastal plain and coastal deposits, which accumulated in a humid-tropical climatic setting. This study focuses on the Pleistocene to Recent (500 m thick) succession, which comprises a range of seismic facies analysis of the two-dimensional (2D) seismic sections, mainly reflecting changes in fluvial channel style and river architecture. The succession has been divided into four seismic units (Unit S1-S4), bounded by basin-wide strata surfaces. Two types of boundaries have been identified: 1) a boundary that is defined by a regionally-extensive erosion surface at the base of a prominent incised valley (S3 and S4); 2) a sequence boundary that is defined by more weakly-incised, straight and low-sinuosity channels which is interpreted as low-stand alluvial bypass channel systems (S1 and S2). Each unit displays a predictable vertical change of the channel pattern and scale, with wide low-sinuosity channels at the base passing gradationally upwards into narrow high-sinuosity channels at the top. The wide variation in channel style and size is interpreted to be controlled mainly by the sea-level fluctuations on the widely flat Sunda land Platform

  9. Non-parametric trend analysis of the aridity index for three large arid and semi-arid basins in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahani, Hossien; Kherad, Mehrzad; Kousari, Mohammad Reza; van Roosmalen, Lieke; Aryanfar, Ramin; Hosseini, Seyyed Mashaallah

    2013-05-01

    Currently, an important scientific challenge that researchers are facing is to gain a better understanding of climate change at the regional scale, which can be especially challenging in an area with low and highly variable precipitation amounts such as Iran. Trend analysis of the medium-term change using ground station observations of meteorological variables can enhance our knowledge of the dominant processes in an area and contribute to the analysis of future climate projections. Generally, studies focus on the long-term variability of temperature and precipitation and to a lesser extent on other important parameters such as moisture indices. In this study the recent 50-year trends (1955-2005) of precipitation (P), potential evapotranspiration (PET), and aridity index (AI) in monthly time scale were studied over 14 synoptic stations in three large Iran basins using the Mann-Kendall non-parametric test. Additionally, an analysis of the monthly, seasonal and annual trend of each parameter was performed. Results showed no significant trends in the monthly time series. However, PET showed significant, mostly decreasing trends, for the seasonal values, which resulted in a significant negative trend in annual PET at five stations. Significant negative trends in seasonal P values were only found at a number of stations in spring and summer and no station showed significant negative trends in annual P. Due to the varied positive and negative trends in annual P and to a lesser extent PET, almost as many stations with negative as positive trends in annual AI were found, indicating that both drying and wetting trends occurred in Iran. Overall, the northern part of the study area showed an increasing trend in annual AI which meant that the region became wetter, while the south showed decreasing trends in AI.

  10. Analysis of Phenomenels with Hydrologic Large Risk in the Hydrographic Basin of the Trotuş River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avram Mihaela

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an analysis of the high hydrological risk phenomena formed in the hydrographic basin of the Trotuş River in the last period of time. The Trotuş River and the tributaries are monitored by 21 hydrometric stations. Precipitation volume processing indicated a number of risk factors that have prevailed over the last 20 years. The hydrological data processing revealed the presence of several flood flows in the same year. The effects of the floods have materialized through the excessive degradation of river bedside regulation and shore defence works. The floods of the past 25 years have resulted in the destruction of a large number of economic and social objectives in the Trotuş River area, as well as human losses. Parameters of hydroclimatic risk highlighted by research are represented by torrential precipitations, floods with high probability, high frequency of high-flow flows, formation of high erosion velocities of the bed, etc. Parameters of hydroclimatic risk impose special conditions for the design of river regularization and shore defence.

  11. Quantitative multi-scale analysis of mineral distributions and fractal pore structures for a heterogeneous Junger Basin shale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Y.D.; Ren, Y.Q.; Hu, T.; Deng, B.; Xiao, T.Q.; Liu, K.Y.; Yang, Y.S.

    2016-01-01

    Three dimensional (3D) characterization of shales has recently attracted wide attentions in relation to the growing importance of shale oil and gas. Obtaining a complete 3D compositional distribution of shale has proven to be challenging due to its multi-scale characteristics. A combined multi-energy X-ray micro-CT technique and data-constrained modelling (DCM) approach has been used to quantitatively investigate the multi-scale mineral and porosity distributions of a heterogeneous shale from the Junger Basin, northwestern China by sub-sampling. The 3D sub-resolution structures of minerals and pores in the samples are quantitatively obtained as the partial volume fraction distributions, with colours representing compositions. The shale sub-samples from two areas have different physical structures for minerals and pores, with the dominant minerals being feldspar and dolomite, respectively. Significant heterogeneities have been observed in the analysis. The sub-voxel sized pores form large interconnected clusters with fractal structures. The fractal dimensions of the largest clusters for both sub-samples were quantitatively calculated and found to be 2.34 and 2.86, respectively. The results are relevant in quantitative modelling of gas transport in shale reservoirs

  12. 2020s scenario analysis of nutrient load in the Mekong River Basin using a distributed hydrological model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Chihiro; Zhou, Maichun; Kiem, Anthony S; Fukami, Kazuhiko; Prasantha, Hapuarachchi H A; Ishidaira, Hiroshi; Takeuchi, Kuniyoshi

    2009-10-01

    A distributed hydrological model, YHyM, was integrated with the export coefficient concept and applied to simulate the nutrient load in the Mekong River Basin. In the validation period (1992-1999), Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency was 76.4% for discharge, 65.9% for total nitrogen, and 45.3% for total phosphorus at Khong Chiam. Using the model, scenario analysis was then performed for the 2020s taking into account major anthropogenic factors: climate change, population, land cover, fertilizer use, and industrial waste water. The results show that the load at Kompong Cham in 2020s is 6.3 x 10(4)tN a(-1) (+13.0% compared to 1990s) and 4.3 x 10(3)tP a(-1) (+24.7%). Overall, the noticeable nutrient sources are cropland in the middle region and urban load in the lower region. The installation of waste water treatment plants in urban areas possibly cut 60.6%N and 19.9%P of the estimated increase in the case without any treatment.

  13. Analysis on the adaptive countermeasures to ecological management under changing environment in the Tarim River Basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fan; Xue, Lianqing; Zhang, Luochen; Chen, Xinfang; Chi, Yixia

    2017-12-01

    This article aims to explore the adaptive utilization strategies of flow regime versus traditional practices in the context of climate change and human activities in the arid area. The study presents quantitative analysis of climatic and anthropogenic factors to streamflow alteration in the Tarim River Basin (TRB) using the Budyko method and adaptive utilization strategies to eco-hydrological regime by comparing the applicability between autoregressive moving average model (ARMA) model and combined regression model. Our results suggest that human activities played a dominant role in streamflow deduction in the mainstream with contribution of 120.7%~190.1%. While in the headstreams, climatic variables were the primary determinant of streamflow by 56.5~152.6% of the increase. The comparison revealed that combined regression model performed better than ARMA model with the qualified rate of 80.49~90.24%. Based on the forecasts of streamflow for different purposes, the adaptive utilization scheme of water flow is established from the perspective of time and space. Our study presents an effective water resources scheduling scheme for the ecological environment and provides references for ecological protection and water allocation in the arid area.

  14. Flood Simulations and Uncertainty Analysis for the Pearl River Basin Using the Coupled Land Surface and Hydrological Model System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongnan Zhu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The performances of hydrological simulations for the Pearl River Basin in China were analysed using the Coupled Land Surface and Hydrological Model System (CLHMS. Three datasets, including East Asia (EA, high-resolution gauge satellite-merged China Merged Precipitation Analysis (CMPA-Daily, and the Asian Precipitation Highly-Resolved Observational Data Integration Towards Evaluation (APHRODITE daily precipitation were used to drive the CLHMS model to simulate daily hydrological processes from 1998 to 2006. The results indicate that the precipitation data was the most important source of uncertainty in the hydrological simulation. The simulated streamflow driven by the CMPA-Daily agreed well with observations, with a Pearson correlation coefficient (PMC greater than 0.70 and an index of agreement (IOA similarity coefficient greater than 0.82 at Liuzhou, Shijiao, and Wuzhou Stations. Comparison of the Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency coefficient (NSE shows that the peak flow simulation ability of CLHMS driven with the CMPA-Daily rainfall is relatively superior to that with the EA and APHRODITE datasets. The simulation results for the high-flow periods in 1998 and 2005 indicate that the CLHMS is promising for its future application in the flood simulation and prediction.

  15. Cenozoic foreland basins of Central Andes: a preliminary provenance U-Pb zircon analysis of sedimentary sequences of Calchaqui Valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Alisson Lopes; Hauser, Natalia; Pimentel, Marcio Martins; Matteini, Massimo; Coira, Beatriz; Alonso, Ricardo; Barrientos, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    The Eocene of northwestern Argentina records complex basin and structural evolution, including continental sedimentation of the post-rift Salta Basin and the beginning of the Andean uplift and foreland system evolution. This illuminates a significant period of evolutionary history of this and surrounding basins in northwestern Argentina. U-Pb zircon analyses by LA-ICP-MS for three formations representing post-rift to foreland stages allowed interpretation about provenance terrains. The Lumbrera Formation, representing the post-rift stage, shows bimodal sources with a main zircon population around 462 Ma, and a second population around 1023 Ma. The Los Colorados and Angastaco Formations representing the sedimentation in a foreland basin, show a unimodal source around 490 Ma, and 517 Ma respectively. Zircons younger than 50 Ma were not identified during this study. (author)

  16. Cenozoic foreland basins of Central Andes: a preliminary provenance U-Pb zircon analysis of sedimentary sequences of Calchaqui Valley

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Alisson Lopes; Hauser, Natalia; Pimentel, Marcio Martins; Matteini, Massimo, E-mail: alisson_oliveira@hotmail.com [Universidade de Brasilia (UnB), DF (Brazil). Laboratorio de Geocronologia; Galli, Claudia Ines [Faculdad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional de Jujuy (Argentina); Coira, Beatriz [CIT Jujuy, CONICET. Instituto de Geologia y Mineria (Argentina); Alonso, Ricardo; Barrientos, Andrea [Instituto CEGA, CONICET. Universidad Nacional de Salta (Argentina)

    2015-07-01

    The Eocene of northwestern Argentina records complex basin and structural evolution, including continental sedimentation of the post-rift Salta Basin and the beginning of the Andean uplift and foreland system evolution. This illuminates a significant period of evolutionary history of this and surrounding basins in northwestern Argentina. U-Pb zircon analyses by LA-ICP-MS for three formations representing post-rift to foreland stages allowed interpretation about provenance terrains. The Lumbrera Formation, representing the post-rift stage, shows bimodal sources with a main zircon population around 462 Ma, and a second population around 1023 Ma. The Los Colorados and Angastaco Formations representing the sedimentation in a foreland basin, show a unimodal source around 490 Ma, and 517 Ma respectively. Zircons younger than 50 Ma were not identified during this study. (author)

  17. Hypsometric Analysis of Glacial Features: A Survey of Lobate Debris Apron Populations in Eastern Hellas Basin and Deuteronilus Mensae, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutledge, A. M.; Christensen, P. R.

    2014-07-01

    Hypsometric curves of lobate debris apron populations in Hellas Basin and Deuteronilus Mensae were evaluated and compared with respect to inferred ice accumulation and flow. Curve types are elevation-dependent, indicating a past shift in climate.

  18. Analysis of the influence of tectonics on the evolution of valley networks based on SRTM DEM, Jemma River basin, Ethiopia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kusák, Michal; Kropáček, J.; Vilímek, V.; Schillaci, C.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 39, č. 1 (2016), 37-50 ISSN 1724-4757 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : valley network * tectonic lineaments * Jemma River basin * Ethiopian Highlands Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography

  19. Analysis of the spatial dynamics and drivers of forest cover change in the Lempa River Basin of El Salvador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaneda, Hector

    This work studies the changes of forest cover that have happened in the Lempa River Basin of El Salvador during the period 1979-2003. Although historically the trend has been towards the loss of forest cover since colonial times, over the period of study a large increase in forest cover was detected. The main tool of evaluation was the analysis of LANDSAT satellite imagery. Images for the dates 1979, 1990-91, and 2003 were classified into forest and noon-forest land covers. Then the changes in land cover were analyzed to determine what were the social, geophysical and climatic drivers determining why and where these new forest appeared. The results indicate that there has been an overall increase in forest cover from 20% in 1979 to 43% in 2003. Although there has been extensive deforestation, this has happened mostly around the main urban centers within the basin. In the more rural and remote areas, the tendency has been towards a resurgence in forest cover. The increase in forest was found to be significantly related to remittances, inaccessibility to roads and markets, density of urban populations, poverty and the civil war of the 1980s. Among the geospatial factors that determined where deforestation and reforestation happened were distance to roads and urban centers, slope, elevation, land use capability, and irrigation potential. The results indicate that the tendency in the future will be towards further reforestation but at a slower rate. Although reforestation and deforestation happened simultaneously, there are clear differences in the spatial patterns that each of these phenomena follow. In terms of climate, it was found areas subjected to inter-annual rainfall extremes due to El Nino Southern Oscillation, particularly areas with low agricultural potential, were more likely to be abandoned and left to revert to forest than those with more stable rainfall. The results of this study support the hypothesis that El Salvador is undergoing a Forest Transition

  20. Morphology of the Iceland Basin Excursion from a spherical harmonics analysis and an iterative Bayesian inversion procedure of sedimentary records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanci, Luca; Kissel, Catherine; Leonhardt, Roman; Laj, Carlo

    2008-08-01

    Based on 5 published marine high-resolution sedimentary records of the Iceland Basin Excursion [IBE; Channell, J.E.T., Hodell, D.A., Lehman, B., 1997. Relative geomagnetic paleointensity and ∂ 18O at ODP Site 983/Gardar Drift, North Atlantic since 350 ka. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 153, 103-118; Laj, C., Kissel, C., Roberts, A., 2006. Geomagnetic field behavior during the Iceland Basin and Laschamp geomagnetic excursions: a simple transitional field geometry? Geochem. Geophys. Geosystems. 7, Q03004, doi:10.1029/2005GC001122] dated around 186-190 kyr, we present models of the excursional geomagnetic field at the Earth's surface using two different approaches. First a spherical harmonics analysis is performed after synchronization of the records using their paleointensity profiles. Second, we have used an iterative Bayesian inversion procedure, calibrated using the single volcanic data available so far. Both modeling approaches suffer from imperfections of the paleomagnetic signals and mostly from the still poor geographical distribution of detailed records, presently available only from the North Atlantic and the West Pacific. For these reasons, our modeling results should only be regarded as preliminary models of the geomagnetic field during the IBE, susceptible to improvements when including results from future paleomagnetic studies. Nevertheless, both approaches show distinct similarities and are stable against moderate variations of modeling parameters. The general picture is that of a dipole field undergoing a strong reduction, but remaining higher than the non-dipole field all through the excursional process, except for a very short interval of time corresponding to the dipole minimum at the center of the excursion. On the other hand, some differences exist between the results of the two models with each other and with the real data when the virtual geomagnetic pole (VGP) paths are considered. The non-dipole field does not appear to undergo very significant

  1. [Contamination Assessment and Sources Analysis of Soil Heavy Metals in Opencast Mine of East Junggar Basin in Xinjiang].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Yang, Jian-jun; Wang, Jun; Wang, Guo; Cao, Yue-e

    2016-05-15

    The opencast mine of East Junggar Basin in Xinjiang is the largest self-contained coalfield in China, and the ecological environment of the opencast is very fragile because of its arid climate and poor soil. In this study, 50 soil samples (from 0 to 30 cm depth soil at intervals of 10 cm) in opencast Mine of East Junggar Basin in Xinjiang were collected in order to explore the heavy metals contamination of the coal mining. The contents of zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), cadmium (Cr), lead (Pb), mercury (Hg) and arsenic (As) were measured and the degree of pollution was assessed by Nemerow index, geo-accumulation (Igeo) index and potential ecological risk index. In addition, the layered comparison, dust fall and the distance between coal mine and samples location were used to analyze the source of heavy metals contamination. The results showed that value of As surpassed the Chinese soil quality standard class I (GB 15618-1995) mostly severely, followed by Cr, a relatively lower surpass was obtained by Hg and Cu, while Zn and Pb did not surpass the standard. According to the standard, the soil heavy metals content of research region was in light pollution status and the pollution index for each heavy metal followed the order of As (2.07) > Cr (0.95) > Cu (0.55) > Zn (0.48) > Hg (0.45) > Pb (0.38), which demonstrated a heavy pollution of As and clean status of others. Additionally, an Igeo value of 1.14 for Hg reflected a moderated pollution. The major contribution factor was Hg with a risk index of 251.40. The source analysis showed that the content of Pb in the surface soil (10-20 cm) was different from that in the deep layer (20-30 cm), which may be caused by coal combustion and other human activities. The sources of Hg and As were similar and may come from coal combustion. The distance to the mining area was not the major factor affecting the diffusion of heavy metals, other candidate factors included terrain, aspect and wind direction, etc.

  2. Paleobasin analysis and tectonic framework development of southern Zagros basin, interpreted from Landsat 4 thematic mapper image

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iranpanah, A.

    1986-05-01

    Detailed lineament maps produced with the digitally enhanced Landsat 4 thematic mapper in conjunction with field data provide new information on structural relations to the southern Zagros basin. Three major parallel lineaments are from north to south, Qatar-Kazern, Razak, and Oman. These lineaments trend approximately N17/sup 0/E and subdivide the Zagros basin into northern, central, and southern segments. The study area is enclosed by the Razak and Oman lineaments. Piercement salt domes (Precambrian salt) are abundant within the southern Zagros basin, absent east of the Oman lineament, and scarce in the area west of the Razak lineament. This salt dome distribution and the N17/sup 0/E trend suggest that these lineaments are surface manifestations of boundaries of basement crustal blocks that have been reactivated periodically since the Precambrian. The northern extension of this Precambrian basin is marked by salt domes (Precambrian salt) along the Oman lineament, located in the Kerman region 400 km north of Minab. Along the eastern boundary, at the juncture of the southern Zagros basin and western Makran Ranges, the trend of fold axes changes from east-west to north-south. The western basin boundary is characterized by a gradual change in the trend of the fold axis from east-west to northwest-southeast. This study provides useful information for subsurface interpretations, which will benefit hydrocarbon exploration. The Razak and Oman lineaments enclose a highly productive area, and separate the southern Zagros basin from less productive areas to the west and from a nonproductive region to the east where chromite and iron deposits are common. These findings suggest that lineaments may serve as an exploration guide for hydrocarbons and economic mineral deposits, and as a model for developing the tectonic framework of the southern Zagros basin.

  3. Modelling water fluxes for the analysis of diffuse pollution at the river basin scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wit, de M.; Meinardi, C.R.; Wendland, F.; Kunkel, R.

    2000-01-01

    Diffuse pollution is a significant and sometimes even major component of surface water pollution. Diffuse inputs of pollutants to the surface water are related to runoff of precipitation. This means that the analysis of diffuse pollutant fluxes from the land surface to the surface water requires an

  4. Spatial aspects of surface water quality in the Jakara Basin, Nigeria using chemometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustapha, Adamu; Aris, Ahmad Zaharin

    2012-01-01

    Multivariate statistical techniques such as hierarchical Agglomerated cluster analysis (HACA), discriminant analysis (DA), principal component analysis (PCA), and factor analysis (FA) were applied to identify the spatial variation and pollution sources of Jakara River, Kano, Nigeria. Thirty surface water samples were collected: 23 along Getsi River and 7 along the main channel of River Jakara. Twenty-three water quality parameters, namely pH, temperature, turbidity, electrical conductivity (EC), dissolved oxygen (DO), 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD(5)), Faecal coliform, total solids (TS), nitrates (NO(3)(-)), phosphates (PO(4)(3-)), cobalt (Co), iron (Fe), nickel (Ni), manganese (Mn), copper (Cu), sodium (Na), potassium (K), mercury (Hg), chromium (Cr), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), magnesium (Mg), and calcium(Ca) were analysed. HACA grouped the sampling points into three clusters based on the similarities of river water quality characteristics: industrial, domestic, and agricultural water pollution sources. Forward and backward DA effectively discriminated 5 and 15 water quality variables, respectively, each assigned with 100% correctness from the original 23 variables. PCA and FA were used to investigate the origin of each water quality parameter due to various land use activities, 7 principal components were obtained with 77.5% total variance, and in addition PCA identified 3 latent pollution sources to support HACA. From this study, one can conclude that the application of multivariate techniques derives meaningful information from water quality data.

  5. Analysis on hydrogeological conditions of uranium formation in mulaamite sag in Kumux basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Chengwei; Chen Liyun; Wang Juntang

    2008-01-01

    Based on the comprehensive analysis on the materials, hydrogeological conditions, features of water-bearing rock formation, relationship amoung the hydrogeochemical features and interlayer oxidation zone and uranium formation are analyzed from the point of view of basic geological conditions, it is preliminarily considered that Kuluketage fore-mountain zone has a good potential to develop the interlayer oxidation belt and uranium mineralization. (authors)

  6. Analysis of projected water availability with current basin management plan, Pajaro Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Randall T.; Lockwood, Brian; Schmid, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    The projection and analysis of the Pajaro Valley Hydrologic Model (PVHM) 34 years into the future using MODFLOW with the Farm Process (MF-FMP) facilitates assessment of potential future water availability. The projection is facilitated by the integrated hydrologic model, MF-FMP that fully couples the simulation of the use and movement of water from precipitation, streamflow, runoff, groundwater flow, and consumption by natural and agricultural vegetation throughout the hydrologic system at all times. MF-FMP allows for more complete analysis of conjunctive-use water-resource systems than previously possible with MODFLOW by combining relevant aspects of the landscape with the groundwater and surface-water components. This analysis is accomplished using distributed cell-by-cell supply-constrained and demand-driven components across the landscape within “water-balance subregions” (WBS) comprised of one or more model cells that can represent a single farm, a group of farms, watersheds, or other hydrologic or geopolitical entities. Analysis of conjunctive use would be difficult without embedding the fully coupled supply-and-demand into a fully coupled simulation, and are difficult to estimate a priori.

  7. Quantitative analysis of the effect of climate change and human activities on runoff in the Liujiang River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    LI, X.

    2017-12-01

    Abstract: As human basic and strategic natural resources, Water resources have received an unprecedented challenge under the impacts of global climate change. Analyzing the variation characteristics of runoff and the effect of climate change and human activities on runoff could provide the basis for the reasonable utilization and management of water resources. Taking the Liujiang River Basin as the research object, the discharge data of hydrological station and meteorological data at 24 meteorological stations in the Guangxi Province as the basis, the variation characteristics of runoff and precipitation in the Liujiang River Basin was analyzed, and the quantitatively effect of climate change and human activities on runoff was proposed. The results showed that runoff and precipitation in the Liujiang River Basin had an increasing trend from 1964 to 2006. Using the method of accumulative anomaly and the orderly cluster method, the runoff series was divided into base period and change period. BP - ANN model and sensitivity coefficient method were used for quantifying the influences of climate change and human activities on runoff. We found that the most important factor which caused an increase trend of discharges in the Liujiang River Basin was precipitation. Human activities were also important factors which influenced the intra-annual distribution of runoff. Precipitation had a more sensitive influence to runoff variation than potential evaporation in the Liujiang River Basin. Key words: Liujiang River Basin, climate change, human activities, BP-ANN, sensitivity coefficient method

  8. Facies Analysis and Sequence Stratigraphy of Missole Outcrops: N’Kapa Formation of the South-Eastern Edge of Douala Sub-Basin (Cameroon)

    OpenAIRE

    Kwetche , Paul; Ntamak-Nida , Marie Joseph; Nitcheu , Adrien Lamire Djomeni; Etame , Jacques; Owono , François Mvondo; Mbesse , Cecile Olive; Kissaaka , Joseph Bertrand Iboum; Ngon , Gilbert Ngon; Bourquin , Sylvie; Bilong , Paul

    2018-01-01

    International audience; Missole facies description and sequence stratigraphy analysis allow a new proposal of depositional environments of the Douala sub-basin eastern part. The sediments of Missole outcrops (N’kapa Formation) correspond to fluvial/tidal channel to shallow shelf deposits with in some place embayment deposits within a warm and semi-arid climate. Integrated sedimentologic, palynologic and mineralogical data document a comprehensive sequence stratigraphy of this part of the Doua...

  9. Prioritization of buffer areas with multi objective analysis: application in the Basin Creek St. Helena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuluaga, Julian; Carvajal, Luis Fernando

    2006-01-01

    This paper shows a Multi objective Analysis (AMO-ELECTRE 111) with Geographical Information System (GIS) to establish priorities of buffer zones on the drainage network of the Santa Elena Creek, Medellin middle-east zone. 38 alternatives (small catchment) are evaluated with seven criteria, from field work, and maps. The criteria are: susceptibility to mass sliding, surface and lineal erosion, conflict by land use, and state of the waterways network in respect to hydrology, geology and human impact. The ELECTERE III method allows establishing priorities of buffer zones for each catchment; the indifference, acceptance, veto, and credibility threshold values, as well as those for criteria weighting factors are very important. The results show that the north zone of the catchment, commune 8, in particular La Castro creek, is most affected. The sensibility analysis shows that the obtained solution is robust, and that the anthropic and geologic criteria are paramount

  10. Statistical and Hydrological Evaluation of TRMM-Based Multi-Satellite Precipitation Analysis over the Wangchu Basin of Bhutan: Are the Latest Satellite Precipitation Products 3B42V7 Ready for Use in Ungauged Basins?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Xianwu; Hong, Yang; Limaye, Ashutosh S.; Gourley, Jonathan; Huffman, George J.; Khan, Sadiq Ibrahim; Dorji, Chhimi; Chen, Sheng

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study is to quantitatively evaluate the successive Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA) products and further to explore the improvements and error propagation of the latest 3B42V7 algorithm relative to its predecessor 3B42V6 using the Coupled Routing and Excess Storage (CREST) hydrologic model in the mountainous Wangchu Basin of Bhutan. First, the comparison to a decade-long (2001-2010) daily rain gauge dataset reveals that: 1) 3B42V7 generally improves upon 3B42V6s underestimation both for the whole basin (bias from -41.15 to -8.38) and for a 0.250.25 grid cell with high-density gauges (bias from -40.25 to 0.04), though with modest enhancement of correlation coefficients (CC) (from 0.36 to 0.40 for basin-wide and from 0.37 to 0.41 for grid); and 2) 3B42V7 also improves its occurrence frequency across the rain intensity spectrum. Using the CREST model that has been calibrated with rain gauge inputs, the 3B42V6-based simulation shows limited hydrologic prediction NSCE skill (0.23 in daily scale and 0.25 in monthly scale) while 3B42V7 performs fairly well (0.66 in daily scale and 0.77 in monthly scale), a comparable skill score with the gauge rainfall simulations. After recalibrating the model with the respective TMPA data, significant improvements are observed for 3B42V6 across all categories, but not as much enhancement for the already well-performing 3B42V7 except for a reduction in bias (from -26.98 to -4.81). In summary, the latest 3B42V7 algorithm reveals a significant upgrade from 3B42V6 both in precipitation accuracy (i.e., correcting the underestimation) thus improving its potential hydrological utility. Forcing the model with 3B42V7 rainfall yields comparable skill scores with in-situ gauges even without recalibration of the hydrological model by the satellite precipitation, a compensating approach often used but not favored by the hydrology community, particularly in ungauged basins.

  11. Land Use Changes Analysis for Kelantan Basin Using Spatial Matrix Technique “Patch Analyst” in Relation to Flood Disaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuan Pah Rokiah Syed Hussain

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In the recent decade, there are many government efforts to develop rural area as a step to curb vast economic discrepancy status within community in the nation. This effort is in line with National Development Policy promoted by government shifting from New Economic Policy. Therefore, this study area also has impact done by development activities. The enormous economic developments have encourage growth in urbanization, tourism and recreation, public facilities, housing and so on. Furthermore, the area of cultivation land uses and foliages are becoming shrinking due to development growth, which is development needs to shift land use pattern hence denotes that human beings infuriate the environment to meet the life needs. In response to that, this research delves into the level of land use changes using the Geographic Information System (GIS and Spatial Analyst to determine the actual area or vicinity and what is the type of rigorous changes in land use. This issue can be seen all the way through the study outcome via spatial analysis technique adapted from Patch Density & Size Metrics (Mean Patch Size, Edge Metrics (Total Edge (TE, Edge Density (ED, Mean Perimeter-Area Ratio (Mpar and Shannons Diversity Index (SHDI. Results of the study show that, land use changes have occurred significantly in the study area for the period of 20 years, wher, all types of analysis verify that there is an increase in patch for every statistical test. The increase in patch is a picture of current land use changes, land use edge density and land use area in study area. Moreover, this study investigates the relationship between land use with rising flood disaster frequency and intensity variable which has always happened lately in Kelantan River Basin.

  12. Spatial analysis from remotely sensed observations of Congo basin of East African high Land to drain water using gravity for sustainable management of low laying Chad basin of Central Africa

    OpenAIRE

    B. Modu; B. Herbert

    2014-01-01

    The Chad basin which covers an area of about 2.4 million kilometer square is one of the largest drainage basins in Africa in the centre of Lake Chad .This basin was formed as a result of rifting and drifting episode, as such it has no outlet to the oceans or seas. It contains large area of desert from the north to the west. The basin covers in part seven countries such as Chad, Nigeria, Central African Republic, Cameroun, Niger, Sudan and Algeria. It is named Chad basin because 43.9%...

  13. Rail transportation corridor analysis report: Deaf Smith County location in the Palo Duro Basin, Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-10-01

    An environmental data base was developed for the purpose of preliminary siting of potential rail access corridors between existing rail lines and the potential repository site in Deaf Smith County, Texas. The categories of the data base were environmental conditions considered significant in rail line construction and operation. These included land cover, population areas, slope, surface hydrology, cultivated prime agricultural lands, cultural features, and utility rights-of-way. The categories were divided into avoidance, constraint, and opportunity features, and the constraint features were then weighted for environmental impact potential. An environmental screening analysis using the computerized Geographical Information System (GIS) was then performed. The analysis involved applying the GIS overlay process to the various constraint data categories to produce a composite constraint map of the study area. The composite constraint map, color coded for various levels of constraint to corridor siting, was subsequently used as a guide for the selection of a series of alternative corridors. By means of a further application of GIS procedures, the corridor alternatives were statistically analyzed for adherence to corridor selection guidelines. In addition, a supplementary analysis was performed to compare the alternatives in terms of four impact categories: road crossings, construction costs, degree of land disruption, and population impact. The statistical and supplementary impact analyses led to a preliminary selection of a preferred corridor. The corridor assessment process indicated the importance of analyzing alternative trade-offs, as well as the need for more detailed investigation of certain conditions and a detailed comparison of alternatives prior to final corridor siting

  14. Hydrology Analysis and Modelling for Klang River Basin Flood Hazard Map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidek, L. M.; Rostam, N. E.; Hidayah, B.; Roseli, ZA; Majid, W. H. A. W. A.; Zahari, N. Z.; Salleh, S. H. M.; Ahmad, R. D. R.; Ahmad, M. N.

    2016-03-01

    Flooding, a common environmental hazard worldwide has in recent times, increased as a result of climate change and urbanization with the effects felt more in developing countries. As a result, the explosive of flooding to Tenaga Nasional Berhad (TNB) substation is increased rapidly due to existing substations are located in flood prone area. By understanding the impact of flood to their substation, TNB has provided the non-structure mitigation with the integration of Flood Hazard Map with their substation. Hydrology analysis is the important part in providing runoff as the input for the hydraulic part.

  15. Analysis and modelling of spatio-temporal properties of daily rainfall over the Danube basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serinaldi, F.; Kilsby, C. G.

    2012-04-01

    Central and Eastern Europe are prone to severe floods due to heavy rainfall that cause societal and economic damages, ranging from agriculture to water resources, from the insurance/reinsurance sector to the energy industry. To improve the flood risk analysis, a better characterisation and modelling of the rainfall patterns over this area, which involves the Danube river watershed, is strategically important. In this study, we analyse the spatio-temporal properties of a large data set of daily rainfall time series from 15 countries in the Central Eastern Europe through different lagged and non-lagged indices of associations that quantify both the overall dependence and extreme dependence of pairwise observations. We also show that these measures are linked to each other and can be written in a unique and coherent notation within the copula framework. Moreover, the lagged version of these measures allows exploring some important spatio-temporal properties of the rainfall fields. The exploratory analysis is complemented by the preliminary results of a spatio-temporal rainfall simulation performed via a compound model based upon the Generalized Additive Models for Location, Scale and Shape (GAMLSS) and meta-elliptical multivariate distributions.

  16. Geospatial data to support analysis of water-quality conditions in basin-fill aquifers in the southwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinney, Tim S.; Anning, David W.

    2009-01-01

    The Southwest Principal Aquifers study area consists of most of California and Nevada and parts of Utah, Arizona, New Mexico, and Colorado; it is about 409,000 square miles. The Basin-fill aquifers extend through about 201,000 square miles of the study area and are the primary source of water for cities and agricultural communities in basins in the arid and semiarid southwestern United States (Southwest). The demand on limited ground-water resources in areas in the southwestern United States has increased significantly. This increased demand underscores the importance of understanding factors that affect the water quality in basin-fill aquifers in the region, which are being studied through the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program. As a part of this study, spatial datasets of natural and anthropogenic factors that may affect ground-water quality of the basin-fill aquifers in the southwestern United States were developed. These data include physical characteristics of the region, such as geology, elevation, and precipitation, as well as anthropogenic factors, including population, land use, and water use. Spatial statistics for the alluvial basins in the Southwest have been calculated using the datasets. This information provides a foundation for the development of conceptual and statistical models that relate natural and anthropogenic factors to ground-water quality across the Southwest. A geographic information system (GIS) was used to determine and illustrate the spatial distribution of these basin-fill variables across the region. One hundred-meter resolution raster data layers that represent the spatial characteristics of the basins' boundaries, drainage areas, population densities, land use, and water use were developed for the entire Southwest.

  17. Impact analysis of satellite rainfall products on flow simulations in the Magdalena River Basin, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amr Elgamal

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The Magdalena River is the most important river in Colombia in terms of economic activities and is home to about 77% of the country’s population. The river faces water resources allocation challenges, which require reliable hydrological assessments. However, hydrological analysis and model simulations are hampered by insufficient and uncertain knowledge of the actual rainfall fields. In this research the reliability of groundbased measurements, different satellite products of rainfall and their combinations are tested for their impact on the discharge simulations of the Magdalena River. Two different satellite rainfall products from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM, have been compared and merged with the ground-based measurements and their impact on the Magdalena river flows quantified using the Representative Elementary Watershed (REW distributed hydrological model.

  18. Stochastic Risk and Uncertainty Analysis for Shale Gas Extraction in the Karoo Basin of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdon Atangana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We made use of groundwater flow and mass transport equations to investigate the crucial potential risk of water pollution from hydraulic fracturing especially in the case of the Karoo system in South Africa. This paper shows that the upward migration of fluids will depend on the apertures of the cement cracks and fractures in the rock formation. The greater the apertures, the quicker the movement of the fluid. We presented a novel sampling method, which is the combination of the Monte Carlo and the Latin hypercube sampling. The method was used for uncertainties analysis of the apertures in the groundwater and mass transport equations. The study reveals that, in the case of the Karoo, fracking will only be successful if and only if the upward methane and fracking fluid migration can be controlled, for example, by plugging the entire fracked reservoir with cement.

  19. Effect of the air pollution by heavy metals in the tree leaves in the metropolitan area of Toluca Valley; Efecto de la contaminacion atmosferica por metales pesados en las hojas de los arboles de la zona metropolitana del Valle de Toluca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ledesma O, C. I.

    2014-07-01

    Leaves of two tree species: Juniperus sp and Ligustrum sp were studied as indicators of pollution heavy metals (Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn and Pb) in the atmosphere of the Metropolitan Area of the Toluca Valley. Bio markers of catalase, superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, guaiacol, proteins and pigments were measured in order to determine the effects to atmospheric stress caused by heave metals during two periods in the year (December 2012 and May 2013). Metals were quantified in dry deposit and tissue on trees tissue leaves using the technique of Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy and Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy respectively. The results show greater response of enzyme inhibition in Juniperus sp. species, with decreased protein content and increased lipid peroxidation at sites with higher content of metals in tissue belonging to urban areas with increased industrial activity and traffic flow. In dry deposit bioavailability factor of metals was Fe>Mn> Zn> Cu>Pb for the first time of sampling and Fe>Mn> Cu> Zn>Pb for the second sampling period. (Author)

  20. Flood frequency analysis for nonstationary annual peak records in an urban drainage basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarini, G.; Smith, J.A.; Serinaldi, F.; Bales, J.; Bates, P.D.; Krajewski, W.F.

    2009-01-01

    Flood frequency analysis in urban watersheds is complicated by nonstationarities of annual peak records associated with land use change and evolving urban stormwater infrastructure. In this study, a framework for flood frequency analysis is developed based on the Generalized Additive Models for Location, Scale and Shape parameters (GAMLSS), a tool for modeling time series under nonstationary conditions. GAMLSS is applied to annual maximum peak discharge records for Little Sugar Creek, a highly urbanized watershed which drains the urban core of Charlotte, North Carolina. It is shown that GAMLSS is able to describe the variability in the mean and variance of the annual maximum peak discharge by modeling the parameters of the selected parametric distribution as a smooth function of time via cubic splines. Flood frequency analyses for Little Sugar Creek (at a drainage area of 110 km2) show that the maximum flow with a 0.01-annual probability (corresponding to 100-year flood peak under stationary conditions) over the 83-year record has ranged from a minimum unit discharge of 2.1 m3 s- 1 km- 2 to a maximum of 5.1 m3 s- 1 km- 2. An alternative characterization can be made by examining the estimated return interval of the peak discharge that would have an annual exceedance probability of 0.01 under the assumption of stationarity (3.2 m3 s- 1 km- 2). Under nonstationary conditions, alternative definitions of return period should be adapted. Under the GAMLSS model, the return interval of an annual peak discharge of 3.2 m3 s- 1 km- 2 ranges from a maximum value of more than 5000 years in 1957 to a minimum value of almost 8 years for the present time (2007). The GAMLSS framework is also used to examine the links between population trends and flood frequency, as well as trends in annual maximum rainfall. These analyses are used to examine evolving flood frequency over future decades. ?? 2009 Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Flood frequency analysis for nonstationary annual peak records in an urban drainage basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarini, Gabriele; Smith, James A.; Serinaldi, Francesco; Bales, Jerad; Bates, Paul D.; Krajewski, Witold F.

    2009-08-01

    Flood frequency analysis in urban watersheds is complicated by nonstationarities of annual peak records associated with land use change and evolving urban stormwater infrastructure. In this study, a framework for flood frequency analysis is developed based on the Generalized Additive Models for Location, Scale and Shape parameters (GAMLSS), a tool for modeling time series under nonstationary conditions. GAMLSS is applied to annual maximum peak discharge records for Little Sugar Creek, a highly urbanized watershed which drains the urban core of Charlotte, North Carolina. It is shown that GAMLSS is able to describe the variability in the mean and variance of the annual maximum peak discharge by modeling the parameters of the selected parametric distribution as a smooth function of time via cubic splines. Flood frequency analyses for Little Sugar Creek (at a drainage area of 110km) show that the maximum flow with a 0.01-annual probability (corresponding to 100-year flood peak under stationary conditions) over the 83-year record has ranged from a minimum unit discharge of 2.1mskm to a maximum of 5.1mskm. An alternative characterization can be made by examining the estimated return interval of the peak discharge that would have an annual exceedance probability of 0.01 under the assumption of stationarity (3.2mskm). Under nonstationary conditions, alternative definitions of return period should be adapted. Under the GAMLSS model, the return interval of an annual peak discharge of 3.2mskm ranges from a maximum value of more than 5000 years in 1957 to a minimum value of almost 8 years for the present time (2007). The GAMLSS framework is also used to examine the links between population trends and flood frequency, as well as trends in annual maximum rainfall. These analyses are used to examine evolving flood frequency over future decades.

  2. Analysis of vegetation condition and its relationship with meteorological variables in the Yarlung Zangbo River Basin of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Han

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The Yarlung Zangbo River Basin is located in the southwest border of China, which is of great significance to the socioeconomic development and ecological environment of Southwest China. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI is an important index for investigating the change of vegetation cover, which is widely used as the representation value of vegetation cover. In this study, the NDVI is adopted to explore the vegetation condition in the Yarlung Zangbo River Basin during the recent 17 years, and the relationship between NDVI and meteorological variables has also been discussed. The results show that the annual maximum value of NDVI usually appears from July to September, in which August occupies a large proportion. The minimum value of NDVI appears from January to March, in which February takes up most of the percentage. The higher values of NDVI are generally located in the lower elevation area. When the altitude is higher than 3250 m, NDVI began to decline gradually, and the NDVI became gradual stabilization as the elevation is up to 6000 m. The correlation coefficient between NDVI and precipitation in the Yarlung Zangbo River Basin is greater than that with temperature. The Hurst index of the whole basin is 0.51, indicating that the NDVI of the Yarlung Zangbo River Basin shows a weak sustainability.

  3. Investigating the causality of changes in the landscape pattern of Lake Urmia basin, Iran using remote sensing and time series analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrian, Majid Ramezani; Hernandez, Raul Ponce; Yavari, Ahmad Reza; Faryadi, Shahrzad; Salehi, Esmaeil

    2016-08-01

    Lake Urmia is the second largest hypersaline lake in the world in terms of surface area. In recent decades, the drop in water level of the lake has been one of the most important environmental issues in Iran. At present, the entire basin is threatened due to abrupt decline of the lake's water level and the consequent increase in salinity. Despite the numerous studies, there is still an ambiguity about the main cause of this environmental crisis. This paper is an attempt to detect the changes in the landscape structure of the main elements of the whole basin using remote sensing techniques and analyze the results against climate data with time series analysis for the purpose of achieving a more clarified illustration of processes and trends. Trend analysis of the different affecting factors indicates that the main cause of the drastic dry out of the lake is the huge expansion of irrigated agriculture in the basin between 1999 and 2014. The climatological parameters including precipitation and temperature cannot be the main reasons for reduced water level in the lake. The results show how the increase in irrigated agricultural area without considering the water resources limits can lead to a regional disaster. The approach used in this study can be a useful tool to monitor and assess the causality of environmental disaster.

  4. Hydrological behaviour and water balance analysis for Xitiaoxi catchment of Taihu Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Lijuan

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid social and economic development of the Taihu region, Taihu Lake now faces an increasingly severe eutrophication problem. Pollution from surrounding catchments contributes greatly to the eutrophication of water bodies in the region. Investigation of surface flow and associated mass transport for the Xitiaoxi catchment is of a significant degree of importance as the Xitiaoxi catchment is one of the major catchments within the Taihu region. A SWAT-based distributed hydrological model was established for the Xitiaoxi catchment. The model was calibrated and verified using hydrometeorological data from 1988 to 2001. The results indicate that the modeled daily and annual stream flow match the observed data both in the calibration period and the verification period, with a linear regression coefficient R2 and a coefficient e for modeled daily stream flow greater than 0.8 at Hengtangcun and Fanjiacun gauge stations. The results show that the runoff process in the Xitiaoxi catchment is affected both by rainfall and human activities (e.g., reservoirs and polder areas. Moreover, the human activities weaken flood peaks more noticeably during rainstorms. The water balance analysis reveals the percentages of precipitation made up by surface flow, evapotranspiration, groundwater recharge and the change of soil storage, all of which are considered useful to the further understanding of the hydrological processes in the Xitiaoxi catchment. This study provides a good base for further studies in mass transport modeling and comparison of modeling results from similar hydrological models.

  5. Analysis of Dissolved Selenium Loading for Selected Sites in the Lower Gunnison River Basin, Colorado, 1978-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Judith C.; Leib, Kenneth J.; Mayo, John W.

    2008-01-01

    Elevated selenium concentrations in streams are a water-quality concern in western Colorado. The U.S. Geologic Survey, in cooperation with the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment, summarized selenium loading in the Lower Gunnison River Basin to support the development of total maximum daily selenium loads at sites that represent the cumulative contribution to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 303(d) list segments. Analysis of selenium loading included quantifying loads and determining the amount of load that would need to be reduced to bring the site into compliance, referred to as 'the load reduction,' with the State chronic aquatic-life standard for dissolved selenium [85th percentile selenium concentration not to exceed 4.6 ?g/L (micrograms per liter)], referred to as 'the water-quality standard.' Streamflow and selenium concentration data for 54 historical water-quality/water-quantity monitoring sites were compiled from U.S. Geological Survey and Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment data sources. Three methods were used for analysis of selenium concentration data to address the variable data density among sites. Mean annual selenium loads were determined for only 10 of the 54 sites due to data availability limitations. Twenty-two sites had 85th percentile selenium concentrations that exceeded the water-quality standard, 3 sites had 85th percentile selenium concentrations less than the State standard, and 29 sites could not be evaluated with respect to 85th percentile selenium concentration (sample count less than 5). To bring selenium concentrations into compliance with the water-quality standard, more than 80 percent of the mean annual selenium load would need to be reduced at Red Rock Canyon, Dry Cedar Creek, Cedar Creek, Loutzenhizer Arroyo, Sunflower Drain, and Whitewater Creek. More than 50 percent of the mean annual load would need to be reduced at Dry Creek to bring the site into compliance with the water

  6. Analysis of Temporal and Spatial Distributions of Ammonia Nitrogen in the Huaihe River Basin from 1998 to 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, J.; Jin, G.; Tang, H.; Li, L.

    2016-12-01

    To assess the effectiveness of water pollution control measures taken in the Huaihe River Basin (HRB) in China, we analyzed the temporal and spatial distributions of ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) in the river water from 1998 to 2014 (three Chinese Five-year Plan periods).Analysis of measured NH3-N concentrations from various monitoring stations using the STL (seasonal trend decomposition using loess) method and a modified log-linear model revealed that: (1) The rate of NH3-N concentration reduction over the whole period was 70% 81% in the main stream of Huaihe River, but reached 88% in two major tributaries - the Shaying River and Guo River. (2) The NH3-N concentrations decreased significantly particularly between the tenth Five-year Plan and eleventh Five-year Plan periods in the main stream. In comparison, significant NH3-N reduction occurred over all three Five-year Plan periods in the Shaying and Guo tributaries. The concentration in the first year of a Five-year Plan period tended to much higher than that in the last year of the same period, likely due to the difference in implementing the pollution control measures. (3) The NH3-N concentrations were higher in the spring (fertilization period) and winter (low discharge) than in the summer and autumn. (4) With the implementation of pollution control measures, the contribution rate of NH3-N in the two major tributaries from point sources has decreased from 74% 93% in earlier years to 3% 28% in later years. However, NH3-N input from non-point sources appeared to remain stable and largely depend on runoff. To further reduce the NH3-N concentration in the river, policies and control measures should focus on non-point sources.

  7. Analysis and prediction of flow from local source in a river basin using a Neuro-fuzzy modeling tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aqil, Muhammad; Kita, Ichiro; Yano, Akira; Nishiyama, Soichi

    2007-10-01

    Traditionally, the multiple linear regression technique has been one of the most widely used models in simulating hydrological time series. However, when the nonlinear phenomenon is significant, the multiple linear will fail to develop an appropriate predictive model. Recently, neuro-fuzzy systems have gained much popularity for calibrating the nonlinear relationships. This study evaluated the potential of a neuro-fuzzy system as an alternative to the traditional statistical regression technique for the purpose of predicting flow from a local source in a river basin. The effectiveness of the proposed identification technique was demonstrated through a simulation study of the river flow time series of the Citarum River in Indonesia. Furthermore, in order to provide the uncertainty associated with the estimation of river flow, a Monte Carlo simulation was performed. As a comparison, a multiple linear regression analysis that was being used by the Citarum River Authority was also examined using various statistical indices. The simulation results using 95% confidence intervals indicated that the neuro-fuzzy model consistently underestimated the magnitude of high flow while the low and medium flow magnitudes were estimated closer to the observed data. The comparison of the prediction accuracy of the neuro-fuzzy and linear regression methods indicated that the neuro-fuzzy approach was more accurate in predicting river flow dynamics. The neuro-fuzzy model was able to improve the root mean square error (RMSE) and mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) values of the multiple linear regression forecasts by about 13.52% and 10.73%, respectively. Considering its simplicity and efficiency, the neuro-fuzzy model is recommended as an alternative tool for modeling of flow dynamics in the study area.

  8. Residual basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Elboux, C.V.; Paiva, I.B.

    1980-01-01

    Exploration for uranium carried out over a major portion of the Rio Grande do Sul Shield has revealed a number of small residual basins developed along glacially eroded channels of pre-Permian age. Mineralization of uranium occurs in two distinct sedimentary units. The lower unit consists of rhythmites overlain by a sequence of black shales, siltstones and coal seams, while the upper one is dominated by sandstones of probable fluvial origin. (Author) [pt

  9. Present-day Horizontal Mobility in the Serbian Part of the Pannonian Basin; Inferences from the Geometric Analysis of Deformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sušić, Zoran; Toljić, Marinko; Bulatović, Vladimir; Ninkov, Toša; Stojadinović, Uroš

    2016-10-01

    In tectonically complex environments, such as the Pannonian Basin surrounded by the Alps-Dinarides and Carpathians orogens, monitoring of recent deformations represents very challenging matter. Efficient quantification of active continental deformations demands the use of a multidisciplinary approach, including neotectonic, seismotectonic and geodetic methods. The present-day tectonic mobility in the Pannonian Basin is predominantly controlled by the northward movement of the Adria micro-plate, which has produced compressional stresses that were party accommodated by the Alps-Dinarides thrust belt and partly transferred towards its hinterland. Influence of thus induced stresses on the recent strain field, deformations and tectonic mobility in the southern segment of the Pannonian Basin has been investigated using GPS measurements of the horizontal mobility in the Vojvodina area (northern Serbia).

  10. From Drought to Flood: An Analysis of the Water Balance of the Tuolumne River Basin During Extreme Conditions (2015 - 2017)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedrick, A. R.; Marks, D. G.; Havens, S.; Robertson, M.; Johnson, M.; Sandusky, M.; Bormann, K. J.; Painter, T. H.

    2017-12-01

    Closing the water balance of a snow-dominated mountain basin has long been a focal point of the hydrologic sciences. This study attempts to more precisely quantify the solid precipitation inputs to a basin using the iSnobal energy balance snowmelt model and assimilated snow depth information from the Airborne Snow Observatory (ASO). Throughout the ablation seasons of three highly dissimilar consecutive water years (2015 - 2017), the ASO captured high resolution snow depth snapshots over the Tuolumne River Basin in California's Central Sierra Nevada. These measurements were used to periodically update the snow depth state variable of iSnobal, thereby nudging the estimates of water storage (snow water equivalent, or SWE) and melt (surface water input, or SWI) toward a more accurate solution. Once precipitation inputs and streamflow outputs are better constrained, the additional loss terms of the water mass balance equation (i.e. groundwater recharge and evapotranspiration) can be estimated with less uncertainty.

  11. Statistical analysis of lineaments and their relation to fracturing, faulting, and halokinesis in the East Texas Basin. Report of investigations No. 110

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dix, O.R.; Jackson, M.P.A.

    1981-01-01

    Lineament analysis is part of a broad spectrum of structural studies employed to determine the tectonic stability of the East Texas Basin. Such information is necessary to assess the suitability of East Texas salt domes as possible repository sites for the storage of high-level nuclear wastes. A sequence of statistical operations was designed to identify and assess the significance of lineament preferred orientation by means of a variety of statistical tests or parameters. Black-and-white aerial photographs, and band-5 Landsat imagery were analyzed. Well-defined, northeast-trending and northwest-trending lineament populations are present throughout the East Texas Basin. The northeast trend, comprising two peaks oriented at 045 0 and 055 0 , corresponds to the orientation of the Mexia-Talco peripheral fault zone, to subsurface faults in the center of the basin, and to some lithologic contacts. The northwest trend comprises two peaks oriented at 310 0 and 325 0 . Both the northeast and northwest trends are thought to result from preferential directions of fracture induced by interference folding at depth. Areas above shallow salt domes, particularly those in the southern part of the basin, are associated with higher lineament densities and lower preferred orientation of lineaments that are non-dome areas or areas above deep salt diapirs; this probably reflects radial and concentric fault and fracture patterns above the shallow domes. Analysis of computer-generated, geologically meaningless sets of lineaments strongly suggests that confidence levels of 99 percent are necessary to exclude randomly generated peaks, and that the significance of orthogonal pairsets has been exaggerated in the literature

  12. EVALUATION OF CATROSAT 1PAN STEREO AND RESOURCESAT LISS 4 MSS MERGED DATA FOR MORPHOMETRIC ANALYSIS, DELINEATION OF DRAINAGE BASINS AND CODIFICATION IN TAMIL NADU, INDIA AND AUSTRALIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. S. Mohamed

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The Topographic maps and Aerial Photographs are used for morphometric analysis of drainage basins and mapping contours with drainage. The stereo pairs of 2.5 m resolution Cartosat 1, Indian satellite 2 and merged data with 5.5 m resolution P6 Resourcesat 1 LISS 4 Indian satellite of 2001 is used to map, rills, gullies, and streams of first order to evaluate part of drainage basin of Cooum and Poondi Reservoir in Thiruvallur taluk of Tamil Nadu state. The Geo Eye latest 2011data is also used with Catrosat 1Stereo data to study present morphology of tiny micro watersheds to study the use of High resolution data for delineation and codification of watersheds. This study area is in an inter fluvial drainage basin of Cooum and Kusasthalai rivers. Kusasthalai river drains in Poondi reservoir which is about 50 km from Chennai. The excess water from Kosasthalai is also diverted through Kesawaram weir to Cooum river which passes through Thiruvallur and Chennai city before it's confluence with Bay of Benegal in the east. As Cooum basin is at higher elevation, water for irrigation is again diverted through chain of tanks to Kusasthalai river basin to drain in Poondi reservoir. Delineation of water sheds in this fluvial basin is difficult by manual survey as man made irrigation channels, natural drainage streams etc., have to be clearly identified. The streams of various orders are identified based on Strahler stream order hierarchy of tributaries, slops and contours using large scale satellite data. The micro water sheds are delinated identifying the ridges from Catrosat data for this interfluves basin which has mild slop. To illustrate this research, parts of two micro watersheds which were delineated using 1:50000 data for Tamil Nadu watershed Atlas up to 7th order streams are taken up for a detailed study using high resolution data. 19 Micro watersheds with streams up to 10th order are mapped. The capability of high resolution satellite data for digital

  13. Facies analysis, depositional environments and paleoclimate of the Cretaceous Bima Formation in the Gongola Sub - Basin, Northern Benue Trough, NE Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shettima, B.; Abubakar, M. B.; Kuku, A.; Haruna, A. I.

    2018-01-01

    Facies analysis of the Cretaceous Bima Formation in the Gongola Sub -basin of the Northern Benue Trough northeastern Nigeria indicated that the Lower Bima Member is composed of alluvial fan and braided river facies associations. The alluvial fan depositional environment dominantly consists of debris flow facies that commonly occur as matrix supported conglomerate. This facies is locally associated with grain supported conglomerate and mudstone facies, representing sieve channel and mud flow deposits respectively, and these deposits may account for the proximal alluvial fan region of the Lower Bima Member. The distal fan facies were represented by gravel-bed braided river system of probably Scot - type model. This grade into sandy braided river systems with well developed floodplains facies, forming probably at the lowermost portion of the alluvial fan depositional gradient, where it inter-fingers with basinal facies. In the Middle Bima Member, the facies architecture is dominantly suggestive of deep perennial sand-bed braided river system with thickly developed amalgamated trough crossbedded sandstone facies fining to mudstone. Couplets of shallow channels are also locally common, attesting to the varying topography of the basin. The Upper Bima Member is characterized by shallow perennial sand-bed braided river system composed of successive succession of planar and trough crossbedded sandstone facies associations, and shallower channels of the flashy ephemeral sheetflood sand - bed river systems defined by interbedded succession of small scale trough crossbedded sandstone facies and parallel laminated sandstone facies. The overall stacking pattern of the facies succession of the Bima Formation in the Gongola Sub - basin is generally thinning and fining upwards cycles, indicating scarp retreat and deposition in a relatively passive margin setting. Dominance of kaolinite in the clay mineral fraction of the Bima Formation points to predominance of humid sub - tropical

  14. The flash flood of October 2011 in the Magra River basin (Italy): rainstorm characterisation and flood response analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchi, Lorenzo; Boni, Giorgio; Cavalli, Marco; Comiti, Francesco; Crema, Stefano; Lucía, Ana; Marra, Francesco; Zoccatelli, Davide

    2013-04-01

    On 25 October 2011, the Magra River, a stream of northwest Italy outflowing into the Ligurian Sea, was affected by a flash flood, which caused severe economic damage and loss of lives. The catchment covers an area of 1717 km2, of which 605 km2 are drained by the Vara River, the major tributary of the Magra River. The flood was caused by an intense rainstorm which lasted approximately 20 hours. The most intense phase lasted about 8 hours, with rainfall amounts up to around 500 mm. The largest rainfall depths (greater than 300 mm) occurred in a narrow southwest - northeast oriented belt covering an area of approximately 400 km2. This flash flood was studied by analysing rainstorm characteristics, runoff response and geomorphic effects. The rainfall fields used in the analysis are based on data from the Settepani weather radar antenna (located at around 100 km from the study basin) and the local rain gauge network. Radar observations and raingauge data were merged to obtain rainfall estimates at 30 min with a resolution of 1 km2. River stage and discharge rating curves are available for few cross-sections on the main channels. Post-flood documentation includes the reconstruction of peak discharge by means of topographic surveys and application of the slope-conveyance method in 34 cross-sections, observations on the geomorphic effects of the event - both in the channel network and on the hillslopes - and the assessment of the timing of the flood based on interviews to eyewitnesses. Regional authorities and local administrations contributed to the documentation of the flood by providing hydrometeorological data, civil protection volunteers accounts, photos and videos recorded during and immediately after the flood. A spatially distributed rainfall-runoff model, fed with rainfall estimates obtained by the radar-derived observations, was used to check the consistency of field-derived peak discharges and to derive the time evolution of the flood. The assessment of unit

  15. A two year (2008-2009) analysis of severe convective storms in the Mediterranean basin as observed by satellite imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gozzini, B.; Melani, S.; Pasi, F.; Ortolani, A.

    2010-09-01

    The increasing damages caused by natural disasters, a great part of them being direct or indirect effects of severe convective storms (SCS), seem to suggest that extreme events occur with greater frequency, also as a consequence of climate changes. A better comprehension of the genesis and evolution of SCS is then necessary to clarify if and what is changing in these extreme events. The major reason to go through the mechanisms driving such events is given by the growing need to have timely and precise predictions of severe weather events, especially in areas that show to be more and more sensitive to their occurrence. When dealing with severe weather events, either from a researcher or an operational point of view, it is necessary to know precisely the conditions under which these events take place to upgrade conceptual models or theories, and consequently to improve the quality of forecasts as well as to establish effective warning decision procedures. The Mediterranean basin is, in general terms, a sea of small areal extent, characterised by the presence of several islands; thus, a severe convection phenomenon originating over the sea, that lasts several hours, is very likely to make landfall during its lifetime. On the other hand, these storms are quasi-stationary or very slow moving so that, when convection happens close to the shoreline, it is normally very dangerous and in many cases can cause very severe weather, with flash floods or tornadoes. An example of these extreme events is one of the case study analysed in this work, regarding the flash flood occurred in Giampileri (Sicily, Italy) the evening of 1st October 2009, where 18 people died, other 79 injured and the historical centre of the village seriously damaged. Severe weather systems and strong convection occurring in the Mediterranean basin have been investigated for two years (2008-2009) using geostationary (MSG) and polar orbiting (AVHRR) satellite data, supported by ECMWF analyses and severe

  16. Non-Double-Couple Component Analysis of Induced Microearthquakes in the Val D'Agri Basin (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roselli, P.; Improta, L.; Saccorotti, G.

    2017-12-01

    In recent years it has become accepted that earthquake source can attain significant Non-Double-Couple (NDC) components. Among the driving factors of deviation from normal double-couple (DC) mechanisms there is the opening/closing of fracture networks and the activation of pre-existing faults by pore fluid pressure perturbations. This observation makes the thorough analysis of source mechanism of key importance for the understanding of withdrawal/injection induced seismicity from geothermal and hydrocarbon reservoirs, as well as of water reservoir induced seismicity. In addition to the DC component, seismic moment tensor can be decomposed into isotropic (ISO) and compensated linear vector dipole (CLVD) components. In this study we performed a careful analysis of the seismic moment tensor of induced microseismicity recorded in the Val d'Agri (Southern Apennines, Italy) focusing our attention on the NDC component. The Val d'Agri is a Quaternary extensional basin that hosts the largest onshore European oil field and a water reservoir (Pertusillo Lake impoundment) characterized by severe seasonal level oscillations. Our input data-set includes swarm-type induced micro-seismicity recorded between 2005-2006 by a high-performance network and accurately localized by a reservoir-scale local earthquake tomography. We analyze two different seismicity clusters: (i) a swarm of 69 earthquakes with 0.3 ≤ ML ≤ 1.8 induced by a wastewater disposal well of the oilfield during the initial daily injection tests (10 days); (ii) 526 earthquakes with -0.2 ≤ ML ≤ 2.7 induced by seasonal volume changes of the artificial lake. We perform the seismic moment tensor inversion by using HybridMT code. After a very accurate signal-to-noise selection and hand-made picking of P-pulses, we obtain %DC, %ISO, %CLVD for each event. DC and NDC components are analyzed and compared with the spatio-temporal distribution of seismicity, the local stress field, the injection parameters and the water

  17. APPLICATION OF WELL LOG ANALYSIS IN ASSESSMENT OF PETROPHYSICAL PARAMETERS AND RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION OF WELLS IN THE “OTH” FIELD, ANAMBRA BASIN, SOUTHERN NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene URORO

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the past years, the Anambra basin one of Nigeria’s inland basins has recorded significant level of hydrocarbon exploration activities. The basin has been confirmed by several authors from source rock analyses to have the potential for generating hydrocarbon. For the hydrocarbon to be exploited, it is imperative to have a thorough understanding of the reservoir. Computer-assisted log analyses were employed to effectively evaluate the petrophysical parameters such as the shale volume (Vsh, total porosity (TP, effective porosity (EP, water saturation (Sw, and hydrocarbon saturation (Sh. Cross-plots of the petrophysical parameters versus depth were illustrated. Five hydrocarbon bearing reservoirs were delineated in well 1, four in well 2. The reservoirs in well 3 do not contain hydrocarbon. The estimated reservoir porosity varies from 10% to 21% while their permeability values range from 20md to 1400md. The porosity and permeability values suggest that reservoirs are good enough to store and also permit free flow of fluid. The volume of shale (0.05% to 0.35% analysis reveals that the reservoirs range from shaly sand to slightly shaly sand to clean sand reservoir. On the basis of petrophysics data, the reservoirs are interpreted a good quality reservoir rocks which has been confirmed with high effective porosity range between 20% and high hydrocarbon saturation exceeding 55% water saturation in well 1 and well 2. Water saturation 3 is nearly 100% although the reservoir properties are good.  

  18. A coupled hydrological-hydraulic flood inundation model calibrated using post-event measurements and integrated uncertainty analysis in a poorly gauged Mediterranean basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hdeib, Rouya; Abdallah, Chadi; Moussa, Roger; Colin, Francois

    2017-04-01

    Developing flood inundation maps of defined exceedance probabilities is required to provide information on the flood hazard and the associated risk. A methodology has been developed to model flood inundation in poorly gauged basins, where reliable information on the hydrological characteristics of floods are uncertain and partially captured by the traditional rain-gauge networks. Flood inundation is performed through coupling a hydrological rainfall-runoff (RR) model (HEC-HMS) with a hydraulic model (HEC-RAS). The RR model is calibrated against the January 2013 flood event in the Awali River basin, Lebanon (300 km2), whose flood peak discharge was estimated by post-event measurements. The resulting flows of the RR model are defined as boundary conditions of the hydraulic model, which is run to generate the corresponding water surface profiles and calibrated against 20 post-event surveyed cross sections after the January-2013 flood event. An uncertainty analysis is performed to assess the results of the models. Consequently, the coupled flood inundation model is simulated with design storms and flood inundation maps are generated of defined exceedance probabilities. The peak discharges estimated by the simulated RR model were in close agreement with the results from different empirical and statistical methods. This methodology can be extended to other poorly gauged basins facing common stage-gauge failure or characterized by floods with a stage exceeding the gauge measurement level, or higher than that defined by the rating curve.

  19. Preliminary analysis of the sandstone accumulation situation at Sha-3 of the Paleogene Series Shakhetsze in the Khekou basin of the Tsziyan region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, S

    1984-01-01

    The Khekou basin of the second order which is located in the Eastern part of the Tsziyan basin in the oil and gas Bokhayvan'skiy pool has an area of about 900 km/sup 2/. The main productive level occurs in sandstone beds in the Sha-3 subseries (reaching thickness of about 400 m) of the Shakhetsze series. The Bonan oil field was discovered in this region in 1975. The initially productive deposits were viewed as fluvial-delta; however, studies of recent years, including investigation of the sedimentation sequences and the structures that mark the surfaces of the microscopic level in the core sample, together with an analysis of borehole geophysical data, indicated that the sandy bodies of the productive beds in the basin must be viewed as deposits of turbidite flows and deposits of gravitational flows in channels. Insofar as distribution of the turbidite sandstones differs significantly from the delta, this led to a review of the long-term trends in the neighboring fields.

  20. Analysis of ancient human mitochondrial DNA from the Xiaohe cemetery: insights into prehistoric population movements in the Tarim Basin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunxiang; Ning, Chao; Hagelberg, Erika; Li, Hongjie; Zhao, Yongbin; Li, Wenying; Abuduresule, Idelisi; Zhu, Hong; Zhou, Hui

    2015-07-08

    The Tarim Basin in western China, known for its amazingly well-preserved mummies, has been for thousands of years an important crossroad between the eastern and western parts of Eurasia. Despite its key position in communications and migration, and highly diverse peoples, languages and cultures, its prehistory is poorly understood. To shed light on the origin of the populations of the Tarim Basin, we analysed mitochondrial DNA polymorphisms in human skeletal remains excavated from the Xiaohe cemetery, used by the local community between 4000 and 3500 years before present, and possibly representing some of the earliest settlers. Xiaohe people carried a wide variety of maternal lineages, including West Eurasian lineages H, K, U5, U7, U2e, T, R*, East Eurasian lineages B, C4, C5, D, G2a and Indian lineage M5. Our results indicate that the people of the Tarim Basin had a diverse maternal ancestry, with origins in Europe, central/eastern Siberia and southern/western Asia. These findings, together with information on the cultural context of the Xiaohe cemetery, can be used to test contrasting hypotheses of route of settlement into the Tarim Basin.

  1. Hydrologic analysis of the challenges facing water resources and sustainable development of Wadi Feiran basin, southern Sinai, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Ayman A.; Diab, Maghawri S.

    2018-04-01

    Wadi Feiran basin is one of the most promising areas in southern Sinai (Egypt) for establishing new communities and for growth in agriculture, tourism, and industry. The present challenges against development include water runoff hazards (flash flooding), the increasing water demand, and water scarcity and contamination. These challenges could be mitigated by efficient use of runoff and rainwater through appropriate management, thereby promoting sustainable development. Strategies include the mitigation of runoff hazards and promoting the natural and artificial recharge of aquifers. This study uses a watershed modeling system, geographic information system, and classification scheme to predict the effects of various mitigation options on the basin's water resources. Rainwater-harvesting techniques could save more than 77% of the basin's runoff (by volume), which could be used for storage and aquifer recharge. A guide map is provided that shows possible locations for the proposed mitigation options in the study basin. Appropriate measures should be undertaken urgently: mitigation of groundwater contamination (including effective sewage effluent management); regular monitoring of the municipal, industrial and agricultural processes that release contaminants; rationalization and regulation of the application of agro-chemicals to farmland; and regular monitoring of contaminants in groundwater. Stringent regulations should be implemented to prevent wastewater disposal to the aquifers in the study area.

  2. Morphotectonic control of the Białka drainage basin (Central Carpathians: Insights from DEM and morphometric analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wołosiewicz Bartosz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Białka river valley is directly related to a deep NNW-SSE oriented fault zone. According to the results of previous morphometric analyses, the Białka drainage basin is one of the most tectonically active zones in the Central Carpathians. It is also located within an area of high seismic activity.

  3. Seismic attribute analysis to enhance detection of thin gold-bearing reefs: South Deep gold mine, Witwatersrand basin, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Manzi, MSD

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The gold-bearing Upper Elsburg Reef clastic wedge (UER) in the South Deep gold mine in the Witwatersrand basin (South Africa) hosts the highly auriferous basal conglomerate known as the Elsburg Conglomerate (EC) reef. The reef is less than 20 m...

  4. Morphotectonic analysis and GNSS observations for assessment of relative tectonic activity in Alaknanda basin of Garhwal Himalaya, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Gopal; Champati ray, P. K.; Mohanty, S.

    2018-01-01

    Alaknanda basin in the Garhwal Himalaya, India, is a tectonically active region owing to ongoing crustal deformation, erosion, and depositional processes active in the region. Active tectonics in this region have greatly affected the drainage system and geomorphic expression of topography and provide an ideal natural set up to investigate the influence of tectonic activity resulting from the India-Eurasia collision. We evaluated active tectonics by using high resolution digital elevation model (DEM) based on eight geomorphic indices (stream length gradient index, valley floor width-to-height ratio, hypsometric integral, drainage basin asymmetry, transverse topography symmetry factor, mountain front sinousity index, bifurcation ratio, and basin shape index) and seismicity in eight subbasins of Alaknanda basin. The integrated product, relative tectonic activity index (TAI) map, was classified into three classes such as: 'highly active' with values ranging up to 2.0; 'moderately active' with values ranging from 2.0 to 2.25; and 'less active' with values > 2.25. Further, the results were compared with relatively high crustal movement rate of 41.10 mm/y computed through high precession Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) based continuous operating reference station (CORS) data. Thus, we concluded that this new quantitative approach can be used for better characterization and assessment of active seismotectonic regions of the Himalaya and elsewhere.

  5. Morphometric and hydro graphic analysis in the hydro graphic basin of the Salsa river in Paraiba South coast of Brasil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbosa, M.; Nascimento, J.; Furrier, M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper aims to extend the knowledge on the geomorphology of the river basin Salsa, located in the town of Con de, Paraiba / Brasil. The purpose of the research was to develop thematic maps and get related morphometric data to evaluate possible influences on tectonics. Were used Map data and satellite photos which allowed morphological and clinograficos analyze

  6. Application of Statistical Downscaling Techniques to Predict Rainfall and Its Spatial Analysis Over Subansiri River Basin of Assam, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barman, S.; Bhattacharjya, R. K.

    2017-12-01

    The River Subansiri is the major north bank tributary of river Brahmaputra. It originates from the range of Himalayas beyond the Great Himalayan range at an altitude of approximately 5340m. Subansiri basin extends from tropical to temperate zones and hence exhibits a great diversity in rainfall characteristics. In the Northern and Central Himalayan tracts, precipitation is scarce on account of high altitudes. On the other hand, Southeast part of the Subansiri basin comprising the sub-Himalayan and the plain tract in Arunachal Pradesh and Assam, lies in the tropics. Due to Northeast as well as Southwest monsoon, precipitation occurs in this region in abundant quantities. Particularly, Southwest monsoon causes very heavy precipitation in the entire Subansiri basin during May to October. In this study, the rainfall over Subansiri basin has been studied at 24 different locations by multiple linear and non-linear regression based statistical downscaling techniques and by Artificial Neural Network based model. APHRODITE's gridded rainfall data of 0.25˚ x 0.25˚ resolutions and climatic parameters of HadCM3 GCM of resolution 2.5˚ x 3.75˚ (latitude by longitude) have been used in this study. It has been found that multiple non-linear regression based statistical downscaling technique outperformed the other techniques. Using this method, the future rainfall pattern over the Subansiri basin has been analyzed up to the year 2099 for four different time periods, viz., 2020-39, 2040-59, 2060-79, and 2080-99 at all the 24 locations. On the basis of historical rainfall, the months have been categorized as wet months, months with moderate rainfall and dry months. The spatial changes in rainfall patterns for all these three types of months have also been analyzed over the basin. Potential decrease of rainfall in the wet months and months with moderate rainfall and increase of rainfall in the dry months are observed for the future rainfall pattern of the Subansiri basin.

  7. K-Basins design guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roe, N.R.; Mills, W.C.

    1995-06-01

    The purpose of the design guidelines is to enable SNF and K Basin personnel to complete fuel and sludge removal, and basin water mitigation by providing engineering guidance for equipment design for the fuel basin, facility modifications (upgrades), remote tools, and new processes. It is not intended to be a purchase order reference for vendors. The document identifies materials, methods, and components that work at K Basins; it also Provides design input and a technical review process to facilitate project interfaces with operations in K Basins. This document is intended to compliment other engineering documentation used at K Basins and throughout the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project. Significant provisions, which are incorporated, include portions of the following: General Design Criteria (DOE 1989), Standard Engineering Practices (WHC-CM-6-1), Engineering Practices Guidelines (WHC 1994b), Hanford Plant Standards (DOE-RL 1989), Safety Analysis Manual (WHC-CM-4-46), and Radiological Design Guide (WHC 1994f). Documents (requirements) essential to the engineering design projects at K Basins are referenced in the guidelines

  8. Solid state 13C NMR analysis of shales and coals from Laramide Basins. Final report, March 1, 1995--March 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miknis, F.P.; Jiao, Z.S.; Zhao, Hanqing; Surdam, R.C.

    1998-12-31

    This Western Research Institute (WRI) jointly sponsored research (JSR) project augmented and complemented research conducted by the University of Wyoming Institute For Energy Research for the Gas Research Institute. The project, {open_quotes}A New Innovative Exploitation Strategy for Gas Accumulations Within Pressure Compartments,{close_quotes} was a continuation of a project funded by the GRI Pressure Compartmentalization Program that began in 1990. That project, {open_quotes}Analysis of Pressure Chambers and Seals in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana,{close_quotes} characterized a new class of hydrocarbon traps, the discovery of which can provide an impetus to revitalize the domestic petroleum industry. In support of the UW Institute For Energy Research`s program on pressure compartmentalization, solid-state {sup 13}C NMR measurements were made on sets of shales and coals from different Laramide basins in North America. NMR measurements were made on samples taken from different formations and depths of burial in the Alberta, Bighorn, Denver, San Juan, Washakie, and Wind River basins. The carbon aromaticity determined by NMR was shown to increase with depth of burial and increased maturation. In general, the NMR data were in agreement with other maturational indicators, such as vitrinite reflectance, illite/smectite ratio, and production indices. NMR measurements were also obtained on residues from hydrous pyrolysis experiments on Almond and Lance Formation coals from the Washakie Basin. These data were used in conjunction with mass and elemental balance data to obtain information about the extent of carbon aromatization that occurs during artificial maturation. The data indicated that 41 and 50% of the original aliphatic carbon in the Almond and Lance coals, respectively, aromatized during hydrous pyrolysis.

  9. CORE-BASED INTEGRATED SEDIMENTOLOGIC, STRATIGRAPHIC, AND GEOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF THE OIL SHALE BEARING GREEN RIVER FORMATION, UINTA BASIN, UTAH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauren P. Birgenheier; Michael D. Vanden Berg,

    2011-04-11

    An integrated detailed sedimentologic, stratigraphic, and geochemical study of Utah's Green River Formation has found that Lake Uinta evolved in three phases (1) a freshwater rising lake phase below the Mahogany zone, (2) an anoxic deep lake phase above the base of the Mahogany zone and (3) a hypersaline lake phase within the middle and upper R-8. This long term lake evolution was driven by tectonic basin development and the balance of sediment and water fill with the neighboring basins, as postulated by models developed from the Greater Green River Basin by Carroll and Bohacs (1999). Early Eocene abrupt global-warming events may have had significant control on deposition through the amount of sediment production and deposition rates, such that lean zones below the Mahogany zone record hyperthermal events and rich zones record periods between hyperthermals. This type of climatic control on short-term and long-term lake evolution and deposition has been previously overlooked. This geologic history contains key points relevant to oil shale development and engineering design including: (1) Stratigraphic changes in oil shale quality and composition are systematic and can be related to spatial and temporal changes in the depositional environment and basin dynamics. (2) The inorganic mineral matrix of oil shale units changes significantly from clay mineral/dolomite dominated to calcite above the base of the Mahogany zone. This variation may result in significant differences in pyrolysis products and geomechanical properties relevant to development and should be incorporated into engineering experiments. (3) This study includes a region in the Uinta Basin that would be highly prospective for application of in-situ production techniques. Stratigraphic targets for in-situ recovery techniques should extend above and below the Mahogany zone and include the upper R-6 and lower R-8.

  10. Regional intensity-duration-frequency analysis in the Eastern Black Sea Basin, Turkey, by using L-moments and regression analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghiaei, Farhad; Kankal, Murat; Anilan, Tugce; Yuksek, Omer

    2018-01-01

    The analysis of rainfall frequency is an important step in hydrology and water resources engineering. However, a lack of measuring stations, short duration of statistical periods, and unreliable outliers are among the most important problems when designing hydrology projects. In this study, regional rainfall analysis based on L-moments was used to overcome these problems in the Eastern Black Sea Basin (EBSB) of Turkey. The L-moments technique was applied at all stages of the regional analysis, including determining homogeneous regions, in addition to fitting and estimating parameters from appropriate distribution functions in each homogeneous region. We studied annual maximum rainfall height values of various durations (5 min to 24 h) from seven rain gauge stations located in the EBSB in Turkey, which have gauging periods of 39 to 70 years. Homogeneity of the region was evaluated by using L-moments. The goodness-of-fit criterion for each distribution was defined as the ZDIST statistics, depending on various distributions, including generalized logistic (GLO), generalized extreme value (GEV), generalized normal (GNO), Pearson type 3 (PE3), and generalized Pareto (GPA). GLO and GEV determined the best distributions for short (5 to 30 min) and long (1 to 24 h) period data, respectively. Based on the distribution functions, the governing equations were extracted for calculation of intensities of 2, 5, 25, 50, 100, 250, and 500 years return periods (T). Subsequently, the T values for different rainfall intensities were estimated using data quantifying maximum amount of rainfall at different times. Using these T values, duration, altitude, latitude, and longitude values were used as independent variables in a regression model of the data. The determination coefficient ( R 2) value indicated that the model yields suitable results for the regional relationship of intensity-duration-frequency (IDF), which is necessary for the design of hydraulic structures in small and

  11. Assessing floods and droughts in the Mékrou River basin (West Africa): a combined household survey and climatic trends analysis approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markantonis, Vasileios; Farinosi, Fabio; Dondeynaz, Celine; Ameztoy, Iban; Pastori, Marco; Marletta, Luca; Ali, Abdou; Carmona Moreno, Cesar

    2018-05-01

    The assessment of natural hazards such as floods and droughts is a complex issue that demands integrated approaches and high-quality data. Especially in African developing countries, where information is limited, the assessment of floods and droughts, though an overarching issue that influences economic and social development, is even more challenging. This paper presents an integrated approach to assessing crucial aspects of floods and droughts in the transboundary Mékrou River basin (a portion of the Niger River basin in West Africa), combining climatic trends analysis and the findings of a household survey. The multivariable trend analysis estimates, at the biophysical level, the climate variability and the occurrence of floods and droughts. These results are coupled with an analysis of household survey data that reveals the behaviour and opinions of local residents regarding the observed climate variability and occurrence of flood and drought events, household mitigation measures, and the impacts of floods and droughts. Based on survey data analysis, the paper provides a per-household cost estimation of floods and droughts that occurred over a 2-year period (2014-2015). Furthermore, two econometric models are set up to identify the factors that influence the costs of floods and droughts to impacted households.

  12. Sedimentological analysis of the Estefaniense de Tineo basin (Asturias): example of coal deposits in alluvial fans. Analisis sedimentologico de la cuenca Estefaniense de Tineo (Asturias): ejemplo de depositos de carbon en abanicos aluviales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos Garcia, J.A. (Empresa Nacional ADARO, Madrid (Spain))

    1991-01-01

    A sedimentological analysis of the Stephanian deposits of Tineo Basin is carried out. Three unities are established (Basal Breachs, Intermediate Unit and Conglomerate Unit) by means of lithological, mining and sedimentological criteria, which represent larger episodes in the filling of the basin. The first episode corresponds to the initial configuration of the basin, with coarse grained breccia deposits related to steep slopes (Basal Breccia). The second and more complex (Intermediate Unit), is represented by four larger sequences (stages from UI-1 to UI-4, La Prohida Zone) which show secondary tectonic pulsations. At this moment the sedimentation is carried out in several subbasins separated by palaeoreliefs or thresholds. The third episode corresponds to a strong reactivation of the northern edge of the basin, with deposition of the Conglomeratic Unit. The filling of the basin is assimilated to a pattern of alluvial fans in a tectonically-active basin, in which the coal deposition look place during calm (tranquil) periods when a large alluvial fan flanked by coalescent smaller sized fans developed along the northern margin of the basin. 24 refs., 9 figs.

  13. Vulnerability assessment of the Toluca Valley aquifer combining a parametric approach and advective transport; Estimación de la vulnerabilidad del acuífero del valle de Toluca mediante la combinación de un método paramétrico y el transporte advectivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gárfias, J.; Llanos, H.; Franco, R.; Martel, R.

    2017-09-01

    Groundwater vulnerability assessment is an important task in water resources and land management. Depending on the availability of data and the complexity of the hydrogeological conditions, different approaches can be adopted. As an alternative, this study involves the use of a combined approach based on vulnerability methods and advective particle tracking to better understand the susceptibility to contamination in the Toluca valley aquifer. An intrinsic vulnerability map (DRASTIC) was used to identify areas that are more susceptible to ground water contamination. To estimate advective particle tracking, we developed a 3D flow model using VisualModflow and MODPATH to describe the regional flow of groundwater. The vulnerability map demonstrates the problematic application and interpretation of qualitative the vulnerability method of the parametric system group, which indicates a difference of approximately 23% when compared with the modified vulnerability map. Potential contamination sources based on landfill sites were comparatively high; approximately 76% are located in areas that could be susceptible to contamination through vertical infiltration, especially those that are located along the Lerma system of wells. Industrial parks located in the centre of the valley (83%), where continuous extraction of groundwater and land subsidence occurs, have been classified as high vulnerability zones, increasing the risk of contaminants from surface sources reaching the groundwater. In order to understand the susceptibility to contamination in the aquifer, various delineation approaches should be adopted and all the results that validate each other should be considered, thus making a good strategy for implementing different degrees of protection measures. [Spanish] La estimación de la vulnerabilidad del agua subterránea es una tarea importante en la administración de los recursos hídricos, que depende de la disponibilidad de datos y complejidad de las condiciones

  14. Nitrate source identification in groundwater of multiple land-use areas by combining isotopes and multivariate statistical analysis: A case study of Asopos basin (Central Greece).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matiatos, Ioannis

    2016-01-15

    Nitrate (NO3) is one of the most common contaminants in aquatic environments and groundwater. Nitrate concentrations and environmental isotope data (δ(15)N-NO3 and δ(18)O-NO3) from groundwater of Asopos basin, which has different land-use types, i.e., a large number of industries (e.g., textile, metal processing, food, fertilizers, paint), urban and agricultural areas and livestock breeding facilities, were analyzed to identify the nitrate sources of water contamination and N-biogeochemical transformations. A Bayesian isotope mixing model (SIAR) and multivariate statistical analysis of hydrochemical data were used to estimate the proportional contribution of different NO3 sources and to identify the dominant factors controlling the nitrate content of the groundwater in the region. The comparison of SIAR and Principal Component Analysis showed that wastes originating from urban and industrial zones of the basin are mainly responsible for nitrate contamination of groundwater in these areas. Agricultural fertilizers and manure likely contribute to groundwater contamination away from urban fabric and industrial land-use areas. Soil contribution to nitrate contamination due to organic matter is higher in the south-western part of the area far from the industries and the urban settlements. The present study aims to highlight the use of environmental isotopes combined with multivariate statistical analysis in locating sources of nitrate contamination in groundwater leading to a more effective planning of environmental measures and remediation strategies in river basins and water bodies as defined by the European Water Frame Directive (Directive 2000/60/EC).

  15. Nitrate source identification in groundwater of multiple land-use areas by combining isotopes and multivariate statistical analysis: A case study of Asopos basin (Central Greece)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matiatos, Ioannis

    2016-01-01

    Nitrate (NO_3) is one of the most common contaminants in aquatic environments and groundwater. Nitrate concentrations and environmental isotope data (δ"1"5N–NO_3 and δ"1"8O–NO_3) from groundwater of Asopos basin, which has different land-use types, i.e., a large number of industries (e.g., textile, metal processing, food, fertilizers, paint), urban and agricultural areas and livestock breeding facilities, were analyzed to identify the nitrate sources of water contamination and N-biogeochemical transformations. A Bayesian isotope mixing model (SIAR) and multivariate statistical analysis of hydrochemical data were used to estimate the proportional contribution of different NO_3 sources and to identify the dominant factors controlling the nitrate content of the groundwater in the region. The comparison of SIAR and Principal Component Analysis showed that wastes originating from urban and industrial zones of the basin are mainly responsible for nitrate contamination of groundwater in these areas. Agricultural fertilizers and manure likely contribute to groundwater contamination away from urban fabric and industrial land-use areas. Soil contribution to nitrate contamination due to organic matter is higher in the south-western part of the area far from the industries and the urban settlements. The present study aims to highlight the use of environmental isotopes combined with multivariate statistical analysis in locating sources of nitrate contamination in groundwater leading to a more effective planning of environmental measures and remediation strategies in river basins and water bodies as defined by the European Water Frame Directive (Directive 2000/60/EC). - Highlights: • More enriched N-isotope values were observed in the industrial/urban areas. • A Bayesian isotope mixing model was applied in a multiple land-use area. • A 3-component model explained the factors controlling nitrate content in groundwater. • Industrial/urban nitrogen source was

  16. Influence of contamination indicative components of the residual water coming from a treatment plant of Toluca Valley on the microbial activity of conditioned clinoptilolite with silver against E. Coli; Influencia de componentes indicadores de contaminacion del agua residual proveniente de una planta tratadora del Valle de Toluca sobre la actividad microbicida de la clinoptilolita acondicionada con plata frente a E. Coli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossainz C, L. G.

    2013-07-01

    In the present study we used zeolite from the state of Chihuahua which was subjected to a conditioning process with silver to verify the effect as microbicidal agent against Escherichia coli in the presence of different ions (NO{sub 3}{sup -}, NO{sub 2}{sup -}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, Cl{sup -}, Fe{sup 2+} and Mg{sup 2+}), found in the effluent of a Valle de Toluca treatment plant. The zeolite material was conditioned with a solution of sodium chloride and then with a solution of silver nitrate and was characterized by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Ion concentration was determined in the treatment plant effluent by standards methods specific, for each ion. A solution containing E. coli cells in batch type process was used to investigate four important aspects: a) the bactericidal effect that presents the zeolitic material conditioned against E. coli, b) the influence of ions NO{sub 3}{sup -}, NO{sub 2}{sup -}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, Cl{sup -}, Fe{sup 2+} and Mg{sup 2+} on the bactericidal effect of the conditioned zeolitic material, c) the effect of the ions NO{sub 3}{sup -}, NO{sub 2}{sup -}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, Cl{sup -}, Fe{sup 2+} and Mg{sup 2+} for the desorption of silver ions from the conditioned zeolite material and d) the kinetics of disinfection processes. The amount of bacteria was determined using APHA method and silver contained in water was determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. The Chick model was considered to describe the kinetic behavior of the disinfection process. According with the results was found, that the conditioned zeolite silver from the state of Chihuahua is useful bactericide agent for water disinfection and that the desorbed amount of silver as well as the chemical species present in water at the time of disinfection process are factors that influence the process efficiency. (Author)

  17. FOXO3 variants are beneficial for longevity in Southern Chinese living in the Red River Basin: A case-control study and meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Liang; Hu, Caiyou; Zheng, Chenguang; Qian, Yu; Liang, Qinghua; Lv, Zeping; Huang, Zezhi; Qi, KeYan; Gong, Huan; Zhang, Zheng; Huang, Jin; Zhou, Qin; Yang, Ze

    2015-01-01

    Forkhead box class O (FOXO) transcription factors play a crucial role in longevity across species. Several polymorphisms in FOXO3 were previously reported to be associated with human longevity. However, only one Chinese replication study has been performed so far. To verify the role of FOXO3 in southern Chinese in the Red River Basin, a community-based case-control study was conducted, and seven polymorphisms were genotyped in 1336 participants, followed by a meta-analysis of eight case-contr...

  18. Determinación de peligros volcánicos aplicando técnicas de evaluación multicriterio y SIG en el área del Nevado de Toluca, centro de México

    OpenAIRE

    Aceves-Quesada, Fernando; López-Blanco, Jorge; Martin del Pozzo, Ana Lillian

    2006-01-01

    Los estudios de peligros volcánicos a corto y largo plazo mediante la utilización de tecnologías geográficas generan un conocimiento útil para el análisis, planeación y manejo de las crisis volcánicas. El Nevado de Toluca es un estratovolcán que a lo largo de su historia geológica ha tenido erupciones violentas acompañadas de flujos piroclásticos, lahares, avalanchas, caída de cenizas y pómez. Durante los últimos 50,000 años, este volcán ha presentado al menos ocho erupciones vesuvianas, cuat...

  19. Late Pliensbachian-early Toarcian paleoenvironmental changes in the Cleveland Basin: new clues from high-resolution trace element analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thibault, Nicolas Rudolph; Ruhl, Micha; Ullmann, Clemens Vinzenz

    on the behaviour of elements associated with organic matter and the sulphur cycle such as Ni, Cu, Zn and As. Cu is well-correlated to the TOC whereas As shows an enrichment in the interval of black shale deposition after the CIE and two distinct correlation lines with sulphur, one before and during the event...... Europe after the CIE. Detrital elements (Al, Si, Ti, Zr) are used as proxies for sea-level change and match well previous sequence stratigraphic interpretations in the Cleveland Basin. Black shale deposition and anoxia were favored by a major transgression and appear to be paced by 3rd to 4th order sea...... elements across the late Pliensbachian to middle Toarcian of the Cleveland Basin. The Pl/To boundary CIE is associated with low Total Organic Carbon (TOCZn and Ni, which together suggest that water-mass restriction and anoxia occurred...

  20. Analysis and Modeling of Time-Correlated Characteristics of Rainfall-Runoff Similarity in the Upstream Red River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuli Sang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We constructed a similarity model (based on Euclidean distance between rainfall and runoff to study time-correlated characteristics of rainfall-runoff similar patterns in the upstream Red River Basin and presented a detailed evaluation of the time correlation of rainfall-runoff similarity. The rainfall-runoff similarity was used to determine the optimum similarity. The results showed that a time-correlated model was found to be capable of p