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Sample records for analysis tie-hua ng

  1. SAXS analysis of a soluble cytosolic NgBR construct including extracellular and transmembrane domains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Holcomb

    Full Text Available The Nogo-B receptor (NgBR is involved in oncogenic Ras signaling through directly binding to farnesylated Ras. It recruits farnesylated Ras to the non-lipid-raft membrane for interaction with downstream effectors. However, the cytosolic domain of NgBR itself is only partially folded. The lack of several conserved secondary structural elements makes this domain unlikely to form a complete farnesyl binding pocket. We find that inclusion of the extracellular and transmembrane domains that contain additional conserved residues to the cytosolic region results in a well folded protein with a similar size and shape to the E.coli cis-isoprenyl transferase (UPPs. Small Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS analysis reveals the radius of gyration (Rg of our NgBR construct to be 18.2 Å with a maximum particle dimension (Dmax of 61.0 Å. Ab initio shape modeling returns a globular molecular envelope with an estimated molecular weight of 23.0 kD closely correlated with the calculated molecular weight. Both Kratky plot and pair distribution function of NgBR scattering reveal a bell shaped peak which is characteristic of a single globularly folded protein. In addition, circular dichroism (CD analysis reveals that our construct has the secondary structure contents similar to the UPPs. However, this result does not agree with the currently accepted topological orientation of NgBR which might partition this construct into three separate domains. This discrepancy suggests another possible NgBR topology and lends insight into a potential molecular basis of how NgBR facilitates farnesylated Ras recruitment.

  2. Analysis of Coexisting GPON and NG-PON1 (10G-PON Systems

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    M. D. Mraković

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the simulation model of coexisting GPON and NG-PON1 (10G-PON systems is presented, which has been developed for the analysis of feasibility and implementation issues of this coexistence. The aim was to analyze the impact of the most important parameters of the components that are needed for new network elements, on the performance of these coexistent networks. On the basis of the results obtained, the optimal parameters of the new system components were defined.

  3. NG09 And CTBT On-Site Inspection Noble Gas Sampling and Analysis Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrigan, Charles R.; Tanaka, Junichi

    2010-05-01

    A provision of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) allows on-site inspections (OSIs) of suspect nuclear sites to determine if the occurrence of a detected event is nuclear in origin. For an underground nuclear explosion (UNE), the potential success of an OSI depends significantly on the containment scenario of the alleged event as well as the application of air and soil-gas radionuclide sampling techniques in a manner that takes into account both the suspect site geology and the gas transport physics. UNE scenarios may be broadly divided into categories involving the level of containment. The simplest to detect is a UNE that vents a significant portion of its radionuclide inventory and is readily detectable at distance by the International Monitoring System (IMS). The most well contained subsurface events will only be detectable during an OSI. In such cases, 37 Ar and radioactive xenon cavity gases may reach the surface through either "micro-seepage" or the barometric pumping process and only the careful siting of sampling locations, timing of sampling and application of the most site-appropriate atmospheric and soil-gas capturing methods will result in a confirmatory signal. The OSI noble gas field tests NG09 was recently held in Stupava, Slovakia to consider, in addition to other field sampling and analysis techniques, drilling and subsurface noble gas extraction methods that might be applied during an OSI. One of the experiments focused on challenges to soil-gas sampling near the soil-atmosphere interface. During withdrawal of soil gas from shallow, subsurface sample points, atmospheric dilution of the sample and the potential for introduction of unwanted atmospheric gases were considered. Tests were designed to evaluate surface infiltration and the ability of inflatable well-packers to seal out atmospheric gases during sample acquisition. We discuss these tests along with some model-based predictions regarding infiltration under different near

  4. Proteomics analysis of normal and senescent NG108-15 cells: GRP78 plays a negative role in cisplatin-induced senescence in the NG108-15 cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Wang, Wei; Li, Yan; Wang, Wenwen; Wang, Tian; Li, Li; Han, Zhiqiang; Wang, Shixuan; Ma, Ding; Wang, Hui

    2014-01-01

    Accelerated senescence (ACS) leading to proliferative arrest is a physiological mechanism of the DNA damage response that occurs during tumor therapy. Our experiment was designed to detect unknown genes that may play important roles in cisplatin-induced senescence and to illustrate the related senescence mechanism. Using 2-dimension electrophoresis (2-DE), we identified 5 protein spots with different expression levels in the normal and senescent NG108-15 cells. According to MALDI-TOF MS analysis, the 5 proteins were determined to be peptidylprolyl isomerase A (PPIA), peroxiredoxin 1 (PRX1), glutathione S-transferase mu 1 (GSTM1), vimentin (VIM) and glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78). Then, we investigated how cisplatin-induced senescence was mediated by GRP78 in the NG108-15 cells. Knockdown of GRP78 significantly increased P53 expression in NG108-15 cells. Additionally, 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2DG)-induced GRP78 overexpression protected the NG108-15 cells from cisplatin-induced senescence, which was accompanied by the obvious suppression of P53 and p-CDC2 expression. Inhibition of Ca2+ release from endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stores was also found to be associated with the anti-senescence effect of 2DG-induced GRP78 overexpression. In conclusion, we found 5 proteins that were differentially expressed in normal NG108-15 cells and senescent NG108-15 cells. GRP78 plays an important role in cisplatin-induced senescence in NG108-15 cells, mainly through its regulation of P53 expression and ER calcium efflux.

  5. Proteomics analysis of normal and senescent NG108-15 cells: GRP78 plays a negative role in cisplatin-induced senescence in the NG108-15 cell line.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Li

    Full Text Available Accelerated senescence (ACS leading to proliferative arrest is a physiological mechanism of the DNA damage response that occurs during tumor therapy. Our experiment was designed to detect unknown genes that may play important roles in cisplatin-induced senescence and to illustrate the related senescence mechanism. Using 2-dimension electrophoresis (2-DE, we identified 5 protein spots with different expression levels in the normal and senescent NG108-15 cells. According to MALDI-TOF MS analysis, the 5 proteins were determined to be peptidylprolyl isomerase A (PPIA, peroxiredoxin 1 (PRX1, glutathione S-transferase mu 1 (GSTM1, vimentin (VIM and glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78. Then, we investigated how cisplatin-induced senescence was mediated by GRP78 in the NG108-15 cells. Knockdown of GRP78 significantly increased P53 expression in NG108-15 cells. Additionally, 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2DG-induced GRP78 overexpression protected the NG108-15 cells from cisplatin-induced senescence, which was accompanied by the obvious suppression of P53 and p-CDC2 expression. Inhibition of Ca2+ release from endoplasmic reticulum (ER stores was also found to be associated with the anti-senescence effect of 2DG-induced GRP78 overexpression. In conclusion, we found 5 proteins that were differentially expressed in normal NG108-15 cells and senescent NG108-15 cells. GRP78 plays an important role in cisplatin-induced senescence in NG108-15 cells, mainly through its regulation of P53 expression and ER calcium efflux.

  6. Molecular characterization of Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates in Almaty, Kazakhstan, by VNTR analysis, Opa-typing and NG-MAST.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushnir, Anastasiya V; Muminov, Talgat A; Bayev, Assylzhan I; Khrapov, Evgeny A; Filipenko, Maxim L

    2012-04-01

    In the present study, new variable number tandem repeats (VNTR) loci in the Neisseria gonorrhoeae genome were identified in silico. VNTR analysis scheme using PCR and agarose or polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was developed based on nine VNTR loci with various degrees of polymorphism. The method was used to genotype a collection of 48 isolates, obtained from patients with gonorrhea in Almaty, Kazakhstan during the period from December 2008 to November 2009. This collection of isolates was also characterized by the opa-typing and multiantigen sequence typing (NG-MAST). The discriminatory power of the VNTR analysis translated by Hunter-Gaston Discrimination Index (HGDI) was similar to that of opa typing (HGDI=0.98 versus 0.97) and slightly higher than that of NG-MAST (HDGI=0.95). The adjusted Rand (AR) coefficients and Wallace coefficients showed that the overall concordance between the typing methods was not high. VNTR analysis described here is simple, inexpensive, easy to interpret, and it would be reliable for the comparison of data obtained in different laboratories. The proposed VNTR loci might be used for epidemiological studies of gonococcal infections. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Determination of iridium at low levels (sub ng g-1) in geological materials by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morcelli, Claudia Petronilho Ribeiro

    1999-01-01

    The analysis of the platinum group elements (PGE: Ru, Rh, Pd, Os, Ir and Pt) in geological materials is difficult, due to the low concentrations of these elements (ng g -1 or sub ng g -1 ) and their heterogeneous distribution in many geological matrices. The determination of PGE has attracted great interest due not only to the increasing utilization of these elements in modern industry, but also to the information that these elements can provide on mantle processes. The determination of very low amounts of iridium is particularly important on account of some anomalous concentrations of iridium in sedimentary rock samples, related to the impact of an extraterrestrial object responsible for extinctions at the Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary. In the present paper, a radiochemical neutron activation method for the determination of iridium in geological materials is presented. The procedure consisted of thermal neutron irradiation of about 500 mg of the sample, followed by sintering with sodium peroxide, precipitation with tellurium and high resolution gamma-ray spectrometry with a hyper-pure Ge detector. The accuracy and precision of the procedure were evaluated by analysis of the certified reference material SARM-7 (South Africa Bureau of Standards) and W-1 (USGS). The detection limit for the analytical conditions employed was 0.004 ng g -1 . The procedure was applied to the reference materials TDB-1 and WGB-1 (CANMET), which present provisional values for Ir, and to the reference materials GXR-3, GXR-5 and GXR- 6 (USGS), which do not present information values for Ir. This work is a contribution to Ir values in these reference materials. As an example of application of the method to real samples, the developed procedure was employed in the determination of iridium in basalts from Parana basin, collected in Bom Guara do Sul, Santa Catarina, provided by the Geosciences Institute of the University of Campinas. (author)

  8. Financial Risk Factor Analysis for Facility Gas Leakages of H2 and NG

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    In-Bok Lee

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Fuel cells may be the key to a more environmentally-friendly future because they emit low carbon dioxide per unit of energy supplied. However, little work has investigated the potential financial risks pertaining to fuel cell systems. Often used in the analysis of the safety of systems involving flammable or hazardous materials, risk factor analysis has recently been used to analyze the potential financial losses that may occur from industrial hazards. Therefore, this work undertakes a financial risk factor analysis to determine the costs of leakages of hydrogen and natural gas, which are used in fuel cell systems. Total leakage was calculated from an analysis of several leakage rates and modes. The impact of applying appropriate detection and prevention systems was also investigated. The findings were then used to analyze the consequences for various sections of the system and to calculate the overall cost based on facility outage or damage, and the cost of taking safety precautions. This provides a basis for comparison among proposed potential reactionary measures.

  9. Comparison of LTQ-Orbitrap Velos and Q-Exactive for proteomic analysis of 1-1000 ng RAW 264.7 cell lysate digests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Liangliang; Zhu, Guijie

    2013-01-01

    Rational There is interest in extending bottom-up proteomics to the smallest possible sample size. We investigated the performance of two modern instruments for the analysis of samples ranging from 1 ng to 1 µg of RAW 264.7 cell lysate digests. Methods A UPLC system coupled with either an LTQ-Orbitrap Velos or a Q-Exactive mass spectrometers was used for peptide separation and identification. Results For 1–1,000 ng RAW 264.7 cell lysate digests, the Q-Exactive generated 10–83% more protein groups and 11–109% more peptides than the LTQ-Orbitrap Velos (higher-energy collisional dissociation, HCD) with MASCOT database searching, due to faster scan rate and higher resolution. In addition, HCD and collision induced dissociation (CID) modes of the LTQ-Orbitrap Velos were compared. HCD produced higher peptide and protein group IDs than CID for 1–1,000 ng RAW 264.7 cell lysate digests with MASCOT database searching. Database searching results from SEQUEST and MASCOT were also compared and comparable protein group IDs were obtained from the two search engines. Conclusions These results indicated that Q-Exactive outperformed LTQ-Orbitrap Velos for shotgun proteomics analysis of 1 to 1,000 ng RAW 264.7 cell lysate digests in terms of obtained peptide and protein group IDs. PMID:23239329

  10. Intramuscular depot formulations of leuprolide acetate suppress testosterone levels below a 20 ng/dL threshold: a retrospective analysis of two Phase III studies

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    Spitz A

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Aaron Spitz,1 Marc Gittelman,2 Lawrence I Karsh,3 Sanja Dragnic,4 Ahmed M Soliman,5 Aditya Lele,6 Damian Gruca,7 Michael Norton4 1Orange County Urology Associates, Laguna Beach, CA, 221st Century Oncology/UroMedix-Aventura Division, Aventura, FL, 3The Urology Center of Colorado, Denver, CO, 4US Medical Affairs, 5Health Economics and Outcomes Research, 6Data and Statistical Sciences, AbbVie Inc., North Chicago, IL, USA; 7Global Medical Affairs, AbbVie Deutschland, Ludwigshafen, Germany Introduction: Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT with gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH analogs is a standard treatment for advanced prostate cancer. GnRH analog therapy can reduce testosterone to “castrate” levels, historically defined as <50 ng/dL. With the advent of newer assays, a lower threshold of <20 ng/dL has recently been proposed. We report the results of a retrospective analysis of two Phase III trials of 4- and 6-month depot microsphere formulations of leuprolide acetate (LA, a GnRH agonist that has previously demonstrated efficacy in testosterone suppression to <50 ng/dL in patients on ADT. This analysis investigates the ability of these LA formulations to suppress to ≤20 ng/dL levels.Methods: In two of five AbbVie/Abbott clinical trials of microsphere formulations of LA for ADT, analytic technology permitting testosterone detection as low as 3 ng/dL was used and thus was selected for this analysis. Both trials were open-label, fixed-dose studies in prostate cancer patients, naïve to ADT. Patients received either 30 mg (4-month formulation; n=49 or 45 mg (6-month formulation; n=151 depot injections of LA microspheres. Treatment duration was up to 32 weeks for the 4-month formulation and 48 weeks for the 6-month formulation. The proportion of patients achieving the 20 ng/dL threshold was determined every 4 weeks.Results: Pooled analysis showed that 152 of 193 (79% of patients achieved serum testosterone levels of ≤20 ng/dL at 4 weeks, and

  11. RISET STRATEGI IMPLEMENTASI C-RAN DI TELKOMSEL MELALUI KOLABORASI JARINGAN NG-PON2 DI TELKOM AKSES MENGGUNAKAN PENDEKATAN METODE STRATEGIC SITUATION ANALYSIS

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    Tri Susanto

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Cloud Radio Access Network (C-RAN adalah teknologi akses radio yang diyakini mampu menekan biaya CAPEX dan OPEX dari mobile operator dan memberikan performansi yang lebih baik dibandingkan Radio Access Network (RAN tradisional. Salah satu faktor kunci sukses implementasi C-RAN adalah penyediaan jaringan fonthaul yang efektif. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah membuat strategi implementasi C-RAN di Telkomsel melalui kolaborasi jaringan NG-PON2 di Telkom Akses. Pada tulisan ini menggunakan metode analisis kualitatif dengan melakukan strategy situation analysis (SSA yaitu melakukan analisa data eksternal maupun internal dan selanjutnya diformulasikan sebagai dasar pembuatan strategi implementasi. Dari penelitian ini dihasilkan usulan strategi implementasi C-RAN di Telkomsel melalui kolaborasi jaringan NG-PON2 di Telkom Akses.

  12. Molecular epidemiology of Neisseria gonorrhoeae strains circulating in Indonesia using multi-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae multi-antigen sequence typing (NG-MAST) techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hananta, I Putu Yuda; van Dam, Alje Pieter; Schim van der Loeff, Maarten Franciscus; Dierdorp, Mirjam; Wind, Carolien Marleen; Soebono, Hardyanto; de Vries, Henry John Christiaan; Bruisten, Sylvia Maria

    2018-01-05

    Control of gonorrhea in resource-limited countries, such as Indonesia, is mostly unsuccessful. Examining Neisseria gonorrhoeae (Ng) transmission networks using strain typing might help prioritizing public health interventions. In 2014, urogenital Ng strains were isolated from clients of sexually transmitted infection clinics in three Indonesian cities. Strains were typed using Multiple-Locus Variable Number Tandem Repeat (VNTR) Analysis (MLVA) and Ng Multi-Antigen Sequence Typing (NG-MAST) at the Public Health Service, Amsterdam, the Netherlands, and compared to Dutch strains collected from 2012 to 2015. Minimum spanning trees (MSTs) were constructed using MLVA profiles incorporating demographics and NG-MAST genogroups. A cluster was defined as ≥5 strains differing in ≤1 VNTR locus. The concordance between MLVA and NG-MAST was examined with the adjusted Wallace coefficients (AW). We collected a total of 78 Indonesian strains from Yogyakarta (n = 44), Jakarta (n = 25), and Denpasar (n = 9). Seven MLVA clusters and 16 non-clustered strains were identified. No cluster was specific for any geographic area, risk group or age group. Combined with 119 contemporary Dutch strains, 8 MLVA clusters were identified, being four clusters of Indonesian strains, two of Dutch strains, and two of both Indonesian and Dutch strains. Indonesian strains (79.5%) were more often clustered compared to Dutch strains (24.3%). The most prevalent NG-MAST genogroups among Indonesian strains was G1407 (51.3%) and among Dutch strains was G2992 (19.3%). In Indonesian strains, the AW [95% confidence interval] for MLVA to NG-MAST was 0.07 [0.00-0.27] and for NG-MAST to MLVA was 0.03 [0.00-0.12]. Indonesian Ng strains are more often clustered than Dutch strains, but show no relation with geographical area, risk group, or age group, suggesting a more clonal Ng epidemic in Indonesia. Some similar Ng strains circulate in both Indonesia and the Netherlands.

  13. Fløng-modellerne

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karnøe, Jonatan Kolding

    2014-01-01

    Artiklen giver indblik i, hvilke kompetencer lærerne på Fløng Skole oplever som forudsætning for, at eleverne har gavn af deres iPad i en læringssammenhæng. Herudfra er der udviklet to redskaber – F-KO-modellen og F-KOP-modellen.......Artiklen giver indblik i, hvilke kompetencer lærerne på Fløng Skole oplever som forudsætning for, at eleverne har gavn af deres iPad i en læringssammenhæng. Herudfra er der udviklet to redskaber – F-KO-modellen og F-KOP-modellen....

  14. TestNG beginner's guide

    CERN Document Server

    Menon, Varun

    2013-01-01

    This book is written in a friendly, beginner's guide style with plenty of step-by-step instructions with appropriate examples.This book is great for developers and testers who are new to TestNg and want to learn how to use TestNG for writing their application as well as functional tests. This book assumes that you have experience in Java and OOPs concepts and have worked with certain IDE.

  15. H2NG (hydrogen-natural gas mixtures) effects on energy performances of a condensing micro-CHP (combined heat and power) for residential applications: An expeditious assessment of water condensation and experimental analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lo Basso, Gianluigi; Santoli, Livio de; Albo, Angelo; Nastasi, Benedetto

    2015-01-01

    In order to accomplish significant primary energy saving and GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions reduction, CHP (combined heat and power) technology can be adopted largely for industrial and civil sectors. Waiting for the cutting-edge appliances (i.e. Fuel Cell) wide deployment, ICEs (internal combustion engines) fuelled with an environmentally-friendly fuel, such as H 2 NG (hydrogen-natural gas mixtures) could represent the bridge technology towards the forthcoming pure hydrogen economy. This paper deals with the results of an experimental campaign carried out on a Single Cylinder ICE, fuelled with NG (natural gas) and H 2 NG @ 15% vol. In detail, energy performances were assessed at rated and partial loads. From data analysis, it emerged that the electrical efficiency increased up to 2.28%, at the expense of the heat recovery one, having added hydrogen. Additionally, due to the higher water content in exhaust gas when H 2 NG is burned, it was investigated on how heat recovery efficiency has been affected by condensing operating conditions. Finally, to estimate this benefit, an expeditious procedure was developed building three maps for H 2 NG blends condensing properties from 0% up to 30% vol. of H 2 . Their outputs provided the condensation efficiency value and the absolute gain of heat recovery one with varying exhaust gas temperatures and hydrogen fraction in the mixture. - Highlights: • H 2 NG mixture effects on a commercial technology μCHP for residential applications. • Experimental analysis and methodology for H 2 NG condensing properties assessment. • CO 2 specific emissions calculation accounting for electrical and thermal outputs. • Uncertainty analysis on the μCHP energy performances and methodology validation. • H 2 addition coupling a condensing heat exchanger enhance CHP First Law efficiency

  16. Time lapse imaging analysis of the effect of ER stress modulators on apoptotic cell assessed by caspase3/7 activation in NG108-15 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayako Saito

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the data from the long term time lapse imaging of neuronal cell line NG108-15 that were treated with apoptosis inducer or various ER stress inducers. Use of the fluorescent reporter for activated caspase3/7 in combination with the conventional light microscope allowed us to investigate the time course of apoptosis induction at the single cell level. Quantitative as well as qualitative data are presented here to show the effect of two different ER stress modulating chemical compounds on caspase3/7-dependent apoptosis in neuronal cell line NG108-15 cells. Additional results and interpretation of our data concerning ER stress and apoptosis in NG108-15 cells can be found in Suga et al. (2015 [1] and in Suga et al. (2015 [2].

  17. Pb isotope analysis of ng size samples by TIMS equipped with a 1013 Ω resistor using a 207Pb-204Pb double spike

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaver, M.; Smeets, R.J.; Koornneef, J.M.; Davies, G.R.; Vroon, P.Z.

    2016-01-01

    The use of the double spike technique to correct for instrumental mass fractionation has yielded high precision results for lead isotope measurements by thermal ionisation mass spectrometry (TIMS), but the applicability to ng size Pb samples is hampered by the small size of the

  18. Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentrations ≥40 ng/ml Are Associated with >65% Lower Cancer Risk: Pooled Analysis of Randomized Trial and Prospective Cohort Study.

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    Sharon L McDonnell

    Full Text Available Higher serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OHD] concentrations have been associated with a lower risk of multiple cancer types across a range of 25(OHD concentrations.To investigate whether the previously reported inverse association between 25(OHD and cancer risk could be replicated, and if a 25(OHD response region could be identified among women aged 55 years and older across a broad range of 25(OHD concentrations.Data from two cohorts representing different median 25(OHD concentrations were pooled to afford a broader range of 25(OHD concentrations than either cohort alone: the Lappe cohort (N = 1,169, a randomized clinical trial cohort (median 25(OHD = 30 ng/ml and the GrassrootsHealth cohort (N = 1,135, a prospective cohort (median 25(OHD = 48 ng/ml. Cancer incidence over a multi-year period (median: 3.9 years was compared according to 25(OHD concentration. Kaplan-Meier plots were developed and the association between 25(OHD and cancer risk was examined with multivariate Cox regression using multiple 25(OHD measurements and spline functions. The study included all invasive cancers excluding skin cancer.Age-adjusted cancer incidence across the combined cohort (N = 2,304 was 840 cases per 100,000 person-years (1,020 per 100,000 person-years in the Lappe cohort and 722 per 100,000 person-years in the GrassrootsHealth cohort. Incidence was lower at higher concentrations of 25(OHD. Women with 25(OHD concentrations ≥40 ng/ml had a 67% lower risk of cancer than women with concentrations <20 ng/ml (HR = 0.33, 95% CI = 0.12-0.90.25(OHD concentrations ≥40 ng/ml were associated with substantial reduction in risk of all invasive cancers combined.

  19. Comparison of the LTQ-Orbitrap Velos and the Q-Exactive for proteomic analysis of 1-1000 ng RAW 264.7 cell lysate digests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Liangliang; Zhu, Guijie; Dovichi, Norman J

    2013-01-15

    There is interest in extending bottom-up proteomics to the smallest possible sample size. We investigated the performance of two modern mass spectrometers for the analysis of samples ranging from 1 ng to 1 µg of RAW 264.7 cell lysate digests. An ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) system coupled with either an LTQ-Orbitrap Velos or a Q-Exactive mass spectrometer was used for peptide separation and identification. For 1-1000 ng RAW 264.7 cell lysate digests, the Q-Exactive generated 10-83% more protein groups and 11-109% more peptides than the LTQ-Orbitrap Velos (higher-energy collisional dissociation, HCD) with MASCOT database searching, due to its faster scan rate and higher resolution. In addition, HCD and collision-induced dissociation (CID) modes of the LTQ-Orbitrap Velos were compared. HCD produced higher peptide and protein group IDs than CID for 1-1000 ng RAW 264.7 cell lysate digests with MASCOT database searching. Database searching results from SEQUEST and MASCOT were also compared and comparable protein group IDs were obtained from the two search engines. The Q-Exactive outperformed the LTQ-Orbitrap Velos for shotgun proteomics analysis of 1 to 1000 ng RAW 264.7 cell lysate digests in terms of obtained peptide and protein group IDs. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Exploring the Nature of Silicon-Noble Gas Bonds in H3SiNgNSi and HSiNgNSi Compounds (Ng = Xe, Rn

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    Sudip Pan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Ab initio and density functional theory-based computations are performed to investigate the structure and stability of H3SiNgNSi and HSiNgNSi compounds (Ng = Xe, Rn. They are thermochemically unstable with respect to the dissociation channel producing Ng and H3SiNSi or HSiNSi. However, they are kinetically stable with respect to this dissociation channel having activation free energy barriers of 19.3 and 23.3 kcal/mol for H3SiXeNSi and H3SiRnNSi, respectively, and 9.2 and 12.8 kcal/mol for HSiXeNSi and HSiRnNSi, respectively. The rest of the possible dissociation channels are endergonic in nature at room temperature for Rn analogues. However, one three-body dissociation channel for H3SiXeNSi and one two-body and one three-body dissociation channels for HSiXeNSi are slightly exergonic in nature at room temperature. They become endergonic at slightly lower temperature. The nature of bonding between Ng and Si/N is analyzed by natural bond order, electron density and energy decomposition analyses. Natural population analysis indicates that they could be best represented as (H3SiNg+(NSi− and (HSiNg+(NSi−. Energy decomposition analysis further reveals that the contribution from the orbital term (ΔEorb is dominant (ca. 67%–75% towards the total attraction energy associated with the Si-Ng bond, whereas the electrostatic term (ΔEelstat contributes the maximum (ca. 66%–68% for the same in the Ng–N bond, implying the covalent nature of the former bond and the ionic nature of the latter.

  1. Determination of l-arginine and NG, NG - and NG, NG' -dimethyl-L-arginine in plasma by liquid chromatography as AccQ-Fluor fluorescent derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heresztyn, Tamila; Worthley, Matthew I; Horowitz, John D

    2004-06-15

    A new HPLC assay for the detection of L-arginine, NG, NG-dimethyl-L-arginine (ADMA) and NG, NG' -dimethyl-L-arginine (SDMA) in plasma using the derivatisation reagent AccQ-Fluor (6-aminoquinolyl-N-hydroxysuccinimidyl carbamate) is described. The fluorescent derivatives produced are extremely stable enabling routine processing of large numbers of samples. Arginine and its metabolites are extracted from plasma on strong cation exchange (SCX) cartridges with NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (NMMA) as internal standard, derivatised and separated on a C18 column with acetonitrile in 0.1M sodium acetate buffer pH 6. Separation of the stereoisomers ADMA and SDMA was excellent and improvements to the solid phase extraction (SPE) procedure enabled good recovery (>80%) of arginine, ADMA and SDMA. The utility of the method is exemplified by comparison of plasma concentrations of ADMA, SDMA and arginine in healthy volunteers and diabetic/ischaemic patients.

  2. Neuron-NG2 Cell Synapses: Novel Functions for Regulating NG2 Cell Proliferation and Differentiation

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    Qian-Kun Yang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available NG2 cells are a population of CNS cells that are distinct from neurons, mature oligodendrocytes, astrocytes, and microglia. These cells can be identified by their NG2 proteoglycan expression. NG2 cells have a highly branched morphology, with abundant processes radiating from the cell body, and express a complex set of voltage-gated channels, AMPA/kainate, and GABA receptors. Neurons notably form classical and nonclassical synapses with NG2 cells, which have varied characteristics and functions. Neuron-NG2 cell synapses could fine-tune NG2 cell activities, including the NG2 cell cycle, differentiation, migration, and myelination, and may be a novel potential therapeutic target for NG2 cell-related diseases, such as hypoxia-ischemia injury and periventricular leukomalacia. Furthermore, neuron-NG2 cell synapses may be correlated with the plasticity of CNS in adulthood with the synaptic contacts passing onto their progenies during proliferation, and synaptic contacts decrease rapidly upon NG2 cell differentiation. In this review, we highlight the characteristics of classical and nonclassical neuron-NG2 cell synapses, the potential functions, and the fate of synaptic contacts during proliferation and differentiation, with the emphasis on the regulation of the NG2 cell cycle by neuron-NG2 cell synapses and their potential underlying mechanisms.

  3. The heterogeneous nature of NG2-glia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viganò, F; Dimou, L

    2016-05-01

    In the central nervous system, NG2-glia are the cells responsible for the generation of mature oligodendrocytes during development and adulthood. Some studies could show that NG2-glia can give origin also to astrocytes and neurons, a property that makes them similar to neural stem cells. Beside their important role as progenitors, NG2-glia are believed also to have more functions due to their unique interaction with neurons through synapses. It is however not clear whether these features are common to all NG2-glia or different subpopulations of NG2-glia devoted to different functions exist. Therefore the aim of this review is to highlight the state of the art on NG2-glia heterogeneity from development to adulthood and in different brain areas, and discuss the impact of it on our understanding of the glial neurobiology. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI:NG2-glia(Invited only). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. N Güngör

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science. N Güngör. Articles written in Bulletin of Materials Science. Volume 27 Issue 3 June 2004 pp 317-322 Surfactants. Effect of sodium dodecyl sulfate on flow and electrokinetic properties of Na-activated bentonite dispersions · E Günıster S İşçı A Alemdar N Güngör · More Details ...

  5. NG2-glia, More Than Progenitor Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eugenín-von Bernhardi, Jaime; Dimou, Leda

    2016-01-01

    NG2-glia are a mysterious and ubiquitous glial population with a highly branched morphology. Initial studies suggested that their unique function is the generation and maintenance of oligodendrocytes in the central nervous system (CNS), important for proper myelination and therefore for axonal support and fast conduction velocity. Over the last years this simplistic notion has been dramatically changed: the wide and homogeneous distribution of NG2-glia within all areas of the developing CNS that is maintained during the whole lifespan, their potential to also differentiate into other cell types in a spatiotemporal manner, their active capability of maintaining their population and their dynamic behavior in altered conditions have raised the question: are NG2-glia simple progenitor cells or do they play further major roles in the normal function of the CNS? In this chapter, we will discuss some important features of NG2-glia like their homeostatic distribution in the CNS and their potential to differentiate into diverse cell types. Additionally, we will give some further insights into the properties that these cells have, like the ability to form synapses with neurons and their plastic behavior triggered by neuronal activity, suggesting that they may play a role specifically in myelin and more generally in brain plasticity. Finally, we will briefly review their behavior in disease models suggesting that their function is extended to repair the brain after insult.

  6. Den store sammenhæng

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busch, Anne Mette

    2015-01-01

    God kommunikation er afgørende i multimedieproduktion. Kommunikationsfaget favner bredt. Det er et fagområde, som i multimediesammenhæng stiller store krav om indsigt i medieproduktion, produktudvikling og samarbejdsrelationer internt med kolleger og eksternt med leverandører, kunder osv. At faci...

  7. Photonic integrated circuits for NG-EPON

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Carla; Rodrigues, Francisco; Lima, Mário; Teixeira, António

    2017-08-01

    This paper intends to propose a monolithic photonic integrated InP transceiver for Next Generation of Ethernet Passive Optical Network (NG-EPON). The presented architecture was designed as an Optical Network Unit (ONU). The concept behind the suggested transceiver architecture is here presented together with the steps necessary to deploy the proposed solution.

  8. Spatial Organization of NG2 Glial Cells and Astrocytes in Rat Hippocampal CA1 Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Guangjin; Wang, Wei; Zhou, Min

    2014-01-01

    Similar to astrocytes, NG2 glial cells are uniformly distributed in the central nervous system (CNS). However, little is known about the interspatial relationship, nor the functional interactions between these two star-shaped glial subtypes. Confocal morphometric analysis showed that NG2 immunostained cells are spatially organized as domains in rat hippocampal CA1 region and that each NG2 glial domain occupies a spatial volume of ~ 178, 364 μm3. The processes of NG2 glia and astrocytes overlap extensively; each NG2 glial domain interlaces with the processes deriving from 5.8 ± 0.4 neighboring astrocytes, while each astrocytic domain accommodates processes stemming from 4.5 ± 0.3 abutting NG2 glia. In CA1 stratum radiatum, the cell bodies of morphologically identified glial cells often appear to make direct somatic-somata contact, termed as doublets. We used dual patch recording and post-recording NG2/GFAP double staining to determine the glial identities of these doublets. We show that among 44 doublets, 50% were NG2 glia-astrocyte pairs, while another 38.6% and 11.4% were astrocyte-astrocyte and NG2 glia-NG2 glia pairs, respectively. In dual patch recording, neither electrical coupling nor intercellular biocytin transfer was detected in astrocyte-NG2 glia or NG2 glia-NG2 glia doublets. Altogether, although NG2 glia and astrocytes are not gap junction coupled, their cell bodies and processes are interwoven extensively. The anatomical and physiological relationships revealed in this study should facilitate future studies to understand the metabolic coupling and functional communication between NG2 glia and astrocytes. PMID:24339242

  9. Spatial organization of NG2 glial cells and astrocytes in rat hippocampal CA1 region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Guangjin; Wang, Wei; Zhou, Min

    2014-04-01

    Similar to astrocytes, NG2 glial cells are uniformly distributed in the central nervous system (CNS). However, little is known about the interspatial relationship, nor the functional interactions between these two star-shaped glial subtypes. Confocal morphometric analysis showed that NG2 immunostained cells are spatially organized as domains in rat hippocampal CA1 region and that each NG2 glial domain occupies a spatial volume of ∼178, 364 μm(3) . The processes of NG2 glia and astrocytes overlap extensively; each NG2 glial domain interlaces with the processes deriving from 5.8 ± 0.4 neighboring astrocytes, while each astrocytic domain accommodates processes stemming from 4.5 ± 0.3 abutting NG2 glia. In CA1 stratum radiatum, the cell bodies of morphologically identified glial cells often appear to make direct somatic-somata contact, termed as doublets. We used dual patch recording and postrecording NG2/GFAP double staining to determine the glial identities of these doublets. We show that among 44 doublets, 50% were NG2 glia-astrocyte pairs, while another 38.6% and 11.4% were astrocyte-astrocyte and NG2 glia-NG2 glia pairs, respectively. In dual patch recording, neither electrical coupling nor intercellular biocytin transfer was detected in astrocyte-NG2 glia or NG2 glia-NG2 glia doublets. Altogether, although NG2 glia and astrocytes are not gap junction coupled, their cell bodies and processes are interwoven extensively. The anatomical and physiological relationships revealed in this study should facilitate future studies to understand the metabolic coupling and functional communication between NG2 glia and astrocytes. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Value of free/total prostate-specific antigen (f/t PSA) ratios for prostate cancer detection in patients with total serum prostate-specific antigen between 4 and 10 ng/mL: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yan; Li, Zhen-Zhen; Huang, Ya-Liang; Song, Hong-Jun; Wang, You-Juan

    2018-03-01

    Prostate carcinoma is a common disease that occurs in men over 50 years old. Many studies have explored the effect of free/total prostate-specific antigen (f/t PSA) ratio in monitoring prostate cancer. We conducted a meta-analysis to identify the accuracy of the f/t PSA ratio in the diagnosis of prostate cancer in patients who have PSA levels of 4 to 10 ng/mL. Databases searched included PubMed and OVID databases, from inception to March 2017, after a systematical review, sensitivity, specificity, and other measures of accuracy of the f/t PSA ratio in the diagnosis of prostate cancer were pooled. We used summary receiver operating characteristic curves to summarize overall test performance. Fifteen case-control studies from 14 articles were identified. The results indicated that the sensitivity of the f/t PSA ratio in the diagnosis of prostate cancer ranged from 0.5 to 0.94 (pooled sensitivity 0.70, 95% CI: 0.67-0.72), whereas its specificity ranged from 0.31 to 0.93 (pooled specificity 0.55, 95% CI: 0.57-0.60). The positive likelihood ratio was 1.85 (95% CI: 1.56-2.20), negative likelihood ratio was 0.42 (95% CI: 0.34-0.53), and diagnostic odds ratio was 4.81 (9.53% CI: 3.33-6.94). The f/t PSA ratio determination has a low sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of prostate cancer; it would not be useful for the diagnosis of prostate cancer by itself. The results of f/t PSA ratio measurements should refer to the clinical manifestations and the results of conventional tests such as biopsies.

  11. Linkage and mapping analyses of the no glue egg gene Ng in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the silkworm, Bombyx mori, no glue egg is mainly controlled by Ng (No glue) gene, which is located on the 12th chromosome. Owning to a lack of crossing over in females, reciprocal backcrossed F1 (BC1) progenies were used for linkage analysis and mapping of the Ng gene based on the simple sequence repeats ...

  12. ngVLA Cryogenic Subsystem Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wootten, Al; Urbain, Denis; Grammer, Wes; Durand, S.

    2018-01-01

    The VLA’s success over 35 years of operations stems in part from dramatically upgraded components over the years. The time has come to build a new array to lead the radio astronomical science into its next 40 years. To accomplish that, a next generation VLA (ngVLA) is envisioned to have 214 antennas with diameters of 18m. The core of the array will be centered at the current VLA location, but the arms will extend out to 1000km.The VLA cryogenic subsystem equipment and technology have remained virtually unchanged since the early 1980s. While adequate for a 27-antenna array, scaling the current system for an array of 214 antennas would be prohibitively expensive in terms of operating cost and maintenance. The overall goal is to limit operating cost to within three times the current level, despite having 8 times the number of antennas. To help realize this goal, broadband receivers and compact feeds will be utilized to reduce both the size and number of cryostats required. The current baseline front end concept calls for just two moderately-sized cryostats for the entire 1.2-116 GHz frequency range, as opposed to 8 in the VLA.For the ngVLA cryogenics, our objective is a well-optimized and efficient system that uses state-of-the-art technology to minimize per-antenna power consumption and maximize reliability. Application of modern technologies, such as variable-speed operation for the scroll compressors and cryocooler motor drives, allow the cooling capacity of the system to be dynamically matched to thermal loading in each cryostat. Significantly, power savings may be realized while the maintenance interval of the cryocoolers is also extended.Finally, a receiver designed to minimize thermal loading can produce savings directly translating to lower operating cost when variable-speed drives are used. Multi-layer insulation (MLI) on radiation shields and improved IR filters on feed windows can significantly reduce heat loading.Measurements done on existing cryogenic

  13. Klik-suri sa Online Community ng mga Lesbiyana sa Facebook Gamit ang Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA at Natural Language Processing (NLP (Click-analysis of a Lesbian Online Community in Facebook Using the CDA and NLP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alona Jumaquio-Ardales

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to describe the discourse on the online community of lesbians in the Philippines. The organization of Lesbian Community or LESCOM was chosen as subject of the study based on high number of ‘likes’ they received in Facebook. The texts were automatically gathered, filtered, shortlisted, and harvested from their Facebook page using the Natural Language Processing (NLP. The theoretical framework of Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA was used in analysing the data in order to describe online discourses that reflect the identity and community of lesbians based in the Philippines. The result of analysis were the following: [1] the emotions projected by exclamatory mark displayed their identity; [2] some plural words served as their voice for being group-oriented; [3] frequent usage of personal names manifested their inclusive community; and [4] social consciousness was part of their organizational agenda.

  14. Health Information in Vietnamese (Tiếng Việt)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tiếng Việt (Vietnamese) MP3 Minnesota Department of Agriculture Benefits of Exercise Starting an Exercise Program - Tiếng Việt ( ... Việt (Vietnamese) PDF American Cancer Society Blood Sugar Fasting Blood Sugar Test - Tiếng Việt (Vietnamese) Bilingual PDF ...

  15. Nature of the bonding in the AuNgX (Ng = Ar, Kr, Xe; X = F, Cl, Br, I) molecules. Topological study on electron density and the electron localization function (ELF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarewicz, Emilia; Gordon, Agnieszka J; Berski, Slawomir

    2015-03-19

    Topological analysis of the electron localization function (ELF) has been carried out for the AuNgX (Ng = Ar, Kr, Xe; X = F, Cl, Br, I) molecules using the wave function approximated by the CCSD, MP2, and DFT(B3LYP, M062X) methods including zero-order regular approximation (ZORA). In the Ng-F bond, the bonding disynaptic attractor V(Ng,F) is missing; therefore, there are no signs of the covalent binding. The nature of the Au-Ng bond depends on the computational method used. Analysis of the ELF carried out for the AuArF and AuXeF molecules, with the wave function approximated by the CCSD and MP2 methods, shows the V(Au,Ng) attractor possibly corresponding to a partially covalent binding between the gold and noble gas atom. However, its very small basin population (<1e) and a very large value of the variance of the basin population suggest that the Au-Ng bond has a very delocalized character. Such bond nature may be related to the charge shift concept with a resonance of the Au(-+)NgX, Au(+-)NgX hybrids. The weakest Au-Ng bond, in terms of the smallest amount of electron density for the V(Au,Ng) basin, is found for the AuKrF molecule with the CCSD method (0.13e). The MP2 method, however, does not yield any V(Au, Ng) population; hence, the covalent Au-Kr bond is not confirmed. Because the V(Au,Ng) attractor is also not observed with the DFT method, the proper characterization of the Au-Ng bond requires proper description of correlation effects. Additional studies on the Au2 and [AuXe](+) molecules, performed at the CCSD and B3LYP levels, exhibit no V(Au,Au) and V(Au,Xe) bonding basins either.

  16. Islam Dalam Karya R. Ng. Rangga Warsita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pardi Pardi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Ranggawarsita as a cultural observer in his era, has a distinctive feature of his own compared to other Java poets. The name of R. Ngabei Ranggawarsita has been attached so much with the life of Javanese until this time. Zaman edan concept in his work Sera/ Kalatidha has become an icon of Javanese thought over the time. The poet has to be known as a Java poet. Whereas, since young Ranggawarsita lived in Islamic culture situation in complience with the dynamic of Javanese life journey. That way, Ranggawarsita can put the Javanese values correlated with Islamic theory in order. Ranggawarsita has a deep understanding toward Javanese and Islamic culture that are expressed in his works, such as Serat Kalatidha, Serat Supanalaya, and Sera/Wedharaga. The analysis of this paper proves that Ranggawarsita can express harmony thought or the equilibrium between Javanese and Islamic thought.

  17. The regulatory mechanisms of NG2/CSPG4 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ampofo, Emmanuel; Schmitt, Beate M; Menger, Michael D; Laschke, Matthias W

    2017-01-01

    Neuron-glial antigen 2 (NG2), also known as chondroitin sulphate proteoglycan 4 (CSPG4), is a surface type I transmembrane core proteoglycan that is crucially involved in cell survival, migration and angiogenesis. NG2 is frequently used as a marker for the identification and characterization of certain cell types, but little is known about the mechanisms regulating its expression. In this review, we provide evidence that the regulation of NG2 expression underlies inflammation and hypoxia and is mediated by methyltransferases, transcription factors, including Sp1, paired box (Pax) 3 and Egr-1, and the microRNA miR129-2. These regulatory factors crucially determine NG2-mediated cellular processes such as glial scar formation in the central nervous system (CNS) or tumor growth and metastasis. Therefore, they are potential targets for the establishment of novel NG2-based therapeutic strategies in the treatment of CNS injuries, cancer and other conditions of these types.

  18. NG2 glia are required for vessel network formation during embryonic development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minocha, Shilpi; Valloton, Delphine; Brunet, Isabelle; Eichmann, Anne; Hornung, Jean-Pierre; Lebrand, Cecile

    2015-12-10

    The NG2(+) glia, also known as polydendrocytes or oligodendrocyte precursor cells, represent a new entity among glial cell populations in the central nervous system. However, the complete repertoire of their roles is not yet identified. The embryonic NG2(+) glia originate from the Nkx2.1(+) progenitors of the ventral telencephalon. Our analysis unravels that, beginning from E12.5 until E16.5, the NG2(+) glia populate the entire dorsal telencephalon. Interestingly, their appearance temporally coincides with the establishment of blood vessel network in the embryonic brain. NG2(+) glia are closely apposed to developing cerebral vessels by being either positioned at the sprouting tip cells or tethered along the vessel walls. Absence of NG2(+) glia drastically affects the vascular development leading to severe reduction of ramifications and connections by E18.5. By revealing a novel and fundamental role for NG2(+) glia, our study brings new perspectives to mechanisms underlying proper vessels network formation in embryonic brains.

  19. Roles of NG2-glia in ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Fei-Er; Huang, Jia-Lv; Lin, Si-Han; Wang, Shuo; Ma, Guo-Fen; Tong, Xiao-Ping

    2017-07-01

    Recent studies have shown that a widely distributed class of glial cells, termed NG2-glia, engages in rapid signaling with surrounding neurons through direct synaptic contacts in the developing and mature central nervous system (CNS). This unique glial cell group has a typical function of proliferating and differentiating into oligodendrocytes during early development of the brain, which is crucial to axon myelin formation. Therefore, NG2-glia are also called oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs). In vitro and in vivo studies reveal that NG2-glia expressing receptors and ion channels demonstrate functional significance for rapid signaling with neuronal synapses and modulation of neuronal activities in both physiological and pathological conditions. Although it is well known that NG2-glia play an important role in demyelinating diseases such as multiple sclerosis, little is known about how NG2-glia or OPCs impact neurons and brain function following ischemic injury. This review summarizes recent progress on the roles of NG2-glia in ischemic stroke and illustrates new approaches for targeting NG2-glia in the brain to treat this disease. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Nerve/glial antigen (NG) 2 is a crucial regulator of intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Beate M; Laschke, Matthias W; Rössler, Oliver G; Huang, Wenhui; Scheller, Anja; Menger, Michael D; Ampofo, Emmanuel

    2018-01-01

    The proteoglycan nerve/glial antigen (NG) 2 is expressed on multiple cell types and mediates cell proliferation and migration. However, little is known about its function in gene regulation. In this study, we demonstrate that in pericytes and glioblastoma cells intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1, an essential protein for leukocyte adhesion and transmigration, underlies a NG2-dependent expression. As shown by flow cytometry, Western blot analysis and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), silencing of NG2 in human placenta-derived pericytes increased the expression of ICAM-1. Pathway analyses revealed that this is mediated by extracellular-regulated-kinases (ERK) 1/2 signaling. Moreover, leukocyte adhesion to NG2 siRNA-treated pericytes was significantly enhanced when compared to scrambled (scr) siRNA-treated control cells. In vivo, we detected increased ICAM-1 protein levels in the retina of mice lacking NG2 expression. To exclude that this novel mechanism is pericyte-specific, we additionally analyzed the expression of ICAM-1 in dependency of NG2 in two glioblastoma cell lines. We found that A1207 and M059K cells exhibit an inverse expression pattern of NG2 and ICAM-1. Finally, downregulation of NG2 in A1207 cells significantly increased ICAM-1 expression. Taken together, these findings indicate that NG2 may represent a promising target for the modulation of ICAM-1-mediated immune responses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Post treatment PSA nadirs support continuing dose escalation study in patients with pretreatment PSA levels >10 ng/ml, but not in those with PSA <10 NG/ML

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herold, D.H.; Hanlon, A.L.; Movsas, B.; Hanks, G.E.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: We have recently shown that ICRU reporting point radiation doses above 71 Gy are not associated with improved bNED survival in prostate cancer patients with pretreatment PSA level 20 ng/ml we found a strong correlation between dose and nadir values < 1.0 ng/ml (p=.003) as well as for nadir's < 0.5 ng/ml (p=.04). This dose/nadir effect held at several dose levels, but 74 Gy for nadir values < 1.0 ng/ml and 72 Gy for nadir's < 0.5 ng/ml remained the most significant. 32% of these patients achieved a nadir < 1.0ng/ml and 15% < 0.5ng/ml. Conclusions: This analysis provides strong additional support that patients with pretreatment PSA values of < 10 ng/ml do not benefit from dose escalation beyond an ICRU reporting point dose of 71 Gy. For patients with pretreatment PSA's of 10-19.9 ng/ml there is no dose/nadir response evaluated at a nadir of 1.0 ng/ml; however, there is a borderline effect observed at a nadir of 0.5 ng/ml. Patients with pretreatment PSA's of 20 ng/ml or greater clearly benefit from higher doses as evaluated by PSA nadirs of 1.0 ng/ml, and 0.5 ng/ml. These studies support the continued investigation of dose escalation in treating patients with PSA levels over 10 ng/ml, they do not support continued investigation of dose escalation beyond 71 Gy in patients with pretreatment PSA levels < 10 ng/ml. The failure to demonstrate any dose response for the low PSA group and the finding of only a borderline effect for the intermediate PSA group may be influenced by the relatively small number of patients in our series treated to doses < 70 Gy and the fact that none of our patients were treated to doses below 65.98 Gy. The lower limit of acceptible dose has yet to be defined

  2. Etendatakse 10-aastase kirjamehe näitemäng

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2003-01-01

    Tartu katoliku kooli 3. klassi poisi Mario Raitari näitemäng "Kristoph Silvester von Tenderi lugu", mis on esimene lugu sarjast "Mario Raitari kroonika". Näidendit etendab Linnupuu Lastepereteatri trupp

  3. Performance Estimation of the Mtd64-ng DNS64 implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gábor Lencse

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available DNS64 and NAT64 are IPv6 transition technologies enabling IPv6 only clients to communicate with IPv4 only servers. Mtd64-ng is a novel DNS64 implementation, being a successor of MTD64. In this paper, the performance of mtd64-ng is compared with that of MTD64 and BIND. The details of the measurements are fully disclosed. It is found that under heavy load conditions mtd64-ng can answer six times as many “AAAA” record requests per second than BIND. Mtd64-ng fixed two issues of MTD64 and also outperformed its predecessor by answering 46% more “AAAA” record requests per second under heavy load conditions.

  4. Is confirmatory testing of Roche cobas 4800 CT/NG test Neisseria gonorrhoeae positive samples required? Comparison of the Roche cobas 4800 CT/NG test with an opa/pap duplex assay for the detection of N gonorrhoeae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Michael D; Jones, Rachel N; Corden, Sally A

    2014-06-01

    Recently marketed nucleic acid amplification tests (NAAT) for the detection of Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) have improved specificity over previous generation assays. A study to assess the necessity for confirmation of Roche cobas 4800 NG positive samples was undertaken by the Public Health Wales Microbiology Molecular Diagnostic Unit in Cardiff. Classical NG culture identification was compared to cobas 4800 (DR-9), opacity (opa) gene and porA pseudogene (pap) results. Confirmatory NAATs (opa/pap) were performed prospectively for 120 cobas 4800 NG positive urogenital and extragenital samples. Retrospective supplementary NAAT and sequence analysis of additional cobas 4800 NG positive extragenital samples was also carried out. Of the 188 classically identified clinical NG isolates, 184 were identified as NG in all 3 molecular targets. Two isolates were only detected by 2 molecular targets. A further 2 isolates were culture false-positives. Combining the results from prospective and retrospective testing, the sensitivity and negative predictive value for cobas 4800 NG detection for urogenital, rectal and oropharyngeal samples was 100%. Specificity for all sample types was greater than 99.7%. Positive predictive value was 96.0% and 96.4% for urogenital and rectal specimens, respectively, and 88.6% for oropharyngeal samples. Molecular tests could be used for culture confirmation where available. Roche cobas 4800 Chlamydia trachomatis/Neisseria gonorrhoeae (CT/NG)CT/NG gonorrhoea diagnosis is superior to culture with urogenital and rectal positives not requiring confirmation. Roche cobas 4800 oropharyngeal NG detection findings warrant further prospective study of routine confirmatory testing accounting for its cost and clinical usefulness. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  5. Infrared Spectra of Novel NgBeSO2 Complexes (Ng = Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe) in Low Temperature Matrixes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wenjie; Liu, Xing; Xu, Bing; Xing, Xiaopeng; Wang, Xuefeng

    2016-11-03

    The novel noble-gas complexes NgBeSO 2 (Ng = Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe) have been prepared in the laser-evaporated beryllium atom reactions with SO 2 in low-temperature matrixes. Doped with heavier noble gas, the guest (Ar, Kr, Xe) atom can substitute neon to form more stable complex. Infrared spectroscopy and theoretical calculations are used to confirm the band assignment. The dissociation energies are calculated at 0.9, 4.0, 4.7, and 6.0 kcal/mol for NeBeSO 2 , ArBeSO 2 , KrBeSO 2 , and XeBeSO 2 , respectively, at the CCSD(T) level. Quantum chemical calculations demonstrate that the Ng-Be bonds in NgBeSO 2 could be formed by the combination of electron-donation and ion-induced dipole interactions. The Wiberg bond index (WBI) values of Ng-Be bonds and LOL (localized orbital locator) profile indicate that the Ng-Be bond exhibits a gradual increase in covalent character along Ne to Xe.

  6. City-gas development in China-An NG perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, James W.K.

    2010-01-01

    Supply of piped gas in China has a long history but development was slow until the 21st century. The growing demand for cleaner fuel in the past ten years has encouraged domestic exploration and production of natural gas (NG) and the construction of long-haul pipelines linking upstream western regions of the country to downstream city-gas consumers in the eastern coastal areas. However, demand for NG in the cities is increasing so fast that recent winters have seen severe supply difficulties. This led to a government directive which set constraints on the domestic NG supplies and discouragement to gas power and petrochemical projects, and eventually to the Chinese government's willingness to accept the higher prices commanded by the international NG market. Nevertheless, the over demand situation has created a dominant market position for upstream NG producers and long-haul pipeline operators favouring their forward integration into downstream city-gas markets. Accordingly, pressures are building that may yet result in substantial pricing and regulatory reform in the city-gas industry.

  7. NG2-GLIA, A NEW PLAYER IN ENERGY BALANCE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robins, Sarah; Kokoeva, Maia

    2018-03-05

    There is increasing evidence that glia act not only as neuronal support cells, but that they can also influence physiological outcomes via effects on neural signalling. The role of NG2-glia in this regard is especially enigmatic, as they are known to interact with neural circuits but their precise functions other than as oligodendrocyte progenitor cells remain elusive. Here we summarise recent evidence suggesting that NG2-glia play a role in the maintenance of energy homeostasis, most notably via the support of leptin sensing neural circuits. We explore what this research can teach us about mechanisms of appetite control and examine whether interventions targeting NG2-glia could be developed in the future as a therapeutic strategy.. ©2018S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. The Search for Cosmic Company: SETI on ngVLA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croft, Steve; Siemion, Andrew; Hellbourg, Greg

    2018-01-01

    "Are we alone?" is one of the most profound human questions. The unprecedented capabilities of next generation radio telescopes, including ngVLA, will allow us to probe hitherto unexplored regions of parameter space, placing meaningful limits on the prevalence of technological civilizations in the Universe, or perhaps making one of the most significant discoveries in the history of science.Through both targeted and commensal observations, ngVLA data will be searched for signatures of technology (including narrow-band, Doppler-drifting, and more complex signals) that can be localized to particular positions on the sky. ngVLA provides critical capabilities in the 10 – 100 GHz range, a region of the spectrum used by many human technologies, to survey the sky at sensitivities unmatched by other facilities.

  9. Expression of NgBR is highly associated with estrogen receptor alpha and survivin in breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bei Wang

    Full Text Available NgBR is a type I receptor with a single transmembrane domain and was identified as a specific receptor for Nogo-B. Our recent findings demonstrated that NgBR binds farnesylated Ras and recruits Ras to the plasma membrane, which is a critical step required for the activation of Ras signaling in human breast cancer cells and tumorigenesis. Here, we first use immunohistochemistry and real-time PCR approaches to examine the expression patterns of Nogo-B and NgBR in both normal and breast tumor tissues. Then, we examine the relationship between NgBR expression and molecular subtypes of breast cancer, and the roles of NgBR in estrogen-dependent survivin signaling pathway. Results showed that NgBR and Nogo-B protein were detected in both normal and breast tumor tissues. However, the expression of Nogo-B and NgBR in breast tumor tissue was much stronger than in normal breast tissue. The statistical analysis demonstrated that NgBR is highly associated with ER-positive/HER2-negative breast cancer. We also found that the expression of NgBR has a strong correlation with the expression of survivin, which is a well-known apoptosis inhibitor. The correlation between NgBR and survivin gene expression was further confirmed by real-time PCR. In vitro results also demonstrated that estradiol induces the expression of survivin in ER-positive T47D breast tumor cells but not in ER-negative MDA-MB-468 breast tumor cells. NgBR knockdown with siRNA abolishes estradiol-induced survivin expression in ER-positive T47D cells but not in ER-negative MDA-MB-468 cells. In addition, estradiol increases the expression of survivin and cell growth in ER-positive MCF-7 and T47D cells whereas knockdown of NgBR with siRNA reduces estradiol-induced survivin expression and cell growth. In summary, these results indicate that NgBR is a new molecular marker for breast cancer. The data suggest that the expression of NgBR may be essential in promoting ER-positive tumor cell proliferation

  10. Expression of NgBR Is Highly Associated with Estrogen Receptor Alpha and Survivin in Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, Paula; Kong, Amanda; Huang, Jian; Miao, Qing Robert

    2013-01-01

    NgBR is a type I receptor with a single transmembrane domain and was identified as a specific receptor for Nogo-B. Our recent findings demonstrated that NgBR binds farnesylated Ras and recruits Ras to the plasma membrane, which is a critical step required for the activation of Ras signaling in human breast cancer cells and tumorigenesis. Here, we first use immunohistochemistry and real-time PCR approaches to examine the expression patterns of Nogo-B and NgBR in both normal and breast tumor tissues. Then, we examine the relationship between NgBR expression and molecular subtypes of breast cancer, and the roles of NgBR in estrogen-dependent survivin signaling pathway. Results showed that NgBR and Nogo-B protein were detected in both normal and breast tumor tissues. However, the expression of Nogo-B and NgBR in breast tumor tissue was much stronger than in normal breast tissue. The statistical analysis demonstrated that NgBR is highly associated with ER-positive/HER2-negative breast cancer. We also found that the expression of NgBR has a strong correlation with the expression of survivin, which is a well-known apoptosis inhibitor. The correlation between NgBR and survivin gene expression was further confirmed by real-time PCR. In vitro results also demonstrated that estradiol induces the expression of survivin in ER-positive T47D breast tumor cells but not in ER-negative MDA-MB-468 breast tumor cells. NgBR knockdown with siRNA abolishes estradiol-induced survivin expression in ER-positive T47D cells but not in ER-negative MDA-MB-468 cells. In addition, estradiol increases the expression of survivin and cell growth in ER-positive MCF-7 and T47D cells whereas knockdown of NgBR with siRNA reduces estradiol-induced survivin expression and cell growth. In summary, these results indicate that NgBR is a new molecular marker for breast cancer. The data suggest that the expression of NgBR may be essential in promoting ER-positive tumor cell proliferation via survivin induction

  11. Elu kui näitemäng / Helju Koger

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koger, Helju, 1943-

    2007-01-01

    VI kihelkonnapäevadest Juurus. Juuru Mihkli kirikus esines ansambel Resonabilis. Konverentsil räägiti Järlepa mõisast, Anu Allikvee pidas ettekande "August von Kotzebue elu nagu näitemäng" jm. Näitemängu "Pärmi Jaagu unenägu" nägi kohalike asjaarmastajate esituses

  12. Science Ready Data Products and the ngVLA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Jeffrey

    2018-01-01

    With angular resolution comparable to ALMA and future ELTs, the ngVLA will be the centimeter wavelength instrument contributing to multi-wavelength astronomy throughout the next decades. To maximize the impact of the ngVLA it is important that it be a facility available to all astronomers, not only to those who consider themselves radio astronomers. Building on the successes of the ALMA and VLA pipelines NRAO has undertaken a multi-year project to provide science ready products to the users of our telescopes and archive. The SRDP initiative addresses one of the technical risk areas of the ngVLA, and demonstrates the Observatories ability to deliver this critical functionality. The SRDP project is currently refining and reviewing the technical and scientific requirements for the existing NRAO telescopes. Capabilities will be made available to the community as they are developed and mature. As the project progresses, a rich archive of science quality radio images from both ALMA and the VLA will be provided to the astronomical community. The current status, concepts, and plans for the SRDP project are presented, as are the implications for the ngVLA facility.

  13. Klaaspärlimäng peletab klassikahirmu / Katrin Nielsen

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Nielsen, Katrin

    2003-01-01

    Eri stiile-ajastuid ühendavast Peeter Vähi kujandatud muusikafestivalist "Klaaspärlimäng" 22. juulist-24. augustini. Kontsertidest Pärnu kontserdimajas: gamelaniansambli Gamelan Son of Lion kontserdist 22. juulil, Vardo Rumesseni kontserdist ja CD esitlusest 28. juulil, tütarlastekoori "Ellerhein" kontserdist 30. juulil

  14. Multipotency and therapeutic potential of NG2 cells.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Valný, Martin; Honsa, Pavel; Kriška, Ján; Anděrová, Miroslava

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 141, SI (2017), s. 42-55 ISSN 0006-2952 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA17-04034S Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : NG2 cells * oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPC) * myelin plasticity Subject RIV: FH - Neurology OBOR OECD: Neurosciences (including psychophysiology Impact factor: 4.581, year: 2016

  15. Mga Lente sa Likod ng Lente: Isang Panimulang Pag-aaral ng Ilang Litratong Kuha ni Xander Angeles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreal Nagarit Camba

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Ang pangalang Xander Angeles ay kilala bilang isa sa mga in-demand napangalan sa mundo ng fashion at advertisement sa Pilipinas. Kakabit ngpangalang ito ang samut-saring lokal at internasyunal na parangal; idagdag pa rito ang isang advertising company, isang modelling agency, at isang fashion and photography school.

  16. Ablation of NG2 proteoglycan leads to deficits in brown fat function and to adult onset obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunchao Chang

    Full Text Available Obesity is a major health problem worldwide. We are studying the causes and effects of obesity in C57Bl/6 mice following genetic ablation of NG2, a chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan widely expressed in progenitor cells and also in adipocytes. Although global NG2 ablation delays early postnatal adipogenesis in mouse skin, adult NG2 null mice are paradoxically heavier than wild-type mice, exhibiting larger white fat deposits. This adult onset obesity is not due to NG2-dependent effects on CNS function, since specific ablation of NG2 in oligodendrocyte progenitors yields the opposite phenotype; i.e. abnormally lean mice. Metabolic analysis reveals that, while activity and food intake are unchanged in global NG2 null mice, O(2 consumption and CO(2 production are decreased, suggesting a decrease in energy expenditure. Since brown fat plays important roles in regulating energy expenditure, we have investigated brown fat function via cold challenge and high fat diet feeding, both of which induce the adaptive thermogenesis that normally occurs in brown fat. In both tests, body temperatures in NG2 null mice are reduced compared to wild-type mice, indicating a deficit in brown fat function in the absence of NG2. In addition, adipogenesis in NG2 null brown pre-adipocytes is dramatically impaired compared to wild-type counterparts. Moreover, mRNA levels for PR domain containing 16 (PRDM16 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator (PGC1-α, proteins important for brown adipocyte differentiation, are decreased in NG2 null brown fat deposits in vivo and NG2 null brown pre-adipocytes in vitro. Altogether, these results indicate that brown fat dysfunction in NG2 null mice results from deficits in the recruitment and/or development of brown pre-adipocytes. As a consequence, obesity in NG2 null mice may occur due to disruptions in brown fat-dependent energy homeostasis, with resulting effects on lipid storage in white adipocytes.

  17. Debris Disk Studies with the ngVLA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilner, David; Matthews, Brenda; Matra, Luca; Kennedy, Grant; Wyatt, Mark; Greaves, Jane

    2018-01-01

    We discuss the potential for the ngVLA to advance understanding of debris disks around main-sequence stars. Since the dust-producing planetesimals that replenish these disks through collisions persist only in stable regions like belts and resonances, their locations and physical properties encode essential information about the formation of exoplanetary systems and their dynamical evolution. Observations at long millimeter wavelengths can play a special role because the large grains that dominate the emission are faithful tracers of the dust-producing planetesimals, unlike small grains seen at shorter wavelengths that are rapidly redistributed by stellar radiation and winds. Sensitive observations of debris disks with the ngVLA can (1) reveal structures resulting from otherwise inaccessible planets on wide orbits, (2) test collisional models using spectral slopes to constrain mm/cm grain size distributions, and (3) for select sources, probe the water content of exocomets using the 21 cm HI line.

  18. Photonic integrated transmitter and receiver for NG-PON2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Ana; Lopes, Ana; Rodrigues, Cláudio; Mãocheia, Paulo; Mendes, Tiago; Brandão, Simão.; Rodrigues, Francisco; Ferreira, Ricardo; Teixeira, António

    2014-08-01

    In this paper the authors present a monolithic Photonic Integrated Circuit which includes a transmitter and a receiver for NG-PON2. With this layout it is possible to build an OLT and, by redesigning some filters, also an ONU. This technology allows reducing the losses in the transmitter and in the receiver, increasing power budget, and also reducing the OEO conversions, which has been a major problem that operators want to surpass.

  19. Toxoplasma encephalitis in HIV: case report | Ng'walali | East ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    P. M. Ng'walali, K. Kibayashi, M. P. Mbonde, A. M. Makata, J. N. Kitinya, S. Tsunenari. Abstract. (East African Medical Journal: 2001 78(5): 275-276). Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/eamj.v78i5.9055 · AJOL African ...

  20. Preliminary Antenna Concept for the ngVLA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Francesco, James; Selina, Robert; Grammer, Wes; McKinnon, Mark M.

    2017-01-01

    The preliminary concept for a Next Generation Very Large Array (ngVLA) calls for an interferometric array having an effective collecting area and spatial resolution that are both 10 times better than that of the current VLA and operating over a frequency range of 1.2-116 GHz. Given the large number of antennas needed to meet the collecting area goal, the ngVLA antenna concept must strike a balance between competing science requirements and the programmatic targets for the array’s life cycle cost.Antenna diameters currently under consideration for the ngVLA are in the range of 12-25 m, with a nominal 18-m diameter aperture used for the conceptual design. Currently, the optimization for operations and construction cost suggests that a smaller number of larger apertures is preferable.The surface accuracy goal for the antennas is 185 µm rms (λ/16 @ 100 GHz) for the primary and subreflector combined under optimal environmental conditions. The subreflector will be optimized for performance above 10 GHz, with some degradation in aperture efficiency accepted at lower frequencies.For high dynamic range imaging, particularly at the low end of the ngVLA’s frequency range, the optimum optical configuration is likely an offset geometry. An unblocked aperture will minimize scattering, spillover, and sidelobe pickup. Both performance and maintenance requirements favor a receiver feedarm on the low side of the reflector.High pointing accuracy will also be necessary to provide the imaging dynamic range required of the system. With an unblocked aperture, variations in the antenna gain pattern are expected to be dominated by pointing errors. Preliminary requirements are for an absolute pointing accuracy of 40” RMS, with referenced pointing of 3” RMS (FWHM/10 at 10 GHz and 120 GHz, respectively, for an 18-m diameter dish).The antenna mount is expected to be a typical altitude-azimuth design. Both pedestal bearing and rail-based azimuth drives are under consideration. If fast

  1. La frase nominal Ngäbére

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murillo Miranda José Manuel

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo es el avance de una amplia investigación cuyo propósito es elaborar una gramática descriptiva de la lengua chibcha ngäbére. El artículo presenta las características particulares más relevantes de la frase nominal de dicha variante dialectal (hablada en Costa Rica, también en Panamá, y establece la relación con algunas de las características generales de otras lenguas chibchas ístmicas. El primer apartado del escrito es una introducción a la lengua ngäbére y a sus hablantes; elsegundo presenta la morfología de los sustantivos, pronombres y otras clases de palabras que conforman la frase nominal; el tercer apartado trata de la sintaxis de la frase nominal y esboza, de manera sucinta, las relaciones gramaticales; el cuarto apartado es una conclusión valorativa de este trabajo.

  2. Use of Roud Wood in Kaingáng Houses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Dias Silva

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This work has the purpose of describing and analyzing the evolutionary habitation process of the Kaingáng. Its main focus is the typological reading of the shelters as well as the registration of the wooden building system used in the construction of the houses in the “Äpucaraninha” Reserve, located in a district of Londrina. The research proceeds with the elaboration of the genealogy of the kaingáng’s habitation through the consultation to the published historical reports and their chronological organization. The data collection within the group was accomplished through informal interviews, photographic survey and in loco observations. Aspects related to the use of the round wood as well as the other elements that are part of the construction, were verified at this stage. The raw material used in every building system is obtained in the Reserve itself, being the wood used not only in the structure but also in the sealing. The connections are made through fittings and fastenings with liana. In spite of the mixture of values and meanings that the Kaingáng community experiences through the contact with other cultures, traditional aspects related to the building of the “traditional house” are preserved, with no domain of other techniques by most of the group. The registration intends to contribute towards the identification and understanding of important issues related to the spaces built by the man.

  3. Neutron flux stabilization in the NG-150 neutron generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuz'min, L.E.; Makarov, S.A.; Pronman, I.M.

    1986-01-01

    Problem of metal tritium target lifetime increase and neutron flux stabilization in the NG-150 neutron generators is studied. Possibility on neutron flux stabilization using the mass analyzer for low-angle (4 deg and 41 deg) mass separation of a beam in thre components, which fall on a target simultaneously, is confirmed experimentally. Basic generator parameters are: accelerating voltage of 150 kV, total beam current on a target of 1.5 mA, beam current density of 0.3-1.6 mA/cm 2 , beam diameter of 8 mm. The initial neutron flux on the targets of 0.73 mg/cm 2 thick constituted 1.1x10 11 ssup(-1). The neutron flux monitoring was accomplished from recoil proton recording by a plastic scintillator. Flux decrease by more than 5% served as a signel for measuring mass analyzer magnetic field providing beam displacement on a target and restoration of the given flux. The NG-150 generator neutron flux stabilization was attained during 2h

  4. The role of NgR-Rhoa-Rock signal pathway in retinal ganglion cell apoptosis of early diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Jie Fu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To study the function and mechanism of the NgR-Rhoa-Rock signal pathways which exists in the retinal ganglion cells apoptosis in diabetes mellitus(DMrats. METHODS: Some healthy SD rats were operated by means of single intraperitoneal injection of 1% streptozotocin based on the standard of 50mg/kg wight, after that the blood sugar value was greater than 16.7mmol/L as DM model, then randomly divided into 3 groups, each group was 10 rats. In addition to take 10 healthy SD rats as control group. Four groups of rats were bilaterally eyeball intravitreal injection in turn with NgR-siRNA virus 10μL(siRNA group, NgR-siRNA virus diluted 10μL(DM group, NgR-siRNA virus-negative-control solution 10μL(siRNA blank group, NgR-siRNA virus diluted 10μL(normal control group, and fed normally. During that time, some life indexes like blood glucose, body mass, etc. were measured and recorded. After 12wk, the expression of NgR and Rhoa, HE staining, and TUNNEL staining were detected by Western blot analysis. RESULTS: Western blot analysis: compared with normal control group, the expression of NgR and Rhoa in DM group and siRNA blank group increased significantly(PP>0.05; compared with DM group and siRNA blank group, the expression of those proteins significantly lowered in siRNA group. HE staining: compared with normal control group, some extent ganglion cells arranged disorder, irregular shape, spacing not consistent were all found in three groups of model rats; compared with DM group and siRNA blank group, there was some improvement in siRNA group of ganglion cells about the order and shape size. TUNEL staining: compared with normal control group, there were retinal ganglion cells apoptosis in all of three groups of model rats. Compared with DM group and siRNA blank group, the number of retinal ganglion cells apoptotic cells was less, and the shape of cells had improved significantly in siRNA group. CONCLUSION: In the DM phase, the expression of NgR and

  5. Recce NG: from Recce sensor to image intelligence (IMINT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larroque, Serge

    2001-12-01

    Recce NG (Reconnaissance New Generation) is presented as a complete and optimized Tactical Reconnaissance System. Based on a new generation Pod integrating high resolution Dual Band sensors, the system has been designed with the operational lessons learnt from the last Peace Keeping Operations in Bosnia and Kosovo. The technical solutions retained as component modules of a full IMINT acquisition system, take benefit of the state of art in the following key technologies: Advanced Mission Planning System for long range stand-off Manned Recce, Aircraft and/or Pod tasking, operating sophisticated back-up software tools, high resolution 3D geo data and improved/combat proven MMI to reduce planning delays, Mature Dual Band sensors technology to achieve the Day and Night Recce Mission, including advanced automatic operational functions, as azimuth and roll tracking capabilities, low risk in Pod integration and in carrier avionics, controls and displays upgrades, to save time in operational turn over and maintenance, High rate Imagery Down Link, for Real Time or Near Real Time transmission, fully compatible with STANAG 7085 requirements, Advanced IMINT Exploitation Ground Segment, combat proven, NATO interoperable (STANAG 7023), integrating high value software tools for accurate location, improved radiometric image processing and open link to the C4ISR systems. The choice of an industrial Prime contractor mastering across the full system, all the prior listed key products and technologies, is mandatory to a successful delivery in terms of low Cost, Risk and Time Schedule.

  6. Comparison of RNAi NgR and NEP1-40 in Acting on Axonal Regeneration After Spinal Cord Injury in Rat Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jing; He, Jian; He, Huang; Peng, Renjun; Xi, Jian

    2017-12-01

    This study was intended to compare the therapeutic efficacies of NEP1-40 and SiNgR199 on treating spinal cord injury (SCI). Nogo-A, growth associated protein 43 (GAP-43), microtubule associated protein 2 (MAP-2), and amyloid βA4 precursor protein (APP) expressions were determined using western blot and quantitative PCR. Neurite outgrowth detected the growth of neurites, and BDA anterograde tracing was used to label the regenerated axonal. Rats' behavior was assessed with Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan locomotor rating scale (BBB). Somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) and motor evoked potentials (MEPs) were recorded to evaluate the recovery of the sensory and motor systems. Successful establishment of SCI model was verified by immunocytochemical analysis. The increased expression of APP, as well as the decreased expression of GAP-43 and MAP-2, was observed in the SCI model group, but the trends were reversed after the treatments of NEP1-40, siNgR199, and NEP1-40 + siNgR199. Compared with the SCI group, the average neurite length and the BDA-positive fibers were increased in the NEP1-40, siNgR199, and NEP1-40 + siNgR199 groups. The rats in the siNgR199 group and the NEP1-40 + siNgR199 group both showed significantly higher BBB scores than SCI model group and NEP1-40 group. Suggested by electrophysiological evaluation, both the latency and the amplitude of SEPs as well as MEPs had recovered in the NEP1-40, siNgR199, and NEP1-40 + siNgR199 groups after SCI. Both NEP1-40 and siNgR had repairing effects on SCI, suggesting their role in facilitating axonal regeneration after SCI.

  7. Mineral Potential in India Using Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer-Next Generation (AVIRIS-NG) Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oommen, T.; Chatterjee, S.

    2017-12-01

    NASA and the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) are generating Earth surface features data using Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer-Next Generation (AVIRIS-NG) within 380 to 2500 nm spectral range. This research focuses on the utilization of such data to better understand the mineral potential in India and to demonstrate the application of spectral data in rock type discrimination and mapping for mineral exploration by using automated mapping techniques. The primary focus area of this research is the Hutti-Maski greenstone belt, located in Karnataka, India. The AVIRIS-NG data was integrated with field analyzed data (laboratory scaled compositional analysis, mineralogy, and spectral library) to characterize minerals and rock types. An expert system was developed to produce mineral maps from AVIRIS-NG data automatically. The ground truth data from the study areas was obtained from the existing literature and collaborators from India. The Bayesian spectral unmixing algorithm was used in AVIRIS-NG data for endmember selection. The classification maps of the minerals and rock types were developed using support vector machine algorithm. The ground truth data was used to verify the mineral maps.

  8. NG2 proteoglycan increases mesangial cell proliferation and extracellular matrix production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong Jing; Wang Yang; Zhu, Zhonghua; Liu Jianshe; Wang Yumei; Zhang Chun; Hammes, Hans-Peter; Lang, Florian; Feng Yuxi

    2007-01-01

    As a membrane-spanning protein, NG2 chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan interacts with molecules on both sides of plasma membrane. The present study explored the role of NG2 in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy. In the normal kidneys, NG2 was observed predominantly in glomerular mesangium, Bowman's capsule and interstitial vessels. Both mRNA and protein expression in kidneys was significantly higher in strepozotocin-induced diabetic rats than that in normal rats. In the cultured rat mesangial cell line HBZY-1, overexpression of NG2 promoted mesangial cell proliferation and extracellular matrix (ECM) production, such as type VI collagen and laminin. Furthermore, target knockdown of NG2 resulted in decreased cell proliferation and ECM formation. The observations suggest that NG2 is up-regulated in diabetic nephropathy. It actively participates in the development and progression of glomerulosclerosis by stimulating proliferation of mesangial cells and deposition of ECM

  9. Basin-scale characterization of river hydromorphology by map derived information: A case study on the Red River (Sôngng), Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, R. J.; Bizzi, S.; Castelletti, A.

    2012-12-01

    The understanding of river hydromorphological processes has been recognized in the last decades as a priority of modern catchment management, since fluvial geomorphic processes shape physical habitat, affect river infrastructures and influence freshwater ecological processes. Characterization of river hydromorphological features is commonly location specific and highly demanding in terms of field-works, resource and expertise required. Therefore, its routine application at regional or national scales, although an urgent need of catchment management, is infeasible at present. Recently available high-resolution data, such as DEM or LIDAR, opens up novel potential for basin-wide analysis of fluvial processes at limited effort and cost. Specifically, in this study we assess the feasibility of characterizing river hydromorphology from specific map derived geomorphic controls namely: channel gradient, bankfull flow, specific stream power, and degree of channel confinement. The river network, extracted from a digital elevation model and validated with available network shape-files and optical satellite imagery, available flow gauging stations and GIS processing allow producing continuous values of geomorphic drivers defined over given length segments at catchment or regional scales. This generic framework was applied to the Red River (Sôngng) basin, the second largest basin (87,800 km2) in Vietnam. Besides its economic importance, the river since few years is experiencing severe river bed incisions due to the building of new dams in the upstream part of the catchment and sand mining in the surrounding of the capital city Hanoi. In this context, characterized by an high developing rate, current efforts to increase water productivity by infrastructure and management measures require a thorough understanding of fluvial system and, in particular, of the basin-wide river hydromorphology. The framework proposed has allowed producing high-dimensional samples of spatially

  10. Axonal degeneration stimulates the formation of NG2+ cells and oligodendrocytes in the mouse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Helle Hvilsted; Ladeby, Rune; Drøjdahl, Nina

    2006-01-01

    the response of the NG2+ cells to the different components of demyelinating pathology, we investigated the response of adult NG2+ cells to axonal degeneration in the absence of primary myelin or oligodendrocyte pathology. Axonal degeneration was induced in the hippocampal dentate gyrus of adult mice...... by transection of the entorhino-dentate perforant path projection. The acutely induced degeneration of axons and terminals resulted in a prompt response of NG2+ cells, consisting of morphological transformation, cellular proliferation, and upregulation of NG2 expression days 2-3 after surgery. This was followed...

  11. Innova ng for Maternal and Child Health in Africa

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2018-01-19

    Jan 19, 2018 ... Fifteen IMCHA researchers from African and Canadian ins tu ons presented their research at the 23rd Canadian Conference on Global Health in O awa from October 29-31, 2017. Themes covered in the presenta ons included the · role of data, MNCH in fragile contexts, gender and social analysis in health, ...

  12. NG2 cells are not a major source of reactive astrocytes after neocortical stab wound injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komitova, Mila; Serwanski, David R; Lu, Q Richard; Nishiyama, Akiko

    2011-05-01

    NG2 cells are an abundant glial cell type in the adult brain. They are distinct from astrocytes, mature oligodendrocytes, and microglia. NG2 cells generate oligodendrocytes and a subpopulation of protoplasmic astrocytes in the ventral forebrain during development. To determine whether NG2 cells generate reactive astrocytes in the lesioned brain, stab wound injury was created in adult NG2creBAC:ZEG double transgenic mice, in which enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) is expressed in NG2 cells and their progeny, and the phenotype of the EGFP(+) cells was analyzed at 10 and 30 days post lesion (dpl). The majority (>90%) of the reactive astrocytes surrounding the lesion that expressed glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) lacked EGFP expression, and conversely the majority (>90%) of EGFP(+) cells were GFAP-negative. However, 8% of EGFP(+) cells co-expressed GFAP at 10 dpl. Most of these EGFP(+) GFAP(+) cells were morphologically distinct from hypertrophic reactive astrocytes and exhibited weak GFAP expression. NG2 was detected in a fraction of the EGFP(+) GFAP(+) cells found at 10 dpl. By 30 dpl the number of EGFP(+) GFAP(+) cells had decreased more than four-fold from 10 dpl. A similar transient appearance of EGFP(+) GFAP(+) cells with simple morphology was observed in NG2creER™:ZEG double transgenic mice in which EGFP expression had been induced in NG2 cells prior to injury. NG2 cell-specific deletion of the oligodendrocyte lineage transcription factor Olig2 using NG2creER™:Olig2(fl/fl) :ZEG triple transgenic mice did not increase the number of EGFP(+) reactive astrocytes. These findings suggest that NG2 cells are not a major source of reactive astrocytes in the neocortex. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Kuuldemäng "Palju õnne argipäevaks!" edukümnes

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Raadioteatri kuuldemäng "Palju õnne argipäevaks" jõudis Euroopa meediafestivalil Prix Europa kümne parema hulka. Näidendi lavastas raadio jaoks Andres Noormets. 1999. a. jõudis festivalil Prix Europa äramärkimiseni Ervin Õunapuu kuuldemäng "Õhtueine Emmauses"

  14. The fusarin analogue NG-391 impairs nucleic acid formation in K-562 leukemia cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    The clavicipitaceous fungus Metarhizium robertsii produces the fusarin-like mycotoxin NG-391. We report on the biological effects of NG-391 on K-562 human cancer cells, obtained with radionuclide incorporation assays, along with nucleosome release and caspase assays, respectively. Our data suggests ...

  15. Ang Social Network sa Facebook ng mga Taga-Batangas at ng mga Taga-Laguna: Isang Paghahambing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaderick P. Pabico

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Online social networking (OSN has become of great influence to Filipinos, where Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn, Google+, and Instagram are among the popular ones. Their popularity, coupled with their intuitive and interactive use, allow one's personal information such as gender, age, address, relationship status, and list of friends to become publicly available. The accessibility of information from these sites allow, with the aid of computers, for the study of a wide population's characteristics even in a provincial scale. Aside from being neighbouring locales, the respective residents of Laguna and Batangas both derive their livelihoods from two lakes, Laguna de Bay and Taal Lake. Both residents experience similar problems, such as that, among many others, of fish kill. The goal of this research is to find out similarities in their respective online populations, particularly that of Facebook's. With the use of computational dynamic social network analysis (CDSNA, we found out that the two communities are similar, among others, as follows: both populations are dominated by single young female; Homophily was observed when choosing a friend in terms of age (i.e., friendships were created more often between people whose ages do not differ by at most five years; and Heterophily was observed when choosing friends in terms of gender (i.e., more friendships were created between a male and a female than between both people of the same gender. This paper also presents the differences in the structure of the two social networks, such as degrees of separation and preferential attachment.

  16. Kakaibang Halimuyak: Iba't Ibang Imahe ng Pangangapital sa Balintawak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariah Amour C. Miranda

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Ginagalugad ng sanaysay na ito ang isang pangunahing lugar na nadaraanan mula Norte patungong Maynila—ang Balintawak. Nagsisilbing manibela ng pagsusuri ang kontemporaneong pananaw sa lunan bilang pugad ng mga anyong may magkakasalungat na kahulugan. Binibigyang-pansin ng sanaysay ang iba't ibang imahe ng pagbebenta na matatagpuan sa Balintawak: ang billboard ng kumpanyang Bench na siyang pinakamalaki, ang mismong palengke, at ang mga lakong paninda sa tabing-kalsada. Sa pamamagitan nito, maipapakita ng sanaysay kung paano madadalumat ang Balintawak bilang isang panlipunang texto na sumasalamin sa mga magkakaibang pangangapital sa naturang lunan. This essay explores the space of Balintawak—a focal point of urban travel from northern Luzon to Manila. Using the contemporary view on space as a site of structures with contradictory meanings, the study seeks to understand how various images of market activities in Balintawak create meaningful representations. These images include the gigantic billboard of Bench, the central market itself, and flea markets in the area. The essay shows how Balintawak as a social text serves as a trading center of different forms of capital.

  17. The Path from VLITE to ngLOBO: A Roadmap for Evolving a Low Frequency Commensal System from the JVLA to the ngVLA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassim, Namir E.; Clarke, Tracy; Giacintucci, Simona; Helmboldt, Joseph; Ray, Paul S.; Peters, Wendy; Polisensky, Emil; hicks, Brian C.; Brisken, Walter; hyman, Scott D.; Deneva, Julia; Kerr, Matthew T.; Taylor, Gregory; Dowell, Jayce; Schinzel, Frank K.

    2018-01-01

    The VLA Low-band Ionosphere and Transient Experiment (VLITE, ) is a commensal observing system on the NRAO Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA). The separate optical path of the prime-focus sub-GHz dipole feeds and the Cassegrain-focus GHz feeds provided an opportunity to expand the simultaneous frequency operation of the VLA through joint observations across both systems. 16 VLA antennas are outfitted with dedicated samplers and use spare fibers to transport the 320-384 MHz band to the VLITE CPU-based correlator. Initial goals included exploring the scientific potential of a commensal low frequency system for ionospheric remote sensing, astrophysics and transients. VLITE operates at nearly 70% wall time with roughly 6200 hours of VLA time recorded each year.Several papers at this meeting review VLITE science and early results. Here we consider how the project could evolve in the future. Over the next 10 years, a straightforward evolutionary path calls for an expansion of VLITE to all 27 VLA antennas and to the maximum available low band receiver bandwidth (224-480 MHz). The GPU-based correlator for this LOw Band Observatory (LOBO) would also incorporate lower frequency signals from the new VLA 74 MHz system, including from VLA dishes (60-80 MHz) and standalone Long Wavelength Array (LWA) aperture array stations (20-80 MHz).In the longer term, we look towards leveraging the vast infrastructure of the ngVLA to include a commensal low frequency capability, called ngLOBO. As described in our community white paper (Taylor et al. 2018; arXiv:1708.00090), ngLOBO has three primary scientific missions: (1) Radio Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (Radio-LSST): one naturally wide beam, commensal with ngVLA, will conduct a continuous synoptic survey of large swaths of the sky for both slow and fast transients; (2) This same commensal beam will provide complementary low frequency images of all ngVLA targets when such data enhances their value. (3) Independent beams from the ng

  18. NG2-glia as multipotent neural stem cells – fact or fantasy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, William D; Young, Kaylene M; Tripathi, Richa B; McKenzie, Ian

    2011-01-01

    Summary Cycling glial precursors - “NG2-glia” - are abundant in the developing and mature central nervous system (CNS). During development they generate oligodendrocytes. In culture, they can revert to a multipotent state, suggesting that they might have latent stem cell potential that could be harnessed to treat neurodegenerative disease. This hope has been subdued recently by a series of fate mapping studies that cast NG2-glia as dedicated oligodendrocyte precursors in the healthy adult CNS - though rare neuron production in the piriform cortex remains a possibility. Following CNS damage, the repertoire of NG2-glia expands to include Schwann cells and possibly astrocytes – but so far not neurons. This confirms the central role of NG2-glia in myelin repair. The realization that oligodendrocyte generation continues throughout normal adulthood has seeded the idea that myelin genesis might also be involved in neural plasticity. We review these developments, highlighting areas of current interest, contention and speculation. PMID:21609823

  19. Lõppmäng nagu elu, iga päev otsast peale / Barbi Pilvre

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pilvre, Barbi, 1963-

    1999-01-01

    Lavastaja Mati Unt põhjendab oma otsust lavastada milleniumi tähistamiseks Samuel Becketti "Lõppmäng". Lisaks S. Becketti CV ja S. Beckett Eesti teatris. Eesti Draamateatri etendused toimuvad Energeetikamuuseumis. Esietendus 9. detsembril

  20. TOVS GLA 5 DAY GRIDS from NOAA-10 V01 (TOVSA5NG) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This dataset (TOVSA5NG) contains the TIROS Operational Vertical Sounder (TOVS) level 3 geophysical parameters derived using data from NOAA-10 and the physical...

  1. Uneven distribution of NG2 cells in the rat cerebellar vermis and changes in aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Lomoio

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We describe by NG2 (neuron-glia chondroitin sulphate proteoglycan 2 immunocytochemistry an uneven distribution of NG2 glial cells in the rat cerebellum, being them more represented in the central lobules of the cerebellar vermis, belonging to the cerebrocerebellum. The cerebellar distribution of NG2 cells changes in aging rats, in which the area where the cells appear to be densely scattered throughout all cerebellar layers involves also more rostral and caudal lobules. In addition, in aging rats, in the most rostral and caudal lobules belonging to the spinocerebellum, punctate reaction product is present at the apical pole of Purkinje cells, i.e. in the area where the majority of synapses between olivary climbing fibers and Purkinje cells occur. Data suggest that the different distribution of NG2 cells is correlated to differences in physiology among cerebellar areas and reflects changes during aging.

  2. NG2-glia and their functions in the central nervous system

    OpenAIRE

    Dimou, L; Gallo, V

    2015-01-01

    In the central nervous system, NG2-glia represent a neural cell population that is distinct from neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. While in the past the main role ascribed to these cells was that of progenitors for oligodendrocytes, in the last years it has become more obvious that they have further functions in the brain. Here, we will discuss some of the most current and highly debated issues regarding NG2-glia: Do these cells represent a heterogeneous population? Can they give rise...

  3. NG2-glia as multipotent neural stem cells – fact or fantasy?

    OpenAIRE

    Richardson, William D; Young, Kaylene M; Tripathi, Richa B; McKenzie, Ian

    2011-01-01

    Cycling glial precursors - “NG2-glia” - are abundant in the developing and mature central nervous system (CNS). During development they generate oligodendrocytes. In culture, they can revert to a multipotent state, suggesting that they might have latent stem cell potential that could be harnessed to treat neurodegenerative disease. This hope has been subdued recently by a series of fate mapping studies that cast NG2-glia as dedicated oligodendrocyte precursors in the healthy adult CNS - thoug...

  4. No evidence of genome editing activity from Natronobacterium gregoryi Argonaute (NgAgo) in human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javidi-Parsijani, Parisa; Niu, Guoguang; Davis, Meghan; Lu, Pin; Atala, Anthony; Lu, Baisong

    2017-01-01

    The argonaute protein from the thermophilic bacterium Thermus thermophilus shows DNA-guided DNA interfering activity at high temperatures, complicating its application in mammalian cells. A recent work reported that the argonaute protein from Natronobacterium gregoryi (NgAgo) had DNA-guided genome editing activity in mammalian cells. We compared the genome editing activities of NgAgo and Staphylococcus aureus Cas9 (SaCas9) in human HEK293T cells side by side. EGFP reporter assays and DNA sequencing consistently revealed high genome editing activity from SaCas9. However, these assays did not demonstrate genome editing activity by NgAgo. We confirmed that the conditions allowed simultaneous transfection of the NgAgo expressing plasmid DNA and DNA guides, as well as heterologous expression of NgAgo in the HEK293T cells. Our data show that NgAgo is not a robust genome editing tool, although it may have such activity under other conditions.

  5. NG2-glia and their functions in the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimou, L; Gallo, V

    2015-08-01

    In the central nervous system, NG2-glia represent a neural cell population that is distinct from neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes. While in the past the main role ascribed to these cells was that of progenitors for oligodendrocytes, in the last years it has become more obvious that they have further functions in the brain. Here, we will discuss some of the most current and highly debated issues regarding NG2-glia: Do these cells represent a heterogeneous population? Can they give rise to different progenies, and does this change under pathological conditions? How do they respond to injury or pathology? What is the role of neurotransmitter signaling between neurons and NG2-glia? We will first give an overview on the developmental origin of NG2-glia, and then discuss whether their distinct properties in different brain regions are the result of environmental influences, or due to intrinsic differences. We will then review and discuss their in vitro differentiation potential and in vivo lineage under physiological and pathological conditions, together with their electrophysiological properties in distinct brain regions and at different developmental stages. Finally, we will focus on their potential to be used as therapeutic targets in demyelinating and neurodegenerative diseases. Therefore, this review article will highlight the importance of NG2-glia not only in the healthy, but also in the diseased brain. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. SNOW AVALANCHE ACTIVITY IN PARÂNG SKI AREA REVEALED BY TREE-RINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. MESEȘAN

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Snow Avalanche Activity in Parâng Ski Area Revealed by Tree-Rings. Snow avalanches hold favorable conditions to manifest in Parâng Mountains but only one event is historically known, without destructive impact upon infrastructure or fatalities and this region wasn’t yet the object of avalanche research. The existing ski infrastructure of Parâng resort located in the west of Parâng Mountains is proposed to be extended in the steep slopes of subalpine area. Field evidence pinpoints that these steep slopes were affected by snow avalanches in the past. In this study we analyzed 11 stem discs and 31 increment cores extracted from 22 spruces (Picea abies (L. Karst impacted by avalanches, in order to obtain more information about past avalanches activity. Using the dendrogeomorphological approach we found 13 avalanche events that occurred along Scărița avalanche path, since 1935 until 2012, nine of them produced in the last 20 years. The tree-rings data inferred an intense snow avalanche activity along this avalanche path. This study not only calls for more research in the study area but also proves that snow avalanches could constitute an important restrictive factor for the tourism infrastructure and related activities in the area. It must be taken into consideration by the future extension of tourism infrastructure. Keywords: snow avalanche, Parâng Mountains, dendrogeomorphology, ski area.

  7. Knowledge extraction from a nitrification denitrification wastewater treatment plant using SOM-NG algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machón-González, Iván; Rodríguez-Iglesias, Jesús; López-García, Hilario; Castrillón-Peláez, Leonor; Marañón-Maison, Elena

    2017-06-01

    SOM-NG is a hybrid algorithm that is able to carry out visualization of process data, nonlinear function approximation, classification and clustering. The supervised version of SOM-NG produces a new type of 2D lattices called gradient planes which are useful to determine the dynamics of a target variable according to the remaining training variables. In this way, it is an interesting tool for data mining in order to extract knowledge from databases for nonlinear systems. The main objective of this work is to analyze data from an industrial wastewater treatment plant using SOM-NG algorithm in order to investigate relationships between the process variables. The data used proceeds from a biological wastewater treatment plant. This plant is based on an activated sludge treatment including nitrification and denitrification processes. A direct relation between the nitrification efficiency and the operating temperature was found, and also between the ammonia loading rate and the nitrification denitrification efficiency.

  8. Getting the Big Picture: Design Considerations for a ngVLA Short Spacing Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Brian Scott; Cotton, William; Condon, James; Kepley, Amanda; Selina, Rob; Murphy, Eric Joseph

    2018-01-01

    The Next Generation VLA (ngVLA) aims to provide a revolutionary increase in cm-wavelength collecting area and sensitivity while at the same time providing excellent image fidelity for a broad spectrum of science cases. Likely ngVLA configurations currently envisioned provide sensitivity over a very wide range of spatial scales. The antenna diameter (notionally 18 meters) fundamentally limits the largest angular scales that can be reached. One simple and powerful way to image larger angular scales is to build a complementary interferometer comprising a smaller number of smaller-diameter dishes.We have investigated the requirements that such an array would need to meet in order to usefully scientifically complement the ngVLA; this poster presents the results of our investigation.

  9. Hans Küng se voorstel vir ’n eietydse etiek

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Strauss

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available This contribution undertakes a critical assessment of the well-known Hans Küng's proposal for contemporary ethics in his book Global responsibility. In search of a new world ethic (1990. This article commences by providing some background on this publication as well as on the theology of Küng in general. The content of the book is then paraphrased in summarised form. The last part of the article analyses four major convictions of Kung, against which the Reformed doctrine is brought forward. These convictions deal with the ethical aspects of normativity, humanity, postmodernity and ecumenicity.

  10. Examination of steam generator alloy 800 NG tube from the Almaraz unit 2 NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diego, G. de; Gomez Briceno, D.; Maffiotte, C.; Baladia, M.; Arias, C.J.

    2015-01-01

    The steam generators of Almaraz Unit 2 were replaced in 1997 by the model 61W/D3 (Siemens) with Alloy 800NG steam generator tubes. Denting indications were firstly detected in 2006 in the SG-3. Crack indications were identified in 2009. At the end of 2011, three tubes were recovered from this steam generator to carry out destructive examination in order to identify the root cause of the tubes degradation. Analysis of deposits point out the existence of multiples elements in the removed OD (Outer Diameter) deposits as well as in the deposits at the free tube under sludge and at the transition zone. Deposits are more abundant at the transition zone than at free tube. About 10% Na concentration has been detected, whereas S and Cl appear in small concentrations. Si appears regularly and Cr, Ni concentrations in the deposits are similar. Multiple intergranular cracks have been detected at 3 mm above the last contact point between the tube and the TS (tube support), in a band of around 5 mm, practically in the whole perimeter of the tube. Fracture surface of crack-B was partially covered by a Si rich layer, whereas fracture surface of crack-A seems to be cleaner. However, no significant differences in composition, except higher amount of S in crack-B, were found in the deposits of both cracks. EDX mapping and Auger profiles point out Ni enrichment with slight Cr enrichment or depletion and Fe depletion. The comparison of Auger profiles with available results for Alloy 800 tested in caustic and acid sulfate environments seems to indicate that the environment inside the cracks detected in the tube R67C48 is neutral or moderately caustic

  11. Risk assessment models to evaluate the necessity of prostate biopsies in North Chinese patients with 4-50 ng/mL PSA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jing; Liu, Shuai; Gao, Dexuan; Ding, Sentai; Niu, Zhihong; Zhang, Hui; Huang, Zhilong; Qiu, Juhui; Li, Qing; Li, Ning; Xie, Fang; Cui, Jilei; Lu, Jiaju

    2017-02-07

    Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is widely used for prostate cancer screening, but low specificity results in high false positive rates of prostate biopsies. To develop new risk assessment models to overcome the diagnostic limitation of PSA and reduce unnecessary prostate biopsies in North Chinese patients with 4-50 ng/mL PSA. A total of 702 patients in seven hospitals with 4-10 and 10-50 ng/mL PSA, respectively, who had undergone transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsies, were assessed. Analysis-modeling stage for several clinical indexes related to prostate cancer and renal function was carried out. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to develop new risk assessment models of prostate cancer for both PSA level ranges 4-10 and 10-50 ng/mL. External validation stage of the new models was performed to assess the necessity of biopsy. The new models for both PSA ranges performed significantly better than PSA for detecting prostate cancers. Both models showed higher areas under the curves (0.937 and 0.873, respectively) compared with PSA alone (0.624 and 0.595), at pre-determined cut-off values of 0.1067 and 0.6183, respectively. Patients above the cut-off values were recommended for immediate biopsy, while the others were actively observed. External validation of the models showed significantly increased detection rates for prostate cancer (4-10 ng/mL group, 39.29% vs 17.79%, p=0.006; 10-50 ng/mL group, 71.83% vs 50.0%, p=0.015). We developed risk assessment models for North Chinese patients with 4-50 ng/mL PSA to reduce unnecessary prostate biopsies and increase the detection rate of prostate cancer.

  12. Puuduv lugu, ainult kangelane : Zidane ja kunsti mäng / Zoe Stillpass

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Stillpass, Zoe

    2010-01-01

    Režissööride Philippe Parreno ja Douglas Gordoni film prantsuse jalgpallurist Zinedine Zidanest. Film on 23. aprillil 2005 peetud mäng Real Madridi ja Villareali vahel Madridis, mida filmiti 17 kaameraga, mis kõik olid fokusseeritud Zidane'ile. Helitaust pärineb šoti alternatiivroki bändilt Mogwai

  13. Focused groundwater discharge of phosphorus to a eutrophic seepage lake (Lake Væng, Denmark)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kidmose, Jacob Baarstrøm; Nilsson, Bertel; Engesgaard, Peter Knudegaard

    2013-01-01

    A study on Lake Væng in Denmark demonstrates a high potential for loading of phosphorous via groundwater to seepage lakes. Groundwater discharges are displayed as an important source of phosphorous to a lake due to: (1) high concentrations in the aquifer just below the lake, and (2) the main flow...

  14. Design, Implementation and Performance Estimation of mtd64-ng, a New Tiny DNS64 Proxy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gábor Lencse

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the current phase of the IPv6 transition, it is a typical situation that IPv6 only clients should be enabled to communicate with IPv4 only servers. The DNS64+NAT64 tool suite is an excellent solution to this problem. Although several free software DNS64 implementations exist, we point out that there is room for further high performance and computation efficient multithreaded DNS64 implementations. MTD64 was designed to be able to utilize several CPU cores. Whereas MTD64 outperformed BIND more than five times, two critical issues (memory leaking and potential vulnerability to DoS attacks were identified. Therefore MTD64 was redesigned under a new name: mtd64-ng (not capitalized. This paper is about the design, implementation and initial performance estimation of mtd64-ng. The usage of object oriented decomposition and the RAII (Resource Acquisition Is Initialization idiom ensures that raw, sensitive resources (e.g. memory, sockets are always released and it greatly simplifies exception handling. Using the new features of the C++11 standard enabled us to write more efficient and better readable code. The performance of mtd64-ng is compared to that of BIND and MTD64 and it is found that mtd64-ng outperforms even its predecessor, MTD64.

  15. Linkage and mapping analyses of the no glue egg gene Ng in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-24

    Aug 24, 2011 ... et al., 2007). These mutations affect many fundamental. *Corresponding author. ... glue eggs (Ng mutant), were obtained from the Silkworm Genetics and Breeding Laboratory, School of Life ..... silkworm, Bombyx mori, based on bacterial artificial chromosome and sequences. Genetics, 173(1): 151-161.

  16. "Klaaspärlimäng" esitleb "kiiksuga" klassikat / Karin Klaus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Klaus, Karin

    2007-01-01

    Muusikafestivalist "Klaaspärlimäng" (korraldaja Peeter Vähi). Erkki-Sven Tüüri heliplaadi "Oxymoron" esitlusest festivali avakontserdil "Aga kõrv ei puhka..." 6. juulil Pärnu kontserdimajas. Kontsertide kava 6. juulist 9. augustini

  17. Mapping methane emissions using the airborne imaging spectrometer AVIRIS-NG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, A. K.; Frankenberg, C.; Thompson, D. R.; Duren, R. M.; Bue, B. D.; Green, R. O.

    2017-12-01

    The next generation Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS-NG) has been used to survey large regions and map methane plumes with unambiguous identification of emission source locations. This capability is aided by real time detection and geolocation of gas plumes, permitting adaptive surveys and communication to ground teams for rapid follow up. We present results from AVIRIS-NG flight campaigns in Colorado, New Mexico, and California. Hundreds of plumes were observed, reflecting emissions from the energy sector that include hydraulic fracturing, gas processing plants, tanks, pumpjacks, and pipeline leaks. In some cases, plumes observed by AVIRIS-NG resulted in mitigation. Additional examples will be shown for methane from dairy lagoons, landfills, natural emissions, as well as carbon dioxide from power plants and refineries. We describe the unique capabilities of airborne imaging spectrometers to augment other measurement techniques by efficiently surveying key regions for methane point sources and supporting timely assessment and mitigation. We summarize the outlook for near- and longer-term monitoring capabilities including future satellite systems. Figure caption. AVIRIS-NG true color image subset with superimposed methane plume showing retrieved gas concentrations. Plume extends 200 m downwind of the southern edge of the well pad. Google Earth imagery with finer spatial resolution is also included (red box), indicating that tanks in the inset scene as the source of emissions. Five wells are located at the center of this well pad and all use horizontal drilling to produce mostly natural gas.

  18. Situation of the Csángó Dialect of Moldavia in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siarl Ferdinand

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The following paper analyses the situation of the Csángó dialect spoken in the Romanian region of Moldavia. After a review of the global phenomenon of language death, its causes, and some resources to evaluate language vitality, the study focuses on the Csángó community and its Hungarian dialect. A short description of some fundamental facts about the group, such as ethnicity, religious affiliation, and linguistic background sets the base for an in-depth study of the language situation. In order to achieve that goal, the language was scrutinized according to the nine factors proposed by the UNESCO’s Language Vitality and Endangerment (LVE framework. The results confirm previous research in the field and show that Csángó is experiencing a decisive and most difficult phase in its history. It is expected, however, that this paper can contribute to create a successful planning to preserve not only Csángó but many other languages and dialects in similar situations.

  19. 30 Page 22 www.jopat.gov.ng JOPAT Vol. 15(2)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    COMPASIONATE

    ABSTRACT. Aim: This study was aimed at determining the prevalence, antibiotic resistance and heat resistance ... grounded garlic, chunked fresh tomatoes and .... Page 26 www.jopat.gov.ng. Table 3. Antibiotic susceptibility study of the isolates from suya samples. Antibiotics. Sensitive. Resistant. Intermediate. Gentamicin.

  20. Lavale jõuab näitemäng armastuse orjast

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Komöödiateatril tuleb lavale Jaan Toominga lavastatud "Venuse armumäng" austria kirjaniku Leopold von Sacher-Masochi romaani "Venus karusnahas" järgi. Osades Veikko Täär, Britta Vahur ja kulturist Imre Vähi

  1. Expression of NG2 and platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha in the developing neonatal rat brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFRα is a marker of oligodendrocyte precursor cells in the central nervous system. NG2 is also considered a marker of oligodendrocyte precursor cells. However, whether there are differences in the distribution and morphology of oligodendrocyte precursor cells labeled by NG2 or PDGFRα in the developing neonatal rat brain remains unclear. In this study, by immunohistochemical staining, NG2 positive (NG2+ cells were ubiquitous in the molecular layer, external pyramidal layer, internal pyramidal layer, and polymorphic layer of the cerebral cortex, and corpus callosum, external capsule, piriform cortex, and medial septal nucleus. NG2+ cells were stellate or fusiform in shape with long processes that were progressively decreased and shortened over the course of brain development. The distribution and morphology of PDGFRα positive (PDGFRα+ cells were coincident with NG2+ cells. The colocalization of NG2 and PDGFRα in the cell bodies and processes of some cells was confirmed by double immunofluorescence labeling. Moreover, cells double-labeled for NG2 and PDGFRα were predominantly in the early postnatal stage of development. The numbers of NG2+/PDGFRα+ cells and PDGFRα+ cells decreased, but the number of NG2+ cells increased from postnatal days 3 to 14 in the developing brain. In addition, amoeboid microglial cells of the corpus callosum, newborn brain macrophages in the normal developing brain, did not express NG2 or PDGFRα, but NG2 expression was detected in amoeboid microglia after hypoxia. The present results suggest that NG2 and PDGFRα are specific markers of oligodendrocyte precursor cells at different stages during early development. Additionally, the NG2 protein is involved in inflammatory and pathological processes of amoeboid microglial cells.

  2. The Sensitivity of the Next Generation Very Large Array (ngVLA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Bryan; Grammer, Wes; Selina, Rob; Murphy, Eric Joseph; Carilli, Chris

    2018-01-01

    The design for the Next Generation Very Large Array (ngVLA) is now mature enough to make a much more detailed calculation of sensitivity than has been possible before. Previous estimates have suffered from uncertainties in design specifics, many of which have been reduced through further development. We use a more detailed model of antenna and feed design to estimate the aperture efficiency, and receiver designs that in some cases have been prototyped to estimate the receiver temperature. The atmospheric contribution to the system temperature is calculated using the most current measurements of atmospheric conditions at the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) site and in the surrounding region. Given this information an estimate of the point source sensitivity is calculated with much more confidence than previously. We compare these ngVLA sensitivity numbers directly with existing and near-future instruments in the frequency range of ngVLA (1.2 to 116 GHz), namely the current VLA, the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) and the Square Kilometer Array phase 1 for Mid frequencies (SKA1-Mid). We find that the ngVLA, with its current design, is roughly a factor of 10 more sensitive than VLA and ALMA, and factor of 6-7 more sensitive than SKA1-Mid (current deployment baseline) for spectral line observations, and almost a factor of 20 more sensitive than all three for continuum observations due to increased collecting area and bandwidth above 20 GHz (should SKA1-Mid eventually include receivers above the 14 GHz max frequency in the current deployment baseline design). These calculations will remain under investigation as the project matures. The values presented herein represent the state of the project as it stands today, and can be used to inform studies of the scientific potential of the ngVLA.

  3. Multi-analyte approach for the determination of ng L-1 levels of steroid hormones in unidentified aqueous samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noppe, H.; Verheyden, K.; Gillis, W.; Courtheyn, D.; Vanthemsche, P.; De Brabander, H.F.

    2007-01-01

    Since the 1970s, many analytical methods for the detection of illegal growth promoters, such as thyreostats, anabolics, β-agonists and corticosteroids have been developed for a wide range of matrices of animal origin, including meat, fat, organ tissue, urine and faeces. The aim of this study was to develop an analytical method for the determination of ng L -1 levels of estrogens, gestagens, androgens (EGAs) and corticosteroids in aqueous preparations (i.e. drinking water, drinking water supplements), commercially available on the 'black' market. For this, extraction was performed with Bakerbond C 18 speedisk, a technique commonly used in environmental analysis. After fractionation, four fractions were collected using a methanol:water gradient program. Gas chromatography coupled to electron impact multiple mass spectrometry (GC-EI-MS 2 ) screening for the EGAs was carried out on the derivatized extracts. For the detection of corticosteroids, gas chromatography coupled to negative chemical ionization mass spectrometry (GC-NCI-MS) was used after oxidation of the extracts. Confirmation was done by liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization multiple mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS 2 ). The combined use of GC and LC coupled to MS enabled the identification and quantification of anabolics and corticosteroids at the low ng L -1 level. This study demonstrated the occurrence of both androgens and corticosteroids in different commercial aqueous samples

  4. Tiềm năng lớn của vệ tinh siêu nhỏ đáp ứng nhu cầuquản lý hàng hải của Việt Nam

    OpenAIRE

    Vu Trong, Thu; Pham Quang, Hung; Nguyen Hoang, Giang; Nguyen, Hugo

    2011-01-01

    Trong 10 năm gần đây, loại vệ tinh siêu nhỏ có kích thước 10x10x10 cm và trọng lượng 1 kg với tên gọi CubeSat từ công cụ thực hành của sinh viên đại học đang dần trở thành nền tảng cho những vệ tinh có khả năngng dụng trong thực tiễn. Ngày nay, người sử dụng có thể tự thiết kế hoặc mua sẵn linh kiện điện tử và cơ khí lắp thành vệ tinh cỡ 1, 2, 3... kg với các tính năng mong muốn. Ưu điểm của loại vệ tinh siêu nhỏ này là thời gian chế tạo ngắn, chi phí thấp và càng phát huy năng lực khi sử d...

  5. Outcome predictors of radical prostatectomy in patients with prostate-specific antigen greater than 20 ng/ml: a European multi-institutional study of 712 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spahn, Martin; Joniau, Steven; Gontero, Paolo; Fieuws, Steffen; Marchioro, Giansilvio; Tombal, Bertrand; Kneitz, Burkhard; Hsu, Chao-Yu; Van Der Eeckt, Katie; Bader, Pia; Frohneberg, Detlef; Tizzani, Alessandro; Van Poppel, Hein

    2010-07-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) patients with pretreatment prostate-specific antigen (PSA) >20 ng/ml have a high risk of biochemical and clinical failure and even cancer-related death after local therapy. Pretreatment predictors of outcome after radical prostatectomy (RP) in this patient group are necessary. Our aim was to assess how the use of additional high-risk factors (biopsy Gleason score [bGS] > or = 8 or clinical stage 3-4) can improve prediction of treatment failure and cancer-related death after RP in patients with PSA >20. In a retrospective multicentre cohort study from six European centres between 1987 and 2005, 712 patients with PSA >20 ng/ml underwent RP and bilateral pelvic lymphadenectomy. Subgroups were analysed to determine the relationship between the number of high-risk factors and histopathology, biochemical progression-free survival, clinical evidence of progressive disease, prostate cancer-specific mortality (PCSM), and overall mortality. Kaplan-Meier analysis with log-rank test and Cox multivariable analysis were applied. Median follow-up was 77 mo. The number of high-risk factors was significantly associated with unfavourable histopathology. Among patients with only PSA >20 ng/ml, 33% had pT2 PCa, 57.9% had bGS bGS bGS. PSA >20 ng/ml associated with bGS bGS > or =8, PCSM was 35%. The main limitations of the study were retrospective design and varying treatment modalities. PCa patients with PSA >20 ng/ml have varying risk levels of disease progression and PCSM. Considering additional risk factors further stratifies this group into four subgroups that can guide the clinician in preoperative patient counselling. Copyright 2010 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Fatigue crack growth of 316NG austenitic stainless steel welds at 325 °C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y. F.; Xiao, J.; Chen, Y.; Zhou, J.; Qiu, S. Y.; Xu, Q.

    2018-02-01

    316NG austenitic stainless steel is a commonly-used material for primary coolant pipes of pressurized water reactor systems. These pipes are usually joined together by automated narrow gap welding process. In this study, welds were prepared by narrow gap welding on 316NG austenitic stainless steel pipes, and its microstructure of the welds was characterized. Then, fatigue crack growth tests were conducted at 325 °C. Precipitates enriched with Mn and Si were found in the fusion zone. The fatigue crack path was out of plane and secondary cracks initiated from the precipitate/matrix interface. A moderate acceleration of crack growth was also observed at 325°Cair and water (DO = ∼10 ppb) with f = 2 Hz.

  7. A c Asses cultiva sment rs usin t of gen ng sim netic d mple se ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    is important y within a ric s. Accurate id al and physio f distinctness racteristics o d technologie ion. Numerou antitative natu al background tional breedin many traits are uthor. E-mail: u hat this article r nse. 7 August, 2014. 050 ht of this article als.org/AJB h Paper t of gen ng sim. M. Umadev eding and Gen. R c simple seq.

  8. Glutamate receptors in NG2-glial cells: gene profiling and functional changes after ischemic brain injury

    OpenAIRE

    Waloschková, Eliška

    2017-01-01

    Glutamate is the main excitatory neurotransmitter in the mammalian brain and its transmission is responsible for higher brain functions, such as learning, memory and cognition. Glutamate action is mediated by a variety of glutamate receptors, though their properties were until now studied predominantly in neurons. Glutamate receptors are expressed also in NG2-glia, however their role under physiological conditions as well as in pathological states of the central nervous system is not fully un...

  9. LA FRASE NOMINAL NGÄBÉRE The Nominal Phrase Ngäbére

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel Murillo Miranda

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo es el avance de una amplia investigación cuyo propósito es elaborar una gramática descriptiva de la lengua chibcha ngäbére. El artículo presenta las características particulares más relevantes de la frase nominal de dicha variante dialectal (hablada en Costa Rica, también en Panamá, y establece la relación con algunas de las características generales de otras lenguas chibchas ístmicas. El primer apartado del escrito es una introducción a la lengua ngäbére y a sus hablantes; el segundo presenta la morfología de los sustantivos, pronombres y otras clases de palabras que conforman la frase nominal; el tercer apartado trata de la sintaxis de la frase nominal y esboza, de manera sucinta, las relaciones gramaticales; el cuarto apartado es una conclusión valorativa de este trabajo.This work is a preview of a broader study whose goal is to create a descriptive grammar of the Chibchan language, Ngäbere. The article describes the most relevant features of the dialect's nominal phrase (spoken in Costa Rica and Panama and establishes the relationship with some of the general features of other Isthmian Chibchan languages. The first part of the report is an introduction to Ngäbere and it speakers; the second, describes the morphology of the nouns, pronouns, and other words that make up the nominal phrase; the third, is about the syntax of the nominal phrase and it outlines in a succinct manner, grammatical relationships; the last part is a critical conclusion of this work.

  10. Calculating the energy spectrum of neutrons from tritium target of the NG-150 type generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bortash, A.I.; Kuznetsov, V.S.

    1987-01-01

    Calculation procedure of neutron spectra yielding from the NG-150 generator target chamber with regard to deutron moderation is suggested. Using the suggested procedure, neutron spectra for different escape angles formed in the tritium target are calculated. The spectrum of neutrons scattered in cooling water is calculated. The mean energy of neutrons escaping at the angle of 0 deg equalling 14.5 MeV is obtained

  11. Attributing Methane and Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Anthropogenic and Natural Sources Using AVIRIS-NG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, A. K.; Frankenberg, C.; Thompson, D. R.; Duren, R. M.; Aubrey, A. D.; Bue, B. D.; Green, R. O.; Gerilowski, K.; Krings, T.; Borchardt, J.; Kort, E. A.; Sweeney, C.; Conley, S. A.; Roberts, D. A.; Dennison, P. E.; Ayasse, A.

    2016-12-01

    Imaging spectrometers like the next generation Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS-NG) can map large regions with the high spatial resolution necessary to resolve methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. This capability is aided by real time detection and geolocation of gas plumes, permitting unambiguous identification of individual emission source locations and communication to ground teams for rapid follow up. We present results from AVIRIS-NG flight campaigns in the Four Corners region (Colorado and New Mexico) and the San Joaquin Valley (California). Over three hundred plumes were observed, reflecting emissions from anthropogenic and natural sources. Examples of plumes will be shown for a number of sources, including CH4 from well completions, gas processing plants, tanks, pipeline leaks, natural seeps, and CO2 from power plants. Despite these promising results, an imaging spectrometer built exclusively for quantitative mapping of gas plumes would have improved sensitivity compared to AVIRIS-NG. For example, an instrument providing a 1 nm spectral sampling (2,000-2,400 micron) would permit mapping CH4, CO2, H2O, CO, and N2O from more diffuse sources using both airborne and orbital platforms. The ability to identify emission sources offers the potential to constrain regional greenhouse gas budgets and improve partitioning between anthropogenic and natural emission sources. Because the CH4 lifetime is only about 9 years and CH4 has a Global Warming Potential 86 times that of CO2 for a 20 year time interval, mitigating these emissions is a particularly cost-effective approach to reduce overall atmospheric radiative forcing. Fig. 1. True color image subset with superimposed gas plumes showing concentrations in ppmm. Left: AVIRIS-NG observed CH4 plumes from natural gas processing plant extending over 500 m downwind of multiple emissions sources. Right: Multiple CO2 plumes observed from coal-fired power plant.

  12. Localisation of NG2 immunoreactive neuroglia cells in the rat locus coeruleus and their plasticity in response to stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen eSeifi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The locus coeruleus (LC nucleus modulates adaptive behavioural responses to stress and dysregulation of LC neuronal activity is implicated in stress-induced mental illnesses. The LC is composed primarily of noradrenergic neurons together with various glial populations. A neuroglia cell-type largely unexplored within the LC is the NG2 cell. NG2 cells serve primarily as oligodendrocyte precursor cells throughout the brain. However, some NG2 cells are in synaptic contact with neurons suggesting a role in information processing. The aim of this study was to neurochemically and anatomically characterise NG2 cells within the rat LC. Furthermore, since NG2 cells have been shown to proliferate in response to traumatic brain injury, we investigated whether such NG2 cells plasticity also occurs in response to emotive insults such as stress. Immunohistochemistry and confocal microscopy revealed that NG2 cells were enriched within the pontine region occupied by the LC. Close inspection revealed that a sub-population of NG2 cells were located within unique indentations of LC noradrenergic somata and were immunoreactive for the neuronal marker NeuN whilst NG2 cell processes formed close appositions with clusters immunoreactive for the inhibitory synaptic marker proteins gephyrin and the GABA-A receptor alpha3-subunit, on noradrenergic dendrites. In addition, LC NG2 cell processes were decorated with vesicular glutamate transporter 2 immunoreactive puncta. Finally, ten days of repeated restraint stress significantly increased the density of NG2 cells within the LC. The study demonstrates that NG2 IR cells are integral components of the LC cellular network and they exhibit plasticity as a result of emotive challenges.

  13. Skeletal muscle neural progenitor cells exhibit properties of NG2-glia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birbrair, Alexander; Zhang, Tan; Wang, Zhong-Min; Messi, María Laura; Enikolopov, Grigori N; Mintz, Akiva; Delbono, Osvaldo

    2013-01-01

    Reversing brain degeneration and trauma lesions will depend on cell therapy. Our previous work identified neural precursor cells derived from the skeletal muscle of Nestin-GFP transgenic mice, but their identity, origin, and potential survival in the brain are only vaguely understood. In this work, we show that Nestin-GFP+ progenitor cells share morphological and molecular markers with NG2-glia, including NG2, PDGFRα, O4, NGF receptor (p75), glutamate receptor-1(AMPA), and A2B5 expression. Although these cells exhibit NG2, they do not express other pericyte markers, such as α-SMA or connexin-43, and do not differentiate into the muscle lineage. Patch-clamp studies displayed outward potassium currents, probably carried through Kir6.1 channels. Given their potential therapeutic application, we compared their abundance in tissues and concluded that skeletal muscle is the richest source of predifferentiated neural precursor cells. We found that these cells migrate toward the neurogenic subventricular zone displaying their typical morphology and nestin-GFP expression two weeks after brain injection. For translational purposes, we sought to identify these neural progenitor cells in wild-type species by developing a DsRed expression vector under Nestin-Intron II control. This approach revealed them in nonhuman primates and aging rodents throughout the lifespan. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Optical levitation of 10-ng spheres with nano-g acceleration sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Fernando; Ghosh, Sumita; Fine, Adam Getzels; Moore, David C.

    2017-12-01

    We demonstrate optical levitation of SiO2 spheres with masses ranging from 0.1 to 30 ng. In high vacuum, we observe that the measured acceleration sensitivity improves for larger masses and obtain a sensitivity of 0.4 ×10-6g /√{Hz } for a 12-ng sphere, more than an order of magnitude better than previously reported for optically levitated masses. In addition, these techniques permit long integration times and a mean acceleration of (-0.7 ±2.4 [stat] ±0.2 [syst] ) ×10-9g is measured in 1.4 ×104 s. Spheres larger than 10 ng are found to lose mass in high vacuum where heating due to absorption of the trapping laser dominates radiative cooling. This absorption constrains the maximum size of spheres that can be levitated and allows a measurement of the absorption of the trapping light for the commercially available spheres tested here. Spheres consisting of material with lower absorption may allow larger objects to be optically levitated in high vacuum.

  15. Power budget enhancement in NG-EPON system employing novel twisted-PAM4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Longsheng; Bi, Meihua; Fu, Yan; Miao, Xin; Zhu, Qingming; Hu, Weisheng

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, we firstly design a novel modulation format named Twisted-PAM4 (T-PAM4) for the high-speed NG-EPON and the PON-based digital fronthaul system. Compared to other high-order modulation formats like 4-ary pulse amplitude modulation (PAM4), T-PAM4 provides two independent sampling values in each symbol period and enables two-dimensional symbol decision, which significantly improves the receiver sensitivity and hence enlarges the system power budget. Based on this advantage, six types of T-PAM4 are experimentally demonstrated in 28-Gb/s/ λ NG-PON and 32-Gb/s/ λ PON-based digital fronthaul system. The experimental results show that, compared to the ordinary PAM4, the T-PAM4 can bring 5-dB and 4-dB extra power budget in NG-EPON and PON-based fronthaul system respectively. In addition, by experiment, it is also depicted that the T-PAM4 is remarkably robust to system nonlinearity, which would ease the linearity requirement on system components and hence reduce system cost.

  16. The Available Options for Wavelength Group Selection and Transceiver Design for Next Generation PON Stage 2 (NG-PON2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niazi, Shahab Ahmad; Zhang, Xiaoguang; Xi, Lixia; Chen, Yong Li; Idress, Muhammad

    2013-09-01

    The full service access network (FSAN) task group meeting was held in April 2012, where they agreed to adopt time and wavelength division multiplexed passive optical network (TWDM-PON) as a primary solution to NG-PON2. Major requirements includes at least 40 Gbit/s aggregate rate in downstream, 1:64 split ratio, 40 km differential reach, and at least 1 Gb/s access rate per optical network unit (ONU). In this paper, a performance analysis will be carried out for downstream 4-wavelengths group selection from S-band, L-band, and C-band. A comparison for optimal transmitter design is also investigated among probable options of chirp managed laser diode, Lithium Niobate (LiNbo3) Mach Zehnder modulator, besides examining tunable transceivers in contrary to remotely fed colorless ONUs.

  17. Characterization of cells recovered from the xenotransplanted NG97 human-derived glioma cell line subcultured in a long-term in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinrich Juliana K

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to elucidate tumoral progression and drug resistance, cultured cell lines are valuable tools applied on tumor related assays provided they are well established and characterized. Our laboratory settled the NG97 cell line derived from a human astrocytoma grade III, which started to develop and express important phenotypical characteristics of an astrocytoma grade IV after injection in the flank of nude mice. Astrocytomas are extremely aggressive malignancies of the Central Nervous System (CNS and account for 46% of all primary malignant brain tumors. Progression to worse prognosis occurs in 85% of the cases possibly due to changes in cell tumor microenvironment and through biological pathways that are still unclear. Methods This work focused on characterizing the NG97 cell line specifically after being recovered from the xenotransplant, who maintained their undifferentiated characteristics along the following 60th passages in vitro. These cells were subcultivated to evaluate the possible contribution of these undifferentiated characteristics to the malignant progression phenotype. These characteristics were the expression of molecules involved in the processes of migration, dedifferentiation and chromosomal instability. Results Results showed that NG97(ht had an decrease in doubling time through sub cultivation, which was characterized by a converse modulation between the expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP and vimentin. In addition, β1 integrins were present in intermediate levels while α5 integrins had a high expression profile as well as fibronectin and laminin. Cytogenetic analysis of NG97(ht revealed several chromosomal abnormalities, 89% of the cells showed to be hyperdiploid and the modal number was assigned to be 63. Several acrocentric chromosomes were visualized and at least 30 figures were attributed to be murine. These findings suggest a possible fusion between the original NG97 cells

  18. Characterization of cells recovered from the xenotransplanted NG97 human-derived glioma cell line subcultured in a long-term in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machado, Camila ML; Boetcher-Luiz, Fátima; Verinaud, Liana; Ikemori, Rafael Y; Zorzeto, Tatiana Q; Nogueira, Ana CMA; Barbosa, Suse DS; Savino, Wilson; Schenka, André A; Vassallo, José; Heinrich, Juliana K

    2008-01-01

    In order to elucidate tumoral progression and drug resistance, cultured cell lines are valuable tools applied on tumor related assays provided they are well established and characterized. Our laboratory settled the NG97 cell line derived from a human astrocytoma grade III, which started to develop and express important phenotypical characteristics of an astrocytoma grade IV after injection in the flank of nude mice. Astrocytomas are extremely aggressive malignancies of the Central Nervous System (CNS) and account for 46% of all primary malignant brain tumors. Progression to worse prognosis occurs in 85% of the cases possibly due to changes in cell tumor microenvironment and through biological pathways that are still unclear. This work focused on characterizing the NG97 cell line specifically after being recovered from the xenotransplant, who maintained their undifferentiated characteristics along the following 60 th passages in vitro. These cells were subcultivated to evaluate the possible contribution of these undifferentiated characteristics to the malignant progression phenotype. These characteristics were the expression of molecules involved in the processes of migration, dedifferentiation and chromosomal instability. Results showed that NG97(ht) had an decrease in doubling time through sub cultivation, which was characterized by a converse modulation between the expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and vimentin. In addition, β1 integrins were present in intermediate levels while α5 integrins had a high expression profile as well as fibronectin and laminin. Cytogenetic analysis of NG97(ht) revealed several chromosomal abnormalities, 89% of the cells showed to be hyperdiploid and the modal number was assigned to be 63. Several acrocentric chromosomes were visualized and at least 30 figures were attributed to be murine. These findings suggest a possible fusion between the original NG97 cells with stromal murine cells in the xenotransplant. In

  19. Extreme-Risk Prostate Adenocarcinoma Presenting With Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) >40 ng/ml: Prognostic Significance of the Preradiation PSA Nadir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, Abraham S.; Mydin, Aminudin; Jones, Stuart O.; Christie, Jennifer; Lim, Jan T.W.; Truong, Pauline T.; Ludgate, Charles M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the impact of patient, disease, and treatment characteristics on survival outcomes in patients treated with neoadjuvant androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) and radical external-beam radiotherapy (RT) for clinically localized, extreme-risk prostate adenocarcinoma with a presenting prostate-specific antigen (PSA) concentration of >40 ng/ml. Methods and Materials: A retrospective chart review was conducted of 64 patients treated at a single institution between 1991 and 2000 with ADT and RT for prostate cancer with a presenting PSA level of >40 ng/ml. The effects of patient age, tumor (presenting PSA level, Gleason score, and T stage), and treatment (total ADT duration and pre-RT PSA level) characteristics on rates of biochemical disease-free survival (bDFS), prostate cancer-specific survival (PCSS), and overall survival (OS) were examined. Results: Median follow-up time was 6.45 years (range, 0.09–15.19 years). Actuarial bDFS, PCSS, and OS rates at 5 years were 39%, 87%, and 78%, respectively, and 17%, 64%, and 45%, respectively, at 10 years. On multivariate analysis, the pre-RT PSA level (≤0.1 versus >0.1 ng/ml) was the single most significant prognostic factor for bDFS (p = 0.033) and OS (p = 0.018) rates, whereas age, T stage, Gleason score, and ADT duration (≤6 versus >6 months) were not predictive of outcomes. Conclusion: In prostate cancer patients with high presenting PSA levels, >40 ng/ml, treated with combined modality, neoadjuvant ADT, and RT, the pre-RT PSA nadir, rather than ADT duration, was significantly associated with improved survival. This observation supports the use of neoadjuvant ADT to drive PSA levels to below 0.1 ng/ml before initiation of RT, to optimize outcomes for patients with extreme-risk disease.

  20. Chōng meridian an ancient Chinese description of the vascular system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Vivien

    2014-06-01

    The objectives of this research are, first, to establish if the extraordinary acupuncture meridian known as Chōng, Penetrating Vessel or Sea of Blood, is in essence a description of certain macroscopic parts of the underlying vascular system and, second, by extension, to show that it is likely that cadaveric dissection would have been used as a tool to arrive at this understanding. Generally accepted scholarly opinion holds that the ancient Chinese rarely used dissection in order to explore the anatomy of the human body, and that the meridians are therefore invisible metaphysical structures corresponding to lines drawn on the body. However, the seminal text, 'The Yellow Emperor's Classic of Internal Medicine', describes using palpation to examine the living and dissection to examine the dead. This implies that the original authors of these texts were observing physical structures visible to the naked eye. Dissection has therefore been used to compare the descriptions of the Chōng meridian in 'The Yellow Emperor's Classic of Internal Medicine' with the vascular anatomy of the human body. Fifteen acupuncture points located on various different ordinary meridians but bearing the same name, Chōng, were also examined to see if they bore any relationship to the vascular system. The dissections clearly show that the Chōng meridian correlates to certain main blood vessels in the body, in particular the vena cava. Similarly, most Chōng acupuncture points have a strong correspondence with blood vessels, marking terminal arteries on the hands, feet and forehead and anastomoses on the face, body and feet. These findings strongly suggest that the ancient Chinese texts relating to this meridian are likely to have been a 'description' of the vascular system. Furthermore, the ancient Chinese apparently had a high degree of anatomical skill in the practice of dissection and acute powers of observation. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where

  1. Oligodendrocyte precursor cells modulate the neuronal network by activity-dependent ectodomain cleavage of glial NG2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominik Sakry

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The role of glia in modulating neuronal network activity is an important question. Oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPC characteristically express the transmembrane proteoglycan nerve-glia antigen 2 (NG2 and are unique glial cells receiving synaptic input from neurons. The development of NG2+ OPC into myelinating oligodendrocytes has been well studied, yet the retention of a large population of synapse-bearing OPC in the adult brain poses the question as to additional functional roles of OPC in the neuronal network. Here we report that activity-dependent processing of NG2 by OPC-expressed secretases functionally regulates the neuronal network. NG2 cleavage by the α-secretase ADAM10 yields an ectodomain present in the extracellular matrix and a C-terminal fragment that is subsequently further processed by the γ-secretase to release an intracellular domain. ADAM10-dependent NG2 ectodomain cleavage and release (shedding in acute brain slices or isolated OPC is increased by distinct activity-increasing stimuli. Lack of NG2 expression in OPC (NG2-knockout mice, or pharmacological inhibition of NG2 ectodomain shedding in wild-type OPC, results in a striking reduction of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA receptor-dependent long-term potentiation (LTP in pyramidal neurons of the somatosensory cortex and alterations in the subunit composition of their α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepr opionicacid (AMPA receptors. In NG2-knockout mice these neurons exhibit diminished AMPA and NMDA receptor-dependent current amplitudes; strikingly AMPA receptor currents can be rescued by application of conserved LNS protein domains of the NG2 ectodomain. Furthermore, NG2-knockout mice exhibit altered behavior in tests measuring sensorimotor function. These results demonstrate for the first time a bidirectional cross-talk between OPC and the surrounding neuronal network and demonstrate a novel physiological role for OPC in regulating information processing at neuronal

  2. Role of NgR mediated oxidative stress in glucose induced RGC apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Bo Wang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the effect of NgR mediated oxidative stress on the apoptosis of retinal ganglion cells(RGCsinduced by glucose. METHODS: RGC-5 cell were divided into 3 groups: control group(DMEM high glucose medium+10% fetal calf serum, high glucose group(DMEM high glucose medium+10% fetal calf serum+30mmol/L glucose,NEP1-40 group(DMEM high glucose medium+10% fetal calf serum+30mmol/L glucose+1μmol/L NEP1-40. Detections were performed after 3d culture: the state of cell growth was observed by microscopy. Cell viability was detected by CCK-8 kit. The apoptosis rate of RGC cells was detected by flow cytometry(FCM. The intensity of ROS of the cells were detected by fluorescence microscopy. Intracellular MDA levels and SOD activity were measured by related kits. Western blot was used to detect the expressions of Bcl-2 and Bax proteins. RESULTS: Compared with control group, high glucose group had a poor state and cell viability decreased, cell apoptosis rate significantly increased, ROS and MDA levels were significantly enhanced, SOD activity decreased, and the expression of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 was decreased and the expression of pro apoptotic protein Bax was up-regulated. Compared with glucose group, after NgR expression was inhibited by NEP1-40, the oxidative stress reaction was reduced, Bcl-2/Bax was increased, the cell status was improved, the cell viability was increased, and the apoptosis rate was decreased in the NEP1-40 group(PCONCLUSION: High concentration of glucose can induce apoptosis of RGC-5 cells by NgR mediated oxidative stress reaction.

  3. Implementation of Order-wire Functionality in IRITEL NG-SDH devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Katanić

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the implementation of order-wire functionality in NG-SDH devices ODS2G5 and OTS622 IRITEL. The paper also describes the operation of order-wire in networks with arbitrary topologies, as well as the configuration of order-wire functionality by using network management software SUNCE. The presented solution for order-wire functionality is compared with VoIP solutions. The paper shows that the presented solution provides fast reaction to network failures, while keeping the implementation simple.

  4. Generation of Reactive Astrocytes from NG2 Cells is Regulated by Sonic Hedgehog

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Honsa, Pavel; Valný, Martin; Kriška, Ján; Matušková, Hana; Harantová, Lenka; Kirdajová, Denisa; Valihrach, Lukáš; Kubista, Mikael; Anděrová, Miroslava

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 64, č. 9 (2016), s. 1518-1531 ISSN 0894-1491 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP304/12/G069; GA ČR(CZ) GA16-10214S; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109; GA MŠk(CZ) LQ1604; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0045 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 ; RVO:86652036 Keywords : ischemia * NG2 cells * glial scar Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology; EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics (BTO-N) Impact factor: 6.200, year: 2016

  5. The comparison of the unit test tools JUnit and TestNG

    OpenAIRE

    Šarkanj, Aleš

    2011-01-01

    Testing holds an important role in developing software. It is a process ensuring software works as expected. An important part of testing is unit testing as the basic testing level. The purpose of this thesis is comparing JUnit and TestNG, two of the most popular unit testing tools in Java. In the first part we will present testing and its purpose within software development. We will also present the basic terminology and levels of testing. Further on the area of unit testing will be pr...

  6. [Contact, epidemics, and the body as agents of change: a study of AIDS among the Xokléng indians in the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiik, F B

    2001-01-01

    Based on an analysis of AIDS cases among the Xokléng Indians in 1988, this article relates the illness phenomenon to socio-cultural disruptions and transformations in this indigenous group's universe, focusing on the history of their contact with Brazilian national society. The analysis and interpretation of this relationship are based on anthropological theories about the centrality of the body, corporeality, and degenerative bodily processes in Brazilian indigenous societies, according to which the body, society, and macro-situational elements are articulated by social praxis, and should thus be related in socio-anthropological studies of health-illness phenomena. The article briefly describes the history of epidemics emerging from contact and attempts to relate them to specific historical contexts. Ethnomedical categories, cosmology, and Xokléng concepts of corporeality are related to their social organization, which are thus connected to the AIDS cases. The latter are presented with a special focus on the relationship between their emergence and the changes occurring in the Xokléng world with the construction of a dam bordering on their land.

  7. Upregulated expression of Nogo-A and NgR in an experimental model of focal microgyria regulates the migration, proliferation and self-renewal of subventricular zone neural progenitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Sixun; Shu, Haifeng; Yang, Tao; Huang, Haidong [Department of Neurosurgery, General Hospital of the People' s Liberation Army Chengdu Military Region, Chengdu, Sichuan, 610083 (China); Li, Song [Department of Neurosurgery, Xinqiao Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, 400037 (China); Zhao, Ziyi [Central Laboratory, Teaching Hospital of Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, 610075 (China); Kuang, Yongqin, E-mail: kuangyongqin@163.com [Department of Neurosurgery, General Hospital of the People' s Liberation Army Chengdu Military Region, Chengdu, Sichuan, 610083 (China)

    2016-04-29

    Nogo-A and its receptor (NgR) were first described as myelin-associated inhibitors of neuronal regeneration in response to injury. In recent years, knowledge about the important role of the Nogo-A protein in several neuronal pathologies has grown considerably. Here, we employed a neonatal cortex freeze-lesion (NFL) model in neonatal rats and measured the expression of Nogo-A and NgR in the resulting cerebrocortical microdysgenesis 5–75 days after freezing injury. We observed marked upregulation of Nogo-A and NgR in protein levels. Furthermore, the migration of neural precursor cells (NPCs) derived from the subventricular zone (SVZ) toward the sits of injury was perturbed by treatment of NgR antagonist peptide NEP1-40. In vitro analysis showed that the knockdown of NgR by lentivirus-delivered siRNA promoted in axonal regeneration and SVZ-derived neural stem cell/progenitor cell (SVZ-NPCs) adhesion and migration, findings which were similar to the effects of NEP1-40. Taken together, our results indicate an important role for NgR in regulating the physiological processes of SVZ-NPCs. The observation of upregulated Nogo-A/NgR in lesion sites in the NFL model suggest that the effects of the perturbed Nogo-A are a key feature during the development and/or the progression of cortical malformation. - Highlights: • NFL model is an accurate experimental reproduction of focal microgyria of FCD. • The increase of the Nogo-A Levels occurs in response to freeze-induced focal lesioning. • Nogo-A/NgR may play a critical role for in the pathologic progression of FCD. • Nogo-A is associated with the migration, proliferation and self-renewal of SVZ-NPCs.

  8. Medical image of the week: NG tube misplacement with a pneumothorax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John SG

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated after 150 words. Nasogastric tube (NG placement is a common procedure performed in the inpatient hospital setting. They are often challenging to insert and therefore carry a risk of tracheobronchopleural, intravascular and enteral complications. Our patient is a 90-year-old man who was admitted to the hospital with complaints of productive cough, fever, worsening of shortness of breath and confusion. He was diagnosed with viral upper respiratory tract infection, Legionella pneumonia and exacerbation of heart failure. Throughout his hospitalization patient had repeated episodes of delirium and had failed a swallowing evaluation. A NG was inserted for administration of enteral feeds and medications. There was no resistance to the passage of the tube when initially placed. However, post procedure CXR showed a misplaced nasogastric tube going into the right main bronchus and down into right lower lobe with a small apical pneumothorax (Figure 1. Follow up chest X-ray two hours later showed enlargement of the …

  9. Radical prostatectomy outcome when performed with PSA above 20 ng/ml.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Connolly, S S

    2012-02-01

    Many centres currently do not offer radical prostatectomy (RP) to men with high-risk localised prostate cancer due to concerns regarding poor outcome, despite evidence to the contrary. We identified 18 men undergoing RP with serum PSA >20 ng\\/ml (high-risk by National Comprehensive Cancer Network definition) and minimum follow-up of 12 years (mean 13.5). Mean preoperative PSA was 37.0 ng\\/ml (Range 21.1-94.0). Prostatectomy pathology reported extracapsular disease in 16 (88.9%), positive surgical margins in 15 (83%) and positive pelvic lymph nodes in 5 (27.8%). Overall and cancer-specific survival at 5 and 10-years was 83.3%, 88.2%, 72% and 76.5% respectively. With complete follow-up 11 (61.1%) are alive, and 5 (27.8%) avoided any adjuvant therapy. Complete continence (defined as no involuntary urine leakage and no use of pads) was achieved in 60%, with partial continence in the remainder. We conclude that surgery for this aggressive variant of localised prostate cancer can result in satisfactory outcome.

  10. O movimento Yīn e Yáng na cosmologia da medicina chinesa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Diniz Coutinho

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Após ter se desenvolvido no Oriente, embasada pela cosmologia taoista, a medicina chinesa vem sendo praticada no Ocidente baseada na fundamentação científica e no paradigma biomédico, abandonando alguns elementos tradicionais dessa racionalidade, como a teoria Yīn e Yáng, conhecimento essencial para o entendimento do processo saúde-doença decorrente da circulação do sopro vital pelo corpo. Este artigo estuda o movimento da dupla Yīn e Yáng na doutrina médica chinesa, buscando conhecer como se desenvolveu essa linha de pensamento e a sua contribuição na elaboração do sistema diagnóstico e terapêutico. A metodologia utilizada foi a análise da literatura que aborda o objeto a partir do referencial teórico do pensamento taoista e da medicina tradicional chinesa.

  11. Bacillus thuringiensis strain NG, a Novel Isolated Strain for production of Various Polyhydroxyalkanoates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazila Gholamveisi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Microbial biopolymers such as polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA are proper alternatives for petroleum-derived plastics. These biopolymers have many advantages over conventional plastics such as biodegradability, environmental friendly and infinite as a renewable resource. Therefore, our study was aimed to isolate a bacterial strain capable of producing polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB; a highly applicable type of PHA. Materials and methods: To this aim, a total of 6 PHA-producing bacteria were isolated from waste water exit site of a brewery factory. The 6 isolates were studied by Sudan black-staining technique and the most stained isolate was selected for further studies. Next, the selected isolate was identified based on morphological, biochemical and phylogenetic analyses. Finally, the ability of strain in producing PHB as well as other PHAs was analyzed via GC-MS technique. Results: Strain NG had the highest yield of PHB, according to Sudan black-staining technique and it was selected for further studies. The strain NG was identified as a new strain of Bacillus thuringiensis. According to GC-MS results, this strain was able to produce PHB as well as 4 other PHAs including hexadecanoic acid methyl ester, octadecanoic acid methyl ester, tetradecanoic acid methyl ester, 8-octadecenoic acid methyl ester. Discussion and conclusion: It was the first report on producing various PHAs at the same time by a strain of Bacillus thuringiensis.

  12. Multi-messenger studies of compact binary mergers in the in the ngVLA era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsi, Alessandra

    2018-01-01

    We explore some of the scientific opportunities that the next generation Very Large Array (ngVLA) will open in the field of multi-messenger time-domain astronomy. We focus on compact binary mergers, golden astrophysical targets of ground-based gravitational wave (GW) detectors such as advanced LIGO. A decade from now, a large number of these mergers is likely to be discovered by a world-wide network of GW detectors. We discuss how a radio array with 10 times the sensitivity of the current Karl G. Jansky VLA and 10 times the resolution, would enable resolved radio continuum studies of binary merger hosts, probing regions of the galaxy undergoing star formation (which can be heavily obscured by dust and gas), AGN components, and mapping the offset distribution of the mergers with respect to the host galaxy light. For compact binary mergers containing at least one neutron star (NS), from which electromagnetic counterparts are expected to exist, we show how the ngVLA would enable direct size measurements of the relativistic merger ejecta and probe, for the first time directly, their dynamics.

  13. N.G. Basov and early works on semiconductor lasers at P.N. Lebedev Physics Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eliseev, P G

    2012-01-01

    A survey is presented of works on creation and investigation of semiconductor lasers during 1957 – 1977 at the P.N. Lebedev Physics Institute. Many of these works were initiated by N.G. Basov, starting from pre-laser time, when N.G. Basov and his coworkers formulated principal conditions of creation of lasers on interband transitions in semiconductors. Main directions of further works were diode lasers based on various materials and structures, their characteristics of output power, high-speed operation and reliability. (special issue devoted to the 90th anniversary of n.g. basov)

  14. A "PSA pyramid" for men with initial prostate-specific antigen ≤3 ng/ml: a plea for individualized prostate cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randazzo, Marco; Beatrice, Josef; Huber, Andreas; Grobholz, Rainer; Manka, Lukas; Chun, Felix K; Recker, Franz; Kwiatkowski, Maciej

    2015-10-01

    In daily routine business, various prostate-specific antigen (PSA) retest strategies are being promoted. To investigate rescreening intervals according to baseline PSA PSA of PSA groups, aggressive PCa was detected in 25 patients (1.0%), 80 patients (5.8%), and 34 patients (6.0%), respectively. During 4 yr, these numbers were 0.0%, 0.29%, and 1.8%, whereas during 8 yr, the numbers were 0.2%, 1.4%, and 2.5%, respectively. In multivariable Cox regression analysis, the only independent risk factor for aggressive PCa was baseline PSA (hazard ratio [HR]: 6.06; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.82-9.61; pPSA was the only predictor regarding aggressive PCa. According to the low rate of potentially missed PCa in these groups, rescreening intervals can be safely adapted to baseline PSA values corresponding to a "PSA pyramid": 6-8 yr if baseline PSA is PSA is 1-1.99 ng/ml, and yearly if baseline PSA is 2-2.99 ng/ml. We observed men with a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) value ≤3 ng/ml during 12 yr and found that men can be retested according to their initial PSA value ("PSA pyramid"): PSA PSA 1-2 (center), retest interval every 4 yr; and PSA 2-3 (top), retest yearly after risk stratification. Copyright © 2014 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Freed by trust, to believe together: Pursuing global ecumenism with Küng and Tracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Urbaniak

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Focus and scope Publication ethics Journal metrics Frequent asked questions Supporting agencies Contact us Reading tools Print this article Indexing metadata Review policy Email this article Email the author Post a Comment Translate content Powered by Translate Related items Show all ✔ Open access ✔ Global visibility ✔ Rapid publication ✔ Quality peer review ✔ Author retains copyright ✔ Personalised service ✔ Submit online Home About Author Reviewer Reader Support Archives Search Home > Vol 70, No 1 (2014 > Urbaniak Original Research Bookmark and Share Freed by trust, to believe together: Pursuing global ecumenism with Küng and Tracy Jakub Urbaniak HTS Teologiese Studies / Theological Studies; Vol 70, No 1 (2014, 9 pages. doi: 10.4102/hts.v70i1.2047 Submitted: 16 August 2013 Published: 11 April 2014 Abstract In the past decades it has emerged more clearly than before that Christian religion, which has so often contributed to human oppression, has rich theological resources that can be used to restore and perfect human freedom. These resources have been reflected upon not only by liberation theologians, but also within the ecumenically oriented theology of religions which targets what Hans Küng calls global responsibility based on global ethics. World religions have an essential role to play in rendering that global humanity more humane and free. The only way to accomplish this task leads through ongoing dialogue, directed both ad intra and ad extra, in the pursuit of a ‘global ecumenism’ which the present suggests and the future demands. For those liberating and unitive resources inherent in religious theory and praxis to be activated, fundamental trust in the reality of the world and of one’s own self appears indispensable. By deepening the theological insights of Hans Küng and David Tracy, the article seeks to explore the mutual correlation between such fundamental trust in reality and religious faith in God, interpreted

  16. ng khôn as A Theorizing Tool in Mobility Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngoc Ba Doan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The current virtual and physical mobility of humans, ideas, knowledge and epistemologies has major implications for education, especially in settings where English is seen as the default medium of instruction. While diversity is inherent in mobility, English-only pedagogy is a denial of the richness and potential of diverse resources learners bring with them through their mobility. This paper reports a philosophical stance and pedagogical practices employed by a lecturer in English language education at an Australian university. It argues that students’ full linguistic resources and epistemologies, known as sàng khôn, contribute to their agency and can be used as tools to theorise new knowledge in the context of their mobility education.

  17. Portfolio giver støtte og sammenhæng i sygeplejeuddannelsen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruhn, Helle; Hjorth, Anne Charlotte Overgaard

    2013-01-01

    Portfolio er et pædagogisk redskab, som kan styrke den enkelte studerendes læring og støtte og give sammenhæng i sygeplejerskeuddannelsen. På baggrund af et udviklingsprojekt bidrager artiklen med konkrete anbefalinger til både undervisere og kliniske vejledere, der kan fremme brugen af portfolio....... I stedet for at se portfolio som en mappe, hvor der samles dokumenter, er det afgørende at holde fokus på de studerendes læreproces og refleksion, og studieredskabet kræver opmærksomhed fra undervisere og vejledere, hvis det skal anvendes af studerende. For både studerende og kliniske vejledere er...... forståelse for metoden det, der gør, at portfolio giver mening....

  18. Netupitant and palonosetron trigger NK1 receptor internalization in NG108-15 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Ajit G; Stathis, Marigo; Rojas, Camilo; Slusher, Barbara S

    2014-08-01

    Current therapy for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting includes the use of both 5-HT3 and NK1 receptor antagonists. Acute emesis has largely been alleviated with the use of 5-HT3 receptor antagonists, while an improvement in preventing delayed emesis has been achieved with NK1 receptor antagonists. Delayed emesis, however, remains a problem with a significant portion of cancer patients receiving highly emetogenic chemotherapy. Like other drugs in its class, palonosetron, a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, has shown efficacy against acute emesis. However, palonosetron has also shown consistent improvement in the suppression of delayed emesis. Since both 5-HT3 and NK1 receptor antagonists are often simultaneously administered to patients, the question remains if palonosetron's effect on delayed emesis would remain distinct when co-administered with an NK1 receptor antagonist. Recent mechanistic studies using NG108-15 cells have shown that palonosetron and netupitant, an NK1 receptor antagonist currently in phase 3 clinical trials, exhibited synergistic effects when inhibiting the substance P response. The present studies showed that both netupitant and palonosetron-induced NK1 receptor internalization in NG108-15 cells and that when used together receptor internalization was additive. Palonosetron-induced NK1 receptor internalization was dependent on the presence of the 5-HT3 receptor. Results provide a possible explanation for palonosetron's enhancement of the inhibition of the SP response and suggest that the effect of palonosetron and NK1 receptor antagonists on prevention of delayed emesis could be additive.

  19. Freed by trust, to believe together: Pursuing global ecumenism with Küng and Tracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Urbaniak

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In the past decades it has emerged more clearly than before that Christian religion, which has so often contributed to human oppression, has rich theological resources that can be used to restore and perfect human freedom. These resources have been reflected upon not only by liberation theologians, but also within the ecumenically oriented theology of religions which targets what Hans Küng calls global responsibility based on global ethics. World religions have an essential role to play in rendering that global humanity more humane and free. The only way to accomplish this task leads through ongoing dialogue, directed both ad intra and ad extra, in the pursuit of a ‘global ecumenism’ which the present suggests and the future demands. For those liberating and unitive resources inherent in religious theory and praxis to be activated, fundamental trust in the reality of the world and of one’s own self appears indispensable. By deepening the theological insights of Hans Küng and David Tracy, the article seeks to explore the mutual correlation between such fundamental trust in reality and religious faith in God, interpreted from a Christian perspective. Firstly, I probe the notion of fundamental trust from the existentialist and specifically Christian (theological standpoints. Secondly, I examine both the positive and the negative consequences that fundamental (mistrust may have for religiosity. Finally, the Christian interpretation of fundamental trust as correlated to faith in God is reflected upon in terms of global ecumenism and its response to the needs of our radically pluralistic moment.

  20. 40 Gb/s Lane Rate NG-PON using Electrical/Optical Duobinary, PAM-4 and Low Complex Equalizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wei, J. L.; Grobe, Klaus; Wagner, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    We present the first numerical investigation and comparison of 40-Gb/s lane rate electrical Duobinary, optical Duobinary and PAM-4 for NG-PONs incorporating low complex linear and nonlinear post-equalizations.......We present the first numerical investigation and comparison of 40-Gb/s lane rate electrical Duobinary, optical Duobinary and PAM-4 for NG-PONs incorporating low complex linear and nonlinear post-equalizations....

  1. Semiotics of Power and Dictatorship in Ngũgĩ wa Thiong’o’s Later Novels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yémalo, C. AMOUSSOU

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the different uses of symbols to express power and interpersonal relationship in Ngũgĩ’s bulkiest novel Wizard of the Crow (2006, with a few illustrations from Matigari (1987. It draws on the semiotic approach and identifies about a hundred discourse strings in which signs are used to express tenor between characters. In the main, supernatural, faunal and floral symbols are found to be main vehicles of power, though many other such avenues as ‘vocations’, ‘social and gender-related symbols’ and ‘biblical characterisation and numerology’, etc are unexplored here for space constraints. Before the analysis, it is deemed necessary to overview the theoretical background to the study in which relevant concepts have been clarified. It has been concluded that there is no other work in which power is so much expressed through the explored devices as in Wizard of the Crow. Keywords: tenor, symbol, index, proverb, modality metaphor, modaliser/ weakener, modulator/strengthener

  2. High-Risk Prostate Cancer With Gleason Score 8–10 and PSA Level ≤15 ng/ mL Treated With Permanent Interstitial Brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, L. Christine; Merrick, Gregory S.; Butler, Wayne M.; Galbreath, Robert W.; Murray, Brian C.; Reed, Joshua L.; Adamovich, Edward; Wallner, Kent E.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: With widespread prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening, there has been an increase in men diagnosed with high-risk prostate cancer defined by a Gleason score (GS) ≥8 coupled with a relatively low PSA level. The optimal management of these patients has not been defined. Cause-specific survival (CSS), biochemical progression-free survival (bPFS), and overall survival (OS) were evaluated in brachytherapy patients with a GS ≥8 and a PSA level ≤15 ng/mL with or without androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT). Methods and Materials: From April 1995 to October 2005, 174 patients with GS ≥8 and a PSA level ≤15 ng/mL underwent permanent interstitial brachytherapy. Of the patients, 159 (91%) received supplemental external beam radiation, and 113 (64.9%) received ADT. The median follow-up was 6.6 years. The median postimplant Day 0 minimum percentage of the dose covering 90% of the target volume was 121.1% of prescription dose. Biochemical control was defined as a PSA level ≤0.40 ng/mL after nadir. Multiple parameters were evaluated for impact on survival. Results: Ten-year outcomes for patients without and with ADT were 95.2% and 92.5%, respectively, for CSS (p = 0.562); 86.5% and 92.6%, respectively, for bPFS (p = 0.204); and 75.2% and 66.0%, respectively, for OS (p = 0.179). The median post-treatment PSA level for biochemically controlled patients was <0.02 ng/mL. Multivariate analysis failed to identify any predictors for CSS, whereas bPFS and OS were most closely related to patient age. Conclusions: Patients with GS ≥8 and PSA level ≤15 ng/mL have excellent bPFS and CSS after brachytherapy with supplemental external beam radiotherapy. The use of ADT did not significantly impact bPFS, CSS, or OS.

  3. High-density expression of Ca2+-permeable ASIC1a channels in NG2 glia of rat hippocampus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Chu Lin

    Full Text Available NG2 cells, a fourth type of glial cell in the mammalian CNS, undergo reactive changes in response to a wide variety of brain insults. Recent studies have demonstrated that neuronally expressed acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs are implicated in various neurological disorders including brain ischemia and seizures. Acidosis is a common feature of acute neurological conditions. It is postulated that a drop in pH may be the link between the pathological process and activation of NG2 cells. Such postulate immediately prompts the following questions: Do NG2 cells express ASICs? If so, what are their functional properties and subunit composition? Here, using a combination of electrophysiology, Ca2+ imaging and immunocytochemistry, we present evidence to demonstrate that NG2 cells of the rat hippocampus express high density of Ca2+-permeable ASIC1a channels compared with several types of hippocampal neurons. First, nucleated patch recordings from NG2 cells revealed high density of proton-activated currents. The magnitude of proton-activated current was pH dependent, with a pH for half-maximal activation of 6.3. Second, the current-voltage relationship showed a reversal close to the equilibrium potential for Na+. Third, psalmotoxin 1, a blocker specific for the ASIC1a channel, largely inhibited proton-activated currents. Fourth, Ca2+ imaging showed that activation of proton-activated channels led to an increase of [Ca2+]i. Finally, immunocytochemistry showed co-localization of ASIC1a and NG2 proteins in the hippocampus. Thus the acid chemosensor, the ASIC1a channel, may serve for inducing membrane depolarization and Ca2+ influx, thereby playing a crucial role in the NG2 cell response to injury following ischemia.

  4. Prostate-specific antigen 10–20 ng/mL: A predictor of degree of upgrading to ≥8 among patients with biopsy Gleason score 6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glen Denmer R. Santok

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study aimed to identify the predictors of upgrading and degree of upgrading among patients who have initial Gleason score (GS 6 treated with robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP. Materials and Methods: A retrospective review of the data of 359 men with an initial biopsy GS 6, localized prostate cancer who underwent RARP between July 2005 to June 2010 was performed. They were grouped into group 1 (nonupgrade and group 2 (upgraded based on their prostatectomy specimen GS. Logistic regression analysis of studied cases identified significant predictors of upgrading and the degree of upgrading after RARP. Results: The mean age and prostate-specific antigen (PSA was 63±7.5 years, 8.9±8.77 ng/mL, respectively. Median follow-up was 59 months (interquartile range, 47–70 months. On multivariable analysis, age, PSA, PSA density and ≥2 cores positive were predictors of upgrading with (odds ratio [OR], 1.03; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01–1.06; p=0.003; OR, 1.006; 95% CI, 1.01–1.11; p=0.018; OR, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.43–0.98, p=0.04, respectively. On subanalysis, only PSA level of 10–20 ng/mL is associated with upgrading into GS ≥8. They also had lower biochemical recurrence free survival, cancer specific survival, and overall survival (p≤0.001, p=0.003, and p=0.01, respectively. Conclusions: Gleason score 6 patients with PSA (10–20 ng/mL have an increased risk of upgrading to pathologic GS (≥8, subsequently poorer oncological outcome thus require a stricter follow-up. These patients should be carefully counseled in making an optimal treatment decision.

  5. Impact of pathological tumor stage for salvage radiotherapy after radical prostatectomy in patients with prostate-specific antigen < 1.0 ng/ml

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umezawa, Rei; Kubozono, Masaki; Narazaki, Kakutaro; Shimizu, Eiji; Takai, Yoshihiro; Yamada, Shogo; Ariga, Hisanori; Ogawa, Yoshihiro; Jingu, Keiichi; Takeda, Ken; Matsushita, Haruo; Fujimoto, Keisuke; Sakayauchi, Toru; Sugawara, Toshiyuki

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate prognostic factors in salvage radiotherapy (RT) for patients with pre-RT prostate-specific antigen (PSA) < 1.0 ng/ml. Between January 2000 and December 2009, 102 patients underwent salvage RT for biochemical failure after radical prostatectomy (RP). Re-failure of PSA after salvage RT was defined as a serum PSA value of 0.2 ng/ml or more above the postradiotherapy nadir followed by another higher value, a continued rise in serum PSA despite salvage RT, or initiation of systemic therapy after completion of salvage RT. Biochemical relapse-free survival (bRFS) was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Multivariate analysis was performed using the Cox proportional hazards regression model. The median follow-up period was 44 months (range, 11-103 months). Forty-three patients experienced PSA re-failure after salvage RT. The 4-year bRFS was 50.9% (95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 39.4-62.5%). In the log-rank test, pT3-4 (p < 0.001) and preoperative PSA (p = 0.037) were selected as significant factors. In multivariate analysis, only pT3-4 was a prognostic factor (hazard ratio: 3.512 [95% CI: 1.535-8.037], p = 0.001). The 4-year bRFS rates for pT1-2 and pT3-4 were 79.2% (95% CI: 66.0-92.3%) and 31.7% (95% CI: 17.0-46.4%), respectively. In patients who have received salvage RT after RP with PSA < 1.0 ng/ml, pT stage and preoperative PSA were prognostic factors of bRFS. In particular, pT3-4 had a high risk for biochemical recurrence after salvage RT

  6. Effects of curcumin on hippocampal expression of NgR and axonal regeneration in Aβ-induced cognitive disorder rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, H L; Wang, Y L; Li, J F; Han, B; Zhang, X X; Wang, Y T; Geng, S

    2014-03-24

    Curcumin has been widely used for the prevention and treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD), but its mechanism is still not clear. Inhibitory factors of axonal regeneration have been shown to cause a series of pathophysiological changes in the early period of AD. In this study, the co-receptor (Nogo receptor; NgR) of three axonal growth-inhibitory proteins was examined, and effects of curcumin on spatial learning and memory abilities and hippocampal axonal growth were investigated in amyloid β-protein (Aβ)1-40-induced AD rats. Results showed that the expression of NgR in the AD group significantly increased and the number of axonal protein-positive fibers significantly reduced. The spatial learning and memory abilities of AD rats were significantly improved in the curcumin group. Furthermore, hippocampal expressions of NgR mRNA and protein decreased, and the expression of axonal protein significantly increased. There was a negative correlation between the expression of NgR and axonal growth. Together, these results suggested that curcumin could improve the spatial learning and memory abilities of AD rats. The mechanism might be related with its lowering of hippocampal NgR expression and promoting axonal regeneration.

  7. Genetic and Stress-Induced Loss of NG2 Glia Triggers Emergence of Depressive-like Behaviors through Reduced Secretion of FGF2

    OpenAIRE

    Birey, Fikri; Kloc, Michelle; Chavali, Manideep; Hussein, Israa; Wilson, Michael; Christoffel, Daniel J.; Chen, Tony; Frohman, Michael A.; Robinson, John K.; Russo, Scott J.; Maffei, Arianna; Aguirre, Adan

    2015-01-01

    NG2-expressing glia (NG2 glia) are a uniformly distributed and mitotically active pool of cells in the central nervous system (CNS). In addition to serving as progenitors of myelinating oligodendrocytes, NG2 glia might also fulfill physiological roles in CNS homeostasis, although the mechanistic nature of such roles remains unclear. Here, we report that ablation of NG2 glia in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) of the adult brain causes deficits in excitatory glutamatergic neurotransmission and astr...

  8. Effect of strength mismatch on fracture mechanical behavior of NG-DMW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarikka, T.; Brederholm, A.; Mouginot, R.; Saukkonen, T.; Ahonen, M.; Karjalainen-Roikonen, P.; Nevasmaa, P.; Haenninen, H.

    2015-01-01

    In modern pressurized water reactor (PWR) designs, dissimilar metal joints, e.g. reactor pressure vessel (RPV) safe-ends, are manufactured using a new weld design which takes advantage of narrow-gap (NG) welding technique. In addition to the new weld design, the filler metals have been changed from Alloys 82 and 182 to higher Cr containing Alloys 52 and 152 to ensure the structural integrity of the welds. In dissimilar metal welds (DMW), the mismatch in material properties between the two joined materials and their narrow local variation in different zones of the weld are of importance because the local strength mismatch state plays an important role in the fracture behavior of the weld. For the experimental determination of the local strength variations in a narrow-gap dissimilar metal weld (NG-DMW), a weld mock-up was manufactured using narrow-gap gas-tungsten arc welding (GTAW) method. The weld consisted of SA 508 pressure vessel steel with AISI 309L/308L cladding, AISI 304 piping steel, and Alloy 52 weld metal. The weld was characterized in two different heat treatment conditions, in as-welded condition and in post-weld heat treated (PWHT) condition. The microstructure of the weld mock-up was characterized using FEGSEM. The fusion zone (FZ) between the SA 508 pressure vessel steel and Alloy 52 weld metal was characterized using micro- and nano-hardness testing and the strength mismatch state of the FZ was determined with tensile testing using miniature-sized tensile testing specimens allowing the determination of the local tensile properties of the narrow weld zones near the fusion line (FL). The fracture mechanical testing was performed at room temperature to examine the effect of local strength mismatch on the fracture behavior and crack propagation. The results of the tensile tests revealed that Alloy 52 weld metal had close to equivalent strength with SA 508 base material and the highest strength mismatch existed between the SA 508 heat-affected zone (HAZ

  9. Quantifying the ngVLA's Contribution to Exo-Space Weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osten, Rachel A.; Crosley, Michael K.

    2018-01-01

    Radio emission is the only wavelength regime capable of placing direct constraints on the particle environment that stars produce. Mass loss in the cool half of the HR diagram, along or near the main sequence, has been notoriously difficult to detect directly, due in part to the much lower values of mass loss here compared to other stellar environments. Most efforts to detect cool stellar mass loss to date rely on indirect methods. Previous attempts at a direct detection of cool stellar mass loss via radio emission have led to upper limits typically two to three orders of magnitude higher than the Sun's present-day mass loss, while indirect methods find evidence for mass loss rates comparable to or slightly higher than the Sun's present day mass loss rate. These are important contributors to the amount and type of space weather experienced by extrasolar planetary systems. The next decade, with anticipated discoveries of potentially habitable planets, will see a renewed interest in how the magnetic properties of stars contribute to an amenable or hostile environment for life. We present calculations for how the ngVLA, the proposed next generation Very Large Array with superior sensitivity, frequency coverage, and angular resolution, can contribute to this field.We use radio luminosity distributions for objects characteristic of their class (active M dwarfs, active binaries, radio-emitting ultracool dwarfs), combined with demographic information and space densities to derive a probabilistic approach to the likelihood of detecting radio emission from objects as a function of distance. We present constraints on the ability to constrain mass loss rate and wind velocity as a function of spectral type and distance, under the assumption of optically wind ionized wind emission.

  10. Nietzsche se uitspraak God-is-dood, en die interpretasievoorstelle van Hans Küng en Jürgen Moltmann

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Groenewald

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Nietzsche's theorem 'God-is-dead' and the reading models of HansKüng and Jürgen Moltmann. In this article the meaning and significance of Nietzsche's theorem 'God-is-dead' is examined. Through the reading models of Hans Küng and Jürgen Moltmann, an atempt is made to indicate that Nietzsche did not per se acknowledged or denied the existence of God. These reading models, although different, eliminate vaious theological misunderstandings and misinterpretations. This is important for the current theological debate.

  11. Pentylenetetrazol modulates redox system by inducing addicsin translocation from endoplasmic reticulum to plasma membrane in NG108-15 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsushi J. Ikemoto

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Addicsin (Arl6ip5 is a multifunctional physiological and pathophysiological regulator that exerts its effects by readily forming homo- and hetero-complexes with various functional factors. In particular, addicsin acts as a negative modulator of neural glutamate transporter excitatory amino acid carrier 1 (EAAC1 and participates in the regulation of intracellular glutathione (GSH content by negatively modulating EAAC1-mediated cysteine and glutamate uptake. Addicsin is considered to play a crucial role in the onset of neurodegenerative diseases including epilepsy. However, the molecular dynamics of addicsin remains largely unknown. Here, we report the dynamics of addicsin in NG108-15 cells upon exposure to pentylenetetrazol (PTZ, a representative epileptogenic agent acting on the gamma-Aminobutyric acid A (GABAA receptor. Fluorescent immunostaining analysis demonstrated that addicsin drastically changed its localization from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER to the plasma membrane within 1 h of PTZ exposure in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, addicsin was co-localized with the plasma membrane markers EAAC1 and Na+/K+ ATPase alpha-3 upon PTZ stimulation. This translocation was significantly inhibited by a non-competitive GABAA receptor antagonist, picrotoxin, but not by a competitive GABAA receptor antagonist, bicuculline. Furthermore, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH assay and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical-scavenging assay showed that PTZ-induced addicsin translocation was accompanied by a decrease of radical-scavenging activity and an increase of cytotoxicity in a PTZ dose-dependent manner. These findings suggest that PTZ induces the translocation of addicsin from the ER to the plasma membrane and modulates the redox system by regulating EAAC1-mediated GSH synthesis, which leads to the activation of cell death signaling.

  12. Clinical utility of serum folate measurement in tertiary care patients: Argument for revising reference range for serum folate from 3.0 ng/mL to 13.0 ng/mL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurmukh Singh

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Assess the need for folate testing, frequency of corrective action, and determine reference level for serum folate. Methods: Serum folate levels in 5313 samples from 4448 patients, and clinical data were reviewed for patient characteristics and for (a evidence of corrective action in patients with serum folate values 25.7 ng/mL. Results: The prevalence of serum folate levels, in patients, 25.7 ng/mL the sample was collected after supplementation with folic acid. Of the 128 patients with serum folate 60% of the patients. Since serum folate levels ≥13.0 ng/mL are needed for optimal prevention of neural tube defects in the embryo/fetus, we propose that normal serum folate level should be designated to be ≥13.0 ng/mL. Keywords: Serum folate, Prevalence of folate deficiency, Neural tube defects, Optimum serum folate level, Utility of folate testing

  13. Determination of sub-ng g-1 levels of total inorganic arsenic and selenium in foods by hydride-generation atomic absorption spectrometry after pre-concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altunay, Nail; Gürkan, Ramazan

    2017-03-01

    A new and simple ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE) procedure was developed for the determination of inorganic arsenic and selenium in foods by hydride-generation atomic absorption spectrometry (HG-AAS). The various analytical variables affecting complex formation and extraction efficiency were investigated and optimised. The method is based on selective complex formation of As(III) and Se(IV) in the presence of excess As(V) and Se(VI) with toluidine red in the presence of tartaric acid at pH 4.5, and then extraction of the resulting condensation products into the micellar phase of non-ionic surfactant, polyethylene glycol dodecyl ether, Brij 35. Under optimised conditions, good linear relationships were obtained in the ranges of 4-225 and 12-400 ng l - 1 with limits of detection of 1.1 and 3.5 ng l - 1 for As(III) and Se(IV), respectively. The repeatability was better than 3.9% for both analytes (n = 10, 25 ng l - 1 ) while reproducibility ranged from 4.2% to 4.8%. The recoveries of As(III) and Se(IV) spiked at 25-100 ng l - 1 were in the range of 94.2-104.8%. After pre-concentration of a 5.0 ml sample, the sensitivity enhancement factors for As(III) and Se(IV) were 185 and 140, respectively. Accuracy was assessed by analysis of two standard reference materials (SRMs) and spiked recovery experiments. The method was successfully applied to the accurate and reliable determination of total As and total Se by HG-AAS after pre-reduction with a mixture of L-cysteine and tartaric acid. Finally, the method was shown to be rapid and sensitive, with good results for extraction, pre-concentration and determination of total As and Se contents (as As(III) and Se(IV)) from food samples.

  14. I nducin ng and d ident ifying in b artifici banana ially-in as nduced d ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    520. Stover RH, Simmonds NW(1987). Bananas. Third Edition. Longman,. London. Vakili NG (1962). Colchicine-induced polyploidy in Musa. Nature 194: 453-454. Van Duren M, Morpurgo R, Dolezel J Afza R (1996). Induction and verification of ...

  15. An Evaluation of Biopsy Results Adenocancer in Patient with Serum Prostate-Spesific Antigen Less 4 ng/ml

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Yilmaz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: In this study we aimed to assess patients with prostate cancer which suspected prostate cancer with digital rectal examination and PSA levels less than 4 ng/ml. Material and Method: 846 patients were recruited from who diagnosed with prostate cancer in our clinic between January 2004 and May 2013. Their biopsy results, PSA levels, digital rectal examination findings, prostate volume and trans-rectal ultrasound images were evaluated retrospectively. 17 patients had PSA levels less than 4 ng/ml. One patient biopsy was transitional cell carcinoma, so that he was out of the study. Results: The mean age was 69.7 for these patients. The mean PSA levels was 2.3 ng/ml and mean prostat volume was 38 cm3. Nodules were detected in six patients, asymmetry was detected in nine patients and capsular irregularity was detected in six patients with digital rectal examination. Seven patients had hypoechoic lesion in trans-rectal ultrasound images. Discussion: As there is no definitive diagnostic PSA levels for prostate cancer, there is no cut off value of PSA. Several patients who have PSA levels less than 4 ng/ml may have clinically significant, organ confined prostat cancers in prostate biopsy.

  16. Kui naine tahab olla kangelane : kestvus-perfomance "Äng - 161 km palja rindkerega" / Fideelia-Signe Roots

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Roots, Fideelia-Signe, 1976-

    2014-01-01

    Fideelia-Signe Roots oma aktsioonist tegevuskunstiürituse "Äng" raames, mille käigus kunstnik kõndis jalgsi alasti ülakehaga 161 kilomeetrit Tartust Karepale eesmärgiga testida naise kehakuvandi piire. Kangelase ja superkangelase mõistest

  17. Pentacyclic ingamine-type alkaloids, a new antiplasmodial pharmacophore from the marine sponge petrosid Ng5 Sp5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two new pentacyclic ingamine- type alkaloids, namely 22(S)-hydroxyingamine A (2) and dihydroingenamine D (3), together with the known ingamine A (1) have been isolated from marine sponge Petrosid Ng5 Sp5 (Family: Petrosiidae) obtained from the open repository of National Cancer Institute, USA. The s...

  18. Imaging Cold Gas to 1 kpc scales in high-redshift galaxies with the ngVLA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Caitlin; Narayanan, Desika; Dave, Romeel; Hung, Chao-Ling; Champagne, Jaclyn; Carilli, Chris Luke; Decarli, Roberto; Murphy, Eric J.; Popping, Gergo; Riechers, Dominik; Somerville, Rachel S.; Walter, Fabian

    2017-01-01

    The next generation Very Large Array (ngVLA) will revolutionize our understanding of the distant Universe via the detection of cold molecular gas in the first galaxies. Its impact on studies of galaxy characterization via detailed gas dynamics will provide crucial insight on dominant physical drivers for star-formation in high redshift galaxies, including the exchange of gas from scales of the circumgalactic medium down to resolved clouds on mass scales of ~10^5 M_sun. In this study, we employ a series of high-resolution, cosmological, hydrodynamic zoom simulations from the MUFASA simulation suite and a CASA simulator to generate mock ngVLA observations. Based on a direct comparison between the inferred results from our mock observations and the cosmological simulations, we investigate the capabilities of ngVLA to constrain the mode of star formation, dynamical mass, and molecular gas kinematics in individual high-redshift galaxies using cold gas tracers like CO(1-0) and CO(2-1). Using the Despotic radiative transfer code that encompasses simultaneous thermal and statistical equilibrium in calculating the molecular and atomic level populations, we generate parallel mock observations of high-J transitions of CO and C+ from ALMA for comparison. The factor of 100 times improvement in mapping speed for the ngVLA beyond the Jansky VLA and the proposed ALMA Band 1 will make these detailed, high-resolution imaging and kinematic studies routine at z=2 and beyond.

  19. The Chances of Subsequent Cancer Detection in Patients with a PSA > 20 ng/ml and an Initial Negative Biopsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadeem Shaida

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Transrectal ultrasound (TRUS–guided prostate biopsy is known to carry a significant false-negative rate, leading some patients to have multiple biopsies. We investigated cancer detection rates in patients with a PSA >20 ng/ml and a negative initial biopsy. We reviewed our database of 2396 TRUS-guided biopsies done between 1997 and 2002 in order to give a follow-up of at least 6 years. PSA, PSA density (PSAD, PSA velocity (PSAV, prostate volume, and DRE findings were analysed in relation to cancer status. Of the patients, 388 (16% had a PSA >20 ng/ml, including 99 (26% with benign biopsies. Of those, 67 were rebiopsied, including 19 (28% with cancer on the first rebiopsy and four (6% on further biopsies. PSAD, DRE, and volume significantly differed between rebiopsied patients with and without cancer (p 20 ng/ml and have an initial negative biopsy have a high chance of malignancy being detected on a second biopsy. However, if a second biopsy is also negative, then the chances of subsequent biopsies showing signs of cancer are very low if the DRE is normal and particularly if the PSAD is >0.35 ng/ml/cm3.

  20. Equivalent biochemical failure-free survival after external beam radiation therapy or radical prostatectomy in patients with a pretreatment prostate specific antigen of > 4-20 ng/ml

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Amico, Anthony V.; Whittington, Richard; Kaplan, Irving; Beard, Clair; Jiroutek, Michael; Malkowicz, S. Bruce; Wein, Alan; Coleman, C. Norman

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: Biochemical failure-free survival stratified by the pretreatment prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and biopsy Gleason score (bGl) is determined for prostate cancer patients managed definitively with external beam radiation therapy or radical retropubic prostatectomy. Methods and Materials: A Cox regression multivariable analysis evaluating the variables of PSA, bGl, and clinical stage was used to evaluate the end point of time to PSA failure in 867 and 757 consecutive prostate cancer patients managed definitively with external beam radiation therapy or radical retropubic prostatectomy, respectively. PSA failure-free survival was determined using Kaplan-Meier analysis. Comparisons were made using the log rank test. Results: The pretreatment PSA, bGl, and clinical stage (T3,4 vs. T1,T2) were found to be independent predictors of time to post-treatment PSA failure for both surgically and radiation managed patients using Cox regression multivariable analysis. Patients with a pretreatment PSA of > 4 ng/ml and ≤ 20 ng/ml could be classified into risk groups for time to post-therapy PSA failure: low = PSA > 4-10 ng/ml and bGl ≤ 4; intermediate = PSA > 4-10 and bGl 5-7; or PSA > 10-20 ng/ml and bGl ≤ 7; high = PSA > 4-20 ng/ml and bGl ≥ 8. Two-year PSA failure-free survival for surgically managed and radiation-managed patients, respectively, were 98% vs. 92% (p = 0.45), 77% vs. 81% (p = 0.86), and 51% vs. 53% (p = 0.48) for patients at low, intermediate, and high risk for post-therapy PSA failure. Conclusions: There was no statistical difference in the 2-year PSA failure-free survival for potentially curable patients managed definitively with surgery or radiation therapy when a retrospective comparison stratifying for the pretreatment PSA and bGl was performed

  1. Characteristics of prostate cancers detected at prostate specific antigen levels less than 2.5 ng/ml.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeks, Joshua J; Loeb, Stacy; Helfand, Brian T; Kan, Donghui; Smith, Norm D; Catalona, William J

    2009-06-01

    The Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial reported that 15% of men with a prostate specific antigen less than 4 ng/ml and a normal digital rectal examination have biopsy detectable prostate cancer. However, limited published data describe the tumor features of prostate cancer detected at low prostate specific antigen levels (less than 2.5 ng/ml). A total of 1,278 men underwent radical retropubic prostatectomy by 1 surgeon between 2003 and 2008. We describe the clinicopathological features of 77 patients with a preoperative prostate specific antigen of less than 2.5 ng/ml. Of the men with a low prostate specific antigen (less than 2.5 ng/ml) tumor 51 (66%) had findings suspicious for prostate cancer on digital rectal examination. Indications for prostate biopsy in the remainder of men included an increased prostate specific antigen velocity, hematospermia and abnormal transrectal ultrasound findings. Prostate cancer was detected at transurethral resection of the prostate in the remaining 8% of men. Despite having a low prostate specific antigen at diagnosis 8 (10.4%) and 20 (26%) men, respectively, had biopsy and radical retropubic prostatectomy Gleason grade 7 disease or greater, while 7 (9%) and 6 (7.8%), respectively, had extracapsular tumor extension or positive surgical margins. Compared to men with a normal digital rectal examination mean tumor volume was significantly higher in those with a suspicious digital rectal examination (3.3 vs 1.7 cc, p = 0.018). Despite having a prostate specific antigen of less than 2.5 ng/ml at diagnosis, a considerable proportion of men had aggressive pathological features at radical retropubic prostatectomy. Digital rectal examination remains an important component of early prostate cancer detection.

  2. Multi-analyte approach for the determination of ng L{sup -1} levels of steroid hormones in unidentified aqueous samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noppe, H. [Ghent University, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Research group of Veterinary Public Health and Zoonoses, Laboratory of Chemical Analysis, Salisburylaan 133, B-9820 Merelbeke (Belgium)]. E-mail: Herlinde.Noppe@UGent.be; Verheyden, K. [Ghent University, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Research group of Veterinary Public Health and Zoonoses, Laboratory of Chemical Analysis, Salisburylaan 133, B-9820 Merelbeke (Belgium); Gillis, W. [Federal Agency for the Safety of the Food Chain, WTC III, Simon Bolivarlaan 30, B-1000 Brussels (Belgium); Courtheyn, D. [Federal Feed and Food Laboratory, Braemkasteelstraat 59, B-9050 Ghent (Belgium); Vanthemsche, P. [Federal Agency for the Safety of the Food Chain, WTC III, Simon Bolivarlaan 30, B-1000 Brussels (Belgium); De Brabander, H.F. [Ghent University, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Research group of Veterinary Public Health and Zoonoses, Laboratory of Chemical Analysis, Salisburylaan 133, B-9820 Merelbeke (Belgium)

    2007-03-14

    Since the 1970s, many analytical methods for the detection of illegal growth promoters, such as thyreostats, anabolics, {beta}-agonists and corticosteroids have been developed for a wide range of matrices of animal origin, including meat, fat, organ tissue, urine and faeces. The aim of this study was to develop an analytical method for the determination of ng L{sup -1} levels of estrogens, gestagens, androgens (EGAs) and corticosteroids in aqueous preparations (i.e. drinking water, drinking water supplements), commercially available on the 'black' market. For this, extraction was performed with Bakerbond C{sub 18} speedisk, a technique commonly used in environmental analysis. After fractionation, four fractions were collected using a methanol:water gradient program. Gas chromatography coupled to electron impact multiple mass spectrometry (GC-EI-MS{sup 2}) screening for the EGAs was carried out on the derivatized extracts. For the detection of corticosteroids, gas chromatography coupled to negative chemical ionization mass spectrometry (GC-NCI-MS) was used after oxidation of the extracts. Confirmation was done by liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization multiple mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS{sup 2}). The combined use of GC and LC coupled to MS enabled the identification and quantification of anabolics and corticosteroids at the low ng L{sup -1} level. This study demonstrated the occurrence of both androgens and corticosteroids in different commercial aqueous samples.

  3. Along the Road: The Ngäbe-Buglé Struggle to Protect Environmental Resources in Panama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogelio Cansari

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous people in Panama do not enjoy full autonomy within their comarcas (traditional land reserves: they only control surface resources, while the state retains control of underground resources. This article analyses direct action by the Ngäbe-Buglé, who successfully defeated the latest attempt by the government to exploit underground resources within their comarcas. It describes government strategies for retaining control over Indigenous people’s land and analyses how the Ngäbe-Buglé counteracted these strategies with support from burgeoning civil society movements. We argue that this is due to an unprecedented alliance between Indigenous people and other social movements in Panama, as well as to the fact that Indigenous people have succeeded in federating all major civil society organizations around their discourses and actions.

  4. Can Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System Version 2 reduce unnecessary prostate biopsies in men with PSA levels of 4-10 ng/ml?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ning; Wu, Yu-Peng; Chen, Dong-Ning; Ke, Zhi-Bin; Cai, Hai; Wei, Yong; Zheng, Qing-Shui; Huang, Jin-Bei; Li, Xiao-Dong; Xue, Xue-Yi

    2018-03-05

    To explore the value of Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System Version 2 (PI-RADS v2) for predicting prostate biopsy results in patients with prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels of 4-10 ng/ml. We retrospectively reviewed multi-parameter magnetic resonance images from 528 patients with PSA levels of 4-10 ng/ml who underwent transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsies between May 2015 and May 2017. Among them, 137 were diagnosed with prostate cancer (PCa), and we further subdivided them according to pathological results into the significant PCa (S-PCa) and insignificant significant PCa (Ins-PCa) groups (121 cases were defined by surgical pathological specimen and 16 by biopsy). Age, PSA, percent free PSA, PSA density (PSAD), prostate volume (PV), and PI-RADS score were collected. Logistic regression analysis was performed to determine predictors of pathological results. Receiver operating characteristic curves were constructed to analyze the diagnostic value of PI-RADS v2 in PCa. Multivariate analysis indicated that age, PV, percent free PSA, and PI-RADS score were independent predictors of biopsy findings, while only PI-RADS score was an independent predictor of S-PCa (P PSA, and PI-RADS score were 0.570, 0.430, 0.589 and 0.836, respectively. The area under the curve for diagnosing S-PCa with respect to PI-RADS score was 0.732. A PI-RADS score of 3 was the best cutoff for predicting PCa, and 4 was the best cutoff for predicting S-PCa. Thus, 92.8% of patients with PI-RADS scores of 1-2 would have avoided biopsy, but at the cost of missing 2.2% of the potential PCa cases. Similarly, 83.82% of patients with a PI-RADS score ≤ 3 would have avoided biopsy, but at the cost of missing 3.3% of the potential S-PCa cases. PI-RADS v2 could be used to reduce unnecessary prostate biopsies in patients with PSA levels of 4-10 ng/ml.

  5. Voltage-gated sodium channel expression and action potential generation in differentiated NG108-15 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinxu; Tu, Huiyin; Zhang, Dongze; Zheng, Hong; Li, Yu-Long

    2012-10-25

    The generation of action potential is required for stimulus-evoked neurotransmitter release in most neurons. Although various voltage-gated ion channels are involved in action potential production, the initiation of the action potential is mainly mediated by voltage-gated Na+ channels. In the present study, differentiation-induced changes of mRNA and protein expression of Na+ channels, Na+ currents, and cell membrane excitability were investigated in NG108-15 cells. Whole-cell patch-clamp results showed that differentiation (9 days) didn't change cell membrane excitability, compared to undifferentiated state. But differentiation (21 days) induced the action potential generation in 45.5% of NG108-15 cells (25/55 cells). In 9-day-differentiated cells, Na+ currents were mildly increased, which was also found in 21-day differentiated cells without action potential. In 21-day differentiated cells with action potential, Na+ currents were significantly enhanced. Western blot data showed that the expression of Na+ channels was increased with differentiated-time dependent manner. Single-cell real-time PCR data demonstrated that the expression of Na+ channel mRNA was increased by 21 days of differentiation in NG108-15 cells. More importantly, the mRNA level of Na+ channels in cells with action potential was higher than that in cells without action potential. Differentiation induces expression of voltage-gated Na+ channels and action potential generation in NG108-15 cells. A high level of the Na+ channel density is required for differentiation-triggered action potential generation.

  6. Airborne DOAS retrievals of methane, carbon dioxide, and water vapor concentrations at high spatial resolution: application to AVIRIS-NG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Thorpe

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available At local scales, emissions of methane and carbon dioxide are highly uncertain. Localized sources of both trace gases can create strong local gradients in its columnar abundance, which can be discerned using absorption spectroscopy at high spatial resolution. In a previous study, more than 250 methane plumes were observed in the San Juan Basin near Four Corners during April 2015 using the next-generation Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS-NG and a linearized matched filter. For the first time, we apply the iterative maximum a posteriori differential optical absorption spectroscopy (IMAP-DOAS method to AVIRIS-NG data and generate gas concentration maps for methane, carbon dioxide, and water vapor plumes. This demonstrates a comprehensive greenhouse gas monitoring capability that targets methane and carbon dioxide, the two dominant anthropogenic climate-forcing agents. Water vapor results indicate the ability of these retrievals to distinguish between methane and water vapor despite spectral interference in the shortwave infrared. We focus on selected cases from anthropogenic and natural sources, including emissions from mine ventilation shafts, a gas processing plant, tank, pipeline leak, and natural seep. In addition, carbon dioxide emissions were mapped from the flue-gas stacks of two coal-fired power plants and a water vapor plume was observed from the combined sources of cooling towers and cooling ponds. Observed plumes were consistent with known and suspected emission sources verified by the true color AVIRIS-NG scenes and higher-resolution Google Earth imagery. Real-time detection and geolocation of methane plumes by AVIRIS-NG provided unambiguous identification of individual emission source locations and communication to a ground team for rapid follow-up. This permitted verification of a number of methane emission sources using a thermal camera, including a tank and buried natural gas pipeline.

  7. Displaced desires: the dislocated self and melancholic desire in Chuang Hua's Crossings and Fae Myenne Ng's Steer toward rock

    OpenAIRE

    Pehkoranta, Anna

    2015-01-01

    This essay investigates two aesthetically innovative Chinese American prose narratives, Crossings (1968) by Chuang Hua and Steer Toward Rock (2008) by Fae Myenne Ng, which have so far inspired relatively few scholarly readings. Although published forty years apart, both texts convey a melancholic image of displaced desires—loved ones who are lost, beyond reach, or unresponsive—that is echoed by their complex narrative structure and rich stylistic repertoire. Drawing from the ps...

  8. Airborne DOAS retrievals of methane, carbon dioxide, and water vapor concentrations at high spatial resolution: application to AVIRIS-NG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, Andrew K.; Frankenberg, Christian; Thompson, David R.; Duren, Riley M.; Aubrey, Andrew D.; Bue, Brian D.; Green, Robert O.; Gerilowski, Konstantin; Krings, Thomas; Borchardt, Jakob; Kort, Eric A.; Sweeney, Colm; Conley, Stephen; Roberts, Dar A.; Dennison, Philip E.

    2017-10-01

    At local scales, emissions of methane and carbon dioxide are highly uncertain. Localized sources of both trace gases can create strong local gradients in its columnar abundance, which can be discerned using absorption spectroscopy at high spatial resolution. In a previous study, more than 250 methane plumes were observed in the San Juan Basin near Four Corners during April 2015 using the next-generation Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS-NG) and a linearized matched filter. For the first time, we apply the iterative maximum a posteriori differential optical absorption spectroscopy (IMAP-DOAS) method to AVIRIS-NG data and generate gas concentration maps for methane, carbon dioxide, and water vapor plumes. This demonstrates a comprehensive greenhouse gas monitoring capability that targets methane and carbon dioxide, the two dominant anthropogenic climate-forcing agents. Water vapor results indicate the ability of these retrievals to distinguish between methane and water vapor despite spectral interference in the shortwave infrared. We focus on selected cases from anthropogenic and natural sources, including emissions from mine ventilation shafts, a gas processing plant, tank, pipeline leak, and natural seep. In addition, carbon dioxide emissions were mapped from the flue-gas stacks of two coal-fired power plants and a water vapor plume was observed from the combined sources of cooling towers and cooling ponds. Observed plumes were consistent with known and suspected emission sources verified by the true color AVIRIS-NG scenes and higher-resolution Google Earth imagery. Real-time detection and geolocation of methane plumes by AVIRIS-NG provided unambiguous identification of individual emission source locations and communication to a ground team for rapid follow-up. This permitted verification of a number of methane emission sources using a thermal camera, including a tank and buried natural gas pipeline.

  9. Løssluppen kohærens i Fredmans säng nr. 41 "Joachim uti Babylon"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heltoft, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Denne artikel er ment som et bud på at løse visse problemer med forståelsen af FS (Fredmans Sång) 41 som en del af de bibelske travestier i værket. Den er samtidig et bidrag til udviklingen af tekstanalytisk praksis på grundlag af tæt sproglig analyse. Den er et eksempel på hvorledes tekstforståe...

  10. Comparison of the butyrate effects on neurotransmitter receptors in neurohybrids NG108-15 and NCB-20 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, X.Z.; Chuang, D.M.

    1987-01-01

    The authors previous study demonstrated that long term treatment of NCB-20 cells with sodium butyrate resulted in a marked increase in the density of delta-opioid receptors with a much lesser effect on muscarinic cholinergic and no effect on alpha 2 -adrenergic receptors. In the present study the authors investigated the effect of sodium butyrate on these three types of receptors in NG108-15 cells whose neuroblastoma parent is the same as that of NCB-20 cells. Long term treatment of NG108-15 cells with sodium butyrate (0.5 mM) induced a 2-fold increase in the density of the specific binding of 3 H-clonidine. A comparable increase in the number of binding sites was detected when 3 H-yohimbine was used as the receptor ligand. The butyrate-induced increase in the alpha 2 -adrenergic receptor binding could be totally abolished by treatment with a protein synthesis inhibitor, cycloheximide, suggesting that synthesis of receptor protein is involved. The same butyrate treatment had no significant effect on opioid and muscarinic cholinergic receptor bindings. Thus, butyrate effects on the expression of these three types of receptors in NG108-15 and NCB-20 cells are dramatically different. These data suggest that induction by butyrate of neurotransmitter receptors requires concerted action of genetic factors of both parents of the neurohybrids. 22 references, 2 figures, 2 tables

  11. Typing of Neisseria gonorrhoeae Opa and NG-MAST gene of 12 pairs of sexual contact gonorrhea patients in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hongxiang; Wu, Zhihong; Chen, Rongyi; Xu, Li; Yu, Ying; Shuai, Jun; Li, Juan; Tan, Ming; Tu, Yating; Li, Jiawen

    2008-08-01

    To identify the genomic species of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, evaluate the difference between two molecular epidemiological methods and examine the relationship between sex partners and genotypes of bacteria, 24 strains of Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolated from the outpatients with gonorrhea were identified by using the Opa genotyping and NG-MAST genotyping and the relationship between genotypes and phenotypes was studied. Twenty-four strains of Neisseria gonorrhoeae fell into 10 ST genotypes by NG-MAST genotyping, whereas these strains were classified into 12 OT Opa genotypes by Opa genotyping. A new epidemic strain of ST genotype (217-86% homologisation 178) in China was identified. It is concluded that genotypes of each pair of strains from a pair of patient/ sex partner besides 45/46 are the same, indicating that contagious infection take place between patient and the sex partner. Opa genotyping was more effective than NG-MAST genotyping in identifying the genomic species of Neisseria gonorrhoeae. ST genotype could be further classified into different Opa-types.

  12. Mesenchymal Tumors Can Derive from Ng2/Cspg4-Expressing Pericytes with β-Catenin Modulating the Neoplastic Phenotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shingo Sato

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The cell of origin for most mesenchymal tumors is unclear. One cell type that contributes to this lineages is the pericyte, a cell expressing Ng2/Cspg4. Using lineage tracing, we demonstrated that bone and soft tissue sarcomas driven by the deletion of the Trp53 tumor suppressor, or desmoid tumors driven by a mutation in Apc, can derive from cells expressing Ng2/Cspg4. Deletion of the Trp53 tumor suppressor gene in these cells resulted in the bone and soft tissue sarcomas that closely resemble human sarcomas, while stabilizing β-catenin in this same cell type caused desmoid tumors. Comparing expression between Ng2/Cspg4-expressing pericytes lacking Trp53 and sarcomas that arose from deletion of Trp53 showed inhibition of β-catenin signaling in the sarcomas. Activation of β-catenin inhibited the formation and growth of sarcomas. Thus, pericytes can be a cell of origin for mesenchymal tumors, and β-catenin dysregulation plays an important role in the neoplastic phenotype.

  13. Studies on hydrothermal synthesis of photolumniscent rare earth (Eu3+ & Tb3+) doped NG@FeMoO4 for enhanced visible light photodegradation of methylene blue dye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, R.; Kumar, M.; Khajuria, H.; Sharma, S.; Sheikh, H. Nawaz

    2018-02-01

    FeMoO4 nanorods and their rare earth (Eu3+ and Tb3+) doped composites with nitrogen doped graphene (NG) were synthesized by facile hydrothermal method in aqueous medium. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of the as-synthesized samples was done to study the phase purity and crystalline nature. FTIR and Raman Spectroscopy have been studied for investigating the bonding in nanostructures. The surface morphology of the samples was investigated with field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The photolumniscent nature of the samples was investigated by the using the fluorescence spectrophotometer. The photocatalytic degradation efficiency of the prepared pure FeMoO4 and its rare earth doped composites with nitrogen doped graphene was evaluated as function of visible light irradiation versus concentration of methylene blue (MB dye). The prepared nanocomposites show enhanced photocatalytic efficiency as compared to the bare FeMoO4 nanorods.

  14. A Associa ation m Gos mappin ssypiu ng of re um hirs esistan sutum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-07-03

    Jul 3, 2014 ... of cotton, a n mapping c election in co. Cotton germ ation analysis. N is one of ma otton cultivate he popular fi e fungus Vert soil for long of incurability ase-resistant .... crops to identify markers and genes associated with a variety of ... with resistance to Verticillium wilt in a collection of cotton germplasm from ...

  15. Age-Specific Cutoff Value for the Application of Percent Free Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) in Chinese Men with Serum PSA Levels of 4.0-10.0 ng/ml.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rui; Huang, Yiran; Cai, Xiaobing; Xie, Liping; He, Dalin; Zhou, Liqun; Xu, Chuanliang; Gao, Xu; Ren, Shancheng; Wang, Fubo; Ma, Lulin; Wei, Qiang; Yin, Changjun; Tian, Ye; Sun, Zhongquan; Fu, Qiang; Ding, Qiang; Zheng, Junhua; Ye, Zhangqun; Ye, Dingwei; Xu, Danfeng; Hou, Jianquan; Xu, Kexin; Yuan, Jianlin; Gao, Xin; Liu, Chunxiao; Pan, Tiejun; Sun, Yinghao

    2015-01-01

    The influence of age on the performance of percent free prostate-specific antigen (%fPSA) in diagnosing prostate cancer (PCa) in East Asians is controversial. We tested the diagnostic performance of %fPSA in a multi-center biopsy cohort in China and identified the proper age-specific cutoff values to avoid unnecessary biopsies. Consecutive patients with a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level of 4.0-10.0 ng/ml or 10.1-20.0 ng/ml who underwent transrectal ultrasound-guided or transperineal prostate biopsy were enrolled from 22 Chinese medical centers from Jan 1, 2010 to Dec 31, 2013. The diagnostic accuracy of PSA and %fPSA was determined using the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC). Age-specific cutoff values were calculated using ROC curve analysis. The median %fPSA was much lower in younger patients compared with older patients with a PSA level of 4.0-10.0 ng/ml or 10.1-20.0 ng/ml. The AUC of %fPSA was higher than PSA only in older patients. In patients aged 50 to 59 years, %fPSA failed to improve the diagnosis compared with PSA in these two PSA ranges. Age-specific cutoff values were 24%, 27% and 32% for patients aged 60-69, 70-79 and ≥80 years, respectively, to reduce unnecessary biopsies in men with PSA levels of 4.0-10.0 ng/ml to detect 90% of all PCa. The effectiveness of %fPSA is correlated with age in the Chinese population. Age-specific cutoff values would help avoid unnecessary biopsies in the Chinese population.

  16. Age-Specific Cutoff Value for the Application of Percent Free Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) in Chinese Men with Serum PSA Levels of 4.0–10.0 ng/ml

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Liping; He, Dalin; Zhou, Liqun; Xu, Chuanliang; Gao, Xu; Ren, Shancheng; Wang, Fubo; Ma, Lulin; Wei, Qiang; Yin, Changjun; Tian, Ye; Sun, Zhongquan; Fu, Qiang; Ding, Qiang; Zheng, Junhua; Ye, Zhangqun; Ye, Dingwei; Xu, Danfeng; Hou, Jianquan; Xu, Kexin; Yuan, Jianlin; Gao, Xin; Liu, Chunxiao; Pan, Tiejun; Sun, Yinghao

    2015-01-01

    Objective The influence of age on the performance of percent free prostate-specific antigen (%fPSA) in diagnosing prostate cancer (PCa) in East Asians is controversial. We tested the diagnostic performance of %fPSA in a multi-center biopsy cohort in China and identified the proper age-specific cutoff values to avoid unnecessary biopsies. Methods Consecutive patients with a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level of 4.0–10.0 ng/ml or 10.1–20.0 ng/ml who underwent transrectal ultrasound-guided or transperineal prostate biopsy were enrolled from 22 Chinese medical centers from Jan 1, 2010 to Dec 31, 2013. The diagnostic accuracy of PSA and %fPSA was determined using the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC). Age-specific cutoff values were calculated using ROC curve analysis. Results The median %fPSA was much lower in younger patients compared with older patients with a PSA level of 4.0–10.0 ng/ml or 10.1–20.0 ng/ml. The AUC of %fPSA was higher than PSA only in older patients. In patients aged 50 to 59 years, %fPSA failed to improve the diagnosis compared with PSA in these two PSA ranges. Age-specific cutoff values were 24%, 27% and 32% for patients aged 60–69, 70–79 and ≥80 years, respectively, to reduce unnecessary biopsies in men with PSA levels of 4.0–10.0 ng/ml to detect 90% of all PCa. Conclusions The effectiveness of %fPSA is correlated with age in the Chinese population. Age-specific cutoff values would help avoid unnecessary biopsies in the Chinese population. PMID:26091007

  17. Low Serum Testosterone But Not Obesity Predicts High Gleason Score at Biopsy Diagnosed as Prostate Cancer in Patients with Serum PSA Lower than 20 ng/ml.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiota, Masaki; Takeuchi, Ario; Sugimoto, Masaaki; Dejima, Takashi; Kashiwagi, Eiji; Kiyoshima, Keijiro; Inokuchi, Junichi; Tatsugami, Katsunori; Yokomizo, Akira

    2015-11-01

    The impact of testosterone or obesity on the pathological grade of prostate cancer remains controversial. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the relationship of serum testosterone and body mass index (BMI) to Gleason score at biopsy. This study included 128 Japanese patients diagnosed with prostate cancer from 2000 through 2012 whose serum testosterone level and BMI were measured before treatment. Associations between clinical parameters, including pre-treatment serum testosterone level and BMI, and Gleason score at biopsy were examined. The median serum testosterone and BMI were 434 ng/dl (interquartile range=362-542 ng/dl) and 23.5 kg/m(2) (interquartile range=21.7-25.4 kg/m(2)), respectively. Gleason score at biopsy was 7 for 58 patients (45.3%), 52 patients (40.6%) and 18 patients (14.1%), respectively. On univariate analysis, positive finding at digital rectal examination (DRE), high prostate-specific antigen level at diagnosis and low serum testosterone level, but not BMI, were correlated with high Gleason score at biopsy. Multivariate analysis identified positive finding at DRE and low serum testosterone level as significant predictors of a high Gleason score at prostate biopsy. By combining these parameters, the predictive ability of a high Gleason score was improved. This study showed that positive finding at DRE and a low pre-treatment serum testosterone level, but not obesity, may be factors predictive of aggressive prostate cancer, indicating the diagnostic value of serum testosterone, as well as DRE findings, in risk assessment. Copyright© 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  18. Contato, epidemias e corpo como agentes de transformação: um estudo sobre a AIDS entre os Índios Xokléng de Santa Catarina, Brasil Contact, epidemics, and the body as agents of change: a study of AIDS among the Xokléng indians in the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Braune Wiik

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available A partir da análise dos episódios de AIDS que acometeram os Índios Xokléng em 1988, o presente artigo visa referir fenômenos de doença a rupturas e transformações socioculturais ocorridas nesse universo com base na história de contato com a sociedade abrangente. A interpretação e a análise da relação estabelecida são feitas à luz de teorias antropológicas acerca da centralidade que corpo, corporalidade e processos corporais degenerativos ocupam nas sociedades indígenas brasileiras. Propõe-se que corpo, sociedade e agentes macroconjunturais são articulados pela práxis; por isso, devem ser relacionados nos estudos socio-antropológicos concernentes aos fenômenos de doença. O artigo traz a descrição sucinta das epidemias advindas com o contato, tentando vinculá-las aos contextos históricos específicos que o marcaram. Categorias da etnomedicina, cosmologia e corporalidade Xokléng são associadas à organização social e aos casos de AIDS. Estes são apresentados tendo, como enfoque principal, a ligação estabelecida entre seu advento e as transformações no universo Xokléng em função da construção da Barragem Norte junto a sua Terra.Based on an analysis of AIDS cases among the Xokléng Indians in 1988, this article relates the illness phenomenon to socio-cultural disruptions and transformations in this indigenous group's universe, focusing on the history of their contact with Brazilian national society. The analysis and interpretation of this relationship are based on anthropological theories about the centrality of the body, corporeality, and degenerative bodily processes in Brazilian indigenous societies, according to which the body, society, and macro-situational elements are articulated by social praxis, and should thus be related in socio-anthropological studies of health-illness phenomena. The article briefly describes the history of epidemics emerging from contact and attempts to relate them to specific

  19. Men presenting with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) values of over 100 ng/mL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, Mann; Rajcic, Branimir; Foreman, Darren; Moretti, Kim; O'Callaghan, Michael E

    2016-04-01

    To investigate overall survival and prostate cancer-specific mortality in men with prostate cancer presenting with a PSA level PSA level extracted from the South Australian Prostate Cancer Clinical Outcomes Collaborative (SA-PCCOC) database. Men included were diagnosed between January 1998 and August 2013. Patients were divided into groups according to diagnostic PSA level: 500 ng/mL. Outcomes measured include overall survival and prostate cancer-specific mortality. Clinical stage, Gleason score and the presence of bony metastasis was evaluated to determine if they were prognostic factors in patients with PSA over 100 at diagnosis. Cox proportional hazards and competing risks regression were used to model overall survival and prostate cancer-specific mortality outcomes respectively. Of this cohort, 241 patients (4.2%) had a diagnostic PSA level >100 ng/mL. Patients with PSA >100 ng/mL have a significant reduction in five (29.1% vs 62.5% vs 87%) and ten-year (18.2% vs 36.7% vs 70.7%) overall survival when compared to men with diagnostic PSA 20-100 and PSA level at diagnosis. Overall survival was associated with PSA level, Gleason score and age. There was a linear increase in risk (overall survival) as PSA increased until 200 and no association thereafter. Models of overall survival and prostate cancer-specific mortality incorporating a risk stratification developed by Izumi et al. predicted overall survival but not prostate cancer-specific mortality. The use of this stratification did not improve model accuracy. Only a small number of men (4.2%) with prostate cancer present with PSA >100 ng/mL at diagnosis. Overall survival at five and ten years was significantly poorer in patients with PSA >100 ng/mL. In this cohort of men presenting with PSA >100 at diagnosis, PSA level was not associated with prostate cancer-specific mortality. Gleason score and metastases are significant prognostic factors in this group of men. © 2016 The Authors BJU International © 2016

  20. Strategies of social welfare users: a relational readi ng concerning power relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Aparecida Mariano

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the analysis of power relations within the operation of social welfare policy, based on a case study conducted in Londrina, Paraná. Our analysis adopts a relational perspective on the confi guration of power among the beneficiaries of the policy and the social workers responsible for implementing state actions to fi ght poverty. Basically what we found were areas of dissonance between conceptions and perceptions of users and social workers, so that an unreadable universe is created for users on social welfare and, thus, possible ways to consolidate the transfer of income are blocked as a right to citizenship. We focus on actions related to the transfer of income because of its relevance to the Brazilian social welfare today.

  1. Pagsusuri sa mga Balyung Nakapaloob sa mga Salawikain ng mga Tiruray Sa South Upi, Maguindanao, Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luz D. Calibayan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study sought to collect, record, translate, and analyze the Tiruray proverbs. Specifically the study aimed to find out the following: (1 What are the existing proverbs of Tiruray in South Upi, Maguindanao? (2What are the values found as expressed in the proverbs of Tiruraythat have been successfully preserved from their ancestors? The scope of this study was confined to the collected proverbs of Tiruray in South Upi, Maguindanao. The gatheredproverbs were transcribed from Tiruray to Filipino languageand the analysis of values from the translated proverbs was in accordance with the ideas of Andres (1985 and Timbreza (2003. The research design adopted in the study is descriptive content analysis because the main objective of the study was to analyse the values found in Tiruray proverbs. Findings revealed that the Tiruray have rich in oral literary piecessuch as proverbs which are transmitted by word of mouth from generation to generation. The Tiruray proverbs contain differenthuman values that teach or remind people how to live godly lives. Further, Tiruray proverbs conveyed message on how they value peace and harmony in the community for they are peace-loving people. The study of Tiruray proverbs could increase the body of knowledge about the cultural traits of Tiruray who are unique people and have rich cultural heritage.

  2. Situation analysis of quality of abortion care in the main maternity hospital in Hai Phòng, Viet Nam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, My H Ng; Gammeltoft, Tine; Rasch, Vibeke

    2007-01-01

    cultural values influenced quality of care. A quantitative and qualitative approach was employed: a three-part structured survey with 748 women before and after they had an abortion, 20 in-depth interviews with women just after abortion, seven informal interviews with health care staff and 100 participant...

  3. The Effects of Surface Properties and Albedo on Methane Retrievals with the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer Next Generation (AVIRIS-NG)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayasse, A.; Thorpe, A. K.; Roberts, D. A.

    2017-12-01

    Atmospheric methane has increased by a factor of 2.5 since the beginning of the industrial era in response to anthropogenic emissions (Ciais et al., 2013). Although it is less abundant than carbon dioxide it is 86 time more potent on a 20 year time scale (Myhre et al., 2013) and is therefore responsible for about 20% of the total global warming induced by anthropogenic greenhouse gasses (Kirschke et al., 2013). Given the importance of methane to global climate change, monitoring and measuring methane emissions using techniques such as remote sensing is of increasing interest. Recently the Airborne Visible-Infrared Imaging Spectrometer - Next Generation (AVIRIS-NG) has proven to be a valuable instrument for quantitative mapping of methane plumes (Frankenberg et al., 2016; Thorpe et al., 2016; Thompson et al., 2015). In this study, we applied the Iterative Maximum a Posterior Differential Optical Spectroscopy (IMAP-DOAS) methane retrieval algorithm to a synthetic image with variable methane concentrations, albedo, and land cover. This allowed for characterizing retrieval performance, including potential sensitivity to variable land cover, low albedo surfaces, and surfaces known to cause spurious signals. We conclude that albedo had little influence on the IMAP-DOAS results except at very low radiance levels. Water (without sun glint) was found to be the most challenging surface for methane retrievals while hydrocarbons and some green vegetation also caused error. Understanding the effect of surface properties on methane retrievals is important given the increased use of AVIRIS-NG to map gas plumes over diverse locations and methane sources. This analysis could be expanded to include additional gas species like carbon dioxide and to further investigate gas sensitivity of proposed instruments for dedicated gas mapping from airborne and spaceborne platforms.

  4. Characterization and therapeutic evaluation of a Nestin⁺ CNP⁺ NG2⁺ cell population on mouse spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rui; Zhang, Si; Yang, Haijie; Ju, Peijun; Xia, Yinyan; Shi, Yu; Lim, Tse Hui; Lim, Alvin St; Liang, Fengyi; Feng, Zhiwei

    2015-07-01

    The NG2 chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan-expressing neural cells (NG2 cells) have originally been considered as oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs). However, recent findings on their diverse functions and lineage heterogeneity demonstrated that the NG2 cells contain various sub-populations whose concrete features and therapeutic potential yet remained elucidated. In the present study, we characterized a Nestin(+) 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase (CNP)(+) NG2(+) subpopulation from embryonic rat cerebral cortex. The Nestin(+) CNP(+) NG2(+) cells exhibited remarkable progenitor characteristics. Having been immortalized by human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT), the life span of Nestin(+) CNP(+) NG2(+) cells was extended to 230 population doublings (PDs). With immortalized NG2 cells, we demonstrated their differentiation capacities to oligodendrocytes, astrocytes and neurons. Furthermore, transplanted into injured spinal cord of a mouse model, they were able to promote remyelination and neuronal regeneration, thereby enhancing the functional recovery. Our findings suggest that the Nestin(+) CNP(+) NG2(+) progenitor cells could be a good alternative cell source of cell therapy for neurological disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Photo-dynamics of the lyophilized photo-activated adenylate cyclase NgPAC2 from the amoeboflagellate Naegleria gruberi NEG-M strain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penzkofer, A., E-mail: alfons.penzkofer@physik.uni-regensburg.de [Fakultät für Physik, Universität Regensburg, Universitätsstrasse 31, D-93053 Regensburg (Germany); Tanwar, M.; Veetil, S.K.; Kateriya, S. [Department of Biochemistry, University of Delhi South Campus, Benito Juarez Road, New Delhi 110021 (India); Stierl, M.; Hegemann, P. [Institut für Biologie/Experimentelle Biophysik, Humboldt Universität zu Berlin, Invalidenstrasse 42, D-10115 Berlin (Germany)

    2013-09-23

    Highlights: • Lyophilizing of NgPAC2 from Naegleria gruberi caused loss of BLUF domain activity. • Photo-induced tyrosine to flavin electron transfer in lyophilized NgPAC2. • Photo-induced Tyr–Tyr cross-linking to o,o′-dityrosine in lyophilized NgPAC2. • Photo-induced partial flavin cofactor reduction in lyophilized NgPAC2. • Two NgPAC2 conformations with fast and slow photo-induced electron transfer. - Abstract: The absorption and emission spectroscopic behavior of lyophilized photo-activated adenylate cyclase NgPAC2 from the amoeboflagellate Naegleria gruberi NEG-M strain consisting of a BLUF domain (BLUF = Blue Light sensor Using Flavin) and a cyclase homology domain was studied in the dark, during blue-light exposure and after blue-light exposure at a temperature of 4 °C. The BLUF domain photo-cycle dynamics observed for snap-frozen NgPAC2 was lost by lyophilization (no signaling state formation with flavin absorption red-shift). Instead, blue-light photo-excitation of lyophilized NgPAC2 caused sterically restricted Tyr–Tyr cross-linking (o,o′-ditysosine formation) and partial flavin cofactor reduction.

  6. Photo-dynamics of the lyophilized photo-activated adenylate cyclase NgPAC2 from the amoeboflagellate Naegleria gruberi NEG-M strain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penzkofer, A.; Tanwar, M.; Veetil, S.K.; Kateriya, S.; Stierl, M.; Hegemann, P.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Lyophilizing of NgPAC2 from Naegleria gruberi caused loss of BLUF domain activity. • Photo-induced tyrosine to flavin electron transfer in lyophilized NgPAC2. • Photo-induced Tyr–Tyr cross-linking to o,o′-dityrosine in lyophilized NgPAC2. • Photo-induced partial flavin cofactor reduction in lyophilized NgPAC2. • Two NgPAC2 conformations with fast and slow photo-induced electron transfer. - Abstract: The absorption and emission spectroscopic behavior of lyophilized photo-activated adenylate cyclase NgPAC2 from the amoeboflagellate Naegleria gruberi NEG-M strain consisting of a BLUF domain (BLUF = Blue Light sensor Using Flavin) and a cyclase homology domain was studied in the dark, during blue-light exposure and after blue-light exposure at a temperature of 4 °C. The BLUF domain photo-cycle dynamics observed for snap-frozen NgPAC2 was lost by lyophilization (no signaling state formation with flavin absorption red-shift). Instead, blue-light photo-excitation of lyophilized NgPAC2 caused sterically restricted Tyr–Tyr cross-linking (o,o′-ditysosine formation) and partial flavin cofactor reduction

  7. Angiotensin II type 2 receptor stimulation increases the rate of NG108-15 cell migration via actin depolymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilian, Peter; Campbell, Shirley; Bilodeau, Lyne; Guimond, Marie-Odile; Roberge, Claude; Gallo-Payet, Nicole; Payet, Marcel Daniel

    2008-06-01

    Angiotensin II (Ang II) has been reported to induce migration in neuronal cell types. Using time-lapse microscopy, we show here that Ang II induces acceleration in NG108-15 cell migration. This effect was antagonized by PD123319, a selective AT2 receptor antagonist, but not by DUP753, a selective AT1 receptor antagonist, and was mimicked by the specific AT2 receptor agonist CGP42112. This Ang II-induced acceleration was not sensitive to the inhibition of previously described signaling pathways of the AT2 receptor, guanylyl cyclase/cyclic GMP or p42/p44 mapk cascades, but was abolished by pertussis toxin treatment and involved PP2A activation. Immunofluorescence studies indicate that Ang II or CGP42112 decreased the amount of filamentous actin at the leading edge of the cells. This decrease was accompanied by a concomitant increase in globular actin levels. Regulation of actin turnover in actin-based motile systems is known to be mainly under the control of the actin depolymerizing factor and cofilin. Basal migration speed decreased by 77.2% in cofilin-1 small interfering RNA-transfected NG108-15 cells, along with suppression of the effect of Ang II. In addition, the Ang II-induced increase in cell velocity was abrogated in serum-free medium as well as by genistein or okadaic acid treatment in a serum-containing medium. Such results indicate that the AT2 receptor increases the migration speed of NG108-15 cells and involves a tyrosine kinase activity, followed by phosphatase activation, which may be of the PP2A type. Therefore, the present study identifies actin depolymerization and cofilin as new targets of AT2 receptor action, in the context of cellular migration.

  8. Bioconversion of Ginsenosides in the American Ginseng (西洋參 Xī Yáng Shēn Extraction Residue by Fermentation with Lingzhi (靈芝 Líng Zhī, Ganoderma Lucidum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Yang Hsu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Ginseng (人参 Rén Shēn has been widely employed in functional foods and traditional medicines in many Asian countries. Owing to the high consumer demand of ginseng products, a large amount of ginseng residue is generated after extraction of ginseng. However, the ginseng residue still contains many bioactive compounds such as ginsenosides. The objective of this research was to convert ginsenosides in American ginseng (西洋參 Xī Yáng Shēn extraction residue (AmR by fermentation with lingzhi (靈芝 Líng Zhī, Ganoderma lucidum and the fermentation products will be used for further hypoglycemic activity research. Thus, this study was primarily focused on the ginsenosides that have been reported to possess hypoglycemic activity. In this study, the changes in seven ginsenoside [Rg1, Re, Rb1, Rc, Rg3(S, compound K (CK, and Rh2(S] in the products as affected by fermentation were investigated. Our results showed that the levels of ginsenosides, namely, Rg1, Rg3(S, and CK increased, while the other ginsenosides (Re, Rb1, and Rc decreased during the fermentation process.

  9. NG2 antigen is involved in leukemia invasiveness and central nervous system infiltration in MLL-rearranged infant B-ALL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, C; López-Millán, B; Roca-Ho, H; Stam, R W; Romero-Moya, D; Rodríguez-Baena, F J; Sanjuan-Pla, A; Ayllón, V; Ramírez, M; Bardini, M; De Lorenzo, P; Valsecchi, M G; Stanulla, M; Iglesias, M; Ballerini, P; Carcaboso, Á M; Mora, J; Locatelli, F; Bertaina, A; Padilla, L; Carlos Rodríguez-Manzaneque, J; Bueno, C; Menéndez, P

    2018-01-01

    Mixed-lineage leukemia (MLL)-rearranged (MLLr) infant B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (iMLLr-B-ALL) has a dismal prognosis and is associated with a pro-B/mixed phenotype, therapy refractoriness and frequent central nervous system (CNS) disease/relapse. Neuron-glial antigen 2 (NG2) is specifically expressed in MLLr leukemias and is used in leukemia immunophenotyping because of its predictive value for MLLr acute leukemias. NG2 is involved in melanoma metastasis and brain development; however, its role in MLL-mediated leukemogenesis remains elusive. Here we evaluated whether NG2 distinguishes leukemia-initiating/propagating cells (L-ICs) and/or CNS-infiltrating cells (CNS-ICs) in iMLLr-B-ALL. Clinical data from the Interfant cohort of iMLLr-B-ALL demonstrated that high NG2 expression associates with lower event-free survival, higher number of circulating blasts and more frequent CNS disease/relapse. Serial xenotransplantation of primary MLL-AF4+ leukemias indicated that NG2 is a malleable marker that does not enrich for L-IC or CNS-IC in iMLLr-B-All. However, NG2 expression was highly upregulated in blasts infiltrating extramedullar hematopoietic sites and CNS, and specific blockage of NG2 resulted in almost complete loss of engraftment. Indeed, gene expression profiling of primary blasts and primografts revealed a migratory signature of NG2+ blasts. This study provides new insights on the biology of NG2 in iMLLr-B-ALL and suggests NG2 as a potential therapeutic target to reduce the risk of CNS disease/relapse and to provide safer CNS-directed therapies for iMLLr-B-ALL. PMID:28943635

  10. Sox2-Mediated Conversion of NG2 Glia into Induced Neurons in the Injured Adult Cerebral Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Heinrich

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The adult cerebral cortex lacks the capacity to replace degenerated neurons following traumatic injury. Conversion of nonneuronal cells into induced neurons has been proposed as an innovative strategy toward brain repair. Here, we show that retrovirus-mediated expression of the transcription factors Sox2 and Ascl1, but strikingly also Sox2 alone, can induce the conversion of genetically fate-mapped NG2 glia into induced doublecortin (DCX+ neurons in the adult mouse cerebral cortex following stab wound injury in vivo. In contrast, lentiviral expression of Sox2 in the unlesioned cortex failed to convert oligodendroglial and astroglial cells into DCX+ cells. Neurons induced following injury mature morphologically and some acquire NeuN while losing DCX. Patch-clamp recording of slices containing Sox2- and/or Ascl1-transduced cells revealed that a substantial fraction of these cells receive synaptic inputs from neurons neighboring the injury site. Thus, NG2 glia represent a potential target for reprogramming strategies toward cortical repair.

  11. ngVLA Key Science Goal 3: Charting the Assembly, Structure, and Evolution of Galaxies Over Cosmic Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riechers, Dominik A.; Bolatto, Alberto D.; Carilli, Chris; Casey, Caitlin M.; Decarli, Roberto; Murphy, Eric Joseph; Narayanan, Desika; Walter, Fabian; ngVLA Galaxy Assembly through Cosmic Time Science Working Group, ngVLA Galaxy Ecosystems Science Working Group

    2018-01-01

    The Next Generation Very Large Array (ngVLA) will fundamentally advance our understanding of the formation processes that lead to the assembly of galaxies throughout cosmic history. The combination of large bandwidth with unprecedented sensitivity to the critical low-level CO lines over virtually the entire redshift range will open up the opportunity to conduct large-scale, deep cold molecular gas surveys, mapping the fuel for star formation in galaxies over substantial cosmic volumes. Imaging of the sub-kiloparsec scale distribution and kinematic structure of molecular gas in both normal main-sequence galaxies and large starbursts back to early cosmic epochs will reveal the physical processes responsible for star formation and black hole growth in galaxies over a broad range in redshifts. In the nearby universe, the ngVLA has the capability to survey the structure of the cold, star-forming interstellar medium at parsec-resolution out to the Virgo cluster. A range of molecular tracers will be accessible to map the motion, distribution, and physical and chemical state of the gas as it flows in from the outer disk, assembles into clouds, and experiences feedback due to star formation or accretion into central super-massive black holes. These investigations will crucially complement studies of the star formation and stellar mass histories with the Large UV/Optical/Infrared Surveyor and the Origins Space Telescope, providing the means to obtain a comprehensive picture of galaxy evolution through cosmic times.

  12. ngVLA Key Science Goal 2: Probing the Initial Conditions for Planetary Systems and Life with Astrochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Brett; ngVLA Science Working Group 1

    2018-01-01

    One of the most challenging aspects in understanding the origin and evolution of planets and planetary systems is tracing the influence of chemistry on the physical evolution of a system from a molecular cloud to a solar system. Existing facilities have already shown the stunning degree of molecular complexity present in these systems. The unique combination of sensitivity and spatial resolution offered by the ngVLA will permit the observation of both highly complex and very low-abundance chemical species that are exquisitely sensitive to the physical conditions and evolutionary history of their sources, which are out of reach of current observatories. In turn, by understanding the chemical evolution of these complex molecules, unprecedentedly detailed astrophysical insight can be gleaned from these astrochemical observations.This poster will overview a number of key science goals in astrochemistry which will be enabled by the ngVLA, including:1) imaging of the deepest, densest regions in protoplanetary disks and unveiling the physical history through isotopic ratios2) probing the ammonia snow line in these disks, thought to be the only viable tracer of the water snowline3) observations of the molecular content of giant planet atmospheres4) detections of new, complex molecules, potentially including the simplest amino acids and sugars5) tracing the origin of chiral excess in star-forming regions

  13. Opa-typing can identify epidemiologically distinct subgroups within Neisseria gonorrhoeae multi-antigen sequence type (NG-MAST) clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, A K; Palmer, H M; Young, H

    2008-03-01

    A collection of 106 Neisseria gonorrhoeae ciprofloxacin-resistant isolates were typed using Neisseria gonorrhoeae multi-antigen sequence typing (NG-MAST). Opa-typing was performed on 74 isolates which had non-unique sequence types to determine if further discrimination could be achieved and if so whether this had any epidemiological basis. The 74 isolates were separated into 12 sequence types and 20 opa-types (OT). Seven opa-type clusters were congruent with the sequence types and five sequence types could be subdivided by opa-typing. These results demonstrate that opa-typing can add a further level of discrimination compared with NG-MAST. The surveillance data for isolates in the largest sequence type cluster (ST 147) indicated that two major subdivisions OT 1 and OT 2 differed epidemiologically by patients' sexual preference and geographical location. ST 147 is a common strain that has been isolated in several countries since 1999; our results suggest that it has diverged into at least two epidemiologically discrete forms.

  14. Genetic and Stress-Induced Loss of NG2 Glia Triggers Emergence of Depressive-like Behaviors through Reduced Secretion of FGF2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birey, Fikri; Kloc, Michelle; Chavali, Manideep; Hussein, Israa; Wilson, Michael; Christoffel, Daniel J; Chen, Tony; Frohman, Michael A; Robinson, John K; Russo, Scott J; Maffei, Arianna; Aguirre, Adan

    2015-12-02

    NG2-expressing glia (NG2 glia) are a uniformly distributed and mitotically active pool of cells in the central nervous system (CNS). In addition to serving as progenitors of myelinating oligodendrocytes, NG2 glia might also fulfill physiological roles in CNS homeostasis, although the mechanistic nature of such roles remains unclear. Here, we report that ablation of NG2 glia in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) of the adult brain causes deficits in excitatory glutamatergic neurotransmission and astrocytic extracellular glutamate uptake and induces depressive-like behaviors in mice. We show in parallel that chronic social stress causes NG2 glia density to decrease in areas critical to Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) pathophysiology at the time of symptom emergence in stress-susceptible mice. Finally, we demonstrate that loss of NG2 glial secretion of fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) suffices to induce the same behavioral deficits. Our findings outline a pathway and role for NG2 glia in CNS homeostasis and mood disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. A Systematic Review of the Mysterious Caterpillar Fungus Ophiocordyceps sinensis in Dong-ChongXiaCao (冬蟲夏草 Dōng Chóng Xià Cǎo) and Related Bioactive Ingredients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Hui-Chen; Hsieh, Chienyan; Lin, Fang-Yi; Hsu, Tai-Hao

    2013-01-01

    The caterpillar fungus Ophiocordyceps sinensis (syn.† Cordyceps sinensis), which was originally used in traditional Tibetan and Chinese medicine, is called either “yartsa gunbu” or “DongChongXiaCao (冬蟲夏草 Dōng Chóng Xià Cǎo)” (“winter worm-summer grass”), respectively. The extremely high price of DongChongXiaCao, approximately USD $20,000 to 40,000 per kg, has led to it being regarded as “soft gold” in China. The multi-fungi hypothesis has been proposed for DongChongXiaCao; however, Hirsutella sinensis is the anamorph of O. sinensis. In Chinese, the meaning of “DongChongXiaCao” is different for O. sinensis, Cordyceps spp.,‡ and Cordyceps spƒ. Over 30 bioactivities, such as immunomodulatory, antitumor, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant activities, have been reported for wild DongChongXiaCao and for the mycelia and culture supernatants of O. sinensis. These bioactivities derive from over 20 bioactive ingredients, mainly extracellular polysaccharides, intracellular polysaccharides, cordycepin, adenosine, mannitol, and sterols. Other bioactive components have been found as well, including two peptides (cordymin and myriocin), melanin, lovastatin, γ-aminobutyric acid, and cordysinins. Recently, the bioactivities of O. sinensis were described, and they include antiarteriosclerosis, antidepression, and antiosteoporosis activities, photoprotection, prevention and treatment of bowel injury, promotion of endurance capacity, and learning-memory improvement. H. sinensis has the ability to accelerate leukocyte recovery, stimulate lymphocyte proliferation, antidiabetes, and improve kidney injury. Starting January 1st, 2013, regulation will dictate that one fungus can only have one name, which will end the system of using separate names for anamorphs. The anamorph name “H. sinensis” has changed by the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants to O. sinensis. PMID:24716152

  16. A Systematic Review of the Mysterious Caterpillar Fungus Ophiocordyceps sinensis in DongChongXiaCao (冬蟲夏草 Dōng Chóng Xià Cǎo and Related Bioactive Ingredients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Chen Lo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The caterpillar fungus Ophiocordyceps sinensis (syn.† Cordyceps sinensis, which was originally used in traditional Tibetan and Chinese medicine, is called either “yartsa gunbu” or “DongChongXiaCao (冬蟲夏草 Dōng Chóng Xià Cǎo” (“winter worm-summer grass”, respectively. The extremely high price of DongChongXiaCao, approximately USD $20,000 to 40,000 per kg, has led to it being regarded as “soft gold” in China. The multi-fungi hypothesis has been proposed for DongChongXiaCao; however, Hirsutella sinensis is the anamorph of O. sinensis. In Chinese, the meaning of “DongChongXiaCao” is different for O. sinensis, Cordyceps spp.,‡ and Cordyceps spƒ. Over 30 bioactivities, such as immunomodulatory, antitumor, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant activities, have been reported for wild DongChongXiaCao and for the mycelia and culture supernatants of O. sinensis. These bioactivities derive from over 20 bioactive ingredients, mainly extracellular polysaccharides, intracellular polysaccharides, cordycepin, adenosine, mannitol, and sterols. Other bioactive components have been found as well, including two peptides (cordymin and myriocin, melanin, lovastatin, γ-aminobutyric acid, and cordysinins. Recently, the bioactivities of O. sinensis were described, and they include antiarteriosclerosis, antidepression, and antiosteoporosis activities, photoprotection, prevention and treatment of bowel injury, promotion of endurance capacity, and learning-memory improvement. H. sinensis has the ability to accelerate leukocyte recovery, stimulate lymphocyte proliferation, antidiabetes, and improve kidney injury. Starting January 1st, 2013, regulation will dictate that one fungus can only have one name, which will end the system of using separate names for anamorphs. The anamorph name “H. sinensis” has changed by the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants to O. sinensis.

  17. Can a Gleason 6 or Less Microfocus of Prostate Cancer in One Biopsy and Prostate-Specific Antigen Level <10 ng/mL Be Defined as the Archetype of Low-Risk Prostate Disease?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluigi Taverna

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer (PC remains a cause of death worldwide. Here we investigate whether a single microfocus of PC at the biopsy (graded as Gleason 6 or less, ≤5% occupancy and the PSA <10 ng/mL can define the archetype of low-risk prostate disease. 4500 consecutive patients were enrolled. Among them, 134 patients with a single micro-focus of PC were followed up, and the parameters influencing the biochemical relapse (BR were analysed. Out of 134 patients, 94 had clinically significant disease, specifically in 74.26% of the patients with PSA <10 ng/mL. Positive surgical margins and the extracapsular invasion were found in 29.1% and 51.4% patients, respectively. BR was observed in 29.6% of the patients. Cox regression evidenced a correlation between the BR and Gleason grade at the retropubic radical prostatectomy (RRP, capsular invasion, and the presence of positive surgical margins. Multivariate regression analysis showed a statistically significant correlation between the presence of surgical margins at the RRP and BR. Considering a single micro-focus of PC at the biopsy and PSA serum level <10 ng/mL, clinically significant disease was found in 74.26% patients and only positive surgical margins are useful for predicting the BR.

  18. Population Genetic Structure and Genetic Diversity in Twisted-Jaw Fish, Belodontichthys truncatus Kottelat & Ng, 1999 (Siluriformes: Siluridae, from Mekong Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surapon Yodsiri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Mekong River and its tributaries possess the second highest diversity in fish species in the world. However, the fish biodiversity in this river is threatened by several human activities, such as hydropower plant construction. Understanding the genetic diversity and genetic structure of the species is important for natural resource management. Belodontichthys truncatus Kottelat & Ng is endemic to the Mekong River basin and is an important food source for people in this area. In this study, the genetic diversity, genetic structure, and demographic history of the twisted-jaw fish, B. truncatus, were investigated using mitochondrial cytochrome b gene sequences. A total of 124 fish specimens were collected from 10 locations in the Mekong and its tributaries. Relatively high genetic diversity was found in populations of B. truncatus compared to other catfish species in the Mekong River. The genetic structure analysis revealed that a population from the Chi River in Thailand was genetically significantly different from other populations, which is possibly due to the effect of genetic drift. Demographic history analysis indicated that B. truncatus has undergone recent demographic expansion dating back to the end of the Pleistocene glaciation.

  19. NG Kunstikonteiner alustab kirjandusega

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Kunstnik Sandra Jõgeva korraldab Tallinnas kultuuritehases Polymer alternatiivgaleriis Non Grata Kunstikonteiner kirjanduslike kohtumiste seeria "Üks hullem kui teine". Kirjandusüritused ei ole mõeldud ainult oma ala insider'itele. 17. juulil esinevad Armin Kõomägi teemal "Kirjandus ja äri", Andrus Elbing "Vangla sinus eneses" jt. Vt. ka Looming, 2008, nr. 8, lk. 1271

  20. ng meediaga

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Ajakirjanduse ja ettevõtete vahelistest suhetest maine kujundamises. Art. allikaks on Peter Vanderwickeni 2005. aasta jaanuaris Harvard Business Review's ilmunud lugu "Why the news is not the truth". Kommenteerivad Priit Pullerits ja Neeme Raud

  1. Effects of Dăoyĭn Qìgōng in postpolio syndrome patients with cold intolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Eduardo Ramos

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Postpolio syndrome (PPS is characterized by progressive muscle weakness due to former infection with poliomyelitis and can be associated with other symptoms such as cold intolerance (CI. Dăoyĭn Qìgōng (DQ is a technique in Traditional Chinese Medicine that impacts the circulation of energy and blood. OBJECTIVE: It was to verify the effects of DQ in PPS patients complaining of cold intolerance. METHODS: Ten PPS patients were assessed using the visual analogue scale (VAS adapted for CI before and after intervention with DQ; patients practiced it in a sitting position for 40 minutes, 3 times per week over 3 consecutive months. Patients were reassessed three months after ceasing DQ. RESULTS: There was a statistically significant difference in local and systemic VAS-Cold both at the end of DQ training and three months past the end of this. CONCLUSION: The DQ technique ameliorated CI complaints in patients with PPS.

  2. Ultra pressure liquid chromatography-negative electrospray ionization mass spectrometry determination of twelve halobenzoquinones at ng/L levels in drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Rongfu; Wang, Wei; Qian, Yichao; Boyd, Jessica M; Zhao, Yuli; Li, Xing-Fang

    2013-05-07

    We report here the characterization of twelve halobenzoquinones (HBQs) using electrospray ionization (ESI) high resolution quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The high resolution negative ESI spectra of the twelve HBQs formed two parent ions, [M + H(+) + 2e(-)], and the radical M(-•). The intensities of these two parent ions are dependent on their chemical structures and on instrumental parameters such as the source temperature and flow rate. The characteristic ions of the HBQs were used to develop an ultra pressure liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method. At the UPLC flow rate (400 μL/min) and under the optimized ESI conditions, eleven HBQs showed the stable and abundant transitions [M + H(+) + 2e(-)] → X(-) (X(-) representing Cl(-), Br(-), or I(-)), while dibromo-dimethyl-benzoquinone (DBDMBQ) showed only the transition of M(-•) → Br(-). The UPLC efficiently separates all HBQs including some HBQ isomers, while the MS/MS offers exquisite limits of detection (LODs) at subng/mL levels for all HBQs except DBDMBQ. Combined with solid phase extraction (SPE), the method LOD is down to ng/L. The results from analysis of authentic samples demonstrated that the SPE-UPLC-MS/MS method is reliable, fast, and sensitive for the identification and quantification of the twelve HBQs in drinking water.

  3. Impact of pathological tumor stage for salvage radiotherapy after radical prostatectomy in patients with prostate-specific antigen < 1.0 ng/ml

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umezawa Rei

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate prognostic factors in salvage radiotherapy (RT for patients with pre-RT prostate-specific antigen (PSA Methods Between January 2000 and December 2009, 102 patients underwent salvage RT for biochemical failure after radical prostatectomy (RP. Re-failure of PSA after salvage RT was defined as a serum PSA value of 0.2 ng/ml or more above the postradiotherapy nadir followed by another higher value, a continued rise in serum PSA despite salvage RT, or initiation of systemic therapy after completion of salvage RT. Biochemical relapse-free survival (bRFS was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Multivariate analysis was performed using the Cox proportional hazards regression model. Results The median follow-up period was 44 months (range, 11-103 months. Forty-three patients experienced PSA re-failure after salvage RT. The 4-year bRFS was 50.9% (95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 39.4-62.5%. In the log-rank test, pT3-4 (p Conclusions In patients who have received salvage RT after RP with PSA

  4. Characterization of muscarinic M4 binding sites in rabbit lung, chicken heart, and NG108-15 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazareno, S; Buckley, N J; Roberts, F F

    1990-12-01

    We have carried out an extensive pharmacological characterization of muscarinic binding sites in rabbit lung and chicken heart in parallel with M1, M2, and M3 sites, [3H]Pirenzepine, a selective antagonist at M1 receptors, bound saturably and reversibly to membranes from chicken heart and rabbit lung. These binding sites were not M1 receptors, however, because the cardioselective antagonist himbacine had 10-fold higher affinity at these sites than at [3H]pirenzepine sites in rat and rabbit cortex (true M1 sites). We measured the inhibitory potency of 28 antagonists at [3H]N-methylscopolamine-labeled sites in chicken heart, rabbit lung, rat heart (M2 sites), and rat submandibular gland (M3 sites) and at M1 sites in rat cortex. The sites in rabbit lung were different from M1, M2, and M3 sites, because they had moderate to high affinity for M1-selective compounds (pirenzepine and telenzepine), M2-selective compounds (himbacine and methoctramine), and M3-selective compounds (hexahydrosiladifenidol and 4-diphenylacetoxy-N-methylpiperidine methiodide). The sites in chicken heart resembled most those in rabbit lung, with similar high affinity for secoverine, but they were not the same because tropicamide, diphenylacetoxybutynyl dimethylamine, and [3H]-N-methylscopolamine were more potent in rabbit lung. In a further series of experiments, we compared the affinity of six of the most discriminating antagonists in membranes from rabbit lung and NG108-15 cells, a neuroblastoma-glioma cell line reported to express the muscarinic m4 receptor gene. The antagonists had very similar affinities in the two tissues, the largest discrepancy being that pirenzepine was twice as potent in rabbit lung as in NG108-15 cells. Northern blots using probes designed to discriminate between five species of muscarinic receptor RNA detected only m4 mRNA in rabbit lung. We conclude that rabbit lung contains a muscarinic M4 binding site with a quite distinctive pharmacology and that chicken heart

  5. Language and Family Dispersion: North Korean Linguist Kim Su-gyŏng and the Korean War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryuta Itagaki

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the unpublished memoir of Kim Su-gyŏng (1918–2000, a linguist who was active in North Korea from the mid-1940s until the late 1960s, and situates his account of his experience of the Korean War within the context of his linguistic essays and correspondence. In doing so, the article considers the role that the personal and the social play in language, utilizing Saussure’s theoretical framework, with which Kim himself was well versed. Kim wrote his memoirs in the 1990s to his family, from whom he had become separated during the Korean War and who now lived in Toronto. In this text, he writes in “personal” language that reveals his uncertainty and his feelings for his family, but then immediately negates these feelings through the use of “social” language, which resonates with his interpretation of the linguistic thesis that Josef Stalin developed during the Korean War on language and national identity. For Kim, the relationship between language and nation was not at all self-evident, but something that he idealized in response to the dispersal of his family. By offering a reflexive reading of a memoir written by a North Korean linguist, this article makes a breakthrough in the investigation of North Korean wartime academic history, which has not risen above the level of analyzing articles in the field of linguistics that were published at the time.

  6. Biopsy indication--a predictor of pathologic stage among men with preoperative serum PSA levels of 4.0 ng/mL or less and T1c disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedland, Stephen J; Mangold, Leslie A; Epstein, Jonathan I; Partin, Alan W

    2004-05-01

    To determine the indications for biopsy among men with a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level of 4 ng/mL or less and T1c disease and whether the reason for biopsy correlated with the final pathologic stage. It is not uncommon for men to undergo radical prostatectomy (RP) with a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level of 4 ng/mL or less and T1c disease. We examined the percentage of men with T1c disease and PSA level of 4.0 ng/mL or less undergoing RP over time. We identified 874 men with T1c prostate adenocarcinoma and PSA levels of 4 ng/mL or less who were treated with RP between 1994 and 2003. We excluded 72 patients who had received preoperative hormonal therapy and 86 patients for whom the reason for biopsy was unclear. The pathologic outcomes were compared between the various biopsy indication groups using analysis of variance. The percentage of men with T1c disease and a PSA level of 4.0 ng/mL or less has steadily increased from 0% before 1990 to 19% in 2003. Among men treated between 1994 and 2003, the most common indication for biopsy was a spike in the PSA level to greater than their reference level before biopsy (n = 471, 66%), although in all patients, the PSA level returned to 4 ng/mL or less before surgery. In 163 patients (35%), the PSA level remained elevated above the reference range and in the remaining 308 patients (65%), the PSA declined to a value below the reference range before surgery. The second most common indication for biopsy was an abnormal digital rectal examination by the referring/primary physician that, when repeated by the attending surgeon, was believed to be normal (n = 155, 22%). Abnormal PSA velocity accounted for biopsy in 68 patients (10%). Among patients with the three most common indications for biopsy, no statistically significant differences in the pathologic tumor characteristics between the groups were noted on the basis of the biopsy indication. One in five men undergoing RP at our institution today has T1c disease and a

  7. Field preconcentration of cadmium from seawater by using a minicolumn packed with Amberlite XAD-4/4-(2-pyridylazo) resorcinol and its flow-injection-flame atomic absorption spectrometric determination at the ng L{sup -1} Level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yebra, M.C.; Salgado, J.; Puig, L.; Moreno-Cid, A. [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Nutrition and Bromatology, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Santiago de Compostela, 15782-Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

    2002-10-01

    A flow injection analysis-flame atomic absorption spectrometric method for the determination of cadmium in seawater was developed with the aim of yielding a sensitive assay with a low detection limit. The method employs a field flow preconcentration technique involving a minicolumn containing Amberlite XAD-4 impregnated with the complexing agent 4-(2-pyridylazo) resorcinol. A Plackett-Burman 2{sup 7} x 3/32 design for seven factors (sample pH, sample flow rate, eluent volume, eluent concentration, eluent flow rate, ethanol percentage in the eluent and minicolumn diameter) was carried out in order to find the significant variables affecting the field continuous preconcentration system (FCPS) and the flow injection elution manifold for cadmium determination in seawater samples by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Cadmium can be preconcentrated with an enrichment factor of 1053 for a sample volume of 200 mL and a preconcentration time of 57 min. In these experimental conditions, the method provides a linear relationship between absorbance and cadmium concentration in the range from 22-1900 ng L{sup -1}, with a detection limit (3SD) of 6 ng L{sup -1}. The precision (expressed as relative standard deviation) for eleven independent determinations reached values of 8.9-0.8% in cadmium solutions of 50-700 ng L{sup -1}. Analysis of certified reference materials (SLEW-3 and NASS-5) showed good agreement with the certified value. This procedure was applied to the determination of cadmium in seawater from Galicia (Spain). (orig.)

  8. The Escape of Sisyphus or What “Post NG-PON2” Should Do Apart from Neverending Capacity Upgrades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Maier

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The primary design goal of (revolutionary NG-PON1&2 was the provisioning of an ever increasing capacity to cope with video-dominated traffic and handle the explosion of mobile data traffic by means of offloading. Recently, however, questions on the future of “post NG-PON2” have surfaced whether to shift its research focus to business and operation related aspects and move access technology into a substantially different direction than continued capacity upgrades. In fact, recent studies indicate that ultimately the major factor limiting the performance of 4G mobile networks is latency rather than capacity of the backhaul. In this paper, we review recently proposed low-latency techniques for NG-PONs that require architectural modifications at the remote node or distribution fiber level and highlight advanced network coding and real-time polling based low-latency techniques that can be implemented in software, enable NG-PONs to carry higher traffic loads and thereby extend their lifetime, and maintain the passive nature of existent optical distribution networks. Furthermore, we elaborate on emerging trends and open challenges for future post NG-PON2 research. To better understand their true potential, we put them into a wider non-technical and historical perspective leading up to a sustainable Third Industrial Revolution (TIR economy and its underlying Energy Internet.

  9. Rapid agonist-induced loss of sup 125 I-. beta. -endorphin opioid receptor sites in NG108-15, but not SK-N-SH neuroblastoma cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cone, R.I.; Lameh, J.; Sadee, W. (Univ. of California, San Francisco (United States))

    1991-01-01

    The authors have measured {mu} and {delta} opioid receptor sites on intact SK-N-SH and NG108-15 neuroblastoma cells, respectively, in culture. Use of {sup 125}I-{beta}-endorphin ({beta}E) as a tracer, together with {beta}E(6-31) to block high-affinity non-opioid binding in both cell lines, permitted the measurement of cell surface {mu} and {delta} opioid receptor sites. Labeling was at {delta} sites in NG108-15 cells and predominantly at {mu} sites in SK-N-SH cells. Pretreatment with the {mu} and {delta} agonist, DADLE, caused a rapid loss of cell surface {delta} receptor sites in NG108-15 cells, but failed to reduce significantly {mu} receptor density in SK-N-SH cells.

  10. Photo-dynamics of the lyophilized photo-activated adenylate cyclase NgPAC2 from the amoeboflagellate Naegleria gruberi NEG-M strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penzkofer, A.; Tanwar, M.; Veetil, S. K.; Kateriya, S.; Stierl, M.; Hegemann, P.

    2013-09-01

    The absorption and emission spectroscopic behavior of lyophilized photo-activated adenylate cyclase NgPAC2 from the amoeboflagellate Naegleria gruberi NEG-M strain consisting of a BLUF domain (BLUF = Blue Light sensor Using Flavin) and a cyclase homology domain was studied in the dark, during blue-light exposure and after blue-light exposure at a temperature of 4 °C. The BLUF domain photo-cycle dynamics observed for snap-frozen NgPAC2 was lost by lyophilization (no signaling state formation with flavin absorption red-shift). Instead, blue-light photo-excitation of lyophilized NgPAC2 caused sterically restricted Tyr-Tyr cross-linking (o,o‧-ditysosine formation) and partial flavin cofactor reduction.

  11. Chronic administration of modafinil induces hyperalgesia in mice: reversal by L-NG-nitro-arginine methyl ester and 7-nitroindazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Rachna; Gupta, Lalit Kumar; Bhattacharya, Swapan K

    2014-08-05

    Modafinil [2-((diphenylmethyl) sulfinyl) acetamide] is a central nervous system stimulant. It has received considerable attention as a potential psychotropic agent in several psychiatric disorders. The current study was carried out to investigate the effect of modafinil after acute administration on animal models of pain in mice. Also, this study evaluated the effect of L-NG-nitroarginine methyl ester (L-NAME), 7-nitroindazole (7-NI) and naloxone following chronic administration of modafinil. Modafinil was administered in the doses of 50, 100 or 200 mg/kg once in acute study and it showed significantly increased tail-flick latency (tfl) and paw-licking latency. In formalin test modafinil (100 mg/kg) significantly reduced licking/biting time in both early and late phases in comparison to control. In chronic study, modafinil 100 mg/kg administered for 10 days, produced a progressive decrease in the reaction time (i.e., tfl/paw-licking latency) in comparison to day 1 values which started building up from day 4 and fully established at day 6, indicating hyperalgesic response. Prior administration of 7-NI (on day 7) and L-NAME (on day 10) prevented the hyperalgesic response while naloxone on day 10 did not have a significant effect on modafinil-induced hyperalgesia. These results demonstrate that modafinil has a potential role in pain as it exhibited antinociceptive effect after acute administration in a dose-dependent manner and on chronic administration it caused hyperalgesia. This hyperalgesia is reversed by nitric oxide synthase inhibitors, suggesting the possibility of involvement of nitric oxide pathway. Further studies are required to evaluate the role of modafinil in clinical pain. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. NG-nitro-L-arginine Methyl Ester Protects Against Hormonal Imbalances Associated with Nicotine Administration in Male Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyeyipo, Ibukun P.; Raji, Y.; Bolarinwa, Adeyombo F.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The administration of nicotine is associated with altered hormonal imbalances and increased serum and testicular nitric oxide (NO) level. Aim: This study sought to investigate the effects of NO inhibition with NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) on altered hormonal imbalance in adult male albinorats. Materials and Methods: Rats were administered with 0.5 mg/kg body weight (BW) and 1.0 mg/kg BW nicotine and were treated with L-NAME in the drinking water or drinking water alone for 30 days. Serum was analyzed for testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), and prolactin using radioimmunoassay. Results: Nicotine administration significantly decreased (P < 0.05) testosterone in the low and high dose treated groups and FSH in the high dose treated group when compared with the control group. There was a significant increase (P < 0.05) in mean LH and prolactin level in the high dose treated group when compared with the control. Concomitant treatment with nicotine and L-NAME produced significant increases in testosterone and FSH, and a decrease in prolactin in 1.0 mg/kg BW. L-NAME alone did not lead to a significant increase in testosterone when compared with control. Conclusion: These data demonstrate that the suppressive effects of nicotine on testosterone level of the adult male rat can be prevented by NOS blockade with L-NAME. It appears that these beneficial effects are mediated primarily within the gonad; however, the involvement of the pituitary cannot be totally ruled out. PMID:25789250

  13. Inhibition of substance P-mediated responses in NG108-15 cells by netupitant and palonosetron exhibit synergistic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stathis, Marigo; Pietra, Claudio; Rojas, Camilo; Slusher, Barbara S

    2012-08-15

    Netupitant is a potent and selective NK(1) receptor antagonist under development in combination with a fixed dose of palonosetron for the prevention of chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting. Palonosetron is a 5-HT(3) receptor antagonist approved for both the prevention of acute and delayed chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting after moderately emetogenic chemotherapy. Accumulating evidence suggests that substance P (SP), a ligand acting largely on tachykinin (NK(1)) receptors, is the dominant mediator of delayed emesis. Interestingly, palonosetron does not bind to the NK(1) receptor so that the mechanism behind palonosetron's unique efficacy against delayed emesis is not clear. Palonosetron exhibits a distinct ability among 5-HT(3) receptor antagonists to inhibit crosstalk between NK(1) and 5-HT(3) receptor signaling pathways. The objective of the current work was to determine if palonosetron's ability to inhibit receptor signaling crosstalk would influence netupitant's inhibition of the SP-mediated response when the two drugs are dosed together. We first studied the inhibition of SP-induced Ca(2+) mobilization in NG108-15 cells by palonosetron, ondansetron and granisetron. Unexpectedly, in the absence of serotonin, palonosetron inhibited the SP-mediated dose response 15-fold; ondansetron and granisetron had no effect. Netupitant also dose-dependently inhibited the SP response as expected from an NK1 receptor antagonist. Importantly, when both palonosetron and netupitant were present, they exhibited an enhanced inhibition of the SP response compared to either of the two antagonists alone. The results further confirm palonosetron's unique pharmacology among 5-HT(3) receptor antagonists and suggest that it can enhance the prevention of delayed emesis provided by NK(1) receptor antagonists. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Dynamic fracture development in response to extreme summer temperatures: 27/7/2014, Långören Island, Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leith, Kerry; Perras, Matthew; Siren, Topias; Rantanen, Tuomas; Heinonen, Suvi; Loew, Simon

    2017-04-01

    Long periods of exceptionally high temperatures in Finland and California during the summer of 2014 were associated with the formation of large 'exfoliation' or 'sheeting' fractures in bedrock surfaces. Videos taken at both locations show sharp fractures forming along the edge of thin (15,000 years ago), hinting at the rarity of the recent events on the otherwise undamaged surface. In order to uncover the mechanisms driving this remarkable event, we installed a unique low-cost monitoring system to track the behavior of the new Långören Island fracture through the summer of 2016. This included a local meteorological station, Arduino-based rock temperature profiles, acoustic emission measurements, and a 3G-enabled all-in-one PC for live data communication. Coupled with GPR data, field mapping, and a local DEM derived from a 'Go-Pro on a stick' structure from motion capture, we generate a unique insight into the conditions at the time of the 2014 event, and potential active micro-fracturing during a hot period in 2016. Our models suggest rock surface temperatures approached 40°C during 2014, almost ten degrees above the peak air temperature. The mid- to late-afternoon timing of fracturing was associated with peak thermal stress in the upper 1 m of bedrock, consistent with 2016 observations, where measured surface temperatures of around 35°C generate a thermal front that coincides with a series of acoustic emission events on a sensor installed in a borehole near the crest of the fracture.

  15. Nearly 1000 Protein Identifications from 50 ng of Xenopus laevis Zygote Homogenate Using Online Sample Preparation on a Strong Cation Exchange Monolith Based Microreactor Coupled with Capillary Zone Electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhenbin; Sun, Liangliang; Zhu, Guijie; Cox, Olivia F; Huber, Paul W; Dovichi, Norman J

    2016-01-05

    A sulfonate-silica hybrid strong cation exchange monolith microreactor was synthesized and coupled to a linear polyacrylamide coated capillary for online sample preparation and capillary zone electrophoresis-tandem mass spectrometry (CZE-MS/MS) bottom-up proteomic analysis. The protein sample was loaded onto the microreactor in an acidic buffer. After online reduction, alkylation, and digestion with trypsin, the digests were eluted with 200 mM ammonium bicarbonate at pH 8.2 for CZE-MS/MS analysis using 1 M acetic acid as the background electrolyte. This combination of basic elution and acidic background electrolytes results in both sample stacking and formation of a dynamic pH junction. 369 protein groups and 1274 peptides were identified from 50 ng of Xenopus laevis zygote homogenate, which is comparable with an offline sample preparation method, but the time required for sample preparation was decreased from over 24 h to less than 40 min. Dramatically improved performance was produced by coupling the reactor to a longer separation capillary (∼100 cm) and a Q Exactive HF mass spectrometer. 975 protein groups and 3749 peptides were identified from 50 ng of Xenopus protein using the online sample preparation method.

  16. Experimental Demonstration of 6-Mode Division Multiplexed NG-PON2: Cost Effective 40 Gbit/s/Spatial-Mode Access Based on 3D Laser Inscribed Photonic Lanterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asif, Rameez; Hu, Hao; Mitchell, Paul

    We report the first space-division-multiplexed based symmetric NG-PON2 network by effi- ciently transmitting 40 Gbit/s/spatial-mode. Error free transmission (BER of 10−9 ) is obtained for all the downstream and upstream data tributaries over 1-km 6-spatial-mode FMF without using MIMO DSP......We report the first space-division-multiplexed based symmetric NG-PON2 network by effi- ciently transmitting 40 Gbit/s/spatial-mode. Error free transmission (BER of 10−9 ) is obtained for all the downstream and upstream data tributaries over 1-km 6-spatial-mode FMF without using MIMO DSP...

  17. Relação entre criatividade, inteligência e autoconceito em alunos monolíngues e bilíngües

    OpenAIRE

    Mendonça,Patrícia Villa da Costa Ferreira; Fleith,Denise de Souza

    2005-01-01

    Este estudo teve como objetivo estudar a relação entre criatividade, inteligência e autoconceito em alunos bilíngües e monolíngües. Participaram deste estudo 269 alunos, do gênero masculino e feminino, adolescentes e adultos, de uma instituição particular de ensino de língua inglesa, localizada em Brasília. Os instrumentos utilizados foram o Teste Torrance de Pensamento Criativo - TTCT, Teste Não-Verbal de Raciocínio para Adultos - TNVRA e Escala Fatorial de Autoconceito - EFA. Os alunos bilí...

  18. Predictive value of [-2]propsa (p2psa and its derivatives for the prostate cancer detection in the 2.0 to 10.0ng/mL PSA range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Vukovic

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction To assess predictive value of new tumor markers, precursor of prostate specific antigen (p2PSA and its derivates-%p2PSA and prostate health index (PHI in detection of patients with indolent and aggressive prostate cancer (PC in a subcohort of man whose total PSA ranged from 2 to 10ng/mL. Materials and Methods This cross-sectional study included 129 consecutive male patients aged over 50 years, with no previous history of PC and with normal digital rectal examination findings, but with serum PSA in interval between 2 and 10ng/mL. All patients underwent standard transrectal ultrasonography guided prostate biopsy for the first time. For all patients, serum PSA, free PSA (fPSA and p2PSA were measured and PHI and %p2PSA were calculated. Results PHI and %p2PSA levels were significanlty higher in patients with PC compared to those without this malignancy. The same findings have been observed in group of patients with Gleason score ≥7 compared to those with Gleason score <7. ROC analysis reveled the highest area under the curve with these two markers. Multivariate logistic regression showed significant improvement in PC detection and its agressive form (assumed as Gleason score ≥7. Conclusions New markers, derivates of p2PSA (especially %p2PSA and PHI, represente potentially very important clinical tool for predicting presence of PC, and even more important, to discriminate patients with Gleason score <7 from those with Gleason score ≥7 with total PSA in range from 2 to 10ng/mL.

  19. Avaliação de atividades de controle para enteroparasitos em uma aldeia Kaingáng do Paraná Evaluación de actividades de control para enteroparásitos en una aldea Kaingáng de Paraná, Sur de Brasil Evaluation of enteroparasite control activities in a Kaingáng community of Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Jean de Ornelas Toledo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar o estado parasitológico de famílias de comunidade indígena após instituição de medidas de controle para enteroparasitos. MÉTODOS: Estudo longitudinal realizado entre 2004 e 2006 com 447 pessoas da etnia Kaingáng, no município de Cândido de Abreu, PR. As medidas de controle de enteroparasitos foram: melhorias sanitárias em 2003, tratamentos antiparasitários realizados durante o período de estudo e atividades de educação em saúde iniciadas em 2005. Foram obtidos indicadores parasitológicos de saúde em três inquéritos coproparasitológicos em 2004, 2005 e 2006 quando foram coletadas 250, 147 e 126 amostras de fezes, respectivamente. Foram utilizados os métodos de sedimentação espontânea, centrífugo-flutuação e Kato/Katz. As condições de moradia e higiene foram determinadas utilizando-se questionário aplicado a 69 (2004, 57 (2005 e 38 (2006 das 90 famílias. RESULTADOS: As prevalências totais de enteroparasitos de 2004-06 foram, respectivamente: 91,6%, 94,6% e 87,3%, sem redução significativa. A prevalência de algumas espécies reduziu enquanto que a de outras aumentou significativamente. As infecções de alta intensidade por geoelmintos apresentaram taxas menores de 2% no período do estudo. Houve aumento nas taxas de entrevistados que relataram usar o banheiro (pOBJETIVO: Analizar el estado parasicológico de familias de comunidad indígena posterior a la institución de medidas de control para enteroparásitos. MÉTODOS: Estudio longitudinal realizado entre 2004 y 2006 con 447 personas de la etnia Kaingáng, en el municipio Cândido de Abreu, Sur de Brasil. Las medidas de control de enteroparásitos fueron: mejorías sanitarias iniciadas en 2003, tratamientos antiparasitarios realizados durante el período de estudio y actividades de educación en salud iniciadas en 2005. Fueron obtenidos indicadores parasicológicos de salud en tres pesquisas coproparasitológicas en 2004, 2005 y 2006 cuando

  20. ngVLA Key Science Goal 4: Using Pulsars in the Galactic Center as Fundamental Tests of Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, Geoffrey C.; Chatterjee, Shami; Cordes, James; Demorest, Paul; Dexter, Jason; Kramer, Michael; Lazio, Joseph; Ransom, Scott; Wharton, Robert; ngVLA Science Working Group 4

    2018-01-01

    monitor pulsars. The ngVLA with its enhanced sensitivity at radio frequencies between 10 and 30 GHz will be unique in its capability to open a new door for the study of pulsars in the GC.

  1. Prostate-specific Antigen (PSA) Density and Free to Total PSA Ratio in Diagnosing Prostate Cancer with Prostate-Specific Antigen Levels of 4.0 ng/ml or Less.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin; Tang, Jie; Fei, Xiang; Li, Qiu-Yang

    2015-11-01

    We aimed to value the usefulness of free to total prostate-specific antigen and Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) density for prostate cancer in the patients with PSA levels of 4.0 ng/ml or less. A total of 343 subjects with PSA levels of 4.0 ng/ml or less were biopsied. All patients were divided into four groups according to the PSA levels: 0 to 1.0 ng/ml, 1.1 to 2.0 ng/ml, 2.1 to 3.0 ng/ml, and 3.1 to 4.0 ng/ml. The reliability of cancer detection in relation to the f/t PSA ratio and PSAD were estimated. Overall, 65 people were diagnosed with prostate cancer. The detection rate was 16.28%、17.17%, 21.82%, 25.00% in subjects with PSA levels of 0 to 1.0 ng/ml, 1.1 to 2.0 ng/ml, 2.1 to 3.0 ng/ml, and 3.1 to 4.0 ng/ml, respectively. The f/t PSA ratio was significantly lower in patients with prostate cancer and PSA levels of 2.1 to 4.0 ng/ml (PPSA ratio less than 15% with /without abnormal DRE/TRUS findings.

  2. NG-PON2 Architecture Enabled by Heterogeneous Space Division Multiplexing with Distributed Light Source: A Proof-of-Concept Evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asif, Rameez; Imran, Muhammad; Ye, Feihong

    2015-01-01

    We have numerically evaluated the next generation passive optical network stage-2 (NG-PON2) architecture based on heterogeneous space division multiplexing (SDM) and wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM). Error free transmission (BER of 10−9 ) is obtained for all the downstream (DS) and upstream...

  3. Identification of the nitrogen species on N-doped graphene layers and Pt/NG composite catalyst for direct methanol fuel cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Le-Sheng; Liang, Xian-Qing; Song, Wei-Guo; Wu, Zi-Yu

    2010-10-14

    Heat treatment of graphene oxide (GO) with ammonia flow at various temperatures resulted in different distribution of nitrogen species. Synchrotron based X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy provides unambiguous evidence for the presence of three nitrogen species. The Pt/NG-800 composite exhibits outstanding electrocatalytic activity for methanol oxidation.

  4. Production of pigment-free pullulan by swollen cell in Aureobasidium pullulans NG which cell differentiation was affected by pH and nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bing-xue; Zhang, Ning; Peng, Qing; Yin, Tie; Guan, Fei-fei; Wang, Gui-li; Li, Ying

    2009-08-01

    A black yeast strain "NG" was isolated from strawberry fruit and identified as Aureobasidium pullulans. Strain NG displayed yeast-like cell (YL), swollen cell (SC), septate swollen cell (SSC), meristematic structure (MS), and chlamydospore (CH) morphologies. pH was the key factor regulating cell morphogenesis of strain NG. Differentiation of YL controlled by extracellular pH had no relationship with nutrition level. YL was maintained at pH >6.0, but was transformed into SC at pH approximately 4.5. SC, a stable cell type of A. pullulans, could bud, septate, or transform into MS or CH, in response to nutrition level and low pH. SC produced swollen cell blastospores (SCB) at pH 2.1 with abundant nutrition, and could transform into MS at lower pH (1.5). SC was induced to form CH by low level nutrition and pH melanin) were produced by SC of strain NG. Pullulan content of the polysaccharides was very high (98.37%). Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy confirmed that chemical structures of the polysaccharides and standard pullulan were identical. Swollen cells produced 2.08 mg/ml non-pigmented polysaccharides at 96 h in YPD medium. Controlling pH of fermentation is an effective and convenient method to harvest SC for melanin-free pullulan production.

  5. Assessing Lexicon: Validation and Developmental Data of the Picture Naming Game (PiNG), a New Picture Naming Task for Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello, A.; Giannantoni, P.; Pettenati, P.; Stefanini, S.; Caselli, M. C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Understanding lexical abilities in infants and toddlers is important, yet no single tool can be used. Aims: To perform a validation of a new tool (known as the Picture Naming Game, or "PiNG") for assessing lexical comprehension and production in toddlers and to obtain developmental trends for Italian children. Methods &…

  6. NG2 antigen is involved in leukemia invasiveness and central nervous system infiltration in MLL-rearranged infant B-ALL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Prieto (Cristina); B. López-Millan (Belén); Roca-Ho, H. (H.); R.W. Stam (Ronald); D. Romero-Moya (Damià); Rodríguez-Baena, F.J. (F. J.); A. Sanjuan-Pla (Alejandra); V. Ayllón (Verónica); Ramírez, M. (M.); Bardini, M. (M.); P. de Lorenzo (Paola); M.G. Valsecchi (Maria Grazia); M. Stanulla (Martin); Iglesias, M. (M.); Ballerini, P. (P.); Carcaboso, Á.M. (M.); Mora, J. (J.); Locatelli, F. (F.); Bertaina, A. (A.); Padilla, L. (L.); Carlos Rodríguez-Manzaneque, J. (J.); C. Bueno (Clara); P. Menéndez (Pablo)

    2018-01-01

    textabstractMixed-lineage leukemia (MLL)-rearranged (MLLr) infant B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (iMLLr-B-ALL) has a dismal prognosis and is associated with a pro-B/mixed phenotype, therapy refractoriness and frequent central nervous system (CNS) disease/relapse. Neuron-glial antigen 2 (NG2) is

  7. Evaluation of the Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System for Magnetic Resonance Imaging Diagnosis of Prostate Cancer in Patients with Prostate-specific Antigen <20 ng/ml

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuan Wang

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: The PI-RADS score correlates with the PCa detection rate in patients with PSA <20 ng/ml. The summed score of T2WI + DWI has the highest accuracy in detection of PCa. However, the sensitivity should be further improved.

  8. On the Least-Squares Fitting of Slater-Type Orbitals with Gaussians: Reproduction of the STO-NG Fits Using Microsoft Excel and Maple

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pye, Cory C.; Mercer, Colin J.

    2012-01-01

    The symbolic algebra program Maple and the spreadsheet Microsoft Excel were used in an attempt to reproduce the Gaussian fits to a Slater-type orbital, required to construct the popular STO-NG basis sets. The successes and pitfalls encountered in such an approach are chronicled. (Contains 1 table and 3 figures.)

  9. Muutumismäng 2010. 1.-5. osa / tekst Kerttu Soans ; kommenteerinud Tõnis Elling, Maiu Herzmann, Reet Martinson, Marek Sildoja, Pille Mitt, Marko Vilipson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Soans, Kerttu, 1961-

    2010-01-01

    Ajakirja Üks Muutumismäng 2010 jälgib nende käekäiku, kes soovivad langetada kaalu osaledes spordiklubi Artic Sport XL-treeningprogrammis. Tutvustatakse ka inimest, kes on eeskujuks teistele treenijatele ja kaalulangetajatele

  10. Comparison of (/sup 125/I)beta-endorphin binding to rat brain and NG108-15 cells using a monoclonal antibody directed against the opioid receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bidlack, J.M.; O' Malley, W.E.; Schulz, R.

    1988-02-01

    The properties of (/sup 125/I)beta h-endorphin-binding sites from rat brain membranes and membranes from the NG108-15 cell line were compared using a monoclonal antibody directed against the opioid receptor and opioid peptides as probes. The binding of (/sup 125/I)beta h-endorphin to both rat brain and NG108-15 membranes yielded linear Scatchard plots with Kd values of 1.2 nM and 1.5 nM, respectively, and Bmax values of 865 fmol/mg rat brain membrane protein and 1077 fmol/mg NG108-15 membrane protein. A monoclonal antibody, OR-689.2.4, capable of inhibiting mu and delta binding but not kappa binding to rat brain membranes, noncompetitively inhibited the binding of 1 nM (/sup 125/I)beta h-endorphin to rat brain and NG108-15 membranes with an IC50 value of 405 nM for rat brain membranes and 543 nM for NG108-15 membranes. The monoclonal antibody also inhibited the binding of 3 nM (/sup 3/H) (D-penicillamine2, D-penicillamine5) enkephalin to NG108-15 membranes with an IC50 value of 370 nM. In addition to blocking the binding of (/sup 125/I)beta h-endorphin to brain membranes, the antibody also displaced (/sup 125/I)beta h-endorphin from membranes. Site-specific opioid peptides had large variations in their IC50 values depending on whether they were inhibiting (/sup 125/I)beta h-endorphin binding to rat brain or the NG108-15 membranes. When the peptides were tested with the monoclonal antibody for their combined ability to inhibit (/sup 125/I)beta h-endorphin binding to both membrane preparations, the peptides and antibody blocked binding as though they were acting at allosterically coupled sites, not two totally independent sites. These studies suggest that mu-, delta-, and beta-endorphin-binding sites share some sequence homology with the 35,000-dalton protein that the antibody is directed against.

  11. Reducing adverse self-medication behaviors in older adults with the Next Generation Personal Education Program (PEP-NG: Design and methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia J Neafsey

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Patricia J Neafsey1,2, Elizabeth Anderson1,2, Craig Coleman3, Carolyn A Lin2,4, Cyr E M’lan5, Stephen Walsh61School of Nursing, 2Center for Health Intervention and Prevention (CHIP, 3School of Pharmacy, 4Department of Communication Sciences, 5Department of Statistics, 6Center for Nursing Research, School of Nursing, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT, USAAbstract: A randomized controlled efficacy trial targeting older adults with hypertension is providing a tailored education intervention with a Next Generation Personal Education Program (PEP-NG in primary care practices in New England. Ten participating advanced practice registered nurses (APRNs completed online knowledge and self-efficacy measures pre-onsite training and twice more after completing a continuing education program. Patient participants self-refer in response to study recruitment brochures and posters. Twenty-four participants from each APRN practice (total N = 240 are randomly assigned by the PEP-NG software to either control (data collection and four routine APRN visits or tailored intervention (PEP-NG interface and four focused APRN visits conditions. Patients access the PEP-NG interface via wireless tablet and use a stylus to answer demographic, knowledge, and self-efficacy questions as well as prescription and over-the-counter self-medication practice questions. The PEP-NG analyzes patient-reported information and delivers tailored educational content. Patients’ outcome measures are self-reported antihypertensive medication adherence, blood pressure, knowledge and self-efficacy concerning potential adverse self-medication practices, adverse self-medication behavior “risk” score and satisfaction with the PEP-NG and APRN provider relationship. APRN outcome measures are knowledge and self-efficacy concerning adverse self-medication practices, self-efficacy for communicating with older adults and satisfaction with the PEP-NG. Time–motion and cost–benefit analyses

  12. Effects of aflatoxin B1 alone or co-administered with Mycotox NG on performance and humoral immunity of turkey broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Valchev

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The contamination of poultry feeds with aflatoxins is a global problem responsible for considerable losses to poultry industry. The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate the effects of aflatoxin B1 and Mycotox NG, applied either independently or together, on performance, relative weights of visceral organs and antibody titres against Newcastle disease in turkey broilers. Experiments of 42-day duration were carried out with sixty 7-day-old female turkey broilers (meat TM strain divided into one control and five treatment groups (n=10: Group І – control (fed standard feed according to the species and age of birds; Group II – experimental, whose feed was supplemented with 0.5 g/kg Mycotox NG, Group ІІI – experimental, whose feed contained 0.2 mg/kg aflatoxin В1, Group IV – experimental, whose feed contained 0.4 mg/kg aflatoxin В1, Group V – experimental, supplemented with 0.2 mg/kg aflatoxin В1 and 0.5 g/kg Mycotox NG and Group VI – experimental, supplemented with 0.4 mg/kg aflatoxin В1 and 0.5 g/kg Mycotox NG. In Groups III and IV, production traits (live body weight, daily weight gain, feed intake as well as antibody titres were reduced along with in-creased feed conversion and relative weights of liver, kidneys, heart, pancreas, proventriculus and gizzard. At the same time, relative weights of the spleen, thymus and bursa of Fabricius were statisti-cally significantly lower. The supplementation of the feed of Groups V and VI with 0.5 g/kg Mycotox NG reduced and prevented some of deleterious effects of AFB1 on production traits, antibody titres and relative weights of visceral organs.

  13. NG2 cells response to axonal alteration in the spinal cord white matter in mice with genetic disruption of neurofilament light subunit expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Zhi

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chondroitin sulphate proteoglycan (NG2 expressing cells, morphologically characterized by multi-branched processes and small cell bodies, are the 4th commonest cell population of non-neuronal cell type in the central nervous system (CNS. They can interact with nodes of Ranvier, receive synaptic input, generate action potential and respond to some pathological stimuli, but the function of the cells is still unclear. We assumed the NG2 cells may play an active role in neuropathogenesis and aimed to determine if NG2 cells could sense and response to the alterations in the axonal contents caused by disruption of neurofilament light subunit (NFL expression. Results In the early neuropathological development stage, our study showed that the diameter of axons of upper motor neurons of NFL-/- mice decreased significantly while the thickness of their myelin sheath increased remarkably. Although there was an obvious morphological distortion in axons with occasionally partial demyelination, no obvious changes in expression of myelin proteins was detected. Parallel to these changes in the axons and their myelination, the processes of NG2 cells were disconnected from the nodes of Ranvier and extended further, suggesting that these cells in the spinal cord white matter could sense the alteration in axonal contents caused by disruption of NFL expression before astrocytic and microglial activation. Conclusion The structural configuration determined by the NFL gene may be important for maintenance of normal morphology of myelinated axons. The NG2 cells might serve as an early sensor for the delivery of information from impaired neurons to the local environment.

  14. Perineural invasion and Gleason 7-10 tumors predict increased failure in prostate cancer patients with pretreatment PSA <10 ng/ml treated with conformal external beam radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, Penny R.; Hanlon, Alexandra L.; Patchefsky, Arthur; Al-Saleem, Tahseen; Hanks, Gerald E.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: It has been well established that prostate cancer patients with pretreatment PSA<10 ng/ml enjoy excellent bNED control when treated with definitive external beam radiation therapy. This report identifies predictors of failure for patients with pretreatment PSA <10 ng/ml. These predictors are then used to define favorable and unfavorable prognostic subgroups of patients for which bNED control is compared. Methods and Materials: Between 3/87 and 11/94, 266 patients with T1-T3NXM0 prostate cancer and pretreatment PSA values <10 ng/ml were treated with definitive external beam radiation therapy. Median central axis dose and median follow-up for the entire group was 72 Gy (63-79 Gy) and 48 months (2-120 months). Predictors of bNED control were evaluated univariately using Kaplan-Meier methodology and the log-rank test and multivariately using Cox proportional hazards modeling. Covariates considered were pretreatment PSA, palpation stage, Gleason score, presence of perineual invasion (PNI) and central axis dose. Independent predictors based on multivariate results were then used to stratify the patients into two prognostic groups for which bNED control was compared. bNED failure is defined as PSA ≥ 1.5 ng/ml and rising on two consecutive determinations. Results: Univariate analysis according to pretreatment and treatment factors for bNED control demonstrates a statistically significant improvement in 5-year bNED control for patients with Gleason score 2-6 vs. 7-10, patients without evidence of perineural invasion (PNI) vs. those with PNI, and patients with palpation stage T1/T2AB vs. T2C/T3. Multivariate analysis demonstrates that Gleason score (p = 0.0496), PNI (p = 0.0008) and palpation stage (p = 0.0153) are significant independent predictors of bNED control. Based on these factors, patients are stratified into a more favorable prognosis group (Gleason 2-6, no PNI, and stage T1/T2AB, n = 172) and a less favorable prognosis group (Gleason 7-10 or PNI or T2C

  15. Contribution of genetic variation rs266882 to prostate-specific antigen levels in healthy controls with serum PSA below 2.0 ng/ml.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jaeman; Park, Heeyoon; Lee, Gilho

    2013-04-01

    We evaluated the impact of genetic variation in the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) gene (rs266882) on serum PSA levels in healthy men as well as risk factors for benign prostate hypertrophy (BPH) and prostate cancer. The study population comprised 91 men with PSA levels below 2.0 ng/ml as healthy controls, 78 men with PSA 2-10 ng/ml as a BPH group, and 128 prostate cancer patients, all in Korea. DNA was amplified by polymerase chain reaction and the product was sequenced. We found that PSA levels were associated with a G/A polymorphism only in healthy controls. The transition, however, was not associated with PSA levels of BPH and cancer patients, nor was it a risk factor. In conclusion, this genetic factor is important for determining serum PSA levels in the naive group, whereas the disruption of prostatic architecture in BPH or prostate cancer may be a major determining factor for PSA levels.

  16. A novel hierarchical 3D N-Co-CNT@NG nanocomposite electrode for non-enzymatic glucose and hydrogen peroxide sensing applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balamurugan, Jayaraman; Thanh, Tran Duy; Karthikeyan, Gopalsamy; Kim, Nam Hoon; Lee, Joong Hee

    2017-03-15

    A novel 3D nanocomposite of nitrogen doped Co-CNTs over graphene sheets (3D N-Co-CNT@NG) have been successfully fabricated via a simple, scalable and one-step thermal decomposition method. This 3D hierarchical nanostructure provides an admirable conductive network for effective charge transfer and avoids the agglomeration of NG matrices, which examine direct as well as non-enzymatic responses to glucose oxidation and H 2 O 2 reduction at a low potential. The novel electrode showed excellent electrochemical performance towards glucose oxidation, with high sensitivity of 9.05μAcm -2 mM -1 , a wide linear range from 0.025 to 10.83mM, and a detection limit of 100nM with a fast response time of less than 3s. Furthermore, non-enzymatic H 2 O 2 sensors based on the 3D N-Co-CNT@NG electrode exhibited high sensitivity (28.66μAmM -1 cm -2 ), wide linear range (2.0-7449μM), low detection limit of 2.0μM (S/N=3), excellent selectivity, decent reproducibility and long term stability. Such outstanding electrochemical performance can be endorsed to the large electroactive surface area, unique porous architecture, highly conductive networks, and synergistic interaction between N-Co-CNTs and nitrogen doped graphene (NG) in the novel 3D nanocomposite. This facile, cost-effective, sensitive, and selective glucose as well as H 2 O 2 sensors are also proven to be appropriate for the detection of glucose as well as H 2 O 2 in human serum. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. IND UCTION OF SPAW NING IN THE TR OPICAL WALKING CATFISH (C la rias b atr ac hus BY CONTROLLI NG WATER L EVEL AND T EMPERAT URE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. ZAIRIN JR.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was carried out t o confirm the rol e of water level and w ater temperature i n indu cing t he s pawning o f tr opical walking catfi sh . Ma ture mal es an d females reared un de r 23 - 2 5 °C, were paired and in duced to spa wn by cont rolling w ater level and w ater temperature. Decr easi ng water level and returni ng it to its original level r esulted i n a low spawni ng r ate (l es s t han 6. 7 % at 23 °C . Decreasing water level with simultaneous increase in water temperature, followed by returning the respective levels to their originals gave high spa wning rates ( 41.7 — 50 %; whereas the s ame treatment but without a ny water temperature decrea sed when t he wate r le vel was return ed t o t he initial level, gave a lo w spawning rate (16 .7 %. In creasin g water level only, fail ed to ind uce spa wning . A high spawning rate was obtained also when changes in water level were ca rried out under high t emperature of 28 °C. No fish spawned in the ab sence of the environmental stimulation. From the results, i t is confirmed that water le vel and t emperature play important r oles i n i nducin g spaw ning of tropical walki ng catfish. Changes i n water t emperature probably increas e the sensitivity of fish to th e change in water level. Prolo nged exposure to high water tem perature c ould also improve the sensitivity of fish.

  18. The Clinical Course of Patients with PSA≥100 Ng/mL: Insight Into a Potential Population for Targeted PSA Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Andrew K; Hugar, Lee; Patil, Dattatraya; Wong, Lisa; Carthon, Bradley; Carney, Kenneth; Birdsong, George; Moses, Kelvin A; Master, Viraj A

    2018-04-12

    To characterize men presenting to a tertiary care safety-net hospital with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) values ≥100 ng/mL and identify a potential population for targeted PSA screening. Retrospective review of 100 randomly selected patients out of 204 total who presented to Grady Memorial Hospital from 2004-2011 with initial PSA≥100 ng/mL was performed. Demographics, disease characteristics, and survival status were obtained via the Tumor Registry and a combination of electronic medical records and older paper charts, with missing data from paper charts excluded on analyses. Sixty-five patients were newly diagnosed with PCa on presentation and 35 were previously diagnosed. Median PSA at presentation was 405.5 ng/mL (min 100, max 7805), 81% had metastatic disease, and 94% were Gleason≥7. Median CAPRA score was 8. Median age at presentation was 67.4 years (min 40.8, max 90.6). Eighty-nine percent of patients were African-American (AA), 24% lived alone, 12% were homeless or incarcerated, 51% were insured by Medicare/Medicaid, and 47% were uninsured. Only 1% had HIV, 19% had diabetes, and 13% had chronic kidney disease. Of the 65 newly diagnosed patients, only 23% had ever been screened and 9% previously biopsied. Median time from presentation to death was 17.8 months (min 0.16, max 107.1). Among men presenting with PSA≥100ng/ml at a safety-net hospital, the majority were AA, of lower socioeconomic status, and had metastatic disease. Uniform absence of PCa screening may expose greater numbers of at-risk men to similar outcomes. Discussion is needed regarding targeted PSA screening in higher-risk, vulnerable patients. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparison of the Cepheid GeneXpert CT/NG assay to the Hologic Aptima Combo2 assay for the detection of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae in self-collected rectal swabs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dize, Laura; Silver, Barbara; Gaydos, Charlotte

    2018-02-01

    Self-collected rectal-swabs were tested for CT and NG on GeneXpert CT/NG as compared to APTIMA Combo2. Of 448 rectal-swabs, 22 were positive for CT; 7 for NG on both assays; two were discordant. Sensitivity and specificity of GeneXpert was 95.5% and 99.7% for chlamydia, respectively; for gonorrhea both were 100%. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Amyloid-beta 1-40 is associated with alterations in NG2+ pericyte population ex vivo and in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Nina; Brännström, Kristoffer; Byman, Elin; Moussaud, Simon; Nielsen, Henrietta M; Olofsson, Anders; Wennström, Malin

    2018-02-17

    The population of brain pericytes, a cell type important for vessel stability and blood brain barrier function, has recently been shown altered in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). The underlying reason for this alteration is not fully understood, but progressive accumulation of the AD characteristic peptide amyloid-beta (Aβ) has been suggested as a potential culprit. In the current study, we show reduced number of hippocampal NG2+ pericytes and an association between NG2+ pericyte numbers and Aβ1-40 levels in AD patients. We further demonstrate, using in vitro studies, an aggregation-dependent impact of Aβ1-40 on human NG2+ pericytes. Fibril-EP Aβ1-40 exposure reduced pericyte viability and proliferation and increased caspase 3/7 activity. Monomer Aβ1-40 had quite the opposite effect: increased pericyte viability and proliferation and reduced caspase 3/7 activity. Oligomer-EP Aβ1-40 had no impact on either of the cellular events. Our findings add to the growing number of studies suggesting a significant impact on pericytes in the brains of AD patients and suggest different aggregation forms of Aβ1-40 as potential key regulators of the brain pericyte population size. © 2018 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Repeated Fish Removal to Restore Lakes: Case Study of Lake Væng, Denmark—Two Biomanipulations during 30 Years of Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Søndergaard

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomanipulation by fish removal has been used in many shallow lakes as a method to improve lake water quality. Here, we present and analyse 30 years of chemical and biological data from the shallow and 16 ha large Lake Væng, Denmark, which has been biomanipulated twice with a 20-year interval by removing roach (Rutilus rutilus and bream (Abramis brama. After both biomanipulations, Lake Væng shifted from a turbid, phytoplankton-dominated state to a clear, water macrophyte-dominated state. Chlorophyll a was reduced from 60–80 μg·L−1 to 10–30 μg·L−1 and the coverage of submerged macrophytes, dominated by Elodea canadensis, increased from <0.1% to 70%–80%. Mean summer total phosphorus was reduced from about 0.12 to 0.07 mg·L−1 and total nitrogen decreased from 1.0 to 0.4 mg·L−1. On a seasonal scale, phosphorus and chlorophyll concentrations changed from a summer maximum during turbid conditions to a winter maximum under clear conditions. The future of Lake Væng is uncertain and a relatively high phosphorus loading via the groundwater, and the accumulation of a mobile P pool in the sediment make it likely that the lake eventually will return to turbid conditions. Repeated fish removals might be a relevant management strategy to apply in shallow lakes with a relatively high external nutrient loading.

  2. ngVLA Key Science Goal 5: Understanding the Formation and Evolution of Stellar and Supermassive Black Holes in the Era of Multi-Messenger Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazio, T. Joseph W.; Maccarone, Thomas J.; Chomiuk, Laura; ngVLA Science Working Group 2, ngVLA Science Working Group 4

    2018-01-01

    The ngVLA will be a powerful telescope for finding and studying black holes, surveying everything from the remnants of massive stars to the supermassive black holes that lurk in the centers of galaxies. High-resolution imaging abilities will allow the separation of low-luminosity black holes in the local Universe from background sources, thereby providing critical constraints on the formation and growth of black holes of all sizes. Its combination of sensitivity and angular resolution will provide new constraints on the physics of black hole accretion and jet formation. Combined with facilities across the spectrum and gravitational wave observatories, the ngVLA will provide crucial constraints on the interaction of supermassive black holes with their environments, with implications for the evolution of galaxies and the emission of gravitational waves from in-spiraling supermassive black holes. The ngVLA will identify the radio counterparts to transient sources discovered by gravitational wave, neutrino, and optical observatories, and its high-resolution, fast-mapping capabilities will make it the preferred instrument to pinpoint electromagnetic counterparts to events such as supermassive black hole mergers.Part of this research was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  3. The protective effect of NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester and insulin on nitric oxide inhibition and pathology in experimental diabetic rat liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozden, H.; Guven, G.; Tekin, N.; Akyuz, F.; Gurer, F.; Kucuk, F.; Ustuner, Mehmet C.; Yaylak, F.

    2009-01-01

    Objective was to determine on protective role of NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) and insulin on the liver in streptoozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats. This study was performed in the Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Eskisehir Osmangazi University, Eskisehir, Turkey in 2007. Forty male Wistar albino rats were divided into 5 groups. These were untreated, diabetic control, STZ+insulin, STZ+L-NAME and STZ+insulin+L-NAME induced groups. The STZ was intraperitonally injected into 3 groups and includes insulin, L-NAME and their joint administrations as protective agents. The blood glucose and nitric oxide (NO) levels were determined. The tissue samples were obtained at the end of the fourth week. The liver tissue distortions were evaluated using hematoxylin and eosin staining. The serum glucose level was significantly higher in diabetic control (p=0.000), than the untreated group. The focal pseudo lobular structures without vena centralis increased portal fibrillary necrosis and bile duct stenosis with voagulation necrosis of the peripheral hepatocytes were more observed in diabetic group than the protective agent groups. In addition, insulin and L-NAME lead to hepatocyte regeneration and minimal mononuclear cell infiltration was noted. NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester inhibits NO level in STZ+L-NAME induced group. NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester either alone or with insulin combination significantly attenuates the liver morphological disarrangements in STZ induced diabetic rats. (author)

  4. NT-proBNP <95 ng/l can exclude pulmonary hypertension on echocardiography at diagnostic workup in patients with interstitial lung disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Andersen

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pulmonary hypertension (PH is a serious complication to interstitial lung disease (ILD and has a poor prognosis. PH is often diagnosed by screening with echocardiography followed by right heart catheterisation. A previous study has shown that a value of NT-pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP 95 ng/l for signs of PH on echocardiography were calculated. The study was approved by the Danish Health Authority. Results: In 118 patients, data from both echocardiography and measurements of NT-proBNP were available. Eleven of these were screened positive for PH on echocardiography. Sensitivity, specificity, NPV and PPV of NT-proBNP <95 ng/l for PH were 100, 44, 16 and 100%, respectively. Furthermore, no patients with left heart failure as the cause of dyspnoea were missed using this cut-off value. Conclusion: NT-proBNP <95 ng/l precludes a positive echocardiographic screen for PH in ILD patients at referral for diagnostic workup.

  5. Strategic environmental evaluation of natural gas - SEA/NG: a management tool for development of a environmental conservation policy; Avaliacao ambiental estrategica para o gas natural - AAE/GN: instrumento de gestao do desenvolvimento para uma politica de conservacao ambiental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comar, Vito; Turdera, Mirko Valenzuela; Silva, Paulo Souza; Benedetti Filho, Edemar; Santiago, Etenaldo Felipe; Costa, Fabio Edir dos Santos [Universidade Estadual do Mato Grosso do Sul (UEMS), Campo Grande, MS (Brazil). Centro de Analise e Monitoramento Ambiental do Gas Natural (GASLAB); Moretti, Edvaldo; Oliveira, Jorge Eremites de; Sciamarelli, Alan; Freitas Filho, Jose Daniel de; Vieira, Maria Helena Pereira [Universidade Estadual do Mato Grosso do Sul (UEMS), Campo Grande, MS (Brazil); Soares, Afranio Jose Soriano [UNESP, Rio Claro, SP (Brazil); Oliveira, Henrique de; Comunello, Eder [EMBRAPA, Dourados, MS (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas Agropecuaria do Oeste (CPAO); Freire, Luiz G.M. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The methodology for a Strategic Environmental Evaluation of Natural Gas - SEA/NG incorporates within the analysis of the project the socio-cultural, economic, energetic and environmental implications of the transformations, due to the adoption of natural gas, in the area of influence of gas pipelines and gas-powered thermo-electric plants. It was based on the case study of a gas pipeline planned to reach the city of Dourados from Campo Grande, capital of the Brazilian State of Mato Grosso do Sul, which implied the construction of a thermoelectric plant in Dourados. The SEA/NG: 1. Defines the best alternative track for gas pipelines; 2. Proposes location alternatives for gas-powered thermo-electric plants; 3. Evaluates the cumulative and synergic effects of human activities in the socio-environmental aspects; 4. Studies the dynamics of regional development; 4. Supports urban planning decisions in cities housing gas-powered thermo-electric plants; 5. Proposes a System of Analysis and Environmental Monitoring for Natural Gas. Qualitative-quantitative matrixes were used to evaluate the cumulative and synergic effects of the adoption of natural gas within the regional energy matrix, determine the best alternative track for the gas pipeline proposed from Campo Grande to Dourados, and to identify the best location for a gas-powered thermo-electric plant. The matrixes integrated the areas of geology, hydrology, ecology and socio-economics issues both in the phases of construction and operation of the pipeline. Diagrams and interactive conceptual models were also used to synthesize the principal components involved in the choice of the best gas pipeline alternative track. This project received financial grants from PETROBRAS, MSGAS, TBG and FINEP. (author)

  6. Creati ng Customer - Based Brand Equity and Measuring Brand Perception of Tourists who Travel for Thermal Tourism: Balcova Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melike Gül

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Creating customer-based brand equity is one of the most effective tools for achieving competitive advantage in term of thermal tourism businesses that operating under fierce competition in the last years. The aim of the study is to measure customer-based brand equity perception of customers who accommodate in thermal tourism facilities and identify relationship between brand equity dimensions and size with the other dimensions of each. The survey was conducted on 216 domestic and 184 foreign tourists staying at Balcova Thermal Resort which is located in the Balcova Thermal Destination. Exploratory Factor Analysis and Path Analysis was applied the data. Findings show that there are significant and positive relationship between the size of each customer-based brand equity dimensions. In additions, in order to create ustomer-based brand equity for thermal resorts, some recommendations developed on micro, macro and academic level

  7. Is there a role for {sup 11}C-choline PET/CT in the early detection of metastatic disease in surgically treated prostate cancer patients with a mild PSA increase <1.5 ng/ml?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castellucci, Paolo [University of Bologna, Service of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Haematology-Oncology and Laboratory Medicine, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria di Bologna, Policlinico Sant' Orsola-Malpighi, Bologna (Italy); Azienda Ospedaliero-Unversitaria di Bologna Policlinico Sant' Orsola-Malpighi, UO di Medicina Nucleare, PAD. 30, Bologna (Italy); Fuccio, Chiara; Santi, Ivan; Nanni, Cristina; Allegri, Vincenzo; Montini, Gian Carlo; Ambrosini, Valentina; Boschi, Stefano; Fanti, Stefano [University of Bologna, Service of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Haematology-Oncology and Laboratory Medicine, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria di Bologna, Policlinico Sant' Orsola-Malpighi, Bologna (Italy); Rubello, Domenico; Marzola, Maria Cristina [Sanata Maria della Misericordia Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Medical Physics, Radiology, Service of Nuclear Medicine, PET/CT Centre, Rovigo (Italy); Schiavina, Riccardo; Martorana, Giuseppe [University of Bologna, Service of Urology, Department of Specialist Surgery and Anaesthesiology, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria di Bologna Policlinico Sant' Orsola-Malpighi, Bologna (Italy)

    2011-01-15

    -guided biopsy in 7 patients with local recurrence, (b) surgery and lymphadenectomy in 3 patients, (c) other targeted imaging procedures (MR or bone scan) in 5 patients and (d) clinical FU lasting a minimum of 12 months and including also a contrast-enhanced CT (CECT), an MR, a bone scan and a repeated {sup 11}C-choline PET/CT in 14 patients. Age, time to biochemical relapse (TTR), initial T staging, Gleason score and trigger PSA were not statistically significant in predicting a positive {sup 11}C-choline PET/CT scan both at univariate and multivariate analysis. Instead, PSA kinetics (PSAdt and PSAvel), N status and anti-androgenic therapy at the time of PET scan were statistically significant predictive factors at univariate analysis. Of note, only PSAdt and initial N status were found to be significant and independent predictive factors at multivariate analysis. The mean PSAdt in PET-positive patients was 4.34 months (SD 2.82) while in PET-negative patients it was 13.30 months (SD 9.75) (p = 0.0001). The optimal threshold for PSAdt established by receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was 7.25 months (AUC 0.85; 95% confidence interval 0.77-0.91) providing 93% sensitivity, 74% specificity, 60% positive predictive value and 96% negative predictive value. In our study, {sup 11}C-choline PET/CT was able to detect recurrent disease in 28% of the patients with mild biochemical relapse characterized by very low trigger PSA levels (PSA <1.5 ng/ml). Very interestingly {sup 11}C-choline PET/CT detected distant unexpected metastases in 21% of the patients. At multivariate statistical analysis only PSAdt and node status were shown to be significant and independent predictive factors for positive {sup 11}C-choline PET/CT. Therefore, {sup 11}C-choline could be suggested to be performed early during initial biochemical relapse in patients presenting with fast PSA kinetics. The early detection of the site of recurrence could lead to a prompt instauration of the most appropriate

  8. DETERM INI NG THE FACTORS WH I CH CAN PREVENT RECREAT I ONAL PART ICIPAION OF UNI VERS I TY STUDENTS WHO A TTEND TO THE DEPARTMENTS ACCORDI NG TO SPEC I AL SK I LL EXAMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ersan TOLUKAN

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The a im of this study was to de termine the factors that prevent the students who studies in the Physical Education and Sport, Musical Education and Painting Departments which request aptitude test, from participating into the recreational activities. Population of the research is consti tuted by total 1918 students who were studying at Gazi University in 2009 - 2010 Academic Years in Physical Education and Sport (1205, Musical Education (216 and Art Education Departments (497 which request aptitude test. Totally 498 volunteer participant s constitute the research‟s sample; 221 students from Physical Education and Sport, 116 students from Musical Education and 161 students from Art Education Departments. Working as a data collection tool and a total of 27 items of the six sub - dime nsions "Le isure Barriers Scale " is used.6 subscales of the questionnaire used in the study to test gender differences in the independent samples t - test analysis was conducted based on the results; by gender "individual psychology in" the (p<0.05 were found to be si gnificant differences . In addition, the ANOVA results, according to the welfare level (individual psychology and lack of interest and section variables and leisure difficulty according to their (individual psychology, lack of friends and lack of interest were statistically significant d ifferences that were observed ( p<0.05 . Consequent ly, the "lack of interest", " facilities/ lack of service " and "individual psychology" factor in preventing the individuals to participate in recreational activities has be en determined that the first three ranks.

  9. Prostate Health Index (Phi) and Prostate Cancer Antigen 3 (PCA3) significantly improve prostate cancer detection at initial biopsy in a total PSA range of 2-10 ng/ml.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferro, Matteo; Bruzzese, Dario; Perdonà, Sisto; Marino, Ada; Mazzarella, Claudia; Perruolo, Giuseppe; D'Esposito, Vittoria; Cosimato, Vincenzo; Buonerba, Carlo; Di Lorenzo, Giuseppe; Musi, Gennaro; De Cobelli, Ottavio; Chun, Felix K; Terracciano, Daniela

    2013-01-01

    Many efforts to reduce prostate specific antigen (PSA) overdiagnosis and overtreatment have been made. To this aim, Prostate Health Index (Phi) and Prostate Cancer Antigen 3 (PCA3) have been proposed as new more specific biomarkers. We evaluated the ability of phi and PCA3 to identify prostate cancer (PCa) at initial prostate biopsy in men with total PSA range of 2-10 ng/ml. The performance of phi and PCA3 were evaluated in 300 patients undergoing first prostate biopsy. ROC curve analyses tested the accuracy (AUC) of phi and PCA3 in predicting PCa. Decision curve analyses (DCA) were used to compare the clinical benefit of the two biomarkers. We found that the AUC value of phi (0.77) was comparable to those of %p2PSA (0.76) and PCA3 (0.73) with no significant differences in pairwise comparison (%p2PSA vs phi p = 0.673, %p2PSA vs. PCA3 p = 0.417 and phi vs. PCA3 p = 0.247). These three biomarkers significantly outperformed fPSA (AUC = 0.60), % fPSA (AUC = 0.62) and p2PSA (AUC = 0.63). At DCA, phi and PCA3 exhibited a very close net benefit profile until the threshold probability of 25%, then phi index showed higher net benefit than PCA3. Multivariable analysis showed that the addition of phi and PCA3 to the base multivariable model (age, PSA, %fPSA, DRE, prostate volume) increased predictive accuracy, whereas no model improved single biomarker performance. Finally we showed that subjects with active surveillance (AS) compatible cancer had significantly lower phi and PCA3 values (pPSA range 2-10 ng/ml at initial biopsy, outperforming currently used %fPSA.

  10. THE USE OF GENERATING SETS WITH lNG GAS ENGINES IN “SHORE TO SHIP” SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz TARNAPOWICZ

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The main sources of air pollution in ports are ships, on which electrical energy is produced in the autonomous gener-ating sets Diesel-Generator. The most effective way to reduce harmful exhaust emissions from ships is to exclude marine generating sets and provide the shore-side electricity in “Shore to Ship” system. The main problem in the implementa-tion of power supply for ships from land is connected with matching parameters of voltage in onshore network with marine network. Currently, the recommended solution is to supply ships from the onshore electricity network with the use of power electronic converters. This article presents an analysis of the „Shore to Ship” system with the use of gener-ating sets with LNG gas engines. It shows topologies with LNG – Generator sets, environmental benefits of such a solu-tion, advantages and disadvantages.

  11. Potential of multispectral synergism for observing ozone pollution by combining IASI-NG and UVNS measurements from the EPS-SG satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantino, Lorenzo; Cuesta, Juan; Emili, Emanuele; Coman, Adriana; Foret, Gilles; Dufour, Gaëlle; Eremenko, Maxim; Chailleux, Yohann; Beekmann, Matthias; Flaud, Jean-Marie

    2017-04-01

    Present and future satellite observations offer great potential for monitoring air quality on a daily and global basis. However, measurements from currently orbiting satellites do not allow a single sensor to accurately probe surface concentrations of gaseous pollutants such as tropospheric ozone. Combining information from IASI (Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer) and GOME-2 (Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment-2) respectively in the TIR and UV spectra, a recent multispectral method (referred to as IASI+GOME-2) has shown enhanced sensitivity for probing ozone in the lowermost troposphere (LMT, below 3 km altitude) with maximum sensitivity down to 2.20 km a.s.l. over land, while sensitivity for IASI or GOME-2 alone only peaks at 3 to 4 km at the lowest.In this work we develop a pseudo-observation simulator and evaluate the potential of future EPS-SG (EUMETSAT Polar System - Second Generation) satellite observations, from new-generation sensors IASI-NG (Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer - New Generation) and UVNS (Ultraviolet Visible Near-infrared Shortwave-infrared), to observe near-surface O3 through the IASI-NG+UVNS multispectral method. The pseudo-real state of the atmosphere is provided by the MOCAGE (MOdèle de Chimie Atmosphérique à Grande Échelle) chemical transport model. We perform full and accurate forward and inverse radiative transfer calculations for a period of 4 days (8-11 July 2010) over Europe.In the LMT, there is a remarkable agreement in the geographical distribution of O3 partial columns between IASI-NG+UVNS pseudo-observations and the corresponding MOCAGE pseudo-reality. With respect to synthetic IASI+GOME-2 products, IASI-NG+UVNS shows a higher correlation between pseudo-observations and pseudo-reality, which is enhanced by about 12 %. The bias on high ozone retrieval is reduced and the average accuracy increases by 22 %. The sensitivity to LMT ozone is also enhanced. On average, the degree of freedom for signal is

  12. Urinary Biomarker Panel to Improve Accuracy in Predicting Prostate Biopsy Result in Chinese Men with PSA 4–10 ng/mL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongqiang Zhou

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness and clinical performance of a panel of urinary biomarkers to diagnose prostate cancer (PCa in Chinese men with PSA levels between 4 and 10 ng/mL. A total of 122 patients with PSA levels between 4 and 10 ng/mL who underwent consecutive prostate biopsy at three hospitals in China were recruited. First-catch urine samples were collected after an attentive prostate massage. Urinary mRNA levels were measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR. The predictive accuracy of these biomarkers and prediction models was assessed by the area under the curve (AUC of the receiver-operating characteristic (ROC curve. The diagnostic accuracy of PCA3, PSGR, and MALAT-1 was superior to that of PSA. PCA3 performed best, with an AUC of 0.734 (95% CI: 0.641, 0.828 followed by MALAT-1 with an AUC of 0.727 (95% CI: 0.625, 0.829 and PSGR with an AUC of 0.666 (95% CI: 0.575, 0.749. The diagnostic panel with age, prostate volume, % fPSA, PCA3 score, PSGR score, and MALAT-1 score yielded an AUC of 0.857 (95% CI: 0.780, 0.933. At a threshold probability of 20%, 47.2% of unnecessary biopsies may be avoided whereas only 6.2% of PCa cases may be missed. This urinary panel may improve the current diagnostic modality in Chinese men with PSA levels between 4 and 10 ng/mL.

  13. PSA levels of 4.0 - 10 ng/ml and negative digital rectal examination: antibiotic therapy versus immediate prostate biopsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avraham Shtricker

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The management of mildly elevated (4.0-10.0 ng/ml prostate specific antigen (PSA is uncertain. Immediate prostate biopsy, antibiotic treatment, or short term monitoring PSA level for 1-3 months is still in controversy. Material and Methods: We conducted a retrospective chart review of patients in a large community practice (2003 - 2007 who had PSA levels between 4.0-10 ng/mL without any further evidence of infection. Data was gathered regarding patient's age, whether standard antibiotic therapy (10-14 days of ofloxacin or ciprofloxacin had been administered before the second PSA measurement, results of a second PSA test performed at 1- to 2-month intervals, whether a prostate biopsy was performed and its result. Results: One-hundred and thirty-five men met the study inclusion criteria with 65 (48.1% having received antibiotics (group 1; the PSA levels decreased in 39 (60% of which, sixteen underwent a biopsy which demonstrated prostate cancer in 4 (25%. Twenty-six (40% patients of group 1 exhibited no decrease in PSA levels; seventeen of them underwent a biopsy that demonstrated cancer in 2 (12%. The other 70 (51.9% patients were not treated with antibiotics (group 2; the PSA levels decreased in 42 (60% of which, thirteen underwent a biopsy which demonstrated prostate cancer in 4 (31%. In the other 28 (40% patients of group 2 there was no demonstrated decrease in PSA, nineteen of these subjects underwent a biopsy that demonstrated cancer in 8 (42%. Conclusions: There appears to be no advantage for administration of antibacterial therapy with initial PSA levels between 4-10 ng/mL without overt evidence of inflammation.

  14. Diagnostic value of microRNAs in prostate cancer patients with prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels between 2, and 10 ng/mL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbayır, Serin; Muşlu, Necati; Erden, Sema; Bozlu, Murat

    2016-01-01

    Objective Prostate specific antigen (PSA), used for the early diagnosis of prostate cancer (PCa), is one of the best tumour markers known so far. However, in situations when PSA is between 2–10 ng/mL, which is named as grey zone, PSA falls short of distinguishing benign prostate diseases from PCa. On the other hand, it was demonstrated in many previous studies that microRNA (miRNA) could be a marker for cancer. Therefore, in this study, it was aimed to enhance the diagnostic power of PSA, especially with grey zone patients, by the use of miRNA. Material and Methods Ninety-four patients included in the study were divided into three groups as “control group” (n=44, PSA=2–10 ng/mL and benign), “PCa 1 group” (n=37, PSA=2–10 ng/mL), and “PCa 2 group” (n=13, PSA >10 ng/mL), according to their pathological results and PSA levels. Free PSA (fPSA) and total PSA (T-PSA) levels were measured with chemiluminometric sandwich immunoassay method. Expressions of miRNAs were analyzed using quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) method. The most appropriate specificity, sensitivity and prediction values were found by drawing the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves of total PSA, free/total PSA (f/T PSA) ratio, and miRNAs, and the diagnostic powers were compared with each other. Results Diagnostic powers of the f/T PSA ratio and miRNA were compared in PCa 1 and the control groups to determine the marker with higher area under the curve (AUC). It was shown that the diagnostic power of the combination of miR-16-5p and f/T PSA was higher than that obtained when they were used separately. Conclusion As a result, while making the the discrimination between benign and malignant prostate in patients with grey zone, it was determined that the combination of miR-16-5p and f/T PSA was more valuable than T-PSA or f/T PSA alone. It was thought that diagnostic role of miRNAs in the early diagnosis of the different stages of PCa needed to

  15. Effect of nitric oxide blockade by NG-nitro-L-arginine on cerebral blood flow response to changes in carbon dioxide tension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Qian; Paulson, O B; Lassen, N A

    1992-01-01

    The importance of nitric oxide (NO) for CBF variations associated with arterial carbon dioxide changes was investigated in halothane-anesthetized rats by using an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase, NG-nitro-L-arginine (NOLAG). CBF was measured by intracarotid injection of 133Xe. In normocapnia...... pressure to the same level as the highest dose of NOLAG did not affect the CBF response to hypercapnia. L-Arginine significantly prevented the effect of NOLAG on normocapnic CBF as well as blood pressure and also abolished its inhibitory effect on hypercapnic CBF. D-Arginine had no such effect. Decreasing...

  16. Diagnostic value of microRNAs in prostate cancer patients with prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels between 2, and 10 ng/mL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbayır, Serin; Muşlu, Necati; Erden, Sema; Bozlu, Murat

    2016-12-01

    Prostate specific antigen (PSA), used for the early diagnosis of prostate cancer (PCa), is one of the best tumour markers known so far. However, in situations when PSA is between 2-10 ng/mL, which is named as grey zone, PSA falls short of distinguishing benign prostate diseases from PCa. On the other hand, it was demonstrated in many previous studies that microRNA (miRNA) could be a marker for cancer. Therefore, in this study, it was aimed to enhance the diagnostic power of PSA, especially with grey zone patients, by the use of miRNA. Ninety-four patients included in the study were divided into three groups as "control group" (n=44, PSA=2-10 ng/mL and benign), "PCa 1 group" (n=37, PSA=2-10 ng/mL), and "PCa 2 group" (n=13, PSA >10 ng/mL), according to their pathological results and PSA levels. Free PSA (fPSA) and total PSA (T-PSA) levels were measured with chemiluminometric sandwich immunoassay method. Expressions of miRNAs were analyzed using quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) method. The most appropriate specificity, sensitivity and prediction values were found by drawing the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves of total PSA, free/total PSA (f/T PSA) ratio, and miRNAs, and the diagnostic powers were compared with each other. Diagnostic powers of the f/T PSA ratio and miRNA were compared in PCa 1 and the control groups to determine the marker with higher area under the curve (AUC). It was shown that the diagnostic power of the combination of miR-16-5p and f/T PSA was higher than that obtained when they were used separately. As a result, while making the the discrimination between benign and malignant prostate in patients with grey zone, it was determined that the combination of miR-16-5p and f/T PSA was more valuable than T-PSA or f/T PSA alone. It was thought that diagnostic role of miRNAs in the early diagnosis of the different stages of PCa needed to be examined in further studies with larger groups.

  17. Varayti at Varyasyon ng Wikang B’laan sa Bacong, Tulunan, Hilagang Cotabato at Lampitak, Tampakan, Timog Cotabato, Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radji A. Macatabon

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to determine the variety and variation of B’laan language in two municipalities. Specifically the study aimed to find out the following: What are the variety of B’laan language? Are there lexical and morphological variations existing in B’laan language by B’laan tribe in Bacong, Tulunan North Cotabato and Lampitak, Tampakan South Cotabato? And What factor influences such linguistic variety and variation of B’laan language? The scope of this study was confined to B’laan tribe living in barangay Bacong, Tulunan North Cotabato and barangay Lampitak, Tampakan South Cotabato. Descriptive method of research using structural and sociolinguistical analysis was utilized to describe and determine the linguistic variety and variation of B’laan language. Findings revealed that B’laan language has two language variety the To Lagad and To Baba. Results further show that linguistic variation on lexical and morphological features of B’laan language in this study is influenced by geographical dimension or the distance of the place where the B’laan people live. B’laan language is unique for its linguistic variety. Research proved that B’laan language is not homogeneous because it has lexical and morphological variation

  18. Crianças bilíngües Alemão-Português: erros na escrita e características do ambiente familiar Bilingual German-Portuguese children: handwriting mistakes and characteristics of the familiar environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Raquel Sbrissa Moura

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Relacionar erros na escrita em português, características do ambiente familiar, idade e sexo de crianças bilíngües Alemão-Português. MÉTODOS: Vinte crianças bilíngües alemão/português realizaram ditado balanceado, e seus pais responderam a um questionário. Os tipos de erros na escrita em Português foram classificados e quantificados, e posteriormente relacionados às respostas dos pais no questionário aplicado. RESULTADOS: Houve menos erros relacionados à troca, substituição aleatória, inversão, transposição, omissão e adição de grafemas, e mais erros relacionados às irregularidades da língua portuguesa. A maioria dos pais possuía material escrito em casa; quando mais de uma pessoa lia em casa e quanto maior a escolaridade paterna, maior o número de crianças com menos erros na escrita; quanto menor a escolaridade materna, maior o número de estudantes com mais erros na escrita. Quanto mais novas as crianças, mais erros de todos os tipos. Os meninos apresentaram mais erros na escrita do que as meninas. CONCLUSÕES: Mesmo sendo os participantes deste estudo todos bilíngües, a maioria dos achados foi compatível com os encontrados em outras pesquisas com crianças monolíngües do Português Brasileiro.PURPOSE: To relate mistakes in Portuguese writing, characteristics of the familiar environment, age and gender of bilingual German-Portuguese children. METHODS: Twenty bilingual children were submitted to balanced dictation, and their parents answered a questionnaire. The analysis classified and quantified the types of errors in Portuguese writing, which was later related to their parents' answers on the questionnaire. RESULTS: There were fewer errors related to change, random substitution, inversion, transposition, omission and adding of graphemes, and more errors associated with Portuguese irregularities. Most parents had written material at home; when more than one person used to read at home and the

  19. Ocular Disorders in Turkish Children with Sensorineural Hearıng Loss: A Cross-Sectional Study and Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozer, Pinar Altiaylik; Kabatas, Emrah Utku; Ertugrul, Gokce Tasdemir; Kurtul, Bengi Ece; Kaygusuz, Umut; Ozgursoy, Selmin Karatayli

    2016-09-14

    To investigate types and frequencies of ocular disorders in children with sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL), and to emphasize the importance of ophthalmological examination in these children. A retrospective analysis of the examination records of children examined in our instutititon between January 2011 and September 2014 was performed. Ocular disorders of children with SHNL were selectively reviewed. Among 55340 patients, SNHL was present in 110 (0.2%). SNHL was bilateral in 104 patients (94.5%) and unilateral in 6 (5.5%). Ninety-one cases had congenital hearing loss (83%), and 19 (17%) had acquired SNHL. Forty cases (36%) had an ocular disorder, either refractive or non-refractive or both. Seventy cases (64%) had normal ocular examination. No difference was found between congenital or acquired SNHL cases in terms of possessing an ocular disorder (p=0.0962). The most common ocular abnormality was refractive error, mainly hypermetropia (21%). There was no significant difference between the prevalences of ocular abnormalities among cases with different lateralites or severities of SNHL (p=0.051, p=0.874, respectively). Twenty-six cases (23.6%) had SNHL as a component of a genetically defined syndrome. All of them had coexisting refractive or non-refractive ocular abnormalities. Some genetic, non-syndromic abnormalities, including Achondroplasia, Celiac disease, and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, were diagnosed in four cases, among whom refractive errors and/or strabismus were detected. Due to the common coexistence of ocular problems and SNHL in children, ophthalmological screening is crucial. Families and healthcare providers should be informed about the critical role of ophthalmic assesment in these children for their future quality of life.

  20. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray study of a family 10 alkali-thermostable xylanase from alkalophilic Bacillus sp. strain NG-27

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manikandan, K.; Bhardwaj, Amit; Ghosh, Amit; Reddy, V. S.; Ramakumar, S.

    2005-01-01

    A family 10 alkali-thermostable xylanase from Bacillus sp. NG-27 has been crystallized. A diffraction data set has been collected to 2.2 Å resolution. Xylanases (EC 3.2.1.8) catalyze the hydrolysis of β-1,4-glycosidic linkages within xylan, a major hemicellulose component in the biosphere. The extracellular endoxylanase (XylnA) from the alkalophilic Bacillus sp. strain NG-27 belongs to family 10 of the glycoside hydrolases. It is active at 343 K and pH 8.4. Moreover, it has attractive features from the point of view of utilization in the paper pulp, animal feed and baking industries since it is an alkali-thermostable protein. In this study, XylnA was purified from the native host source and crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystals belong to the monoclinic space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 174.5, b = 54.7, c = 131.5 Å, β = 131.2°, and diffract to better than 2.2 Å resolution

  1. Eenheid in die NG Kerkfamilie: Waar staan die NG Kerk?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.J. Strauss

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available

    Unity in the family of Dutch Reformed Churches: Where does the Dutch Reformed Church stand?

    The story of the process of unity in the family of Dutch Reformed Churches is vulnerable to the ebb and flow of points or situations of consensus and difference. Alack of trust and understanding often brings this process to standstill. The two main issues to solve are the roll and status of the Confession of Belhar in the new church and the structural model which should be used. The DRC are of the opinion that the acceptance of the former can not be used as a condition for unity, although it may be included in the confessional basis of the new church: but as not compulsory for any member of the church. Against this the General Synod of URCSA of 2008 again decided to make the acceptance of Belhar as a confession a condition for the process. They were only willing to proceed with unity talks if it was facilitated by members of the World Alliance of Reformed Churches. It seems as if there are less problems on the proposed structure as put forward by the joint conference of the family at Achterberg in 2007. The proposal is to start with a joint general synod which replaces the existing general synods. The DRC seem prepared to go this way, although the smaller members of the family seem to object. In the mean time the DRC remain committed to the process and are willing to talk to solve any difference or problem.

  2. How can the Brazilian emissions legislation influence the size of NG (Natural Gas) light duty vehicles fleet; Como o programa de controle de emissoes veiculares no Brasil pode influenciar a frota de veiculos leves a GNV (Gas Natural Veicular)?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melo, Tadeu C.C.; Machado, Guilherme B. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES); Siqueira, Amanda Albani [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Nova Friburgo, RJ (Brazil). Inst. Politecnico

    2004-07-01

    In the last years, a high growth of Brazilian converted Natural Gas (NG) light duty vehicles fleet was observed. It can be related mainly to tax license reduction of NG vehicles; the increase of the NG distribution around the country; attractive price difference between NG and other fuels, mainly gasoline, and an increase on the infrastructure for NG conversion in many places of Brazil. The IBAMA, worried about this uncontrolled increase, published, in 2002, the CONAMA resolution, number 291, that defines ways for the environmental certification of the NG conversion kits and establishes that gas emission from the converted vehicle must be equal or lower than those of the original vehicles, before the conversion. The new PROCONVE phases, which will start in 2007 and 2009, including the requirement for OBD technology (On Board Diagnosis) use and the emission limits reduction, will make the attendance of the legislature difficult to be achieved by the NG conversion companies. This new context can impact on a reduction in the number of converted vehicles and, on the other hand, can stimulate the increase of the OEM participation in this market. (author)

  3. Quantitative antibody-free LC-MS/MS analysis of sTRAIL in sputum and saliva at the sub-ng/mL level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilffert, Daniel; Donzelli, Riccardo; Asselman, Angela; Hermans, Jos; Govorukhina, Natalia; ten Hacken, Nick H. T.; Quax, Wim J.; Merbel, van de Nico; Bischoff, Rainer

    2016-01-01

    Soluble tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (sTRAIL) induces apoptosis via the extrinsic death receptor pathway and maybe a biomarker in the pathogenesis of a broad range of diseases. To investigate the role of sTRAIL in asthma, we developed a quantitative LC-MS/MS method with a

  4. Experimental and theoretical analysis of effects of N2, O2 and Ar in excess air on combustion and NOx emissions of a turbocharged NG engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Weifeng; Liu, Zhongchang; Wang, Zhongshu; Xu, Yun; Wang, Jiankun

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We defined 7 effects of excess air and quantitative indicators on NOx emissions. • Contributions of N 2 , O 2 and Ar on the thermal effect are separately 85%, 14% and 1%. • Contributions of N 2 and Ar on the dilution effect are 98.8% and 1.2%, respectively. • The high level of N 2 in air is the main reason why NOx emissions decrease with λ. - Abstract: This paper presents the effects of N 2 , O 2 and Ar in excess air on combustion and NOx emissions of a natural gas spark-ignition engine. Based on Arrhenius Law and Zeldovich Mechanism, seven different kinds of effects were defined as well as their quantitative indicators. Excess air and N 2 were separately added into the intake charge with fuel remaining unchanged in a 6-cylinder turbocharged natural gas engine. The results show that the essential reason why NOx emissions vary with increasing excess air ratio (λ) is that the oxidation effect of O 2 varies with the in-cylinder temperature, which is controlled by the thermal effect of excess air. The contributions of N 2 , O 2 and Ar on the thermal effect are 82.6–86.1%, 13.3–16.7% and 0.6–0.7%, respectively. The chemical effect of O 2 is fully offset by the dilution effect of N 2 and Ar. The contributions of N 2 and Ar on the dilution effect are 98.31% and 1.69%, respectively. The increase of NOx emissions caused by O 2 is found to be increased first and then decreased with increasing λ. From the view of the composition of air, the high level of N 2 is the main reason why NOx emissions decrease significantly with increasing λ

  5. ANALYSI S ON SECONDARY I NFECTI ON- TRI GGERI NG MICROORGANISMS IN HIV/AIDS PATIENTS AS A MODEL FOR POLICY CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Retno Pudji Rahayu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available HIV infection is associated with immune-compromised and rising in opportunistic infection (secondary infection. Therefore, the number of mortality caused by HIV/AIDS is increasing. The use of ARV and development of HIV/AIDS management are expected to suppress the progress of HIV infection into AIDS and, therefore, the mortality can be diminished, while in fact most of the patients eventually suffer from AIDS due to secondary infection that commonly causes death. There should be a management by analysing microorganisms that trigger secondary infection. The method of this study was observational descriptive with cross sectional design. HIV infected blood samples were using ELISA Antibody (IgG and IgM and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR on laboratory test. The result showed correlation between HIV/AIDS severity and the amount and types of secondary infection. The most common secondary infections were toxoplasm (96.77%, hepatitis C (22.58%, tuberculosis (19.35%, and hepatitis B (3.22%. Other less frequent secondary infections, which were quite difficult to diagnose and not commonly found in Indonesia, were West Nile Virus (25.81%, Japanese Encephalitis Virus (3.22%, and Enterovirus (3.22%. Due to MDGs (Millenium Development Goals target and the results above, researchers are highly demanded to contribute in decreasing mortality related to AIDS through early detection of secondary infection,including type of infection which have not been commonly found in Indonesia, such as West Nile Virus and Nipah Virus. The discovery of secondary infection in this study was not enough to suppress the occurrence of infection in HIV/AIDS patients. Antimicrobes and good nutrition are required. Moreover, there should be either a primary or secondary prophylaxis to prevent secondary infection that raises the number of mortality and morbidity of HIV/AIDS patients. The result of this study was to meet the target of MDGs by establishing new policies in handling HIV/AIDS infections and have potential as model for policy control in HIV/AIDS.

  6. PROSTAT SPESİFİK ANTİJEN 2.5-4 NG/ML ARALIĞINDA PSAD VE PROSTAT BİYOPSİ SONUÇLARININ DEĞERLENDİRİLMESİ Evaluation of PSAD and Prostate Biopsy Results in Prostat Specific Antigen Between 2.5-4 ng/mL

    OpenAIRE

    CEYLAN, Yasin; GÜNLÜSOY, Bülent; ŞEFİK, Ertugrul; AYDOĞDU, Özgü; DEĞİRMENCİ, Tansu; TOPÇU, Yusuf Kadir

    2018-01-01

    ÖZETAmaç: Bu çalışmanın amacı; PSA 2.5- 4 ng/ml arasında olan hastaların verilerini ve bu aralıktakanser saptama oranını değerlendirmektir.Gereç ve Yöntemler: Ocak 2011-Aralık 2014 tarihleri arasında hastanemizde Prostat Kanseri(PCa) şüphesi olan ve total PSA değeri 2.5-4 ng/ml olan 83 hastadan alınan prostat biyopsisonuçları retrospektif olarak değerlendirildi. PSA yüksekliği ve/veya anormal rektal muayenebulgusu ile kliniğimize başvuran her hastaya transrektal ultrason eşliğinde prostat biy...

  7. Cleaning sorbents used in matrix solid-phase dispersion with sonication: application to the estimation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons at ng/g levels in marine sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moliner-Martínez, Y; González-Fuenzalida, R A; Herráez-Hernández, R; Campíns-Falcó, P; Verdú-Andrés, J

    2012-11-09

    This study shows that ultrasonic assisted extraction is a good practise for removing impurities from sorbents used for matrix-solid phase dispersion (MSPD). A previous washing of the sorbent with an organic solvent or mixture of solvents eliminates part of the interferences, but this treatment is not enough for the quantification of PAHs at ng/g levels. It is demonstrated that the determination of traces of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in solid samples processed by matrix-solid phase dispersion (MSPD) may be severely affected by the presence of sorbent impurities. Different extraction solvents and sonication conditions have been tested, and on the basis of the results obtained a new approach is presented for cleaning sorbents typically used in MSPD such C(18), silica or Florisil. The utility of the described approach has been illustrated by analysing by liquid chromatography and fluorescence detection different marine sediments. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Towards IASI-New Generation (IASI-NG): impact of improved spectral resolution and radiometric noise on the retrieval of thermodynamic, chemistry and climate variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crevoisier, C.; Clerbaux, C.; Guidard, V.; Phulpin, T.; Armante, R.; Barret, B.; Camy-Peyret, C.; Chaboureau, J.-P.; Coheur, P.-F.; Crépeau, L.; Dufour, G.; Labonnote, L.; Lavanant, L.; Hadji-Lazaro, J.; Herbin, H.; Jacquinet-Husson, N.; Payan, S.; Péquignot, E.; Pierangelo, C.; Sellitto, P.; Stubenrauch, C.

    2014-12-01

    Besides their strong contribution to weather forecast improvement through data assimilation, thermal infrared sounders onboard polar-orbiting platforms are now playing a key role for monitoring atmospheric composition changes. The Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) instrument developed by the French space agency (CNES) and launched by EUMETSAT onboard the Metop satellite series is providing essential inputs for weather forecasting and pollution/climate monitoring owing to its smart combination of large horizontal swath, good spectral resolution and high radiometric performance. EUMETSAT is currently preparing the next polar-orbiting program (EPS-SG) with the Metop-SG satellite series that should be launched around 2020. In this framework, CNES is studying the concept of a new instrument, the IASI-New Generation (IASI-NG), characterized by an improvement of both spectral and radiometric characteristics as compared to IASI, with three objectives: (i) continuity of the IASI/Metop series; (ii) improvement of vertical resolution; and (iii) improvement of the accuracy and detection threshold for atmospheric and surface components. In this paper, we show that an improvement of spectral resolution and radiometric noise fulfil these objectives by leading to (i) a better vertical coverage in the lower part of the troposphere, thanks to the increase in spectral resolution; and (ii) an increase in the accuracy of the retrieval of several thermodynamic, climate and chemistry variables, thanks to the improved signal-to-noise ratio as well as less interference between the signatures of the absorbing species in the measured radiances. The detection limit of several atmospheric species is also improved. We conclude that IASI-NG has the potential to strongly benefit the numerical weather prediction, chemistry and climate communities now connected through the European GMES/Copernicus initiative.

  9. {delta}-Opioid receptor-stimulated Akt signaling in neuroblastoma x glioma (NG108-15) hybrid cells involves receptor tyrosine kinase-mediated PI3K activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heiss, Anika; Ammer, Hermann [Institute of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmacy Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich Koeniginstrasse 16 80539 Muenchen Federal Republic of Germany (Germany); Eisinger, Daniela A., E-mail: eisinger@pharmtox.vetmed.uni-muenchen.de [Institute of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmacy Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich Koeniginstrasse 16 80539 Muenchen Federal Republic of Germany (Germany)

    2009-07-15

    {delta}-Opioid receptor (DOR) agonists possess cytoprotective properties, an effect associated with activation of the 'pro-survival' kinase Akt. Here we delineate the signal transduction pathway by which opioids induce Akt activation in neuroblastoma x glioma (NG108-15) hybrid cells. Exposure of the cells to both [D-Pen{sup 2,5}]enkephalin and etorphine resulted in a time- and dose-dependent increase in Akt activity, as measured by means of an activation-specific antibody recognizing phosphoserine-473. DOR-mediated Akt signaling is blocked by the opioid antagonist naloxone and involves inhibitory G{sub i/o} proteins, because pre-treatment with pertussis toxin, but not over-expression of the G{sub q/11} scavengers EBP50 and GRK2-K220R, prevented this effect. Further studies with Wortmannin and LY294002 revealed that phophoinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) plays a central role in opioid-induced Akt activation. Opioids stimulate Akt activity through transactivation of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK), because pre-treatment of the cells with inhibitors for neurotrophin receptor tyrosine kinases (AG879) and the insulin-like growth factor receptor IGF-1 (AG1024), but not over-expression of the G{beta}{gamma} scavenger phosducin, abolished this effect. Activated Akt translocates to the nuclear membrane, where it promotes GSK3 phosphorylation and prevents caspase-3 cleavage, two key events mediating inhibition of cell apoptosis and enhancement of cell survival. Taken together, these results demonstrate that in NG108-15 hybrid cells DOR agonists possess cytoprotective properties mediated by activation of the RTK/PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.

  10. Exploração de fatores de risco para câncer de mama em mulheres de etnia Kaingáng, Terra Indígena Faxinal, Paraná, Brasil, 2008 Exploring breast cancer risk factors in Kaingáng women in the Faxinal Indigenous Territory, Paraná State, Brazil, 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edimara Patrícia da Silva

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente estudo foi analisar a saúde das mulheres Kaingáng da Terra Indígena Faxinal, Paraná, Brasil, quanto aos fatores de risco para o câncer de mama. O estudo, de caráter descritivo-exploratório, foi realizado com 95,4% da população feminina com vinte anos ou mais. O aleitamento materno por mais de 1 ano foi relatado por 92,3% das mulheres; 41,4% tinham mais de cinco filhos; a idade média da menarca foi 13,4 anos; 61,5% nunca tinham ouvido falar do câncer de mama; o auto-exame da mama era realizado por apenas 2,9% das mulheres; o médico não realizava o exame clínico da mama, segundo 81,7% delas, e 99% nunca fizeram mamografia. Não foi relatado caso de câncer de mama ou extramamário. Destacaram-se a presença dos fatores de proteção para a carcinogênese e a ausência de alguns fatores de risco, como o uso de terapia de reposição hormonal por mais de cinco anos e etilismo, na maioria das mulheres Kaingáng.This study analyzes the health of Kaingáng women in the Faxinal indigenous territory in Paraná State, Brazil, with regard to risk factors for breast cancer. A descriptive and exploratory investigation was undertaken that included 95.4% of females 20 years or over. Data showed that 92.3% of Kaingáng women reported breastfeeding for more than one year; 41.4% had more than 5 children; mean age at menarche was 13.4 years; 61.5% had never heard of breast cancer; breast self-examination was only performed by 2.9%; 81.7% reported no clinical breast examination by a physician; 99% had never had a mammogram. No cases of breast or non-breast cancer were reported. The study highlights protective factors against carcinogenesis and the absence of key risk factors like hormone replacement therapy for more than five years and alcohol consumption in most Kaingáng women.

  11. Molecular detection and confirmation of Neisseria gonorrhoeae in urogenital and extragenital specimens using the Abbott CT/NG RealTime assay and an in-house assay targeting the porA pseudogene.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, A

    2011-04-01

    Culture for detection of Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) is being replaced by molecular assays, but difficulties are observed with false positive and negatives results, especially for extragenital samples. This study evaluates the Abbott CT\\/NG Real-Time assay and a real-time porA pseudogene assay. Samples (n = 600) from a mixed prevalence Irish population include 164 male urines with corresponding urethral swabs, 58 endocervical swabs, 173 male pharyngeal swabs, 205 male rectal swabs, 36 NG clinical isolates and 26 commensal Neisseria species isolates. There was a 100% concordance between the Abbott CT\\/NG Real-Time and the porA assay. The positivity rate was 1.2%, 1.7%, 8.1% and 5.8% for FVU\\/urethral swabs, endocervical, pharyngeal and rectal swabs, respectively. These results were compared to culture and discrepancies were found with nine pharyngeal and three rectal swabs. Seven of the 12 discrepant positive samples were sequenced and were confirmed "true positives". The sensitivity and specificity of the molecular assays was 100%. The sensitivity of the culture-based testing was 100% for urogenital samples but 36% and 75% for pharyngeal and rectal swabs, respectively. The combined Abbott CT\\/NG and porA assays provide a valuable alternative to culture and also generate a significant increase in the diagnosis of pharyngeal and rectal NG infection.

  12. The roles of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) density, prostate volume, and their zone-adjusted derivatives in predicting prostate cancer in patients with PSA less than 20.0 ng/mL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, P; Zhao, J; Sun, G; Chen, N; Zhang, X; Gui, H; Yang, Y; Liu, J; Shu, K; Wang, Z; Zeng, H

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to develop nomograms for predicting prostate cancer and its zonal location using prostate-specific antigen density, prostate volume, and their zone-adjusted derivatives. A total of 928 consecutive patients with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) less than 20.0 ng/mL, who underwent transrectal ultrasound-guided transperineal 12-core prostate biopsy at West China Hospital between 2011 and 2014, were retrospectively enrolled. The patients were randomly split into training cohort (70%, n = 650) and validation cohort (30%, n = 278). Predicting models and the associated nomograms were built using the training cohort, while the validations of the models were conducted using the validation cohort. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression was performed. Then, new nomograms were generated based on multivariate regression coefficients. The discrimination power and calibration of these nomograms were validated using the area under the ROC curve (AUC) and the calibration curve. The potential clinical effects of these models were also tested using decision curve analysis. In total, 285 (30.7%) patients were diagnosed with prostate cancer. Among them, 131 (14.1%) and 269 (29.0%) had transition zone prostate cancer and peripheral zone prostate cancer. Each of zone-adjusted derivatives-based nomogram had an AUC more than 0.75. All nomograms had higher calibration and much better net benefit than the scenarios in predicting patients with or without different zones prostate cancer. Prostate-specific antigen density, prostate volume, and their zone-adjusted derivatives have important roles in detecting prostate cancer and its zonal location for patients with PSA 2.5-20.0 ng/mL. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first nomogram using these parameters to predict outcomes of 12-core prostate biopsy. These instruments can help clinicians to increase the accuracy of prostate cancer screening and to avoid unnecessary prostate biopsy. © 2017

  13. Assessing Heavy and Trace Metal Contamination in Surface Materials near the Ambaji and Zawar mines in Gujurat and Rajasthan, India using Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer-Next Generation (AVIRIS-NG) Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrand, W. H.

    2017-12-01

    An investigation has begun into effects on water quality in waters coming from a pair of mines, and their surrounding drainage basins, in western India. The study areas are the Ambaji and Zawar mines in the Indian states of, respectively, Gujurat and Rajasthan. The Ambaji mine is situated in Precambrian-aged metasediments and metavolcanics of the Delhi Supergroup. Sulfide mineralization at Ambaji is hosted by hydrothermally altered felsic metavolcanics rocks with ferric oxide and oxyhydroxide as well as copper carbonate surface indicator minerals. The Zawar zinc mine is part of the Precambrian Aravalli Supergroup and lies amidst surface exposures of dolomites and quartzites. Hyperspectral visible through short-wave infrared (VSWIR) data from the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer Next Generation (AVIRIS-NG) was collected in February 2016 over these sites as part of a joint campaign between NASA and the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO). The AVIRIS-NG data is being used to detect, map, and characterize surface mineralogy in the area. Data discovery is being carried out using a self-organizing map (SOM) methodology with mineral endmembers being mapped initially with a support vector machine (SVM) classifier and a planned more comprehensive mapping using the USGS Material Identification and Characterization Algorithm (MICA). Results of the mineral mapping will be field checked and rock, soil, and water samples will be collected and examined for heavy and trace metal contamination. Past studies have shown changes in the shape of the 2.2 mm Al-OH vibrational overtone feature as well as in blue-red spectral ratios that were directly correlated with the concentration of heavy and trace metals that had been adsorbed into the structure of the affected minerals. Early analysis of the Zawar area scenes indicates the presence of Al-OH clay minerals which might have been affected by the adsorption of trace metals. Scenes from the Ambaji area have more

  14. ( sup 3 H)(D-PEN sup 2 , D-PEN sup 5 ) enkephalin binding to delta opioid receptors on intact neuroblastoma-glioma (NG 108-15) hybrid cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knapp, R.J.; Yamamura, H.I. (Univ. of Arizona College of Medicine, Tucson (USA))

    1990-01-01

    ({sup 3}H)(D-Pen{sup 2}, D-Pen{sup 5})enkephalin binding to intact NG 108-15 cells has been measured under physiological conditions of temperature and medium. The dissociation constant, receptor density, and Hill slope values measured under these conditions are consistent with values obtained by others using membranes prepared from these cells. Kinetic analysis of the radioligand binding to these cells show biphasic association and monophasic dissociation processes suggesting the presence of different receptor affinity states for the agonist. The data show that the binding affinity of ({sup 3}H)(D-Pen{sup 2}, D-Pen{sup 5})enkephalin under physiological conditions is not substantially different to that measured in 50 mM Tris buffer using cell membrane fractions. Unlike DPDPE, the {mu} opioid agonists morphine, normorphine, PL-17, and DAMGO, have much lower affinity for the {delta} receptor measured under these conditions than is observed by studies using 50 mM Tris buffer. The results described here suggest that this assay may serve as a useful model of {delta} opioid receptor binding in vivo.

  15. Applicability of the direct injection liquid chromatographic tandem mass spectrometric analytical approach to the sub-ngL-1 determination of perfluoro-alkyl acids in waste, surface, ground and drinking water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciofi, Lorenzo; Renai, Lapo; Rossini, Daniele; Ancillotti, Claudia; Falai, Alida; Fibbi, Donatella; Bruzzoniti, Maria Concetta; Santana-Rodriguez, José Juan; Orlandini, Serena; Del Bubba, Massimo

    2018-01-01

    The applicability of a direct injection UHPLC-MS/MS method for the analysis of several perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in a wide range of water matrices was investigated. The method is based on the direct injection of 100µL of centrifuged water sample, without any other sample treatment. Very good method detection limits (0.014-0.44ngL -1 ) and excellent intra and inter-day precision (RSD% values in the range 1.8-4.4% and 2.7-5.7%, respectively) were achieved, with a total analysis time of 20min per sample. A high number of samples - i.e. 8 drinking waters (DW), 12 ground waters (GW), 13 surface waters (SW), 8 influents and 11 effluents of wastewater treatment plants (WWTP IN and WWTP OUT ) were processed and the extent of matrix effect (ME) was calculated, highlighting the strong prevalence of |ME| 50% was occasionally observed only for perfluorooctanesulphonic and perfluorodecanoic acids. Linear discriminant analysis highlighted the great contribution of the sample origin (i.e. DW, GW, SW, WWTP IN and WWTP OUT ) to the ME. Partial least square regression (PLS) and leave-one-out cross-validation were performed in order to interpret and predict the signal suppression or enhancement phenomena as a function of physicochemical parameters of water samples (i.e. conductivity, hardness and chemical oxygen demand) and background chromatographic area. The PLS approach resulted only in an approximate screening, due to the low prediction power of the PLS models. However, for most analytes in most samples, the fitted and cross-validated values were such as to correctly distinguish between | ME | higher than 20% or below this limit. PFAAs in the aforementioned water samples were quantified by means of the standard addition method, highlighting their occurrence mainly in WWTP influents and effluents, at concentrations as high as one hundred of µgL -1 . Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Cell-surface expression of neuron-glial antigen 2 (NG2) and melanoma cell adhesion molecule (CD146) in heterogeneous cultures of marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Katie C; Tucker, H Alan; Bunnell, Bruce A; Andreeff, Michael; Schober, Wendy; Gaynor, Andrew S; Strickler, Karen L; Lin, Shuwen; Lacey, Michelle R; O'Connor, Kim C

    2013-10-01

    Cellular heterogeneity of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) impedes their use in regenerative medicine. The objective of this research is to identify potential biomarkers for the enrichment of progenitors from heterogeneous MSC cultures. To this end, the present study examines variation in expression of neuron-glial antigen 2 (NG2) and melanoma cell adhesion molecule (CD146) on the surface of MSCs derived from human bone marrow in response to culture conditions and among cell populations. Multipotent cells isolated from heterogeneous MSC cultures exhibit a greater than three-fold increase in surface expression for NG2 and greater than two-fold increase for CD146 as compared with parental and lineage-committed MSCs. For both antigens, surface expression is downregulated by greater than or equal to six-fold when MSCs become confluent. During serial passage, maximum surface expression of NG2 and CD146 is associated with minimum doubling time. Upregulation of NG2 and CD146 during loss of adipogenic potential at early passage suggests some limits to their utility as potency markers. A potential relationship between proliferation and antigen expression was explored by sorting heterogeneous MSCs into rapidly and slowly dividing groups. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting revealed that rapidly dividing MSCs display lower scatter and 50% higher NG2 surface expression than slowly dividing cells, but CD146 expression is comparable in both groups. Heterogeneous MSCs were sorted based on scatter properties and surface expression of NG2 and CD146 into high (HI) and low (LO) groups. Sc(LO)NG2(HI) and Sc(LO)NG2(HI)CD146(HI) MSCs have the highest proliferative potential of the sorted groups, with colony-forming efficiencies that are 1.5-2.2 times the value for the parental controls. The Sc(LO) gate enriches for rapidly dividing cells. Addition of the NG2(HI) gate increases cell survival to 1.5 times the parental control. Further addition of the CD146(HI) gate does not significantly

  17. Assessment of the Polyacrylic Acid for an Ammonia Water Treatment and for Alloy 800NG SG Tube Material in Pressurized Water Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamouroux, Christine; You, Dominique; Plancque, Gabriel; Roy, Marc; Laire, Charles; Schnongs, Philippe

    2012-09-01

    To prevent the Steam Generators (SG) fouling by corrosion products or the Tube Support Plate (TSP) blockage the on-line injection of a dispersant such the Polyacrylic Acid (PAA) could be a relevant water treatment. Long-term trials performed in PWRs have shown that the PAA, injected at the SG inlet, facilitate the evacuation of the iron oxides by the SG blowdown. Given the ammonia treatment of the secondary water of the Belgian PWRs, the R and D program carried out was devoted to: - Verify the innocuousness of the PAA and its degradation products versus Alloy 800NG SCC susceptibility in case of over concentrations and sludge presence, - Assess the potential impact of the PAA and its thermal degradation products on the specific NH 3 water treatment. The main results can be summarized as following: The corrosion tests performed with PAA in case of over concentrations and sludge couldn't point out any negative effect of the dispersant on the SCC susceptibility of tubing materials such as Alloy 800NG. No significant modification of the tube oxide layer has been observed. At the SG operating temperature, the PAA is decomposed and a large spectrum from high to lower molecular weights polymers than the initial PAA arises. The fragmentation of the polymer into low molecular weight polyacrylic acids is obtained within 20 minutes and the average molecular weight is reduced by 50% from the original one. The thermal degradation products, their quantity and their kinetic of appearance, have been determined. The generated acetate concentration during the on-line dispersant application should remain low compared to the current values observed in the SG water. From the numerical simulation based on acetate concentration and on the kinetic law deduced from the experimental work, it can be concluded that in a 2-phase medium, the margin on the water pH compared to the neutral pH remains high. At 180 deg. C, no impact on the water pH is identified, taking into account realistic

  18. Conformal technique dose escalation for prostate cancer: biochemical evidence of improved cancer control with higher doses in patients with pretreatment prostate-specific antigen ≥10 NG/ML

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanks, Gerald E.; Lee, W. Robert; Hanlon, Alexandra L.; Hunt, Margie; Kaplan, Edward; Epstein, Barry E.; Movsas, Benjamin; Schultheiss, Timothy E.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: Conformal radiation technology results in fewer late complications and allows testing of the value of higher doses in prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: We report the biochemical freedom from disease (bNED) rates (bNED failure is Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) ≥ 1.5 ng/ml and rising) at 2 and 3 years for 375 consecutive patients treated with conformal technique from 66 to 79 Gy. Median follow-up was 21 months. Biochemical freedom from disease was analyzed for patients treated above and below 71 Gy as well as above and below 73 Gy. Each dose group was subdivided by pretreatment PSA level (<10, 10-19.9, and ≥ 20 ng/ml). Dose was stated to be at the center of the prostate gland. Results: There was significant improvement in bNED survival for all patients divided by a dose above or below 71 Gy (p = 0.007) and a marginal improvement above or below 73 Gy (p 0.07). Subdividing by pretreatment PSA level showed no benefit to the PSA <10 ng/ml group at the higher dose but there was a significant improvement at 71 and 73 Gy for pretreatment PSA 10-19.9 ng/ml (p = 0.03 and 0.05, respectively) and for pretreatment PSA ≥ 20 ng/ml (p = 0.003 and 0.02, respectively). Conclusions: Increasing dose above 71 or 73 Gy did not result in improved bNED survival for patients with pretreatment PSA <10 ng/ml at 2 or 3 years. Further dose escalation studies may not be useful in these patients. A significant improvement in bNED survival was noted for patients with pretreatment PSA ≥ 10 ng/ml treated above 71 or 73 Gy; further dose escalation studies are warranted

  19. Survey of traditional beliefs in the Hungarian Csángó and Székely ethnomedicine in Transylvania, Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nóra Papp

    Full Text Available Transylvania, part of Romania, has a long-standing culture of Hungarian ethnomedicinal practices. The aim of this study was to review the unexplored ethnopharmacological use of plants, animals and other materials, focusing mainly on the beliefs surrounding them; and compare them with traditional uses from other countries and with scientific literature. An ethnobotanical inventory was conducted among Csángó and Székely Hungarians in three areas of the country between 2007 and 2012. Questionnaires included medical and non-medical uses of plants, animals, and other substances with rational and irrational elements. Altogether 22 plants, twelve animals, and ten other substances had documented uses for various beliefs. The treatments utilize magical numbers, like 3 and 9, to define peculiar order, tools, and like-minded aspects. Plants were used for prediction (e.g. Phaseolus vulgarisL., protection (e.g. Corylus avellana L., and as symbols (e.g. Arctium lappaL.. In addition to the use of animals (e.g. Salamandra salamandra L. or no longer used elements (use of Lytta vesicatoriaL., the employment of other substances (e.g.ash, milk was also documented. The frequency of the documented uses is in continuous decline due to environmental and social changes, and the increased prevalence of conventional healthcare. Hence, the priority of their conservation is of pivotal importance nowadays.

  20. [Management, operations, and menus in Kaingáng indigenous schools participating in the National School Nutrition Program in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Teresa Gontijo de; Matos, Elaine de Lima Cordeiro; Leite, Maurício Soares; Conde, Wolney Lisboa; Schuch, Ilaine; Veiga, Juracilda; Zuchinali, Priccila; Barufaldi, Laura Augusta; Dutra, Carmem Lúcia Centeno

    2014-11-01

    Few studies have focused on the National School Nutrition Program (PNAE) in indigenous schools in Brazil. The current study describes the program's operations, management, and menus in 35 Kaingáng indigenous schools in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. A cross-sectional study design was used to obtain information on the program through questionnaires submitted to the Regional Educational Offices (CRE) and to the schools. The menus suggested to the schools by the regional offices were obtained. There were no Centers for Indigenous Education in the regional offices. All the assistant principals were indigenous, 26 schools (74.6%) practiced local management of the meal program, and 34 (97.1%) reported purchasing food from local markets. Most cooks (63.9%) had temporary work contracts with the schools and 65.7% were indigenous. Low offerings of veges, milk and dairy products were observed in around 60% of the menus, and legumes and fruits low in around 80%. It points out the need for more studies about the indigenous PNAE and intends to support public policies in health, food and nutrition for the national indigenous school .

  1. Comparison of the effects of NG-nitro-L-arginine and indomethacin on the hypercapnic cerebral blood flow increase in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Qian; Pelligrino, D A; Paulson, O B

    1994-01-01

    The effects of NG-nitro-L-arginine (NOLAG), an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase (NOS), and of indomethacin, an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase, on the rise in cerebral blood flow (CBF) accompanying increasing levels of hypercapnia (paCO2 = 40-135 mmHg) were studied in anesthetized rats. CBF....../kg NOLAG. 50 mg/kg NOLAG, given intraperitoneally (i.p.) twice daily for 4 days, also caused an attenuated CBF response to CO2, but the inhibitory effect was significantly less than with acute NOLAG administration in the paCO2 range of 61-90 mmHg. Infusion of L-arginine, 1 g/kg/h, prevented the effect of 7......, but raising paCO2 above this level did not result in further increases in CBF. This effect could not be prevented by L-arginine. When combining 7.5 mg/kg NOLAG with 10 mg/kg indomethacin, the response to hypercapnia was totally blocked. The results suggest that NOLAG and indomethacin act through different...

  2. Effect of chloride and sulphate ions on the electrochemical corrosion behavior of alloy 800NG in PWR secondary water environment at 250 deg C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansur, Fabio A.; Schvartzman, Monica Maria de A.M.; Quinan, Marco A.D.; Soares, Antonio E.G.; Nogueira, Pedro Henrique B.O.

    2013-01-01

    Alloy 800NG (nuclear grade) is used in nuclear steam generators (SG) as the tubing material for pressurized water reactors (PWRs) because of its high corrosion resistance. The corrosion resistance is due to the protective character of the oxide film formed on the tube surface by contact with the high temperature pressurized water. Nevertheless, corrosion has been the major cause of tube failures in nuclear SGs. The existing experience of different nuclear power plants shows that the water chemistry has an important role in maintaining the integrity of the protective oxide films. Many of such problems have been attributed to secondary side water chemistry conditions and excursions, many of which have been resulted from condenser cooling water ingress. Alloy 800 is known to undergo passivity breakdown and pitting in the presence of chloride ions under oxidative water conditions. In this work the effect of chloride and sulphate ions at various concentrations on the corrosion behavior of Alloy 800 tube at 250 deg C was investigated using the potentiodynamic anodic polarization technique. An active-passive transition occurred at 250 deg C in all studied conditions and the oxide film grown on surface showed greater porosity and lower resistance to localised corrosion in all studied conditions. (author)

  3. Use of low free to total PSA ratio in prostate cancer screening: detection rates, clinical and pathological findings in Brazilian men with serum PSA levels <4.0 ng/mL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Eliney Ferreira; Carvalhal, Gustavo F; dos Reis, Rodolfo Borges; Tobias-Machado, Marcos; Vieira, Renê A C; Reis, Leonardo O; Nogueira, Lucas; Machado, Roberto Dias; Freitas, Celso H; Magnabosco, Wesley J; Mauad, Edmundo C; Carvalho, André Lopes

    2012-12-01

    What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? In spite of its low specificity, PSA is the most widely used screening test for prostate cancer (PCa), and is considered the main cause of the stage migration recently observed. The ratio of free to total PSA (%fPSA) has been shown to increase PSA accuracy in cancer detection; however, few screening studies have systematically evaluated its role in cancer detection rates in men with PSA levels indications in men with low PSA levels. • To evaluate the role of the free to total prostate-specific antigen ratio (%fPSA) in identifying prostate cancer (PCa) in men with a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level of 2.5-3.9 ng/mL and a normal digital rectal examination (DRE). • A prospective PCa screening study was conducted, which included 17571 men aged ≥ 45 years, across six Brazilian states, where men were recalled for further evaluation in the case of either a suspicious DRE and/or PSA ≥ 4.0 ng/mL, or PSA 2.5-3.9 ng/mL and %fPSA ≤ 15. • We evaluated the impact of a %fPSA ≤ 15 on cancer detection rates and the clinical and pathological stage of tumours in men with a normal DRE and PSA 2.5-3.9 ng/mL. • When suspicious DRE and/or PSA ≥ 4.0 ng/mL were considered as criteria to prompt further evaluation, the cancer detection rate was 3.1%. When %fPSA ≤ 15 in men with total PSA levels of 2.5-3.9 ng/mL were considered as criteria, the PCa detection rate increased to 3.7%. Considering %fPSA ≤ 15 in men with PSA 2.5-3.9 ng/mL and normal DRE, the positive predictive value of biopsy was 31.1%. • Clinical stage was more favourable among men with PSA 2.5-3.9 ng/mL, normal DRE, and %fPSA ≤ 15 compared with men with normal DRE and PSA ≥ 4.0 ng/mL (P= 0.02). • Among those who underwent radical prostatectomy, pathological stage and the proportion of insignificant tumours were similar between men with PSA 2.5-3.9 ng/mL, normal DRE findings and %fPSA ≤ 15, and men with PSA ≥ 4.0 ng/mL. • The use

  4. Evaluation of the Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System for Magnetic Resonance Imaging Diagnosis of Prostate Cancer in Patients with Prostate-specific Antigen <20 ng/ml.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuan; Wang, Jian-Ye; Li, Chun-Mei; Zhang, Ya-Qun; Wang, Jian-Long; Wan, Ben; Zhang, Wei; Chen, Min; Li, Sa-Ying; Wan, Gang; Liu, Ming

    2016-06-20

    The European Society of Urogenital Radiology has built the Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System (PI-RADS) for standardizing the diagnosis of prostate cancer (PCa). This study evaluated the PI-RADS diagnosis method in patients with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) PSA PI-RADS. The diagnostic accuracy of the PI-RADS score was evaluated using histopathology of prostate biopsies as the reference standard. PCa was histologically diagnosed in 169 (21.2%) regions. Increased PI-RADS score correlated positively with increased cancer detection rate. The cancer detection rate for scores 1 to 5 was 2.8%, 15.0%, 34.6%, 52.6%, and 88.9%, respectively, using T2WI and 12.0%, 20.2%, 48.0%, 85.7%, and 93.3%, respectively, using DWI. For T2WI + DWI, the cancer detection rate was 1.5% (score 2), 13.5% (scores 3-4), 41.3% (scores 5-6), 75.9% (scores 7-8), and 92.3% (scores 9-10). The area under the curve for cancer detection was 0.700 (T2WI), 0.735 (DWI) and 0.749 (T2WI + DWI). The sensitivity and specificity were 53.8% and 89.2%, respectively, when using scores 5-6 as the cutoff value for T2WI + DWI. The PI-RADS score correlates with the PCa detection rate in patients with PSA <20 ng/ml. The summed score of T2WI + DWI has the highest accuracy in detection of PCa. However, the sensitivity should be further improved.

  5. Effects of Nitric Oxide Production Inhibitor Named, NG-Nitro-L-Arginine Methyl Ester (L-NAME, on Rat Mesenchymal Stem Cells Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Arfaei

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objectives: Recently, the findings of some studies have shown that, nitric oxide (NO probably has an important role in differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells to osteoblasts. The aim of the present investigation was to study the effects of nitric oxide production inhibitor named, NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, on rat mesenchymal stem cells differentiation to osteoblasts in vitro. Materials & Methods: This was an experimental study conducted at Hamedan University of Medical Sciences in 2009, in which rat bone marrow stem cells were isolated in an aseptic condition and cultured in vitro. After third passage, the cells were cultured in osteogenic differentiation medium. To study the effects of L-NAME on osteogenic differentiation, the L-NAME was added to the culture medium at a concentration of 125, 250, and 500 μM in some culture plates. During the culture procedure, the media were replaced with fresh ones, with a three days interval. After 28 days of culturing the mineralized matrix was stained using Alizarian red staining method. The gathered data were analyzed by SPSS software version 12 using one way ANOVA. Results: The findings of this study showed that in the presence of L-NAME, differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells to osteoblasts was disordered and matrix mineralization significantly decreased in a dose dependent manner. Conclusion: This study revealed that, inhibition of nitric oxide production using L-NAME can prevent the differentiation of rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells to osteoblast. The results imply that NO is an important constituent in differentiation of mesenchymal stem cell to osteoblasts.

  6. Activity-based protein profiling of secreted cellulolytic enzyme activity dynamics in Trichoderma reesei QM6a, NG14, and RUT-C30

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Lindsey N.; Culley, David E.; Hofstad, Beth A.; Chauvigne-Hines, Lacie M.; Zink, Erika M.; Purvine, Samuel O.; Smith, Richard D.; Callister, Stephen J.; Magnuson, Jon M.; Wright, Aaron T.

    2013-12-01

    Development of alternative, non-petroleum based sources of bioenergy that can be applied in the short-term find great promise in the use of highly abundant and renewable lignocellulosic plant biomass.1 This material obtained from different feedstocks, such as forest litter or agricultural residues, can yield liquid fuels and other chemical products through biorefinery processes.2 Biofuels are obtained from lignocellulosic materials by chemical pretreatment of the biomass, followed by enzymatic decomposition of cellulosic and hemicellulosic compounds into soluble sugars that are converted to desired chemical products via microbial metabolism and fermentation.3, 4 To release soluble sugars from polymeric cellulose multiple enzymes are required, including endoglucanase, exoglucanase, and β-glucosidase.5, 6 However, the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose into soluble sugars remains a significant limiting factor to the efficient and economically viable utilization of lignocellulosic biomass for transport fuels.7, 8 The primary industrial source of cellulose and hemicellulases is the mesophilic soft-rot fungus Trichoderma reesei,9 having widespread applications in food, feed, textile, pulp, and paper industries.10 The genome encodes 200 glycoside hydrolases, including 10 cellulolytic and 16 hemicellulolytic enzymes.11 The hypercellulolytic catabolite derepressed strain RUT-C30 was obtained through a three-step UV and chemical mutagenesis of the original T. reesei strain QM6a,12, 13 in which strains M7 and NG14 were intermediate, having higher cellulolytic activity than the parent strain but less activity and higher catabolite repression than RUT-C30.14 Numerous methods have been employed to optimize the secreted enzyme cocktail of T. reesei including cultivation conditions, operational parameters, and mutagenesis.3 However, creating an optimal and economical enzyme mixture for production-scale biofuels synthesis may take thousands of experiments to identify.

  7. Contribuição da densidade do PSA para predizer o câncer da próstata em pacientes com valores de PSA entre 2,6 e 10,0 ng/ml

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Alexandre Sócrates de Castro

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estudar o perfil dos pacientes submetidos a biópsia prostática, determinando possíveis padrões que, associados aos níveis de PSA entre 2,6 e 10,0 ng/ml, possam levar a uma diminuição de biópsias desnecessárias. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: De 2007 a 2009, foi realizado um estudo transversal com 1.282 indivíduos submetidos a biópsia prostática e que apresentavam níveis de PSA entre 2,6 e 10,0 ng/ml. RESULTADOS: A prevalência de câncer foi de 28,6%. Pacientes com câncer eram, em média, mais idosos, com valores de PSA e densidade de PSA mais altos e menor volume da próstata. Na análise da densidade de PSA, os pacientes com câncer tiveram média de 0,31 ng/ml/cc, enquanto nos pacientes com resultado negativo a média foi de 0,10 ng/ml/cc. Utilizando como critério de positividade para câncer o ponto de corte de densidade de PSA de 0,15 ng/ml/cc, obtivemos especificidade de 74% e sensibilidade de 70%. Para aumentar a sensibilidade é preciso reduzir o ponto de corte. Com o valor 0,09 ng/ml/cc, obtivemos sensibilidade de 84% (IC 95%: 80-87% e especificidade de 75% (IC 95%: 72-78%. CONCLUSÃO: O uso sistemático da densidade de PSA na indicação de prosseguimento da investigação do paciente com biópsia poderia reduzir a quantidade de procedimentos desnecessários.

  8. Organização e qualidade da assistência à saúde dos índios Kaingáng do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Organization and quality of health care for Kaingáng Indians in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yara Hahr Marques Hökerberg

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo pretende avaliar o atendimento à saúde prestado aos índios Kaingáng do Rio Grande do Sul. Os óbitos evitáveis por assistência básica de saúde dos indígenas, ocorridos entre 1985 e 1995, foram comparados aos óbitos do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. Os dados secundários relativos aos serviços de saúde foram complementados por entrevistas realizadas em campo com lideranças indígenas e com funcionários das instituições envolvidas na assistência à saúde do índio. Foi utilizado o Sistema de Informações Geográficas, visando relacionar a distribuição dos óbitos ao grau de acesso aos serviços de saúde. As áreas indígenas Kaingáng estão ligadas por estradas pavimentadas a municípios que contam com, pelo menos, um centro de saúde, ou ainda, hospitais de pequeno porte. O segundo nível de atenção situa-se em Palmeiras das Missões e Frederico Westphallen e o terceiro nível, em Passo Fundo. O que diferencia estas áreas indígenas do restante do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul é a quantidade de óbitos evitáveis pela assistência básica de saúde, tais como as causas mal definidas, a desnutrição, a tuberculose e o câncer cérvico-uterino.This study assesses the health care provided to Kaingáng Indians in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Deaths preventable by primary health care among the Indians and occurring from 1985 to 1995 were compared to the same rates for the State of Rio Grande do Sul as a whole. Secondary data on health care services were supplemented by field interviews with indigenous leaders and with employees from participating institutions. A Geographic Information System (GIS was used to correlate distribution of deaths and access to health services. The Kaingáng settlements are connected by paved roads to counties with at least a public health clinic or even a small hospital in some cases. Secondary referrals are treated in Palmeiras das Missões and Frederico Westphallen and tertiary care is

  9. Antihepatoma and Liver Protective Potentials of Ganoderma Lucidum (靈芝 Ling Zhi Fermented in a Medium Containing Black Soybean (黑豆 Hēi Dòu and Astragalus Membranaceus (生黃耆 Shēng Huáng

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng-Yuan Su

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The antihepatoma activity and liver protective function of the fermentation products (5 L fermenator of Ganoderma lucidum (GL; 靈芝 Ling Zhi cultivated in a medium containing black soybean (BS; 黑豆 Hēi Dòu and Astragalus membranaceus (AM; 生黃耆 Shēng Huáng Qí at different fermentation temperatures were investigated in this study. Hep 3B cells pretreated with lovastatin were used to study the antihepatoma activity, and possible active components were analyzed by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4-induced primary rat hepatocyte injury was further used to evaluate the liver protective activity of the fermentation products. While all the GL broth filtrates do not inhibit the growth of Hep 3B cells, the ethanolic extract from GL-2 mycelia (GL-2-mE, cultivated in the medium containing BS (50 g/L and AM (20 g/L at 24 °C for 11 days showed the best antihepatoma activity (IC50 26.6 μg/mL than the other ethanolic extracts from GL mycelia, GL fruiting body, BS, and AM did. The antihepatoma activities were correlated with some unknown active components in these samples. Furthermore, GL-2-mE (100 μg/mL without harmful effect on the growth of normal primary rat hepatocytes significantly maintained cell viability, reduced lactate dehydrogenase leakage, lowered lipid peroxidation, and increased glutathione peroxidase and glutathione S-transferase activities in the CCl4-induced damaged primary rat hepatocytes.

  10. Worldwide susceptibility rates of Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates to cefixime and cefpodoxime: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui-xing Yu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG infection is a serious public health problem. The third-generation extended-spectrum cephalosporins (ESCs have been used as the first-line treatment for NG infection for almost three decades. However, in recent years, treatment failures with the oral third-generation ESCs have been reported worldwide. This study aimed to estimate worldwide susceptibility rates of NG to cefixime and cefpodoxime by analyzing data from all relevant published studies. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Two researchers independently searched five databases to identify studies on susceptibilities of NG to cefixime and cefpodoxime published between January 1, 1984 and October 15, 2012. A fixed-effect model was used to perform group analysis, and a χ2 test was employed to make subgroup comparison. Publication bias was assessed with the Begg rank correlation test. The pooled susceptibility rate of NG isolates to cefixime was 99.8% (95% CI: 99.7%-99.8%. The cefixime susceptibility rate of NG isolates from men was significantly lower than that from patients without information of gender or from men and women; the susceptibility rate of NG isolates from Asia was significantly lower than that from other continents; and the susceptibility rate of NG isolates collected before or during 2003 was significantly higher than that after 2003. The pooled susceptibility rate of NG isolates to cefpodoxime was 92.8% (95% CI: 89.0%-95.3%, which was lower than that to cefixime (92.8% vs. 99.8%, χ2 = 951.809, P<0.01. CONCLUSIONS: The susceptibility rate of NG isolates to cefixime varied with the gender of patients and geographical location from which NG isolates were collected, and declined with time. The reported lower susceptibility rate of NG isolates to cefixime and associated treatment failures, as well as the emergence of NG strains with cephalosporin resistance call for the more effective control of NG infection and the development of new

  11. Dynamic contrast enhanced MRI detects early response to adoptive NK cellular immunotherapy targeting the NG2 proteoglycan in a rat model of glioblastoma.

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    Cecilie Brekke Rygh

    Full Text Available There are currently no established radiological parameters that predict response to immunotherapy. We hypothesised that multiparametric, longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of physiological parameters and pharmacokinetic models might detect early biological responses to immunotherapy for glioblastoma targeting NG2/CSPG4 with mAb9.2.27 combined with natural killer (NK cells. Contrast enhanced conventional T1-weighted MRI at 7±1 and 17±2 days post-treatment failed to detect differences in tumour size between the treatment groups, whereas, follow-up scans at 3 months demonstrated diminished signal intensity and tumour volume in the surviving NK+mAb9.2.27 treated animals. Notably, interstitial volume fraction (ve, was significantly increased in the NK+mAb9.2.27 combination therapy group compared mAb9.2.27 and NK cell monotherapy groups (p = 0.002 and p = 0.017 respectively in cohort 1 animals treated with 1 million NK cells. ve was reproducibly increased in the combination NK+mAb9.2.27 compared to NK cell monotherapy in cohort 2 treated with increased dose of 2 million NK cells (p<0.0001, indicating greater cell death induced by NK+mAb9.2.27 treatment. The interstitial volume fraction in the NK monotherapy group was significantly reduced compared to mAb9.2.27 monotherapy (p<0.0001 and untreated controls (p = 0.014 in the cohort 2 animals. NK cells in monotherapy were unable to kill the U87MG cells that highly expressed class I human leucocyte antigens, and diminished stress ligands for activating receptors. A significant association between apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC of water and ve in combination NK+mAb9.2.27 and NK monotherapy treated tumours was evident, where increased ADC corresponded to reduced ve in both cases. Collectively, these data support histological measures at end-stage demonstrating diminished tumour cell proliferation and pronounced apoptosis in the NK+mAb9.2.27 treated tumours compared to the other

  12. Lead determination at ng/mL level by flame atomic absorption spectrometry using a tantalum coated slotted quartz tube atom trap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirtaş, İlknur; Bakırdere, Sezgin; Ataman, O Yavuz

    2015-06-01

    Flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) still keeps its importance despite the relatively low sensitivity; because it is a simple and economical technique for determination of metals. In recent years, atom traps have been developed to increase the sensitivity of FAAS. Although the detection limit of FAAS is only at the level of µg/mL, with the use of atom traps it can reach to ng/mL. Slotted quartz tube (SQT) is one of the atom traps used to improve sensitivity. In atom trapping mode of SQT, analyte is trapped on-line in SQT for few minutes using ordinary sample aspiration, followed by the introduction of a small volume of organic solvent to effect the revolatilization and atomization of analyte species resulting in a transient signal. This system is economical, commercially available and easy to use. In this study, a sensitive analytical method was developed for the determination of lead with the help of SQT atom trapping flame atomization (SQT-AT-FAAS). 574 Fold sensitivity enhancement was obtained at a sample suction rate of 3.9 mL/min for 5.0 min trapping period with respect to FAAS. Organic solvent was selected as 40 µL of methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK). To obtain a further sensitivity enhancement inner surface of SQT was coated with several transition metals. The best sensitivity enhancement, 1650 fold enhancement, was obtained by the Ta-coated SQT-AT-FAAS. In addition, chemical nature of Pb species trapped on quartz and Ta surface, and the chemical nature of Ta on quartz surface were investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Raman Spectroscopy. Raman spectrometric results indicate that tantalum is coated on SQT surface in the form of Ta2O5. XPS studies revealed that the oxidation state of Pb in species trapped on both bare and Ta coated SQT surfaces is +2. For the accuracy check, the analyses of standard reference material were performed by use of SCP SCIENCE EnviroMAT Low (EU-L-2) and results for Pb were to be in good agreement with

  13. L’industrie lithique taillée d’habitat énéolithique de Şoimuş 2 - Lângă sat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela-Maria Barbu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Cet article vise à discuter en détail un composant important, mais rarement pris en compte, de l'économie de toutes les communautés préhistoriques, à savoir l'industrie lithique taillée. Des outils en pierre taillée étaient l'apanage des populations humaines depuis leur apparition. Les gens ont fait des roches diverses les outils et les armes dont ils avaient besoin pour suivre. Les communautés préhistoriques n'abandonnent pas la pierre comme matière première pas même en énéolithique, quand se développe la métallurgie du cuivre. Une preuve c'est le matériel lithique découvert en l'habitat énéolithique Tiszapolgár de Şoimuş 2 - Lângă sat. Il comprend un certain nombre d'outils: des éléments composants pour les faucilles (des pièces avec lustre végétal, des pièces avec traces de ternissement, des lames retouchées et non-retouchées, des gratoirs, des racloirs, un couteau, un perçoir, des éclats retouchées et non-retouchées. Ces outilages diverses montrent l'importance octroyée à la taille de pierre. Deux pointes de flèches rélèvent la chasse et/ou des activités bellicistes. Les nombreux débris indiquent la taille de pierre dans l'habitat, après avoir préalablement recueillir la matière première: les roches pour débiter. Ils sont de plusieurs types et de plusieurs sources: locales et d'import: silex, jaspe, menilite, quartzite, quartz, argilite, calcaire siliceux, grès siliceuse, obsidienne et chaille.

  14. Stimuli that induce a cholinergic neuronal phenotype of NG108-15 cells upregulate ChAT and VAChT mRNAs but fail to increase VAChT protein

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Doležal, Vladimír; Castell, X.; Tomasi, M.; Diebler, M. F.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 4 (2001), s. 363-373 ISSN 0361-9230 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA305/98/0469 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : choline acetyltransferase * vesicular acetylcholine transporter * NG108-15 Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 1.783, year: 2001

  15. Synchrotron radiation total reflection for rainwater analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simabuco, Silvana M.; Matsumoto, Edson

    1999-01-01

    Total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis excited with synchrotron radiation (SR-TXRF) has been used for rainwater trace element analysis. The samples were collected in four different sites at Campinas City, SP. Standard solutions with gallium as internal standard were prepared for the calibration system. Rainwater samples of 10 μl were putted onto Perspex reflector disk, dried on vacuum and analyzed for 100 s measuring time. The detection limits obtained for K-shell varied from 29 ng.ml -1 for sulfur to 1.3 ng.ml -1 for zinc and copper, while for L-shell the values were 4.5 ng.ml -1 for mercury and 7.0 ng.ml -1 for lead. (author)

  16. Surface-Confined Aqueous Reversible Addition-Fragmentation Chain Transfer (SCARAFT) Polymerization Method for Preparation of Coated Capillary Leads to over 10 000 Peptides Identified from 25 ng HeLa Digest by Using Capillary Zone Electrophoresis-Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhenbin; Peuchen, Elizabeth H; Dovichi, Norman J

    2017-06-20

    A surface-confined aqueous reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (SCARAFT) polymerization method was developed to coat capillaries for use in capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE). SCARAFT polymerization primarily takes place on the inner surface of the capillary instead of in solution, which greatly improves the homogeneity of the coating. Capillaries treated with this coating produced an electroosmotic mobility of 2.8 ± 0.2 × 10 -6 cm 2 ·V -1 ·s -1 (N = 3), which is roughly an order of magnitude lower than that of commercial linear polyacrylamide (LPA)-coated capillaries. Coated capillaries were evaluated for bottom-up proteomic analysis using CZE. The very low electroosmotic mobility results in a 200 min separation and improved single-shot analysis. An average of 977 protein groups and 5605 unique peptides were identified from 50 ng of an E. coli digest, and 2158 protein groups and 10 005 peptides were identified from 25 ng of a HeLa digest using single-shot analysis with a SCARAFT-acrylamide capillary coupled to a Q Exactive HF mass spectrometer. The coating is stable. A single capillary was used for over 200 h (8.4 days) of continuous operation. RSD in migration time was between 2 and 3% for selected ion electropherograms (SIEs) generated for six ions; median theoretical plate counts ranged from 240 000 to 600 000 for these SIEs. Various types of coatings could be prepared by simply changing the functional vinyl monomers in the polymerization mixture. Positively charged coatings using direct attachment and formation of a block copolymer were prepared and demonstrated for the separation of mixtures of intact proteins.

  17. Nūr Ud-Dīn Jahāngīr and Father Kirwitzer: the independent discovery of the Great Comets of November 1618 and the first astronomical use of the telescope in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, R. C.

    2016-12-01

    The year 1618 in astronomy was a unique one in that it presented three bright cometary apparitions in quick succession. The comets created a sensation, and belonged to an era when Galileo's telescopic observations had created a paradigm shift in our perception of the heavens and Johannes Kepler was introducing a fundamental change in mathematical astronomy by redefining orbits of planets around the Sun. This paper is an account of the observations of two of the three great comets of 1618, made from India. This turned out to be a unique occasion because these same targets of opportunity were followed independently by astronomers from two very different 'schools', and their observations were recorded quantitatively. Jahāngīr, the fourth Mughal Emperor of India, recorded in the Tūzūk-i Jahāngīrī (The Memoirs of Jahāngīr), the appearance of two comets during a Royal journey from the town of Dohad in Gujarat to Agra, the capital city of the Empire, in the thirteenth year of his accession. From the recorded dates, Jahāngīr turns out to be an independent discoverer of two great comets that appeared one after the other in November 1618. Meanwhile, Father Venceslaus Kirwitzer and fellow Jesuits observed these comets from Goa, and their first observations also correspond to the discovery dates of the comets. These same comets also were followed by Father Antonius Rubinus from Cochin. Fr. Kirwitzer collated and published these observations in 1620 in a short treatise where he states that he also viewed these comets with a 'tubo optico'. This is the first recorded use of a telescope in India.

  18. Prospective validation of %p2PSA and the Prostate Health Index, in prostate cancer detection in initial prostate biopsies of Asian men, with total PSA 4-10 ng ml-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Lincoln Gl; Tan, Yung Khan; Tai, Bee Choo; Tan, Karen Ml; Gauhar, Vineet; Tiong, Ho Yee; Hawkins, Robert Cw; Thamboo, Thomas P; Hong, Felicia Sk; Chiong, Edmund

    2017-01-01

    Despite its widespread use for prostate cancer screening, low specificity makes PSA a suboptimal biomarker, especially in the diagnostic "gray zone" of 4-10 ng ml-1 . False-positives lead to unnecessary biopsies with attendant morbidities. This is the first prospective validation study of %p2PSA and the Prostate Health Index (PHI) in Asian men presenting with a total PSA between 4.0 and 10 ng ml-1 . We studied 157 Asian men between 50 and 75 years old, with normal per rectal prostate examinations, undergoing their first prostate biopsy, using a standardized biopsy protocol, for PSA levels of 4-10 ng ml-1 . Thirty (19.1%) were found to have prostate cancer on biopsy. Statistically significant differences between patients with and without prostate cancer were found for total PSA, p2PSA, %p2PSA, and PHI. The areas under the curve of the receiver operating characteristic curve for total PSA, %fPSA, %p2PSA, and PHI were 0.479, 0.420, 0.695, and 0.794, respectively. PHI predicts prostatic biopsies results best. At a sensitivity of 90%, the specificity (95% CI) of PHI was 58.3%, more than triple the specificity of total PSA at 17.3%, potentially avoiding 77 (49%) unnecessary biopsies. Similar to studies in mainly Caucasian populations, we have prospectively shown that %p2PSA and PHI greatly outperform total and free to total PSA ratio, in the detection of prostate cancer at first biopsy. Higher PHI levels also correspond to increasing the risk of detecting GS ≥7 cancers. We have validated the use of PHI to aid decision-making regarding prostate biopsies in Asian men with serum PSA between 4 and 10 ng ml-1 .

  19. Extended use of Prostate Health Index and percentage of [-2]pro-prostate-specific antigen in Chinese men with prostate specific antigen 10–20 ng/mL and normal digital rectal examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Ka-Fung Chiu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: We investigated the extended use of Prostate Health Index (PHI and percentage of [-2]pro-prostate-specific antigen (%p2PSA in Chinese men with prostate-specific antigen (PSA 10–20 ng/mL and normal digital rectal examination (DRE. Materials and Methods: All consecutive Chinese men with PSA 10–20 ng/mL and normal DRE who agreed for transrectal ultrasound (TRUS-guided 10-core prostate biopsy were recruited. Blood samples were taken immediately before TRUS-guided prostate biopsy. The performances of total PSA (tPSA, %free-to-total PSA (%fPSA, %p2PSA, and PHI were compared using logistic regression, receiver operating characteristic, and decision curve analyses (DCA. Results: From 2008 to 2015, 312 consecutive Chinese men were included. Among them, 53 out of 312 (17.0% men were diagnosed to have prostate cancer on biopsy. The proportions of men with positive biopsies were 6.7% in PHI55 (chi-square test, p55 (chi-square test, p<0.001. By utilizing the PHI cutoff of 35 to men with PSA 10–20 ng/mL and normal DRE, 57.1% (178 of 312 biopsies could be avoided. Conclusions: Both PHI and %p2PSA performed well in predicting prostate cancer and high grade prostate cancer. The use of PHI and %p2PSA should be extended to Chinese men with PSA 10–20 ng/mL and normal DRE.

  20. Bradykinin-activated transmembrane signals are coupled via N/sub o/ or N/sub i/ to production of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate, a second messenger in NG108-15 neuroblastoma-glioma hybrid cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higashida, H.; Streaty, R.A.; Klee, W.; Nirenberg, M.

    1986-01-01

    The addition of bradykinin to NG108-15 cells results in a transient hyperpolarization followed by prolonged cell depolarization. Injection of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate or Ca 2+ into the cytoplasm of NG108-15 cells also elicits cell hyperpolarization followed by depolarization. Tetraethylammonium ions inhibit the hyperpolarizing response of cells to bradykinin or inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate. Thus, the hyperpolarizing phase of the cell response may be due to inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate-dependent release of stored 45 Ca-labelled Ca 2+ into the cytoplasm, which activates Ca 2+ -dependent K + channels. The depolarizing phase of the cell response to bradykinin is due largely to inhibition of M channels, thereby decreasing the rate of K + efflux from cells and, to a lesser extent, to activation of Ca 2+ -dependent ion channels and Ca 2+ channels. In contrast, injection of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate or Ca 2+ into the cytosol did not alter M channel activity. Incubation of NG108-15 cells with pertussis toxin inhibits bradykinin-dependent cell hyperpolarization and depolarization. Bradykinin stimulates low K/sub m/ GTPase activity and inhibits adenylate cyclase in NG108-15 membrane preparations but not in membranes prepared from cells treated with pertussis toxin. These results show that [bradykinin-receptor] complexes interact with N/sub o/ or N/sub i/ and suggest that N/sub o/ and/or N/sub i/ mediate the transduction of signals from bradykinin receptors to phospholipase C and adenylate cyclase

  1. NutritioN aNd public hygieNe amoNg childreN uNder five years of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2008-08-08

    Aug 8, 2008 ... Objective: to determine the relationship between sanitation and malnutrition among children below five years. Design: A random sampling followed by an experimental design on microbiological analysis of food and water samples. Setting: Mukuru slums of Makadara division in Nairobi City. Subjects: Eighty ...

  2. Direct sampling of sub-µm atmospheric particulate organic matter in sub-ng m-3 mass concentrations by proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armin, W.; Mueller, M.; Klinger, A.; Striednig, M.

    2017-12-01

    A quantitative characterization of the organic fraction of atmospheric particulate matter is still challenging. Herein we present the novel modular "Chemical Analysis of Aerosol Online" (CHARON) particle inlet system coupled to a new-generation proton-transfer-reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometer (PTR-TOF 6000 X2, Ionicon Analytik, Austria) that quantitatively detects organic analytes in real-time and sub-pptV levels by chemical ionization with hydronium reagent ions. CHARON consists of a gas-phase denuder for stripping off gas-phase analytes (efficiency > 99.999%), an aerodynamic lens for particle collimation combined with an inertial sampler for the particle-enriched flow and a thermodesorption unit for particle volatilization prior to chemical analysis. With typical particle enrichment factors of around 30 for particle diameters (DP) between 120 nm and 1000 nm (somewhat reduced enrichment for 60 nm 6000) and excellent mass accuracies (< 10 ppm) chemical compositions can be assigned and included in further analyses. In addition to a detailed characterization of the CHARON PTR-TOF 6000 X2 we will present first results on the chemical composition of sub-µm particulate organic matter in the urban atmosphere in Innsbruck (Austria).

  3. Safety and Immunogenicity of EBA-175 RII-NG Malaria Vaccine Administered Intramuscularly in Semi-Immune Adults: A Phase 1, Double-Blinded Placebo Controlled Dosage Escalation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koram, Kwadwo A; Adu, Bright; Ocran, Josephine; Karikari, Yaa S; Adu-Amankwah, Susan; Ntiri, Michael; Abuaku, Benjamin; Dodoo, Daniel; Gyan, Ben; Kronmann, Karl C; Nkrumah, Francis

    2016-01-01

    The erythrocyte binding antigen region II (EBA-175 RII) is a Plasmodium falciparum ligand that mediates erythrocyte invasion and is considered an important malaria vaccine candidate. A phase Ia trial in malaria naïve adults living in the United States found the recombinant non-glycosylated vaccine antigen, EBA-175 RII-NG adjuvanted with aluminium phosphate to be safe, immunogenic and capable of inducing biologically active antibodies that can inhibit parasite growth in vitro. The aim of the current study was to assess the safety and immunogenicity of this vaccine in malaria exposed semi-immune healthy adults living in a malaria endemic country, Ghana. In this double-blinded, placebo controlled, dose escalation phase I trial, eighteen subjects per group received ascending dose concentrations (5 μg, 20 μg or 80 μg) of the vaccine intramuscularly at 0, 1 and 6 months, while 6 subjects received placebo (normal saline). The primary end point was the number of subjects experiencing Grade 3 systemic or local adverse events within 14 days post-vaccination. Serious adverse events were assessed throughout the study period. Blood samples for immunological analyses were collected at days 0, 14, 28, 42, 180 and 194. A total of 52 subjects received three doses of the vaccine in the respective groups. No serious adverse events were reported. The majority of all adverse events reported were mild to moderate in severity, with local pain and tenderness being the most common. All adverse events, irrespective of severity, resolved without any sequelae. Subjects who received any of the EBA-175 RII-NG doses had high immunoglobulin G levels which moderately inhibited P. falciparum growth in vitro, compared to those in the placebo group. In conclusion, the EBA-175 RII-NG vaccine was safe, well tolerated and immunogenic in malaria semi-immune Ghanaian adults. Its further development is recommended. ClinicalTrials.gov. Identifier: NCT01026246.

  4. Percent free prostate-specific antigen for prostate cancer diagnosis in Chinese men with a PSA of 4.0-10.0 ng/mL: Results from the Chinese Prostate Cancer Consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rui; Xie, Liping; Cai, Xiaobing; Huang, Yiran; Zhou, Liqun; Ma, Lulin; Gao, Xu; Xu, Chuanliang; Ren, Shancheng; Shao, Pengfei; Xu, Danfeng; Xu, Kexin; Ye, Zhangqun; Liu, Chunxiao; Ye, Dingwei; Lu, Li; Fu, Qiang; Hou, Jianquan; Yuan, Jianlin; He, Dalin; Zhou, Tie; Wang, Fubo; He, Biming; Sun, Yinghao

    2015-04-01

    To test the diagnostic performance of percent free prostate-specific antigen (%fPSA) in predicting any prostate cancer (PCa) and high-grade prostate cancer (HGPCa) in a retrospective multi-center biopsy cohort with a PSA level of 4.0-10.0 ng/mL in China. Consecutive patients with a PSA of 4.0-10.0 ng/mL who underwent transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy were enrolled at 16 Chinese medical centers from January 1st, 2010 to December 31st, 2013. Total and free serum PSA determinations were performed using three types of electro-chemiluminescence immunoassays recalibrated to the World Health Organization (WHO) standard. The diagnostic accuracy of PSA, %fPSA, and %fPSA in combination with PSA (%fPSA + PSA) was determined using the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC). A total of 2310 consecutive men with PSA levels between 4.0 and 10.0 ng/mL were included, and the detection rate of PCa was 25.1%. The AUC of %fPSA and %fPSA + PSA in predicting any PCa was superior to PSA alone in men aged ≥60 years (0.623 vs. 0.534, p  PSA undergoing initial prostate biopsy, adding %fPSA to PSA can moderately improve the diagnostic accuracy for any PCa and HGPCa compared with PSA alone in patients ≥60 but not in patients aged 40-59 years.

  5. Prostate volume is strongest predictor of cancer diagnosis at transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy with prostate-specific antigen values between 2.0 and 9.0 ng/mL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Azab, Rami; Toi, Ants; Lockwood, Gina; Kulkarni, Girish S; Fleshner, Neil

    2007-01-01

    Data have suggested benign prostatic hyperplasia, and not cancer, as the major reason for elevated prostate-specific antigen (PSA) values between 2.0 and 9.0 ng/mL. If this hypothesis were correct, within these ranges, a smaller prostate volume would be a stronger predictor of cancer than the PSA level itself (the relative contribution from cancer is greater in smaller glands). We examined our institutional data set of transrectal ultrasound-guided procedures from 2000 to 2003. We studied patients who presented for their first prostate biopsy with a PSA level of 2.0 to 9.0 ng/mL. The indications for biopsy were elevated age-specific PSA level or abnormal digital rectal examination findings. Other covariates included patient age, abnormal transrectal ultrasound findings, transrectal ultrasound volume, and biopsy sampling scheme. Univariate analyses were used to assess the association between each variable and cancer diagnosis. Multivariate logistic regression modeling was then used to determine the adjusted risk factors for cancer at biopsy. On univariate analyses, all measured covariates were predictive of cancer. On multivariate modeling, the significant risk factors (in order of strength) for positive biopsy findings were smaller prostate volume (odds ratio [OR] 0.26, P <0.001), increasing age (OR 1.72, P <0.001), increasing PSA (OR 1.64, P <0.001), and the presence of hypoechoic lesions (OR 2.42, P <0.001). When the PSA level is in the 2.0 to 9.0 ng/mL range, a smaller prostate volume is the strongest predictor of cancer detection. These data support previous studies suggesting the amount of benign prostatic hyperplasia, and not cancer, as the major factor responsible for elevated PSA.

  6. Quantifying the value of investing in distributed natural gas and renewable electricity systems as complements: Applications of discounted cash flow and real options analysis with stochastic inputs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pless, Jacquelyn; Arent, Douglas J.; Logan, Jeffrey; Cochran, Jaquelin; Zinaman, Owen

    2016-10-01

    One energy policy objective in the United States is to promote the adoption of technologies that provide consumers with stable, secure, and clean energy. Recent work provides anecdotal evidence of natural gas (NG) and renewable electricity (RE) synergies in the power sector, however few studies quantify the value of investing in NG and RE systems together as complements. This paper uses discounted cash flow analysis and real options analysis to value hybrid NG-RE systems in distributed applications, focusing on residential and commercial projects assumed to be located in the states of New York and Texas. Technology performance and operational risk profiles are modeled at the hourly level to capture variable RE output and NG prices are modeled stochastically as geometric Ornstein-Uhlenbeck (OU) stochastic processes to capture NG price uncertainty. The findings consistently suggest that NG-RE hybrid distributed systems are more favorable investments in the applications studied relative to their single-technology alternatives when incentives for renewables are available. In some cases, NG-only systems are the favorable investments. Understanding the value of investing in NG-RE hybrid systems provides insights into one avenue towards reducing greenhouse gas emissions, given the important role of NG and RE in the power sector.

  7. A new species of Foza Reed & Cumberlidge, 2006 from northern Madagascar (Decapoda, Brachyura, Potamoidea, Potamonautidae, with a redescription of F. goudoti (H. Milne Edwards, 1853 comb. n., and comments on Skelosophusa prolixa Ng & Takeda, 1994

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil Cumberlidge

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Foza ambohitra sp. n. is described from Ambohitra, Antsiranana Province, northern Madagascar at 421 m elevation. This species is distinguished by characters of the carapace, the male anterior thoracic sternum, and the form of the male major cheliped and first gonopod. Thelphusa goudoti H. Milne Edwards, 1853, is transferred to Foza Reed & Cumberlidge, 2006, and redescribed, and a key to the three species of this genus is provided. Comments on the rare cave crab Skelosophusa prolixa Ng & Takeda, 1994, from Antsiranana Province are also included based on newly obtained material.

  8. The Songbird Neurogenomics (SoNG) Initiative: community-based tools and strategies for study of brain gene function and evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Replogle, Kirstin; Arnold, Arthur P; Ball, Gregory F; Band, Mark; Bensch, Staffan; Brenowitz, Eliot A; Dong, Shu; Drnevich, Jenny; Ferris, Margaret; George, Julia M; Gong, George; Hasselquist, Dennis; Hernandez, Alvaro G; Kim, Ryan; Lewin, Harris A; Liu, Lei; Lovell, Peter V; Mello, Claudio V; Naurin, Sara; Rodriguez-Zas, Sandra; Thimmapuram, Jyothi; Wade, Juli; Clayton, David F

    2008-03-18

    Songbirds hold great promise for biomedical, environmental and evolutionary research. A complete draft sequence of the zebra finch genome is imminent, yet a need remains for application of genomic resources within a research community traditionally focused on ethology and neurobiological methods. In response, we developed a core set of genomic tools and a novel collaborative strategy to probe gene expression in diverse songbird species and natural contexts. We end-sequenced cDNAs from zebra finch brain and incorporated additional sequences from community sources into a database of 86,784 high quality reads. These assembled into 31,658 non-redundant contigs and singletons, which we annotated via BLAST search of chicken and human databases. The results are publicly available in the ESTIMA:Songbird database. We produced a spotted cDNA microarray with 20,160 addresses representing 17,214 non-redundant products of an estimated 11,500-15,000 genes, validating it by analysis of immediate-early gene (zenk) gene activation following song exposure and by demonstrating effective cross hybridization to genomic DNAs of other songbird species in the Passerida Parvorder. Our assembly was also used in the design of the "Lund-zfa" Affymetrix array representing approximately 22,000 non-redundant sequences. When the two arrays were hybridized to cDNAs from the same set of male and female zebra finch brain samples, both arrays detected a common set of regulated transcripts with a Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.895. To stimulate use of these resources by the songbird research community and to maintain consistent technical standards, we devised a "Community Collaboration" mechanism whereby individual birdsong researchers develop experiments and provide tissues, but a single individual in the community is responsible for all RNA extractions, labelling and microarray hybridizations. Immediately, these results set the foundation for a coordinated set of 25 planned experiments by 16

  9. Effect of affordable technology on physical activity levels and mobility outcomes in rehabilitation: a protocol for the Activity and MObility UsiNg Technology (AMOUNT) rehabilitation trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassett, Leanne; van den Berg, Maayken; Lindley, Richard I; Crotty, Maria; McCluskey, Annie; van der Ploeg, Hidde P; Smith, Stuart T; Schurr, Karl; Killington, Maggie; Bongers, Bert; Howard, Kirsten; Heritier, Stephane; Togher, Leanne; Hackett, Maree; Treacy, Daniel; Dorsch, Simone; Wong, Siobhan; Scrivener, Katharine; Chagpar, Sakina; Weber, Heather; Pearson, Ross; Sherrington, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Introduction People with mobility limitations can benefit from rehabilitation programmes that provide a high dose of exercise. However, since providing a high dose of exercise is logistically challenging and resource-intensive, people in rehabilitation spend most of the day inactive. This trial aims to evaluate the effect of the addition of affordable technology to usual care on physical activity and mobility in people with mobility limitations admitted to inpatient aged and neurological rehabilitation units compared to usual care alone. Methods and analysis A pragmatic, assessor blinded, parallel-group randomised trial recruiting 300 consenting rehabilitation patients with reduced mobility will be conducted. Participants will be individually randomised to intervention or control groups. The intervention group will receive technology-based exercise to target mobility and physical activity problems for 6 months. The technology will include the use of video and computer games/exercises and tablet applications as well as activity monitors. The control group will not receive any additional intervention and both groups will receive usual inpatient and outpatient rehabilitation care over the 6-month study period. The coprimary outcomes will be objectively assessed physical activity (proportion of the day spent upright) and mobility (Short Physical Performance Battery) at 6 months after randomisation. Secondary outcomes will include: self-reported and objectively assessed physical activity, mobility, cognition, activity performance and participation, utility-based quality of life, balance confidence, technology self-efficacy, falls and service utilisation. Linear models will assess the effect of group allocation for each continuously scored outcome measure with baseline scores entered as a covariate. Fall rates between groups will be compared using negative binomial regression. Primary analyses will be preplanned, conducted while masked to group allocation and use an

  10. The Songbird Neurogenomics (SoNG Initiative: Community-based tools and strategies for study of brain gene function and evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lewin Harris A

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Songbirds hold great promise for biomedical, environmental and evolutionary research. A complete draft sequence of the zebra finch genome is imminent, yet a need remains for application of genomic resources within a research community traditionally focused on ethology and neurobiological methods. In response, we developed a core set of genomic tools and a novel collaborative strategy to probe gene expression in diverse songbird species and natural contexts. Results We end-sequenced cDNAs from zebra finch brain and incorporated additional sequences from community sources into a database of 86,784 high quality reads. These assembled into 31,658 non-redundant contigs and singletons, which we annotated via BLAST search of chicken and human databases. The results are publicly available in the ESTIMA:Songbird database. We produced a spotted cDNA microarray with 20,160 addresses representing 17,214 non-redundant products of an estimated 11,500–15,000 genes, validating it by analysis of immediate-early gene (zenk gene activation following song exposure and by demonstrating effective cross hybridization to genomic DNAs of other songbird species in the Passerida Parvorder. Our assembly was also used in the design of the "Lund-zfa" Affymetrix array representing ~22,000 non-redundant sequences. When the two arrays were hybridized to cDNAs from the same set of male and female zebra finch brain samples, both arrays detected a common set of regulated transcripts with a Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.895. To stimulate use of these resources by the songbird research community and to maintain consistent technical standards, we devised a "Community Collaboration" mechanism whereby individual birdsong researchers develop experiments and provide tissues, but a single individual in the community is responsible for all RNA extractions, labelling and microarray hybridizations. Conclusion Immediately, these results set the foundation for a

  11. Ideais e realidade: uma aula reservada para crianças autistas bilíngües = Ideals and reality: a self-contained class for bilingual autistic children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebsworth, Miriam Eisenstein

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo qualitativo abordou as experiências de crianças bilíngües, selecionadas com desordem do espectro autista em uma sala de aula de Educação Infantil Especial Bilíngüe. Os dados incluíram observação ao vivo, gravações em vídeo e entrevistas com os funcionários e pais. Apesar da dedicação dos professores, dos funcionários e da família, os desafios incluíram limitações lingüísticas de clínicos gerais, uso inconsistente de espanhol e/ou inglês, falta de compreensão dos pais sobre a natureza do autismo e demanda irreal de funcionários. O ambiente da barulhenta sala de aula, às vezes refletia aprendizagem, que freqüentemente significava transtorno. A preparação profissional de professores também era inadequada

  12. PODAAC-TEOCN-0NG05

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The twin satellites of the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE), launched in March of 2002, are making detailed monthly measurements of Earth's gravity...

  13. Om sammenhæng i rehabiliteringsprocessen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Vries, Alex

    2003-01-01

    Backgound: The starting point of this paper emerges from the growing need for rehabilitation, due to the higher survival of patients after illness or accidents and an increase of the amount of older people. In the field of professional health care there is a change in understanding the concept of...... participation matrix to emphasize patient participation. Health professionals in the different health care sectors can use these instruments to organize the rehabilitation process with the aim to improve coherence for the patient during the rehabilitation process.......Backgound: The starting point of this paper emerges from the growing need for rehabilitation, due to the higher survival of patients after illness or accidents and an increase of the amount of older people. In the field of professional health care there is a change in understanding the concept...... of disease. Especially during the last twenty years there is increasing emphasis on the consequences of disease. Still there is a lack of coherence in the rehabilitation process. Formulation of the problem: How will the rehabilitation process shape especially between different sectors in the health care...

  14. Renessanslik vetemäng / Tiina Tammet

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tammet, Tiina, 1971-

    2009-01-01

    Rooma lähedal Tivoli linnakeses asuvast Itaalia 16. sajandi renessansiaegse palee ja aiakunsti pärlist Villa d'Este, mis on UNESCO maailmapärandi nimekirjas. Pargi ja palee arhitektid Pirro Ligorio ja Alberto Galvani, purskkaevude autoriks skulptor Gianlorenzo Bernini

  15. In/compatible Imagi(ni)ng

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Thomas Bjørnsten

    2012-01-01

    The article thematizes a certain logic of reproduction that follows from a point in art history where the construction of images became a process of assembling or coding discrete signals through systematic methods. A logic which is not concerned with imitation but with creating an interchangeable...

  16. Kruuda kurb mäng

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    Oliver Kruuda müüs oma võlakoorma vähendamiseks Kalevi Norra toiduainekontsernile Orkla. Kalevi ja Tere müümine oli tal plaanis ka 2007. aastal, kui Indrek Rohumaa juhitud investeerimisfirma Alta Capital pidi need ära ostma

  17. Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Liu, Wen; Zhang, Xiliang

    2014-01-01

    three major technological changes: energy savings on the demand side, efficiency improvements in energy production, and the replacement of fossil fuels by various sources of renewable energy. Consequently, the analysis of these systems must include strategies for integrating renewable sources...

  18. Frankincense (乳香 Rǔ Xiāng; Boswellia Species: From the Selection of Traditional Applications to the Novel Phytotherapy for the Prevention and Treatment of Serious Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafie Hamidpour

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Frankincense (乳香 Rǔ Xiāng; Boswellia Species, the resinous extract from the trees of the genus Boswellia, has been used for centuries in cultural ceremonies, as a cosmetic agent, and as a traditional medicine to treat a variety of ailments, especially inflammatory diseases including asthma, arthritis, cerebral edema, chronic pain syndrome, chronic bowel diseases, cancer, and some other illnesses. Boswellic acids are the active compounds of frankincense and AKBA (3-O-acetyl-11-keto-β-boswellic acid is the most important and effective acid among them. Some studies have shown that the use of frankincense can also improve the learning and enhance the memory in animals and human beings. It seems that frankincense might have a potential ability to be used as an alternative natural medicine not only for chronic and inflammatory diseases but also for brain and memory disorders.

  19. Características de gestão, funcionamento e cardápios do Programa Nacional de Alimentação Escolar em escolas Kaingáng do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Teresa Gontijo de Castro; Elaine de Lima Cordeiro Matos; Maurício Soares Leite; Wolney Lisboa Conde; Ilaine Schuch; Juracilda Veiga; Priccila Zuchinali; Laura Augusta Barufaldi; Carmem Lúcia Centeno Dutra

    2014-01-01

    Há poucos estudos sobre o Programa Nacional de Alimentação Escolar (PNAE) em escolas indígenas no país. O objetivo do presente artigo é descrever características de funcionamento, gestão e cardápios do PNAE de todas as 35 escolas Kaingáng do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Em estudo transversal, as informações do PNAE foram recolhidas por meio de questionários aplicados a cada Coordenadoria Regional de Educação (CRE) e às escolas. Foram obtidos os cardápios sugeridos pelas CREs às escolas. Não exi...

  20. Organização e qualidade da assistência à saúde dos índios Kaingáng do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hökerberg Yara Hahr Marques

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo pretende avaliar o atendimento à saúde prestado aos índios Kaingáng do Rio Grande do Sul. Os óbitos evitáveis por assistência básica de saúde dos indígenas, ocorridos entre 1985 e 1995, foram comparados aos óbitos do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. Os dados secundários relativos aos serviços de saúde foram complementados por entrevistas realizadas em campo com lideranças indígenas e com funcionários das instituições envolvidas na assistência à saúde do índio. Foi utilizado o Sistema de Informações Geográficas, visando relacionar a distribuição dos óbitos ao grau de acesso aos serviços de saúde. As áreas indígenas Kaingáng estão ligadas por estradas pavimentadas a municípios que contam com, pelo menos, um centro de saúde, ou ainda, hospitais de pequeno porte. O segundo nível de atenção situa-se em Palmeiras das Missões e Frederico Westphallen e o terceiro nível, em Passo Fundo. O que diferencia estas áreas indígenas do restante do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul é a quantidade de óbitos evitáveis pela assistência básica de saúde, tais como as causas mal definidas, a desnutrição, a tuberculose e o câncer cérvico-uterino.

  1. Heavy ion activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lass, B.D.; Roche, N.G.; Sanni, A.O.; Schweikert, E.A.; Ojo, J.F.

    1982-01-01

    A report on radioactivation with ion beams of 3 6 Li and 14 N is presented with some analytical applications: the determination of C via 12 C( 6 Li,αn) 13 N; the determination of Li and Be, using 14 N activation. Next, examples, with limitations in selectivity. The detection limits using a 1 μA h of activation irradiation are 5 ppm for C and 1 ppm for Li or Be. With 9 Be suitable for analytical applications are: sup(10,11)B( 9 Be,xn) 18 F and 14 N( 9 Be,αn) 18 F. Assuming a 1 μA h irradiation the detection limits for N and B are 1.5 ng and 0.5 ng, respectively, using a 7.8 MeV 9 Be beam. For activation with 12 C, experimental results with 12 MeV 12 C beam demonstrate that the beam is best suited for 7 Li analysis by the reaction 7 Li( 12 C,n) 18 F. The detection limit for a 1 μA h irradiation is 1 ng and the only other low Z elements activated are B and C. Finally, 12 C radioactivation was further combined with autoradiography for positional analysis. The spatial resolution of the technique was estimated to be 40 μm for an exposure corresponding to 6x10 5 disintegrations. As low as 10 -12 g of Li was readily detected by autoradiography. (author)

  2. Condition to be fulfill for nuclear energetics to be competitive on the base of 16. Congress WEC in Tokyo, Seminar NG NPP`96 in Warsaw and Conference ENS TOPNUX`96 in Paris; Warunki ekonomicznej konkurencyjnosci energetyki jadrowej w swietle materialow 16. Kongresu WEC w Tokio, Seminarium NG NPP`96 w Warszawie oraz Konferencji ENS TOPNUX`96 w Paryzu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marecki, J. [Politechnika Gdanska, Gdansk (Poland)

    1997-12-31

    The state and developing trends of nuclear energetics have been presented for the period 1970-1990. The economical analysis taking into account actual prices and predicted for near future has been done. The investment and exploitation costs have been discussed and compared with classic methods of energy generation. It has been concluded that nuclear energetics will be one of the most promising options for future development of world energetics when all aspects (economic, technical, ecological) of the problem have been taken into consideration. 10 refs, 6 figs, 6 tabs.

  3. Gene Expression Analysis of Escherichia Coli Grown in Miniaturized Bioreactor Platforms for High-Throughput Analysis of Growth and genomic Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boccazzi, P.; Zanzotto, A.; Szita, Nicolas

    2005-01-01

    Combining high-throughput growth physiology and global gene expression data analysis is of significant value for integrating metabolism and genomics. We compared global gene expression using 500 ng of total RNA from Escherichia coli cultures grown in rich or defined minimal media in a miniaturize...... cultures using just 500 ng of total RNA indicate that high-throughput integration of growth physiology and genomics will be possible with novel biochemical platforms and improved detection technologies....

  4. Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Maurin, Krzysztof

    1980-01-01

    The extraordinarily rapid advances made in mathematics since World War II have resulted in analysis becoming an enormous organism spread­ ing in all directions. Gone for good surely are the days of the great French "courses of analysis" which embodied the whole of the "ana­ lytical" knowledge of the times in three volumes-as the classical work of Camille Jordan. Perhaps that is why present-day textbooks of anal­ ysis are disproportionately modest relative to the present state of the art. More: they have "retreated" to the state before Jordan and Goursat. In recent years the scene has been changing rapidly: Jean Dieudon­ ne is offering us his monumentel Elements d'Analyse (10 volumes) written in the spirit of the great French Course d'Analyse. To the best of my knowledge, the present book is the only one of its size: starting from scratch-from rational numbers, to be precise-it goes on to the theory of distributions, direct integrals, analysis on com­ plex manifolds, Kahler manifolds, the theory of sheave...

  5. (R-(+-α-Lipoic acid protected NG108-15 cells against H2O2-induced cell death through PI3K-Akt/GSK-3β pathway and suppression of NF-κβ-cytokines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamarudin MNA

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Muhamad Noor Alfarizal Kamarudin, Nur Afiqah Mohd Raflee, Sharifah Salwa Syed Hussein, Jia Ye Lo, Hadi Supriady, Habsah Abdul KadirInstitute of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, MalaysiaAbstract: Alpha-lipoic acid, a potent antioxidant with multifarious pharmacological benefits has been reported to be neuroprotective in several neuronal models and used to treat neurological disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease. Nonetheless, conclusive mechanisms of alpha-lipoic acid for its protective effects particularly in NG108-15 cells have never been investigated. In this study, the intricate neuroprotective molecular mechanisms by (R-(+-alpha-lipoic acid (R-LA against H2O2-induced cell death in an in vitro model of neurodegeneration were elucidated. Pretreatment with R-LA (2 hours significantly increased NG108-15 cell viability as compared to H2O2-treated cells and mitigated the induction of apoptosis as evidenced by Hoechst 33342/propidium iodide staining. R-LA (12.5–50 µM aggrandized the reduced glutathione over glutathione disulfide ratio followed by a reduction in the intracellular reactive oxygen species level and an increase in mitochondrial membrane potential following H2O2 exposure. Moreover, pretreatment with R-LA stimulated the activation of PI3K-Akt through mTORC1 and mTORC2 components (mTOR, rictor and raptor and production of antiinflammatory cytokine, IL-10 which led to the inactivation of glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β and reduction of both Bax/Bcl2 and Bax/Bcl-xL ratios, accompanied by inhibition of the cleaved caspase-3. Additionally, this observation was preceded by the suppression of NF-κβ p65 translocation and production of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and TNF-α. The current findings accentuate new mechanistic insight of R-LA against apoptogenic and brain inflammatory factors in a neuronal model. These results further advocate the therapeutic potential of R-LA for

  6. The Politics of Frontier Mining: Local Chieftains, Chinese Miners, and Upland Society in the Nông Văn Vân Uprising in the Sino-Vietnamese Border Area, 1833–1835

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vũ Đường Luân

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article, part of a longer study of the history of mining in Vietnam, argues that the Nông Văn Vân uprising (1833–1835 in the northern uplands of Vietnam brings into relief the importance of mining in the Vietnamese economy of the nineteenth century. It also highlights the consequences of Emperor Minh Mệnh’s dual agenda of extracting more tax revenues from mining operations and expanding the reach of the state by replacing hereditary tribal chieftains with imperial bureaucrats. While the uprising was quelled, the imperial agenda could not be fully realized in the face of local opposition and declining revenue from mining. The uprising reflected the multiethnic nature of border society, composed as it was of Vietnamese, local minority populations, and a significant number of Chinese mine owners, workers, and providers of goods and services to the mining towns. In ordinary times, the border was regularly flouted as kinship relations, trading networks, and ethnic affinity transcended allegiance to either the Qing or the Nguyễn in this borderland. Although the uprising was formally contained within the Vietnamese territory, rebels were able to seek refuge and recruit new adherents in China. And while the Nguyễn court was eventually able to subdue the rebels, its centralizing policies and attempts at extracting more revenues from mining were ultimately unsuccessful in the face of reemerging local and transborder forces.

  7. Yuánmíng Yuán en el siglo XVIII: Arte entre la diplomacia y la filosofía; entre Europa y Pekín

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Luengo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio pretende probar que el Yuánmíng Yuán fue diseñado como una representación del macrocosmos imperial a partir de la filosofía de la China de Qianlong. Para ello se valorará la función simbólica de los palacios de estilo europeo a partir de las descripciones de embajadas orientales y occidentales. Esta información se pondrá en relación con las diferentes representaciones pictóricas del jardín, conservadas tanto en grabados o acuarelas como en pinturas murales. A partir de toda esta información se pretende valorar su utilización en las visitas de diferentes legados diplomáticos extranjeros. En concreto, se intenta comprobar que los palacios europeos se utilizaron eminentemente para impresionar a las misiones orientales, y no tanto a las occidentales.

  8. Records of sunspot and aurora activity during 581-959 CE in Chinese official histories concerning the periods of Suí, Táng, and the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamazawa, Harufumi; Kawamura, Akito Davis; Hayakawa, Hisashi; Tsukamoto, Asuka; Isobe, Hiroaki; Ebihara, Yusuke

    2017-04-01

    Recent studies concerning radioisotopes in tree rings or ice cores suggest that extreme space weather events occurred during the pre-telescope age. Observational records of naked-eye sunspots and low-latitude auroras in historical documents during this age can provide useful information about past solar activity. In this paper, we present the results of a comprehensive survey of records of sunspots and auroras in Chinese official histories from the 6th century to the 10th century, in the period of Suí, Táng, the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms. These official histories contain records of continuous observations with well-formatted reports conducted under the policy of the governments. A brief comparison of the frequency of observations of sunspots and auroras based on observations of radioisotopes as an indicator of solar activity during the corresponding periods is provided. Using our data, we surveyed and compiled the records of sunspots and auroras in historical documents from various locations and in several languages, and ultimately provide these as open data to the scientific community.

  9. Prostate-specific antigen density: a better index of obesity-related PSA decrease in ostensibly healthy Korean men with a PSA <3.0 ng/mL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae Heon; Doo, Seung Whan; Yang, Won Jae; Song, Yun Seob; Kwon, Soon-Sun

    2013-04-01

    To determine whether prostate-specific antigen density (PSAD) has a more significant correlation with obesity than prostate-specific antigen (PSA). From October 2007 to March 2012, a total of 2402 Korean men over 40 years old who visited our clinic for prostate examination were enrolled in this study. All men underwent anthropometric measurements, digital rectal examination, serum PSA determination, and transrectal ultrasound examination. Body mass index (BMI) was grouped according to the Asia-Pacific criteria of obesity into the following categories: underweight or normal: less than 23; overweight: 23 to 24.9; obese: 25 kg/m(2) or greater. A partial correlation and linear trend model among PSA, PSAD, and BMI were conducted, after adjusting for age. Finally, data from 2294 men in total were collected. Mean age was 52.3 years and mean PSA was 1.07 ng/mL. Partial correlation revealed a significant negative correlation between BMI and both PSA and PSAD (P = .0017 and PSA and PSAD (P = .0162 and PSA showed a significant linear trend only in the group with a BMI ≥ 25 kg/m(2). PSAD demonstrated a more significant negative correlation with obesity than PSA. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Une histoire impériale connectée ? Hải Phòng : jalon d’une stratégie lyonnaise en Asie orientale (1881-1886

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-François Klein

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Dans la seconde moitié du xixe siècle, les milieux d’affaires lyonnais liés à l’industrie de la soie – les Soyeux – réussissent à ravir aux Britanniques le marché des soies d’Asie (Bengale, Chine et Japon. Dans un premier temps, sous la Monarchie de Juillet et le Second Empire (de 1843 à 1870, ils mettent en place une route française des soies asiatiques, système complexe alliant maisons de commerce, banques, entrepôts, infrastructures portuaires et ferroviaires. Afin de renforcer leur avance – et dans un contexte de tensions économiques majeures liées à la récession de la fin du xixe siècle – les Soyeux vont jeter leur dévolu sur le Tonkin, vu comme une porte ouverte sur les marchés pensés comme fabuleux du Yunnan et du Sichuan. Ces libéraux, regroupés autour de meneurs d’hommes charismatiques (Aynard et Pila vont entrer par capitaux interposés dans une logique de repli impérial qui succède à la logique du tout ouverture internationale des lendemains du traité de libre-échange de 1860. Dans les logiques – à la fois politiques et économiques – des Soyeux, le Tonkin apparaît comme une pièce maîtresse dans la partie de poker qui les oppose à leurs partenaires Britanniques dans ce « scramble » indochinois de cette fin de siècle, pendant asiatique de la course au Nil. Au cœur de cette stratégie impériale des Soyeux, le port d’Hải Phòng devient un enjeu majeur, un lieu où s’entrecroise la trame des capitaux et la chaine des réseaux de ces hommes d’affaires qui n’ignoraient rien des subtilités des us commerciaux particuliers de la mer de Chine.During the second half of the 19th century, the Silk businessmen of Lyon succeeded in wrestling the Asian silk markets (Bengal, China, and Japan from the British. At first, under the July Monarchy and the Second Empire (from 1843 to 1870, they created a French route for Asian silks, a complex system linking mercantile houses

  11. Características de gestão, funcionamento e cardápios do Programa Nacional de Alimentação Escolar em escolas Kaingáng do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Gontijo de Castro

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Há poucos estudos sobre o Programa Nacional de Alimentação Escolar (PNAE em escolas indígenas no país. O objetivo do presente artigo é descrever características de funcionamento, gestão e cardápios do PNAE de todas as 35 escolas Kaingáng do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Em estudo transversal, as informações do PNAE foram recolhidas por meio de questionários aplicados a cada Coordenadoria Regional de Educação (CRE e às escolas. Foram obtidos os cardápios sugeridos pelas CREs às escolas. Não existia o Núcleo de Educação Indígena nas CREs. Todos os vice-diretores eram indígenas, 26 escolas (74,6% tinham gestão escolarizada e 34 escolas (97,1% compravam alimentos de mercados próximos. A maioria das merendeiras (62,9% tinha contrato de trabalho temporário e 65,7% eram indígenas. Observou-se baixa oferta de verduras/legumes e de leite e derivados em cerca de 60% dos cardápios, o mesmo ocorrendo com leguminosas e frutas em cerca de 80% destes. Aponta-se a necessidade de mais estudos sobre o PNAE indígena e pretende-se subsidiar políticas públicas de saúde, alimentação e nutrição para o espaço escolar indígena nacional.

  12. Ang Dumaracol ng mga Kalamianen Tagbanua ng Hilagang Palawan: Isang Panimulang Paglalahad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eulalio R. Guieb III

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study is the first documentation of the long narrative song dumaracol of the Kalamianen Tagbanua of Northern Palawan on the islands bordering the towns of Taytay, El Nido, and Linapacan. The essay is the first in a multi-stage research that collects, records, documents, transcribes, translates into Filipino, and examines the said genre. In the song, Dumaracol is the name of the hero of the Kalamianen Tagbanua. The song narrates the life, love, and struggles of Dumaracol in establishing and maintaining their community against the slave-raiding Moro. The essay discusses the different versions of the song, but highlights that by Blas Juan, one of the contemporary leaders of the Kalamianen Tagbanua of Pical Island in Linapacan. The essay also presents the processes of the research documentation of the song. It identifies and brings to the fore various issues in the preliminary understanding of dumaracol.

  13. Pagsasatinig ng Pagkabata: Ang Varayti ng Wika sa mga Premyadong Kuwentong Pambata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wennielyn F. Fajilan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Writing for children is a way of cultivating their minds. As a special kind of communication, children’s literature entails the use of a language that caters to the needs and skills of the child reader. The study aims to analyse the variety of language used for children in the narratives of eight prize winning children’s stories—awarded the Palanca Award and Philippine Board of Books for Young People (PBBY prize from 1995-2009—with themes on motherhood or fatherhood. The study found that concepts of motherhood such as that of the traditional homemaker, the OFW, the single mother, and lesbian mothers; concepts of fatherhood like the OFW father, environmentalist and revolutionary parents characterize the selected stories. Through an examination of the dialogues, actions, and descriptions written for the child reader, the paper illustrates how narratives of the self, orality, and intelligence characterize the child protagonist. Hence, an examination of the contemporary children’s stories’ language variety is also an investigation of the prevailing representation of children in Philippine language, literature, and society.

  14. Digital Games in Language Learnıng and Teachıng

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buse Pekdemir

    2017-02-01

    Except these criticism, the book is quite useful to get some terms related to digital game- based language learning and teaching. Besides, its language pretty understandable to read even though they have lots of terminological information. So it doesn’t take a lot of time to read it. With all of these contents, the book can be considered as a good resource for investigating digital game-based language learning and teaching and it can be used for teaching some certain materials to the learners who are seeking for a good structured language teaching digital games.

  15. ng=töö=mäng / Shanti Broeng, Varje Talivee

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Broeng, Shanti

    2009-01-01

    Hästi läbimõeldud 4 lastetuba erinevas eas lastele - kaks koolieelikutele ja kaks murdeea lävel olevatele noortele, viimaste - ärklikorrusel olevate tubade sisustamisel oli abiks sisekujundaja Emilia Martin

  16. Life Cycle Energy Consumption and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Analysis of Natural Gas-Based Distributed Generation Projects in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hansi Liu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we used the life-cycle analysis (LCA method to evaluate the energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG emissions of natural gas (NG distributed generation (DG projects in China. We took the China Resources Snow Breweries (CRSB NG DG project in Sichuan province of China as a base scenario and compared its life cycle energy consumption and GHG emissions performance against five further scenarios. We found the CRSB DG project (all energy input is NG can reduce GHG emissions by 22%, but increase energy consumption by 12% relative to the scenario, using coal combined with grid electricity as an energy input. The LCA also indicated that the CRSB project can save 24% of energy and reduce GHG emissions by 48% relative to the all-coal scenario. The studied NG-based DG project presents major GHG emissions reduction advantages over the traditional centralized energy system. Moreover, this reduction of energy consumption and GHG emissions can be expanded if the extra electricity from the DG project can be supplied to the public grid. The action of combining renewable energy into the NG DG system can also strengthen the dual merit of energy conservation and GHG emissions reduction. The marginal CO2 abatement cost of the studied project is about 51 USD/ton CO2 equivalent, which is relatively low. Policymakers are recommended to support NG DG technology development and application in China and globally to boost NG utilization and control GHG emissions.

  17. 3c/4e [small sigma, Greek, circumflex]-type long-bonding competes with ω-bonding in noble-gas hydrides HNgY (Ng = He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, Rn; Y = F, Cl, Br, I): a NBO/NRT perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guiqiu; Li, Hong; Weinhold, Frank; Chen, Dezhan

    2016-03-21

    Noble-gas hydrides HNgY are frequently described as a single ionic form (H-Ng)(+)Y(-). We apply natural bond orbital (NBO) and natural resonance theory (NRT) analyses to a series of noble-gas hydrides HNgY (Ng = He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, Rn; Y = F, Cl, Br, I) to gain quantitative insight into the resonance bonding of these hypervalent molecules. We find that each of the studied species should be better represented as a resonance hybrid of three leading resonance structures, namely, H-Ng(+ -):Y (I), H:(- +)Ng-Y (II), and H^Y (III), in which the "ω-bonded" structures I and II arise from the complementary donor-acceptor interactions nY → σ*HNg and nH → σ*NgY, while the "long-bond" ([small sigma, Greek, circumflex]-type) structure III arises from the nNg → [small sigma, Greek, circumflex]*HY/[small sigma, Greek, circumflex]HY interaction. The bonding for all of the studied molecules can be well described in terms of the continuously variable resonance weightings of 3c/4e ω-bonding and [small sigma, Greek, circumflex]-type long-bonding motifs. Furthermore, we find that the calculated bond orders satisfy a generalized form of "conservation of bond order" that incorporates both ω-bonding and long-bonding contributions [viz., (bHNg + bNgY) + bHY = bω-bonding + blong-bonding = 1]. Such "conservation" throughout the title series implies a competitive relationship between ω-bonding and [small sigma, Greek, circumflex]-type long-bonding, whose variations are found to depend in a chemically reasonable manner on the electronegativity of Y and the outer valence-shell character of the central Ng atom. The calculated bond orders are also found to exhibit chemically reasonable correlations with bond lengths, vibrational frequencies, and bond dissociation energies, in accord with Badger's rule and related empirical relationships. Overall, the results provide electronic principles and chemical insight that may prove useful in the rational design of noble-gas hydrides of

  18. Fast neutron activation analysis by means of low voltage neutron generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.E. Medhat

    Full Text Available A description of D-T neutron generator (NG is presented. This machine can be used for fast neutron activation analysis applied to determine some selected elements, especially light elements, in different materials. Procedure of neutron flux determination and efficiency calculation is described. Examples of testing some Egyptian natural cosmetics are given. Keywords: Neutron generator, Fast neutron activation analysis, Elemental analysis

  19. Multi-Residue Analysis of Pesticide Residues in Crude Pollens by UPLC-MS/MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Tong

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A multi-residue method for the determination of 54 pesticide residues in pollens has been developed and validated. The proposed method was applied to the analysis of 48 crude pollen samples collected from eight provinces of China. The recovery of analytes ranged from 60% to 136% with relative standard deviations (RSDs below 30%. Of the 54 targeted compounds, 19 pesticides were detected. The major detection rates of each compound were 77.1% for carbendazim, 58.3% for fenpropathrin, 56.3% for chlorpyrifos, 50.0% for fluvalinate, 31.3% for chlorbenzuron, and 29.2% for triadimefon in crude pollen samples. The maximum values of each pesticide were 4516 ng/g for carbendazim, 162.8 ng/g for fenpropathrin, 176.6 ng/g for chlorpyrifos, 316.2 ng/g for fluvalinate, 437.2 ng/g for chlorbenzuron, 79.00 ng/g for triadimefon, and so on. This study provides basis for the research on the risks to honeybee health.

  20. Quantifying the value of investing in distributed natural gas and renewable electricity systems as complements: Applications of discounted cash flow and real options analysis with stochastic inputs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pless, Jacquelyn; Arent, Douglas J.; Logan, Jeffrey; Cochran, Jaquelin; Zinaman, Owen

    2016-01-01

    One energy policy objective in the United States is to promote the adoption of technologies that provide consumers with stable, secure, and clean energy. Recent work provides anecdotal evidence of natural gas (NG) and renewable electricity (RE) synergies in the power sector, however few studies quantify the value of investing in NG and RE systems together as complements. This paper uses discounted cash flow analysis and real options analysis to value hybrid NG-RE systems in distributed applications, focusing on residential and commercial projects assumed to be located in the states of New York and Texas. Technology performance and operational risk profiles are modeled at the hourly level to capture variable RE output and NG prices are modeled stochastically as geometric Ornstein-Uhlenbeck (OU) stochastic processes to capture NG price uncertainty. The findings consistently suggest that NG-RE hybrid distributed systems are more favorable investments in the applications studied relative to their single-technology alternatives when incentives for renewables are available. In some cases, NG-only systems are the favorable investments. Understanding the value of investing in NG-RE hybrid systems provides insights into one avenue towards reducing greenhouse gas emissions, given the important role of NG and RE in the power sector. - Highlights: • Natural gas and renewable electricity can be viewed as complements. • We model hybrid natural gas and renewable electricity systems at the hourly level. • We incorporate variable renewable power output and uncertain natural gas prices. • Hybrid natural gas and renewable electricity systems can be valuable investments.

  1. The prognostic value of transrectal ultrasound guided biopsy in patients over 70 years old with a prostate specific Antigen (PSA) level ≤ 15 ng/ml and normal digital rectal examination: a 10-year prospective follow-up study of 427 consecutive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Zakir K; Dominguez-Escrig, Jose; Vasdev, Nikhil; Bharathan, Balamurali; Greene, Damian

    2013-11-01

    As a urologist, it is common to review a patient above the age of 70 being referred to a prostate assessments clinic with an elevated PSA. We evaluate the prognosis of these patients clinically as there is no international consensus on the exact PSA cutoff level or a single international guideline as to when these patients should be offered a prostate biopsy. On receiving ethic committee approval, we recruited 427 consecutive patients aged 70 years and above referred with a PSA of ≥ 4 ng/ml, from January 1996 to December 2000, into our study. All patients were assessed, examined with a digital rectal examination (DRE) of the prostate, and a subsequent prostate biopsy. We followed up on their histologic diagnosis for up to 10 years and analyzed their outcome. The main outcome measures were disease-free survival and overall survival, stratified according to the PSA level (≤ 15 vs. >15 ng/ml) and DRE findings (normal vs. sbnormal). There was a statistically significant difference in the overall survival (P value PSA was >15 ng/ml and an abnormal DRE. However, in patients with a PSA ≤ 15 ng/ml and normal DRE, the incidence of cancer was low and they had no disease-specific or overall survival benefit. A policy of deferring prostate biopsy in patients with a PSA ≤ 15 ng/ml and normal DRE (Group A) would significantly decrease the need of unnecessary prostate biopsies. Within this group, patients did not have any survival advantage compared with those without cancer. We conclude that up to 20% of the prostate biopsies performed in this age group could have been avoided. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Optimization and Modeling of Quadrupole Orbitrap Parameters for Sensitive Analysis toward Single-Cell Proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Bingyun; Kovatch, Jessica Rae; Badiong, Albert; Merbouh, Nabyl

    2017-10-06

    Single-cell proteomics represents a field of extremely sensitive proteomic analysis, owing to the minute amount of yet complex proteins in a single cell. Without amplification potential as of nucleic acids, single-cell mass spectrometry (MS) analysis demands special instrumentation running with optimized parameters to maximize the sensitivity and throughput for comprehensive proteomic discovery. To facilitate such analysis, we here investigated two factors critical to peptide sequencing and protein detection in shotgun proteomics, i.e. precursor ion isolation window (IW) and maximum precursor ion injection time (ITmax), on an ultrahigh-field quadrupole Orbitrap (Q-Exactive HF). Counterintuitive to the frequently used proteomic parameters for bulk samples (>100 ng), our experimental data and subsequent modeling suggested a universally optimal IW of 4.0 Th for sample quantity ranging from 100 ng to 1 ng, and a sample-quantity dependent ITmax of more than 250 ms for 1-ng samples. Compared with the benchmark condition of IW = 2.0 Th and ITmax = 50 ms, our optimization generated up to 300% increase to the detected protein groups for 1-ng samples. The additionally identified proteins allowed deeper penetration of proteome for better revealing crucial cellular functions such as signaling and cell adhesion. We hope this effort can prompt single-cell and trace proteomic analysis and enable a rational selection of MS parameters.

  3. Analysis of some Egyptian cosmetic samples by fast neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medhat, M.E.; Ali, M.A.; Hassan, M.F.

    2001-01-01

    A description of D-T neutron generator (NG) is presented. This generator can be used for fast neutron activation analysis applied to determine some selected elements, especially light elements, in different materials. The concentrations of the elements Na, Mg, Al, Si, K, Cl, Ca and Fe were determined in two domestic brands of face powder by using 14 MeV neutron activation analysis

  4. Analysis of Some Egyptian Cosmetic Samples by Fast Neutron Activation Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Medhat, M E; Fayez-Hassan, M

    2001-01-01

    A description of D-T neutron generator (NG) is presented. This generator can be used for fast neutron activation analysis applied to determine some selected elements, especially light elements, in different materials. In our work, the concentration of the elements Na, Mg, Al, Si, K, Cl, Ca and Fe, were determined in two domestic brands of face powder by using 14 MeV neutron activation analysis.

  5. Porous Silicon Antibody Microarrays for Quantitative Analysis: Measurement of Free and Total PSA in Clinical Plasma Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tojo, Axel; Malm, Johan; Marko-Varga, György; Lilja, Hans; Laurell, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The antibody microarrays have become widespread, but their use for quantitative analyses in clinical samples has not yet been established. We investigated an immunoassay based on nanoporous silicon antibody microarrays for quantification of total prostate-specific-antigen (PSA) in 80 clinical plasma samples, and provide quantitative data from a duplex microarray assay that simultaneously quantifies free and total PSA in plasma. To further develop the assay the porous silicon chips was placed into a standard 96-well microtiter plate for higher throughput analysis. The samples analyzed by this quantitative microarray were 80 plasma samples obtained from men undergoing clinical PSA testing (dynamic range: 0.14-44ng/ml, LOD: 0.14ng/ml). The second dataset, measuring free PSA (dynamic range: 0.40-74.9ng/ml, LOD: 0.47ng/ml) and total PSA (dynamic range: 0.87-295ng/ml, LOD: 0.76ng/ml), was also obtained from the clinical routine. The reference for the quantification was a commercially available assay, the ProStatus PSA Free/Total DELFIA. In an analysis of 80 plasma samples the microarray platform performs well across the range of total PSA levels. This assay might have the potential to substitute for the large-scale microtiter plate format in diagnostic applications. The duplex assay paves the way for a future quantitative multiplex assay, which analyses several prostate cancer biomarkers simultaneously. PMID:22921878

  6. Development of a highly precise ID-ICP-SFMS method for analysis of low concentrations of lead in rice flour reference materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yanbei; Inagaki, Kazumi; Yarita, Takashi; Chiba, Koichi

    2008-07-01

    Microwave digestion and isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ID-ICP-SFMS) has been applied to the determination of Pb in rice flour. In order to achieve highly precise determination of low concentrations of Pb, the digestion blank for Pb was reduced to 0.21 ng g(-1) after optimization of the digestion conditions, in which 20 mL analysis solution was obtained after digestion of 0.5 g rice flour. The observed value of Pb in a non-fat milk powder certified reference material (CRM), NIST SRM 1549, was 16.8 +/- 0.8 ng g(-1) (mean +/- expanded uncertainty, k = 2; n = 5), which agreed with the certified value of 19 +/- 3 ng g(-1) and indicated the effectiveness of the method. Analytical results for Pb in three brown rice flour CRMs, NIST SRM 1568a, NIES CRM 10-a, and NIES CRM 10-b, were 7.32 +/- 0.24 ng g(-1) (n = 5), 1010 +/- 10 ng g(-1) (n = 5), and 1250 +/- 20 ng g(-1) (n = 5), respectively. The concentration of Pb in a candidate white rice flour reference material (RM) sample prepared by the National Metrology Institute of Japan (NMIJ) was observed to be 4.36 +/- 0.28 ng g(-1) (n = 10 bottles).

  7. Ruh Adam Romanında Kahramanın Sonsuz Yolculuğu: Yasak Aşk’ın Döngüsü The Endless Journey of Hero in Ruh Adam Novel: Cycle of Forbidden Love

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gürhan ÇOPUR

    2012-09-01

    şadığı olumsuzluklar neticesinde içerisine düştüğü bunalım ile başlayan olaylar, onun yaşamının dikey eksende çizilen sonuna doğru başkişiyi kendi iradesi dışında sürükleyecektir. Romanda, başkişi tarafından yaşamın anlamlandırılamayan/yönlendirilemeyen kodları yaşamını çevreler ve onu bir yeniden doğuş sanrısıyla kuşatır. Yeniden doğuşunu klasik bir reenkarnasyon olarak değil simgesel düzlemde önceden hazırlanmış bir döngünün merkezinde yaşayan Selim Pusat, mücadele ettikçe içerisinde kaybolacağı bunalımın derinliklerinde yaşamının en kutsal değerlerinin benliğini sıkıştırmasıyla geçmiş ve bugünün tuğlaları ile örülen bir labirentin duvarları arasında sıkışır. Selim Pusat, içerisinden çıkamadığı bu „labirent‟te yakınlarının şahsında vücut bulan kendilik değerleri ile hesaplaşmasından sembolik anlamda yok oluşuna kadar uzanan çizgide ele alınır.Bu çalışmada, geçmişinin döngüselliğine karşı çaresiz kalan ve yazgısını karşılıksız bir aşkın lanetinde yokluğa karışmakla yaşayan başkişi Selim Pusat‟ın çiğnediği benlik değerleri tarafından yargılanışı ele alınacaktır. Yolculuk, temel anlamı dışında bireyin yaşantısında kader ve kendi adımlarıyla oluşturduğu yaşanmışlıklar bütününün adıdır. Bu yolculukta kurulan bütün aşamalar başkişinin özsel anlamdaki değişimleri, dönüşümleri ve psikolojik durumları bir bütün olarak değerlendirilir. Selim Pusat‟ın yaşamı da arketipsel anlamda yolculuk imgesi üzerine değerlendirildiğinde ortaya bir aşk romanından ötesi çıkar. İzlenecek yolda Joseph Campbell‟in “Kahramanın Sonsuz Yolculuğu” adlı eserinde ele alınan arketipsel dönüşüm aşamaları merkeze alınacaktır.

  8. Multilocus sequence analysis of nectar pseudomonads reveals high genetic diversity and contrasting recombination patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Pérez, Sergio; de Vega, Clara; Herrera, Carlos M

    2013-01-01

    The genetic and evolutionary relationships among floral nectar-dwelling Pseudomonas 'sensu stricto' isolates associated to South African and Mediterranean plants were investigated by multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) of four core housekeeping genes (rrs, gyrB, rpoB and rpoD). A total of 35 different sequence types were found for the 38 nectar bacterial isolates characterised. Phylogenetic analyses resulted in the identification of three main clades [nectar groups (NGs) 1, 2 and 3] of nectar pseudomonads, which were closely related to five intrageneric groups: Pseudomonas oryzihabitans (NG 1); P. fluorescens, P. lutea and P. syringae (NG 2); and P. rhizosphaerae (NG 3). Linkage disequilibrium analysis pointed to a mostly clonal population structure, even when the analysis was restricted to isolates from the same floristic region or belonging to the same NG. Nevertheless, signatures of recombination were observed for NG 3, which exclusively included isolates retrieved from the floral nectar of insect-pollinated Mediterranean plants. In contrast, the other two NGs comprised both South African and Mediterranean isolates. Analyses relating diversification to floristic region and pollinator type revealed that there has been more unique evolution of the nectar pseudomonads within the Mediterranean region than would be expected by chance. This is the first work analysing the sequence of multiple loci to reveal geno- and ecotypes of nectar bacteria.

  9. Genetic diversity analysis of five cattle breeds native to China using ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Animal Diversity Information System (http://www.fao.org/ dad-is). Microsatellite analysis. Ten microsatellite markers for the genetic diversity study in cattle were used for the analysis of five native Chinese cattle breeds. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was accomplished in a total volume of 25 µl containing 50 ng.

  10. Subnanogram proteomics: Impact of LC column selection, MS instrumentation and data analysis strategy on proteome coverage for trace samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Ying; Zhao, Rui; Piehowski, Paul D.; Moore, Ronald J.; Lim, Sujung; Orphan, Victoria J.; Paša-Tolić, Ljiljana; Qian, Wei-Jun; Smith, Richard D.; Kelly, Ryan T.

    2018-04-01

    One of the greatest challenges for mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics is the limited ability to analyze small samples. Here we investigate the relative contributions of liquid chromatography (LC), MS instrumentation and data analysis methods with the aim of improving proteome coverage for sample sizes ranging from 0.5 ng to 50 ng. We show that the LC separations utilizing 30-µm-i.d. columns increase signal intensity by >3-fold relative to those using 75-µm-i.d. columns, leading to 32% increase in peptide identifications. The Orbitrap Fusion Lumos mass spectrometer significantly boosted both sensitivity and sequencing speed relative to earlier generation Orbitraps (e.g., LTQ-Orbitrap), leading to a ~3× increase in peptide identifications and 1.7× increase in identified protein groups for 2 ng tryptic digests of bacterial lysate. The Match Between Runs algorithm of open-source MaxQuant software further increased proteome coverage by ~ 95% for 0.5 ng samples and by ~42% for 2 ng samples. The present platform is capable of identifying >3000 protein groups from tryptic digestion of cell lysates equivalent to 50 HeLa cells and 100 THP-1 cells (~10 ng total proteins), respectively, and >950 proteins from subnanogram bacterial and archaeal cell lysates. The present ultrasensitive LC-MS platform is expected to enable deep proteome coverage for subnanogram samples, including single mammalian cells.

  11. An analysis method for flavan-3-ols using high performance liquid chromatography coupled with a fluorescence detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liuqing Wang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Procyanidins belong to a family of flavan-3-ols, which consist of monomers, (+-catechin and (−-epicatechin, and their oligomers and polymers, and are distributed in many plant-derived foods. Procyanidins are reported to have many beneficial physiological activities, such as antihypertensive and anticancer effects. However, the bioavailability of procyanidins is not well understood owing to a lack of convenient and high-sensitive analysis methods. The aim of this study was to develop an improved method for determining procyanidin content in both food materials and biological samples. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC coupled with a fluorescence detector was used in this study. The limits of detection (LODs of (+-catechin, (−-epicatechin, procyanidin B2, procyanidin C1, and cinnamtannin A2 were 3.0×10−3 ng, 4.0×10−3 ng, 14.0×10−3 ng, 18.5×10−3 ng, and 23.0×10−3 ng, respectively; the limits of quantification (LOQs were 10.0×10−3 ng, 29.0×10−3 ng, 28.5×10−3 ng, 54.1×10−3 ng, and 115.0×10−3 ng, respectively. The LOD and LOQ values indicated that the sensitivity of the fluorescence detector method was around 1000 times higher than that of conventional HPLC coupled with a UV-detector. We applied the developed method to measure procyanidins in black soybean seed coat extract (BE prepared from soybeans grown under three different fertilization conditions, namely, conventional farming, basal manure application, and intertillage. The amount of flavan-3-ols in these BEs decreased in the order intertillage > basal manure application > conventional farming. Commercially available BE was orally administered to mice at a dose of 250 mg/kg body weight, and we measured the blood flavan-3-ol content. Data from plasma analysis indicated that up to the tetramer oligomerization, procyanidins were detectable and flavan-3-ols mainly existed in conjugated forms in the plasma. In conclusion, we developed a highly

  12. Understanding and modulating the high-energy properties of noble-gas hydrides from their long-bonding: an NBO/NRT investigation on HNgCO+/CS+/OSi+ and HNgCN/NC (Ng = He, Ar, Kr, Xe, Rn) molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guiqiu; Song, Junjie; Fu, Lei; Tang, Kongshuang; Su, Yue; Chen, Dezhan

    2018-04-03

    The noble-gas hydrides, HNgX (X is an electronegative atom or fragment), represent potential high-energy materials because their two-body decomposition process, HNgX → Ng + HX, is strongly exoergic. Our previous studies have shown that each member of the HNgX (X = halogen atom or CN/NC fragment) molecules is composed of three leading resonance structures: two ω-bonding structures (H-Ng+ :X- and H:- Ng+-X) and one long-bonding structure (H∧X). The last one paints a novel [small sigma, Greek, circumflex]-type long-bonding picture. The present study focuses on the relationship between this novel bonding motif and the unusual energetic properties. We chose HNgCO+/CS+/OSi+/CN/NC, with the formula HNgAB (Ng = He, Ar, Kr, Xe, Rn; AB = CO+/CS+/OSi+/CN/NC) as the research system. We first investigated the bonding of HNgCO+ and its analogous HNgCS+/OSi+ species using NBO/NRT methods, and quantitatively compared the bonding with that in HNgCN/NC molecules. NBO/NRT results showed that each of the HNgCO+/CS+/OSi+ molecules could be better represented as a resonance hybrid of ω-bonding and long-bonding structures, but the long-bonding is much weaker than that in HNgCN/NC molecules. Furthermore, we introduced the long-bonding concept into the rationalization of the high-energy properties, and found a good correlation between the highly exothermic two-body dissociation channel and the long-bond order, bH-A. We also found that the long-bond order is highly tunable for these noble-gas hydrides due to its dependence on the nature of the electronegative AB fragments or the central noble-gas atoms, Ng. On the basis of these results, we could optimize the energetic properties by changing the long-bonding motif of our studied molecules. Overall, this study shows that the long-bonding model provides an easy way to rationalize and modulate the unusual energy properties of noble-gas hydrides, and that it is helpful to predict some noble-gas hydrides as potential energetic materials.

  13. Isang Mapanuring Paghahambing sa Ingles, Filipino, at Sebwanong Mga Salin ng Orihinal na Espanyol na Lyrics ng Pambansang Awit ng Pilipinas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborrah S. Anastacio

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is about the translations made from Palma’s poem “Filipinas” that was used as the official lyrics of the Philippine national anthem. Four texts were examined in this paper: 1 the aforementioned Spanish poem “Filipinas,” 2 Osias and Lane’s English translation entitled “Land of the Morning,” 3 de Leon’s Filipino translation entitled “Lupang Hinirang,” and 4 Vestil’s Cebuano translation entitled “Yutang Tabunon.” This paper aimed to establish how near or far these three translations are from the original poem “Filipinas.” This research is based on the theory of translation proposed by Schleiermacher. Using a Likert scale with a score of 1 to 5, the three translations were compared line by line with the original. The comparative study centered on the meaning and set aside the more complex issues on meter, rhythm, and aesthetics. By getting the average scores of each of the translations, this paper was able to establish that the “Land of the Morning” is moderately near/far from the original, that the “Lupang Hinirang” is near the original, and that the “Yutang Tabunon” is far from the original.

  14. Probe Heating Method for the Analysis of Solid Samples Using a Portable Mass Spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumano, Shun; Sugiyama, Masuyuki; Yamada, Masuyoshi; Nishimura, Kazushige; Hasegawa, Hideki; Morokuma, Hidetoshi; Inoue, Hiroyuki; Hashimoto, Yuichiro

    2015-01-01

    We previously reported on the development of a portable mass spectrometer for the onsite screening of illicit drugs, but our previous sampling system could only be used for liquid samples. In this study, we report on an attempt to develop a probe heating method that also permits solid samples to be analyzed using a portable mass spectrometer. An aluminum rod is used as the sampling probe. The powdered sample is affixed to the sampling probe or a droplet of sample solution is placed on the tip of the probe and dried. The probe is then placed on a heater to vaporize the sample. The vapor is then introduced into the portable mass spectrometer and analyzed. With the heater temperature set to 130°C, the developed system detected 1 ng of methamphetamine, 1 ng of amphetamine, 3 ng of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, 1 ng of 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine, and 0.3 ng of cocaine. Even from mixtures consisting of clove powder and methamphetamine powder, methamphetamine ions were detected by tandem mass spectrometry. The developed probe heating method provides a simple method for the analysis of solid samples. A portable mass spectrometer incorporating this method would thus be useful for the onsite screening of illicit drugs.

  15. Occurrence, fluxes and sources of perfluoroalkyl substances with isomer analysis in the snow of northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Guoqiang; Chen, Xinwei; Zhu, Lingyan

    2015-12-15

    In this study, perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) and the isomers of perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) were analyzed in fresh snow samples collected from 19 cities in northern China, 2013. The levels of total PFASs in the snow samples were 33.5-229 ng/L, suggesting heavy atmospheric pollution of PFASs in northern China. PFOA (9.08-107 ng/L), PFOS (3.52-54.3 ng/L), perfluoroheptanoate (PFHpA) (3.66-44.8 ng/L), and perfluorohexanoate (PFHxA) (3.21-23.6 ng/L) were predominant with a summed contribution of 82% to the total PFASs. The particulate matters (PMs) associated PFASs contributed 21.5-56.2% to the total PFASs in the snow, suggesting PMs are vital for the transport and deposition of airborne PFASs. Partitioning of PFASs between PM and dissolved phases was dependent on the carbon chain length and end functional groups. Isomer profiles of PFOA and PFOS in the snow were in agreement with the signature of the historical 3M electrochemical fluorination (ECF) products, suggesting that the ECF products were still produced and used in China. Further source analysis showed that the airborne PFASs in urban area were mainly due to direct release rather than degradation of their precursors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. A Rese arch o n Determinig The Effects of Entrepreneurship Tendencies o f The Students Gettıng The Entrepreneurship Education: Sam ple of Honaz Vocational School a t Pamukkale University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Soylu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The concept of entrepreneurship both brings solution to the socio-economic problems of many developing countries such as unemployment, job creation, increasing the production and contributes to the national vision onan international platform. One of the most important institutions that contribute to the national vision is the universities. In this context, seeing and guiding the university students as potential entrepreneurs is of particular importance within the framework of national vision and problems.The main aim of the study is to reveal the effects of the entrepreneurship courses on the entrepreneurship orientation of the students. For this purpose, Pamukkale University conducted a field study with students taking entrepreneurship courses in Honaz Vocational School. First of all, concepts on entrepreneurship and entrepreneurial personality are described in the study. Then, statistical analysis was conducted in the context of entrepreneurial personality traits byexamining the aspects of tolerance to uncertainty, risk-taking, innovation, creativity, independence, need for achievement, relationship with people, internal locus of control among the students. Consequently, the level of impact of the entrepreneurship courses on the entrepreneurship orientation of the students was determined

  17. An Emprıcal Study Intend to Evaluatıon of the Service Presenting By The Groups of Accountancy Profession Towards The Relatıonship Marketıng Percept of Customers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Kaya

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The concept of relationship marketing, which the companies operating in service industry adopted from past to present, but the scientific foundations of which have been laid in the last thirty years, stand out with its failure due to the increasing conditions of competition of traditional sense of marketing. The increasing number of members of accounting profession in Turkey has complicated the conditions of survival in this profession. Accordingly, it has been obligatory for the members of the profession to renew and diversify their existing marketing sense. In this study, it was put forward which factors had an impact on customers to prefer the members of accounting profession, and if these factors had a relationship with relations marketing. In the survey study whih was conducted on 755 business managers that purchased accounting service defined via convenience sampling method in Denizli region, it was questioned why they worked with the members of the profession, why they preferred them and to which points they paid attention in selection. The data were subjected to factor analysis in SPSS 15.0 software and nine basic factors were obtained. The results presented that relationshipmarketing had a significant impact on customers to prefer the members of the profession

  18. Ang Daynamiks ng mga Historyograpiyang Nakapaloob sa mga Obrang Pinturang Relihiyoso-Historikal ni Carlos “Botong” Francisco (The Dynamics of the Historiographies within the Religious-Historical Paintings of Carlos “Botong” Francisco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie D.P. Turingan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Aside from being a famed painter and National Artist, Carlos “Botong” Francisco is also known for his historical works that were based on thorough researches on their specif ic contexts. As he delved into the f ield of history, he also unconsciously delved into various historiographies that shaped the discourses of historians who stood as his sources, as well as into the historiography that shaped his own advocacy as a visual historian. Botong has sixteen major historical works, and four among them have clearly dealt with religion. This paper used these four religious-historical works in order to explore his being a visual historian. This paper aimed at examining the hidden tensions between Hegelian and orientalist historiographies, and postcolonial historiography. This paper contains two susbstantive sections: 1 a comprehensive discussion on the physical characteristics, origin, location, themes, and contents of the four works, as well as their appropriate and inappropriate details; and 2 an analysis of the dynamics between the just mentioned historiographies.

  19. Analysis of tetramethylene disulfotetramine in foods using solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jager, Lowri S; Perfetti, Gracia A; Diachenko, Gregory W

    2008-05-23

    An automated solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS) method for the determination of tetramethylene disulfotetramine in foods was developed. A comparison of direct immersion (DI) and headspace (HS) extraction techniques using a 70microm carbowax/divinylbenzene (CW/DVB) fiber is presented. The optimized DI-SPME method provided an aqueous extraction limit of detection (LOD) of 9.0ng/g while the HS-SPME LOD was 2.7ng/g. In both SPME modes, recovery was highly matrix dependent and quantification requires standard addition calibrations. Analysis of foods using DI-SPME encountered many obstacles including fiber fouling, low recovery and poor reproducibility. HS-SPME was successfully applied to food analysis with minimal interferences. Standard addition calibration curves for foods gave high linearity (R2>0.98), reproducibility (RSD<12%) and sensitivity with LODs ranging from 0.9 to 4.3ng/g.

  20. Multiparameter breast cancer cell image analysis for objective estimation of nuclear grade: comparison with light microscopic observational data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berzins, Juris; Sneiders, Uldis; Plegere, Daina; Freivalds, Talivaldis; Grigalinovica, Romalda

    2000-04-01

    We performed a multi parameter image analysis assessment of breast cancer cell population nuclear grade (NG), which is regarded as one of the main prognostic factors for treatment efficacy and survival of the patients and compared it with light microscopic estimation of NG. Cytological imprint slides from 20 ductal carcinomas were stained according to Leischmann-AzureII-eosine method, and NG was estimated by light microscopic observation according to Black in Fisher's modification. Simultaneously, using specially elaborated software, in each patient 100 cancer cells were analyzed for nuclear perimeter, diameter, area, nucleolar area, and average intensity of staining. The chromatin structure was assessed using mean diameter of chromatin grains and relatively chromatic are within the nucleus. Light microscopic estimation revealed 4/15 grade 2 and 7/15 grade 3 tumors out of 15 filtrating ductal carcinomas, with 4/15 classified as intermediate between grade 2-3. Multifactoral linear correlation coefficient r equals 0.39, p < 0.001 for ductal cancer, higher NG comes with increasing nucleolar area, nuclear roundness factor, nuclear are, and chromatin area within the cell nucleus. Image analysis may yield precise information on NG as a prognostic factor in breast cancer patients.

  1. Is Biochemical Response More Important Than Duration of Neoadjuvant Hormone Therapy Before Radiotherapy for Clinically Localized Prostate Cancer? An Analysis of the 3- Versus 8-Month Randomized Trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, Abraham; Crook, Juanita; Jones, Stuart; Malone, Shawn; Bowen, Julie; Truong, Pauline; Pai, Howard; Ludgate, Charles

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To ascertain whether biochemical response to neoadjuvant androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) before radiotherapy (RT), rather than duration, is the critical determinant of benefit in the multimodal treatment of localized prostate cancer, by comparing outcomes of subjects from the Canadian multicenter 3- vs 8-month trial with a pre-RT, post-hormone PSA (PRPH-PSA) ≤0.1 ng/ml vs those >0.1 ng/ml. Methods and Materials: From 1995 to 2001, 378 men with localized prostate cancer were randomized to 3 or 8 months of neoadjuvant ADT before RT. On univariate analysis, survival indices were compared between those with a PRPH-PSA ≤0.1 ng/ml vs >0.1 ng/ml, for all patients and subgroups, including treatment arm, risk group, and gleason Score. Multivariate analysis identified independent predictors of outcome. Results: Biochemical disease-free survival (bDFS) was significantly higher for those with a PRPH-PSA ≤0.1 ng/ml compared with PRPH-PSA >0.1 ng/ml (55.3% vs 49.4%, p = 0.014). No difference in survival indices was observed between treatment arms. There was no difference in bDFS between patients in the 3- and 8-month arms with a PRPH-PSA ≤0.1 ng/ml nor those with PRPH-PSA >0.1 ng/ml. bDFS was significantly higher for high-risk patients with PRPH-PSA ≤0.1 ng/ml compared with PRPH-PSA >0.1 ng/ml (57.0% vs 29.4%, p = 0.017). Multivariate analysis identified PRPH-PSA (p = 0.041), Gleason score (p = 0.001), initial PSA (p = 0.025), and T-stage (p = 0.003), not ADT duration, as independent predictors of outcome. Conclusion: Biochemical response to neoadjuvant ADT before RT, not duration, appears to be the critical determinant of benefit in the setting of combined therapy. Individually tailored ADT duration based on PRPH-PSA would maximize therapeutic gain, while minimizing the duration of ADT and its related toxicities.

  2. Expression Profiler : next generation-an online platform for analysis of microarray data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kapushesky, M; Kemmeren, P; Culhane, AC; Durinck, S; Ihmels, J; Korner, C; Kull, M; Torrente, A; Sarkans, U; Vilo, J; Brazma, A

    2004-01-01

    Expression Profiler (EP, http://www.ebi.ac.uk/expressionprofiler) is a web-based platform for microarray gene expression and other functional genomics-related data analysis. The new architecture, Expression Profiler: next generation (EP:NG), modularizes the original design and allows individual

  3. Analysis of perfluorocarboxylic acids in air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, James; Flaherty, John; Wille, Roice; Buck, Warren; Morandi, Francesco; Isemura, Tsuguhide

    2007-03-01

    Perfluorocarboxylic acids have been used in limited but important applications, such as in the production of fluoroelastomers and as components of fire-fighting foams. A method for the measurement of perfluorocarboxylic acids of different chain lengths in air is presented. Chain lengths tested included those having 8, 9, 10, 11, and 13 carbon atoms. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Versatile Sampler airtubes with glass fiber filter, XAD-4 resin, and polyurethane foam were fortified with analyte at levels corresponding to 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 times the level representing a 0.01 mg/m3 analyte air concentration sampled for 8-hour period with an airflow rate of 1 L/min. Airtube sections were extracted with acetone. Analysis of analyte in airtube fraction extracts was by HPLC/MS using ammonium acetate in water and methanol mobile phase and single ion monitoring for quantification. The lower limit of quantification for the HPLC/MS was set at 0.0001 mg/m3 for each analyte. Total recoveries of analytes within National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) guidelines of +/- 25% of the true value were obtained at three different atmospheric conditions: ambient, cool/dry, and warm/humid conditions. The maximum loading with acceptable recovery of each analyte was 9600 ng (48000 ng total) for the ambient and warm/humid conditions. The maximum loading with acceptable recovery was 4800 ng (24000 ng total) for the cool/dry condition. The ammonium salt of the eight-carbon perfluorocarboxylic acid, ammonium perfluorooctanoate, was similar to the parent acid in behavior at the ambient condition. Hydrohexadecafluorononanoic acid was tested as a possible surrogate standard for the method, and it was found unsuitable for use because of variable recoveries. Stability studies were completed, and the perfluorocarboxylic acid analytes were stable in airtube samplers for up to 14 days at either ambient or refrigerated condition.

  4. CSF analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bands: 0 or 1 bands that are not present in a matched serum sample Protein : 15 to 60 mg/dL (0.15 to 0.6 g/L) Opening pressure: 10 to 25 cm of CSF Myelin basic protein: Less than 4ng/mL Normal value ranges may vary slightly among different laboratories. Talk ...

  5. Simplified analysis of 11-hydroxy-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and 11-carboxy-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol in human meconium: method development and validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tynon, Marykathryn; Porto, Marcellino; Logan, Barry K

    2015-01-01

    We describe the development of a sensitive analytical method for the analysis of 11-hydroxy-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (11-OH-THC) and 11-carboxy-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THCC) in meconium using a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) platform. The method was validated according to protocols, which included assessment of accuracy, precision, robustness, stability in meconium and in-process stability, interference and sensitivity and specificity. The method consists of a solid phase extraction with alkaline hydrolysis and derivatization of the analytes with N, O-Bis(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacteamide, followed by GC/MS analysis using selected ion monitoring. The method uses deuterated internal standards for both analytes. Calibration curves had r(2) values >0.998, and extraction efficiency was determined to be 84.7% for THCC and 78.6% for 11-OH-THC. The detection limit for both analytes was 5 ng/g. This confirmatory method was successfully applied to 183 meconium samples that had screened positive by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and 67.2% were confirmed for THCC, and 2.2% were confirmed positive for 11-OH-THC. The mean (SD) and median (range) THCC (n = 123) concentrations detected were 55.0 ng/g (±59.0) and 33.75 ng/g (5-265 ng/g), while the mean and median (range) for 11-OH-THC (n = 4) concentrations were 8.25 ng/g (±4.71) and 6.5 ng/g (5-15 ng/g). © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Sample preparation and UHPLC-FD analysis of pteridines in human urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomšíková, H; Solich, P; Nováková, L

    2014-07-01

    Elevated levels of pteridines can indicate the activation of cellular immune system by certain diseases. No work dealing with the simultaneous determination of urinary neopterin, biopterin and their reduced forms has been published. Therefore, a new SPE-UHPLC-FD method for the analysis of these compounds has been developed. The main emphasis was put on the stability of dihydroforms during the sample processing and storage. As a stabilizing agent, dithiothreitol, at various concentrations, and various pH values (3.8-9.8) of working solutions were tested. Chromatographic separation was performed under HILIC isocratic conditions on BEH Amide column. The method was linear for the calibration standard solutions in the range of 10-10,000 ng/ml (dihydroforms) and 0.5-1000 ng/ml (oxidized forms), and for real samples in the range of 25-1000 ng/ml (dihydroforms) and 1-100 ng/ml (oxidized forms). The development of a new SPE sample preparation method was carried out on different types of sorbents (based on a mixed-mode cation exchange, porous graphitic carbon and a polymer comprising hydrophilic and hydrophobic components). Final validation was performed on a MCAX SPE column. Method accuracy ranged from 76.9 to 121.9%. The intra- and inter-day precision did not exceed 10.7%. The method provided high sensitivity for the use in routine clinical measurements of urine (LLOQ 1 ng/ml for oxidized forms and 25 ng/ml for dihydroforms). Average concentrations of biopterin, neopterin, and dihydrobiopterin found in urine of healthy persons were related to the mol of creatinine (66.8, 142.3, and 257.3 μmol/mol of creatinine, respectively) which corresponded to the literature data. The concentration of dihydroneopterin obtained using our method was 98.8 μmol/mol of creatinine. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. A buoyancy technique for measuring plant volumes | NG | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All techniques of measuring plant volumes that are described in the literature measure the volume of a liquid that is displaced by the immersion of the plant material. The "buoyancy" technique is based on the principle of Archimedes and is an improvement on displacement methods in that it is sensitive to very small volumes, ...

  8. Biennaal ehk mäng neljale keelele / Johannes Saar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Saar, Johannes, 1965-

    2001-01-01

    49. Veneetsia biennaali korraldusest, probleemidest, kontseptsioonist. Loetletud preemiasaajad - peapreemiad, rahvuspaviljoni Kuldlõvi, Kuldlõvi tänapäevakunsti meistritele ja noore kunstniku preemiad

  9. Improviseeritud lugu ja zhanriga mäng / Donald Tomberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tomberg, Donald

    2003-01-01

    Eesti komöödiafilm "Vanad ja kobedad saavad jalad alla" : režissöör Rando Pettai : operaator Mait Mäekivi : näitlejad Henrik Normann, Madis Milling, Robert Gutman jt. : muusika - ansambel Genialistid : Ruut Pictures 2003

  10. Musta notsu mäng maailma finantsturgudel / Sven Meimer

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Meimer, Sven

    2007-01-01

    Maailmas on tekkinud äri, kus laenu jagatakse sisuliselt laenuvõimetutele isikutele (USA-s tuntud nime all sub-prime) ning tekitatakse keerulisi laenusaajaid ja finantsettevõtteid raskustesse viivaid garantiiskeeme

  11. Kriisikoldeid kustutab (teatri)mäng / Rait Avestik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Avestik, Rait, 1974-

    2010-01-01

    Itaallaste Nino d’Introna ja Giacomo Ravicchio teksti põhjal valminud seiklusloost „Robinson & Crusoe”, tõlkinud Kirke Org, lavastanud Aare Toikka. Esietendus 27. nov. 2009 VAT-teatris. Mängivad Meelis Põdersoo ja Ago Soots

  12. Collective Efficiency and the Small Enterprise Growth in Kenya | Ng ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Small enterprises contribute to economic dynamism, entrepreneurship and have potential to anchor sustainable industrial development in least developed countries. However, they are constrained by the lack of capacity to develop infrastructure and acquisition of technologies with consequent loss of competitive advantage ...

  13. (WAT) Radio Source Associated with the Galaxy PGC 1519010 NG

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2009-03-13

    Mar 13, 2009 ... 1984; Leahy 1984; O'Dea & Owen 1985; O'Donoghue et al. 1990). Since neither the bending of the radio plumes occurs universally, nor is the bending of jet essential for its flaring and plume formation, jet bending is currently regarded as a phenomenon independent from jet flaring (Hardcastle & Sakelliou ...

  14. Nukumäng edasijõudnutele / Heidi Aadma

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Aadma, Heidi, 1976-

    2008-01-01

    Eesti Nuku- ja Noorsooteatris etendunud Tšehhis elava tšerkessi Jevgeni Ibragimovi nukulavastustest "Väga lihtne lugu" (autor Maria Lado), "Nukumängu ABC", "Mängurid" (autor Nikolai Gogol), "Oskar ja Roosa Mamma" (autor E.-E. Schmitt)

  15. Resource Reviews Bronmater i a a I bespreki ng s

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Published by The Wildlife Society, Western Cape. Branch, Tokai 1987. 44pp. 115 colour plates, 12 black-and-white plates. R9,95 excl. GST. Did you know that a giant carnivorous bear, ancestor of the modern-day Panda, lived in the vicinity of. Table 14ountain about five mill ion years ago? Or that by the time of Christ, the ...

  16. Innova ng for Maternal and Child Health in Africa

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Mozambique earlier this year was an important step for improving maternal and child health. It was also a milestone in the implementa on of a research project led by Universidade Lúrio in Mozambique and the University of Saskatchewan in. Canada, funded through the IMCHA ini a ve. Securing the equipment needed.

  17. Mitochondrial and nuclear DNA reveals a complete lineage sorti ng ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study utilised phylogenetic and population structure analyses of molecular sequence data from mitochondrial (cytochrome b) and nuclear (S7 intron 1) DNA markers to evaluate the genetic structure of the species. Two reproductively isolated lineages, 8.7% and 1.1% divergent, respectively, were identified.

  18. Resource Reviews Bronmater i a a I bespreki ng s

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    REPTILES OF SOUTHERN AFRICA by Rod Patterson and. Anthony Bannister. Published by C. Struik. Cape Town 1987. 128 pp. Full col our. R24 ,95. A comprehensive book of this nature, aimed as it is at the general public, is long overdue in Southern Africa, not only because of the ecological and aesthetic significance of ...

  19. Uus rahvuslik ringmäng : SAPARD / Jaanus Marrandi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Marrandi, Jaanus, 1963-

    2001-01-01

    Tõenäoliselt ei jõua SAPARD-i raha ka 2001. aastal põllumeheni. Autor: Keskerakond. Parlamendisaadik. Ilmunud ka: Sakala, 25. apr. 2001, lk. 2; Nädaline, 24. apr. 2001, lk. 4; Järva Teataja, 4. mai 2001, lk. 2; Pärnu Postimees, 4. mai 2001, lk. 2; Meie Maa, 3. mai 2001, lk. 6; Võrumaa Teataja, 15. mai 2001, lk. 2; Hiiu Leht, 29. mai 2001, lk. 2

  20. Next-Generation NATO Reference Mobility Model (NG-NRMM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-11

    o Cornering Stiffness o Pneumatic Trail o Camber Stiffness o Belt Lat Bend Stiffness o Belt Rad Torsion Stiffness o Belt Torsion Stiffness o...Belt Twist Stiffness o Belt Torsion Lat Displ Coupl o Belt Torsion Twist Damp o Belt Lat Bend Damp o Rad Dynamic Stiffening o Tang Dynamic... combined into VEHDYN 4.0 along with many other enhancements. NRMM considers the entire vehicle underbody profile to check for obstacle interference, but

  1. Sügisene moevaatemäng / Britt Rosen

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rosen, Britt, 1968-

    2008-01-01

    FIBITi moepäevad Viru keskuses, korraldaja Anu Kikas. Arne Niidu, Anu Samarüütel-Longi, Tanel Veenre kollektsioonidest. Kalle Aasamäe, Lilli Jahilo, Aet Alevi, Anu Samarüütel-Longi ja Tanel Veenre kommentaarid

  2. Silmakirjalik mäng alkoholireklaamiga / Ela Tomson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tomson, Ela, 1945-

    2007-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Postimees : na russkom jazõke, 1. veebr. 2007, lk. 7. Riigikogu menetluses olnud alkoholireklaami piirava seaduseelnõu tagasivõtmine tähendab tegelikult alkoholireklaami jätkumist endiselt, kirjutab autor

  3. Bacte1:iaIMem'ng1'a's

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    number of deficits per child. One hundred and eighty-seven children were assessed on discharge,. 157 after six weeks of discharge and 134 after three months ..... tremors 1, delayed speech development 1; hearing; loss = 8, visual loss = 9; other cranial nerve palsies == 6""2,. 7”' 4; hydrocephalus 1-' 6, microcephalus == 2. ' ...

  4. optimizing conventional des concrete raft ng conventional design

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio a. 36GPa and 0.2 respectively. An elastic, p material is used for the reinforci reinforcing bars are 3D solid element the concrete. They exhibit an elastic and transfer of loads to the concret reinforcements is achieved by introd stiffening to the concrete model. T element option is used to ...

  5. Kooliehitus kui Euroopa kurbmäng / Maciej Zaremba

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Zaremba, Maciej

    2005-01-01

    Vaxholmis blokeeritud koolimaja ehitus, kus töötasid lätlased, sai Euroopa Liidu kohtus pretsedenti loova tähtsuse. Läti ehitusfirma L&P suhtes rikkusid Rootsi ametiühingud väidetavalt Rootsi tööturu reegleid

  6. 58. "Berlinale" lõppmäng / Jaak Lõhmus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lõhmus, Jaak

    2008-01-01

    Berliini 58. filmifestivali auhinnasaajatest : Kuldkaru võitis Brasiilia produtsendi ja režissööri Jose Padilha mängufilm "Eliitrühm", Hõbekaru USA režissööri Errol Morrise dokfilm "Tavaprotseduur". Parima režissööri Hõbekaru läks Paul Thomas Andersonile mängufilmi "Veri hakkab voolama" eest. Parima näitleja auhinna said Sally Hawkins ja Reza Naji, Alfred Baueri auhinna sai Fernando Eimbcke "Tahoe järv"

  7. The Role of NG2 Glial Cells in ALS Pathogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    glycogenolysis . It can be rapidly utilized by neurons as an energy source in vitro, although a role in vivo remains to be shown. The disadvantage of...Spaniel dog . Part 1. Clinical, genetic and light- microscopical observations. J. Neurol. Sci. 50, 423–433 11 Schneider, A. et al. (1992) Uncoupling...Newman, L.A. et al. (2011) Lactate produced by glycogenolysis in astrocytes regulates memory processing. PLoS ONE 6, e28427 44 Brown, A.M. et al

  8. Innova ng for Maternal and Child Health in Africa

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    In IMCHA's mid-term workshop in Dakar, Senegal, nineteen research teams, policymakers and two health policy research organiza ons discuss life-saving interven ons to improve maternal and child health. Besides focusing on various research themes such as community health workers and quality of care, the workshop.

  9. IPO. Mäng suure orkestriga / Tiiu Pedaja, Gerd Laub

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pedaja, Tiiu

    2006-01-01

    Aktsiate avaliku pakkumise ehk IPO korraldamisest. Lisad: Millal on õige aeg?; Milline ettevõte sobib avalikuks pakkumiseks?; Milline avalik pakkumine on edukas?; Kuidas IPO-l aktsiaid jaotatakse? Skeemid: Aktsia hinna kujunemine avaliku pakkumise käigus; Järelturu aktsiahinda mõjutavad tegurid

  10. Kollisioner igång till hösten

    CERN Multimedia

    Hellman, STen

    2009-01-01

    "Der började så bra. Den 10 september var utannonserad som dagen då CERNs nya accelerator LHC för första gången skulle ta emot protoner och losta dem ett helt varv runt den 27 km långa acceleratorringen" (3 pages)

  11. NG9-1-1 preliminary transition plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-01

    Although the 9-1-1 system has been an unqualified success story for more than 30 years, changes in the : publics use of technology, the saturation of the mobile market, and the spread of Voice over Internet : Protocol (VoIP) telephony over broadba...

  12. Religieuse ervaríng: Aspoestertjie van teologiese besinning

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    12.1 Die ervaringsbegrip by Aristoteles. In die denke van Aristoteles is die ervaringsbegrip van funksioneel konstituerende belang in die kenproses (vgl Honecker 1978:491; Kopf 1982:110; Lange 1984:9). Ervaring enersyds begrond die wetenskap en kuns, andersyds die verwerwing van lewenservaring (wysheid ?) deur ...

  13. (WAT) Radio Source Associated with the Galaxy PGC 1519010 NG ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2009-03-13

    Mar 13, 2009 ... The bending of the jet before and after its disruption forming the radio plume, are found to be correlated in this WAT, as seen from the contrasting morphological patterns on the two sides of the core. Probable constraints imposed by this on the models of WAT formation are pointed out. We also briefly report ...

  14. Disainiaasta eelmäng toimus Helsingis / Ave Randviir

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Randviir, Ave, 1981-

    2006-01-01

    Eesti disaini tutvustav rändnäitus "10D" Helsingi disaini infokeskuses Design Forum Finland 23.08-10.09.2006. Osalevad Martin Pärn, Igor Volkov, Heikki Zoova, Tarmo Luisk, Raimo Sau, TEN TWELWE OÜ (Jukka Halttunen, Tommi Silvan), Jan Graps, Lasse Ira, Ivari Männi, Tõnis Vellama, Ilona Gurjanova

  15. Robotteknologi i en undervisningssammenhæng

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Majgaard, Gunver

    Artiklen vil give et overblik og en vurdering over forskellige slags humant interaktive robotteknologiske læremidler. Eksemplerne, der fremlægges, er modulære robotfliser, I-BLOCKS, PicoCrickets og SmartUS. Artiklen henvender sig til folk, som vil udvikle og afprøve nye robotteknologiske læringsk......Artiklen vil give et overblik og en vurdering over forskellige slags humant interaktive robotteknologiske læremidler. Eksemplerne, der fremlægges, er modulære robotfliser, I-BLOCKS, PicoCrickets og SmartUS. Artiklen henvender sig til folk, som vil udvikle og afprøve nye robotteknologiske...

  16. Providi ng derma tologic ca re in Bots swana

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    raoul

    Additionally, for over a month, we experienced a hospital-wide shortage of doxycycline. This was the best formulary medication for treating common dermatologic problems, including bacterial skin infections and acne vulgaris. Fortunately, doxycycline is an inexpensive medication. (1.5Pula/0.22USD per tablet), and all of our ...

  17. Tallinna kaubandusbilanss 17. sajandil / Enn Küng

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Küng, Enn, 1963-

    2015-01-01

    Mida kujutas endast portooriumitoll. Artikkel on katse uurida kaubandusbilanssi, tuginedes ainult ühele konkreetsele allikaliigile - peaaegu kogu 17. sajandi ulatuses säilinud portooriumitolliraamatutele

  18. Comparison of membrane assisted solvent extraction, stir bar sorptive extraction, and solid phase microextraction in analysis of tetramine in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jager, Lowri S; Perfetti, Gracia A; Diachenko, Gregory W

    2009-04-01

    Three environmentally friendly extraction techniques, membrane assisted solvent extraction (MASE), stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE), and headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME), were compared for the direct analysis of the highly toxic rodenticide tetramine in food. The optimized MASE method was applied to seven foods fortified with tetramine and compared to previously reported SBSE and HS-SPME results. Parameters such as the standard addition linearity (MASE (0.964-0.999), SBSE (0.966-0.999), HS-SPME (0.955-0.999)), recovery (MASE (12-86%), SBSE (36-130%), HS-SPME (50-200%)), reproducibility (MASE (3.0-30%), SBSE (4.4-9.6%), HS-SPME (1-12%)), and LOD (MASE (1.6-6.4 ng/g), SBSE (0.2-2.1 ng/g), HS-SPME (0.9-4.3 ng/g)) were compared.

  19. Flow-injection analysis utilizing a spectrally segmented photodiode-array inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometer. 1: Microcolumn preconcentration for the determination of molybdenum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuta, Naoki; Brushwyler, K. R.; Hieftje, Gary M.

    1989-02-01

    A flow injection analysis (FIA) system incorporating a microcolumn of activated alumina was used for the determination of molybdenum by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). The transient signal resulting from the injection of molybdenum was determined by a spectrally segmented photodiode-array spectro-meter. Linear calibration was established for molybdenum over a concentration range 0 to 1000 ng/ml. The detection capability was approximately 50 times better than offered by comparable continuous-nebulization systems. The detection limit for molybdenum was 0.2 ng/ml, and the relative standard deviations at 500 and 10 ng/ml were about 2 and 5 percent, respectively. The ability of the multichannel photodiode array spectrometer to correct for background shifts which occur during signal integration period provided improved precision and accuracy. Application to the analysis of molybdenum in standard sea water (NASS-2) was demonstrated.

  20. o-Toluidine blood protein adducts: HPLC analysis with fluorescence detection after a single dose in the adult male rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheever, K.L.; DeBord, G.D.; Swearengin, T.F.

    1991-01-01

    Hemoglobin (Hb) and albumin (Alb) adducts of the suspect human carcinogen o-toluidine (OT) were quantified in blood samples collected from rats after a single i.p. injection. Mild alkaline hydrolysis of Hb-adducted [ 14 C]OT followed by extraction with ethylacetate resulted in recovery of 66% of the bound radioactivity. HPLC analysis revealed a single radiolabeled peak which was identified as OT by GC-MS. In subsequent experiments the Hb and Alb adduct levels were determined by HPLC analysis of this split product using fluorescence detection. 4-Ethylaniline was used as internal standard. The detection limit for OT was approximately 450 pg/injection of 5 pmol. mg Hb. Mean adduct levels for Hb increased rapidly over the first 4 hr with the highest (ng/mg Hb ± SD) 3.7 ± 0.5 detected 24 hr after OT (50 mg/kg body wt). In contrast, adduct levels for pooled Alb samples increased from 0.7 ng/mg Alb at 2 hr to 2.5 ng/mg Alb at 4 hr, but were not detectable 24 hr after OT (50 mg/kg body wt). In contrast, adduct levels for pooled Alb samples increased from 0.7 ng/mg Alb at 2 hr to 2.5 ng/mg Alb at 4 hr, but were not detectable 24 hr after dosing. Hb adducts showed a linear relationship for OT doses of 10, 20, 40, 50, and 100 mg/kg body wt. The Hb adduct t 1/2 (11.2 days) was determined after a single 100 mg/kg OT dose. Hb adduct levels were quantifiable (1.3 ± 0.2 ng/mg Hb) by HPLC/fluorescence 28 days after 100 mg/kg OT

  1. Ang Usaping Pang-Wika sa Bagong Yugto ng Pantayong Pananaw: Ang Panloob na Hamon ng Pluralismo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Lily Mendoza

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This essay engages the language debates in the Philippines as they play out within the politics of an intellectual movement in the Philippine academy called Pantayong Pananaw. Roughly translated as a “for-us, of-us, and by-us perspective,” the movement’s goal is to create the conditions for the possibility of a closed circuit of communication (the context of “us speaking among ourselves” vs. “us speaking with others” among Filipinos deemed crucial for the democratic constitution of a national polity of speakers able to share a vision of the common good. Key to the success of this national(izing project is the advocacy of a common medium of communication: in this case, F/Pilipino/Tagalog. In this study, I push back on Pantayong Pananaw in its singular focus on national unity and raise issue with its seeming lack of vision—if not in theory, in practice—for the role that the plural languages and cultures in the country might play in its envisioned “national community.” Cast as the interlocutor in this regard is a growing ethnonationalist movement among a number of regional ethnolinguistic communities who fear marginalization of their respective cultures, languages, and identities through what they call the oppresssive hegemony of one region (Manila and its ultimately assimilationist policy. How to make sense of the opposing imperatives of a nationalizing agenda, on the one hand, and of ethnonationalist survival and thriving, on the other, is the problematic being wrestled here. The stakes are spelled out and the larger political context mapped out, but in the end, both nationalist and ethnonationalist projects are challenged to take seriously not only the promise, but also the limits, of their respective visions.

  2. Ang Nagbabagong Anyo ng Sosyolohiya sa Nagbabagong Lipunan at Mundo: Ang Postmodernismo at ang Hinaharap ng Sosyolohiya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerry M. Lanuza

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Social theory today is undergoing a crisis. This crisis is brought about by the postmodern turn in social theory. In this essay postmodernism is defined both as a cultural movement and as the social condition of late capitalism. This paper deals with the restructuring of sociological theory as a result of this postmodern turn. Then, the implications of postmodern theory are discussed in relation to the future of doing a postcolonial sociology in the Philippines.

  3. Yang Pagbul’lók-bul’lok: Varyasyon ng Wikang Mandaya sa Ilang Munisipalidad ng Davao Oriental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Raymund M. Pasion

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to find out the lexical, phonological, and morphological variations of the Mandaya language in the municipalities of Manay, Caraga, Baganga and Cateel in the province of Davao Oriental. This research was conducted to meet the following objectives: (1 To present the terminologies used in the four municipalities based on the Indigenous Knowledge System and Practices of Mandaya in cultural farming, hunting, fishing and animal husbandry. (2 To identify the variations in the Mandaya language based on lexicon, phonology and morphology. (3 To show the distinct linguistic feature in the Mandaya language that is different from Filipino language based on lexicon, phonology and morphology. Qualitative design, descriptive and indigenous methods were used in gathering and analyzing the data. Purposive combination and snow-ball sampling were utilized in choosing the informants. It was found out in the study that there was a variation of the Mandaya language in the four municipalities. In the lexical aspect, there were three evident categories: the different in form; the slightly similar in form; and the same in form but different in pronunciation. While in the phonological aspect, it also showed three variations; the phoneme /h/; the phoneme /ᵊ/ (swa; and the glide l or /l−l/. On the other hand, in the morphological aspect, the researcher observed two things: the affix and morphological phenomena occurring in the words in different dialects in Mandaya. In general, the occurrence of variations in lexical, phonological and morphological aspects in the Mandaya language was inevitable, and this was caused by the three factors: the linguistics, sociolinguistics and psychological.

  4. Molecular analysis of pancreatic cyst fluid changes clinical management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arner, David M; Corning, Brooke E; Ahmed, Ali M; Ho, Henry C; Weinbaum, Bradley J; Siddiqui, Uzma; Aslanian, Harry; Adams, Reid B; Bauer, Todd W; Wang, Andrew Y; Shami, Vanessa M; Sauer, Bryan G

    2018-01-01

    DNA molecular analysis has been suggested as a tool to evaluate pancreatic cysts. This study assesses whether the addition of DNA molecular analysis alters clinical management. This is a retrospective review of 46 consecutive patients who underwent EUS-FNA of pancreatic cysts with DNA molecular analysis at two major academic institutions. Cases were presented to two pancreaticobiliary surgeons first without and then with DNA molecular analysis data. The primary outcome was the frequency with which clinical management was altered with the addition of DNA molecular analysis. Forty-six patients with a mean age of 62.0 (±13.4) years and mean cyst size of 3.2 (±2.3) cm were included in the study. Cyst carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) was available in 30 patients and ranged from 0.4 to 15,927 ng/mL. DNA molecular analysis was described as benign in 23 (50%), statistically indolent in 13 (28%), statistically higher risk in 9 (20%), and indeterminate in 1 (2%). Surgeon #1 changed the management in 13/46 cases (28%) and surgeon #2 changed the management in 12/46 cases (26%) with the addition of DNA molecular analysis. When organized by CEA concentration, those with an intermediate CEA (45-800 ng/mL) or without a CEA concentration had a management changed more frequently (40%) compared to all others (P molecular analysis alters the clinical management of pancreatic cystic lesions most often when CEA levels are intermediate (45-800 ng/mL) or when no CEA concentration is available. Use of DNA molecular analysis can be considered in this cohort. Further study of molecular markers in pancreatic cystic lesions is recommended.

  5. Hair analysis as evidence in forensic cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeller, M R; Fey, P; Sachs, H

    1993-12-01

    Because hair analysis can be used for the determination of drug use months after drug consumption, hair analysis data can often act as important and even decisive evidence in the courtroom. More recently developed GC/MS methods offer excellent sensitivity and can make the distinction between chronic heroin and codeine use, which was not possible earlier with radioimmunoassay techniques. From more than a thousand hair analyses, the morphine/codeine ratios necessary to determine heroin use were set at 5:1 for low morphine concentrations (< 1 ng/mg hair) and 2:1 for concentrations above 1 ng/mg hair. The distinction can be further focused with the additional analysis of the metabolite monoacetylmorphine (MAM). As can be seen from several case examples, hair analysis cannot pinpoint an exact date of opiate use, but it can be used to validate or invalidate a subject's statement concerning his/her drug consumption. Interpretations should always be made cautiously. Ranges, means and medians are also listed for amphetamine, cocaine and cannabis and work is under way to draw similar safety guidelines for these drugs.

  6. PIXE analysis by baby cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Hyogo; Tanaka, Teruaki; Ito, Takashi; Toda, Yohjiro; Wakasa, Hideichiro

    1988-01-01

    The Japan Steel Works, Ltd. has been supplying a very small sized cyclotron (Baby Cyclotron) to hospitals and research facilities. The cyclotron is designed to produce short-lived radioisotopes for medical use. In the present study, this cyclotron is modified so that it can serve for PIXE analysis. The PIXE (particle induced X-ray emission) technique has the following features: (1) Down to 1 ng of trace material in a sample (mg - μg) can be detected, (2) An analysis run is completed in one to ten minutes, permitting economical analysis for a large number of samples, (3) Several elements can be analyzed simultaneously, with an almost constant sensitivity for a variety of elements ranging from aluminum to heavy metals, (4) Analysis can be performed nondestructively without a chemical process, and (5) The use of microbeam can provide data on the distribution of elements with a resolution of several μm. Software for analysis is developed to allow the modified equipment to perform peak search, background fitting, and identification and determination of peaks. A study is now being conducted to examine the performance of the equipment for PIXE analysis of thin samples. Satisfactory results have been obtained. The analysis time, excluding the background correction, is 5-10 min. (Nogami, K.)

  7. A Meta-Analysis of Soccer Injuries on Artificial Turf and Natural Grass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay H. Williams

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this investigation was to determine if playing or training on third-generation artificial turf (AT surfaces increases the incidence rate of injuries compared to natural grass (NG surfaces. This was accomplished by a meta-analysis performed on previously published research. Eight studies met the criteria of competitive soccer players, participation on both surfaces, and presentation of both exposure time and injury occurrence. Exposure time and injury incidence values were used to generate injury rate ratios (IRRs, AT/NG for all injuries as well as specific injuries. Subgroup analyses were also performed by condition (match or training, gender, and age (youth or adult. The overall IRR was 0.86 ( suggesting a lower injury risk on AT than NG. However, there was considerable heterogeneity between studies. Analyses of individual injuries and subgroups found that in many cases IRR values were significantly less than 1.0. In no case was the IRR significantly greater than 1.0. Based on this, it appears that the risk of sustaining an injury on AT under some conditions might be lowered compared to NG. However, until more is known about how issues such as altered playing styles affect injury incidence, it is difficult to make firm conclusions regarding the influence of AT on player safety.

  8. Urine metabolite analysis as a function of deoxynivalenol exposure: an NMR-based metabolomics investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopton, R P; Turner, E; Burley, V J; Turner, P C; Fisher, J

    2010-02-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a toxic fungal metabolite that frequently contaminates cereal crops including wheat, maize and barley. Despite knowledge of frequent exposure through diet, our understanding of the potential consequences of human exposure remains limited, in part due to the lack of validated exposure biomarkers. In this study, we interrogated the urinary metabolome using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to compare individuals with known low and high DON exposure through consumption of their normal diet. Urine samples from 22 adults from the UK (seven males, 15 females; age range = 21-59 years) had previously determined urinary DON levels using an established liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) assay. Urine samples were subsequently analysed using an NMR-based metabolomics approach coupled with multivariate statistical analysis. Metabolic profiling suggested that hippurate levels could be used to distinguish between groups with low (3.6 ng DON mg(-1) creatinine: 95% CI = 2.6, 5.0 ng mg(-1)) and high (11.1 ng mg(-1): 95% CI = 8.1, 15.5 ng mg(-1)) DON exposure, with the concentration of hippurate being significantly (1.5 times) higher for people with high DON exposure than for those with low DON exposure (p = 0.047). This, to our knowledge, is the first report of a metabolomics-derived biomarker of DON exposure in humans.

  9. Selenium determination in cereal plants and cultivation soils by radiochemical neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galinha, C.; Freitas, M.C.; Anawar, H.M.; Pacheco, A.M.G.; Kamenik, J.; Kucera, J.; Coutinho, J.; Macas, B.; Almeida, A.S.

    2012-01-01

    Selenium (Se) is an essential micronutrient for human health but it is deficient in at least 1 billion people around the globe. Cereals are by far the most significant agricultural crops, not only on a gross tonnage basis, but also by what they represent in terms of energy supply and dietary intake for human nutrition worldwide. Portugal is no exception to such pattern. The Portuguese situation is difficult to assess though, due to scarce information and lack of consistent studies on the subject. In these terms, the Se status of major cereals and their cultivation soils are dealt with herein. Two species of wheat-bread and durum wheat-were sown at the end of November 2009, and then sampled in different growth stages. Rye was collected during harvest season, and cultivation soils were analyzed as well. Se results were within the range of: 100-225 ng g -1 for soils; 3-55 ng g -1 for durum wheat; 6-80 ng g -1 for bread wheat; and 4-30 ng g -1 for rye. Accuracy of the RNAA procedure was proved by analysis of reference materials NIST-SRM 1515 and NIS-SRM 8433. (author)

  10. Quantitation of 11 -nor-delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid with GC-MS in urine collected for doping analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cock, K J S; Delbeke, F T; De Boer, D; Van Eenoo, P; Roels, K

    2003-03-01

    An accurate, reproducible, and validated gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method for the quantitation of 11 -nor-delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid (THC-COOH), the major metabolite of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol, in urine is described. Extraction was performed with n-hexane/ethyl acetate. Deuterated THC-COOH was used as the internal standard. The GC-MS analysis was done by selected ion monitoring. No interferences were detected in 20 blank urine samples of different origin. The calibration curve was found to be linear over the range of 10-100 ng/mL. The calculated limits of detection and quantitation were 1.0 ng/mL and 1.7 ng/mL, respectively. Results of positive findings for cannabis use in doping control in Flanders and Portugal in the period of 1997-2000 are commented.

  11. Flow-injection analysis utilizing a spectrally segmented photodiode-array inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometer—I. Microcolumn preconcentration for the determination of molybdenum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuta, N.; Brushwyler, K. R.; Hieftje, G. M.

    A flow-injection analysis (FIA) system incorporating a microcolumn of activated alumina was used for the determination of molybdenum by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). The transient signal resulting from the injection of molybdenum was determined by a spectrally segmented photodiode-array spectrometer. Linear calibration was established for molybdenum over a concentration range 0-1000 ng ml -1. The detection capability was approximately 50 times better than that offered by comparable continuous-nebulization systems. The detection limit for molybdenum was 0.2 ng ml -1, and the relative standard deviations at 500 and 10 ng ml -1 were about 2 and 5%, respectively. The ability of the multichannel photodiode-array spectrometer to correct for background shifts which occur during the signal integration period provided improved precision and accuracy. Application to the determination of molybdenum in standard sea water (NASS-2) was demonstrated.

  12. An Analysis of Communication Between Program Managers and Contracting Officers and Its Effect on the Performance of the Defense Acquisition System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Department of Defense instruction ERP enterprise resource planning FAR Federal Acquisition Regulation FFP firm fixed price FPDS-NG...Analysis PAUC program acquisition unit cost PBUSE Property Book Unit Supply Enhanced PD product director PD2 Procurement Defense Desktop PEO...contracting, security, etc., impedes the flow of information both up the chain of command for reporting purposes and across organizations for increased

  13. HPLC-MS/MS method optimisation for matrix metalloproteinase 3 and matrix metalloproteinase 9 determination in human blood serum using target analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotnik, Petra; Krajnc, Metka Koren; Pahor, Artur; Finšgar, Matjaž; Knez, Željko

    2018-02-20

    A quantitative analysis of zinc endopeptidases matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) and matrix metalloproteinase 3 (MMP3) from human blood serum are presented. Both matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) are present in human blood serum and can be used as biomarkers for different diseases. The analysis was performed using LC-MS/MS with a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer, based on two specific peptides of each MMP in comparison with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). While the conditions for the LC-MS/MS analysis of MMP9 peptides were previously reported for bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, the analysis of MMP3 peptides was newly quantified for human blood serum herein for the first time. For MMP3, the linear behaviour was determined in the concentration range from 1.0-200.0ng/mL (R 2 =0.997) with an LLOD of 0.5ng/mL. For MMP9, linearity was determined in the concentration range from 6.5-65.0ng/mL (R 2 =0.995) with an LLOD of 2.0ng/mL. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Methodology of simultaneous analysis of Uranium and Thorium by nuclear and atomic techniques. Application to the Uranium and Thorium dosing in mineralogic samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fakhi, S.

    1988-01-01

    This work concerns essentially the potential applications of 100 kW nuclear reactor of Strasbourg Nuclear Research Centre to neutron activation analysis of Uranium and Thorium. The Uranium dosing has been made using: 239-U, 239-Np, fission products or delayed neutrons. Thorium has been showed up by means of 233-Th or 233-Pa. The 239-U and 233-Th detection leads to a rapid and non-destructive analysis of Uranium and Thorium. The maximum sensitivity is of 78 ng for Uranium and of 160 ng for Thorium. The Uranium and Thorium dosing based on 239-Np and 233-Pa detection needs chemical selective separations for each of these radionuclides. The liquid-liquid extraction has permitted to elaborate rapid and quantitative separation methods. The sensitivities of the analysis after extraction reach 30 ng for Uranium and 50 ng for Thorium. The fission products separation study has allowed to elaborate the La, Ce and Nd extractions and its application to the Uranium dosing gives satisfying results. A rapid dosing method with a sensitivity of 0.35 microgramme has been elaborated with the help of delayed neutrons measurement. These different methods have been applied to the Uranium and Thorium dosing in samples coming from Oklo mine in Gabon. The analyses of these samples by atomic absorption spectroscopy and by the proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) method confirm that the neutron activation analysis methods are reliable. 37 figs., 14 tabs., 50 refs

  15. Dose-response of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D in association with risk of colorectal cancer: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, Cedric F; Gorham, Edward D

    2017-04-01

    Fifteen nested case-control or cohort studies in 14 countries have examined the association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and risk of colorectal cancer. A meta-analysis of these studies would provide a useful dose-response gradient curve based on pooling of the results of known studies to date. An up-to-date dose-response curve that combines the findings of these studies has not been reported, to our knowledge. This curve would help in designing interventions for future studies. A new meta-analysis would be more precise than any previous analysis due to its larger sample size. Therefore a search of PubMed and other resources was performed in May 2016 for all cohort or nested case-control observational studies that reported risk of colon or colorectal cancer by quantiles of 25(OH)D. All but two of the 15 studies found a trend toward lower risk of colorectal cancer associated with higher serum 25(OH)D. There was a linear reduction in the odds ratio (OR) with each 10ng/ml-increment in 25(OH)D concentration. The lowest quantile of the serum 25(OH)D concentration was generallyhighest with lowest quantile of 25(OH)D was 0.67 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.59-0.76), meaning there was a 33% lower risk associated with the highest compared with the lowest quantile of serum 25(OH)D. A dose-response analysis revealed that a serum 25(OH)D of 50ng/ml was associated with an OR of 0.4 (95% CI, 0.2-1.0) compared with a concentration of 5ng/ml. The formula for the linear relationship was OR=0.008x. For example, individuals with a 25(OH)D concentration of 50ng/ml had an approximately 60% lower risk of colorectal cancer than those with a concentration of 5ng/ml. Those with a 25(OH)D concentration of 30ng/ml had a 33% lower risk than those with a concentration of 5ng/ml. The inverse association between serum 25(OH)D and risk of colorectal cancer overall was strong and statistically significant. There also was a mostly linear dose response relationship between serum 25

  16. Automated method for simultaneous lead and strontium isotopic analysis applied to rainwater samples and airborne particulate filters (PM10).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrán, Blanca; Avivar, Jessica; Mola, Montserrat; Ferrer, Laura; Cerdà, Víctor; Leal, Luz O

    2013-09-03

    A new automated, sensitive, and fast system for the simultaneous online isolation and preconcentration of lead and strontium by sorption on a microcolumn packed with Sr-resin using an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) detector was developed, hyphenating lab-on-valve (LOV) and multisyringe flow injection analysis (MSFIA). Pb and Sr are directly retained on the sorbent column and eluted with a solution of 0.05 mol L(-1) ammonium oxalate. The detection limits achieved were 0.04 ng for lead and 0.03 ng for strontium. Mass calibration curves were used since the proposed system allows the use of different sample volumes for preconcentration. Mass linear working ranges were between 0.13 and 50 ng and 0.1 and 50 ng for lead and strontium, respectively. The repeatability of the method, expressed as RSD, was 2.1% and 2.7% for Pb and Sr, respectively. Environmental samples such as rainwater and airborne particulate (PM10) filters as well as a certified reference material SLRS-4 (river water) were satisfactorily analyzed obtaining recoveries between 90 and 110% for both elements. The main features of the LOV-MSFIA-ICP-MS system proposed are the capability to renew solid phase extraction at will in a fully automated way, the remarkable stability of the column which can be reused up to 160 times, and the potential to perform isotopic analysis.

  17. A Cross Sectional Analysis of Gonococcal and Chlamydial Infections among Men-Who-Have-Sex-with-Men in Cape Town, South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Rebe

    Full Text Available Men-who-have-sex-with-men (MSM are at high risk of HIV and sexually transmitted infection (STI transmission. Asymptomatic STIs are common in MSM and remain undiagnosed and untreated where syndromic management is advocated. Untreated STIs could be contributing to high HIV rates. This study investigated symptomatic (SSTI and asymptomatic STIs (ASTIs in MSM in Cape Town.MSM, 18 years and above, were enrolled into this study. Participants underwent clinical and microbiological screening for STIs. Urine, oro-pharyngeal and anal swab specimens were collected for STI analysis, and blood for HIV and syphilis screening. A psychosocial and sexual questionnaire was completed. STI specimens were analysed for Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG and Chlamydia trachomatis (CT infection.200 MSM were recruited with a median age of 32 years (IQR 26-39.5. Their median number of sex partners within the last year was 5 (IQR 2-20. 155/200 (78% reported only male sex partners while 45/200 (23% reported sex with men and women. 77/200 (39% reported transactional sex. At enrolment, 88/200 (44% were HIV positive and 8/112 (7% initially HIV-negative participants seroconverted during the study. Overall, 47/200 (24% screened positive for either NG or CT. There were 32 MSM (16% infected with NG and 7 (3.5% of these men had NG infections at two anatomical sites (39 NG positive results in total. Likewise, there were 23 MSM (12% infected with CT and all these men had infections at only one site. Eight of the 47 men (17% were infected with both NG and CT. ASTI was more common than SSTI irrespective of anatomical site, 38 /200 (19% versus 9/200 (5% respectively (p<0.001. The anus was most commonly affected, followed by the oro-pharynx and then urethra. Asymptomatic infection was associated with transgender identity (OR 4.09 CI 1.60-5.62, ≥5 male sex partners in the last year (OR 2.50 CI 1.16-5.62 and transactional sex (OR 2.33 CI 1.13-4.79 but not with HIV infection.Asymptomatic STI was

  18. Assessment of Sediment Risk in the North End of Tai Lake, China: Integrating Chemical Analysis and Chronic Toxicity Testing with Chironomus dilutus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Hongxue; Ma, Ping; Li, Huizhen; You, Jing

    2015-11-01

    Whole life-cycle bioassays with Chironomus dilutus were performed to evaluate sediment toxicity in Tai Lake, a typical freshwater lake in China. Meanwhile, contaminants of concern were analyzed in sediment. The sediments in Tai Lake showed no acute mortality in 10-day testing to C. dilutus. After chronic exposure to the sediments, however, adverse effects-including decreased survival and sublethal impairments of growth, emergence, and fecundity-were observed at most sites in Tai Lake. A variety of contaminants were detected in sediment with the total concentrations in the range of 504-889 ng/g dry weight (dw) for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, 0.56-1.81 ng/g dw for polychlorinated biphenyls, 38.6-87.8 ng/g dw for polybrominated diphenyl ethers, 8.34-14.2 ng/g dw for organochlorine pesticides, 1.27-2.95 ng/g dw for organophosphate pesticides, 0.11-0.21 ng/g dw for pyrethroid pesticides, and 332-609 µg/g dw for metals. Finally, a canonical correlation analysis was applied to link chronic sediment toxicity to the toxic units of individual contaminants. Results suggested that two pesticides (hexachlorocyclohexane and chlorpyrifos) and two metals (chromium and nickel) in sediments from Tai Lake were the potential contributors to the noted toxicity in C. dilutus in the life-cycle toxicity testing. In conclusion, acute bioassays with the benthos were not sensitive enough to assess sediment toxicity in freshwater lakes in China, and it is desirable to integrate chronic toxicity testing with chemical analysis to better understand sediment risk.

  19. Rapid screening and quantification of residual pesticides and illegal adulterants in red wine by direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Tianyang; Fang, Pingping; Jiang, Juanjuan; Zhang, Feng; Yong, Wei; Liu, Jiahui; Dong, Yiyang

    2016-11-04

    A rapid method to screen and quantify multi-class analytic targets in red wine has been developed by direct analysis in real time (DART) coupled with triple quadruple tandem mass spectrometry (QqQ-MS). A modified QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe) procedure was used for increasing analytical speed and reducing matrix effect, and the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) in DART-MS/MS ensured accurate analysis. One bottle of wine containing 50 pesticides and 12 adulterants, i.e., preservatives, antioxidant, sweeteners, and azo dyes, could be totally determined less than 12min. This method exhibited proper linearity (R 2 ≥0.99) in the range of 1-1000ng/mL for pesticides and 10-5000ng/mL for adulterants. The limits of detection (LODs) were obtained in a 0.5-50ng/mL range for pesticides and 5-50ng/mL range for adulterants, and the limits of quantification (LOQs) were in a 1-100ng/mL range for pesticides and 10-250ng/mL range for adulterants. Three spiked levels for each analyte in wine were evaluated, and the recoveries were in a scope of 75-120%. The results demonstrated DART-MS/MS was a rapid and simple method, and could be applied to rapid analyze residual pesticides and illegal adulterants in a large quantities of red wine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Automated solid-phase extraction-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis of 6-acetylmorphine in human urine specimens: application for a high-throughput urine analysis laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robandt, P V; Bui, H M; Scancella, J M; Klette, K L

    2010-10-01

    An automated solid-phase extraction-liquid chromatography- tandem mass spectrometry (SPE-LC-MS-MS) method using the Spark Holland Symbiosis Pharma SPE-LC coupled to a Waters Quattro Micro MS-MS was developed for the analysis of 6-acetylmorphine (6-AM) in human urine specimens. The method was linear (R² = 0.9983) to 100 ng/mL, with no carryover at 200 ng/mL. Limits of quantification and detection were found to be 2 ng/mL. Interrun precision calculated as percent coefficient of variation (%CV) and evaluated by analyzing five specimens at 10 ng/mL over nine batches (n = 45) was 3.6%. Intrarun precision evaluated from 0 to 100 ng/mL ranged from 1.0 to 4.4%CV. Other opioids (codeine, morphine, oxycodone, oxymorphone, hydromorphone, hydrocodone, and norcodeine) did not interfere in the detection, quantification, or chromatography of 6-AM or the deuterated internal standard. The quantified values for 41 authentic human urine specimens previously found to contain 6-AM by a validated gas chromatography (GC)-MS method were compared to those obtained by the SPE-LC-MS-MS method. The SPE-LC-MS-MS procedure eliminates the human factors of specimen handling, extraction, and derivatization, thereby reducing labor costs and rework resulting from human error or technique issues. The time required for extraction and analysis was reduced by approximately 50% when compared to a validated 6-AM procedure using manual SPE and GC-MS analysis.

  1. PIXE analysis of atmospheric particulate matter in glas fibre filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabacniks, M.H.; Orsini, C.Q.; Maenhaut, W.

    1993-01-01

    A 3-step extraction procedure was developed to allow particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis of particulate matter in normal glass fibre filter samples. The detection limits, expressed in ng/m 3 of air, for the filter extracts were 5 to 30 times lower than those achieved by PIXE analysis or ordinary Nuclepore polycarbonate filter samples. The concentration results were compared with those obtained from routine atomic absorption spectrometry measurements and with the PIXE data from Nuclepore stacked filter unit samples taken in parallel. (orig.)

  2. Proteomics Analysis for Finding Serum Markers of Ovarian Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yushan Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A combination of peptide ligand library beads (PLLB and 1D gel liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (1DGel-LC-MS/MS was employed to analyze serum samples from patients with ovarian cancer and from healthy controls. Proteomic analysis identified 1200 serum proteins, among which 57 proteins were upregulated and 10 were downregulated in the sera from cancer patients. Retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4 is highly upregulated in the ovarian cancer serum samples. ELISA was employed to measure plasma concentrations of RBP4 in 80 samples from ovarian cancer patients, healthy individuals, myoma patients, and patients with benign ovarian tumor, respectively. The plasma concentrations of RBP4 ranging from 76.91 to 120.08 ng/mL with the mean value 89.13±1.67 ng/mL in ovarian cancer patients are significantly higher than those in healthy individuals (10.85±2.38 ng/mL. Results were further confirmed with immunohistochemistry, demonstrating that RBP4 expression levels in normal ovarian tissue were lower than those in ovarian cancer tissues. Our results suggested that RBP4 is a potential biomarker for diagnostic of screening ovarian cancer.

  3. Direct Analysis in Real Time Mass Spectrometry of Potential By-Products from Homemade Nitrate Ester Explosive Synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Sisco, Edward; Forbes, Thomas P.

    2015-01-01

    This work demonstrates the coupling of direct analysis in real time (DART) ionization with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MS) in an off-axis configuration for the trace detection and analysis of potential partially nitrated and dimerized by-products of homemade nitrate ester explosive synthesis. Five compounds relating to the synthesis of nitroglycerin (NG) and pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) were examined. Deprotonated ions and adducts with molecular oxygen, nitrite, and nitrate were ...

  4. Tandem DART™ MS Methods for Methadone Analysis in Unprocessed Urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Rachel; Carter, Patrick; Shonsey, Erin; Graves, David

    2016-03-01

    Current methods of methadone analysis in untreated urine are traditionally limited to enzyme immunoassays (EIA) while confirmation techniques require specimen processing (i.e., sample clean-up) before analyzing by gas or liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS or LC-MS-MS). EIA and traditional confirmation techniques can be costly and, at times inefficient. As an alternative approach, we present Direct Analysis in Real Time (DART™) coupled with both time-of-flight and triple quadrupole linear ion trap (Q-TRAP™) mass spectrometers for screening and confirming methadone in untreated urine specimens. These approaches require neither expensive kits nor sample clean-up for analysis. More importantly, the total combined analysis time for both screening and confirmation methods was methadone at 250 ng/mL, consistent with cutoffs for current EIA techniques (300 ng/mL). The results reported here demonstrate the DART™ MS platform provides rapid and selective methadone analysis and the potential for providing savings of both time and resources compared with current analysis procedures. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Non-PBDE halogenated flame retardants in Canadian indoor house dust: sampling, analysis, and occurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xinghua; Kubwabo, Cariton; Rasmussen, Pat E; Wu, Fang

    2016-04-01

    An analytical method was developed for the measurement of 18 novel halogenated flame retardants in house dust. Sample preparation was based on ultrasound-assisted solvent extraction and clean up with solid phase extraction (SPE). Sample extracts were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) operated in electron capture negative ion (ECNI) chemical ionization mode. Baseline data from 351 fresh (active) dust samples collected under the Canadian House Dust Study (CHDS) revealed that five out of 18 target chemicals were present with detection frequencies higher than 90 %. Median (range) concentrations for these five compounds were as follows: 104 (<1.5-13,000) ng/g for 2-ethylhexyl-2,3,4,5-tetrabromobenzoate (EHTBB), 8.5 (<1.7-2390) ng/g for 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)ethane (BTBPE), 10.2 (<1.7-430) ng/g for hexabromobenzene (HBB), 2.9 (<1.2-1410) ng/g for syn-dechlorane plus (syn-DP) and 5.6 (<1.9-1570) ng/g for anti-dechlorane plus (anti-DP). A comparison of two sampling methods in a subset of 40 homes showed significant positive correlations between samples of "active" dust and samples taken directly from the household vacuum cleaner for all target compounds having median values above their corresponding method detection limits (MDLs). In addition, the method was also applied to the analysis of the targeted compounds in National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) standard reference material (SRM 2585, organic contaminants in house dust). Results from the current study could contribute to the potential certification of target chemicals in SRM 2585.

  6. Occurrence, fluxes and sources of perfluoroalkyl substances with isomer analysis in the snow of northern China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shan, Guoqiang; Chen, Xinwei; Zhu, Lingyan, E-mail: zhuly@nankai.edu.cn

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • Relatively high levels of PFASs were present in the snow in northern China in 2013. • Particulate bound PFASs contributed 21.5–56.2% to the total PFASs in snow. • Particulate matters are vital for PFASs transport and deposition in urban atmosphere. • Partitioning of PFASs between particulate and dissolved phase was related to carbon chain length. • Isomer profiles in snow suggested that airborne PFASs were mainly from direct release. - Abstract: In this study, perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) and the isomers of perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) were analyzed in fresh snow samples collected from 19 cities in northern China, 2013. The levels of total PFASs in the snow samples were 33.5–229 ng/L, suggesting heavy atmospheric pollution of PFASs in northern China. PFOA (9.08–107 ng/L), PFOS (3.52–54.3 ng/L), perfluoroheptanoate (PFHpA) (3.66–44.8 ng/L), and perfluorohexanoate (PFHxA) (3.21–23.6 ng/L) were predominant with a summed contribution of 82% to the total PFASs. The particulate matters (PMs) associated PFASs contributed 21.5–56.2% to the total PFASs in the snow, suggesting PMs are vital for the transport and deposition of airborne PFASs. Partitioning of PFASs between PM and dissolved phases was dependent on the carbon chain length and end functional groups. Isomer profiles of PFOA and PFOS in the snow were in agreement with the signature of the historical 3 M electrochemical fluorination (ECF) products, suggesting that the ECF products were still produced and used in China. Further source analysis showed that the airborne PFASs in urban area were mainly due to direct release rather than degradation of their precursors.

  7. Occurrence, fluxes and sources of perfluoroalkyl substances with isomer analysis in the snow of northern China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shan, Guoqiang; Chen, Xinwei; Zhu, Lingyan

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Relatively high levels of PFASs were present in the snow in northern China in 2013. • Particulate bound PFASs contributed 21.5–56.2% to the total PFASs in snow. • Particulate matters are vital for PFASs transport and deposition in urban atmosphere. • Partitioning of PFASs between particulate and dissolved phase was related to carbon chain length. • Isomer profiles in snow suggested that airborne PFASs were mainly from direct release. - Abstract: In this study, perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) and the isomers of perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) were analyzed in fresh snow samples collected from 19 cities in northern China, 2013. The levels of total PFASs in the snow samples were 33.5–229 ng/L, suggesting heavy atmospheric pollution of PFASs in northern China. PFOA (9.08–107 ng/L), PFOS (3.52–54.3 ng/L), perfluoroheptanoate (PFHpA) (3.66–44.8 ng/L), and perfluorohexanoate (PFHxA) (3.21–23.6 ng/L) were predominant with a summed contribution of 82% to the total PFASs. The particulate matters (PMs) associated PFASs contributed 21.5–56.2% to the total PFASs in the snow, suggesting PMs are vital for the transport and deposition of airborne PFASs. Partitioning of PFASs between PM and dissolved phases was dependent on the carbon chain length and end functional groups. Isomer profiles of PFOA and PFOS in the snow were in agreement with the signature of the historical 3 M electrochemical fluorination (ECF) products, suggesting that the ECF products were still produced and used in China. Further source analysis showed that the airborne PFASs in urban area were mainly due to direct release rather than degradation of their precursors.

  8. Cyclic neutron activation analysis for determination of selenium in food samples using 77mSe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, H.; Chai, Z.F.; Qing, W.Y.; Chen, H.C.; Chai, Z.F.

    2009-01-01

    Cyclic neutron activation analysis method was conducted for determination of Se in food samples. High accuracy and good precision were proved by analyzing certified reference materials (CRMs) of chicken (GBW100 18), rice (GBW10010) and cabbage (GBW10014). The detection limits for the three CRMs reached 0.16, 0.66 and 1.2 ng after 6 cycles at the 161.9 keV γ-peak from 77m Se, under a neutron flux of 9.0 x 10 11 n cm -2 s -1 and the conditions of 30 s irradiation, 2 s decay, 30 s counting and 2 s waiting, significantly lower than those of conventional neutron activation analysis without any cycles, which were 0.94, 3.6 and 4.3 ng, respectively. (author)

  9. Comparison of GC-ICP-MS and HPLC-ICP-MS for species-specific isotope dilution analysis of tributyltin in sediment after accelerated solvent extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahlen, Raimund; Wolff-Briche, Celine

    2003-01-01

    This study describes a direct comparison of GC and HPLC hyphenated to ICP-MS determination of tributyltin (TBT) in sediment by species-specific isotope dilution analysis (SS-IDMS). The certified reference sediment PACS-2 (NRC, Canada) and a candidate reference sediment (P-18/HIPA-1) were extracted using an accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) procedure. For comparison of GC and LC methods an older bottle of PACS-2 was used, whilst a fresh bottle was taken for demonstration of the accuracy of the methods. The data obtained show good agreement between both methods for both the PACS-2 sediment (LC-ICP-IDMS 828±87 ng g -1 TBT as Sn, GC-ICP-IDMS 848±39 ng g -1 TBT as Sn) and the P-18/ HIPA-1 sediment (LC-ICP-IDMS 78.0±9.7 ng g -1 TBT as Sn, GC-ICP-IDMS 79.2±3.8 ng g -1 TBT as Sn). The analysis by GC-ICP-IDMS offers a greater signal-to-noise ratio and hence a superior detection limit of 0.03 pg TBT as Sn, in the sediment extracts compared to HPLC-ICP-IDMS (3 pg TBT as Sn). A comparison of the uncertainties associated with both methods indicates superior precision of the GC approach. This is related to the better reproducibility of the peak integration, which affects the isotope ratio measurements used for IDMS. The accuracy of the ASE method combined with HPLC-ICP-IDMS was demonstrated during the international interlaboratory comparison P-18 organised by the Comite Consultatif pour la Quantite de Matiere (CCQM). The results obtained by GC-ICP-IDMS for a newly opened bottle of PACS-2 were 1087±77 ng g -1 Sn for DBT and 876±51 ng g -1 Sn for TBT (expanded uncertainties with a coverage factor of 2), which are in good agreement with the certified values of 1090±150 ng g -1 Sn and 980±130 ng g -1 Sn, respectively. (orig.)

  10. Derivative activation analysis of phosphorus at ppb levels in water samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arunachalam, J.; John, A.; Gangadharan, S.

    1991-01-01

    A neutron activation analysis procedure has been developed for the indirect determination of phosphorus as orthophosphate at ppb levels, via the formation of antimonyl phosphomolybdic acid. The complex is adsorbed on Sephadex G-25 resin and the antimony is estimated through NAA, allowing the determination of phosphorus. The procedure provides an easy method to adopt for the routine determination of phosphorus at ≥ 10 ng ml -1 levels with good precision, in water samples. (author) 6 refs.; 5 tabs

  11. A PANIC Attack on Inflation and Unemployment in Africa: Analysis of Persistence and Convergence

    OpenAIRE

    DO ANGO, Simplicio; AMBA OYON, Claude Marius

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to analyze the nature of inflation and unemployment rates -in Africa and its regions- allowing cross-sectional dependence among their countries. The paper contributes to the literature assessing the stochastic properties of unemployment and inflation using the recently developed and more powerful panel unit root tests namely PANIC -Panel Analysis of Non-stationarity in Idiosyncratic and Common Component- from Bay and Ng (2010). To check the robustness of our findin...

  12. [Impact of specimen collection and storage consumable products on trace element quantitative analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yan-shuang; Gu, Yong-en; Ba, Te; Zhai, Min; Pu, Ji; Shen, Zhen-lin; Tang, Shi-chuan; Jia, Guang

    2012-07-01

    This study aimed to explore the impact of specimen collection and storage consumable products on trace element quantitative analysis. Devices and consumable products of different brands used in specimen collection or storage were selected and treated separately as below:urine collection and storage tubes (Brand A, B, C and D, 2 samples for each brand) were treated with 1% of HNO(3) volume fraction for 2 - 4 h; blood taking device (Brand O, P and Q, 3 samples for each brand) were used for ultra-pure water samples collecting as simulation of blood sampling;dust sampling filters (Brand X, Y and Z, 2 samples for each brand) were cold digested by nitric acid for 12 h, followed by microwave digestion. Then cadmium, cobalt, chromium, copper, iron, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, lead, selenium, stannum, titanium, vanadium and zinc concentrations in the solutions obtained during the course of collect or storage were quantified by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer. For the urine collection and storage consumable products, background values of elements were described as mean of parellel samples. The consentration of 14 quantified elements were relatively low for 5 ml cryogenic vials (brand B) with background values range of 0.001 - 0.350 ng/ml. The background values of copper of 50 ml centrifuge tubes (brand A), chromium of 5 ml cryogenic vials (brand C) and zinc of 1.5 ml centrifuge tubes (brand D) were relatively high, which were 1.900, 1.095 and 1.368 ng/ml, respectively. Background values of elements in blood sampling devices were described as x(-) ± s. Background values of chromium for brand O, P and Q were (0.120 ± 0.017), (0.337 ± 0.093) and (0.360 ± 0.035) ng/ml; for copper were (0.050 ± 0.001), (0.017 ± 0.012) and (0.103 ± 0.015) ng/ml; for lead were (0.057 ± 0.072), (0.183 ± 0.118) and (0.347 ± 0.006) ng/ml; for titanium were (7.883 ± 0.145), (8.863 ± 0.190) and (8.613 ± 0.274) ng/ml; zinc were (2.240 ± 0.573), (42.140 ± 22.756) and (8

  13. Paper Spray Tandem Mass Spectrometry Based on Molecularly Imprinted Polymer Substrate for Cocaine Analysis in Oral Fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Ludmyla S.; Carvalho, Thays C.; Romão, Wanderson; Vaz, Boniek G.; Chaves, Andréa R.

    2018-03-01

    This study proposes a new direct and fast method of analysis employing paper spray mass spectrometry (PS-MS). The paper used in the proposed method was modified with molecularly imprinted polymers (MIP) to create a specific site for cocaine analysis in oral fluid. MIP membrane was successfully synthetized and employed. The developed method showed to be linear in a concentration range from LOQ to 100 ng mL-1. The experimental value of LOQ obtained was 1 ng mL-1. The inter-day and intra-day precision and accuracy of the PS-MS method presented values lower than 15%. The total recoveries were also evaluated. The PS-MS method for the analysis of cocaine in oral fluid showed to be very promising and the validation parameters showed a good correlation with the literature. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  14. Removal of halogenated emerging contaminants from water by nitrogen-doped graphene decorated with palladium nanoparticles: Experimental investigation and theoretical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lei; Gong, Li; Wang, Yi-Xuan; Liu, Qi; Zhang, Jie; Mu, Yang; Yu, Han-Qing

    2016-07-01

    The removal performance and mechanisms of halogenated emerging contaminants from water by palladium decorated nitrogen-doped graphene (Pd/NG) were investigated in this study. For comparison, three catalysts of Pd/NG, palladium decorated graphene (Pd/G) and commercial Pd/C were initially explored to degrade tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA). After that, the influence of various environmental parameters on TBBPA removal by the Pd/NG catalyst was evaluated. Moreover, both Langmuir-Hinshelwood model and density functional theory (DFT) were adopted to theoretically elucidate the adsorption and the activation of TBBPA on the catalyst. The results show that the apparent rate constant of TBBPA dehalogenation was increased by 26.7% and 39.0% in the presence of the Pd/NG catalyst compared to the Pd/G and Pd/C ones. Higher temperature, catalyst dosage and alkaline conditions resulted in the enhancement of TBBPA dehalogenation by the Pd/NG catalyst, while humic acid in the solution had a negatively effect on the transformation of TBBPA. The corresponding rate constant value exhibited a 2.1- and 1.8-fold increase with the rise of temperature from 298 to 328 K and initial pH from 6.5 to 9.0, respectively. On the contrary, the rate constant was decreased by 78.9% in the presence of 15 mg L(-1) humic acid. Theoretical analysis revealed that both adsorption and activation processes of TBBPA on the Pd/NG catalyst were enhanced through the N doping into graphene framework. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Analysis of aflatoxin b1 in Iranian foods using HPLC and a monolithic column and estimation of its dietary intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdanpanah, Hassan; Zarghi, Afshin; Shafaati, Ali Reza; Foroutan, Seyed Mohsen; Aboul-Fathi, Farshid; Khoddam, Arash; Nazari, Firoozeh; Shaki, Fatemeh

    2013-01-01

    A high performance liquid chromatographic method was developed for determination of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in foods using a monolithic column with sample clean up on an immunoaffinity column. The method was validated for analysis of AFB1 in rice, bread, puffed corn snack, wheat flour and peanut samples. The average recoveries for AFB1 in different foods ranged from 94.4 to 102.5% with the coefficient of variation lower than 10% for all foods. Limit of detection was 0.01 ng/g. A survey of AFB1 was performed on 90 samples collected from Tehran retail market in June 2005. The results showed that none of the bread and wheat flour samples were contaminated with AFB1. The mean AFB1 levels in rice, puffed corn snack and peanut samples were 4.17, 0.11, and 1.97 ng/g, respectively. The level of contamination of 3 samples (one rice sample and two peanuts samples) to AFB1 was found to be higher than 5 ng/g. Although all food samples had mean concentration of AFB1 below the maximum tolerated level in Iran, the mean intake of AFB1 from rice was estimated 3.49 times higher than the guidance value of 1 ng AFB1/Kg body weight/day. Therefore, it is strongly recommended to monitor AFB1 in foods, especially in rice, in Iran. This is the first study on exposure assessment of Iranian population to AFB1.

  16. Hematologic responses in patients with aplastic anemia treated with deferasirox: a post hoc analysis from the EPIC study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong Wook; Yoon, Sung-Soo; Shen, Zhi Xiang; Ganser, Arnold; Hsu, Hui-Chi; El-Ali, Ali; Habr, Dany; Martin, Nicolas; Porter, John B.

    2013-01-01

    Reports are emerging of hematologic responses associated with iron chelation therapy; however, studies are limited in aplastic anemia patients. Deferasirox reduced iron overload in aplastic anemia patients enrolled in the EPIC (Evaluation of Patients’ Iron Chelation with Exjade®) study (n=116). A post hoc analysis of hematologic responses was conducted on 72 patients with evaluable hematologic parameters (according to UK guideline criteria), 24 of whom received deferasirox without concomitant immunosuppressive treatment. Partial hematologic responses were observed in 11 of 24 (45.8%) patients; all became transfusion-independent. One patient had an additional platelet response and one patient had an additional platelet and hemoglobin response. Mean serum ferritin levels at end of study were significantly reduced in partial hematologic responders (n=11; −3948±4998 ng/mL; baseline 6693±7014 ng/mL; percentage change from baseline −45.7%; P=0.0029). In non-responders, the reduction in serum ferritin was less pronounced (n=13; −2021±3242 ng/mL; baseline 4365±3063 ng/mL; % change from baseline −27.6%; P=0.0171). Alongside reduction in iron overload, deferasirox may, therefore, improve hematologic parameters in a subset of aplastic anemia patients. Further investigation is required to elucidate the mechanisms involved. (Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT00171821) PMID:23585526

  17. [LC-MS/MS analysis of determination of strychnine and brucine in formaldehyde fixed tissue].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Lan-fen; Liu, Ming-dong; Yan, You-yi; Ye, Yi; Wang, Wei; Wang, Zhi-hui; Zhao, Jun-hong; Liao, Lin-chuan

    2012-10-01

    To establish a method for determination of strychnine and brucine in formaldehyde fixed tissue by LC-MS/MS analysis. The samples were pretreated with solid phase extraction using SCX cartridges and separated on SB-C18 column with mobile phase 0.1% formic acid : 0.1% formic acid-acetonitrile (75:25). Electrospray ionization (ESI) source was utilized and operated in positive ion mode. Multiple reactions monitoring (MRM) mode was applied. External standard method was applied for quantitation. The chromatographic separation of strychnine and brucine in formaldehyde fixed nephritic and hepatic tissues resulted successfully. The standard curve was linear in the range of 0.002-2.0 microg/g for strychnine and brucine in formaldehyde fixed tissues, and the correlation coefficient was more than 0.996. The limits of detection (LOD) of strychnine and brucine in nephritic tissues were 0.06ng/g and 0.03 ng/g, respectively. The LOD of both chemicals were 0.3 ng/g in hepatic tissues. The extraction recovery rate was more than 74.5%. The precision of intra-day and inter-day were both less than 8.2%. Strychnine and brucine can be sensitive to be determined in formaldehyde fixed tissue by LC-MS/MS analysis. It can be applied in the forensic toxicological analysis.

  18. High sensitive multiresidue analysis of pharmaceuticals and antifungals in surface water using U-HPLC-Q-Exactive Orbitrap HRMS. Application to the Danube river basin on the Romanian territory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitescu, Carmen Lidia; Kaklamanos, George; Nicolau, Anca Ioana; Stolker, Alida Adriana Maria Linda

    2015-11-01

    The occurrence of 67 pharmaceutical and antifungal residues in the Danube river on the Romanian territory was studied by using solid-phase extraction (SPE) and LC-Q Exactive Orbitrap high resolution MS in both full scan (FS) MS and targeted MS/MS modes. A single-laboratory validation procedure was carried out for the determination of 67 compounds in FSMS mode evaluating selectivity, sensitivity, linearity, precision and accuracy. The method showed satisfactory analytical performance. The evaluation of the recovery concluded that 75% of the compounds show recoveries between 85 and 115% and 10% of the compounds show recoveries between 85% and 65%. The level of detection was lower than 5 ng l(-1) for 66% of the compounds, between 5 and 10 ng l(-1) for 22% and between 10 and 25 ng l(-1) for 14% of the compounds. The coefficients of determination R(2) were higher than 0.99 for 79% of the compounds, over a linearity range of 2.5-50 ng l(-1). Targeted MS/MS analysis, performed in addition to the full scan acquisition was used for confirmatory purpose. Twenty samples of Danube water and three of the main tributaries were collected in May, July, August and October 2014. Analysis of the selected water samples revealed the occurrence of 23 compounds such as diclofenac, carbamazepine, sulfamethoxazole, tylosin, indomethacin, ketoprofen, piroxicam, together with antifungals like thiabendazole, and carbendazim. Carbamazepine was detected in 17 samples, the maximum concentration being 40 ng l(-1). The highest concentration reached was 166 ng l(-1) for diclofenac. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Validated HPTLC method of analysis for artemether and its formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayade, Nitin G; Nagarsenker, Mangal S

    2007-02-19

    A simple, sensitive, precise and rapid high-performance thin-layer chromatographic (HPTLC) method of analysis for artemether both as a bulk drug and in pharmaceutical formulations was developed and validated. The method employed TLC aluminum plates precoated with silica gel 60F-254 as the stationary phase. The solvent system consisted of toluene-ethyl acetate-formic acid (8:2:0.3, v/v/v) as mobile phase. Densitometric analysis of artemether was carried out in the reflectance mode at 565 nm. The system was found to give compact spots for artemether (R(f) value of 0.50+/-0.03). The linear regression analysis data for the calibration plots showed good linear relationship with r(2)=0.9904 in the concentration range 200-1000 ng per spot. The mean value of correlation coefficient, slope and intercept were 0.9904+/-0.011, 7.27+/-0.11 and 166.24+/-56.92, respectively. The method was validated for precision, accuracy, recovery and robustness. The limits of detection and quantitation were 65.91 and 197.74 ng per spot, respectively. The method has been successfully applied in the analysis of lipid based parenteral formulations and marketed oral solid dosage formulation.

  20. Analysis of particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by on-line coupled supercritical fluid extraction-liquid chromatography-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimmo, Masahiko; Adler, Heidi; Hyötyläinen, Tuulia; Hartonen, Kari; Kulmala, Markku; Riekkola, Marja-Liisa

    An on-line supercritical fluid extraction-liquid chromatography-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SFE-LC-GC-MS) method was developed for the analysis of the particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The limits of detection of the system for the quantification standards were in the range of 0.25-0.57 ng, while the limits of determinations for filter samples varied from 0.02 to 0.04 ng m -3 (24 h sampling). The linearity was excellent from 5 to 300 ng ( R2>0.967). The analysis could be carried out in a closed system without tedious manual sample pretreatment and with no risk of errors by contamination or loss of the analytes. The results of the SFE-LC-GC-MS method were comparable with those for Soxhlet and shake-flask extractions with GC-MS. The new method was applied to the analysis of PAHs collected by high-volume filter in the Helsinki area to study the seasonal trend of the concentrations. The individual PAH concentrations varied from 0.015 to more than 1 ng m -3, while total PAH concentrations varied from 0.81 to 5.68 ng m -3. The concentrations were generally higher in winter than in summer. The mass percentage of the total PAHs in total suspended particulates ranged from 2.85×10 -3% in July to 15.0×10 -3% in December. Increased emissions in winter, meteorological conditions, and more serious artefacts during the sampling in summer season may explain the concentration profiles.

  1. The application of lidocaine to alleviate the discomfort of nasogastric tube insertion: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lor, You-Chen; Shih, Pei-Ching; Chen, Hsin-Hao; Liu, Shu-Jung; Chao, Hsingchu-Chu; Hwang, Lee-Ching; Hsu, Yen-Fen; Yeh, Tzu-Lin

    2018-02-01

    Nasogastric (NG) tube insertion is a common procedure in the clinical setting that causes much discomfort and pain for the patient. Pain control is often suboptimal, as many NG tube insertions are performed without any pain-relieving supplements. The aim of this study was to summarize and critically evaluate the evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on the effect and adverse effects of lidocaine agents in reducing pain and discomfort associated with NG tube insertion. Databases from the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Airiti Library, PerioPath Index to Taiwan Periodical Literature, and Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health (CINAHL) were searched from inception to April 2017. RCTs focusing on lidocaine before NG tube insertion were appraised. The primary outcome was the visual analog scale (VAS) score. The modified Jadad scale was used for quality assessment. Mean difference (MD) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) and odds ratio (OR) for binary outcomes were assessed by a random effects model. Heterogeneity was determined by using the Cochran Q test and I statistics. Publication bias was analyzed by using a funnel plot analysis. Ten RCTs enrolling 734 patients were included in the meta-analysis. Eight of the 10 RCTs reporting VAS scores had sufficient quantitative data to be pooled through meta-analysis. Results revealed a significant reduction in VAS score, with a MD of -26.05 and a CI of -28.21 to -23.89 with moderate heterogeneity (P tube insertions (MD = -0.30, 95% CI, -1.30 to 0.70, P = .55), number of NG tube insertion attempts (MD = -0.22, 95% CI, -0.98 to 0.53, P = .56), nasal bleeding (OR = 0.62, 95% CI, 0.11-3.41, P = .59), and vomiting (OR = 0.30, 95% CI, 0.07-1.27, P = .10). This meta-analysis suggests that applying lidocaine before NG tube insertion can alleviate pain and discomfort by 26% without increasing nasal bleeding or vomiting.

  2. Evaluation of natural gas supply options for south east and central Europe. Part 1: Indicator definitions and single indicator analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afgan, Naim H.; Carvalho, Maria G.; Pilavachi, Petros A.; Martins, Nelson

    2007-01-01

    The need for diversification of energy sources is an immanent goal in long term energy strategy. In particular, this is of great importance for the natural gas supply. In this respect, evaluation and assessment of potential natural gas resources and their relation to consumers is of great importance. The natural gas supply in Europe is one of the main issues of European energy strategy to be followed in the future. In particular, the natural gas supply in the southeast countries is important. This paper provides a framework for understanding how much natural gas is available for use in south east and central Europe as well as the links to the recent supply of natural gas and its transport. The analysis is focused on evaluation of the potential routes for natural gas supply to the south east and central European countries. The potential options included in this analysis are the Yamal Route; Nabucco Route; West Balkan Route; LNG NEUM Route and Gas by Wire Route. In this analysis, attention is focused on the following indicators for assessment of potential options: environmental indicator; NG cost indicator; NG transport and royalty indicator; investment indicator; and NG demand indicator. The first part of this paper is devoted to the definition of the indicators and to single indicator analysis. (author)

  3. Analysis of selective androgen receptor modulators by gas chromatography-microchip atmospheric pressure photoionization-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luosujärvi, Laura; Haapala, Markus; Thevis, Mario; Saarela, Ville; Franssila, Sami; Ketola, Raimo A; Kostiainen, Risto; Kotiaho, Tapio

    2010-02-01

    A gas chromatography-microchip atmospheric pressure photoionization-mass spectrometric (GC-microAPPI-MS) method was developed and used for the analysis of three 2-quinolinone-derived selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs). SARMs were analyzed from spiked urine samples, which were hydrolyzed and derivatized with N-methyl-N-(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide before analysis. Trimethylsilyl derivatives of SARMs formed both radical cations (M(+*)) and protonated molecules ([M + H](+)) in photoionization. Better signal-to-noise ratios (S/N) were obtained in MS/MS analysis using the M(+*) ions as precursor ions than using the [M + H](+) ions, and therefore the M(+*) ions were selected for the precursor ions in selected reaction monitoring (SRM) analysis. Limits of detection (LODs) with the method ranged from 0.01 to 1 ng/mL, which correspond to instrumental LODs of 0.2-20 pg. Limits of quantitation ranged from 0.03 to 3 ng/mL. The mass spectrometric response to the analytes was linear (R > or = 0.995) from the LOQ concentration level up to 100 ng/mL concentration, and intra-day repeatabilities were 5%-9%. In addition to the GC-microAPPI-MS study, the proof-of-principle of gas chromatography-microchip atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-Orbitrap MS (GC-microAPCI-Orbitrap MS) was demonstrated. 2010 American Society for Mass Spectrometry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Determination of nanogram amounts of iodide by electrochemical isotope dilution analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabrielsson, A.-B.; Beronius, P.

    1976-01-01

    A known quantity of iodide in ethanol as solvent was labelled with 131 I-and subsequently diluted with a predetermined amount of inactive iodide. Specific activities before and after the isotope dilution were established by anodically depositing small fractions of the halide in each sample on rotating silver micro electrodes and determining the activities of the electrodeposits. The lowest concentration of iodide used in any analysis was 1.10 -5 M. Further deposition studies revealed that iodide can be deposited with 1 100% current efficiency on the rotating silver micro electrode for concentration down to 2.4.10 -6 M. Electrodeposition studies for still lower concentrations have not yet been undertaken. These results suggest that amounts of iodide ion down to about 10 ng, and possibly still smaller quantitites, might be determined with the method developed. Amounts from 42 ng to 1 μg can be determined with an error of 2.5%. (T.G.)

  5. Selective mercury determination after membrane complexation and total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koulouridakis, Pavlos E; Kallithrakas-Kontos, Nikolaos G

    2004-08-01

    A new method for low mercury concentration analysis in drinking waters is presented. Membranes containing a few micrograms of various complexing reagents were produced on the surface of quartz glasses (reflectors). The reflectors were immersed in water solutions containing various concentrations of inorganic mercury salts at low concentrations (1-40 ng/mL). The membranes were left to equilibrate in 5-500 mL of solution for many hours; when the equilibration stage was finished they were cleaned with ultrapure water and left to dry. Analyses were performed by total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF). The effects of various experimental parameters (complexing agent, equilibrium time, sample volume, etc.) as well as the selectivity of the membranes were studied. The complexing reagent dithizone with a PVC-based membrane gave the best results. The limit of quantitation was 0.8 ng/mL.

  6. Detection of clenbuterol at trace levels in doping analysis using different gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sheng; Liu, Xin; Xing, Yanyi; Zhang, Dapeng; Wang, Shan; Wang, Xiaobing; Xu, Youxuan; Wu, Moutian; He, Zhenwen; Zhao, Jian

    2013-01-01

    This study demonstrates the development of a gas chromatography-triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS-MS) assay to detect clenbuterol in human urine and the comparison of this method with GC-MS techniques and gas chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (GC-HRMS) techniques. Urine samples were hydrolyzed with β-glucuronidase, extracted with methyl tert-butyl ether and dried under nitrogen. The derivative reagent was N-methyl-N-(trimethylsilyl)-trifluoroacetamide with NH4I and was analyzed by GC-MS, GC-MS-MS and GC-HRMS. A validation study was conducted by GC-MS-MS. The analyses of clenbuterol using different mass spectrometric techniques were compared. The limit of detection (LOD) for clenbuterol in human urine was 2 ng/mL by GC-MS (selected ion monitoring mode: SIM mode), 0.06 ng/mL by GC-HRMS and 0.03 ng/mL by GC-MS-MS, respectively, while the LOD by GC-HRMS was 0.06. With GC-MS-MS, the intra-assay and inter-assay precisions were less than 15%, the recoveries were 86 to 112% and the linear range was 0.06 to 8.0 ng/mL. The GC-MS under SIM mode can be used as a screening tool to detect clenbuterol at trace levels in human urine. The GC-MS-MS and GC-HRMS methods can confirm clenbuterol when its concentration is below 2 ng/mL. The results demonstrate that the GC-MS-MS method is quite sensitive, specific and reliable for the detection of clenbuterol in doping analysis.

  7. Preparation of samples for gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis of phthalate and adipate esters in plasma and beverages by steam distillation and extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Kayoko; Yoshimura, Yoshihiro; Nakazawa, Hiroyuki; Ito, Yuko; Oka, Hisao

    2002-01-01

    Phthalate and adipate esters are present in relatively large amounts in the environment, resulting in their large blank values at analysis and making precise analysis difficult. We developed a highly sensitive analytical method for phthalate and adipate esters in plasma and beverages by lowering the blank values that interfere with analysis. The method uses a closed distillation cleanup system in which steam distillation and extraction are performed simultaneously. The recoveries from beverages and plasma were both satisfactory, ranging from 90.2 to 118.3%, relative standard deviation (RSD) = 2.8-5.3%, and 96.2-134.4%, RSD = 2.2-6.5%, respectively. The detection limits of dibutyl phthalate and di-2-ethyl hexyl phthalate were 5 ng/mL, and those of diethyl phthalate, butyl benzyl phthalate, and di-2-ethyl hexyl adipate were 10 ng/mL in rabbit plasma and beverages.

  8. Simultaneous analysis of delta9-THC and its major metabolites in urine, plasma, and meconium by GC-MS using an immunoaffinity extraction procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, S; ElSohly, M A; Salamone, S; Salem, M Y

    2000-09-01

    A simple extraction procedure for delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta9-THC) and its metabolites from various biological specimens was developed based on immunoaffinity chromatography. Using the affinity resin prepared by immobilization of THC antibody onto cyanogen bromide-activated Sepharose 4B, delta9-THC and its major metabolites including 11-nor-delta9-THC-9-carboxylic acid (delta9-THCCOOH), 11-hydroxy-delta9-THC (11-OH-delta9-THC), and 8beta,11-dihydroxy-delta9-THC (8beta,11-diOH-delta9-THC) were extracted simultaneously from plasma or urine after enzyme hydrolysis. The samples were derivatized as TMS derivatives and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in EI mode with SIM monitoring. Greater than 87% extraction recovery of the four analytes was obtained from both plasma and urine at 5 and 50 ng/mL concentration levels. The method was also used for meconium analysis with some modification. The extraction recovery from meconium, however, was lower than that of plasma and urine, ranging from 52 to 72% at the 10-ng/g level. All compounds showed good linearity within the tested ranges up to 100 ng/mL (g). The limits of detection ranged from 0.5 to 2.5 ng/mL in plasma and urine, and from 1.0 to 2.5 ng/g in meconium. Analysis of 24 meconium specimens showed that 11-OH-delta9-THC is indeed an important metabolite in meconium.

  9. Simultaneous analysis of free and conjugated estrogens, sulfonamides, and tetracyclines in runoff water and soils using solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tso, Jerry; Dutta, Sudarshan; Inamdar, Shreeram; Aga, Diana S

    2011-03-23

    The ability to monitor multiple analytes from various classes of compounds in a single analysis can increase throughput and reduce cost when compared to traditional methods of analyses. This method for analyzing free (parent estrogen) and conjugated estrogens (metabolites) along with sulfonamides and tetracyclines utilizes a high pH (10.4) mobile phase with an ammonium hydroxide buffer for both positive- and negative-mode electrospray ionization. A single-step sample preparation by solid-phase extraction (SPE) was used to isolate and concentrate all analytes simultaneously. The analytical method was developed and validated for recoveries at 3 concentration levels for water and soil and produced recoveries of 42-123% and 21-105% respectively. Method detection limits ranged from 0.3 to 1.0 ng/L for water samples and 0.01 to 0.1 ng/g for soils. The method quantification limit ranged from 0.9 to 3.3 ng/L for water samples and 0.06 to 0.7 ng/g for soils. The single-point standard addition calibration procedure was validated across a linear range of MQL to 100 ng/L with ≥82% accuracy against a matrix matched standard curve. Furthermore, sorption of tetracyclines onto glassware was investigated and minimized by 10% using nitric acid-rinsed glassware, while separation parameters were further optimized based on retention time and signal responses. This method has been used for the quantification of estrogens, tetracyclines, and sulfonamides in soil and runoff waters with multiple compounds detected simultaneously in a single analysis.

  10. Solid-phase extraction in combination with dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis: the ultra-trace determination of 10 antibiotics in water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Ning; Huang, Peiting; Hou, Xiaohong; Li, Zhen; Tao, Lei; Zhao, Longshan

    2016-02-01

    A novel method, solid-phase extraction combined with dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (SPE-DLLME), was developed for ultra-preconcentration of 10 antibiotics in different environmental water samples prior to ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry detection. The optimized results were obtained as follows: after being adjusted to pH 4.0, the water sample was firstly passed through PEP-2 column at 10 mL min(-1), and then methanol was used to elute the target analytes for the following steps. Dichloromethane was selected as extraction solvent, and methanol/acetonitrile (1:1, v/v) as dispersive solvent. Under optimal conditions, the calibration curves were linear in the range of 1-1000 ng mL(-1) (sulfamethoxazole, cefuroxime axetil), 5-1000 ng mL(-1) (tinidazole), 10-1000 ng mL(-1) (chloramphenicol), 2-1000 ng mL(-1) (levofloxacin oxytetracycline, doxycycline, tetracycline, and ciprofloxacin) and 1-400 ng mL(-1) (sulfadiazine) with a good precision. The LOD and LOQ of the method were at very low levels, below 1.67 and 5.57 ng mL(-1), respectively. The relative recoveries of the target analytes were in the range from 64.16% to 99.80% with relative standard deviations between 0.7 and 8.4%. The matrix effect of this method showed a great decrease compared with solid-phase extraction and a significant value of enrichment factor (EF) compared with dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction. The developed method was successfully applied to the extraction and analysis of antibiotics in different water samples with satisfactory results.

  11. Trace vanadium analysis by catalytic adsorptive stripping voltammetry using mercury-coated micro-wire and polystyrene-coated bismuth film electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dansby-Sparks, Royce; Chambers, James Q. [Department of Chemistry, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996-1600 (United States); Xue Ziling, E-mail: xue@ion.chem.utk.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996-1600 (United States)

    2009-06-08

    An electrochemical technique has been developed for ultra-trace (ng L{sup -1}) vanadium (V) measurement. Catalytic adsorptive stripping voltammetry for V analysis was developed at mercury-coated gold micro-wire electrodes (MWEs, 100 {mu}m) in the presence of gallic acid (GA) and bromate ion. A potential of -0.275 V (vs Ag/AgCl) was used to accumulate the complex in acetate buffer (pH 5.0) at the electrode surface followed by a differential pulse voltammetric scan. Parameters affecting the electrochemical response, including pH, concentration of GA and bromate, deposition potential and time have been optimized. Linear response was obtained in the 0-1000 ng L{sup -1} range (2 min deposition), with a detection limit of 0.88 ng L{sup -1}. The method was validated by comparison of results for an unknown solution of V by atomic absorption measurement. The protocol was evaluated in a real sample by measuring the amount of V in river water samples. Thick bismuth film electrodes with protective polystyrene films have also been made and evaluated as a mercury free alternative. However, ng L{sup -1} level detection was only attainable with extended (10 min) deposition times. The proposed use of MWEs for the detection of V is sensitive enough for future use to test V concentration in biological fluids treated by the advanced oxidation process (AOP).

  12. The use of hogdahl convention k0 neutron activation analysis (NAA) standardization method and atomic absortion spectroscopy (ASS) for determination of toxic elements in foodstuffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahiamadie, H.

    2008-06-01

    Copper, cadmium, tin, chromium, arsenic, antimony, vanadium and mercury contents were determined in various foodstuffs (Mussa paradisiaca (plantains), Manihot esculentus (cassavas), Vantosoma sagittifolium (cocoyam). Vantosoma sagittifolium leaves (kontomire), Lycopersicum esculentus (tomatoes), Capsicum species (peppers), Solanum melongena (garden eggs), Nbelmoschus esculentus (okro), and Colocasia esculenta (kooko or taro)) produced in the Wassa West District, Ghana. These plants are the basis of human nutrition in the study area. These elements were determined using Hogdahl convention k 0 Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) Standardization Method and Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS). The elements in the various foodstuffs and their concentration ranges were Cu (16.87-180.06) mg/kg, As (2.68-9.84) µg/g, Cd (0.63-5.64) µg/g, Hg (0.01-67) ng/g, Cr (0.03-3.66) µg/g, Sb (1.1- 18.6) ng/g, Sn (3.4-58.4) ng/g, and V (12-99) ng/g. The study showed that there are high levels of toxic elements in the foodstuffs grown in the mining areas as compared to that of the non-mining area (i.e., control area). This could be attributed to gold mines pollution. Compared to the World Health Organization (WHO) permissible levels of toxic elements in foods, Cu, Cr and Hg were above the permissible levels whereas the concentrations of As, Cd. Sb, Sn and V fall within the permissible levels. (au)

  13. Trace analysis of trimethoprim and sulfonamide, macrolide, quinolone, and tetracycline antibiotics in chlorinated drinking water using liquid chromatography electrospray tandem mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Z.; Weinberg, H.S.; Meyer, M.T.

    2007-01-01

    A multirun analytical method has been developed and validated for trace determination of 24 antibiotics including 7 sulfonamides, 3 macrolides, 7 quinolones, 6 tetracyclines, and trimethoprim in chlorine-disinfected drinking water using a single solid-phase extraction method coupled to liquid chromatography with positive electrospray tandem mass spectrometry detection. The analytes were extracted by a hydrophilic-lipophilic balanced resin and eluted with acidified methanol (0.1% formic acid), resulting in analyte recoveries generally above 90%. The limits of quantitation were mostly below 10 ng/L in drinking water. Since the concentrated sample matrix typically caused ion suppression during electrospray ionization, the method of standard addition was used for quantitation. Chlorine residuals in drinking water can react with some antibiotics, but ascorbic acid was found to be an effective chlorine quenching agent without affecting the analysis and stability of the antibiotics in water. A preliminary occurrence study using this method revealed the presence of some antibiotics in drinking waters, including sulfamethoxazole (3.0-3.4 ng/L), macrolides (1.4-4.9 ng/L), and quinolones (1.2-4.0 ng/L). ?? 2007 American Chemical Society.

  14. Mercury speciation and analysis in drinking water by stir bar sorptive extraction with in situ propyl derivatization and thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Rie; Kawaguchi, Migaku; Sakui, Norihiro; Honda, Hidehiro; Okanouchi, Noriya; Saito, Koichi; Nakazawa, Hiroyuki

    2008-10-31

    A method for mercury analysis and speciation in drinking water was developed, which involved stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) with in situ propyl derivatization and thermal desorption (TD)-GC-MS. Ten millilitre of tap water or bottled water was used. After a stir bar, pH adjustment agent and derivatization reagent were added, SBSE was performed. Then, the stir bar was subjected to TD-GC-MS. The detection limits were 0.01 ng mL(-1) (ethylmercury; EtHg), 0.02 ng mL(-1) (methylmercury; MeHg), and 0.2 ng mL(-1) (Hg(II) and diethylmercury (DiEtHg)). The method showed good linearity and correlation coefficients. The average recoveries of mercury species (n=5) in water samples spiked with 0.5, 2.0, and 6.0 ng mL(-1) mercury species were 93.1-131.1% (RSDmercury species in water samples.

  15. Silica Coated Paper Substrate for Paper-Spray Analysis of Therapeutic Drugs in Dried Blood Spots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiping; Xu, Wei; Manicke, Nicholas E.; Cooks, R. Graham; Ouyang, Zheng

    2011-01-01

    Paper spray is a newly developed ambient ionization method that has been applied for direct qualitative and quantitative analysis of biological samples. The properties of the paper substrate and spray solution have a significant impact on the release of chemical compounds from complex sample matrices, the diffusion of the analytes through the substrate, and the formation of ions for mass spectrometry analysis. In this study, a commercially available silica-coated paper was explored in an attempt to improve the analysis of therapeutic drugs in dried blood spots (DBS). The dichloromethane/isopropanol solvent has been identified as an optimal spray solvent for the analysis. The comparison was made with paper spray using chromatography paper as substrate with methanol/water as solvent for the analysis of verapamil, citalopram, amitriptyline, lidocaine and sunitinib in dried blood spots. It has been demonstrated the efficiency of recovery of the analytes was notably improved with the silica coated paper and the limit of quantitation (LOQ) for the drug analysis was 0.1 ng mL−1 using a commercial triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. The use of silica paper substrate also resulted in a sensitivity improvement of 5-50 fold in comparison with chromatography papers, including the Whatmann ET31 paper used for blood card. Analysis using a handheld miniature mass spectrometer Mini 11 gave LOQs of 10~20 ng mL−1 for the tested drugs, which is sufficient to cover the therapeutic ranges of these drugs. PMID:22145627

  16. In situ secondary ion mass spectrometry analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groenewold, G.S.; Applehans, A.D.; Ingram, J.C.; Delmore, J.E.; Dahl, D.A.

    1993-01-01

    The direct detection of tributyl phosphate (TBP) on rocks using molecular beam surface analysis [MBSA or in situ secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS)] is demonstrated. Quantities as low as 250 ng were detected on basalt and sandstone with little or no sample preparation. Detection of TBP on soil has proven to be more problematic and requires further study. Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) is more difficult to detect because it is very reactive with surfaces of interest. Nevertheless, it is possible to detect EDTA if the acidity of the surface is controlled. The detection of EDTA-metal complexes is currently an open question, but evidence is presented for the detection of ions arising from a EDTA-lead complex. Carboxylic acids (i.e., citric, ascorbic, malic, succinic, malonic, and oxalic) give characteristic SIM spectra, but their detection on sample surfaces awaits evaluation.

  17. Analysis of dichloroacetic acid in rat blood and tissues by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delinsky, Amy D; Delinsky, David C; Muralidhara, S; Fisher, Jeffrey W; Bruckner, James V; Bartlett, Michael G

    2005-01-01

    Dichloroacetic acid (DCA) is a compound found in chlorinated drinking water. In addition, the compound is a metabolite of several halogenated solvents, including trichloroethylene (TCE) and perchloroethylene (PCE). Exposure to DCA is of concern because high doses of the compound have been shown to cause cancer in laboratory animals. Dosages of TCE administered to animals in cancer studies are designed to elicit maximal DCA formation in vivo, whereas levels of DCA to which individuals are exposed in drinking water are very low. Analysis of DCA in biological samples has been quite challenging. Derivatizing reagents commonly used to convert DCA into a more volatile form for analysis by gas chromatography (GC) have been found to convert trichloroacetic acid (TCA), a major metabolite of TCE and PCE, into DCA. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis does not require derivatization of DCA and can thus avoid this problem. However, the most popular stationary phases in HPLC columns do not retain small, polar compounds such as DCA well. The liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) method described in this paper uses hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC), a type of chromatography that is able to retain these small, polar compounds. Method validation was performed using the United States Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) and International Conference on Harmonziation (ICH) Guidance for Industry: Bioanalytical Method Validation as a guide. Levels of DCA found in rats dosed with 2 g/kg TCE were 17.2 ng/mL (liver), 262.4 ng/mL (kidney), 175.1 ng/mL (lung), and 39.5 ng/mL (blood). Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Laboratory total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis for low concentration samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampai, D.; Dabagov, S. B.; Polese, C.; Liedl, A.; Cappuccio, G.

    2014-11-01

    Quantitative elemental determination for concentrations in the ppb range requires a careful preparation of the sample. In particular, for elemental analysis of very low concentration samples, less than 1 ng/mm2, a very bright X-ray source, typically synchrotron radiation (SR) in total external reflection fluorescence regime (SR-TXRF), is required. Here, we wish to demonstrate that a conventional source combined with a polycapillary semi-lens can provide a quasi-parallel beam intense enough for desktop TXRF analysis of low concentration samples.

  19. An analysis of factors affecting the mercury content in the human femoral bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zioła-Frankowska, A; Dąbrowski, M; Kubaszewski, Ł; Rogala, P; Kowalski, A; Frankowski, M

    2017-01-01

    The study was carried out to determine the content of mercury in bone tissue of the proximal femur (head and neck bone) of 95 patients undergoing total hip replacement due to osteoarthritis, using CF-AFS analytical technique. Furthermore, the investigations were aimed at assessing the impact of selected factors, such as age, gender, tobacco smoking, alcohol consumption, exposure to chemical substance at work, type of degenerative changes, clinical evaluation and radiological parameters, type of medications, on the concentration of mercury in the head and neck of the femur, resected in situ. Mercury was obtained in all samples of the head and neck of the femur (n = 190) in patients aged 25-91 years. The mean content of mercury for the whole group of patients was as follows: 37.1 ± 35.0 ng/g for the femoral neck and 24.2 ± 19.5 ng/g for the femoral head. The highest Hg contents were found in femoral neck samples, both in women and men, and they amounted to 169.6 and 176.5 ng/g, respectively. The research showed that the mercury content of bones can be associated with body mass index, differences in body anatomy, and gender. The uses of statistical analysis gave the possibility to define the influence of factors on mercury content in human femoral bones.

  20. Study of organohalogens in foodstuffs and environmental samples by neutron activation analysis and related techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, D. D.; Mao, X.Y.; Ouyang, H.; Chai, Z. F.; Zhang, H.; Sun, H. B.

    2004-01-01

    Pine needles and foodstuffs collected from Beijing, China, were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) combined with organic solvent extraction for total halogens, extractable organohalogens (EOX) and extractable persistent organohalogens (EPOX). The INAA detection limits are 50 ng, 8 ng and 3.5 ng for Cl, Br and I, respectively. The contents and distribution patterns of organohalogens in these samples are reported. EOCl accounted for 0.013-0.016% and 1.6-2.7% of the total chlorine in yogurt and apples, respectively, which suggested that chlorine in foodstuffs mainly existed as inorganic species and non-extractable organochlorines. EOCl contents in pine needles and foodstuffs were noticeably higher than those of EOBr and EOI. For pine needles, yogurt and apples, 1.6-34%, 23-58% and 29-35% of EOCl remained as extractable persistent organochlorine (EPOCl), respectively. Pine needle containing higher EOCl contents in chemical industrial and traffic hub areas indicated that chemical industries and exhaust emission from vehicle were the main sources of organochlorines in the Beijing's air. The relative proportions of the known organochlorines (such as HCHs, DDTs, chlordanes, heptachlor, HCB and PCBs) to the total EOCl and EPOCl were 0.04-1.6% and 0.7-21.5%, respectively, which implied that the identity of species of a major portion of the EOCl and EPOCl measured in pine needles was unknown. (author)

  1. Quantitative analysis of mitragynine in human urine by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shijun; Tran, Buu N; Nelsen, Jamie L; Aldous, Kenneth M

    2009-08-15

    Mitragynine is the primary active alkaloid extracted from the leaves of Mitragyna speciosa Korth, a plant that originates in South-East Asia and is commonly known as kratom in Thailand. Kratom has been used for many centuries for their medicinal and psychoactive qualities, which are comparable to that of opiate-based drugs. Kratom abuse can lead to a detectable content of mitragynine residue in urine. Ultra trace amount of mitragynine in human urine was determined by a high performance liquid chromatography coupled to an electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI/MS/MS). Mitragynine was extracted by methyl t-butyl ether (MTBE) and separated on a HILIC column. The ESI/MS/MS was accomplished using a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer in positive ion detection and multiple reactions monitoring (MRM) mode. Ajmalicine, a mitragynine's structure analog was selected as internal standard (IS) for method development. Quality control (QC) performed at three levels 0.1, 1 and 5 ng/ml of mitragynine in urine gave mean recoveries of 90, 109, and 98% with average relative standard deviation of 22, 12 and 16%, respectively. The regression linearity of mitragynine calibration ranged from 0.01 to 5.0 ng/ml was achieved with correlation coefficient greater than 0.995. A detection limit of 0.02 ng/ml and high precision data within-day and between days analysis were obtained.

  2. Developmental validation of a Cannabis sativa STR multiplex system for forensic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Christopher; Gilmore, Simon; Robertson, James; Peakall, Rod

    2008-09-01

    A developmental validation study based on recommendations of the Scientific Working Group on DNA Analysis Methods (SWGDAM) was conducted on a multiplex system of 10 Cannabis sativa short tandem repeat loci. Amplification of the loci in four multiplex reactions was tested across DNA from dried root, stem, and leaf sources, and DNA from fresh, frozen, and dried leaf tissue with a template DNA range of 10.0-0.01 ng. The loci were amplified and scored consistently for all DNA sources when DNA template was in the range of 10.0-1.0 ng. Some allelic dropout and PCR failure occurred in reactions with lower template DNA amounts. Overall, amplification was best using 10.0 ng of template DNA from dried leaf tissue indicating that this is the optimal source material. Cross species amplification was observed in Humulus lupulus for three loci but there was no allelic overlap. This is the first study following SWGDAM validation guidelines to validate short tandem repeat markers for forensic use in plants.

  3. Analysis of nitrosamines in water by automated SPE and isotope dilution GC/HRMS Occurrence in the different steps of a drinking water treatment plant, and in chlorinated samples from a reservoir and a sewage treatment plant effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planas, Carles; Palacios, Oscar; Ventura, Francesc; Rivera, Josep; Caixach, Josep

    2008-08-15

    A method based on automated solid-phase extraction (SPE) and isotope dilution gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry (GC/HRMS) has been developed for the analysis of nine nitrosamines in water samples. The combination of automated SPE and GC/HRMS for the analysis of nitrosamines has not been reported previously. The method shows as advantages the selectivity and sensitivity of GC/HRMS analysis and the high efficiency of automated SPE with coconut charcoal EPA 521 cartridges. Low method detection limits (MDLs) were achieved, along with a greater facility of the procedure and less dependence on the operator with regard to the methods based on manual SPE. Quality requirements for isotope dilution-based methods were accomplished for most analysed nitrosamines, regarding to trueness (80-120%), method precision (water samples (16 samples from a drinking water treatment plant {DWTP}, 2 chlorinated samples from a sewage treatment plant {STP} effluent, and 1 chlorinated sample from a reservoir) were analysed. Concentrations of nitrosamines in the STP effluent were 309.4 and 730.2 ng/L, being higher when higher doses of chlorine were applied. N-Nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) and N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA) were the main compounds identified in the STP effluent, and NDEA was detected above 200 ng/L, regulatory level for NDMA in effluents stated in Ontario (Canada). Lower concentrations of nitrosamines were found in the reservoir (20.3 ng/L) and in the DWTP samples (n.d. -28.6 ng/L). NDMA and NDEA were respectively found in the reservoir and in treated and highly chlorinated DWTP samples at concentrations above 10 ng/L (guide value established in different countries). The highest concentrations of nitrosamines were found after chlorination and ozonation processes (ozonated, treated and highly chlorinated water) in DWTP samples.

  4. Analysis and occurrence of selected medium to highly polar pesticides in groundwater of Catalonia (NE Spain): An approach based on on-line solid phase extraction-liquid chromatography-electrospray-tandem mass spectrometry detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postigo, Cristina; López de Alda, Maria José; Barceló, Damià; Ginebreda, Antoni; Garrido, Teresa; Fraile, Josep

    2010-03-01

    SummaryThe present work describes an automated methodology based on on-line solid phase extraction-liquid chromatography-electrospray-tandem mass spectrometry (on-line SPE-LC-ESI-MS/MS) for the determination of 22 medium to highly polar pesticides in groundwater, and its application to the analysis of 133 samples collected from different aquifers of Catalonia (NE Spain), in areas where agricultural practice is significant. Sample preconcentration was performed by passing 5 mL of the sample through PLRPs cartridges (for analysis of 16 pesticides measured in the positive ionization mode) and through Hysphere-Resin GP cartridges (for analysis of six pesticides measured in the negative ionization mode). Further LC-MS/MS determination was performed in the selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode, by recording two SRM transitions per compound, thus obtaining four identification points. The methodology developed allows the determination of the target compounds at the pg or low ng L -1 level with satisfactory precision (relative standard deviations lower than 16%) and accuracy (recovery percentages higher than 75%) and is well suited for routine monitoring. Its application to various groundwater samples from Catalonia has revealed simazine, diuron and atrazine (present in more than 70% of the samples) as the most ubiquitous compounds. Approximately 16% of the samples investigated had individual pesticides levels above 100 ng L -1 and 7% presented total pesticides levels above 500 ng L -1. Concentrations higher than 100 ng L -1 were found for all triazines studied but cyanazine, the phenylureas diuron, linuron and chlortoluron, the target chloroacetanilides alachlor and metolachlor, and the organophosphate dimethoate in a few samples. Three and eight out of the 16 investigated groundwater bodies presented total pesticide levels exceeding the EU quality standards in terms of individual and total pesticide concentrations, 100 and 500 ng L -1, respectively.

  5. [A clinical analysis of reninoma-induced hypertensive crisis associated with reversible posterior encephalopathy syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hong-hua; Wang, Guang-ya; Ma, Xiao-wei; Guo, Xiao-hui

    2012-01-01

    Reninoma is a rare benign tumor of the renal juxtaglomerular cell apparatus that causes hypertension and hypokalemia via hypersecretion of renin, while it is extremely rare that reninoma induced hypertensive crisis with reversible posterior encephalopathy syndrome (RPES). To improve the clinical understanding for this disease, we conducted a case-analysis. To analyze the clinical and pathological data of a case of reninoma-induced hypertensive crisis with reversible posterior encephalopathy syndrome, who was admitted to Peking University First Hospital in November, 2007 and follow-up. This was a 16-year old female patient, onset with suddenly spasm with loss of consciousness, while blood pressure stepped up to 210/140 mm Hg (1 mm Hg = 0.133 kPa), and the head magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed "multiple long-T(2) signal", and hypokalemia (2.8 - 3.2 mmol/L), urine protein positive, ultrasound cardiogram revealed left ventricular hypertrophy, laboratory study revealed hyperreninism (38.23 ng·ml(-1)×h(-1), normal range 0.07 - 1.15 ng·ml(-1)×h(-1)) and hyperaldosteronism (660.9 ng/L, normal range 60 - 174 ng/L), abdominal CT-Scan revealed a mass at right kidney, blood pressure achieved safety range and the head MRI was rechecked and revealed "the abnormal long-T(2) signal disappeared". The clinical diagnosis was reninoma induced hypertensive crisis with RPES. The tumor was resected and the pathologic diagnosis was reninoma. The patient remained normotensive in the postoperative period without any medication. Reninoma represents a rare but surgically curable cause of hypertension, thus the clinical suspicion of it is very important in young patients. If the diagnosis is confirmed, positive treatment must be done immediately to improve the prognosis. The most common cause of RPES is hypertension, and the diagnosis depends on the distinctive head MRI. There is always a good prognosis with the decline of blood pressure rapidly.

  6. An integrated approach combining chemical analysis and an in vivo bioassay to assess the estrogenic potency of a municipal solid waste landfill leachate in Qingdao.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yufeng Gong

    Full Text Available Various adverse effects related to landfill leachate have made leachates an important issue in past decades, and it has been demonstrated that landfill leachate is an important source of environmental estrogens. In this study, we employed chemical analysis of some already evaluated estrogenic substances, in combination with a bioassay using several specific biomarkers (e.g., plasma vitellogenin and sex steroids, enzyme activity of gonad gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, and gonadosomatic index to evaluate the estrogenic activities in outlets from different stages of the leachate treatment process. The results indicated that 5 environmental estrogens (4-t-octylphenol, bisphenol A, di-ethyl phthalate, di-n-butyl phthalate, and diethylhexyl phthalate were detected by a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and the concentrations in leachate samples were 6153 ng/L, 3642 ng/L, 2139 ng/L, 5900 ng/L, and 9422 ng/L, respectively. Leachate (1∶200 diluted induced the synthesis of plasma vitellogenin and led to decreased enzyme activity of gonad gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase and gonadosomatic index in male goldfish (Carassius auratus after a 28-day exposure, while increased circulating 17β-estradiol level was also observed in males exposed to treated effluent. Although the target EEs were partially removed with removal rates varying from 87.2% to 99.77% by the "membrane bioreactor+reverse osmosis+aeration zeolite biofilter" treatment process, the treated effluent is still estrogenic to fish. The method combined chemical techniques with the responses of test organisms allowing us to identify the group of estrogen-like chemicals so that we were able to evaluate the overall estrogenic effects of a complex mixture, avoiding false negative assessments.

  7. Determination of hexachlorobutadiene, pentachlorobenzene, and hexachlorobenzene in waste incineration fly ash using ultrasonic extraction followed by column cleanup and GC-MS analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haiyan; Jiang, Lei; Zhou, Xin; Zeng, Tao; He, Zhiqiao; Huang, Xinwen; Chen, Jianmeng; Song, Shuang

    2018-03-01

    Hexachlorobutadiene (HCBD) was listed as a new controlling persistent organic pollutant in the Stockholm Convention because of its wide industrial applications and potential genotoxicity and carcinogenicity. However, only limited information exists on the release of HCBD from unintentional sources, such as waste incineration. Identification and quantification of HCBD in fly ash, one of the major outputs of waste incineration, is imperative. This work presents a simple method for determining HCBD in waste incineration fly ash based on ultrasonic extraction coupled with a silica gel-Florisil column cleanup followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry detection. Two typical persistent organic pollutants, pentachlorobenzene (PeCB) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB), were measured simultaneously. The parameters that influence the extraction efficiency and the quality of instrument detection were studied. Under the optimum experimental conditions, high sensitivity (detection limit 0.25-0.53 ng g -1 ), acceptable recoveries (64.0-71.4%) at spiking levels of 5-500 ng g -1 , and good repeatability [relative standard deviation (n = 3) of 14% or less] were achieved for all target analytes. The validation of this method was performed by analysis of six real fly ash samples from different waste incinerators in eastern China. The concentrations of HCBD detected in these samples (1.39-97.6 ng g -1 ) were comparable to those of PeCB (1.22-150 ng g -1 ) and HCB (0.82-120 ng g -1 ), indicating that the residual HCBD as well as PeCB and HCB in waste incineration fly ash should not be ignored. The results confirm for the first time that waste incineration is an unintentional source of HCBD in China. Graphical abstract An analytical method for hexachlorobutadiene, pentachlorobenzene, and hexachlorobenzene in fly ash from waste incineration. GC-MS gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, Ph-d10 phenanthrene-d 10 .

  8. INVENTORY CLASSIFICATION WITH ABC ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Kıyak, Erkan; Timuş, Oğuz Han; Karayel, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    For a substantial organization, managing the expansive inventory is a serious problem. One of the methods to solve this problem used widely is classifying the inventory according to some criteria and managing inventory according to this classisifation. In this study, ABC classification methods are researched and Ng's model, which is one of the most widely used, selected for further investigation. An illustrative example is presented to show the usability of the Ng's method.

  9. Analysis of risk factors of involvement of seminal vesicles in patients with prostate cancer undergoing radical prostatectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos F. Dall'Oglio

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine through preoperative serum PSA level, Gleason score on biopsy and percentage of fragments affected by tumor on biopsy, the probability of involvement of the seminal vesicles. MATERIALS AND METHODS: During the period between March 1991 to December 2002, we selected 899 patients undergoing radical prostatectomy for treatment of localized prostate adenocarcinoma. The analyzed preoperative variables were PSA, percentage of positive fragments and Gleason score on the biopsy. Pre-operative PSA was divided in scales from 0 to 4.0 ng/mL, 4.1 to 10 ng/mL, 10.1 to 20 ng/mL and > 20 ng/mL, Gleason score was categorized in scales from 2 to 6. 7 and 8 to 10, and the percentage of affected fragments was divided in 0 to 25%, 25.1% to 50%, 50.1% to 75%, and 75.1% to 100%. All these variables were correlated with the involvement of seminal vesicles in the surgical specimen. RESULTS: Of the 899 patients under study, approximately 11% (95% CI, [9% - 13%] had involvement of seminal vesicles. On the multivariate analysis, when PSA was < 4, the Gleason score was 2 to 6, and less than 25% of fragments were involved on the biopsy, only 3.6%, 7.6% and 6.2% of patients respectively, had involvement of seminal vesicles. On the multivariate analysis, we observed that PSA, Gleason score and the percentage of involved fragments were independent prognostic factors for invasion of seminal vesicles. CONCLUSION: The preoperative variables used in the present study allow the identification of men with minimal risk (lower than 5% if involvement of seminal vesicles.

  10. Ethıcal ıssues ın marketıng: An applıcatıon for understandıng ethıcal decısıon makıng

    OpenAIRE

    PARILTI, Nurettin; KÜLTER DEMİRGÜNEŞ, Banu; ÖZSAÇMACI, Bülent

    2014-01-01

    In recent years business ethics and social responsibility have gained great importance in marketing practices, especially in societal marketing practices. Businesses infinitely struggle to indicate their contributions to society. Consumers consciously evaluate this contribution. Manipulated consumer choices and unethical marketing applications can affect purchasing behavior. Particularly intense competition, globalization and societal consciousness transform businesses into soc...

  11. Ang Pagsasakatutubo mula sa Loob/Kultural na Pagpapatibay ng mga Salitang Pandamdaming Tumutukoy sa “Sayá”: Isang Semantikal na Elaborasyon ng Wikang Filipino sa Larangan ng Sikolohiya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayson D. Petras

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Philippines has often been recognized as one of the most emotional countries in the world. Despite this, there is a scarcity of research pertaining to emotions in the context of Filipinos’ own language and culture; instead, the convenient practice of explaining phenomena based on studies published abroad continues. This is the reason why even local scholarship remains ethnocentric, particularly Anglocentric, in nature. This paper answers the need to contextualize studies about emotions by adopting cultural revalidation or indigenization from within that was developed by the Father of Filipino Psychology, Virgilio G. Enriquez, as an approach to the semantic elaboration of Filipino words pertaining to “happiness.” In analyzing the scope and depth of such words, as well as their similarities and differences, it is essential to consider the universal aspect of understanding emotion through the Natural Semantic Metalanguage (NSM developed by Anna Wierzbicka and her colleagues and the particular aspect embedded in the loob-labas (internal-external dimensions and the Filipino culture-specif ic use of language. Through this, highlighting the uniqueness of the words alíw, galák, ligáya, lugód, luwalhatì, sayá, siyá, tuwâ, and wíli becomes possible. In the end, the researcher poses the challenge of continuous examination of the language of emotion toward understanding Filipino personality.

  12. Analysis of some egyptian cosmetic samples by using fast neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medhat, M.E.; Hassan, M.F.; Ali, M.A.; Awaad, Z.

    2002-01-01

    A description of our neutron generator (NG) facility for neutron activation analysis is presented. As an example, the concentration of Na, Mg, Al, Si, K, Cl, Ca and Fe elements were determined in two domestic brands of face powder by using a beam of 14 MeV neutrons. An empirical expression for detector efficiency in terms of incident gamma ray energy and the source-detector distance has been obtained for a hyper pure germanium detector (HPGe) using different standard point sources. The comparison of the calculated efficiencies and the measured values in the energy range from 59.5 to 1332.2 keV and for source-to-detector distances of 5-30 cm show the agreement between the calculated values and the measured experimental values

  13. Decision analysis multicriteria analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lombard, J.

    1986-09-01

    The ALARA procedure covers a wide range of decisions from the simplest to the most complex one. For the simplest one the engineering judgement is generally enough and the use of a decision aiding technique is therefore not necessary. For some decisions the comparison of the available protection option may be performed from two or a few criteria (or attributes) (protection cost, collective dose,...) and the use of rather simple decision aiding techniques, like the Cost Effectiveness Analysis or the Cost Benefit Analysis, is quite enough. For the more complex decisions, involving numerous criteria or for decisions involving large uncertainties or qualitative judgement the use of these techniques, even the extended cost benefit analysis, is not recommended and appropriate techniques like multi-attribute decision aiding techniques are more relevant. There is a lot of such particular techniques and it is not possible to present all of them. Therefore only two broad categories of multi-attribute decision aiding techniques will be presented here: decision analysis and the outranking analysis

  14. Circulating vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) as predictive factor of progression-free survival in patients with advanced chordoma receiving sorafenib: an analysis from a phase II trial of the french sarcoma group (GSF/GETO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebellec, Loic; Bertucci, François; Tresch-Bruneel, Emmanuelle; Bompas, Emmanuelle; Toiron, Yves; Camoin, Luc; Mir, Olivier; Laurence, Valerie; Clisant, Stephanie; Decoupigny, Emilie; Blay, Jean-Yves; Goncalves, Anthony; Penel, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Background Patients with advanced chordoma are often treated with tyrosine kinase inhibitors without any predictive factor to guide decision. We report herein an ancillary analysis of the the Angionext phase II trial (NCT 00874874). Results From May 2011 to January 2014, 26 were sampled. The 9-month PFS rate was 72.9% (95%-CI: 45.9-87.9). During sorafenib treatment, a significant increase in PlGF (18.4 vs 43.8 pg/mL, p1.04 ng/mL (HR=12.5, 95%-CI: 1.37-114, p=0.025) and VEGF at D7 >1.36 ng/mL (HR=10.7, 95%-CI: 1.16-98, p=0.037) were associated with shorter PFS. The 9-month PFS rate was 92.3% (95%-CI: 56.6-98.9) when VEGF at D1 was ≤1.04 ng/mL versus 23.3% (95%-CI: 1.0-63.2) when >1.04 ng/mL. Patients and Methods Chordoma patients were treated with sorafenib 800 mg/day for 9 months, unless earlier occurrence of progression or toxicities. Six biomarkers (sE-Selectin, VEGF, VEGF-C, placental growth factor (PlGF), Thrombospondin, Stem Cell Factor (SCF)) were measured at baseline (day 1: D1) and day 7 (D7). Conclusion High levels of VEGF was associated with poor outcome. PMID:27659533

  15. Optimisation and validation of a HS-SPME-GC-IT/MS method for analysis of carbonyl volatile compounds as biomarkers in human urine: Application in a pilot study to discriminate individuals with smoking habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calejo, Isabel; Moreira, Nathalie; Araújo, Ana Margarida; Carvalho, Márcia; Bastos, Maria de Lourdes; de Pinho, Paula Guedes

    2016-02-01

    A new and simple analytical approach consisting of an automated headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) sampler coupled to gas chromatography-ion trap/mass spectrometry detection (GC-IT/MS) with a prior derivatization step with O-(2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorobenzyl)hydroxylamine hydrochloride (PFBHA) was developed to detect volatile carbonyl metabolites with low molecular weights in human urine. A central composite design (CCD) was used to optimise the PFBHA concentration and extraction conditions that affect the efficiency of the SPME procedure. With a sample volume of 1 mL, optimal conditions were achieved by adding 300 mg/L of PFBHA and allowing the sample to equilibrate for 6 min at 62°C and then extracting the samples for 51 min at the same temperature, using a divinylbenzene/polydimethylsiloxane (DVB/PDMS) fibre. The method allowed the simultaneous identification and quantification of 44 carbonyl compounds consisting of aldehydes, dialdehydes, heterocyclic aldehydes and ketones. The method was validated with regards to the linearity, inter- and intra-day precision and accuracy. The detection limits ranged from 0.009 to 0.942 ng/mL, except for 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (15 ng/mL), and the quantification limits varied from 0.029 to 1.66 ng/mL, except for butanal (2.78 ng/mL), 2-butanone (2.67 ng/mL), 4-heptanone (3.14 ng/mL) and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (50.0 ng/mL). The method accuracy was satisfactory, with recoveries ranging from 90 to 107%. The proof of applicability of the methodology was performed in a pilot target analysis of urine samples obtained from 18 healthy smokers and 18 healthy non-smokers (control group). Chemometric supervised analysis was performed using the volatile patterns acquired for these samples and clearly showed the potential of the volatile carbonyl profiles to discriminate urine from smoker and non-smoker subjects. 5-Methyl-2-furfural (p<0.0001), 2-methylpropanal, nonanal and 2-methylbutanal (p<0.05) were identified as potentially useful

  16. Analysis for trace mercury concentration. I. Critical evaluation of current procedures. II. A proposed method for determination by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litman, R.

    1975-01-01

    Current methods of sample pretreatments, digestion, lyophilization and extraction, have been found to lead to considerable loss of mercury, at an initial mercury concentration of 1 μg/g, and less. Storage of solutions of mercury at concentrations of less than 1 μg/ml, in glass, Teflon and polyethylene containers, leads to losses by adsorption. Electrochemical reduction of mercury to the metal, and subsequent volatilization, is postulated as the mechanism of loss from the samples studied during lyophilization. A method of instrumental neutron activation analysis, which obviates the above pretreatments, has been developed for mercury concentrations as low as 1 ng/ml

  17. Oxytetracycline analysis in honey using a specific portable analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guoying; Schwartz, Daniel; Braden, S.; Nunez, Alberto

    2007-09-01

    Oxytetracycline (OTC) residue in honey is detected using a portable analyzer designed to specifically target tetracycline (TC) drugs based on europium-sensitized luminescence (ESL). A 385 nm light emitting diode (LED) is used as the excitation source and a photomultiplier tube as the light detector. OTC is extracted from honey and cleaned up by solid phase extraction (SPE) using Strata X-WC weak cation exchange cartridges. To the eluate Eu(III) is added to form a Eu-TC chelate at pH 8.5. Efficient intrachelate energy transfer allows sensitive OTC detection at λ ex=385 nm and λ em=610 nm. After a 25-µs time delay, the ESL signal is integrated over a 25-1000 µs interval. The signal intensity reveals a linear relationship (R2=0.972) to OTC concentrations in the 10-200 ng/g range. The limit-of-detection is 6.7 ng/g with an average 5.8% relative standard deviation. The background signal corresponds to ~10 ppb. This instrumentation and method combination enables field analysis that is especially useful for beekeeping industry.

  18. A microfluidic dialysis device for complex biological mixture SERS analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Perozziello, Gerardo

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, we present a microfluidic device fabricated with a simple and inexpensive process allowing rapid filtering of peptides from a complex mixture. The polymer microfluidic device can be used for sample preparation in biological applications. The device is fabricated by micromilling and solvent assisted bonding, in which a microdialysis membrane (cut-off of 12-14 kDa) is sandwiched in between an upper and a bottom microfluidic chamber. An external frame connects the microfluidic device to external tubes, microvalves and syringe pumps. Bonding strength and interface sealing are pneumatically tested. Microfluidic protocols are also described by using the presented device to filter a sample composed of specific peptides (MW 1553.73 Da, at a concentration of 1.0 ng/μl) derived from the BRCA1 protein, a tumor-suppressor molecule which plays a pivotal role in the development of breast cancer, and albumin (MW 66.5 kDa, at a concentration of 35 μg/μl), the most represented protein in human plasma. The filtered samples coming out from the microfluidic device were subsequently deposited on a SERS (surface enhanced Raman scattering) substrate for further analysis by Raman spectroscopy. By using this approach, we were able to sort the small peptides from the bigger and highly concentrated protein albumin and to detect them by using a label-free technique at a resolution down to 1.0 ng/μl.

  19. Speciation analysis of cobalt in foods by high-performance liquid chromatography and neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muto, Toshio; Koyama, Motoko

    1994-01-01

    A combined method by coupling high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, as a separation method) with neutron activation analysis (as a detection method) have been applied to the speciation analysis of cobalt in daily foods (e.g. egg, fish and milk). Cobalt species including free cobalt, vitamin B 12 and protein-bound cobalt were separated with a preparative HPLC and a centrifuge. Subsequently, the determination of cobalt in the separated species was made by neutron activation analysis. The results showed that the content of the total cobalt in the foods was found to lie in the range 0.4-11ng/g(0.4-11ppb) based on wet weight. The compositions of free cobalt, vitamin B 12 and protein-bound cobalt were ranged 16-43%, 55-73%, 2.3-17%, respectively. These experimental evidences suggest that the combination of HPLC and neutron activation analysis is expected to be a useful tool for speciation analysis of trace elements in biological as well as environmental materials. (author)

  20. Direct Analysis of Amphetamine Stimulants in a Whole Urine Sample by Atmospheric Solids Analysis Probe Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crevelin, Eduardo J.; Salami, Fernanda H.; Alves, Marcela N. R.; De Martinis, Bruno S.; Crotti, Antônio E. M.; Moraes, Luiz A. B.

    2016-05-01

    Amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS) are among illicit stimulant drugs that are most often used worldwide. A major challenge is to develop a fast and efficient methodology involving minimal sample preparation to analyze ATS in biological fluids. In this study, a urine pool solution containing amphetamine, methamphetamine, ephedrine, sibutramine, and fenfluramine at concentrations ranging from 0.5 pg/mL to 100 ng/mL was prepared and analyzed by atmospheric solids analysis probe tandem mass spectrometry (ASAP-MS/MS) and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM). A urine sample and saliva collected from a volunteer contributor (V1) were also analyzed. The limit of detection of the tested compounds ranged between 0.002 and 0.4 ng/mL in urine samples; the signal-to-noise ratio was 5. These results demonstrated that the ASAP-MS/MS methodology is applicable for the fast detection of ATS in urine samples with great sensitivity and specificity, without the need for cleanup, preconcentration, or chromatographic separation. Thus ASAP-MS/MS could potentially be used in clinical and forensic toxicology applications.

  1. Simultaneous analysis of opioid analgesics and their metabolites in municipal wastewaters and river water by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krizman-Matasic, Ivona; Kostanjevecki, Petra; Ahel, Marijan; Terzic, Senka

    2018-01-19

    Although published literature provides a clear demonstration of widespread occurrence of opioid analgesics (OAs) in the aquatic environment, analytical methods suitable for a systematic study of this pharmaceutical class, which would include a broad spectrum of opioid analgesics and their metabolites, are still missing. In this work, a comprehensive multiresidue method for quantitative analysis of 27 opioid analgesics and their metabolites, including 2 morphine glucuronide conjugates, was developed and validated for three matrices: raw wastewater (RW), secondary effluent (SE) and river water. The method comprised different classes of opioid analgesics, including natural opiates (morphine and codeine), their semi-synthetic derivatives (hydrocodone, hydromorphone, oxycodone, oxymorphone and buprenorphine) as well as fully synthetic opioids such as methadone, fentanyl, sufentanil, propoxyphene and tramadol. The optimized enrichment procedure involved mixed-mode, strong cation-exchange sorbent in combination with a sequential elution procedure. The extracts were analyzed by reversed-phase liquid chromatography using a Synergy Polar column coupled to electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Accurate quantification of target OAs was achieved using 19 deuterated analogues as surrogate standards. Method accuracies for RW, SE and river water varied in the range from 91 to 126%, 74 to 120% and 75 to 116%, respectively. Careful optimization of the procedure allowed reliable determination of OAs with method quantification limits in the low ng/L range (RW: 0.3-3.5 ng/L; SE: 0.2-1.9 ng/L, river water: 0.1-0.8 ng/L. The developed method was applied for analysis of RW, SE and river water samples from Croatia. The concentrations of individual OAs in municipal wastewater varied in a wide range (from < QL to 859 ng/L) and the most prevalent representatives were tramadol, codeine, morphine and methadone and their derivatives. Elevated concentrations of

  2. 76 FR 27861 - Airworthiness Directives; Diamond Aircraft Industries GmbH Models DA 42, DA 42 NG, and DA 42 M-NG...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-13

    ... effective date of this AD), incorporate Diamond Aircraft Temporary Revision TR-MAM 42- 443, pages 3-55a and... Temporary Revision TR-MAM 42-443, Cover Page, dated June 17, 2010. (2) Within 6 months after June 17, 2011... Diamond Aircraft Temporary Revision TR-MAM 42-443, pages 3-55a and 3-55b, dated June 17, 2010, for related...

  3. Kuwentong Buhay ng Isang Pambansa- Demokratikong Rebolusyonaryong Bakla sa Rehiyon ng Katimugang Mindanao (A Life Story of a Gay National-Democratic Revolutionary in Southern Mindanao Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rowell D. Madula

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In February 2005, the New People’s Army facilitated its f irst gay (male to male marriage in Compostela Valley. Guerillas Ka Jose and Ka Andres have sworn before the red flag to become partners as they wage a nationaldemocratic revolution. Members of the LGBT community have long been deprived of their right to marry persons they love. The stance of the Roman Catholic Church remains the biggest hurdle why same-sex marriage in the Philippines has yet to be allowed. Despite this, there are still some who are pushing for this. The national-democratic revolution of the Communist Party of the Philippinesnew People’s Army-National Democratic Front of the Philippines (CPP-NPANDFP is one of the most organized removolution in the history of the country. Aside from political and economic changes, the group is also pushing for a cultural revolution. This includes changes in the ideological perspective to and among members of the LGBT community. This study attempts to analyze the life and experiences of gay members of the CPP-NPA-NDFP from the Southern Mindanao Region. Experiences from gender identif ication until the participation to the national-democratic revolution are part of the life story.

  4. Research ın Hıgher Educatıon: the role of teachıng and student learnıng

    OpenAIRE

    Cabral, Ana Paula; Huet, Isabel

    2011-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, national processes for research-quality assessment have been introduced or amended across Europe. Whatever the benefits of these systems might have brought to the organisation and quality of research most of them have contributed for a devaluing teaching and to a growing separation between the research worlds of the university and student learning. This study aims to contribute to a broader understanding of the role of research for the quality of teaching and student l...

  5. Trace analysis measurements in high-purity aluminium by means of radiochemical neutron and proton activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egger, K.P.

    1987-01-01

    The aim of the study consisted in the development of efficient radiochemical composite processes and activation methods for the multi-element determination of traces within the lower ng range in high-purity aluminium. More than 50 elements were determined with the help of activation with reactor neutrons; the selective separation of matrix activity (adsorption with hydrated antimony pentoxide) led to a noticeable improvement of detectability, as compared with instrumental neutron activation analysis. Further improvements were achieved with the help of radiochemical group separations in ion exchangers or with the help of the selective separation of the pure beta-emitting elements. Over 20 elements up to high atomic numbers were determined by means of activating 13 MeV protons and 23 Me protons. In this connection, improvements of the detection limit by as a factor of 10 were achieved with radiochemical separation techniques, as compared with pure instrumental proton activation analysis. (RB) [de

  6. Perkembangan Seni Beladiri Wushu Di Kota Medan Tahun (2001-2013) 印尼棉兰人武术传统的发展研究(Yìnní miánlán rén wǔshù chuántǒng de fāzhǎn yánjiū)

    OpenAIRE

    Purba, Dedi A.

    2015-01-01

    The title of this research is “ Perkembangan Seni Beladiri Wushu di Kota Medan ( 2001 – 2013)”. In this research, the writer is trying to describe the Wushu, especially in the development of wushu martial arts . Due the title, there are some concepts written in chapter two, they are development, martial arts and wushu. The theory used in this research is social theory or culture theory, that is used to analysis the development of wushu martial arts . The methodology used on the research to ...

  7. Simultaneous high performance liquid chromatographic analysis of vitamins B1, B2 and B6 in royal jelly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Presoto Ana Elisa F

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Royal jelly is used as a food supplement, popularly known as rich in B vitamins. The present work has two objectives: firstly, to apply simultaneous quantitative determination by High Performance Liquid Chromatography of thiamin (vitamin B1, riboflavin (vitamin B2 and pyridoxine (vitamin B6 and secondly to compare the obtained data with the Dietary Reference Intake (DRI values. The values obtained showed no thiamin, a range from 20 to 171 ng g-1 of riboflavin and from 408 to 2 188 ng g-1 of pyridoxine in royal jelly. According to the Food and Nutrition Board (2000, the DRI of these vitamins varies from 0.2-1.4 mg for thiamin; 0.3-1.6 mg for riboflavin and 0.1-2.0 mg for pyridoxine, depending on age and sex. According to these recommendations, royal jelly is not a good source of vitamins B1, B2 or B6 as these vitamins appear only on order of ng g-1. The proposed method can be used in routine analysis for royal jelly, having the advantage of being simple, fast and reliable.

  8. Antibiotics in the coastal environment of the Hailing Bay region, South China Sea: Spatial distribution, source analysis and ecological risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Hui; Liu, Shan; Xu, Xiang-Rong; Zhou, Guang-Jie; Liu, Shuang-Shuang; Yue, Wei-Zhong; Sun, Kai-Feng; Ying, Guang-Guo

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Thirty-eight antibiotics were systematically investigated in marine environment. • The distribution of antibiotics was significantly correlated with COD and NO 3 –N. • Untreated domestic sewage was the primary source of antibiotics. • Fluoroquinolones showed a strong sorption capacity onto sediments. • Oxytetracycline, norfloxacin and erythromycin–H 2 O indicated high risks. - Abstract: In this study, the occurrence and spatial distribution of 38 antibiotics in surface water and sediment samples of the Hailing Bay region, South China Sea, were investigated. Twenty-one, 16 and 15 of 38 antibiotics were detected with the concentrations ranging from <0.08 (clarithromycin) to 15,163 ng/L (oxytetracycline), 2.12 (methacycline) to 1318 ng/L (erythromycin–H 2 O), <1.95 (ciprofloxacin) to 184 ng/g (chlortetracycline) in the seawater, discharged effluent and sediment samples, respectively. The concentrations of antibiotics in the water phase were correlated positively with chemical oxygen demand and nitrate. The source analysis indicated that untreated domestic sewage was the primary source of antibiotics in the study region. Fluoroquinolones showed strong sorption capacity onto sediments due to their high pseudo-partitioning coefficients. Risk assessment indicated that oxytetracycline, norfloxacin and erythromycin–H 2 O posed high risks to aquatic organisms

  9. Extraction of Aflatoxins from Liquid Foodstuff Samples with Polydopamine-Coated Superparamagnetic Nanoparticles for HPLC-MS/MS Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    A facile magnetic solid phase extraction (MSPE) of aflatoxins (AFs) from liquid samples was developed using polydopamine-coated magnetic nanoparticles (PD-MNPs) as the adsorbent. PD-MNPs were prepared from amine-terminated MNPs and dopamine via an in situ oxidative self-polymerization approach. Under the selected MSPE conditions, extraction yields ranging from 59.3% for AF G2 to 89.0% for AF B1 were obtained with good repeatability. Coupled with HPLC-MS/MS quantification, the MSPE procedure serves not only for sample cleanup but also for AFs enrichment that is highly desired for trace analysis. The proposed MSPE-HPLC-MS/MS method had a linear calibration curve in the concentration range from 0.00600 to 3.00 ng/mL aflatoxin and limits of detection of 0.0012 ng/mL for AF B1, AF B2, and AF G1, and 0.0031 ng/mL for AF G2. PMID:24766417

  10. Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry Analysis of Perfluorooctane Sulfonate and Perfluorooctanoic Acid in Fish Fillet Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviana Paiano

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS and perfluorooctanoic (PFOA acid are persistent contaminants which can be found in environmental and biological samples. A new and fast analytical method is described here for the analysis of these compounds in the edible part of fish samples. The method uses a simple liquid extraction by sonication, followed by a direct determination using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS. The linearity of the instrumental response was good, with average regression coefficients of 0.9971 and 0.9979 for PFOS and PFOA, respectively, and the coefficients of variation (CV of the method ranged from 8% to 20%. Limits of detection (LOD were 0.04 ng/g for both the analytes and recoveries were 90% for PFOS and 76% for PFOA. The method was applied to samples of homogenized fillets of wild and farmed fish from the Mediterranean Sea. Most of the samples showed little or no contamination by perfluorooctane sulfonate and perfluorooctanoic acid, and the highest concentrations detected among the fish species analyzed were, respectively, 5.96 ng/g and 1.89 ng/g. The developed analytical methodology can be used as a tool to monitor and to assess human exposure to perfluorinated compounds through sea food consumption.

  11. Immunochemical analysis of fumigaclavine mycotoxins in respiratory tissues and in blood serum of birds with confirmed aspergillosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latif, Hadri; Gross, Madeleine; Fischer, Dominik; Lierz, Michael; Usleber, Ewald

    2015-11-01

    The ergoline alkaloid fumigaclavine A (FuA) is one of the major mycotoxins produced by Aspergillus fumigatus, the main causative fungal agent of avian aspergillosis. To study in situ production of FuA, post-mortem respiratory tissues of various avian species, as well as blood samples of falcons (Falco sp.), were analysed by enzyme immunoassay (EIA). At a detection limit of 1.5 ng/ml, FuA EIA positive results were obtained for tissue samples from seven (64%) out of 11 birds with confirmed aspergillosis, with a maximum concentration of 38 ng/g, while all controls (n = 7) were negative. No FuA could be detected in blood serum (detection limit 0.7 ng/ml) of 15 falcons, experimentally inoculated with A. fumigatus conidia. Fungal mycelium material from tissue of clinical aspergillosis cases, cultured on malt extract agar, was highly positive in the FuA EIA in milligrams per gram range. Chromatographic analysis of mycelium extracts revealed the co-presence of FuA and the structurally related fumigaclavine C (FuC). Alkaline hydrolysis of FuA and FuC yielded the corresponding deacetylation products, FuB and FuE. This is the first report showing that fumigaclavine alkaloids are produced by A. fumigatus in situ during the course of clinical aspergillosis in birds; however, the role of these compounds in the pathogenesis of this disease is still unknown.

  12. A novel vacuum spectrometer for total reflection x-ray fluorescence analysis with two exchangeable low power x-ray sources for the analysis of low, medium, and high Z elements in sequence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wobrauschek, P., E-mail: wobi@ati.ac.at; Prost, J.; Ingerle, D.; Kregsamer, P.; Streli, C. [Atominstitut, TU Wien, Stadionallee 2, 1020 Vienna (Austria); Misra, N. L. [Fuel Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC), Mumbai 400085 (India)

    2015-08-15

    The extension of the detectable elemental range with Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence (TXRF) analysis is a challenging task. In this paper, it is demonstrated how a TXRF spectrometer is modified to analyze elements from carbon to uranium. Based on the existing design of a vacuum TXRF spectrometer with a 12 specimen sample changer, the following components were renewed: the silicon drift detector with 20 mm{sup 2} active area and having a special ultra-thin polymer window allowing the detection of elements from carbon upwards. Two exchangeable X-ray sources guarantee the efficient excitation of both low and high Z elements. These X-ray sources were two light-weighted easily mountable 35 W air-cooled low-power tubes with Cr and Rh anodes, respectively. The air cooled tubes and the Peltier-cooled detector allowed to construct a transportable tabletop spectrometer with compact dimensions, as neither liquid nitrogen cooling for the detector nor a water cooling circuit and a bulky high voltage generator for the X-ray tubes are required. Due to the excellent background conditions as a result of the TXRF geometry, detection limits of 150 ng for C, 12 ng for F, and 3.3 ng for Na have been obtained using Cr excitation in vacuum. For Rh excitation, the detection limits of 90 pg could be achieved for Sr. Taking 10 to 20 μl of sample volume, extrapolated detection limits in the ng/g (ppb) range are resulting in terms of concentration.

  13. A novel vacuum spectrometer for total reflection x-ray fluorescence analysis with two exchangeable low power x-ray sources for the analysis of low, medium, and high Z elements in sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wobrauschek, P.; Prost, J.; Ingerle, D.; Kregsamer, P.; Misra, N. L.; Streli, C.

    2015-08-01

    The extension of the detectable elemental range with Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence (TXRF) analysis is a challenging task. In this paper, it is demonstrated how a TXRF spectrometer is modified to analyze elements from carbon to uranium. Based on the existing design of a vacuum TXRF spectrometer with a 12 specimen sample changer, the following components were renewed: the silicon drift detector with 20 mm2 active area and having a special ultra-thin polymer window allowing the detection of elements from carbon upwards. Two exchangeable X-ray sources guarantee the efficient excitation of both low and high Z elements. These X-ray sources were two light-weighted easily mountable 35 W air-cooled low-power tubes with Cr and Rh anodes, respectively. The air cooled tubes and the Peltier-cooled detector allowed to construct a transportable tabletop spectrometer with compact dimensions, as neither liquid nitrogen cooling for the detector nor a water cooling circuit and a bulky high voltage generator for the X-ray tubes are required. Due to the excellent background conditions as a result of the TXRF geometry, detection limits of 150 ng for C, 12 ng for F, and 3.3 ng for Na have been obtained using Cr excitation in vacuum. For Rh excitation, the detection limits of 90 pg could be achieved for Sr. Taking 10 to 20 μl of sample volume, extrapolated detection limits in the ng/g (ppb) range are resulting in terms of concentration.

  14. A novel vacuum spectrometer for total reflection x-ray fluorescence analysis with two exchangeable low power x-ray sources for the analysis of low, medium, and high Z elements in sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wobrauschek, P; Prost, J; Ingerle, D; Kregsamer, P; Misra, N L; Streli, C

    2015-08-01

    The extension of the detectable elemental range with Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence (TXRF) analysis is a challenging task. In this paper, it is demonstrated how a TXRF spectrometer is modified to analyze elements from carbon to uranium. Based on the existing design of a vacuum TXRF spectrometer with a 12 specimen sample changer, the following components were renewed: the silicon drift detector with 20 mm(2) active area and having a special ultra-thin polymer window allowing the detection of elements from carbon upwards. Two exchangeable X-ray sources guarantee the efficient excitation of both low and high Z elements. These X-ray sources were two light-weighted easily mountable 35 W air-cooled low-power tubes with Cr and Rh anodes, respectively. The air cooled tubes and the Peltier-cooled detector allowed to construct a transportable tabletop spectrometer with compact dimensions, as neither liquid nitrogen cooling for the detector nor a water cooling circuit and a bulky high voltage generator for the X-ray tubes are required. Due to the excellent background conditions as a result of the TXRF geometry, detection limits of 150 ng for C, 12 ng for F, and 3.3 ng for Na have been obtained using Cr excitation in vacuum. For Rh excitation, the detection limits of 90 pg could be achieved for Sr. Taking 10 to 20 μl of sample volume, extrapolated detection limits in the ng/g (ppb) range are resulting in terms of concentration.

  15. Development of cancer therapy facility of HANARO and medical research in BNCT; development of the technique for boron concentration analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Hee Dong; Byun, Soo Hyun; Sun, Gwang Min; Kim, Suk Kwon; Kim, In Jung; Park, Chang Su [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea)

    2002-03-01

    Objective and Necessity of the Project- Development of a boron concentration analysis facility used for BNCT. - Development of the technique for boron concentration analysis. Contents and Scopes of the Project - Construction of the boron concentration analysis facility based on PGAA. Estimation of the neutron beam characteristics. -Establishment of the technique for the boron concentration analysis. - Estimation of the reliability for the boron analysis. Results of the Project -Installation of the boron concentration analysis facility at Hanaro. - Neutron beam characteristics are the sample position (neutron flux : 7.9 x 10{sup 7} n/cm{sup 2}s, Cd-ratio : 266) Technique for the boron concentration analysis. - Boron detection sensitivity and limit (detection sensitivity : 2, 131 cps/mg-B, detection limit : 67 ng for 10,000 sec). 63 refs., 37 figs., 13 tabs. (Author)

  16. Commentary on: "Clonal evolution of chemotherapy-resistant urothelial carcinoma." Faltas BM, Prandi D, Tagawa ST, Molina AM, Nanus DM, Sternberg C, Rosenberg J, Mosquera JM, Robinson B, Elemento O, Sboner A, Beltran H, Demichelis F, Rubin MA.: Nat Genet. 2016 Oct 17. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ng.3692.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byron H

    2017-09-01

    Chemotherapy-resistant urothelial carcinoma has no uniformly curative therapy. Understanding how selective pressure from chemotherapy directs the evolution of urothelial carcinoma and shapes its clonal architecture is a central biological question with clinical implications. To address this question, we performed whole-exome sequencing and clonality analysis of 72 urothelial carcinoma samples, including 16 matched sets of primary and advanced tumors prospectively collected before and after chemotherapy. Our analysis provided several insights that are as follows: (1) chemotherapy-treated urothelial carcinoma is characterized by intrapatient mutational heterogeneity, and most mutations are not shared; (2) both branching evolution and metastatic spread are very early events in the natural history of urothelial carcinoma; (3) chemotherapy-treated urothelial carcinoma is enriched with clonal mutations involving L1 cell-adhesion molecule and integrin signaling pathways; and (4) APOBEC-induced mutagenesis is clonally enriched in chemotherapy-treated urothelial carcinoma and continues to shape the evolution of urothelial carcinoma throughout its lifetime. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Two-step microextraction combined with high performance liquid chromatographic analysis of pyrethroids in water and vegetable samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukdasai, Siriboon; Thomas, Chunpen; Srijaranai, Supalax

    2014-03-01

    Dispersive liquid microextraction (DLME) combined with dispersive µ-solid phase extraction (D-µ-SPE) has been developed as a new approach for the extraction of four pyrethroids (tetramethrin, fenpropathrin, deltamethrin and permethrin) prior to the analysis by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with UV detection. 1-Octanol was used as the extraction solvent in DLME. Magnetic nanoparticles (Fe3O4) functionalized with 3-aminopropyl triethoxysilane (APTS) were used as the dispersive in DLME and as the adsorbent in D-µ-SPE. The extracted pyrethroids were separated within 30 min using isocratic elution with acetonitrile:water (72:28). The factors affecting the extraction efficiency were investigated. Under the optimum conditions, the enrichment factors were in the range of 51-108. Linearity was obtained in the range 0.5-400 ng mL(-1) (tetramethrin) and 5-400 ng mL(-1) (fenpropathrin, deltamethrin and permethrin) with the correlation coefficients (R(2)) greater than 0.995. Detection limits were 0.05-2 ng mL(-1) (water samples) and 0.02-2.0 ng g(-1) (vegetable samples). The relative standard deviations of peak area varied from 1.8 to 2.5% (n=10). The extraction recoveries of the four pyrethroids in field water and vegetable samples were 91.7-104.5%. The proposed method has high potential for use as a sensitive method for determination of pyrethroid residues in water and vegetable samples. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. [Risk assessment and analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the surface sediments of Xinglin Bay Suburb Rivers of Xiamen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Qi-ming; Huang, Qing; Liao, Zhen-ni; Su, Li; Liu, Xing-qiang; Tang, Jian-feng

    2015-01-01

    The concentrations of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), declared as carcinogens by USEPA, were measured in the sediment samples (n = 19) collected along Xinglin Bay rivers/canals present in Xiamen. PAHs were extracted using accelerated solvent extraction system and analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The possible sources of PAHs and their health risk were investigated. Among selected PAHs, 13 PAHs were detected in the surface sediments. Total concentrations of PAHs in the surface sediments ranged from 413.00 to 2748.81 ng x g(-1), with a mean value of 949.56 ng x g(-1). The mean concentration of highly carcinogenic compounds such as benzo [k] fluoranthene (BkF) and benzo [g, h, i] perylene (BghiP) were 69.15 ng x g(-1) and 49.86 ng x g(-1), respectively and counted for 73.68% out of the total samples. The dominant PAH compounds were 2, 3 and 4 rings and counted for 61.03% and 23.53% , respectively; while 5-6 rings containing PAHs were accounted for 15.82%. According to the results, 68.42% of samples were moderately contaminated, while 31.58% were highly contaminated with PAHs. Based on the ratios of Ant/(Ant + Phe) and Fla/(Fla + Pyr), it cleared that PAHs in surface sediments were mainly derived from fossil fuel and combustion products. Principal component analysis results and sediment quality benchmarks (mSQG-Q) were used for risk assessment of these PAH contaminated sediments. The risk SQG-Q of 16 PAHs were less than 0.50. Comprehensive content, composition and SQG-Q showed that a certain degree of ecological risks of PAH pollution existed in the surface sediments, particularly in the sites close to Xinglin Industrial Zone (2, 3, 5 and 9) and Gangtou(13), which need further research work and proper attentions.