WorldWideScience

Sample records for analysis structural evolution

  1. Analysis of ribosomal protein gene structures: implications for intron evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Many spliceosomal introns exist in the eukaryotic nuclear genome. Despite much research, the evolution of spliceosomal introns remains poorly understood. In this paper, we tried to gain insights into intron evolution from a novel perspective by comparing the gene structures of cytoplasmic ribosomal proteins (CRPs and mitochondrial ribosomal proteins (MRPs, which are held to be of archaeal and bacterial origin, respectively. We analyzed 25 homologous pairs of CRP and MRP genes that together had a total of 527 intron positions. We found that all 12 of the intron positions shared by CRP and MRP genes resulted from parallel intron gains and none could be considered to be "conserved," i.e., descendants of the same ancestor. This was supported further by the high frequency of proto-splice sites at these shared positions; proto-splice sites are proposed to be sites for intron insertion. Although we could not definitively disprove that spliceosomal introns were already present in the last universal common ancestor, our results lend more support to the idea that introns were gained late. At least, our results show that MRP genes were intronless at the time of endosymbiosis. The parallel intron gains between CRP and MRP genes accounted for 2.3% of total intron positions, which should provide a reliable estimate for future inferences of intron evolution.

  2. Brain structure evolution in a basal vertebrate clade: evidence from phylogenetic comparative analysis of cichlid fishes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolm Niclas

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The vertebrate brain is composed of several interconnected, functionally distinct structures and much debate has surrounded the basic question of how these structures evolve. On the one hand, according to the 'mosaic evolution hypothesis', because of the elevated metabolic cost of brain tissue, selection is expected to target specific structures mediating the cognitive abilities which are being favored. On the other hand, the 'concerted evolution hypothesis' argues that developmental constraints limit such mosaic evolution and instead the size of the entire brain varies in response to selection on any of its constituent parts. To date, analyses of these hypotheses of brain evolution have been limited to mammals and birds; excluding Actinopterygii, the basal and most diverse class of vertebrates. Using a combination of recently developed phylogenetic multivariate allometry analyses and comparative methods that can identify distinct rates of evolution, even in highly correlated traits, we studied brain structure evolution in a highly variable clade of ray-finned fishes; the Tanganyikan cichlids. Results Total brain size explained 86% of the variance in brain structure volume in cichlids, a lower proportion than what has previously been reported for mammals. Brain structures showed variation in pair-wise allometry suggesting some degree of independence in evolutionary changes in size. This result is supported by variation among structures on the strength of their loadings on the principal size axis of the allometric analysis. The rate of evolution analyses generally supported the results of the multivariate allometry analyses, showing variation among several structures in their evolutionary patterns. The olfactory bulbs and hypothalamus were found to evolve faster than other structures while the dorsal medulla presented the slowest evolutionary rate. Conclusion Our results favor a mosaic model of brain evolution, as certain

  3. Frequency Analysis of Acoustic Emission Signal to Monitor Damage Evolution in Masonry Structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A crucial aspect in damage evaluation of masonry structures is the analysis of long-term behaviour and for this reason fatigue analysis has a great influence on safety assessment of this structures. Acoustic Emission (AE) are very effective non-destructive techniques applied to identify micro and macro-defects and their temporal evolution in several materials. This technique permits to estimate the velocity of ultrasound waves propagation and the amount of energy released during fracture propagation to obtain information on the criticality of the ongoing process. By means of AE monitoring, an experimental analysis on a set of reinforced and unreinforced masonry walls under variable amplitude and static loading has been carried out. During these tests, the AE signals were recorded. The AE signals were analysed using Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) to examine the frequency distribution of the micro and macro cracking. It possible to evaluate the evolution of the wavelength of the AE signal through the two characteristic peak in the AE spectrum signals and the wave speed of the P or S waves. This wavelength evolution can be represent the microcrak and macrocrack evolution in masonry walls. This procedure permits to estimate the fracture dimension characteristic in several loading condition and for several masonry reinforced condition.

  4. Differential evolution: Global search problem in LEED-IV surface structural analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nascimento, V.B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Center for Computation and Technology, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Plummer, E.W., E-mail: wplummer@phys.lsu.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States)

    2015-02-15

    The search process associated with the quantitative theory–experiment comparison in Low Energy Electron Diffraction surface structural analysis can be very time consuming, especially in the case of complex materials with many atoms in the unit cell. Global search algorithms need to be employed to locate the global minimum of the reliability factor in the multi-dimensional structural parameter space. In this study we investigate the use of the Differential Evolution algorithm in Low Energy Electron Diffraction structural analysis. Despite the simplicity of its mechanism the Differential Evolution algorithm presents an impressive performance when applied to ultra-thin films of BaTiO{sub 3}(001) in a theory–theory comparison. A scaling relation of N{sup (1.47} {sup ±} {sup 0.08)} was obtained, where N is the total number of parameters to be optimized. - Highlights: • We investigated the use of the Differential Evolution algorithm (DE) for the LEED search problem. • The DE method was applied to the optimization of the surface structure of the BaTiO{sub 3}(001) ultra-thin films. • A very favorable scaling relation of N{sup 1.47} was obtained, where N is the total number of parameters to be optimized.

  5. Differential evolution: Global search problem in LEED-IV surface structural analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The search process associated with the quantitative theory–experiment comparison in Low Energy Electron Diffraction surface structural analysis can be very time consuming, especially in the case of complex materials with many atoms in the unit cell. Global search algorithms need to be employed to locate the global minimum of the reliability factor in the multi-dimensional structural parameter space. In this study we investigate the use of the Differential Evolution algorithm in Low Energy Electron Diffraction structural analysis. Despite the simplicity of its mechanism the Differential Evolution algorithm presents an impressive performance when applied to ultra-thin films of BaTiO3(001) in a theory–theory comparison. A scaling relation of N(1.47 ± 0.08) was obtained, where N is the total number of parameters to be optimized. - Highlights: • We investigated the use of the Differential Evolution algorithm (DE) for the LEED search problem. • The DE method was applied to the optimization of the surface structure of the BaTiO3(001) ultra-thin films. • A very favorable scaling relation of N1.47 was obtained, where N is the total number of parameters to be optimized

  6. Evolution of energy structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because of the big inertia and long time constants of energy systems, their long-time behaviour is mainly determined by their present day state and by the trends of their recent evolution. For this reason, it is of prime importance to foresee the evolution of the different energy production sources which may play an important role in the future. A status of the world energy consumption and production is made first using the energy statistics of the IEA. Then, using the trends observed since 1973, the consequences of a simple extrapolation of these trends is examined. Finally, the scenarios of forecasting of energy structures, like those supplied by the International institute for applied systems analysis (IIASA) are discussed. (J.S.)

  7. Stellar structure and evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book introduces the theory of the internal structure of stars and their evolution in time. It presents the basic physics of stellar interiors, methods for solving the underlying equations, and the most important results necessary for understanding the wide variety of stellar types and phenomena. The evolution of stars is discussed from their birth through normal evolution to possibly spectacular final stages. Chapters on stellar oscillations and rotation are included

  8. Stellar structure and evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kippernhahn, R. (MPI fur Physik und Astrophysik, Garching (DE)); Weigert, A. (Sternwarte, Hamberg (DE))

    1990-01-01

    This book introduces the theory of the internal structure of stars and their evolution in time. It presents the basic physics of stellar interiors, methods for solving the underlying equations, and the most important results necessary for understanding the wide variety of stellar types and phenomena. The evolution of stars is discussed from their birth through normal evolution to possibly spectacular final stages. Chapters on stellar oscillations and rotation are included.

  9. Structure and evolution of a European Parliament via a network and correlation analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Puccio, Elena; Piilo, Jyrki; Tumminello, Michele

    2016-01-01

    We present a study of the network of relationships among elected members of the Finnish parliament, based on a quantitative analysis of initiative co-signatures, and its evolution over 16 years. To understand the structure of the parliament, we constructed a statistically validated network of members, based on the similarity between the patterns of initiatives they signed. We looked for communities within the network and characterized them in terms of members' attributes, such as electoral district and party. To gain insight on the nested structure of communities, we constructed a hierarchical tree of members from the correlation matrix. Afterwards, we studied parliament dynamics yearly, with a focus on correlations within and between parties, by also distinguishing between government and opposition. Finally, we investigated the role played by specific individuals, at a local level. In particular, whether they act as proponents who gather consensus, or as signers. Our results provide a quantitative background...

  10. Analysis on the Evolution of Agricultural Structure about Pan-Yangtze River Delta

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI Jiang; LIU Zhi-ying

    2010-01-01

    Starting from the definition of agricultural structure,this paper firstly analyzes the change of industrial and spatial structure of agriculture of Pan-Yangtze River Delta,then inspects the relationship between the development of economics and the evolution of agricultural structure,an the end it provides policy recommendation about the development and adjustment of agricultural structure for the future.

  11. Genre Analysis: Structural and Linguistic Evolution of the English-Medium Medical Research Article (1985-2004)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li-Juan; Ge, Guang-Chun

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports a corpus-based genre analysis of the structural and linguistic evolution of medical research articles (RAs) written in English. Towards that end, we analyzed the frequency of occurrence of the 11 moves identified by Nwogu (1997), of the three most frequently used verb tenses (simple past, simple present and present perfect) and…

  12. Structural Evolution of Colloidal Crystal Films in the Process of Melting Revealed by Bragg Peak Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sulyanova, Elena A.; Shabalin, Anatoly; Zozulya, Alexey V.; Meijer, Janne-Mieke; Dzhigaev, Dmitry; Gorobtsov, Oleg; Kurta, Ruslan P.; Lazarev, Sergey; Lorenz, Ulf; Singer, Andrej; Yefanov, Oleksandr; Zaluzhnyy, Ivan; Besedin, Ilya; Sprung, Michael; Petukhov, A. V.; Vartanyants, Ivan A.

    2015-01-01

    In situ X-ray diffraction studies of structural evolution of colloidal crystal films formed by polystyrene spherical particles upon incremental heating are reported. The Bragg peak parameters, such as peak position, integrated intensity, and radial and azimuthal widths were analyzed as a function of

  13. Structural analysis of the evolution of steroid specificity in the mineralocorticoid and glucocorticoid receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ollikainen Noah

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The glucocorticoid receptor (GR and mineralocorticoid receptor (MR evolved from a common ancestor. Still not completely understood is how specificity for glucocorticoids (e.g. cortisol and mineralocorticoids (e.g. aldosterone evolved in these receptors. Results Our analysis of several vertebrate GRs and MRs in the context of 3D structures of human GR and MR indicates that with the exception of skate GR, a cartilaginous fish, there is a deletion in all GRs, at the position corresponding to Ser-949 in human MR. This deletion occurs in a loop before helix 12, which contains the activation function 2 (AF2 domain, which binds coactivator proteins and influences transcriptional activity of steroids. Unexpectedly, we find that His-950 in human MR, which is conserved in the MR in chimpanzee, orangutan and macaque, is glutamine in all teleost and land vertebrate MRs, including New World monkeys and prosimians. Conclusion Evolution of differences in the responses of the GR and MR to corticosteroids involved deletion in the GR of a residue corresponding to Ser-949 in human MR. A mutation corresponding to His-950 in human MR may have been important in physiological changes associated with emergence of Old World monkeys from prosimians.

  14. Structure Model of Urban Traffic System Evolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Ke-jin; ZHANG Dian-ye

    2008-01-01

    A structure model of urban traffic system evolution is built based on the analysis of the factors influencing the system evolution and the hierarchy between the factors. Then the influencing degrees of the factors are quantificationally analyzed by DEMATE (decision making trial and evaluation laboratory). The analysis results indicate that the traffic mode structure which achieves the highest central degree is the dominant influencing factor of the urban traffic system evolution, and that economy development and the traffic poficy axe the second important factors that also affect the traffic mode structures. Furthermore, physical geography is a basic restriction to the urban traffic system evolution.

  15. Structural Evolution of Colloidal Crystal Films in the Process of Melting Revealed by Bragg Peak Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Sulyanova, Elena; Shabalin, Anatoly; Yefanov, Oleksandr; Zaluzhnyy, Ivan; Besedin, Ilya; Sprung, Michael; Petukhov, Andrei; Vartaniants, Ivan; Zozulya, Alexey; Meijer, Janne-Mieke; Dzhigaev, Dmitry; Gorobtsov, Oleg; Kurta, Ruslan; Lazarev, Sergey; Lorenz, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    In situ X-ray diffraction studies of structural evolution of colloidal crystal films formed by polystyrene spherical particles upon incremental heating are reported. The Bragg peak parameters, such as peak position, integrated intensity, and radial and azimuthal widths were analyzed as a function of temperature. A quantitative study of colloidal crystal lattice distortions and mosaic spread as a function of temperature was carried out using Williamson–Hall plots based on mosaic block model. T...

  16. Stellar Structure and Evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Kippenhahn, Rudolf; Weiss, Achim

    2013-01-01

    This long-awaited second edition of the classical textbook on Stellar Structure and Evolution by Kippenhahn and Weigert is a thoroughly revised version of the original text. Taking into account modern observational constraints as well as additional physical effects such as mass loss and diffusion, Achim Weiss and Rudolf Kippenhahn have succeeded in bringing the book up to the state-of-the-art with respect to both the presentation of stellar physics and the presentation and interpretation of current sophisticated stellar models. The well-received and proven pedagogical approach of the first edition has been retained. The book provides a comprehensive treatment of the physics of the stellar interior and the underlying fundamental processes and parameters. The models developed to explain the stability, dynamics and evolution of the stars are presented and great care is taken to detail the various stages in a star’s life. Just as the first edition, which remained a standard work for more than 20 years after its...

  17. Evolution of energy structures; Evolution des structures energetiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nifenecker, H. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 38 - Grenoble (France)

    2005-07-01

    Because of the big inertia and long time constants of energy systems, their long-time behaviour is mainly determined by their present day state and by the trends of their recent evolution. For this reason, it is of prime importance to foresee the evolution of the different energy production sources which may play an important role in the future. A status of the world energy consumption and production is made first using the energy statistics of the IEA. Then, using the trends observed since 1973, the consequences of a simple extrapolation of these trends is examined. Finally, the scenarios of forecasting of energy structures, like those supplied by the International institute for applied systems analysis (IIASA) are discussed. (J.S.)

  18. Phylogenetic analysis, structural evolution and functional divergence of the 12-oxo-phytodienoate acid reductase gene family in plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Hongbin

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid reductases (OPRs are enzymes that catalyze the reduction of double-bonds in α, β-unsaturated aldehydes or ketones and are part of the octadecanoid pathway that converts linolenic acid to jasmonic acid. In plants, OPRs belong to the old yellow enzyme family and form multigene families. Although discoveries about this family in Arabidopsis and other species have been reported in some studies, the evolution and function of multiple OPRs in plants are not clearly understood. Results A comparative genomic analysis was performed to investigate the phylogenetic relationship, structural evolution and functional divergence among OPR paralogues in plants. In total, 74 OPR genes were identified from 11 species representing the 6 major green plant lineages: green algae, mosses, lycophytes, gymnosperms, monocots and dicots. Phylogenetic analysis showed that seven well-conserved subfamilies exist in plants. All OPR genes from green algae were clustered into a single subfamily, while those from land plants fell into six other subfamilies, suggesting that the events leading to the expansion of the OPR family occurred in land plants. Further analysis revealed that lineage-specific expansion, especially by tandem duplication, contributed to the current OPR subfamilies in land plants after divergence from aquatic plants. Interestingly, exon/intron structure analysis showed that the gene structures of OPR paralogues exhibits diversity in intron number and length, while the intron positions and phase were highly conserved across different lineage species. These observations together with the phylogenetic tree revealed that successive single intron loss, as well as indels within introns, occurred during the process of structural evolution of OPR paralogues. Functional divergence analysis revealed that altered functional constraints have occurred at specific amino acid positions after diversification of the paralogues

  19. Emergence, Analysis and Evolution of Structures Concepts and Strategies Across Disciplines

    CERN Document Server

    Lucas, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    The study of structures and structure generating processes is a common concern of all scientific and technical disciplines. The present volume presents an interdisciplinary investigation of the different methods of analysis and modelling which, while differing considerably in detail, usually have evolutionary adaption or development schemes at their core. The book naturally falls into three parts - a first part summarizing the transdisciplinary fundamentals, a second part discussing in detail case studies from various fields (production engineering, medicine, management, molecular biology, energy engineering, civil engineering, logistics, sociology, physics) and a shorter outlook on the transdisciplinary perspective.

  20. Nuclear Shell Structure Evolution Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Zhengda; Wang, Xiaobin; Zhang, Xiaodong; Wang, Xiaochun

    2012-01-01

    The Self-similar-structure shell model (SSM) comes from the evolution of the conventional shell model (SM) and keeps the energy level of SM single particle harmonic oscillation motion. In SM, single particle motion is the positive harmonic oscillation and in SSM, the single particle motion is the negative harmonic oscillation. In this paper a nuclear evolution equation (NEE) is proposed. NEE describes the nuclear evolution process from gas state to liquid state and reveals the relations among...

  1. Lagrangian analysis of formation, structure, evolution and splitting of anticyclonic Kuril eddies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prants, S. V.; Lobanov, V. B.; Budyansky, M. V.; Uleysky, M. Yu.

    2016-03-01

    We studied in detail a mesoscale anticylonic eddy that has been sampled in the R/V Professor Gagarinskiy cruise (June-July 2012) in the area east of the Kuril Islands in the northwestern subarctic Pacific. Lagrangian approach was applied to study formation, structure and evolution of this feature called the eddy A and of its parent eddy B using a simulation with synthetic tracers advected by the AVISO velocity field. We used different Lagrangian methods and techniques to identify those eddies and their boundaries, to know their structure and to document their deformation, metamorphoses and splitting. It has been found that the eddy A was born as a result of splitting of the eddy B with the core water to be borrowed from the eddy B which, in turn, was influenced by the Okhotsk Sea water flowing into the ocean through the Kuril straits. The periphery of the eddy A was formed mainly by East Kamchatka Current water in the process of its winding onto the eddy A core by portions. All these processes have been documented in detail with the help of drift and tracking Lagrangian maps computed forward and backward in time with a large number of synthetic tracers distributed over the studied area. We have found a Lagrangian structure of those eddies and the ways how they have gained and released water. Simulated and measured locations of the center of the eddy A and its boundary have been be estimated to coincide with the accuracy of ≈ 7-10 and ≈ 15-20 km, respectively. Our simulations were validated in part by tracks of available surface drifters and Argo floats. We presented CTD hydrographic observations of the Kuril eddy A from the surface to deep waters and compared observed and simulated results in order to establish origin and properties of water masses constituting that eddy.

  2. An Analysis of Local Power Structure of Thailand: Evolution and Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SATAPORN ROENGTAM

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the results of the investigation about the current characteristics, composition and relationship of actors in the ‘Power Structure of Thailand’. The concept on ‘Power Structure Analysis’ by William Dommhoff is used to construct the conceptual framework and data analysis. The findings are divided into three (3 issues. Firstly, characteristics of the power structure and actors can be divided into three (3 groups, in which all of them have to work together systematically. Secondly, in terms of composition, these groups can be positioned into three (3 rings of power structures: the inner, middle and outer rings. And thirdly, these groups play certain roles according to their relationship. The inner takes responsibility about creating and planning, the middle takes responsibility about command and control, and the outer take responsibility about actions. All of them will have to work together in order to create, use and maintain their power to continuously collect and protect their interests in the province.

  3. Asteroseismic Analysis of the Internal Structure and Evolution of Red Giant Branch Bump Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gai, Ning; Tang, Yanke

    2015-05-01

    The “bump” is a prominent feature of the red giant branch (RGB) luminosity function of stellar clusters. Through constructing a grid of models with different masses and metallicities to study the feature of the RGB bump luminosity we find that the luminosity increases almost monotonically with increasing mass for a given metallicity and decreases monotonically with increasing metallicity. Moreover, different stars have different shapes of the RGB bump. It is correlated with the sharpness of the H discontinuity, which is left over by the convection envelope during the first dredge-up. Using the periodicity in the small separations d01, d10 to probe the internal structure, we find that, at about half the acoustic radius, the sound speed has a sharp variation that is caused by a local depression of the first adiabatic exponent {{{Γ }}1} in the second helium ionization zone. It induces an oscillation modulation in d01, d10 with a period of 6.4 μ Hz. Meanwhile, in the same model, the base of the convective envelope is located at a relatively small acoustic radius {{t}envp}/T, which is about 10-1. It is too deep to detect the exact location of the bottom of the outer convective envelope. In order to discriminate the evolutionary status of different stars, we calculate the asymptotic g-mode period spacing {Δ }{{{\\Pi }}1}. We find that {Δ }{{{\\Pi }}1} decreases monotonically with evolution. It is a reliable parameter for distinguishing stars in different positions of the RGB bump.

  4. Metagenomic analysis of microbiota structure evolution in phytoremediation of a swine lagoon wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Jianfeng; Song, Zhaofeng; Wang, Liang; Zhu, Jun

    2016-11-01

    Pytoremediation was studied in this project to treat swine manure lagoon wastewater characteristic of high concentrations of organic carbon, ammonium (N) and phosphorus (P). The impacts of introducing exogenous microalgae Chlorella into the lagoon wastewater on the removal of major nutrients and the transformation of the native wastewater microbiota structure were explored under two phytoremediation modes (shake flask and CO2-air bubbling). The results showed that the inoculation of microalgae could significantly enhance N and P removal. Metagenomic analysis of the native microbiota composition in the wastewater affected by algae inoculation revealed that a substantial population of algicidal bacteria was developed in the shake flask system, while in the CO2-air bubbling system, a niche for more mutualistic bacteria was created, which benefited the maximal algal growth with the simultaneous optimal N and P removal. To our knowledge, this study presents, the first reported case of applying metagenomic approach to a phytoremediation system treating real swine lagoon wastewater. PMID:27518033

  5. Morphotectonic analysis, structural evolution/pattern of a contractional ridge: Giouchtas Mt., Central Crete, Greece

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kokinou Eleni; Skilodimou Hariklia D; Bathrellos George D; Antonarakou Assimina; Kamberis Evangelos

    2015-04-01

    The Giouchtas Mountain is situated south of Heraklion, Central Crete. It is a N–S trending morphological asymmetric ridge with a steep western slope, whilst its eastern slope is characterized by a smoother relief, composed of Mesozoic limestone and Eocene–lower Oligocene flysch of the Gavrovo–Tripolis zone. The present study focusses on the structural pattern and development of Giouchtas Mountain. Morphotectonic analyses in combination with field mapping and tectonic analysis were performed for this purpose. GIS techniques were used for mapping the spatial distribution of the geological features on the topographic relief of the area. Geomorphic indices, used in the present study, are the mountain front sinuosity index (Smf) and the valley floor/width ratio index (Vf). Based on Smf and Vf values, it is implied that this area can be assigned to a tectonic class I, corresponding to higher tectonic activity. However, spatial variations of the tectonic activity along the segmented fronts point to a general trend of increasing activity towards the north and especially, northeast. The model of this possibly active structural feature corresponds to a compressional mechanism followed by an earliest Mid. Miocene to Holocene late-stage deformation related to extensional faulting.

  6. Kin structure, ecology and the evolution of social organization in shrimp: a comparative analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Duffy, J. Emmett; Macdonald, Kenneth S.

    2009-01-01

    Eusocial societies present a Darwinian paradox, yet they have evolved independently in insects, mole-rats and symbiotic shrimp. Historically, eusociality has been thought to arise as a response to ecological challenges, mediated by kin selection, but the role of kin selection has recently been questioned. Here we use phylogenetically independent contrasts to test the association of eusociality with ecological performance and genetic structure (via life history) among 20 species of sponge-dwel...

  7. Metagenomic Analysis of the Indian Ocean Picocyanobacterial Community: Structure, Potential Function and Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díez, Beatriz; Nylander, Johan A. A.; Ininbergs, Karolina; Dupont, Christopher L.; Allen, Andrew E.; Yooseph, Shibu; Rusch, Douglas B.; Bergman, Birgitta

    2016-01-01

    Unicellular cyanobacteria are ubiquitous photoautotrophic microbes that contribute substantially to global primary production. Picocyanobacteria such as Synechococcus and Prochlorococcus depend on chlorophyll a-binding protein complexes to capture light energy. In addition, Synechococcus has accessory pigments organized into phycobilisomes, and Prochlorococcus contains chlorophyll b. Across a surface water transect spanning the sparsely studied tropical Indian Ocean, we examined Synechococcus and Prochlorococcus occurrence, taxonomy and habitat preference in an evolutionary context. Shotgun sequencing of size fractionated microbial communities from 0.1 μm to 20 μm and subsequent phylogenetic analysis indicated that cyanobacteria account for up to 15% of annotated reads, with the genera Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus comprising 90% of the cyanobacterial reads, even in the largest size fraction (3.0–20 mm). Phylogenetic analyses of cyanobacterial light-harvesting genes (chl-binding pcb/isiA, allophycocyanin (apcAB), phycocyanin (cpcAB) and phycoerythin (cpeAB)) mostly identified picocyanobacteria clades comprised of overlapping sequences obtained from Indian Ocean, Atlantic and/or Pacific Oceans samples. Habitat reconstructions coupled with phylogenetic analysis of the Indian Ocean samples suggested that large Synechococcus-like ancestors in coastal waters expanded their ecological niche towards open oligotrophic waters in the Indian Ocean through lineage diversification and associated streamlining of genomes (e.g. loss of phycobilisomes and acquisition of Chl b); resulting in contemporary small celled Prochlorococcus. Comparative metagenomic analysis with picocyanobacteria populations in other oceans suggests that this evolutionary scenario may be globally important. PMID:27196065

  8. Metagenomic Analysis of the Indian Ocean Picocyanobacterial Community: Structure, Potential Function and Evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Díez

    Full Text Available Unicellular cyanobacteria are ubiquitous photoautotrophic microbes that contribute substantially to global primary production. Picocyanobacteria such as Synechococcus and Prochlorococcus depend on chlorophyll a-binding protein complexes to capture light energy. In addition, Synechococcus has accessory pigments organized into phycobilisomes, and Prochlorococcus contains chlorophyll b. Across a surface water transect spanning the sparsely studied tropical Indian Ocean, we examined Synechococcus and Prochlorococcus occurrence, taxonomy and habitat preference in an evolutionary context. Shotgun sequencing of size fractionated microbial communities from 0.1 μm to 20 μm and subsequent phylogenetic analysis indicated that cyanobacteria account for up to 15% of annotated reads, with the genera Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus comprising 90% of the cyanobacterial reads, even in the largest size fraction (3.0-20 mm. Phylogenetic analyses of cyanobacterial light-harvesting genes (chl-binding pcb/isiA, allophycocyanin (apcAB, phycocyanin (cpcAB and phycoerythin (cpeAB mostly identified picocyanobacteria clades comprised of overlapping sequences obtained from Indian Ocean, Atlantic and/or Pacific Oceans samples. Habitat reconstructions coupled with phylogenetic analysis of the Indian Ocean samples suggested that large Synechococcus-like ancestors in coastal waters expanded their ecological niche towards open oligotrophic waters in the Indian Ocean through lineage diversification and associated streamlining of genomes (e.g. loss of phycobilisomes and acquisition of Chl b; resulting in contemporary small celled Prochlorococcus. Comparative metagenomic analysis with picocyanobacteria populations in other oceans suggests that this evolutionary scenario may be globally important.

  9. Metagenomic Analysis of the Indian Ocean Picocyanobacterial Community: Structure, Potential Function and Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díez, Beatriz; Nylander, Johan A A; Ininbergs, Karolina; Dupont, Christopher L; Allen, Andrew E; Yooseph, Shibu; Rusch, Douglas B; Bergman, Birgitta

    2016-01-01

    Unicellular cyanobacteria are ubiquitous photoautotrophic microbes that contribute substantially to global primary production. Picocyanobacteria such as Synechococcus and Prochlorococcus depend on chlorophyll a-binding protein complexes to capture light energy. In addition, Synechococcus has accessory pigments organized into phycobilisomes, and Prochlorococcus contains chlorophyll b. Across a surface water transect spanning the sparsely studied tropical Indian Ocean, we examined Synechococcus and Prochlorococcus occurrence, taxonomy and habitat preference in an evolutionary context. Shotgun sequencing of size fractionated microbial communities from 0.1 μm to 20 μm and subsequent phylogenetic analysis indicated that cyanobacteria account for up to 15% of annotated reads, with the genera Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus comprising 90% of the cyanobacterial reads, even in the largest size fraction (3.0-20 mm). Phylogenetic analyses of cyanobacterial light-harvesting genes (chl-binding pcb/isiA, allophycocyanin (apcAB), phycocyanin (cpcAB) and phycoerythin (cpeAB)) mostly identified picocyanobacteria clades comprised of overlapping sequences obtained from Indian Ocean, Atlantic and/or Pacific Oceans samples. Habitat reconstructions coupled with phylogenetic analysis of the Indian Ocean samples suggested that large Synechococcus-like ancestors in coastal waters expanded their ecological niche towards open oligotrophic waters in the Indian Ocean through lineage diversification and associated streamlining of genomes (e.g. loss of phycobilisomes and acquisition of Chl b); resulting in contemporary small celled Prochlorococcus. Comparative metagenomic analysis with picocyanobacteria populations in other oceans suggests that this evolutionary scenario may be globally important. PMID:27196065

  10. Multidimensional operando analysis of macroscopic structure evolution in lithium sulfur cells by X-ray radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risse, S; Jafta, C J; Yang, Y; Kardjilov, N; Hilger, A; Manke, I; Ballauff, M

    2016-04-21

    Lithium sulfur cells are the most promising candidate for the post lithium-ion battery era. Their major drawback is rapid capacity fading attributed to the complex electrochemical processes during charge and discharge which are not known precisely. Here we present for the first time a multidimensional operando measurement by combining X-ray radiography with impedance spectroscopy while galvanostatically charging and discharging a lithium sulfur cell. The formation of macroscopic sulfur crystals at the end of charge can be seen directly by X-ray radiography. These crystals can be assigned to stable α-sulfur (rhombic) and metastable β-sulfur (monoclinic) by their characteristic crystal habit. These crystal structures with a length of more than 1 mm form and dissolve rapidly during cycling. Their appearance is accompanied by characteristic signals in impedance spectroscopy. Macroscopic crystals of Li2S cannot be observed in full agreement with earlier studies by operando X-ray diffraction. In addition, X-ray radiography reveals non-wetted areas on the carbon cathode. These regions grow during discharge and are reduced during charge. The area of these electrochemically inactive spots is inversely proportional to discharge capacity. PMID:27035926

  11. Structural evolution of the VMS-hosting Kristineberg area, Sweden – constraints from structural analysis and 3-D-modelling

    OpenAIRE

    Hübert, J.; García, M.; Juhlin, C.; M. Dehghannejad; Hermansson, T.; Bauer, T.; P. Skyttä; Weihed, P.

    2012-01-01

    Structural mapping and 3-D-modelling with constraints from magnetotelluric (MT) and reflection seismic investigations have been used to provide a geological synthesis of the geometrically complex Kristineberg area in the western part of the Palaeoproterozoic Skellefte district. The results indicate that, like the south-eastern parts of the Skellefte district, the area was subjected to SSE-NNW transpressional deformation at around 1.87 Ga. The contrasting structural geometries between the Kris...

  12. An analysis of the structure and evolution of the scientific collaboration network of computer intelligence in games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara-Cabrera, R.; Cotta, C.; Fernández-Leiva, A. J.

    2014-02-01

    Games constitute a research domain that is attracting the interest of scientists from numerous disciplines. This is particularly true from the perspective of computational intelligence. In order to examine the growing importance of this area in the gaming domain, we present an analysis of the scientific collaboration network of researchers working on computational intelligence in games (CIG). This network has been constructed from bibliographical data obtained from the Digital Bibliography & Library Project (DBLP). We have analyzed from a temporal perspective several properties of the CIG network at the macroscopic, mesoscopic and microscopic levels, studying the large-scale structure, the growth mechanics, and collaboration patterns among other features. Overall, computational intelligence in games exhibits similarities with other collaboration networks such as for example a log-normal degree distribution and sub-linear preferential attachment for new authors. It also has distinctive features, e.g. the number of papers co-authored is exponentially distributed, the internal preferential attachment (new collaborations among existing authors) is linear, and fidelity rates (measured as the relative preference for publishing with previous collaborators) grow super-linearly. The macroscopic and mesoscopic evolution of the network indicates the field is very active and vibrant, but it is still at an early developmental stage. We have also analyzed communities and central nodes and how these are reflected in research topics, thus identifying active research subareas.

  13. Structural evolution of the VMS-hosting Kristineberg area, Sweden – constraints from structural analysis and 3-D-modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Hübert

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Structural mapping and 3-D-modelling with constraints from magnetotelluric (MT and reflection seismic investigations have been used to provide a geological synthesis of the geometrically complex Kristineberg area in the western part of the Palaeoproterozoic Skellefte district. The results indicate that, like the south-eastern parts of the Skellefte district, the area was subjected to SSE-NNW transpressional deformation at around 1.87 Ga. The contrasting structural geometries between the Kristineberg and the central Skellefte district areas may be attributed to the termination and splaying of a major ESE-WNW-striking high-strain zone into several branches in the northern part of the Kristineberg area. The transpressional structural signature was preferentially developed within the southern of the two antiformal structures of the area, "the Southern antiform", which exposes the deepest cut through the crust and hosts all the economic volcanogenic massive sulphides (VMS deposits of the area. Partitioning of the SSE-NNW transpression into N–S and E–W components led to formation of a characteristic "flat-steep-flat" geometry defining a highly non-cylindrical hinge of for the Southern antiform. Recognition of the transpressional structural signatures including the "flat-steep-flat" geometry and the distinct pattern of sub-horizontal E–W trending to moderately SW-plunging mineral lineations in the deeper crustal parts of the Kristineberg area is of significance for VMS exploration in both near mine and regional scales. The 3-D-model illustrating the outcomes of this study is available as a 3-D-PDF document through the publication website.

  14. Evolution of the Northeast German Basin — inferences from a 3D structural model and subsidence analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheck, M.; Bayer, U.

    1999-11-01

    A 3D structural model of the Northeast German Basin was evaluated with special emphasis on its evolution as an intracontinental depression. The study includes investigations on subsidence history and structural setting of the basin. Thickness evolution and calculated tectonic subsidence volumes of Permian to Quaternary sediments in the Northeast German Basin indicate that the subsidence history was related to five stages of basin evolution which differ in their subsidence mechanisms. For the initial rift phase in the Late Carboniferous to Early Permian, a dominant thermal event and subordinate horizontal stresses were indicated by thickness variation evolution and by structural evidence. The main part of basin subsidence occurred in a NW-SE-oriented basin in the subsequent phase of thermal relaxation with maximum subsidence from Early Permian (Rotliegend) to Middle Triassic (Muschelkalk). From Middle Triassic the thermal subsidence pattern was superposed by further tectonic events. In the Middle Triassic regional extension led to a reconfiguration of the southern part of the basin, where new NNE-SSW-trending troughs (Rheinsberg and Gifhorn Troughs) developed. In the Jurassic the northwestern part of the basin was uplifted while in the south the Keuper subsiding areas continued to sink and NW-SE-trending depressions, related to salt margins, became important. Differentiation continued into Cretaceous times when regional compression caused uplift of the southeastern part of the basin and basin margins. A final subsidence phase occurred in the Cenozoic. This was accompanied by intensive salt movement. Recent basin configuration reflects the superposition of structural elements resulting from different evolution stages. The main structural characteristics of the basin are: (1) a vertical tectonic zonation in a pre-Zechstein succession, which lacks significant internal structures, and a strongly deformed post-Zechstein succession, which was decoupled due to the thick

  15. Analysis on the Filament Structure Evolution in Reset Transition of Cu/HfO2/Pt RRAM Device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Meiyun; Long, Shibing; Li, Yang; Liu, Qi; Lv, Hangbing; Miranda, Enrique; Suñé, Jordi; Liu, Ming

    2016-12-01

    The resistive switching (RS) process of resistive random access memory (RRAM) is dynamically correlated with the evolution process of conductive path or conductive filament (CF) during its breakdown (rupture) and recovery (reformation). In this study, a statistical evaluation method is developed to analyze the filament structure evolution process in the reset operation of Cu/HfO2/Pt RRAM device. This method is based on a specific functional relationship between the Weibull slopes of reset parameters' distributions and the CF resistance (R on). The CF of the Cu/HfO2/Pt device is demonstrated to be ruptured abruptly, and the CF structure of the device has completely degraded in the reset point. Since no intermediate states are generated in the abrupt reset process, it is quite favorable for the reliable and stable one-bit operation in RRAM device. Finally, on the basis of the cell-based analytical thermal dissolution model, a Monte Carlo (MC) simulation is implemented to further verify the experimental results. This work provides inspiration for RRAM reliability and performance design to put RRAM into practical application. PMID:27389343

  16. Analysis on the Filament Structure Evolution in Reset Transition of Cu/HfO2/Pt RRAM Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Meiyun; Long, Shibing; Li, Yang; Liu, Qi; Lv, Hangbing; Miranda, Enrique; Suñé, Jordi; Liu, Ming

    2016-05-01

    The resistive switching (RS) process of resistive random access memory (RRAM) is dynamically correlated with the evolution process of conductive path or conductive filament (CF) during its breakdown (rupture) and recovery (reformation). In this study, a statistical evaluation method is developed to analyze the filament structure evolution process in the reset operation of Cu/HfO2/Pt RRAM device. This method is based on a specific functional relationship between the Weibull slopes of reset parameters' distributions and the CF resistance ( R on). The CF of the Cu/HfO2/Pt device is demonstrated to be ruptured abruptly, and the CF structure of the device has completely degraded in the reset point. Since no intermediate states are generated in the abrupt reset process, it is quite favorable for the reliable and stable one-bit operation in RRAM device. Finally, on the basis of the cell-based analytical thermal dissolution model, a Monte Carlo (MC) simulation is implemented to further verify the experimental results. This work provides inspiration for RRAM reliability and performance design to put RRAM into practical application.

  17. Protein Evolution within a Structural Space

    OpenAIRE

    Deeds, Eric J.; Dokholyan, Nikolay V.; Shakhnovich, Eugene I.

    2003-01-01

    Understanding of the evolutionary origins of protein structures represents a key component of the understanding of molecular evolution as a whole. Here we seek to elucidate how the features of an underlying protein structural “space” might impact protein structural evolution. We approach this question using lattice polymers as a completely characterized model of this space. We develop a measure of structural comparison of lattice structures that is analogous to the one used to understand stru...

  18. Evolution of Structurally Disordered Proteins Promotes Neostructuralization

    OpenAIRE

    Siltberg-Liberles, Jessica

    2010-01-01

    Protein structure is generally more conserved than sequence, but for regions that can adopt different structures in different environments, does this hold true? Understanding how structurally disordered regions evolve altered secondary structure element propensities as well as conformational flexibility among paralogs are fundamental questions for our understanding of protein structural evolution. We have investigated the evolutionary dynamics of structural disorder in protein families contai...

  19. Structural Evolution of Carbon During Oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adel F. Sarofim; Angelo Kandas

    1998-10-28

    The examination of the structural evolution of carbon during oxidation has proven to be of scientific interest. Early modeling work of fluidized bed combustion showed that most of the reactions of interest occurs iOn the micropores, and this work has concentrated on these pores. This work has concentrated on evolution of macroporosity and rnicroporosity of carbons during kinetic controlled oxidation using SAXS, C02 and TEM analysis. Simple studies of fluidized bed combustion of coal chars has shown that many of the events considered fragmentation events previously may in fact be "hidden" or nonaccessible porosity. This makes the study of the microporous combustion characteristics of carbon even more important. The generation of a combustion resistant grid, coupled with measurements of the SAXS and C02 surface areas, fractal analysis and TEM studies has confined that soot particles shrink during their oxidation, as previously suspected. However, this shrinkage results in an overall change in structure. This structure becomes, on a radial basis, much more ordered near the edges, while the center itself becomes transparent to the TEM beam, implying a total lack of structure in this region. Although complex, this carbon structure is probably burning as to keep the density of the soot particles nearly the same. The TEM techniques developed for examination of soots has also been applied to Spherocarb. The Spherocarb during oxidation also increases its ordering,. This ordering, by present theories, would imply that the reactivity would go. However, the reactivity goes up, implying that structure of carbon is secondary in importance to catalytic effects.

  20. Evolution of Gross Domestic Product - Analysis Models

    OpenAIRE

    Constantin ANGHELACHE; Catalin DEATCU; Daniel DUMITRESCU; Adina Mihaela DINU

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a use case for macro economical models, the objective being the structural analysis of the Gross Domestic Product. The authors first introduce the theoretical foundation of the model, then offer a snapshot on GDP evolution. The econometric models proposed for analysis are designed with the help of EViews software and their performance and reliability are described through the optics of the statistical tests.

  1. Evolution in Stage-Structured Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barfield, Michael; Holt, Robert D.; Gomulkiewicz, Richard

    2016-01-01

    For many organisms, stage is a better predictor of demographic rates than age. Yet no general theoretical framework exists for understanding or predicting evolution in stage-structured populations. Here, we provide a general modeling approach that can be used to predict evolution and demography of stage-structured populations. This advances our ability to understand evolution in stage-structured populations to a level previously available only for populations structured by age. We use this framework to provide the first rigorous proof that Lande’s theorem, which relates adaptive evolution to population growth, applies to stage-classified populations, assuming only normality and that evolution is slow relative to population dynamics. We extend this theorem to allow for different means or variances among stages. Our next major result is the formulation of Price’s theorem, a fundamental law of evolution, for stage-structured populations. In addition, we use data from Trillium grandiflorum to demonstrate how our models can be applied to a real-world population and thereby show their practical potential to generate accurate projections of evolutionary and population dynamics. Finally, we use our framework to compare rates of evolution in age- versus stage-structured populations, which shows how our methods can yield biological insights about evolution in stage-structured populations. PMID:21460563

  2. Industrial Structure Evolution and Economic Growth in Dingxi City Based on Shift-Share Method and Location Quotient Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    According to the statistical data in the years 2004-2008, both Shift-Share Analysis and Location Quotient Analysis are used to compare the economic development status of counties (districts) in Dingxi City in the years 2004 and 2008. Advantages and disadvantages of industrial structure and competitiveness are analyzed, as well as the impacts of existing industrial structure on economic growth. Development direction and development focus of primary, secondary and tertiary industries are found out. Countermeasures for accelerating the economic development of counties (districts) in Dingxi City are put forward, such as increasing the inputs in characteristic agriculture, promoting the development of primary industry, speeding up the construction of large and medium industrial enterprises, enhancing the development of secondary industry, strengthening comprehensive environmental improvement in tourist area, and actively developing tertiary industry.

  3. Photometric analysis of the structure evolution on the Pb-19.4%Sn melt surface in the S-L temperature range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyakhovitskii M.M.

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The structure evolution of alloys in solidification range is considered as the first-order phase transformation from the solid state to the liquid one, which occurs by the mechanism of nucleation and growth of more symmetrical phase to less symmetrical crystalline phase. The kinetic regularities of this transformation are studied by the method of the photometric analysis of structure images (PHASI, which makes it possible to establish the temperature dependence of the relationship between the solid and liquid phases and their distribution on the melt surface. The PHASI method is based on the combined analysis of the brightness spectra of the visible light reflections from the sample surface and of the distribution of its scattering centers in different intensity intervals. The data on the structure evolution of the Sn+19.4%Pb alloy upon melting and solidification were considered in parallel with the measured spectra of sound signals. It was revealed that a distinct maximum is observed in the temperature dependence of radiation energy in the temperature range of phase transformation from the liquid into the solid state and hot crack formation occurs near the transition zone in the region of the contact of the ingot with the crucible.

  4. Sequence, Structure and Ligand Binding Evolution of Rhodopsin-Like G Protein-Coupled Receptors: A Crystal Structure-Based Phylogenetic Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Wolf, Steffen; Grünewald, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) form the largest family of membrane receptors in the human genome. Advances in membrane protein crystallization so far resulted in the determination of 24 receptors available as high-resolution atomic structures. We performed the first phylogenetic analysis of GPCRs based on the available set of GPCR structures. We present a new phylogenetic tree of known human rhodopsin-like GPCR sequences based on this structure set. We can distinguish the three separate ...

  5. The structure and evolution of story networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karsdorp, Folgert; van den Bosch, Antal

    2016-06-01

    With this study, we advance the understanding about the processes through which stories are retold. A collection of story retellings can be considered as a network of stories, in which links between stories represent pre-textual (or ancestral) relationships. This study provides a mechanistic understanding of the structure and evolution of such story networks: we construct a story network for a large diachronic collection of Dutch literary retellings of Red Riding Hood, and compare this network to one derived from a corpus of paper chain letters. In the analysis, we first provide empirical evidence that the formation of these story networks is subject to age-dependent selection processes with a strong lopsidedness towards shorter time-spans between stories and their pre-texts (i.e. 'young' story versions are preferred in producing new versions). Subsequently, we systematically compare these findings with and among predictions of various formal models of network growth to determine more precisely which kinds of attractiveness are also at play or might even be preferred as explicatory models. By carefully studying the structure and evolution of the two story networks, then, we show that existing stories are differentially preferred to function as a new version's pre-text given three types of attractiveness: (i) frequency-based and (ii) model-based attractiveness which (iii) decays in time. PMID:27429767

  6. Effectiveness of Land Use Structure Evolution to Industrial Structure Transformation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Scarcity of land resources and transformation of industrial structure is a pair of contradictory elements.We derive the characteristics of land use structure and industrial structure transformation in Xining City using Transformation Coefficient(TC):first,in the period 1999-2000,the land use structure coefficient(θ1) declined by 79.55%,but the overall evolution trend is gentle;second,the transformation coefficient of industrial structure(θ2) tended to decline ceaselessly on the whole,a decrease of 36.09%(overall,the transformation coefficient of industrial structure is slightly greater than the land use structure coefficient);third,the inter-annual variation of the two experienced ups and downs(in the period 1999-2007,the inter-annual variation was great and in the period 2008-2010,the inter-annual variation tended to be gentle).On the basis of autocorrelation and co-integration model,we draw the following conclusions through analysis:first,the land use structure in Xining City plays a role in promoting industrial structure transformation;second,there is a long-term equilibrium relationship between the two.Finally,relevant policy recommendations are put forward for the industrial development in Xining City.

  7. Large scale comparative codon-pair context analysis unveils general rules that fine-tune evolution of mRNA primary structure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Moura

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Codon usage and codon-pair context are important gene primary structure features that influence mRNA decoding fidelity. In order to identify general rules that shape codon-pair context and minimize mRNA decoding error, we have carried out a large scale comparative codon-pair context analysis of 119 fully sequenced genomes. METHODOLOGIES/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have developed mathematical and software tools for large scale comparative codon-pair context analysis. These methodologies unveiled general and species specific codon-pair context rules that govern evolution of mRNAs in the 3 domains of life. We show that evolution of bacterial and archeal mRNA primary structure is mainly dependent on constraints imposed by the translational machinery, while in eukaryotes DNA methylation and tri-nucleotide repeats impose strong biases on codon-pair context. CONCLUSIONS: The data highlight fundamental differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic mRNA decoding rules, which are partially independent of codon usage.

  8. Ductile and brittle structural evolution of the Laxemar-Simpevarp area: an independent analysis based on local and regional constraints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viola, Giulio (Geological Survey of Norway, Trondheim (Norway))

    2008-10-15

    This report discusses the main aspects of the ductile and brittle deformational evolution of the Laxemar-Simpevarp area. Based on the interpretation of existing potential field geophysical data, it is suggested that the structural ductile grain of the region is controlled by large, c. EW trending shear zones with an overall sinistral strike-slip kinematics. The Oskarshamn Shear Zone (OSZ) and the Mederhult lineament are two examples of these shear zones and it is proposed that the ductile lineaments mapped in Laxemar-Simpevarp are genetically linked to shearing accommodated by these shear zones. The structural interpretation of the geophysical imagery of the Laxemar-Simpevarp regional model area and the available meso-scale structural information indicate that the Laxemar-Simpevarp study area can be interpreted as the analogue of a large-scale S/C' structural pattern. In detail, the Aespoe shear zone and other similarly oriented ductile shears represent C' shear bands that deform sinistrally the intervening EW lineaments (the S surfaces), which locally are significantly crenulated/folded in response to their asymptotic bending into the C' shears. This geometric and kinematic interpretation implies that, in contrast to existing reconstructions and models, EW- and not NE-trending shear zones become the main structural ductile feature of the region. Shear forces acting parallel to these main zones can successfully explain all the ductile structures described and reported from the area. The greatest compressive stress at the time of ductile shearing would trend NE-SW. The brittle deformation history of the region is complex and results from the multiple reactivation of fracture- and fault sets caused by the many orogenic episodes that affected the area during 1.5 Gyr of geological brittle evolution. Fault-slip data from outcrops and oriented drill cores were used to compute paleo-stress states. In the general absence of time markers that help constrain

  9. Ductile and brittle structural evolution of the Laxemar-Simpevarp area: an independent analysis based on local and regional constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report discusses the main aspects of the ductile and brittle deformational evolution of the Laxemar-Simpevarp area. Based on the interpretation of existing potential field geophysical data, it is suggested that the structural ductile grain of the region is controlled by large, c. EW trending shear zones with an overall sinistral strike-slip kinematics. The Oskarshamn Shear Zone (OSZ) and the Mederhult lineament are two examples of these shear zones and it is proposed that the ductile lineaments mapped in Laxemar-Simpevarp are genetically linked to shearing accommodated by these shear zones. The structural interpretation of the geophysical imagery of the Laxemar-Simpevarp regional model area and the available meso-scale structural information indicate that the Laxemar-Simpevarp study area can be interpreted as the analogue of a large-scale S/C' structural pattern. In detail, the Aespoe shear zone and other similarly oriented ductile shears represent C' shear bands that deform sinistrally the intervening EW lineaments (the S surfaces), which locally are significantly crenulated/folded in response to their asymptotic bending into the C' shears. This geometric and kinematic interpretation implies that, in contrast to existing reconstructions and models, EW- and not NE-trending shear zones become the main structural ductile feature of the region. Shear forces acting parallel to these main zones can successfully explain all the ductile structures described and reported from the area. The greatest compressive stress at the time of ductile shearing would trend NE-SW. The brittle deformation history of the region is complex and results from the multiple reactivation of fracture- and fault sets caused by the many orogenic episodes that affected the area during 1.5 Gyr of geological brittle evolution. Fault-slip data from outcrops and oriented drill cores were used to compute paleo-stress states. In the general absence of time markers that help constrain the relative

  10. Structural Architecture and Evolution of Kumkuli Basin, North Tibet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He Bizhu; Xu Zhiqin; Jiao Cunli; Cui Junwen; Wang Shenglang; Wang Gonghuai; Li Zhaoyang; Qiu Zhuli

    2009-01-01

    Utilizing the new data of gravity, magnetic, and magnetotelluric survey, we analyzed the characteristics of the three geophysical attribute (gravity, magnetic, and resistivity) interfaces and the deep architecture and structure of Kumkuli basin. The research results can provide basic data for early basin structural study. From coupled basin and mountain system, analysis of the structure, and evolution of Knmknli basin, we found that there was zoning from north to south and from west to east. Kumkuli basin has three structural architecture layers including metamorphic crystallization basement, fold basement and sedimentary cover. Knmkuli basin can be divided into three structural units, two depressions, and one uplift. Structural evolution of the Kumkuli basin can be divided into five evolution stages, including Kumkuli microcontinent formed in Sinian-Ordovician, suture around Kumkuli basin formed in Eopaleozoic, retroarc foreland basin formed in Neopaleozoic, rejuvenated foreland hasin developed in Mesozoic, and strike slip and compression basin developed in Cenozoic.

  11. EVOLUTION OF APPROACHES TO DEFINITION AND STRUCTURIZATION OF INTELLECTUAL CAPITAL

    OpenAIRE

    V. Virchenko

    2012-01-01

    Article is devoted to analysis of peculiarities of evolution theoretical approaches to analysis of the nature of intellectual capital. The stages of development of the intellectual capital theory and approaches to it's structurization are investigated. Peculiarities of the intellectual capital are considered.

  12. Evolution of dinosaur epidermal structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Paul M; Evans, David C; Campione, Nicolás E

    2015-06-01

    Spectacularly preserved non-avian dinosaurs with integumentary filaments/feathers have revolutionized dinosaur studies and fostered the suggestion that the dinosaur common ancestor possessed complex integumentary structures homologous to feathers. This hypothesis has major implications for interpreting dinosaur biology, but has not been tested rigorously. Using a comprehensive database of dinosaur skin traces, we apply maximum-likelihood methods to reconstruct the phylogenetic distribution of epidermal structures and interpret their evolutionary history. Most of these analyses find no compelling evidence for the appearance of protofeathers in the dinosaur common ancestor and scales are usually recovered as the plesiomorphic state, but results are sensitive to the outgroup condition in pterosaurs. Rare occurrences of ornithischian filamentous integument might represent independent acquisitions of novel epidermal structures that are not homologous with theropod feathers. PMID:26041865

  13. Molecular evolution of rDNA in early diverging Metazoa: First comparative analysis and phylogenetic application of complete SSU rRNA secondary structures in Porifera

    OpenAIRE

    Wörheide Gert; Erpenbeck Dirk; Voigt Oliver

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background The cytoplasmic ribosomal small subunit (SSU, 18S) ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is the most frequently-used gene for molecular phylogenetic studies. However, information regarding its secondary structure is neglected in most phylogenetic analyses. Incorporation of this information is essential in order to apply specific rRNA evolutionary models to overcome the problem of co-evolution of paired sites, which violates the basic assumption of the independent evolution of sites made by...

  14. Abundance and Temperature Dependency of Protein-Protein Interaction Revealed by Interface Structure Analysis and Stability Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yi-Ming; Ma, Bin-Guang

    2016-05-01

    Protein complexes are major forms of protein-protein interactions and implement essential biological functions. The subunit interface in a protein complex is related to its thermostability. Though the roles of interface properties in thermal adaptation have been investigated for protein complexes, the relationship between the interface size and the expression level of the subunits remains unknown. In the present work, we studied this relationship and found a positive correlation in thermophiles rather than mesophiles. Moreover, we found that the protein interaction strength in complexes is not only temperature-dependent but also abundance-dependent. The underlying mechanism for the observed correlation was explored by simulating the evolution of protein interface stability, which highlights the avoidance of misinteraction. Our findings make more complete the picture of the mechanisms for protein complex thermal adaptation and provide new insights into the principles of protein-protein interactions.

  15. Shaping galaxy evolution with galaxy structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Edmond

    A fundamental pursuit of astronomy is to understand galaxy evolution. The enormous scales and complex physics involved in this endeavor guarantees a never-ending journey that has enamored both astronomers and laymen alike. But despite the difficulty of this task, astronomers have still attempted to further this goal. Among of these astronomers is Edwin Hubble. His work, which includes the famous Hubble sequence, has immeasurably influenced our understanding of galaxy evolution. In this thesis, we present three works that continues Hubble's line of study by using galaxy structure to learn about galaxy evolution. First, we examine the dependence of galaxy quiescence on inner galactic structure with the AEGIS/ DEEP2 survey at 0.5In this thesis, we present three works that continues Hubble's line of study by using galaxy structure to learn about galaxy evolution. First, we examine the dependence of galaxy quiescence on inner galactic structure with the AEGIS/ DEEP2 survey at 0.5Hubble at 0.2

  16. Cross-linked structure of network evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bassett, Danielle S., E-mail: dsb@seas.upenn.edu [Department of Bioengineering, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States); Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Sage Center for the Study of the Mind, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Wymbs, Nicholas F.; Grafton, Scott T. [Department of Psychology and UCSB Brain Imaging Center, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Porter, Mason A. [Oxford Centre for Industrial and Applied Mathematics, Mathematical Institute, University of Oxford, Oxford OX2 6GG (United Kingdom); CABDyN Complexity Centre, University of Oxford, Oxford, OX1 1HP (United Kingdom); Mucha, Peter J. [Carolina Center for Interdisciplinary Applied Mathematics, Department of Mathematics, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 (United States); Department of Applied Physical Sciences, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 (United States)

    2014-03-15

    We study the temporal co-variation of network co-evolution via the cross-link structure of networks, for which we take advantage of the formalism of hypergraphs to map cross-link structures back to network nodes. We investigate two sets of temporal network data in detail. In a network of coupled nonlinear oscillators, hyperedges that consist of network edges with temporally co-varying weights uncover the driving co-evolution patterns of edge weight dynamics both within and between oscillator communities. In the human brain, networks that represent temporal changes in brain activity during learning exhibit early co-evolution that then settles down with practice. Subsequent decreases in hyperedge size are consistent with emergence of an autonomous subgraph whose dynamics no longer depends on other parts of the network. Our results on real and synthetic networks give a poignant demonstration of the ability of cross-link structure to uncover unexpected co-evolution attributes in both real and synthetic dynamical systems. This, in turn, illustrates the utility of analyzing cross-links for investigating the structure of temporal networks.

  17. Cosmic evolution of Quasar radio structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchings, J. B.; Neff, S. G.

    1991-01-01

    We discuss the results of a survey of Quasar radio structures over redshifts from 0.6 to 3.7. There are clear evolutionary trends in size and luminosity, which suggest that the duty cycle of individual Quasars has increased over cosmic time. This affects source count statistics and gives clues on the evolution of Quasar environments.

  18. Cross-linked structure of network evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the temporal co-variation of network co-evolution via the cross-link structure of networks, for which we take advantage of the formalism of hypergraphs to map cross-link structures back to network nodes. We investigate two sets of temporal network data in detail. In a network of coupled nonlinear oscillators, hyperedges that consist of network edges with temporally co-varying weights uncover the driving co-evolution patterns of edge weight dynamics both within and between oscillator communities. In the human brain, networks that represent temporal changes in brain activity during learning exhibit early co-evolution that then settles down with practice. Subsequent decreases in hyperedge size are consistent with emergence of an autonomous subgraph whose dynamics no longer depends on other parts of the network. Our results on real and synthetic networks give a poignant demonstration of the ability of cross-link structure to uncover unexpected co-evolution attributes in both real and synthetic dynamical systems. This, in turn, illustrates the utility of analyzing cross-links for investigating the structure of temporal networks

  19. Structure and Evolution of the Milky Way

    CERN Document Server

    Freeman, Ken

    2011-01-01

    This review discusses the structure and evolution of the Milky Way, in the context of opportunities provided by asteroseismology of red giants. The review is structured according to the main Galactic components: the thin disk, thick disk, stellar halo, and the Galactic bar/bulge. The review concludes with an overview of Galactic archaeology and chemical tagging, and a brief account of the upcoming HERMES survey with the AAT.

  20. Dynamic Neighborhood Structures in Parallel Evolution Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Mehnen, Jörn; Rudolph, Günter; Weinert, Klaus

    2001-01-01

    Parallelizing is a straightforward approach to reduce the total computation time of evolutionary algorithms. Finding an appropriate communication network within spatially structured populations for improving convergence speed and convergence probability is a difficult task. A new method that uses a dynamic communication scheme in an evolution strategy will be compared with conventional static and dynamic approaches. The communication structure is based on a socalled diffusion model approach. ...

  1. Leptin and leptin receptor: Analysis of a structure to function relationship in interaction and evolution from humans to fish

    OpenAIRE

    Prokop, JW; Duff, RJ; Ball, HC; Copeland, DL; Londraville, RL

    2012-01-01

    Leptin is a circulating protein which regulates dietary intake through binding the leptin receptor. Numerous labs have used known structures and mutagenesis to study this binding process in common animal models (human, mouse and rat). Understanding this binding process in other vertebrate species will allow for a better understanding of leptin and leptin receptor function. The binding site between leptin and leptin receptor is highly conserved in mammals as confirmed through sequence alignmen...

  2. The nonsinglet structure function evolution by Laplace method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boroun, G. R., E-mail: grboroun@gmail.com, E-mail: boroun@razi.ac.ir; Zarrin, S. [Razi University, Physics Department (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    We derive a general scheme for the evolution of the nonsinglet structure function at the leadingorder (LO) and next-to-leading-order (NLO) by using the Laplace-transform technique. Results for the nonsinglet structure function are compared with MSTW2008, GRV, and CKMT parameterizations and also EMC experimental data in the LO and NLO analysis. The results are in good agreement with the experimental data and other parameterizations in the low- and large-x regions.

  3. Giant Planet Formation, Evolution, and Internal Structure

    CERN Document Server

    Helled, Ravit; Podolak, Morris; Boley, Aaron; Meru, Farzana; Nayakshin, Sergei; Fortney, Jonathan J; Mayer, Lucio; Alibert, Yann; Boss, Alan P

    2013-01-01

    The large number of detected giant exoplanets offers the opportunity to improve our understanding of the formation mechanism, evolution, and interior structure of gas giant planets. The two main models for giant planet formation are core accretion and disk instability. There are substantial differences between these formation models, including formation timescale, favorable formation location, ideal disk properties for planetary formation, early evolution, planetary composition, etc. First, we summarize the two models including their substantial differences, advantages, and disadvantages, and suggest how theoretical models should be connected to available (and future) data. We next summarize current knowledge of the internal structures of solar- and extrasolar- giant planets. Finally, we suggest the next steps to be taken in giant planet exploration.

  4. Evolution on folding landscapes in combinatorial structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraser, S.M. [Santa Fe Inst., NM (United States); Reidys, C.M. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1997-11-01

    In this paper the authors investigate the evolution of molecular structures by random point mutations. They will consider two types of molecular structures: (a) (RNA) secondary structures, and (b) random structures. In both cases structure consists of: (1) a contact graph, and (2) a family of relations imposed on its adjacent vertices. The vertex set of the contact graph is simply the set of all indices of a sequence, and its edges are the bonds. The corresponding relations associated with the edges are viewed as secondary base pairing rules and tertiary interaction rules respectively. Mapping of sequences into secondary and random structures are modeled and analyzed. Here, the set of all sequences that map into a particular structure is modeled as a random graph in the sequence space, the so called neutral network and they study how neutral networks are embedded in sequence space. A basic replication of deletion experiment reveals how effective secondary and random structures can be searched by random point mutations and to what extent the structure effects the dynamics of this optimization process. In particular the authors can report a nonlinear relation between the fraction of tertiary interactions in random structures, and the times taken for a population of sequences to find a high fitness target random structure.

  5. Molecular evolution of rDNA in early diverging Metazoa: First comparative analysis and phylogenetic application of complete SSU rRNA secondary structures in Porifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wörheide Gert

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cytoplasmic ribosomal small subunit (SSU, 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA is the most frequently-used gene for molecular phylogenetic studies. However, information regarding its secondary structure is neglected in most phylogenetic analyses. Incorporation of this information is essential in order to apply specific rRNA evolutionary models to overcome the problem of co-evolution of paired sites, which violates the basic assumption of the independent evolution of sites made by most phylogenetic methods. Information about secondary structure also supports the process of aligning rRNA sequences across taxa. Both aspects have been shown to increase the accuracy of phylogenetic reconstructions within various taxa. Here, we explore SSU rRNA secondary structures from the three extant classes of Phylum Porifera (Grant, 1836, a pivotal, but largely unresolved taxon of early branching Metazoa. This is the first phylogenetic study of poriferan SSU rRNA data to date that includes detailed comparative secondary structure information for all three sponge classes. Results We found base compositional and structural differences in SSU rRNA among Demospongiae, Hexactinellida (glass sponges and Calcarea (calcareous sponges. We showed that analyses of primary rRNA sequences, including secondary structure-specific evolutionary models, in combination with reconstruction of the evolution of unusual structural features, reveal a substantial amount of additional information. Of special note was the finding that the gene tree topologies of marine haplosclerid demosponges, which are inconsistent with the current morphology-based classification, are supported by our reconstructed evolution of secondary structure features. Therefore, these features can provide alternative support for sequence-based topologies and give insights into the evolution of the molecule itself. To encourage and facilitate the application of rRNA models in phylogenetics of early

  6. Molecular evolution of rDNA in early diverging Metazoa: First comparative analysis and phylogenetic application of complete SSU rRNA secondary structures in Porifera

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Background The cytoplasmic ribosomal small subunit (SSU, 18S) ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is the most frequently-used gene for molecular phylogenetic studies. However, information regarding its secondary structure is neglected in most phylogenetic analyses. Incorporation of this information is essential in order to apply specific rRNA evolutionary models to overcome the problem of co-evolution of paired sites, which violates the basic assumption of the independent evolution of sites made by most phylogenetic methods. Information about secondary structure also supports the process of aligning rRNA sequences across taxa. Both aspects have been shown to increase the accuracy of phylogenetic reconstructions within various taxa. Here, we explore SSU rRNA secondary structures from the three extant classes of Phylum Porifera (Grant, 1836), a pivotal, but largely unresolved taxon of early branching Metazoa. This is the first phylogenetic study of poriferan SSU rRNA data to date that includes detailed comparative secondary structure information for all three sponge classes. Results We found base compositional and structural differences in SSU rRNA among Demospongiae, Hexactinellida (glass sponges) and Calcarea (calcareous sponges). We showed that analyses of primary rRNA sequences, including secondary structure-specific evolutionary models, in combination with reconstruction of the evolution of unusual structural features, reveal a substantial amount of additional information. Of special note was the finding that the gene tree topologies of marine haplosclerid demosponges, which are inconsistent with the current morphology-based classification, are supported by our reconstructed evolution of secondary structure features. Therefore, these features can provide alternative support for sequence-based topologies and give insights into the evolution of the molecule itself. To encourage and facilitate the application of rRNA models in phylogenetics of early metazoans, we present 52 SSU r

  7. Macrodomains: Structure, Function, Evolution, and Catalytic Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rack, Johannes Gregor Matthias; Perina, Dragutin; Ahel, Ivan

    2016-06-01

    Recent developments indicate that macrodomains, an ancient and diverse protein domain family, are key players in the recognition, interpretation, and turnover of ADP-ribose (ADPr) signaling. Crucial to this is the ability of macrodomains to recognize ADPr either directly, in the form of a metabolic derivative, or as a modification covalently bound to proteins. Thus, macrodomains regulate a wide variety of cellular and organismal processes, including DNA damage repair, signal transduction, and immune response. Their importance is further indicated by the fact that dysregulation or mutation of a macrodomain is associated with several diseases, including cancer, developmental defects, and neurodegeneration. In this review, we summarize the current insights into macrodomain evolution and how this evolution influenced their structural and functional diversification. We highlight some aspects of macrodomain roles in pathobiology as well as their emerging potential as therapeutic targets. PMID:26844395

  8. Evolution of sensory structures in basal metazoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Dave K; Nakanishi, Nagayasu; Yuan, David; Camara, Anthony; Nichols, Scott A; Hartenstein, Volker

    2007-11-01

    Cnidaria have traditionally been viewed as the most basal animals with complex, organ-like multicellular structures dedicated to sensory perception. However, sponges also have a surprising range of the genes required for sensory and neural functions in Bilateria. Here, we: (1) discuss "sense organ" regulatory genes, including; sine oculis, Brain 3, and eyes absent, that are expressed in cnidarian sense organs; (2) assess the sensory features of the planula, polyp, and medusa life-history stages of Cnidaria; and (3) discuss physiological and molecular data that suggest sensory and "neural" processes in sponges. We then develop arguments explaining the shared aspects of developmental regulation across sense organs and between sense organs and other structures. We focus on explanations involving divergent evolution from a common ancestral condition. In Bilateria, distinct sense-organ types share components of developmental-gene regulation. These regulators are also present in basal metazoans, suggesting evolution of multiple bilaterian organs from fewer antecedent sensory structures in a metazoan ancestor. More broadly, we hypothesize that developmental genetic similarities between sense organs and appendages may reflect descent from closely associated structures, or a composite organ, in the common ancestor of Cnidaria and Bilateria, and we argue that such similarities between bilaterian sense organs and kidneys may derive from a multifunctional aggregations of choanocyte-like cells in a metazoan ancestor. We hope these speculative arguments presented here will stimulate further discussion of these and related questions. PMID:21669752

  9. Phylogenetic analysis of honey bee behavioral evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffiudin, Rika; Crozier, Ross H

    2007-05-01

    DNA sequences from three mitochondrial (rrnL, cox2, nad2) and one nuclear gene (itpr) from all 9 known honey bee species (Apis), a 10th possible species, Apis dorsata binghami, and three outgroup species (Bombus terrestris, Melipona bicolor and Trigona fimbriata) were used to infer Apis phylogenetic relationships using Bayesian analysis. The dwarf honey bees were confirmed as basal, and the giant and cavity-nesting species to be monophyletic. All nodes were strongly supported except that grouping Apis cerana with A. nigrocincta. Two thousand post-burnin trees from the phylogenetic analysis were used in a Bayesian comparative analysis to explore the evolution of dance type, nest structure, comb structure and dance sound within Apis. The ancestral honey bee species was inferred with high support to have nested in the open, and to have more likely than not had a silent vertical waggle dance and a single comb. The common ancestor of the giant and cavity-dwelling bees is strongly inferred to have had a buzzing vertical directional dance. All pairwise combinations of characters showed strong association, but the multiple comparisons problem reduces the ability to infer associations between states between characters. Nevertheless, a buzzing dance is significantly associated with cavity-nesting, several vertical combs, and dancing vertically, a horizontal dance is significantly associated with a nest with a single comb wrapped around the support, and open nesting with a single pendant comb and a silent waggle dance. PMID:17123837

  10. Colloidal structural evolution of asphaltene studied by confocal microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Jannett; Castillo, Jimmy A.; Reyes, A.

    2004-10-01

    In this work, a detail analysis of the flocculation kinetic of asphaltenes colloidal particles has been carried out usng confocal microscopy. The colloidal structural evolution of the asphaltene flocculated has had varies postulated; however, the aggregation process of asphaltene is still not fully understood. In a recent paper, using Confocal microscope (homemade), we reported high-resolution micrographic images of asphaltenes flocculated and the correlation between crude oil stability and flocculation process. This technique permitted visualizes directly the physical nature of asphaltene flocculated. In this work, a detail analysis of the flocculation kinetic of asphaltene colloidal particles has been carried out using confocal microscopy. The physical nature of asphaltene flocculated from different crude oils is showed through of high-resolution image micrographies and its colloidal structural evolution.

  11. Structural Analysis of Histo-Blood Group Antigen Binding Specificity in a Norovirus GII.4 Epidemic Variant: Implications for Epochal Evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shanker, Sreejesh; Choi, Jae-Mun; Sankaran, Banumathi; Atmar, Robert L.; Estes, Mary K.; Prasad, B.V. Venkataram (Baylor); (LBNL)

    2012-03-23

    Susceptibility to norovirus (NoV), a major pathogen of epidemic gastroenteritis, is associated with histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs), which are also cell attachment factors for this virus. GII.4 NoV strains are predominantly associated with worldwide NoV epidemics with a periodic emergence of new variants. The sequence variations in the surface-exposed P domain of the capsid protein resulting in differential HBGA binding patterns and antigenicity are suggested to drive GII.4 epochal evolution. To understand how temporal sequence variations affect the P domain structure and contribute to epochal evolution, we determined the P domain structure of a 2004 variant with ABH and secretor Lewis HBGAs and compared it with the previously determined structure of a 1996 variant. We show that temporal sequence variations do not affect the binding of monofucosyl ABH HBGAs but that they can modulate the binding strength of difucosyl Lewis HBGAs and thus could contribute to epochal evolution by the potentiated targeting of new variants to Lewis-positive, secretor-positive individuals. The temporal variations also result in significant differences in the electrostatic landscapes, likely reflecting antigenic variations. The proximity of some of these changes to the HBGA binding sites suggests the possibility of a coordinated interplay between antigenicity and HBGA binding in epochal evolution. From the observation that the regions involved in the formation of the HBGA binding sites can be conformationally flexible, we suggest a plausible mechanism for how norovirus disassociates from salivary mucin-linked HBGA before reassociating with HBGAs linked to intestinal epithelial cells during its passage through the gastrointestinal tract.

  12. Assembly and Structural Evolution of Micelleplexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yaming; Sprouse, Dustin; Laaser, Jennifer; Reineke, Theresa; Lodge, Timothy

    Cationic micelles complex with DNA to form micelleplexes, which are attractive vehicles for gene delivery. We investigate the formation and structural evolution of micelleplexes in buffered solutions. The micelles are composed of poly((2-dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate)-block-poly(n-butyl methacrylate). The formation of the micelleplexes is monitored via turbidimetric titration. With DNA oligomers, solutions of the complexes are homogeneous until near the charge neutral point, at which point the complexes precipitate. With plasmid DNA, more than a stoichiometric amount of DNA is needed to reach the inhomogeneous region, which suggests that binding is partially inhibited. This inhibition is not fully relieved when the plasmid DNA is linearized, suggesting that the stiffness of the DNA is the main source of the inhibition. With micelles in excess, the micelleplexes formed at low ionic strength exhibit bimodal size distributions and remain stable in solution. With DNA in excess, soluble micelleplexes aggregate over time and precipitate. We explain the structural evolution of the micelleplexes as an interplay between kinetic trapping and thermodynamic equilibrium, and compare the results for DNA with those for a flexible polyanion.

  13. Explosive evolution of self-preserving local structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has recently been noticed that certain forms of localized structures can grow explosively in time without change in spatial structure. Explicit forms, which describe their evolution are obtained as solutions of reaction-diffusion equations. It is the purpose of the present investigation to analyze the influence of perturbations on such solutions. The analysis will be generalized to consider the interaction of three variables, e.g. a three-wave system, as described by three coupled reaction-diffusion equations. Equilibria, i.e. time-independent solutions corresponding to the explosive-type reaction-diffusion equations, are also determined and their properties of stability are analyzed. (author)

  14. Triadic Conceptual Structure of the Maximum Entropy Approach to Evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Herrmann-Pillath, Carsten

    2010-01-01

    Many problems in evolutionary theory are cast in dyadic terms, such as the polar oppositions of organism and environment. We argue that a triadic conceptual structure offers an alternative perspective under which the information generating role of evolution as a physical process can be analyzed, and propose a new diagrammatic approach. Peirce's natural philosophy was deeply influenced by his reception of both Darwin's theory and thermodynamics. Thus, we elaborate on a new synthesis which puts together his theory of signs and modern Maximum Entropy approaches to evolution. Following recent contributions to the naturalization of Peircean semiosis, we show that triadic structures involve the conjunction of three different kinds of causality, efficient, formal and final. We apply this on Ulanowicz's analysis of autocatalytic cycles as primordial patterns of life. This paves the way for a semiotic view of thermodynamics which is built on the idea that Peircean interpretants are systems of physical inference device...

  15. Structural evolution and metallicity of lead clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Götz, Daniel A.; Shayeghi, Armin; Johnston, Roy L.; Schwerdtfeger, Peter; Schäfer, Rolf

    2016-05-01

    The evolution of the metallic state in lead clusters and its structural implications are subject to ongoing discussions. Here we present molecular beam electric deflection studies of neutral PbN (N = 19-25, 31, 36, 54) clusters. Many of them exhibit dipole moments or anomalies of the polarizability indicating a non-metallic state. In order to resolve their structures, the configurational space is searched using the Pool Birmingham Cluster Genetic algorithm based on density functional theory. Spin-orbit effects on the geometries and dipole moments are taken into account by further relaxing them with two-component density functional theory. Geometries and dielectric properties from quantum chemical calculations are then used to simulate beam deflection profiles. Structures are assigned by the comparison of measured and simulated beam profiles. Energy gaps are calculated using time-dependent density functional theory. They are compared to Kubo gaps, which are an indicator of the metallicity in finite particles. Both, experimental and theoretical data suggest that lead clusters are not metallic up to at least 36 atoms.The evolution of the metallic state in lead clusters and its structural implications are subject to ongoing discussions. Here we present molecular beam electric deflection studies of neutral PbN (N = 19-25, 31, 36, 54) clusters. Many of them exhibit dipole moments or anomalies of the polarizability indicating a non-metallic state. In order to resolve their structures, the configurational space is searched using the Pool Birmingham Cluster Genetic algorithm based on density functional theory. Spin-orbit effects on the geometries and dipole moments are taken into account by further relaxing them with two-component density functional theory. Geometries and dielectric properties from quantum chemical calculations are then used to simulate beam deflection profiles. Structures are assigned by the comparison of measured and simulated beam profiles. Energy gaps

  16. Evolution of groups with a hierarchical structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnishi, Teruaki

    2012-12-01

    The universal occurrence of a hierarchical structure and its dynamic behavior in various types of group, living or abstract, are discussed. Here the word “group” refers not only to tangible aggregation but also to invisible aggregation of social psychological and of geopolitical meaning. The evolution of these groups is simulated using a model of agents distributed on the lattices of cellular grids. It is assumed that agents, fearing isolation, interact asymmetrically with each other with regard to exchange of “power”. As an indicator of hierarchy, the Gini coefficient is introduced. Example calculations are made for the aggregation, fusion and fission of animal groups, and for the appearance of a powerful empire and the rise and fall of supremacy. It is shown that such abstract objects evolve with time in accordance with the universal rules of groups common to birds and fish.

  17. The structure and evolution of coronal holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timothy, A. F.; Krieger, A. S.; Vaiana, G. S.

    1975-01-01

    Soft X-ray observations of coronal holes are analyzed to determine the structure, temporal evolution, and rotational properties of those features as well as possible mechanisms which may account for their almost rigid rotational characteristics. It is shown that coronal holes are open features with a divergent magnetic-field configuration resulting from a particular large-scale magnetic-field topology. They are apparently formed when the successive emergence and dispersion of active-region fields produce a swath of unipolar field founded by fields of opposite polarity, and they die when large-scale field patterns emerge which significantly distort the original field configuration. Two types of holes are described (compact and elongated), and three possible rotation mechanisms are considered: a rigidly rotating subphotospheric phenomenon, a linking of high and low latitudes by closed field lines, and an interaction between moving coronal material and open field lines.

  18. Monitoring, modelling and evolution of magma injection processes at Piton de La Fournaise volcano (Reunion island), from a cross-analysis of deformation, geochemical and structural data

    OpenAIRE

    Peltier, Aline

    2007-01-01

    Important issues in volcanic processes are how magma is supplied to the plumbing system, and how the different levels of magma storage interact prior to and during eruptions. At Piton de La Fournaise, the cross-analysis of the extensive set of deformation data, embedded in a 3D model, and geochemical data associated with the 1998-2007 activity, brings us new insights into the feeding system and its evolution with time. Since 2000, we define eruptive cycles; each cycle is defined by a sequence...

  19. Structural evolution in the crystallization of rapid cooling silver melt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Z.A., E-mail: ze.tian@gmail.com [School of Physics and Electronics, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Laboratory for Simulation and Modelling of Particulate Systems School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Dong, K.J.; Yu, A.B. [Laboratory for Simulation and Modelling of Particulate Systems School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia)

    2015-03-15

    The structural evolution in a rapid cooling process of silver melt has been investigated at different scales by adopting several analysis methods. The results testify Ostwald’s rule of stages and Frank conjecture upon icosahedron with many specific details. In particular, the cluster-scale analysis by a recent developed method called LSCA (the Largest Standard Cluster Analysis) clarified the complex structural evolution occurred in crystallization: different kinds of local clusters (such as ico-like (ico is the abbreviation of icosahedron), ico-bcc like (bcc, body-centred cubic), bcc, bcc-like structures) in turn have their maximal numbers as temperature decreases. And in a rather wide temperature range the icosahedral short-range order (ISRO) demonstrates a saturated stage (where the amount of ico-like structures keeps stable) that breeds metastable bcc clusters. As the precursor of crystallization, after reaching the maximal number bcc clusters finally decrease, resulting in the final solid being a mixture mainly composed of fcc/hcp (face-centred cubic and hexagonal-closed packed) clusters and to a less degree, bcc clusters. This detailed geometric picture for crystallization of liquid metal is believed to be useful to improve the fundamental understanding of liquid–solid phase transition. - Highlights: • A comprehensive structural analysis is conducted focusing on crystallization. • The involved atoms in our analysis are more than 90% for all samples concerned. • A series of distinct intermediate states are found in crystallization of silver melt. • A novelty icosahedron-saturated state breeds the metastable bcc state.

  20. Structural evolution in the crystallization of rapid cooling silver melt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The structural evolution in a rapid cooling process of silver melt has been investigated at different scales by adopting several analysis methods. The results testify Ostwald’s rule of stages and Frank conjecture upon icosahedron with many specific details. In particular, the cluster-scale analysis by a recent developed method called LSCA (the Largest Standard Cluster Analysis) clarified the complex structural evolution occurred in crystallization: different kinds of local clusters (such as ico-like (ico is the abbreviation of icosahedron), ico-bcc like (bcc, body-centred cubic), bcc, bcc-like structures) in turn have their maximal numbers as temperature decreases. And in a rather wide temperature range the icosahedral short-range order (ISRO) demonstrates a saturated stage (where the amount of ico-like structures keeps stable) that breeds metastable bcc clusters. As the precursor of crystallization, after reaching the maximal number bcc clusters finally decrease, resulting in the final solid being a mixture mainly composed of fcc/hcp (face-centred cubic and hexagonal-closed packed) clusters and to a less degree, bcc clusters. This detailed geometric picture for crystallization of liquid metal is believed to be useful to improve the fundamental understanding of liquid–solid phase transition. - Highlights: • A comprehensive structural analysis is conducted focusing on crystallization. • The involved atoms in our analysis are more than 90% for all samples concerned. • A series of distinct intermediate states are found in crystallization of silver melt. • A novelty icosahedron-saturated state breeds the metastable bcc state.

  1. The formation, structure, and evolution of plasmoids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The configuration and topology of the Earth's magnetotail is radically altered during geomagnetic substorms by the formation and subsequent ejection of large scale magnetic and plasma structures called plasmoids. The formation, structure, evolution and topology of plasmoids are studied by examining the magnetic and plasma data from the 1983 ISEE 3 Geotail Mission. This deep tail data set is combined with observations in the middle tail by IMP 8, at geosynchronous orbit and from ground auroral magnetometer stations to develop a unified flux rope plasmoid model. It is found that plasmoids are highly correlated with geomagnetic substorms, are large (approximately 10-20 R(sub E)), rapidly tailward moving (approximately 500 km s(exp -1)) magnetic flux rope structures, and are very stable (i.e., do not change size, downtail velocity, internal electron plasma energy density, or magnetic field signatures as a function of distance downtail). Evidence for the flux rope topology includes the strong correlation of the direction of the core magnetic field in the interplanetary magnetic field direction, the existence of plasmoids with various orientations with respect to the GSM xy plane, and the apparent mass flux of cool magnetosheath electrons into the structure as the plasmoid propagates downtail. Plasmoids are found to be a ubiquitous feature of the distant magnetotail and are occasionally observed in the relatively near-Earth tail by IMP 8. Due to the apparent large vertical extent of plasmoids, they affect the shape and size of the entire magnetosphere as they propagate downtail. Indirect observations of plasmoids are made in the plasma sheet boundary layer, the lobe, and the magnetosheath adjacent to the magnetopause. Because of their prevalence, size, velocity and magnetic and plasma energy content, plasmoids play an important role in the configuration, morphology, topology, and energy budget of the magnetosphere during geomagnetic substorms

  2. Models of protocellular structures, functions and evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohorille, Andrew; New, Michael H.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The central step in the origin of life was the emergence of organized structures from organic molecules available on the early earth. These predecessors to modern cells, called 'proto-cells,' were simple, membrane bounded structures able to maintain themselves, grow, divide, and evolve. Since there is no fossil record of these earliest of life forms, it is a scientific challenge to discover plausible mechanisms for how these entities formed and functioned. To meet this challenge, it is essential to create laboratory models of protocells that capture the main attributes associated with living systems, while remaining consistent with known, or inferred, protobiological conditions. This report provides an overview of a project which has focused on protocellular metabolism and the coupling of metabolism to energy transduction. We have assumed that the emergence of systems endowed with genomes and capable of Darwinian evolution was preceded by a pre-genomic phase, in which protocells functioned and evolved using mostly proteins, without self-replicating nucleic acids such as RNA.

  3. Accelerated probabilistic inference of RNA structure evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holmes Ian

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pairwise stochastic context-free grammars (Pair SCFGs are powerful tools for evolutionary analysis of RNA, including simultaneous RNA sequence alignment and secondary structure prediction, but the associated algorithms are intensive in both CPU and memory usage. The same problem is faced by other RNA alignment-and-folding algorithms based on Sankoff's 1985 algorithm. It is therefore desirable to constrain such algorithms, by pre-processing the sequences and using this first pass to limit the range of structures and/or alignments that can be considered. Results We demonstrate how flexible classes of constraint can be imposed, greatly reducing the computational costs while maintaining a high quality of structural homology prediction. Any score-attributed context-free grammar (e.g. energy-based scoring schemes, or conditionally normalized Pair SCFGs is amenable to this treatment. It is now possible to combine independent structural and alignment constraints of unprecedented general flexibility in Pair SCFG alignment algorithms. We outline several applications to the bioinformatics of RNA sequence and structure, including Waterman-Eggert N-best alignments and progressive multiple alignment. We evaluate the performance of the algorithm on test examples from the RFAM database. Conclusion A program, Stemloc, that implements these algorithms for efficient RNA sequence alignment and structure prediction is available under the GNU General Public License.

  4. Mathematical Analysis of Genomic Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cedric Green

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Changes in nucleotide sequences, or mutations, accumulate from generation to generation in the genomes of all living organisms. The mutations can be advantageous, deleterious, or neutral. The goal of this project is to determine the amount of advantageous mutations it takes to get human (Homo sapiens DNA from the DNA of genetically distinct organisms. We do this by collecting the genomic data of such organisms, and estimating the amount of mutations it takes to transform yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae DNA to the DNA of a human. We calculate the typical number of mutations occurring annually through the organism's average life span and the average mutation rate. This allows us to determine the total number of mutations as well as the probability of advantageous mutations. Not surprisingly, this probability proves to be fairly small. A more precise estimate can be determined by accounting for the differences in the chromosomal structure and phenomena like horizontal gene transfer.

  5. Connectivity of neutral networks and structural conservation in protein evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Bastolla, Ugo; Porto, Markus; Roman, H. Eduardo; Vendruscolo, Michele

    2001-01-01

    Protein structures are much more conserved than sequences during evolution. Based on this observation, we investigate the consequences of structural conservation on protein evolution. We study seven of the most studied protein folds, finding out that an extended neutral network in sequence space is associated to each of them. Within our model, neutral evolution leads to a non-Poissonian substitution process, due to the broad distribution of connectivities in neutral networks. The observation ...

  6. Analysis of the geological structure and tectonic evolution of Xingning-Jinghai sag in deep water area, northern South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xiaoying; Ren, Jianye; Lin, Zi; Yang, Linlong

    2015-04-01

    Recent years, oil and gas exploration of the Pearl River Mouth Basin in the northern margin of South China Sea continuously achieved historic breakthroughs. The Xingning-Jinghai sag, which is located in southeast of the Pearl River Mouth Basin, is a deep-water sag with a great exploration potential. Its tectonic evolution is extremely complex. It experienced Mesozoic subduction to Cenozoic intra-continental rifting background, and finally evolved into a deep-water sag of the northern continental margin of South China Sea. The geological characteristics and the tectonic evolution of Xingning-Jinghai sag was closely related to the process of formation and evolution of the passive continental margin of the northern South China Sea. It is confirmed by many geophysical data that compared with adjacent Chaoshan depression, the crustal thickness of Xingning-Jinghai sag was rapidly thinning, and it developed detachment faults with later magmatic intrusion. The development of detachment faults have dynamic significance for the spreading of the South China Sea. Based on the seismic geological interpretation of 2D seismic data in the study area, the characteristics of detachment fault and supra-detachment basin have been proposed in this study. The characteristics of the detachment fault are low angle and high ratio between heave and throw. The geometry of the detachment fault is a typical lisric shape, with the dip of fault decreasing generally from the seismic profile. The detachment basin where sediments are not deposited over a tilting hanging-wall block but onto a tectonically exhumed footwall which is different from the typical half graben basin. Seismic profiles indicate two different structural styles in the east and west part of Xingning-Jinghai sag. In the west of the sag, there developed two large detachment faults, which control their detachment basin systems and the typical H block, and the two detachment faults are dipping landward and seaward, respectively. In

  7. Models of Protocellular Structure, Function and Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    New, Michael H.; Pohorille, Andrew; Szostak, Jack W.; Keefe, Tony; Lanyi, Janos K.

    2001-01-01

    In the absence of any record of protocells, the most direct way to test our understanding of the origin of cellular life is to construct laboratory models that capture important features of protocellular systems. Such efforts are currently underway in a collaborative project between NASA-Ames, Harvard Medical School and University of California. They are accompanied by computational studies aimed at explaining self-organization of simple molecules into ordered structures. The centerpiece of this project is a method for the in vitro evolution of protein enzymes toward arbitrary catalytic targets. A similar approach has already been developed for nucleic acids in which a small number of functional molecules are selected from a large, random population of candidates. The selected molecules are next vastly multiplied using the polymerase chain reaction. A mutagenic approach, in which the sequences of selected molecules are randomly altered, can yield further improvements in performance or alterations of specificities. Unfortunately, the catalytic potential of nucleic acids is rather limited. Proteins are more catalytically capable but cannot be directly amplified. In the new technique, this problem is circumvented by covalently linking each protein of the initial, diverse, pool to the RNA sequence that codes for it. Then, selection is performed on the proteins, but the nucleic acids are replicated. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  8. Shell structure evolution in nuclei: new paradigm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shell structure evolution in nuclei situated at the extremes of neutron and proton excess are investigated using in-beam gamma spectroscopy techniques with radioactive beams at GANIL. A selection of results obtained very recently is presented: i) The reduced transition probabilities B(E2;01+ → 2+) of the neutron-rich 74Zn and 70Ni nuclei have been measured using Coulomb excitation at intermediate energy. An unexpected large proton core polarization has been found in 70Ni and interpreted as being due to the monopole interaction between the neutron g9/2 and protons f7/2 and f5/2 spin-orbit partner orbitals. ii) Two proton knock-out reactions has been performed in order to study the most neutron-rich nuclei at the N=28 shell closure. Gamma rays spectra and momentum distribution have been obtained for 42Si and neighboring nuclei. Evidences has been found for a deformed structure for 42Si and for the disappearance of the spherical N=28 shell effect. iii) The in-beam gamma spectroscopy of 36Ca performed using neutron knock-out reactions revealed that N=16 is as large sub-shell closure as large as Z=16 in 36S. The uniquely large excitation energy difference of the first 2+ state in these mirror nuclei turns out to be a consequence of the relatively pure neutron (in 36Ca) or proton (in 36S) 1p(d3/2)-1h(s1/2) nature. (author)

  9. Structural evolution of carbon during oxidation. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarofim, A.F.

    1998-04-01

    The examination of the structural evolution of carbon during oxidation has proven to be of scientific interest. Early modeling work of fluidized bed combustion showed that most of the reactions of interest occurs in the micropores, and this work has concentrated on these pores. This work has concentrated on evolution of macroporosity and microporosity of carbons during kinetic controlled oxidation using SAXS, CO{sub 2} and TEM analysis. Simple studies of fluidized bed combustion of coal chars has shown that many of the events considered fragmentation events previously may in fact be {open_quotes}hidden{close_quotes} or nonaccessible porosity. This makes the study of the microporous combustion characteristics of carbon even more important. The generation of a combustion resistant grid, coupled with measurements of the SAXS and CO{sub 2} surface areas, fractal analysis and TEM. Studies has confirmed that soot particles shrink during their oxidation, as previously suspected. However, this shrinkage results in an overall change in structure. This structure becomes, on a radial basis, much more ordered near the edges, while the center itself becomes transparent to the TEM beam, implying a total lack of structure in this region. Although complex, this carbon structure is probably burning as to keep the density of the soot particles nearly the same. The TEM techniques developed for examination of soots has also been applied to Spherocarb. The Spherocarb during oxidation also increases its ordering. This ordering, by present theories, would imply that the reactivity would go. However, the reactivity goes up, implying that structure of carbon is secondary in importance to catalytic effects.

  10. The Coevolution of Phycobilisomes: Molecular Structure Adapting to Functional Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Shi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Phycobilisome is the major light-harvesting complex in cyanobacteria and red alga. It consists of phycobiliproteins and their associated linker peptides which play key role in absorption and unidirectional transfer of light energy and the stability of the whole complex system, respectively. Former researches on the evolution among PBPs and linker peptides had mainly focused on the phylogenetic analysis and selective evolution. Coevolution is the change that the conformation of one residue is interrupted by mutation and a compensatory change selected for in its interacting partner. Here, coevolutionary analysis of allophycocyanin, phycocyanin, and phycoerythrin and covariation analysis of linker peptides were performed. Coevolution analyses reveal that these sites are significantly correlated, showing strong evidence of the functional and structural importance of interactions among these residues. According to interprotein coevolution analysis, less interaction was found between PBPs and linker peptides. Our results also revealed the correlations between the coevolution and adaptive selection in PBS were not directly related, but probably demonstrated by the sites coupled under physical-chemical interactions.

  11. Social network analysis community detection and evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Missaoui, Rokia

    2015-01-01

    This book is devoted to recent progress in social network analysis with a high focus on community detection and evolution. The eleven chapters cover the identification of cohesive groups, core components and key players either in static or dynamic networks of different kinds and levels of heterogeneity. Other important topics in social network analysis such as influential detection and maximization, information propagation, user behavior analysis, as well as network modeling and visualization are also presented. Many studies are validated through real social networks such as Twitter. This edit

  12. Shaping Galaxy Evolution with Galaxy Structure

    OpenAIRE

    Cheung, Edmond

    2014-01-01

    A fundamental pursuit of astronomy is to understand galaxy evolution. The enormous scales and complex physics involved in this endeavor guarantees a never-ending journey that has enamored both astronomers and laymen alike. But despite the difficulty of this task, astronomers have still attempted to further this goal. Among of these astronomers is Edwin Hubble. His work, which includes the famous Hubble sequence, has immeasurably influenced our understanding of galaxy evolution. In this thesis...

  13. Parametric study of fission-induced U-Mo fuel creep and structural analysis of fuel plates in view of implications for microstructure evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    U-Mo fuel deformation during irradiation in U-Mo/Al dispersion plates is investigated by using the irradiation data from the RERTR-3 through -9 tests. The observation of fuel particle sintering during irradiation is also presented and its influence for fuel performance is discussed. Structural analysis was also performed to examine the relationship between the stress distribution in the plate and the location of matrix-pore formation in the plate. (author)

  14. Comparative analysis of syntenic genes in grass genomes reveals accelerated rates of gene structure and coding sequence evolution in polyploid wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cycles of whole genome duplication (WGD) and diploidization are hallmarks of eukaryotic genome evolution and speciation. Polyploid wheat (Triticum aestivum) has had a massive increase in genome size largely due to recent WGDs. How these processes may impact the dynamics of gene evolution was studied...

  15. Shell evolution: A paradigm of structure of exotic nuclei?

    OpenAIRE

    Otsuka, Taka

    2003-01-01

    The evolution of shell structure and magic numbers of exotic nuclei are discussed with a rather pedagogical introduction. A major origin of the shell evolution is shown to be the spin-isospin dependent central part of the nucleon-nucleon interaction in nuclei. The importance and robustness of this mechanism ...

  16. 我国海洋产业结构演化的过程研究%Analysis of Chinese Marine Industrial Structure Evolution and Optimization Based on the"Three Axis Diagram"Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石秋艳

    2014-01-01

    海洋产业结构的优化升级是海洋经济健康持续发展的重要保障,并直接影响着人类未来的发展。在有关学者对海洋产业结构演化的研究基础之上,运用三轴图分析法,构建了海洋产业结构演进模式图,可直观清晰地看出我国海洋三次产业结构的动态演变过程,显示我国海洋产业结构已实现第三产业占据主导地位的三、二、一产业结构模式,并在此基础上对海洋产业结构的演化阶段进行分析。从加强国家宏观调控、优化产业布局、加强科技创新、建立人才队伍等方面提出优化海洋产业结构的对策。%Optimization and upgrading of industrial structure of the ocean is an important guarantee for develping marine economy healthly and sustainly which directly affecting the future development of mankind. Based on the research scholars of the evolution of the marine industry structure above, marine industrial structure evolution model diagram was constructed by using three-axis chart analysis.c The dynamic evolution of the industrial structure of China's three oceans can be revealed as following:The third industry has become the largest industrial sector in marine industry structure . The evolutionary stages of marine industrial structure were analyzed based on the above analysis. Finally, the marine industrial structure optimization strategies were put forward as the following:strengthening the national macro-control, optimizing the industrial layout, strengthening scientific and technological innovation, and establishing personnel.

  17. Evolution and Structural Analyses of Glossina morsitans (Diptera; Glossinidae) Tetraspanins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Murungi, E.K.; Kariithi, H.M.; Adunga, V.; Obonyo, M.; Christoffels, A.

    2014-01-01

    Tetraspanins are important conserved integral membrane proteins expressed in many organisms. Although there is limited knowledge about the full repertoire, evolution and structural characteristics of individual members in various organisms, data obtained so far show that tetraspanins play major role

  18. Modeling Temporal Evolution and Multiscale Structure in Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herlau, Tue; Mørup, Morten; Schmidt, Mikkel Nørgaard

    Many real-world networks exhibit both temporal evolution and multiscale structure. We propose a model for temporally correlated multifurcating hierarchies in complex networks which jointly capture both effects. We use the Gibbs fragmentation tree as prior over multifurcating trees and a change......-point model to account for the temporal evolution of each vertex. We demonstrate that our model is able to infer time-varying multiscale structure in synthetic as well as three real world time-evolving complex networks. Our modeling of the temporal evolution of hierarchies brings new insights into the...

  19. Structural Evolution of the Protein Kinase-Like Superfamily.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The protein kinase family is large and important, but it is only one family in a larger superfamily of homologous kinases that phosphorylate a variety of substrates and play important roles in all three superkingdoms of life. We used a carefully constructed structural alignment of selected kinases as the basis for a study of the structural evolution of the protein kinase-like superfamily. The comparison of structures revealed a "universal core" domain consisting only of regions required for ATP binding and the phosphotransfer reaction. Remarkably, even within the universal core some kinase structures display notable changes, while still retaining essential activity. Hence, the protein kinase-like superfamily has undergone substantial structural and sequence revision over long evolutionary timescales. We constructed a phylogenetic tree for the superfamily using a novel approach that allowed for the combination of sequence and structure information into a unified quantitative analysis. When considered against the backdrop of species distribution and other metrics, our tree provides a compelling scenario for the development of the various kinase families from a shared common ancestor. We propose that most of the so-called "atypical kinases" are not intermittently derived from protein kinases, but rather diverged early in evolution to form a distinct phyletic group. Within the atypical kinases, the aminoglycoside and choline kinase families appear to share the closest relationship. These two families in turn appear to be the most closely related to the protein kinase family. In addition, our analysis suggests that the actin-fragmin kinase, an atypical protein kinase, is more closely related to the phosphoinositide-3 kinase family than to the protein kinase family. The two most divergent families, alpha-kinases and phosphatidylinositol phosphate kinases (PIPKs, appear to have distinct evolutionary histories. While the PIPKs probably have an

  20. Structural evolution and diversity of the caterpillar trunk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dupont, Steen Thorleif

    The thesis explores some major transformation series in the structure of the lepidopteran larval trunk, focusing partly on the initial events in the evolution of the order, partly on one of the more spectacular cases of subsequent biological diversification within ‘typical’/’higher’ Lepidoptera: ......, Harvard-based) is presented at a level where publication-readiness can be achieved, once an ongoing phylogenetic analysis by other Harvard-lab workers is completed, and SD’s findings can be analyzed in the light thereof....... the link between cuticle thickness, the degree of myrmecopily and the underlying mechanism of lycaenid-ant associations (MS4). In two major manuscripts (MS1-2), comparative descriptions are provided of the larval trunk in, respectively the Micropterigidae and the lowest-grade leaf-mining caterpillars...

  1. Structural analysis for Diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh; Blanke, M.

    2001-01-01

    Aiming at design of algorithms for fault diagnosis, structural analysis of systems offers concise yet easy overall analysis. Graph-based matching, which is the essential technique to obtain redundant information for diagnosis, is re-considered in this paper. Matching is re-formulated as a problem...

  2. Structural analysis for diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh; Blanke, M.

    2002-01-01

    Aiming at design of algorithms for fault diagnosis, structural analysis of systems offers concise yet easy overall analysis. Graph-based matching, which is the essential tech-nique to obtain redundant information for diagnosis, is reconsidered in this paper. Matching is reformulated as a problem of...

  3. Modified structure of graphene oxide by investigation of structure evolution

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Nekahi; S P H Marashi; D Haghshenas Fatmesari

    2015-12-01

    The structure of graphite oxide and graphene oxide (GO) has been studied previously using various analyses and computer simulations. Although some oxygen functional groups (OFGs) are accepted as the main functionalities in GO, the structure of GO has remained elusive. In this regard, GO was produced using the modified Hummers method and was investigated using X-ray diffraction pattern, Fourier transform infrared analysis and Boehm titration method. Based on the obtained results, a modified model was proposed for GO based on the model of Lerf-Klinowski. OFGs include highly carboxyl groups and phenols with few epoxides, lactones and ketones agglomerated in some regions due to hydrogen bonding between functional groups. Trapped water molecules were shown between the GO sheets which strongly affected the distribution of OFGs and their aggregation by hydrogen bonding.

  4. Structural evolution of small ruthenium cluster anions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waldt, Eugen [Institut für Nanotechnologie, Karlsruher Institut für Technologie, Postfach 3640, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Hehn, Anna-Sophia; Ahlrichs, Reinhart [Institute für Physikalische Chemie, Karlsruher Institut für Technologie, Kaiserstrasse 12, 76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); Kappes, Manfred M.; Schooss, Detlef, E-mail: detlef.schooss@kit.edu [Institut für Nanotechnologie, Karlsruher Institut für Technologie, Postfach 3640, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Institute für Physikalische Chemie, Karlsruher Institut für Technologie, Kaiserstrasse 12, 76128 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2015-01-14

    The structures of ruthenium cluster anions have been investigated using a combination of trapped ion electron diffraction and density functional theory computations in the size range from eight to twenty atoms. In this size range, three different structural motifs are found: Ru{sub 8}{sup −}–Ru{sub 12}{sup −} have simple cubic structures, Ru{sub 13}{sup −}–Ru{sub 16}{sup −} form double layered hexagonal structures, and larger clusters form close packed motifs. For Ru{sub 17}{sup −}, we find hexagonal close packed stacking, whereas octahedral structures occur for Ru{sub 18}{sup −}–Ru{sub 20}{sup −}. Our calculations also predict simple cubic structures for the smaller clusters Ru{sub 4}{sup −}–Ru{sub 7}{sup −}, which were not accessible to electron diffraction measurements.

  5. Evolution Analysis About Soybean MIR166 Family

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Zhi-hao; Jin Hui-hui; Chen Qing-shan; Zhu Rong-sheng

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNA (miRNA) is a class of important regulating non-coding small molecular RNA. The gma-MIR166 gene family consists of 21 members and their expression patterns diversify widely. It is important to analyze the evolution of gma-MIR166 gene family in order to understand the evolutionary mechanisms of miRNAs in soybean. In this study, we implemented soybean wide genome block analysis, the molecular phylogeny of gma-MIR166 and block analysis of gma-MIR166 family. The results showed that both chromosome big segmental duplications and tandem duplications were main reasons contributed to the expanding of gma-MIR166 gene family. These findings suggested that gma-MIR166 gene family might originate from one or two ancient miRNA genes. The results of research provided a support for evolutionary study of miRNAs in soybean and related species in Fabaceae.

  6. Analysis of DCC domain structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wavelet-type methods are employed for the analysis of pion field configurations that have been obtained by dynamical simulations in idealized scenarios relevant to the formation of disoriented chiral condensates. It is illustrated how the measurement of the isospin domain structure depends on the ability to zoom in on limited parts of the phase space, due to the interplay between the pion correlation length and the effective source geometry. The need for advanced analysis methods is underscored by the fact that the extracted neutral-fraction distribution would differ significantly from the ideal form, even under perfect experimental conditions, and, moreover, by the circumstance that thermal sources with suitably adjusted temperatures can lead to distributions that may be practically indistinguishable from those arising from DCC-type nonequilibrium evolutions. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  7. Evolution of extortion in structured populations

    CERN Document Server

    Szolnoki, Attila

    2014-01-01

    Extortion strategies can dominate any opponent in an iterated prisoner's dilemma game. But if players are able to adopt the strategies performing better, extortion becomes widespread and evolutionary unstable. It may sometimes act as a catalyst for the evolution of cooperation, and it can also emerge in interactions between two populations, yet it is not the evolutionary stable outcome. Here we revisit these results in the realm of spatial games. We find that pairwise imitation and birth-death dynamics return known evolutionary outcomes. Myopic best response strategy updating, on the other hand, reveals new counterintuitive solutions. Defectors and extortioners coarsen spontaneously, which allows cooperators to prevail even at prohibitively high temptations to defect. Here extortion strategies play the role of a Trojan horse. They may emerge among defectors by chance, and once they do, cooperators become viable as well. These results are independent of the interaction topology, and they highlight the importan...

  8. Directed evolution and structural analysis of N-carbamoyl-D-amino acid amidohydrolase provide insights into recombinant protein solubility in Escherichia coli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Shimin; Li, Chunhong; Zhang, Weiwen; Cai, Yuanheng; Yang, Yunlin; Yang, Sheng; Jiang, Weihong

    2007-03-15

    One of the greatest bottlenecks in producing recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli is that over-expressed target proteins are mostly present in an insoluble form without any biological activity. N-carbamoyl-D-amino-acid amidohydrolase (DCase) is an important enzyme involved in semi-synthesis of β-lactam antibiotics in industry. In this study, in order to determine the amino acid sites responsible for solubility in DCase, error-prone PCR and DNA shuffling techniques are applied to randomly mutate its encoding sequence, followed by an efficient screening based on structural complementation. Several mutants of DCase with reduced aggregation are isolated. Solubility tests of these mutants and several other mutants generated by site-directed mutagenesis indicate that three amino acid residues of DCase (A18, Y30 and K34) are related to the protein solubility in DCase. In silico structural modeling analyses further suggest that hydrophilicity and/or negative charge at these three residues may be responsible for the increased solubility of DCase proteins in E. coli. Based on the information, multiple engineering designated mutants were constructed by site-directed mutagenesis; among them, a triple mutant A18T/Y30N/K34E (named as DCase-M3) can be over-expressed in E. coli with up to 80% of DCase-M3 protein as soluble. DCase-M3 is purified to homogeneity and a comparative analysis with WT DCase demonstrates that DCase-M3 enzyme is similar to the native DCase in terms of its kinetic and thermodynamic properties. The study provides new insights on recombinant protein solubility in E. coli.

  9. Beneath the surface of giant planets: Evolution, structure, and composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly Miller, Neil L.

    This thesis is focused on utilizing the combination of giant exoplanet mass via radial velocity observations and radius via transit observations to study their structure and evolution. In Chapter 2, Giant planet thermal evolution models are coupled to tidal evolution dynamics, including orbital evolution and planet interior heating. Viable tidal evolution histories are explored to explain inflated radii of hot Jupiters. Tidal evolution is demonstrated to be a viable heating mechanism in some cases, but for other cases it can not explain the large radii. The thesis continues in Chapter 3 by exhibiting cases when the tidal-thermal evolution model, including energy-limited mass loss, can be used to infer interior properties and demonstrate a possible evolution history. Specifically, I utilize the thermal evolution models to examine planets CoRoT-2b, CoRoT-7b, and the Kepler-11 system. In Chapter 4, planets with lower incident irradiation are examined to infer the heavy element composition inside a range of planets. These planets don't appear to be significantly inflated by the unknown radius inflation mechanism, thus the mysterious mechanism can be ignored. It is shown that the heavy element mass inside these planets correlates with the metallicity of the star. The heavy element mass also correlates with the mass of the planet. However, the heavy element enrichment is inversely related to the mass of the planet. In the final chapter, I develop a mixing equation of state code for the MESA stellar evolution project. This code is developed with the intention of studying inhomogeneous thermal evolution of planets.

  10. Evol and ProDy for bridging protein sequence evolution and structural dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Bakan, Ahmet; Dutta, Anindita; Mao, Wenzhi; Liu, Ying; Chennubhotla, Chakra; Lezon, Timothy R.; Bahar, Ivet

    2014-01-01

    Correlations between sequence evolution and structural dynamics are of utmost importance in understanding the molecular mechanisms of function and their evolution. We have integrated Evol, a new package for fast and efficient comparative analysis of evolutionary patterns and conformational dynamics, into ProDy, a computational toolbox designed for inferring protein dynamics from experimental and theoretical data. Using information-theoretic approaches, Evol coanalyzes conservation and coevolu...

  11. BAK-SNEPPEN MODELS FOR THE EVOLUTION OF STRUCTURED KNOWLEDGE

    OpenAIRE

    Piccinini, Livio Clemente; Chang, Ting Fa Margherita; Lepellere, Maria Antonietta; Taverna, Mario; Tubaro, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    Scientific knowledge is subject to a twin evolution, since its development towards novelty creates disconnections and inconsistencies, while the need of structure requires order and method so that transmission and comprehension can be ensured. Models of biological evolution can help to understand many social and economical phenomena where the search for optimality is hindered by voluntary or random competition. Bak-Sneppen is one of the most significant models because it balances at best expl...

  12. Evolution of Sex-Ratio in Structured Population Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Ripoll i Missé, Jordi

    2005-01-01

    In this Thesis we address the study of some non-linear evolution equations (e.g. pde's) modelling the dynamics of sexually-reproducing structured populations, with special emphasis on biological evolution driven by natural selection. The latter is incorporated into the models through the adaptive dynamics, which is a way of describing how the hereditary characteristics of the population evolve. The sex-ratio, defined as the proportion between females and males, is analyzed from the evolutiona...

  13. The Coevolution of Phycobilisomes: Molecular Structure Adapting to Functional Evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Yin-Chu Wang; Song Qin; Fei Shi

    2011-01-01

    Phycobilisome is the major light-harvesting complex in cyanobacteria and red alga. It consists of phycobiliproteins and their associated linker peptides which play key role in absorption and unidirectional transfer of light energy and the stability of the whole complex system, respectively. Former researches on the evolution among PBPs and linker peptides had mainly focused on the phylogenetic analysis and selective evolution. Coevolution is the change that the conformation of one residue is ...

  14. Evolution of atomic structure during nanoparticle formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoffer Tyrsted

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the mechanism of nanoparticle formation during synthesis is a key prerequisite for the rational design and engineering of desirable materials properties, yet remains elusive due to the difficulty of studying structures at the nanoscale under real conditions. Here, the first comprehensive structural description of the formation of a nanoparticle, yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ, all the way from its ionic constituents in solution to the final crystal, is presented. The transformation is a complicated multi-step sequence of atomic reorganizations as the material follows the reaction pathway towards the equilibrium product. Prior to nanoparticle nucleation, reagents reorganize into polymeric species whose structure is incompatible with the final product. Instead of direct nucleation of clusters into the final product lattice, a highly disordered intermediate precipitate forms with a local bonding environment similar to the product yet lacking the correct topology. During maturation, bond reforming occurs by nucleation and growth of distinct domains within the amorphous intermediary. The present study moves beyond kinetic modeling by providing detailed real-time structural insight, and it is demonstrated that YSZ nanoparticle formation and growth is a more complex chemical process than accounted for in conventional models. This level of mechanistic understanding of the nanoparticle formation is the first step towards more rational control over nanoparticle synthesis through control of both solution precursors and reaction intermediaries.

  15. Structural Approaches to Sequence Evolution Molecules, Networks, Populations

    CERN Document Server

    Bastolla, Ugo; Roman, H. Eduardo; Vendruscolo, Michele

    2007-01-01

    Structural requirements constrain the evolution of biological entities at all levels, from macromolecules to their networks, right up to populations of biological organisms. Classical models of molecular evolution, however, are focused at the level of the symbols - the biological sequence - rather than that of their resulting structure. Now recent advances in understanding the thermodynamics of macromolecules, the topological properties of gene networks, the organization and mutation capabilities of genomes, and the structure of populations make it possible to incorporate these key elements into a broader and deeply interdisciplinary view of molecular evolution. This book gives an account of such a new approach, through clear tutorial contributions by leading scientists specializing in the different fields involved.

  16. Dynamic structure evolution of time-dependent network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Beibei; Zhou, Yadong; Xu, Xiaoyan; Wang, Dai; Guan, Xiaohong

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we research the long-voided problem of formulating the time-dependent network structure evolution scheme, it focus not only on finding new emerging vertices in evolving communities and new emerging communities over the specified time range but also formulating the complex network structure evolution schematic. Previous approaches basically applied to community detection on time static networks and thus failed to consider the potentially crucial and useful information latently embedded in the dynamic structure evolution process of time-dependent network. To address these problems and to tackle the network non-scalability dilemma, we propose the dynamic hierarchical method for detecting and revealing structure evolution schematic of the time-dependent network. In practice and specificity, we propose an explicit hierarchical network evolution uncovering algorithm framework originated from and widely expanded from time-dependent and dynamic spectral optimization theory. Our method yields preferable results compared with previous approaches on a vast variety of test network data, including both real on-line networks and computer generated complex networks.

  17. Design Evolution and Analysis of the ITER Cryostat Support System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Han; Song, Yuntao; Wang, Songke

    2015-12-01

    The cryostat is a vacuum tight container enveloping the entire basic systems of the ITER tokamak machine, including a vacuum vessel, a superconducting magnet and thermal shield etc. It is evacuated to a pressure of 10-4 Pa to limit the heat transfer via gas conduction and convection to the cryogenically cooled components. Another important function of cryostat is to support all the loads from the tokamak to the concrete floor of the pit by its support system during different operational regimes and accident scenarios. This paper briefly presents the design evolution and associated analysis of the cryostat support system and the structural interface with the building.

  18. Analysis of the complete DNA sequence of the temperate bacteriophage TP901-1: Evolution, structure, and genome organization of lactococcal bacteriophages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøndsted, Lone; Østergaard, Solvej; Pedersen, Margit; Hammer, Karin; Vogensen, F.K.

    2001-01-01

    -1 may have evolved by homologous recombination between the host chromosome and a mother phage and support the observation that phage remnants as well as prophages located in the Lactococcus chromosome contribute significantly to bacteriophage evolution. Some proteins encoded in the early transcribed...... bacteriophage TP901-1 proliferation. Short regions of microhomology in intergenic regions present in several lactococcal bacteriophages and chromosomal fragments of Lactococcus lactis are suggested to be points of exchange of genetic material through homologous recombination. Our results indicate that TP901...

  19. Crystallography, Evolution, and the Structure of Viruses

    OpenAIRE

    Rossmann, Michael G.

    2012-01-01

    My undergraduate education in mathematics and physics was a good grounding for graduate studies in crystallographic studies of small organic molecules. As a postdoctoral fellow in Minnesota, I learned how to program an early electronic computer for crystallographic calculations. I then joined Max Perutz, excited to use my skills in the determination of the first protein structures. The results were even more fascinating than the development of techniques and provided inspiration for starting ...

  20. Structure, dynamics, and evolution of centromeric nucleosomes

    OpenAIRE

    Dalal, Yamini; Furuyama, Takehito; Vermaak, Danielle; Henikoff, Steven

    2007-01-01

    Centromeres are defining features of eukaryotic chromosomes, providing sites of attachment for segregation during mitosis and meiosis. The fundamental unit of centromere structure is the centromeric nucleosome, which differs from the conventional nucleosome by the presence of a centromere-specific histone variant (CenH3) in place of canonical H3. We have shown that the CenH3 nucleosome core found in interphase Drosophila cells is a heterotypic tetramer, a “hemisome” consisting of one molecule...

  1. Modelling the Evolution of Social Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutcliffe, A. G.; Dunbar, R. I. M.; Wang, D.

    2016-01-01

    Although simple social structures are more common in animal societies, some taxa (mainly mammals) have complex, multi-level social systems, in which the levels reflect differential association. We develop a simulation model to explore the conditions under which multi-level social systems of this kind evolve. Our model focuses on the evolutionary trade-offs between foraging and social interaction, and explores the impact of alternative strategies for distributing social interaction, with fitness criteria for wellbeing, alliance formation, risk, stress and access to food resources that reward social strategies differentially. The results suggest that multi-level social structures characterised by a few strong relationships, more medium ties and large numbers of weak ties emerge only in a small part of the overall fitness landscape, namely where there are significant fitness benefits from wellbeing and alliance formation and there are high levels of social interaction. In contrast, ‘favour-the-few’ strategies are more competitive under a wide range of fitness conditions, including those producing homogeneous, single-level societies of the kind found in many birds and mammals. The simulations suggest that the development of complex, multi-level social structures of the kind found in many primates (including humans) depends on a capacity for high investment in social time, preferential social interaction strategies, high mortality risk and/or differential reproduction. These conditions are characteristic of only a few mammalian taxa. PMID:27427758

  2. Modelling the Evolution of Social Structure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A G Sutcliffe

    Full Text Available Although simple social structures are more common in animal societies, some taxa (mainly mammals have complex, multi-level social systems, in which the levels reflect differential association. We develop a simulation model to explore the conditions under which multi-level social systems of this kind evolve. Our model focuses on the evolutionary trade-offs between foraging and social interaction, and explores the impact of alternative strategies for distributing social interaction, with fitness criteria for wellbeing, alliance formation, risk, stress and access to food resources that reward social strategies differentially. The results suggest that multi-level social structures characterised by a few strong relationships, more medium ties and large numbers of weak ties emerge only in a small part of the overall fitness landscape, namely where there are significant fitness benefits from wellbeing and alliance formation and there are high levels of social interaction. In contrast, 'favour-the-few' strategies are more competitive under a wide range of fitness conditions, including those producing homogeneous, single-level societies of the kind found in many birds and mammals. The simulations suggest that the development of complex, multi-level social structures of the kind found in many primates (including humans depends on a capacity for high investment in social time, preferential social interaction strategies, high mortality risk and/or differential reproduction. These conditions are characteristic of only a few mammalian taxa.

  3. Model of evolution of surface grain structure under ion bombardment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diffusion and chemical reactions in multicomponent systems play an important role in numerous technology applications. For example, surface treatment of materials and coatings by particle beam leads to chemical composition and grain structure change. To investigate the thermal-diffusion and chemical processes affecting the evolution of surface structure, the mathematical modeling is efficient addition to experiment. In this paper two-dimensional model is discussed to describe the evolution of titanium nitride coating on the iron substrate under implantation of boron and carbon. The equation for diffusion fluxes and reaction rate are obtained using Gibbs energy expansion into series with respect to concentration and their gradients

  4. STRUCTURAL EVOLUTION IN BIORENEWABLE SOY BASED POLYURETHANES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Deepa Puthanparambil; Casey Kimball; Shaw Ling Hsu; Zhiyong Ren

    2009-01-01

    Spectroscopic studies have revealed that the amount of polyureas formed and the kinetics of their formation in soy based polyurethane systems are considerably different from traditional systems employing ethylene oxide-propylene oxide (EO-PO) based polyols. The aggregation of polyureas was characterized by the hydrogen bonds formed utilizing FTIR spectroscopy. This study offered the opportunity to assign the previously undefined infrared features. The structural transformation is reflected in the segmental relaxation kinetics characterized by spin-spin diffusion most conveniently measured using low field NMR. The reaction kinetics and the products formed are directly related to the hydrophobic nature of the soy based polyols and its inability to disperse water.

  5. Structure and evolution of the interstellar medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We give a two dimensional hydrodynamical analysis of HI clouds collisions in order to determine the mass spectrum of diffuse interstellar clouds. We have taken into account evaporation and abrasion by supernovae blast waves. The conditions for cloud merging or fragmentation are precised. Applications to the model of the interstellar medium of Mc Kee and Ostriker are also discussed. On the other hand, we show that molecular clouds belong to a one parameter family which can be identified to the sequence of the gravitationally unstable states of clouds bounded by the uniform pressure of the coronal phase of the interstellar medium. Hierarchical fragmentation of molecular clouds is analysed in this context

  6. Evolution of Analysis of Polyhenols from Grapes, Wines, and Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre-Louis Teissedre

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Grape and wine phenolics are structurally diverse, from simple molecules to oligomers and polymers usually designated as tannins. They have an important impact on the organoleptic properties of wines, that’s why their analysis and quantification are of primordial importance. The extraction of phenolics from grapes and from wines is the first step involved in the analysis. Then, several analytical methods have been developed for the determination of total content of phenolic, while chromatographic and spectrophotometric analyses are continuously improved in order to achieve adequate separation of phenolic molecules, their subsequent identification and quantification. This review provides a summary of evolution of analysis of polyphenols from grapes, wines and extracts.

  7. Time-resolved evolution of coherent structures in turbulent channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano-Duran, Adrian; Jimenez, Javier

    2012-11-01

    The temporal evolution of vortex clusters and of the structures responsible for the momentum transfer in turbulent channels at Reτ = 950 , 2000 and 4000 are studied using DNS sequences with temporal separations among fields short enough for individual structures to be tracked. From the geometric intersection of structures in consecutive fields we build temporal connection graphs of all the objects and define main and secondary branches in a way that each branch represents the temporal evolution of one coherent structure. A family of evolutions is found with self-similar sizes and lifetimes that can be born at any height with respect to the wall, although the probability increases close to it. Especial attention is paid to the wall-normal displacement of the structures. Sweeps tend to go towards the wall whereas ejections move away from it. In all the cases, the vertical velocity is close to uτ and the wall-normal displacement is proportional to the lifetime of the structures and to their sizes. Finally, direct and inverse physical cascades are defined, associated with the process of splitting and merging among structures. The direct cascade predominates, but both directions are roughly comparable. Funded by ERC, CICYT and Spanish Ministry of Science.

  8. TBR-2 structural analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the structural analysis developed during the TBR-2 tokamak project studies. Starting with electromagnetic interaction forces on each, toroidal and poloidal coils many structural calculations have been carried out using locally developed usual E.M. interaction codes and a finite element method stress code. Following the analysis it has been determined that there is radially inward force of 1235 kN and overturning torque of 243 kNm acting on toroidal coils. This stress and displacements due to in plane loads have been calculated using a finite element code which show that the maximum stress of 240 MPa and displacement of 0.21 mm can be present at the inner part of the toroidal field coil. (Author)

  9. Computational Analysis for Morphological Evolution in Pyrolysis for Micro/Nanofabrication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myeongseok Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pyrolysis is recently proposed as an efficient fabrication technique of micro/nanoscale carbon structures. In order to understand the morphological evolution in pyrolysis and design the final shape of carbon structure, this study proposes a comprehensive model that incorporates the essential mechanisms of pyrolysis based on the phase field framework. Computational analysis with the developed model provides information about the effect of interface energy and kinetic rate on the morphological evolution in pyrolysis.

  10. Microarray Data Analysis of Gene Expression Evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Honghuang Lin

    2009-01-01

    Microarrays are becoming a widely used tool to study gene expression evolution. A recent paper by Wang and Rekaya describes a comprehensive study of gene expression evolution by microarray.1 The work provides a perspective to study gene expression evolution in terms of functional enrichment and promoter conservation. It was found that gene expression patterns are highly conserved in some biological processes, but the correlation between promoter and gene expression is insignificant. This scop...

  11. Structure, Function, and Evolution of Rice Centromeres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Jiming

    2010-02-04

    The centromere is the most characteristic landmark of eukaryotic chromosomes. Centromeres function as the site for kinetochore assembly and spindle attachment, allowing for the faithful pairing and segregation of sister chromatids during cell division. Characterization of centromeric DNA is not only essential to understand the structure and organization of plant genomes, but it is also a critical step in the development of plant artificial chromosomes. The centromeres of most model eukaryotic species, consist predominantly of long arrays of satellite DNA. Determining the precise DNA boundary of a centromere has proven to be a difficult task in multicellular eukaryotes. We have successfully cloned and sequenced the centromere of rice chromosome 8 (Cen8), representing the first fully sequenced centromere from any multicellular eukaryotes. The functional core of Cen8 spans ~800 kb of DNA, which was determined by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) using an antibody against the rice centromere-specific H3 histone. We discovered 16 actively transcribed genes distributed throughout the Cen8 region. In addition to Cen8, we have characterized eight additional rice centromeres using the next generation sequencing technology. We discovered four subfamilies of the CRR retrotransposon that is highly enriched in rice centromeres. CRR elements are constitutively transcribed and different CRR subfamilies are differentially processed by RNAi. These results suggest that different CRR subfamilies may play different roles in the RNAi-mediated pathway for formation and maintenance of centromeric chromatin.

  12. Structural evolution of Colloidal Gels under Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boromand, Arman; Maia, Joao; Jamali, Safa

    Colloidal suspensions are ubiquitous in different industrial applications ranging from cosmetic and food industries to soft robotics and aerospace. Owing to the fact that mechanical properties of colloidal gels are controlled by its microstructure and network topology, we trace the particles in the networks formed under different attraction potentials and try to find a universal behavior in yielding of colloidal gels. Many authors have implemented different simulation techniques such as molecular dynamics (MD) and Brownian dynamics (BD) to capture better picture during phase separation and yielding mechanism in colloidal system with short-ranged attractive force. However, BD neglects multi-body hydrodynamic interactions (HI) which are believed to be responsible for the second yielding of colloidal gels. We envision using dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) with modified depletion potential and hydrodynamic interactions, as a coarse-grain model, can provide a robust simulation package to address the gel formation process and yielding in short ranged-attractive colloidal systems. The behavior of colloidal gels with different attraction potentials under flow is examined and structural fingerprints of yielding in these systems will be discussed.

  13. The evolution of the interplanetary sector structure in 1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balogh, A.; Erdos, G.; Forsyth, R. J.; Smith, E. J.

    1993-01-01

    The unique vantage point of the Ulysses spacecraft throughout 1992 and the beginning of 1993, at a close to constant heliocentric distance of about 5 AU and a slowly varying heliographic latitude from 5 deg to 30 deg south is used to describe and discuss the evolution of the sector structure of the interplanetary magnetic field during the declining phase of the solar cycle. From the end of 1990 to the beginning of 1992 the sector structure changed from a four sector to a two sector structure, but remained constant in solar longitude. From about June-July 1992, the structure, matching the evolution in the computed coronal magnetic fields, drifted eastwards, with a recurrence period of about 28 days. This result may indicate a slower rotation rate for the dipolar component of the solar magnetic field which becomes dominant about this time in the solar cycle.

  14. Prolongation Structure of Semi-discrete Nonlinear Evolution Equations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Based on noncommutative differential calculus, we present a theory of prolongation structure for semi-discrete nonlinear evolution equations. As an illustrative example, a semi-discrete model of the nonlinear Schr(o)dinger equation is discussed in terms of this theory and the corresponding Lax pairs are also given.

  15. The Evolution of Protein Structures and Structural Ensembles Under Functional Constraint

    OpenAIRE

    Liberles, David A; Grahnen, Johan A.; Jessica Siltberg-Liberles

    2011-01-01

    Protein sequence, structure, and function are inherently linked through evolution and population genetics. Our knowledge of protein structure comes from solved structures in the Protein Data Bank (PDB), our knowledge of sequence through sequences found in the NCBI sequence databases (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/), and our knowledge of function through a limited set of in-vitro biochemical studies. How these intersect through evolution is described in the first part of the review. In the secon...

  16. Structural evolution of silica sols modified with formamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenza R.F.S.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work we investigated the influence of formamide on the acid-catalyzed sol-gel process by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR. Three silica sols were studied: Sol catalyzed with nitric acid without formamide, sol catalyzed with nitric acid containing formamide and sol catalyzed with a mixture of nitric acid and hydrofluoric acid and modified with formamide. Following the time evolution of both the Si-(OH stretching vibration at around 950 cm-1 and the Si-O-(Si vibration between 1040 cm-1 and 1200 cm-1 we were able to describe the structural evolution of each sol. The curve of evolution of Si-(OH stretching vibration corresponding to sol A has a simple asymptotic evolution. In the case of formamide containing sol, we observed a two-step structural evolution indicating that for the system containing formamide the polymerization goes through a temporary stabilization of oligomers, which can explain the non-variation of the Si-O(H bond wavenumber for a certain time. Gelation times were of several days for gels without formamide and few hours for gels containing additive. The presence of additive resulted in a highly interconnected gel.

  17. THE STRUCTURE, ORIGIN, AND EVOLUTION OF INTERSTELLAR HYDROCARBON GRAINS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiar, J. E.; Ricca, A. [SETI Institute, Carl Sagan Center, 189 Bernardo Avenue, Mountain View, CA 94043 (United States); Tielens, A. G. G. M. [Leiden Observatory, P.O. Box 9513, NL-2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Adamson, A. J., E-mail: jchiar@seti.org, E-mail: Alessandra.Ricca@1.nasa.gov, E-mail: tielens@strw.leidenuniv.nl, E-mail: aadamson@gemini.edu [Gemini Observatory, Northern Operations Center, 670 North A' ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96729 (United States)

    2013-06-10

    Many materials have been considered for the carrier of the hydrocarbon absorption bands observed in the diffuse interstellar medium (ISM). In order to refine the model for ISM hydrocarbon grains, we analyze the observed aromatic (3.28, 6.2 {mu}m) and aliphatic (3.4 {mu}m) hydrocarbon absorption features in the diffuse ISM along the line of sight toward the Galactic center Quintuplet Cluster. Observationally, sp {sup 2} bonds can be measured in astronomical spectra using the 6.2 {mu}m CC aromatic stretch feature, whereas the 3.4 {mu}m aliphatic feature can be used to quantify the fraction of sp {sup 3} bonds. The fractional abundance of these components allows us to place the Galactic diffuse ISM hydrocarbons on a ternary phase diagram. We conclude that the Galactic hydrocarbon dust has, on average, a low H/C ratio and sp {sup 3} content and is highly aromatic. We have placed the results of our analysis within the context of the evolution of carbon dust in the ISM. We argue that interstellar carbon dust consists of a large core of aromatic carbon surrounded by a thin mantle of hydrogenated amorphous carbon (a-C:H), a structure that is a natural consequence of the processing of stardust grains in the ISM.

  18. THE STRUCTURE, ORIGIN, AND EVOLUTION OF INTERSTELLAR HYDROCARBON GRAINS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many materials have been considered for the carrier of the hydrocarbon absorption bands observed in the diffuse interstellar medium (ISM). In order to refine the model for ISM hydrocarbon grains, we analyze the observed aromatic (3.28, 6.2 μm) and aliphatic (3.4 μm) hydrocarbon absorption features in the diffuse ISM along the line of sight toward the Galactic center Quintuplet Cluster. Observationally, sp 2 bonds can be measured in astronomical spectra using the 6.2 μm CC aromatic stretch feature, whereas the 3.4 μm aliphatic feature can be used to quantify the fraction of sp 3 bonds. The fractional abundance of these components allows us to place the Galactic diffuse ISM hydrocarbons on a ternary phase diagram. We conclude that the Galactic hydrocarbon dust has, on average, a low H/C ratio and sp 3 content and is highly aromatic. We have placed the results of our analysis within the context of the evolution of carbon dust in the ISM. We argue that interstellar carbon dust consists of a large core of aromatic carbon surrounded by a thin mantle of hydrogenated amorphous carbon (a-C:H), a structure that is a natural consequence of the processing of stardust grains in the ISM.

  19. Structure and Evolution of Hot Gas in 30 Dor

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Q D

    1999-01-01

    We have investigated the structure and evolution of hot gas in the 30 Dor nebula, based on recent X-ray observations. Our deep ROSAT HRI image shows that diffuse X-ray emission arises in blister-shaped regions outlined by loops of HII gas. X-ray spectroscopic data from ASCA confirm the thermal nature of the emission and indicate that hot gas temperature decreases from the core to the halo of the nebula. The structure of the nebula can be understood as outflows of hot and HII gases from the parent giant molecular cloud of the central OB association. The dynamic mixing between the two gas phases is likely responsible for the mass loading to the hot gas, as required to explain the observed thermal structure and X-ray luminosity of the nebula. Such processes should also be important in the formation of similar giant HII regions and in their subsequent evolution into supergiant bubbles or galactic chimneys.

  20. Evolution of dispersion fuel meat structure caused by interface reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In reactor operation, the resultant layers are formed by interdiffusion at the fuel particle-matrix interfaces of U3Si2-Al dispersion fuel. This results in the evolution of meat structure. On the basis of Monte-Carlo method, the author developed simulation method of fuel meat, and simulated the stochastic space locations of spherical fuel particles in the meat. The fuel volume fraction is 43%, and the particles are in definite size distribution. For the 13551 simulated particle samples, the evolution of meat structure is calculated with layer thickness ranging from 0 to 16 μm. The parameters of meat structure include the U3Si2 fuel volume fraction, resultant layer volume fraction, Al matrix volume fraction, particle contact probability and overlap degree as functions of layer thickness

  1. Subsurface defects structural evolution in nano-cutting of single crystal copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • An innovative analysis method is adopted to analyze nano-cutting process accurately. • A characteristic SFT and stair-rod dislocation are found in subsurface defect layer. • The formation mechanism of stair-rod dislocation is investigated. • The local atomic structure of subsurface defects is introduced. - Abstract: In this work, molecular dynamics simulation is performed to study the subsurface defects structural distribution and its evolution during nano-cutting process of single crystal copper. The formation mechanism of chip and machined surface is interviewed by analyzing the dislocation evolution and atomic migration. The centro-symmetry parameter and spherical harmonics method are adopted to characterize the distribution and evolution of the subsurface defect structures and local atomic structures. The results show that stacking faults, dislocation loops, “V-shaped” dislocation loops, and plenty of point defects are formed during the machined surface being formed in shear-slip zone. In subsurface damage layers, stair-rod dislocation, stacking fault tetrahedra, atomic cluster defect, and vacancy defect are formed. And the formation mechanism of stair-rod dislocation is investigated by atomic-scale structure evolution. The local atomic structures of subsurface defects are icosahedrons, hexagonal close packed, body-centered cubic, and defect face center cubic, and the variations of local atomic structures are investigated

  2. Subsurface defects structural evolution in nano-cutting of single crystal copper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Quanlong [School of Mechatronics Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Center for Precision Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Bai, Qingshun [School of Mechatronics Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Chen, Jiaxuan, E-mail: wangquanlong0@hit.edu.cn [Center for Precision Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Sun, Yazhou [School of Mechatronics Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Guo, Yongbo [Center for Precision Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Liang, Yingchun [School of Mechatronics Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2015-07-30

    Highlights: • An innovative analysis method is adopted to analyze nano-cutting process accurately. • A characteristic SFT and stair-rod dislocation are found in subsurface defect layer. • The formation mechanism of stair-rod dislocation is investigated. • The local atomic structure of subsurface defects is introduced. - Abstract: In this work, molecular dynamics simulation is performed to study the subsurface defects structural distribution and its evolution during nano-cutting process of single crystal copper. The formation mechanism of chip and machined surface is interviewed by analyzing the dislocation evolution and atomic migration. The centro-symmetry parameter and spherical harmonics method are adopted to characterize the distribution and evolution of the subsurface defect structures and local atomic structures. The results show that stacking faults, dislocation loops, “V-shaped” dislocation loops, and plenty of point defects are formed during the machined surface being formed in shear-slip zone. In subsurface damage layers, stair-rod dislocation, stacking fault tetrahedra, atomic cluster defect, and vacancy defect are formed. And the formation mechanism of stair-rod dislocation is investigated by atomic-scale structure evolution. The local atomic structures of subsurface defects are icosahedrons, hexagonal close packed, body-centered cubic, and defect face center cubic, and the variations of local atomic structures are investigated.

  3. Structural analysis of DAEs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mikael Zebbelin

    2002-01-01

    Differential algebraic equations (DAEs) constitute a fundamental model class for many modelling purposes in engineering and other sciences, especially for dynamical simulation of component based systems. This thesis describes a practical methodology and approach for analysing general DAE. The...... underlying ODE for finding consistent initial values and solve the initial value problem for the original DAE. As a methodology for integrating the augmented underlying ODE, the dummy derivative method is investigated. The methodology avoids the traditional stability and drift-of problems of using the...... structural index analysis of DAE is original in the sense that it is based on a new matrix representation of the structural information of a general DAE system instead of a graph oriented representation. Also the presentation of the theory is found to be more complete compared to other presentations, since...

  4. Simulated evolution of the dark matter large-scale structure

    CERN Document Server

    Demiański, M; Pilipenko, S; Gottlöber, S

    2011-01-01

    We analyze evolution of the basic properties of simulated large scale structure elements formed by dark matter (DM LSS) and confront it with the observed evolution of the Lyman-$\\alpha$ forest. In three high resolution simulations we selected samples of compact DM clouds of moderate overdensity. Clouds are selected at redshifts $0\\leq z\\leq 3$ with the Minimal Spanning Tree (MST) technique. The main properties of so selected clouds are analyzed in 3D space and with the core sampling approach, what allows us to compare estimates of the DM LSS evolution obtained with two different techniques and to clarify some important aspects of the LSS evolution. In both cases we find that regular redshift variations of the mean characteristics of the DM LSS are accompanied only by small variations of their PDFs, what indicates the self similar character of the DM LSS evolution. The high degree of relaxation of DM particles compressed within the LSS is found along the shortest principal axis of clouds. We see that the inter...

  5. Structure and evolution of barley powdery mildew effector candidates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedersen Carsten

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein effectors of pathogenicity are instrumental in modulating host immunity and disease resistance. The powdery mildew pathogen of grasses Blumeria graminis causes one of the most important diseases of cereal crops. B. graminis is an obligate biotrophic pathogen and as such has an absolute requirement to suppress or avoid host immunity if it is to survive and cause disease. Results Here we characterise a superfamily predicted to be the full complement of Candidates for Secreted Effector Proteins (CSEPs in the fungal barley powdery mildew parasite B. graminis f.sp. hordei. The 491 genes encoding these proteins constitute over 7% of this pathogen’s annotated genes and most were grouped into 72 families of up to 59 members. They were predominantly expressed in the intracellular feeding structures called haustoria, and proteins specifically associated with the haustoria were identified by large-scale mass spectrometry-based proteomics. There are two major types of effector families: one comprises shorter proteins (100–150 amino acids, with a high relative expression level in the haustoria and evidence of extensive diversifying selection between paralogs; the second type consists of longer proteins (300–400 amino acids, with lower levels of differential expression and evidence of purifying selection between paralogs. An analysis of the predicted protein structures underscores their overall similarity to known fungal effectors, but also highlights unexpected structural affinities to ribonucleases throughout the entire effector super-family. Candidate effector genes belonging to the same family are loosely clustered in the genome and are associated with repetitive DNA derived from retro-transposons. Conclusions We employed the full complement of genomic, transcriptomic and proteomic analyses as well as structural prediction methods to identify and characterize the members of the CSEPs superfamily in B. graminis f

  6. Analysis of snowpack properties and structure from TerraSAR-X data, based on multilayer backscattering and snow evolution modeling approaches

    CERN Document Server

    Phan, Xuan-Vu; Gay, Michel; Durand, Yves; Dumont, Marie; Allain, Sophie; D'Urso, Guy

    2012-01-01

    Recently launched high precision Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) satellites such as TerraSAR-X, COSMO-SkyMed, etc. present a high potential for better observation and characterization of the cryosphere. This study introduces a new approach using high frequency (X-band) SAR data and an Electromagnetic Backscattering Model (EBM) to constrain the detailed snowpack model Crocus. A snowpack EBM based on radiative transfer theory, previously used for C-band applications, is adapted for the X-band. From measured or simulated snowpack stratigraphic profiles consisting of snow optical grain radius and density, this forward model calculates the backscattering coefficient for different polarimetric channels. The output result is then compared with spaceborne TerraSAR-X acquisitions to evaluate the forward model. Next, from the EBM, the adjoint operator is developed and used in a variational analysis scheme in order to minimize the discrepancies between simulations and SAR observations. A time series of TerraSAR-X acquisi...

  7. Structural Evolution of Household Energy Consumption: A China Study

    OpenAIRE

    Qingsong Wang; Ping Liu; Xueliang Yuan; Xingxing Cheng; Rujian Ma; Ruimin Mu; Jian Zuo

    2015-01-01

    Sustainable energy production and consumption is one of the issues for the sustainable development strategy in China. As China’s economic development paradigm shifts, household energy consumption (HEC) has become a focus of achieving national goals of energy efficiency and greenhouse gas reduction. The information entropy model and LMDI model were employed in this study in order to analyse the structural evolution of HEC, as well as its associated critical factors. The results indicate that t...

  8. Downstream Evolution of Longitudinal Embedded Vortices with Helical Structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Velte, Clara Marika; Okulov, Valery; Hansen, Martin Otto Laver

    2009-01-01

    In the present work the downstream development of device induced vortices with helical symmetry embedded in wall bounded flow on a bump is studied with the aid of Stereoscopic Particle Image Velocimetry (SPIV). The downstream evolution of characteristic parameters of helical vortices is studied......, displaying a linear variation of the helical parameters up to the trailing edge of the bump where the vortex experiences an abrupt transition in structure....

  9. Evolution of local structures in polycrystalline Zn1-xMgxO (0 (le) x (le) 0.15) studied by Raman spectroscopy and synchrotron x-ray pair-distribution-function analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The local structures of Zn1-xMgxO alloys have been studied by Raman spectroscopy and by synchrotron x-ray pair-distribution-function (PDF) analysis. Within the solid solution range (0 (le) x (le) 0.15) of Zn1-xMgxO, the wurtzite framework is maintained with Mg homogeneously distributed throughout the wurtzite lattice. The E2high Raman line of Zn1-xMgxO displays systematic changes in response to the evolution of the crystal lattice upon the Mg substitution. The redshift and broadening of the E2high mode are explained by the expansion of hexagonal ab dimensions and compositional disorder of Zn/Mg, respectively. Synchrotron x-ray PDF analyses of Zn1-xMgxO reveal that the Mg atoms have a slightly reduced wurtzite parameter u and more regular tetrahedral bond distances than the Zn atoms. For both Zn and Mg, the internal tetrahedral geometries are independent of the alloy composition.

  10. The evolution of the bank regulatory structure : a reappraisal

    OpenAIRE

    F. Ward McCarthy, Jr.

    1984-01-01

    In his article, “The Evolution of the Bank Regulatory Structure: A Reappraisal,” F. Ward McCarthy Jr. argues that neither of these competing theories provides a sufficient explanation for the major developments in the bank regulatory framework of the United States. He proposes that the structure of bank regulation has been dictated in part by the desire of governments to enhance their abilities to generate revenue. McCarthy traces the history of government intervention in the banking industry...

  11. Fine-structure constant variability surprises for laboratory atomic spectroscopy and cosmological evolution of quasar spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Bekenstein, J D

    2003-01-01

    Calculation of the Dirac hydrogen atom spectrum in the framework of dynamical fine structure constant (alpha) variability discloses a small departure in the laboratory from Sommerfeld's formula for the fine structure shifts, possibly measurable today. And for a distant object in the universe, the wavelength shift of a spectral line specifically ascribable to cosmological alpha variation is found to depend differently on the quantum numbers than in the conventional view. This last result clashes with the conventional wisdom that an atom's spectrum can change with cosmological time only through evolution of the alpha parameter in the energy eigenvalue formula, and thus impacts on the Webb group's analysis of fine structure intervals in quasar absorption lines (which has been claimed to disclose cosmological alpha evolution). In particular, analyzing together a mix of quasar absorption lines from different fine structure multiplets can bias estimates of cosmological alpha variability.

  12. Structural and magmatic evolution in the Loimaa area, southwestern Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nironen, M.

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Within the Loimaa area there is a junction of the general E-W structural trend of southern Finland and a NW-N-NE curving trend. The structure of the area is dominated by ductile D, and D4 deformations with E-W and N-S axial traces, respectively. The typical semicircular structures in the study area are interpreted as F3-F4 fold interference structures. The predominant plutonic rocks in the Loimaa area are penetratively foliated tonalites and granodiorites which probably intruded during D2 deformation. Peak regional metamorphism at upper amphibolite facies and emplacement of the Pöytyä Granodiorite ca. 1870 Ma ago occurred during D, deformation. The ductile style of D4 deformation in the Loimaa area is probably related to the high-grade metamorphism at 1850-1810 Ma in the late Svecofennian granite-migmatite (LSGM zone immediately south of the study area. The Oripää Granite was emplaced during D4 deformation. The structural evolution in the Loimaa area may be correlated with the evolution further to the northwest (Pori area and north (Tampere-Vammala area whereas correlation to the south and west is problematic. A transpressional model presented for the LSGM zone is not applicable to the Loimaa area.

  13. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE RECENT EVOLUTIONS OF ROMANIAN AND EUROPEAN UNION'S COMPETITIVENESS

    OpenAIRE

    Felea Adrian Ioan

    2011-01-01

    The main subject of this paper refers to an analysis of the recent trends and evolution of Romanian competitiveness compared to the European Union competitiveness and it is structured in four main parts. The first section of the paper regards an introduction of the competitiveness evolution process, recalling the three actual evaluation models of the competitiveness level. In the second part of the paper there can be found the competitiveness indexes practiced and published by the World Econo...

  14. Evol and ProDy for bridging protein sequence evolution and structural dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Wenzhi; Liu, Ying; Chennubhotla, Chakra; Lezon, Timothy R.; Bahar, Ivet

    2014-01-01

    Correlations between sequence evolution and structural dynamics are of utmost importance in understanding the molecular mechanisms of function and their evolution. We have integrated Evol, a new package for fast and efficient comparative analysis of evolutionary patterns and conformational dynamics, into ProDy, a computational toolbox designed for inferring protein dynamics from experimental and theoretical data. Using information-theoretic approaches, Evol coanalyzes conservation and coevolution profiles extracted from multiple sequence alignments of protein families with their inferred dynamics. Availability and implementation: ProDy and Evol are open-source and freely available under MIT License from http://prody.csb.pitt.edu/. Contact: bahar@pitt.edu PMID:24849577

  15. Impact damage evolution under fatigue loading by InfraRed Thermography on composite structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pastor M.-L.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with cumulative damage and its evolution in already impact damage composite structure. In order to follow the growing damage and to compare it with cumulative model, tests are monitored with an InfraRed thermography system. A carbon-epoxy composite is first low-energy impacted and then fatigued under tensioncompression loading. This study also enables a very fast analysis of predicting the damage evolution coupling InfraRed Thermography as NDT method and InfraRed thermography as a following system.

  16. Comparative Genome Analysis and Genome Evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snel, Berend

    2003-01-01

    This thesis described a collection of bioinformatic analyses on complete genome sequence data. We have studied the evolution of gene content and find that vertical inheritance dominates over horizontal gene trasnfer, even to the extent that we can use the gene content to make genome phylogenies. Usi

  17. Statistical Analysis of Hominoid Molecular Evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Barry, Daniel; Hartigan, J. A.

    1987-01-01

    The core data of molecular biology consists of DNA sequences. We will show how DNA sequences may be used to infer the evolution of the primates, human, chimpanzee, ape, orangutan and gibbon. The underlying probability models are taken to be Markov processes on trees. Some dependencies along the sequence due to the genetic code are also considered.

  18. Tatooine Nurseries: Structure and Evolution of Circumbinary Protoplanetary Disks

    CERN Document Server

    Vartanyan, David; Rafikov, Roman R

    2015-01-01

    Recent discoveries of circumbinary planets by Kepler mission provide motivation for understanding their birthplaces - protoplanetary disks around stellar binaries with separations <1 AU. We explore properties and evolution of such circumbinary disks focusing on modification of their structure caused by tidal coupling to the binary. We develop a set of analytical scaling relations describing viscous evolution of the disk properties, which are verified and calibrated using 1D numerical calculations with realistic inputs. Injection of angular momentum by the central binary suppresses mass accretion onto the binary and causes radial distribution of the viscous angular momentum flux F_J to be different from that in a standard accretion disk around a single star with no torque at the center. Disks with no mass accretion at the center develop F_J profile which is flat in radius. Radial profiles of temperature and surface density are also quite different from those in disks around single stars. Damping of the dens...

  19. Structural analysis system THANKS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The analytical codes THANKS (Three Dimensional Analysis of NIPPON KOKAN Systems) V-1, THANKS V-2, and THANKS V-3 were developed to analyze the structures having complicated configuration, to simulate the actual phenomena including elastoplastic property, creep, large deformation and dynamic behavior, and to analyze thermal and hydraulic characteristics. These codes are supported with the development of pre-processor PRE-THANKS and post-processor POST-THANKS. The special features of this code system are as follows: 1) it is possible to analyze the strength of three dimensional structures having any complex configuration and to calculate the large scale problems with 160,000 freedom, 2) it is possible to treat the broad range of linear and nonlinear problems of both static and dynamic and thermal conduction, 3) the calculating time is shortened, 4) the program consists of modules, therefore the partial improvement is simple, and the addition of new functions is easy, 5) the graphic display utilizing cathode ray tubes (CRT) is available, and 6) the high efficiency and the reduction of labor are planned. The hardwares of THANKS system consist of a computer IBM S370/168, a card reader, magnetic discs, a printer, a graphic display and a plotter, and PRE-THANKS, THANKS V-1 THANKS V-2 THANKS V-3 and POST-THANKS are included in this computer system. PRE-THANKS has the functions such as the input of two and three dimensional mesh configurations, the production of mesh files, and the display with a CRT. POST-THANKS has the function displaying stress contours, stress distribution, change of stress in course of time and deformation on CRT or drawing them utilizing a plotter. (Nakai, Y.)

  20. Nonsmooth analysis of doubly nonlinear evolution equations

    CERN Document Server

    Mielke, Alexander; Savare', Giuseppe

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we analyze a broad class of abstract doubly nonlinear evolution equations in Banach spaces, driven by nonsmooth and nonconvex energies. We provide some general sufficient conditions, on the dissipation potential and the energy functional,for existence of solutions to the related Cauchy problem. We prove our main existence result by passing to the limit in a time-discretization scheme with variational techniques. Finally, we discuss an application to a material model in finite-strain elasticity.

  1. Influence Activation Model: A New Perspective in Social Influence Analysis and Social Network Evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Yang; Lichtenwalter, Ryan N; Dong, Yuxiao

    2016-01-01

    What drives the propensity for the social network dynamics? Social influence is believed to drive both off-line and on-line human behavior, however it has not been considered as a driver of social network evolution. Our analysis suggest that, while the network structure affects the spread of influence in social networks, the network is in turn shaped by social influence activity (i.e., the process of social influence wherein one person's attitudes and behaviors affect another's). To that end, we develop a novel model of network evolution where the dynamics of network follow the mechanism of influence propagation, which are not captured by the existing network evolution models. Our experiments confirm the predictions of our model and demonstrate the important role that social influence can play in the process of network evolution. As well exploring the reason of social network evolution, different genres of social influence have been spotted having different effects on the network dynamics. These findings and ...

  2. Structure evolution and optimization in the fabrication of PVA-based activated carbon fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shu-Juan; Feng, Hui-Min; Wang, Jian-Ping; Yu, Han-Qing

    2008-05-01

    The structure and composition evolution of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) fibers during the fabrication of activated carbon fibers (ACF) by a newly developed method were systematically elucidated. The pore structure of the fibers was significantly influenced by the carbonization and activation conditions. The elemental composition and chemical structure evolution of the fibers during the heat treatment processes were evaluated by elemental analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometry (FTIR), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Crystal structure evolution of the fibers during the heat treatment processes was elucidated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. Based on these understandings, the process conditions were optimized using an L(9)(3)(4) orthogonal array design matrix. Appropriate process parameters for the fabrication of PVA-ACFs were established as carbonizing the dehydrated fiber at 300 degrees C for 60 min, and then lifting the temperature to 900 degrees C with a heating speed of 10 degrees C/min in an inert atmosphere, thereafter keeping the fiber at 900 degrees C for 60 min in an oxidizing atmosphere. PMID:18261741

  3. Wound Image Analysis Using Contour Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Sundeep Kumar

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the algorithm described in this paper is to segment wound images from the normal and classify them according to the types of the wound. The segmentation of wounds extravagates color representation, which has been followed by an algorithm of grayscale segmentation based on the stack mathematical approach. Accurate classification of wounds and analyzing wound healing process is a critical task for patient care and health cost reduction at hospital. The tissue uniformity and flatness leads to a simplified approach but requires multispectral imaging for enhanced wound delineation. Contour Evolution method which uses multispectral imaging replaces more complex tools such as, SVM supervised classification, as no training step is required. In Contour Evolution, classification can be done by clustering color information, with differential quantization algorithm, the color centroids of small squares taken from segmented part of the wound image in (C1,C2 plane. Where C1, C2 are two chrominance components. Wound healing is identified by measuring the size of the wound through various means like contact and noncontact methods of wound. The wound tissues proportion is also estimated by a qualitative visual assessment based on the red-yellow-black code. Moreover, involving all the spectral response of the tissue and not only RGB components provides a higher discrimination for separating healed epithelial tissue from granulation tissue.

  4. Evolution of Tertiary Structure of Viral RNA Dependent Polymerases

    OpenAIRE

    Černý, Jiří; Černá Bolfíková, Barbora; Valdés, James J.; Grubhoffer, Libor; Růžek, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Viral RNA dependent polymerases (vRdPs) are present in all RNA viruses; unfortunately, their sequence similarity is too low for phylogenetic studies. Nevertheless, vRdP protein structures are remarkably conserved. In this study, we used the structural similarity of vRdPs to reconstruct their evolutionary history. The major strength of this work is in unifying sequence and structural data into a single quantitative phylogenetic analysis, using powerful a Bayesian approach. The resulting phylog...

  5. The structural and property evolution of cellulose during carbonization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhim, Yo-Rhin

    The understanding of the structure and related property evolution during carbonization is imperative in engineering carbon materials for specific functionalities. High purity cellulose was used as a model precursor to help understand the conversion of organic compounds to hard carbons. Several characterization techniques were employed to follow the structural, compositional and property changes during the thermal transformation of microcrystalline cellulose to carbon over the temperature range of 250°C to 2000°C. These studies revealed several stages of composition and microstructure evolution during carbonization supported by the observation of five distinct regions of electrical and thermal properties. In Region I, from 250°C to 400°C, depolymerisation of cellulose molecules caused the evolution of volatile gases and decrease in dipole polarization. This also led to the reduction of overall AC electrical conductivity and specific heat. In Region II, from 450°C to 500°C, the formation and growth of conducting sp 2 carbon clusters resulted in increases in overall AC electrical conductivity and thermal diffusivity with rising temperature. For heat treatment temperatures of 550°C and 600°C, Region III, carbon clusters grew into aggregates of curved carbon layers leading to interfacial polarization and onset of percolation. AC electrical and thermal conductivities are enhanced due to electron hopping and improved phonon transport among carbon clusters. With temperatures rising from 650°C to 1000°C, Region IV, DC conductivity began to emerge and increased sharply along with thermal conductivity with further percolation of carbon clusters as lateral growth of carbon layers continued. Lastly, from 1200°C to 2000°C, Region V, DC electrical conductivity remained constant due to a fully percolated system.

  6. Astrocladistics: a phylogenetic analysis of galaxy evolution I. Character evolutions and galaxy histories

    CERN Document Server

    Fraix-Burnet, D; Douzery, E J P; Verhamme, A; Fraix-Burnet, Didier; Choler, Philippe; Douzery, Emmanuel J.P.; Verhamme, Anne

    2006-01-01

    This series of papers is intended to present astrocladistics in some detail and evaluate this methodology in reconstructing phylogenies of galaxies. Being based on the evolution of all the characters describing galaxies, it is an objective way of understanding galaxy diversity through evolutionary relationships. In this first paper, we present the basic steps of a cladistic analysis and show both theoretically and practically that it can be applied to galaxies. For illustration, we use a sample of 50 simulated galaxies taken from the GALICS database, which are described by 91 observables (dynamics, masses and luminosities). These 50 simulated galaxies are indeed 10 different galaxies taken at 5 cosmological epochs, and they are free of merger events. The astrocladistic analysis easily reconstructs the true chronology of evolution relationships within this sample. It also demonstrates that burst characters are not relevant for galaxy evolution as a whole. A companion paper is devoted to the formalization of th...

  7. Primary Cell Wall Structure in the Evolution of Land Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Investigation of the primary cell walls of lower plants improves our understanding of the cell biology of these organisms but also has the potential to improve our understanding of cell wall structure and function in angiosperms that evolved from lower plants. Cell walls were prepared from eight species, ranging from a moss to advanced gymnosperms, and subjected to sequential chemical extraction to separate the main polysaccharide fractions. The glycosyl compositions of these fractions were then determined by gas chromatography. The results were compared among the eight plants and among data from related studies reported in the existing published reports to identify structural features that have been either highly conserved or clearly modified during evolution. Among the highly conserved features are the presence of a cellulose framework, the presence of certain hemicelluloses such as xyloglucan, and the presence of rhamnogalacturonan Ⅱ, a domain in pectic polysaccharides. Among the modified features are the abundance of mannosyl-containing hemicelluloses and the presence of methylated sugars.

  8. Structures and their analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Fuchs, Maurice Bernard

    2016-01-01

    Addressing structures, this book presents a classic discipline in a modern setting by combining illustrated examples with insights into the solutions. It is the fruit of the author’s many years of teaching the subject and of just as many years of research into the design of optimal structures. Although intended for an advanced level of instruction it has an undergraduate course at its core. Further, the book was written with the advantage of having massive computer power in the background, an aspect which changes the entire approach to many engineering disciplines and in particular to structures. This paradigm shift has dislodged the force (flexibility) method from its former prominence and paved the way for the displacement (stiffness) method, despite the multitude of linear equations it spawns. In this book, however, both methods are taught: the force method offers a perfect vehicle for understanding structural behavior, bearing in mind that it is the displacement method which does the heavy number crunch...

  9. Convergent evolution of modularity in metabolic networks through different community structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Wanding

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been reported that the modularity of metabolic networks of bacteria is closely related to the variability of their living habitats. However, given the dependency of the modularity score on the community structure, it remains unknown whether organisms achieve certain modularity via similar or different community structures. Results In this work, we studied the relationship between similarities in modularity scores and similarities in community structures of the metabolic networks of 1021 species. Both similarities are then compared against the genetic distances. We revisited the association between modularity and variability of the microbial living environments and extended the analysis to other aspects of their life style such as temperature and oxygen requirements. We also tested both topological and biological intuition of the community structures identified and investigated the extent of their conservation with respect to the taxomony. Conclusions We find that similar modularities are realized by different community structures. We find that such convergent evolution of modularity is closely associated with the number of (distinct enzymes in the organism’s metabolome, a consequence of different life styles of the species. We find that the order of modularity is the same as the order of the number of the enzymes under the classification based on the temperature preference but not on the oxygen requirement. Besides, inspection of modularity-based communities reveals that these communities are graph-theoretically meaningful yet not reflective of specific biological functions. From an evolutionary perspective, we find that the community structures are conserved only at the level of kingdoms. Our results call for more investigation into the interplay between evolution and modularity: how evolution shapes modularity, and how modularity affects evolution (mainly in terms of fitness and evolvability. Further, our results

  10. Evolution Analysis of Simple Sequence Repeats in Plant Genome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Qin

    Full Text Available Simple sequence repeats (SSRs are widespread units on genome sequences, and play many important roles in plants. In order to reveal the evolution of plant genomes, we investigated the evolutionary regularities of SSRs during the evolution of plant species and the plant kingdom by analysis of twelve sequenced plant genome sequences. First, in the twelve studied plant genomes, the main SSRs were those which contain repeats of 1-3 nucleotides combination. Second, in mononucleotide SSRs, the A/T percentage gradually increased along with the evolution of plants (except for P. patens. With the increase of SSRs repeat number the percentage of A/T in C. reinhardtii had no significant change, while the percentage of A/T in terrestrial plants species gradually declined. Third, in dinucleotide SSRs, the percentage of AT/TA increased along with the evolution of plant kingdom and the repeat number increased in terrestrial plants species. This trend was more obvious in dicotyledon than monocotyledon. The percentage of CG/GC showed the opposite pattern to the AT/TA. Forth, in trinucleotide SSRs, the percentages of combinations including two or three A/T were in a rising trend along with the evolution of plant kingdom; meanwhile with the increase of SSRs repeat number in plants species, different species chose different combinations as dominant SSRs. SSRs in C. reinhardtii, P. patens, Z. mays and A. thaliana showed their specific patterns related to evolutionary position or specific changes of genome sequences. The results showed that, SSRs not only had the general pattern in the evolution of plant kingdom, but also were associated with the evolution of the specific genome sequence. The study of the evolutionary regularities of SSRs provided new insights for the analysis of the plant genome evolution.

  11. Transverse zones controlling the structural evolution of the Zipaquira Anticline (Eastern Cordillera, Colombia): Regional implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Helbert; Jiménez, Giovanny

    2016-08-01

    We report paleomagnetic, magnetic fabric and structural results from 21 sites collected in Cretaceous marine mudstones and Paleogene continental sandstones from the limbs, hinge and transverse zones of the Zipaquira Anticline (ZA). The ZA is an asymmetrical fold with one limb completely overturned by processes like gravity and salt tectonics, and marked by several axis curvatures. The ZA is controlled by at least two (2) transverse zones known as the Neusa and Zipaquira Transverse Zones (NTZ and ZTZ, respectively). Magnetic mineralogy methods were applied at different sites and the main carriers of the magnetic properties are paramagnetic components with some sites being controlled by hematite and magnetite. Magnetic fabric analysis shows rigid-body rotation for the back-limb in the ZA, while the forelimb is subjected to internal deformation. Structural and paleomagnetic data shows the influence of the NTZ and ZTZ in the evolution of the different structures like the ZA and the Zipaquira, Carupa, Rio Guandoque, Las Margaritas and Neusa faults, controlling several factors as vergence, extension, fold axis curvature and stratigraphic detatchment. Clockwise rotations unraveled a block segmentation following a discontinuos model caused by transverse zones and one site reported a counter clockwise rotation associated with a left-lateral strike slip component for transverse faults (e.g. the Neusa Fault). We propose that diverse transverse zones have been active since Paleogene times, playing an important role in the tectonic evolution of the Cundinamarca sub-basin and controlling the structural evolution of folds and faults with block segmentation and rotations.

  12. Structure and evolution of magnetic fields associated with solar eruptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reviews the studies of solar photospheric magnetic field evolution in active regions and its relationship to solar flares. It is divided into two topics, the magnetic structure and evolution leading to solar eruptions and rapid changes in the photospheric magnetic field associated with eruptions. For the first topic, we describe the magnetic complexity, new flux emergence, flux cancelation, shear motions, sunspot rotation and magnetic helicity injection, which may all contribute to the storage and buildup of energy that trigger solar eruptions. For the second topic, we concentrate on the observations of rapid and irreversible changes of the photospheric magnetic field associated with flares, and the implication on the restructuring of the three-dimensional magnetic field. In particular, we emphasize the recent advances in observations of the photospheric magnetic field, as state-of-the-art observing facilities (such as Hinode and Solar Dynamics Observatory) have become available. The linkages between observations, theories and future prospectives in this research area are also discussed. (invited reviews)

  13. The Interior Structure, Composition, and Evolution of Giant Planets

    CERN Document Server

    Fortney, Jonathan J

    2009-01-01

    We discuss our current understanding of the interior structure and thermal evolution of giant planets. This includes the gas giants, such as Jupiter and Saturn, that are primarily composed of hydrogen and helium, as well as the "ice giants," such as Uranus and Neptune, which are primarily composed of elements heavier than H/He. The effect of different hydrogen equations of state (including new first-principles computations) on Jupiter's core mass and heavy element distribution is detailed. This variety of the hydrogen equations of state translate into an uncertainty in Jupiter's core mass of 18 M_Earth. For Uranus and Neptune we find deep envelope metallicities up to 0.95, perhaps indicating the existence of an eroded core, as also supported by their low luminosity. We discuss the results of simple cooling models of our solar system's planets, and show that more complex thermal evolution models may be necessary to understand their cooling history. We review how measurements of the masses and radii of the ~50 ...

  14. Cooling-induced structure formation and evolution in collapsars

    CERN Document Server

    Batta, Aldo

    2013-01-01

    The collapse of massive rotating stellar cores and the associated accretion onto the newborn compact object is thought to power long gamma ray bursts (GRBs). The physical scale and dynamics of the accretion disk are initially set by the angular momentum distribution in the progenitor, and the physical conditions make neutrino emission the main cooling agent in the flow. The formation and evolution of structure in these disks is potentially very relevant for the energy release and its time variability, which ultimately imprint on the observed GRB properties. To begin to characterize these, taking into account the three dimensional nature of the problem, we have carried out an initial set of calculations of the collapse of rotating polytropic cores in three dimensions, making use of a pseudo-relativistic potential and a simplified cooling prescription. We focus on the effects of self gravity and cooling on the overall morphology and evolution of the flow for a given rotation rate in the context of the collapsar...

  15. Bayesian Network Structure Learning from Limited Datasets through Graph Evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Tonda, Alberto; Lutton, Evelyne; Reuillon, Romain; Squillero, Giovanni; Wuillemin, Pierre-Henri

    2012-01-01

    Bayesian networks are stochastic models, widely adopted to encode knowledge in several fields. One of the most interesting features of a Bayesian network is the possibility of learning its structure from a set of data, and subsequently use the resulting model to perform new predictions. Structure learning for such models is a NP-hard problem, for which the scientific community developed two main approaches: score-and-search metaheuristics, often evolutionary-based, and dependency-analysis det...

  16. Computational Analysis for Morphological Evolution in Pyrolysis for Micro/Nanofabrication

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Myeongseok; Lee, Wooju; Shin, Heungjoo; Kim, Dongchoul

    2015-01-01

    Pyrolysis is recently proposed as an efficient fabrication technique of micro/nanoscale carbon structures. In order to understand the morphological evolution in pyrolysis and design the final shape of carbon structure, this study proposes a comprehensive model that incorporates the essential mechanisms of pyrolysis based on the phase field framework. Computational analysis with the developed model provides information about the effect of interface energy and kinetic rate on the morphological ...

  17. Diversity, structure and convergent evolution of the global sponge microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Torsten; Moitinho-Silva, Lucas; Lurgi, Miguel; Björk, Johannes R; Easson, Cole; Astudillo-García, Carmen; Olson, Julie B; Erwin, Patrick M; López-Legentil, Susanna; Luter, Heidi; Chaves-Fonnegra, Andia; Costa, Rodrigo; Schupp, Peter J; Steindler, Laura; Erpenbeck, Dirk; Gilbert, Jack; Knight, Rob; Ackermann, Gail; Victor Lopez, Jose; Taylor, Michael W; Thacker, Robert W; Montoya, Jose M; Hentschel, Ute; Webster, Nicole S

    2016-01-01

    Sponges (phylum Porifera) are early-diverging metazoa renowned for establishing complex microbial symbioses. Here we present a global Porifera microbiome survey, set out to establish the ecological and evolutionary drivers of these host-microbe interactions. We show that sponges are a reservoir of exceptional microbial diversity and major contributors to the total microbial diversity of the world's oceans. Little commonality in species composition or structure is evident across the phylum, although symbiont communities are characterized by specialists and generalists rather than opportunists. Core sponge microbiomes are stable and characterized by generalist symbionts exhibiting amensal and/or commensal interactions. Symbionts that are phylogenetically unique to sponges do not disproportionally contribute to the core microbiome, and host phylogeny impacts complexity rather than composition of the symbiont community. Our findings support a model of independent assembly and evolution in symbiont communities across the entire host phylum, with convergent forces resulting in analogous community organization and interactions. PMID:27306690

  18. Evolution of the nucleon structure in light nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The evolution of the EMC effect as a function of atomic mass A is considered for the first time for the lightest nuclei, D, 3He and , 4He, with an approach based on the Bethe-Salpeter formalism. We show that the pattern of the oscillation of the ratio rA(x)=F2A/F2N(D) with respect to the line rA(x)=1 varies with A, unlike the pattern for nuclei with masses A>4, where only the amplitude of the oscillation changes. It is found that the shape of the structure function distortions, which is typical for metals, is being reached in 3He

  19. Diversity, structure and convergent evolution of the global sponge microbiome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Torsten; Moitinho-Silva, Lucas; Lurgi, Miguel; Björk, Johannes R.; Easson, Cole; Astudillo-García, Carmen; Olson, Julie B.; Erwin, Patrick M.; López-Legentil, Susanna; Luter, Heidi; Chaves-Fonnegra, Andia; Costa, Rodrigo; Schupp, Peter J.; Steindler, Laura; Erpenbeck, Dirk; Gilbert, Jack; Knight, Rob; Ackermann, Gail; Victor Lopez, Jose; Taylor, Michael W.; Thacker, Robert W.; Montoya, Jose M.; Hentschel, Ute; Webster, Nicole S.

    2016-01-01

    Sponges (phylum Porifera) are early-diverging metazoa renowned for establishing complex microbial symbioses. Here we present a global Porifera microbiome survey, set out to establish the ecological and evolutionary drivers of these host–microbe interactions. We show that sponges are a reservoir of exceptional microbial diversity and major contributors to the total microbial diversity of the world's oceans. Little commonality in species composition or structure is evident across the phylum, although symbiont communities are characterized by specialists and generalists rather than opportunists. Core sponge microbiomes are stable and characterized by generalist symbionts exhibiting amensal and/or commensal interactions. Symbionts that are phylogenetically unique to sponges do not disproportionally contribute to the core microbiome, and host phylogeny impacts complexity rather than composition of the symbiont community. Our findings support a model of independent assembly and evolution in symbiont communities across the entire host phylum, with convergent forces resulting in analogous community organization and interactions. PMID:27306690

  20. Biophysical and structural considerations for protein sequence evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grahnen Johan A

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein sequence evolution is constrained by the biophysics of folding and function, causing interdependence between interacting sites in the sequence. However, current site-independent models of sequence evolutions do not take this into account. Recent attempts to integrate the influence of structure and biophysics into phylogenetic models via statistical/informational approaches have not resulted in expected improvements in model performance. This suggests that further innovations are needed for progress in this field. Results Here we develop a coarse-grained physics-based model of protein folding and binding function, and compare it to a popular informational model. We find that both models violate the assumption of the native sequence being close to a thermodynamic optimum, causing directional selection away from the native state. Sampling and simulation show that the physics-based model is more specific for fold-defining interactions that vary less among residue type. The informational model diffuses further in sequence space with fewer barriers and tends to provide less support for an invariant sites model, although amino acid substitutions are generally conservative. Both approaches produce sequences with natural features like dN/dS Conclusions Simple coarse-grained models of protein folding can describe some natural features of evolving proteins but are currently not accurate enough to use in evolutionary inference. This is partly due to improper packing of the hydrophobic core. We suggest possible improvements on the representation of structure, folding energy, and binding function, as regards both native and non-native conformations, and describe a large number of possible applications for such a model.

  1. The influence of halo evolution on galaxy structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Simon

    2015-03-01

    If Einstein-Newton gravity holds on galactic and larger scales, then current observations demonstrate that the stars and interstellar gas of a typical bright galaxy account for only a few percent of its total nonlinear mass. Dark matter makes up the rest and cannot be faint stars or any other baryonic form because it was already present and decoupled from the radiation plasma at z = 1000, long before any nonlinear object formed. The weak gravito-sonic waves so precisely measured by CMB observations are detected again at z = 4 as order unity fluctuations in intergalactic matter. These subsequently collapse to form today's galaxy/halo systems, whose mean mass profiles can be accurately determined through gravitational lensing. High-resolution simulations link the observed dark matter structures seen at all these epochs, demonstrating that they are consistent and providing detailed predictions for all aspects of halo structure and growth. Requiring consistency with the abundance and clustering of real galaxies strongly constrains the galaxy-halo relation, both today and at high redshift. This results in detailed predictions for galaxy assembly histories and for the gravitational arena in which galaxies live. Dark halos are not expected to be passive or symmetric but to have a rich and continually evolving structure which will drive evolution in the central galaxy over its full life, exciting warps, spiral patterns and tidal arms, thickening disks, producing rings, bars and bulges. Their growth is closely related to the provision of new gas for galaxy building.

  2. Back analysis of geomechanical parameters in underground works using an evolution strategy algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Moreira, Nuno Ricardo Vilaça; Miranda, Tiago F. S.; Pinheiro, Marisa Mota; Fernandes, Pedro Miguel Gomes; Dias, Daniel; Costa, L.; Sena-Cruz, José

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to evaluate the performance of an optimization algorithm from the field of evolutionary computation, namely an Evolution Strategy, in back analysis of geomechanical parameters in underground structures. This analysis was carried out through a parametric study of a synthetic case of a tunnel construction. Different combinations of parameters and measurements were carried out to test the performance of the algorithm. In order to have a comparison base for its perform...

  3. 基于概率密度演化的渡槽结构抗震分析%Seismic Analysis of Large-scale Aqueduct Structures Based on the Probability Density Evolution Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾波; 邢彦富; 刘章军

    2014-01-01

    Using the orthogonal expansion method of random processes,the non-stationary seismic acceleration process is represented as a linear combination of the standard orthogonal basis func-tions and the standard orthogonal random variables.Then,using the random function,these stand-ard orthogonal random variables in the orthogonal expansion are expressed as an orthogonal func-tion form of the basic random variable.Therefore,this method can use a basic random variable to express the original earthquake ground processes.The orthogonal expansion-random function ap-proach was used to generate 126 representative earthquake samples,and each representative sam-ple was assigned a given probability.The 126 representative earthquake samples were combined with the probability density evolution method of stochastic dynamical systems and random seis-mic responses of large-scale aqueduct structures was investigated.In this study,four cases were considered;aqueduct without water,aqueduct with water in the central trough,aqueduct with wa-ter in a two-side trough,and aqueduct with water in three troughs,and probability information of seismic responses for these cases were obtained.Moreover,using the proposed method,the seis-mic reliability of the aqueduct structures was efficiently calculated.This method provides a new and effective means for precise seismic analysis of large-scale aqueduct structures.%应用随机过程的正交展开方法,将地震动加速度过程展开为标准正交基函数与标准正交随机变量的线性组合形式。在此基础上采用随机函数的思想,将正交展开式中的标准正交随机变量表达为基本随机变量的函数形式,从而实现用一个基本随机变量来表达原地震动过程的目的。结合地震动过程的正交展开-随机函数模型与概率密度演化方法,对某大型渡槽结构进行随机地震反应分析与抗震可靠度计算;重点研究空槽和三槽有水等四种工况下渡槽结构

  4. A Dynamic Model for the Evolution of Protein Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tal, Guy; Boca, Simina Maria; Mittenthal, Jay; Caetano-Anollés, Gustavo

    2016-05-01

    Domains are folded structures and evolutionary building blocks of protein molecules. Their three-dimensional atomic conformations, which define biological functions, can be coarse-grained into levels of a hierarchy. Here we build global dynamical models for the evolution of domains at fold and fold superfamily (FSF) levels. We fit the models with data from phylogenomic trees of domain structures and evaluate the distributions of the resulting parameters and their implications. The trees were inferred from a census of domain structures in hundreds of genomes from all three superkingdoms of life. The models used birth-death differential equations with the global abundances of structures as state variables, with one set of equations for folds and another for FSFs. Only the transitions present in the tree are assumed possible. Each fold or FSF diversifies in variants, eventually producing a new fold or FSF. The parameters specify rates of generation of variants and of new folds or FSFs. The equations were solved for the parameters by simplifying the trees to a comb-like topology, treating branches as emerging directly from a trunk. We found that the rate constants for folds and FSFs evolved similarly. These parameters showed a sharp transient change at about 1.5 Gyrs ago. This time coincides with a period in which domains massively combined in proteins and their arrangements distributed in novel lineages during the rise of organismal diversification. Our simulations suggest that exploration of protein structure space occurs through coarse-grained discoveries that undergo fine-grained elaboration. PMID:27146880

  5. Markov chains or the game of structure and chance. From complex networks, to language evolution, to musical compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Ph.; Dawin, J. R.; Volchenkov, D.

    2010-06-01

    Markov chains provide us with a powerful tool for studying the structure of graphs and databases in details. We review the method of generalized inverses for Markov chains and apply it for the analysis of urban structures, evolution of languages, and musical compositions. We also discuss a generalization of Lévy flights over large complex networks and study the interplay between the nonlinearity of diffusion process and the topological structure of the network.

  6. Xe-135 and Sm-149 Isotopic Evolution Analysis Xesamo code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report the time evolution analysis of the nuclides concentration Xe-135 and Sm-149 as a function of the neutron flux is carried out. The neutron flux may be any function of time. It is analyzed as well the reactivity changes associated with the xenon and samarium concentration variations. (Author) 5 refs

  7. Analysis of intratumor heterogeneity unravels lung cancer evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruin, Elza C; McGranahan, Nicholas; Swanton, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer is a disease with dismal outcome. We recently reported a detailed intratumor heterogeneity analysis in 7 non-small cell lung cancer samples, revealing spatially separated driver events as well as the temporal dynamics of mutational processes and demonstrating an important role for APOBEC-mediated heterogeneity later in disease evolution. PMID:27308463

  8. Thermal evolution of the crystal structure of the orthorhombic perovskite LaFeO3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thermal evolution of the crystal structure of the prototypical orthorhombic perovskite LaFeO3 has been studied in detail by powder neutron diffraction in the temperature range 25analysis, combined with an analysis in terms of symmetry-adapted modes, allows key aspects of the thermal behavior to be understood. In particular, the largest-amplitude symmetry modes (viz. in-phase and out-of-phase octahedral tilts, and A-site cation displacements) are shown to display relatively ‘normal’ behavior, increasing with decreasing temperature, which contrasts with the anomalous behavior previously shown by the derivative Bi0.5La0.5FeO3. However, an unexpected behavior is seen in the nature of the intra-octahedral distortion, which is used to rationalize the unique occurrence of a temperature dependent crossover of the a and c unit cell metrics in this compound. - Graphical abstract: The unusual thermal evolution of lattice metrics in the perovskite LaFeO3 is rationalized from a detailed powder neutron diffraction study. - Highlights: • Crystal structure of the perovskite LaFeO3 studied in detail by powder neutron diffraction. • Unusual thermal evolution of lattice metrics rationalized. • Contrasting behavior to Bi-doped LaFeO3. • Octahedral distortion/tilt parameters explain unusual a and c lattice parameter behavior

  9. Microeconomic co-evolution model for financial technical analysis signals

    CERN Document Server

    Rotundo, G

    2006-01-01

    Technical analysis (TA) has been used for a long time before the availability of more sophisticated instruments for financial forecasting in order to suggest decisions on the basis of the occurrence of data patterns. Many mathematical and statistical tools for quantitative analysis of financial markets have experienced a fast and wide growth and have the power for overcoming classical technical analysis methods. This paper aims to give a measure of the reliability of some information used in TA by exploring the probability of their occurrence within a particular $microeconomic$ agent based model of markets, i.e., the co-evolution Bak-Sneppen model originally invented for describing species population evolutions. After having proved the practical interest of such a model in describing financial index so called avalanches, in the prebursting bubble time rise, the attention focuses on the occurrence of trend line detection crossing of meaningful barriers, those that give rise to some usual technical analysis str...

  10. Structure and Evolution of Kuiper Belt Objects and Dwarf Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinnon, W. B.; Prialnik, D.; Stern, S. A.; Coradini, A.

    Kuiper belt objects (KBOs) accreted from a mélange of volatile ices, carbonaceous matter, and rock of mixed interstellar and solar nebular provenance. The transneptunian region, where this accretion took place, was likely more radially compact than today. This and the influence of gas drag during the solar nebula epoch argue for more rapid KBO accretion than usually considered. Early evolution of KBOs was largely the result of heating due to radioactive decay, the most important potential source being 26Al, whereas long-term evolution of large bodies is controlled by the decay of U, Th, and 40K. Several studies are reviewed dealing with the evolution of KBO models, calculated by means of one-dimensional numerical codes that solve the heat and mass balance equations. It is shown that, depending on parameters (principally rock content and porous conductivity), KBO interiors may have reached relatively high temperatures. The models suggest that KBOs likely lost ices of very volatile species during early evolution, whereas ices of less-volatile species should be retained in cold, less-altered subsurface layers. Initially amorphous ice may have crystallized in KBO interiors, releasing volatiles trapped in the amorphous ice, and some objects may have lost part of these volatiles as well. Generally, the outer layers are far less affected by internal evolution than the inner part, which in the absence of other effects (such as collisions) predicts a stratified composition and altered porosity distribution. Kuiper belt objects are thus unlikely to be "the most pristine objects in the solar system," but they do contain key information as to how the early solar system accreted and dynamically evolved. For large (dwarf planet) KBOs, long-term radiogenic heating alone may lead to differentiated structures -- rock cores, ice mantles, volatile-ice-rich "crusts," and even oceans. Persistence of oceans and (potential) volcanism to the present day depends strongly on body size and

  11. Comparative Analysis of the Value Added Tax Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela Anca Postole

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The impact of indirect taxes is analysed in the study of evolution, especially the VAT for the economic activity of the company studied. During the reporting period, namely January 2009 – December 2011 the supporting documents were checked which records on VAT deductible and collected were based on, in compliance with legal norms and principles of financial accounting. Also the data processed were the basis for an analysis to compare the evolution of VAT. VAT shall be paid for the entire activity of the company.

  12. Structural Evolution of Household Energy Consumption: A China Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingsong Wang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable energy production and consumption is one of the issues for the sustainable development strategy in China. As China’s economic development paradigm shifts, household energy consumption (HEC has become a focus of achieving national goals of energy efficiency and greenhouse gas reduction. The information entropy model and LMDI model were employed in this study in order to analyse the structural evolution of HEC, as well as its associated critical factors. The results indicate that the information entropy of HEC increased gradually, and coal will be reduced by clean energies, such as natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas. The information entropy tends to stabilize and converge due to rapid urbanization. Therefore, from the perspective of environmental protection and natural resource conservation, the structure of household energy consumption will be optimized. This study revealed that residents’ income level is one of the most critical factors for the increase of energy consumption, while the energy intensity is the only driving force for the reduction of HEC. The accumulated contribution of these two factors to the HEC is 240.53% and −161.75%, respectively. It is imperative to improve the energy efficiency in the residential sector. Recommendations are provided to improve the energy efficiency-related technologies, as well as the standards for the sustainable energy strategy.

  13. Evolution and Structural Analyses of Glossina morsitans (Diptera; Glossinidae Tetraspanins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin K. Murungi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Tetraspanins are important conserved integral membrane proteins expressed in many organisms. Although there is limited knowledge about the full repertoire, evolution and structural characteristics of individual members in various organisms, data obtained so far show that tetraspanins play major roles in membrane biology, visual processing, memory, olfactory signal processing, and mechanosensory antennal inputs. Thus, these proteins are potential targets for control of insect pests. Here, we report that the genome of the tsetse fly, Glossina morsitans (Diptera: Glossinidae encodes at least seventeen tetraspanins (GmTsps, all containing the signature features found in the tetraspanin superfamily members. Whereas six of the GmTsps have been previously reported, eleven could be classified as novel because their amino acid sequences do not map to characterized tetraspanins in the available protein data bases. We present a model of the GmTsps by using GmTsp42Ed, whose presence and expression has been recently detected by transcriptomics and proteomics analyses of G. morsitans. Phylogenetically, the identified GmTsps segregate into three major clusters. Structurally, the GmTsps are largely similar to vertebrate tetraspanins. In view of the exploitation of tetraspanins by organisms for survival, these proteins could be targeted using specific antibodies, recombinant large extracellular loop (LEL domains, small-molecule mimetics and siRNAs as potential novel and efficacious putative targets to combat African trypanosomiasis by killing the tsetse fly vector.

  14. Functional role, structure, and evolution of the melanocortin-4 receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiöth, Helgi B; Lagerström, Malin C; Watanobe, Hajime; Jonsson, Logi; Vergoni, Anna Valeria; Ringholm, Aneta; Skarphedinsson, Jon O; Skuladottir, Gudrun V; Klovins, Janis; Fredriksson, Robert

    2003-06-01

    The melanocortin (MC)-4 receptor participates in regulating body weight homeostasis. We demonstrated early that acute blockage of the MC-4 receptor increases food intake and relieves anorexic conditions in rats. Our recent studies show that 4-week chronic blockage of the MC-4 receptor leads to robust increases in food intake and development of obesity, whereas stimulation of the receptor leads to anorexia. Interestingly, the food conversion ratio was clearly increased by MC-4 receptor blockage, whereas it was decreased in agonist-treated rats in a transient manner. Chronic infusion of an agonist caused a transient increase in oxygen consumption. Our studies also show that the MC-4 receptor plays a role in luteinizing hormone and prolactin surges in female rats. The MC-4 receptor has a role in mediating the effects of leptin on these surges. The phylogenetic relation of the MC-4 receptor to other GPCRs in the human genome was determined. The three-dimensional structure of the protein was studied by construction of a high-affinity zinc binding site between the helices, using two histidine residues facing each other. We also cloned the MC-4 receptor from evolutionary important species and showed by chromosomal mapping a conserved synteny between humans and zebrafish. The MC-4 receptor has been remarkably conserved in structure and pharmacology for more than 400 million years, implying that the receptor participated in vital physiological functions early in vertebrate evolution. PMID:12851300

  15. Shell structure evolution far from stability: experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shell structure evolution in nuclei situated at the extremes of neutron and proton excess are investigated using in-beam gamma spectroscopy techniques with radioactive beams at GANIL. A selection of results obtained very recently is presented: i) The reduced transition probabilities B(E2;0+1 → 2+) of the neutron-rich 74Zn and 70Ni nuclei have been measured using Coulomb excitation at intermediate energy. An unexpected large proton core polarization has been found in 70Ni and interpreted as being due to the monopole interaction between the neutron g9/2 and protons f7/2 and f5/2 spin-orbit partner orbitals. ii) Two proton knock-out reactions has been performed in order to study the most neutron-rich nuclei at the N = 28 shell closure. Gamma rays spectra and momentum distribution have been obtained for 42Si and neighboring nuclei. Evidence has been found for a deformed structure at N = 28 for Silicon, despite a relatively large Z = 14 gap. iii) The in-beam gamma spectroscopy of 36Ca performed using neutron knock-out reactions revealed that N = 16 is as large sub-shell closure as Z = 16 in 36S. The uniquely large excitation energy difference of the first 2+ state in these mirror nuclei turns out to be a consequence of their relatively pure neutron or proton 1p(d3/2)-1h(s1/2) nature

  16. Orchestrated structure evolution: modeling growth-regulated nanomanufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orchestrated structure evolution (OSE) is a scalable manufacturing method that combines the advantages of top-down (tool-directed) and bottom-up (self-propagating) approaches. The method consists of a seed patterning step that defines where material nucleates, followed by a growth step that merges seeded islands into the final patterned thin film. We develop a model to predict the completed pattern based on a computationally efficient approximate Green's function solution of the diffusion equation plus a Voronoi diagram based approach that defines the final grain boundary structure. Experimental results rely on electron beam lithography to pattern the seeds, followed by the mass transfer limited growth of copper via electrodeposition. The seed growth model is compared with experimental results to quantify nearest neighbor seed-to-seed interactions as well as how seeds interact with the pattern boundary to impact the local growth rate. Seed-to-seed and seed-to-pattern interactions are shown to result in overgrowth of seeds on edges and corners of the shape, where seeds have fewer neighbors. We explore how local changes to the seed location can be used to improve the patterning quality without increasing the manufacturing cost. OSE is shown to enable a unique set of trade-offs between the cost, time, and quality of thin film patterning.

  17. Tatooine Nurseries: Structure and Evolution of Circumbinary Protoplanetary Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vartanyan, David; Garmilla, José A.; Rafikov, Roman R.

    2016-01-01

    Recent discoveries of circumbinary planets by the Kepler mission provide motivation for understanding their birthplaces—protoplanetary disks around stellar binaries with separations ≲ 1 {{AU}}. We explore properties and evolution of such circumbinary disks focusing on modification of their structure caused by tidal coupling to the binary. We develop a set of analytical scaling relations describing viscous evolution of the disk properties, which are verified and calibrated using 1D numerical calculations with realistic inputs. Injection of angular momentum by the central binary suppresses mass accretion onto the binary and causes radial distribution of the viscous angular momentum flux {F}J to be different from that in a standard accretion disk around a single star with no torque at the center. Disks with no mass accretion at the center develop an {F}J profile that is flat in radius. Radial profiles of temperature and surface density are also quite different from those in disks around single stars. Damping of the density waves driven by the binary and viscous dissipation dominates heating of the inner disk (within 1-2 AU), pushing the ice line beyond 3-5 AU, depending on disk mass and age. Irradiation by the binary governs disk thermodynamics beyond ˜10 AU. However, self-shadowing by the hot inner disk may render central illumination irrelevant out to ˜20 AU. Spectral energy distribution of a circumbinary disk exhibits a distinctive bump around 10 μm, which may facilitate identification of such disks around unresolved binaries. Efficient tidal coupling to the disk drives orbital inspiral of the binary and may cause low-mass and relatively compact binaries to merge into a single star within the disk lifetime. We generally find that circumbinary disks present favorable sites for planet formation (despite their wider zone of volatile depletion), in agreement with the statistics of Kepler circumbinary planets.

  18. Stereological analysis of spatial structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Linda Vadgård

    The thesis deals with stereological analysis of spatial structures. One area of focus has been to improve the precision of well-known stereological estimators by including information that is available via automatic image analysis. Furthermore, the thesis presents a stochastic model for star...

  19. Structural evolution mechanisms of amorphous and liquid As2Se3 at high pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Properzi, L.; Santoro, M.; Minicucci, M.; Iesari, F.; Ciambezi, M.; Nataf, L.; Le Godec, Y.; Irifune, T.; Baudelet, F.; Di Cicco, A.

    2016-06-01

    The elusive structure of compressed, melt-quenched As2Se3 was studied in both its liquid and amorphous form up to 4.4 and 30 GPa, respectively, by means of x-ray absorption spectroscopy and diffraction. The evolution of the short-range structure is studied by As and Se multiple K -edge extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) refinement, while changes in intermediate-range ordering are revealed by x-ray diffraction and near-edge structures. In the liquid, at the nearest-neighbor length scales, a gradual disordering and slight elongation of the As-Se average distances is observed, preserving the local coordination upon increasing pressure, whereas substantial compression and disordering are observed at intermediate distances. Similarly, in the amorphous form we found a progressive slight elongation and disordering of the first-neighbor As-Se average distance R (from ˜2.42 to 2.44 Å) and bond variance σ2 (from ˜0.004 to 0.008 Å2) upon increasing pressures up to 30 GPa. On the other hand, gradual shortening of the second and farther neighbor distances, more evident below 15 GPa, are compatible with data analysis. No sign of crystallization and gradual metallization are observed for amorphous a-As2Se3 up to 30 GPa. The emerging picture for the structure evolution under high pressures is a compaction mechanism involving mainly changes at intermediate distances, weakly affecting the first-neighbor bonding character.

  20. Dislocation structure evolution and characterization in the compression deformed Mn-Cu alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dislocation densities and dislocation structure arrangements in cold compressed polycrystalline commercial M2052 (Mn-20Cu-5Ni-2Fe) high damping alloy with various strains were determined in scanning mode by X-ray peak profile analysis and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). The results indicate that the Mn-Cu-Ni-Fe alloy has an evolution behavior quite similar to the dislocation structure in copper. The dislocation arrangement parameter shows a local minimum in the transition range between stages III and IV that can be related to the transformation of the dislocation arrangement in the cell walls from a polarized dipole wall (PDW) into a polarized tile wall (PTW) structure. This evolution is further confirmed by the results of local misorientation determined by EBSD. In addition, during deformation, the multiplication of dislocation densities in the MnCu alloy is significantly slower than that in copper, and the transition of the dislocation structure is strongly retarded in the MnCu alloy compared with copper. These results can be explained by the mechanism of elastic anisotropy on the dislocation dynamics, as the elastic anisotropy in the MnCu alloy is larger than that in copper, which can strongly retard the multiplication of the dislocation population and the transformation of the dislocation structure. These results are important for research into the plastic working behavior of Mn-Cu-Ni-Fe high damping alloy

  1. Coda Wave Interferometry Method Applied in Structural Monitoring to Assess Damage Evolution in Masonry and Concrete Structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this experimental program the main goal is to monitor the damage evolution in masonry and concrete structures by Acoustic Emission (AE) signal analysis applying a well-know seismic method. For this reason the concept of the coda wave interferometry is applied to AE signal recorded during the tests. Acoustic Emission (AE) are very effective non-destructive techniques applied to identify micro and macro-defects and their temporal evolution in several materials. This technique permits to estimate the velocity of ultrasound waves propagation and the amount of energy released during fracture propagation to obtain information on the criticality of the ongoing process. By means of AE monitoring, an experimental analysis on a set of reinforced masonry walls under variable amplitude loading and strengthening reinforced concrete (RC) beams under monotonic static load has been carried out. In the reinforced masonry wall, cyclic fatigue stress has been applied to accelerate the static creep and to forecast the corresponding creep behaviour of masonry under static long-time loading. During the tests, the evaluation of fracture growth is monitored by coda wave interferometry which represents a novel approach in structural monitoring based on AE relative change velocity of coda signal. In general, the sensitivity of coda waves has been used to estimate velocity changes in fault zones, in volcanoes, in a mining environment, and in ultrasound experiments. This method uses multiple scattered waves, which travelled through the material along numerous paths, to infer tiny temporal changes in the wave velocity. The applied method has the potential to be used as a 'damage-gauge' for monitoring velocity changes as a sign of damage evolution into masonry and concrete structures.

  2. Coda Wave Interferometry Method Applied in Structural Monitoring to Assess Damage Evolution in Masonry and Concrete Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masera, D; Bocca, P; Grazzini, A, E-mail: davide.masera@polito.it [Department of Structural and Geotechnical Engineering - Politecnico di Torino, corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Turin (Italy)

    2011-07-19

    In this experimental program the main goal is to monitor the damage evolution in masonry and concrete structures by Acoustic Emission (AE) signal analysis applying a well-know seismic method. For this reason the concept of the coda wave interferometry is applied to AE signal recorded during the tests. Acoustic Emission (AE) are very effective non-destructive techniques applied to identify micro and macro-defects and their temporal evolution in several materials. This technique permits to estimate the velocity of ultrasound waves propagation and the amount of energy released during fracture propagation to obtain information on the criticality of the ongoing process. By means of AE monitoring, an experimental analysis on a set of reinforced masonry walls under variable amplitude loading and strengthening reinforced concrete (RC) beams under monotonic static load has been carried out. In the reinforced masonry wall, cyclic fatigue stress has been applied to accelerate the static creep and to forecast the corresponding creep behaviour of masonry under static long-time loading. During the tests, the evaluation of fracture growth is monitored by coda wave interferometry which represents a novel approach in structural monitoring based on AE relative change velocity of coda signal. In general, the sensitivity of coda waves has been used to estimate velocity changes in fault zones, in volcanoes, in a mining environment, and in ultrasound experiments. This method uses multiple scattered waves, which travelled through the material along numerous paths, to infer tiny temporal changes in the wave velocity. The applied method has the potential to be used as a 'damage-gauge' for monitoring velocity changes as a sign of damage evolution into masonry and concrete structures.

  3. Coda Wave Interferometry Method Applied in Structural Monitoring to Assess Damage Evolution in Masonry and Concrete Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masera, D.; Bocca, P.; Grazzini, A.

    2011-07-01

    In this experimental program the main goal is to monitor the damage evolution in masonry and concrete structures by Acoustic Emission (AE) signal analysis applying a well-know seismic method. For this reason the concept of the coda wave interferometry is applied to AE signal recorded during the tests. Acoustic Emission (AE) are very effective non-destructive techniques applied to identify micro and macro-defects and their temporal evolution in several materials. This technique permits to estimate the velocity of ultrasound waves propagation and the amount of energy released during fracture propagation to obtain information on the criticality of the ongoing process. By means of AE monitoring, an experimental analysis on a set of reinforced masonry walls under variable amplitude loading and strengthening reinforced concrete (RC) beams under monotonic static load has been carried out. In the reinforced masonry wall, cyclic fatigue stress has been applied to accelerate the static creep and to forecast the corresponding creep behaviour of masonry under static long-time loading. During the tests, the evaluation of fracture growth is monitored by coda wave interferometry which represents a novel approach in structural monitoring based on AE relative change velocity of coda signal. In general, the sensitivity of coda waves has been used to estimate velocity changes in fault zones, in volcanoes, in a mining environment, and in ultrasound experiments. This method uses multiple scattered waves, which travelled through the material along numerous paths, to infer tiny temporal changes in the wave velocity. The applied method has the potential to be used as a "damage-gauge" for monitoring velocity changes as a sign of damage evolution into masonry and concrete structures.

  4. The Co-evolution mechanism and stability analysis of service-oriented manufacturing enterprise system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peipei Liang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Service-oriented manufacturing (SOM is a new worldwide trend in the manufacturing industry. An increasing number of enterprises have realized the advantages and importance of SOM. However, the co-evolution mechanism and the stability of service-oriented manufacturing enterprise systems have influences on the form and direction of evolution and decisions about how to determine the suitable scope of external investment. This paper aims to reveal the co-evolution mechanism and provide a scientific framework for the efficient operation of SOM enterprise system.Design/methodology: Based on a system’s features and the logistic equation, our research builds a three-dimensional dynamic model with three state variables: response capability, profitability, and structural complexity. In addition, an analysis of a system’s stability and state variables is conducted using the method of synergetics and, simultaneously, the threshold condition of co-evolution was determined and the evolution mechanism revealed. Finally, model validity is verified through the simulation of instance.Findings: By analyzing the dynamic model using Lyapounov stability analysis, the results show that responsiveness under the threshold condition will guide an enterprise system’s evolution for a long period of time, and whether the SOM enterprise system is stable or not depends on the external investment level ?. When the investment level reaches the threshold condition, system will realize its development and then repeatedly change from one kind of structure to another for an extended period. If not, system will be unstable, although it will improve, the rise in responsiveness will not be obvious.Originality/value: Most of the related researches are over-reliant on qualitative description and has seldom been from the perspective of a complex system. This work is a supplement from evolution perspective to SOM related theory researches, and also an innovation in the

  5. The Geography, Structure and Evolution of Infrastructure Networks in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Vinciguerra, S.

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, network science has entered in virtually every scientific discipline. Some even speak of the “new science of networks” causing a scientific revolution across all disciplines. Also in Geography and Urban Studies, interest in network analysis has increased. This interest is understandable since most networks have a geographical structure, with nodes being located in space and links providing connections across space. This study positions itself at the interface of Social Networ...

  6. Evolution of a defect structure of Pd-Ag alloys during tritium exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tebus, V. E-mail: tebus@bochvar.ru; Rivkis, L.; Dmitrievskaia, E.; Arutunova, G.; Golikov, I.; Ryazantseva, N.; Filin, V.; Kapychev, V.; Bulkin, V

    2002-12-01

    Pd-Ag alloys, a material for palladium diffuser of the ITER fuel clean-up system, were investigated after long-term usage exposition in tritium. Nucleation and evolution of the alloy structure defects as a result of a radiogenic helium-3 accumulation have been examined using electron microscopy, positron annihilation and X-ray analysis. The types of helium containing defects and their characteristics were determined. The early stage of helium bubbles forming was observed. It was shown that the simple defect concentration decreased slowly and helium-3 bubble sizes and concentration increased during the tritium exposure.

  7. Rational Engineering of Enzyme Allosteric Regulation through Sequence Evolution Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Jae-Seong Yang; Sang Woo Seo; Sungho Jang; Gyoo Yeol Jung; Sanguk Kim

    2012-01-01

    Control of enzyme allosteric regulation is required to drive metabolic flux toward desired levels. Although the three-dimensional (3D) structures of many enzyme-ligand complexes are available, it is still difficult to rationally engineer an allosterically regulatable enzyme without decreasing its catalytic activity. Here, we describe an effective strategy to deregulate the allosteric inhibition of enzymes based on the molecular evolution and physicochemical characteristics of allosteric ligan...

  8. Evolution of Protein Quaternary Structure in Response to Selective Pressure for Increased Thermostability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Nicholas J; Liu, Jian-Wei; Mabbitt, Peter D; Correy, Galen J; Coppin, Chris W; Lethier, Mathilde; Perugini, Matthew A; Murphy, James M; Oakeshott, John G; Weik, Martin; Jackson, Colin J

    2016-06-01

    Oligomerization has been suggested to be an important mechanism for increasing or maintaining the thermostability of proteins. Although it is evident that protein-protein contacts can result in substantial stabilization in many extant proteins, evidence for evolutionary selection for oligomerization is largely indirect and little is understood of the early steps in the evolution of oligomers. A laboratory-directed evolution experiment that selected for increased thermostability in the αE7 carboxylesterase from the Australian sheep blowfly, Lucilia cuprina, resulted in a thermostable variant, LcαE7-4a, that displayed increased levels of dimeric and tetrameric quaternary structure. A trade-off between activity and thermostability was made during the evolution of thermostability, with the higher-order oligomeric species displaying the greatest thermostability and lowest catalytic activity. Analysis of monomeric and dimeric LcαE7-4a crystal structures revealed that only one of the oligomerization-inducing mutations was located at a potential protein-protein interface. This work demonstrates that by imposing a selective pressure demanding greater thermostability, mutations can lead to increased oligomerization and stabilization, providing support for the hypothesis that oligomerization is a viable evolutionary strategy for protein stabilization. PMID:27016206

  9. Mutation rates and the evolution of germline structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scally, Aylwyn

    2016-07-19

    Genome sequencing studies of de novo mutations in humans have revealed surprising incongruities in our understanding of human germline mutation. In particular, the mutation rate observed in modern humans is substantially lower than that estimated from calibration against the fossil record, and the paternal age effect in mutations transmitted to offspring is much weaker than expected from our long-standing model of spermatogenesis. I consider possible explanations for these discrepancies, including evolutionary changes in life-history parameters such as generation time and the age of puberty, a possible contribution from undetected post-zygotic mutations early in embryo development, and changes in cellular mutation processes at different stages of the germline. I suggest a revised model of stem-cell state transitions during spermatogenesis, in which 'dark' gonial stem cells play a more active role than hitherto envisaged, with a long cycle time undetected in experimental observations. More generally, I argue that the mutation rate and its evolution depend intimately on the structure of the germline in humans and other primates.This article is part of the themed issue 'Dating species divergences using rocks and clocks'. PMID:27325834

  10. The structure and evolution of buyer-supplier networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Takayuki; Souma, Wataru; Watanabe, Tsutomu

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the structure and evolution of customer-supplier networks in Japan using a unique dataset that contains information on customer and supplier linkages for more than 500,000 incorporated non-financial firms for the five years from 2008 to 2012. We find, first, that the number of customer links is unequal across firms; the customer link distribution has a power-law tail with an exponent of unity (i.e., it follows Zipf's law). We interpret this as implying that competition among firms to acquire new customers yields winners with a large number of customers, as well as losers with fewer customers. We also show that the shortest path length for any pair of firms is, on average, 4.3 links. Second, we find that link switching is relatively rare. Our estimates indicate that the survival rate per year for customer links is 92 percent and for supplier links 93 percent. Third and finally, we find that firm growth rates tend to be more highly correlated the closer two firms are to each other in a customer-supplier network (i.e., the smaller is the shortest path length for the two firms). This suggests that a non-negligible portion of fluctuations in firm growth stems from the propagation of microeconomic shocks - shocks affecting only a particular firm - through customer-supplier chains. PMID:25000368

  11. The structure and evolution of buyer-supplier networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takayuki Mizuno

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate the structure and evolution of customer-supplier networks in Japan using a unique dataset that contains information on customer and supplier linkages for more than 500,000 incorporated non-financial firms for the five years from 2008 to 2012. We find, first, that the number of customer links is unequal across firms; the customer link distribution has a power-law tail with an exponent of unity (i.e., it follows Zipf's law. We interpret this as implying that competition among firms to acquire new customers yields winners with a large number of customers, as well as losers with fewer customers. We also show that the shortest path length for any pair of firms is, on average, 4.3 links. Second, we find that link switching is relatively rare. Our estimates indicate that the survival rate per year for customer links is 92 percent and for supplier links 93 percent. Third and finally, we find that firm growth rates tend to be more highly correlated the closer two firms are to each other in a customer-supplier network (i.e., the smaller is the shortest path length for the two firms. This suggests that a non-negligible portion of fluctuations in firm growth stems from the propagation of microeconomic shocks - shocks affecting only a particular firm - through customer-supplier chains.

  12. A probabilistic model for the evolution of RNA structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holmes Ian

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For the purposes of finding and aligning noncoding RNA gene- and cis-regulatory elements in multiple-genome datasets, it is useful to be able to derive multi-sequence stochastic grammars (and hence multiple alignment algorithms systematically, starting from hypotheses about the various kinds of random mutation event and their rates. Results Here, we consider a highly simplified evolutionary model for RNA, called "The TKF91 Structure Tree" (following Thorne, Kishino and Felsenstein's 1991 model of sequence evolution with indels, which we have implemented for pairwise alignment as proof of principle for such an approach. The model, its strengths and its weaknesses are discussed with reference to four examples of functional ncRNA sequences: a riboswitch (guanine, a zipcode (nanos, a splicing factor (U4 and a ribozyme (RNase P. As shown by our visualisations of posterior probability matrices, the selected examples illustrate three different signatures of natural selection that are highly characteristic of ncRNA: (i co-ordinated basepair substitutions, (ii co-ordinated basepair indels and (iii whole-stem indels. Conclusions Although all three types of mutation "event" are built into our model, events of type (i and (ii are found to be better modeled than events of type (iii. Nevertheless, we hypothesise from the model's performance on pairwise alignments that it would form an adequate basis for a prototype multiple alignment and genefinding tool.

  13. Structure Shape Evolution in Lanthanide and Actinide Nuclei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalaf A. M.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available To give the characteristics of the evolution of the collectivity in even-even nuclei, we studied the behavior of the energy ratios R(4 / 2 and R(6 / 4. All chains of lanthanides begins as vibrational with R(4 / 2 near 2.0 and move towards rotational (R(4 / 2 3.33 as neutron number increases. A rabid jump in R(4 / 2 near N = 90 was seen. The plot of R(4 / 2 against Z shows not only the existence of a shape transitions but also the change in curvature in the data for N = 88 and 90, concave to convex. For intermedi- ate structure the slopes in E-GOS ( E over spin plots range between the vibrator and rotor extremes. The abnormal behavior of the two-neutron separation energies of our lanthanide nuclei as a function of neutron number around neutron number 90 is cal- culated. Nonlinear behavior is observed which indicate that shape phase transition is occurred in this region. The calculated reduced B(E2 transition probabilities of the low states of the ground state band in the nuclei 150 Nd / 152 Sm / 154 Gd / 156 Dy are analyzed and compared to the prediction of vibrational U(5 and rotational SU(3 limits of interacting boson model calculations.

  14. Structure and evolution of the global seafood trade network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gephart, Jessica A.; Pace, Michael L.

    2015-12-01

    The food production system is increasingly global and seafood is among the most highly traded commodities. Global trade can improve food security by providing access to a greater variety of foods, increasing wealth, buffering against local supply shocks, and benefit the environment by increasing overall use efficiency for some resources. However, global trade can also expose countries to external supply shocks and degrade the environment by increasing resource demand and loosening feedbacks between consumers and the impacts of food production. As a result, changes in global food trade can have important implications for both food security and the environmental impacts of production. Measurements of globalization and the environmental impacts of food production require data on both total trade and the origin and destination of traded goods (the network structure). While the global trade network of agricultural and livestock products has previously been studied, seafood products have been excluded. This study describes the structure and evolution of the global seafood trade network, including metrics quantifying the globalization of seafood, shifts in bilateral trade flows, changes in centrality and comparisons of seafood to agricultural and industrial trade networks. From 1994 to 2012 the number of countries trading in the network remained relatively constant, while the number of trade partnerships increased by over 65%. Over this same period, the total quantity of seafood traded increased by 58% and the value increased 85% in real terms. These changes signify the increasing globalization of seafood products. Additionally, the trade patterns in the network indicate: increased influence of Thailand and China, strengthened intraregional trade, and increased exports from South America and Asia. In addition to characterizing these network changes, this study identifies data needs in order to connect seafood trade with environmental impacts and food security outcomes.

  15. Structural evolution and mechanisms of fatigue in polycrystalline brass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vejloe Carstensen, J

    1998-03-01

    The plastic strain controlled fatigue behaviour of polycrystalline Cu-15%Zn and Cu-30%Zn has been investigated with the aim of studying the effect of slip mode modification by the addition of zinc to copper. It has been clearly demonstrated, that true cyclic saturation does not occur in the plastic strain controlled fatigue of brass. This complicates the contstruction of a cyclic stress-strain (CSS) curve and thus the comparison with copper. A method to overcome this complication has been suggested. Surface observations on fatigued brass specimens show that individual grains tend to deform by Sachs type single slip. This behaviour has been described by the self-consistent Sachs-Eshelby model, which provides estimates of the CSS curve for brass polycrystals. Successive stages of primary hardening, softening and secondary hardening has been observed in the plastic strain controlled fatigue of brass. It has been found that the primary hardening is attributed to an increase of intergranular stresses whereas the secondary hardening apparently is attributed to an increase of friction stresses. Investigations of the structural evolution show that the softening behaviour can be explained by the presence of short-range order (SRO). SRO promote the formation of extended dipole arrays which hardens the material. The formation of intense shear bands destroy the dipole arrays, which explains the cyclic softening. The present results reveal that Cu-30%Zn in a pure planar slip alloy, while Cu-15%Zn displays both planar and wavy slip. The mechanical and structural behaviour observed in brass resembles recent observations in 316L austenitic stainless steels, and the present results reveal that Cu-30%Zn and 316L have approximately the same fatigue life curve. This emphasizes brass as being a convenient model system for the industrially important austenitic steels. (au) 9 tabs., 94 ills., 177 refs.; The thesis is also available as DCAMM-R-S80 and as an electronic document on http://www.risoe.dk/rispubl

  16. Structural evolution and mechanisms of fatigue in polycrystalline brass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The plastic strain controlled fatigue behaviour of polycrystalline Cu-15%Zn and Cu-30%Zn has been investigated with the aim of studying the effect of slip mode modification by the addition of zinc to copper. It has been clearly demonstrated, that true cyclic saturation does not occur in the plastic strain controlled fatigue of brass. This complicates the contstruction of a cyclic stress-strain (CSS) curve and thus the comparison with copper. A method to overcome this complication has been suggested. Surface observations on fatigued brass specimens show that individual grains tend to deform by Sachs type single slip. This behaviour has been described by the self-consistent Sachs-Eshelby model, which provides estimates of the CSS curve for brass polycrystals. Successive stages of primary hardening, softening and secondary hardening has been observed in the plastic strain controlled fatigue of brass. It has been found that the primary hardening is attributed to an increase of intergranular stresses whereas the secondary hardening apparently is attributed to an increase of friction stresses. Investigations of the structural evolution show that the softening behaviour can be explained by the presence of short-range order (SRO). SRO promote the formation of extended dipole arrays which hardens the material. The formation of intense shear bands destroy the dipole arrays, which explains the cyclic softening. The present results reveal that Cu-30%Zn in a pure planar slip alloy, while Cu-15%Zn displays both planar and wavy slip. The mechanical and structural behaviour observed in brass resembles recent observations in 316L austenitic stainless steels, and the present results reveal that Cu-30%Zn and 316L have approximately the same fatigue life curve. This emphasizes brass as being a convenient model system for the industrially important austenitic steels. (au)

  17. Structural evolution of Ni-20Cr alloy during ball milling of elemental powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez B, I.; Trapaga M, L. G. [IPN, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados, Unidad Queretaro, Libramiento Norponiente No. 2000, Juriquilla, 76230 Queretaro (Mexico); Martinez F, E. [Centro de Investigacion e Innovacion Tecnologica, Cerrada de Cecati s/n, Col. Santa Catarina Azcapotzalco, 02250 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Zoz, H., E-mail: israelbaez@gmail.co [Zoz GmbH, D-57482, Wenden (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    The ball milling (B M) of blended Ni and Cr elemental powders was carried out in a Simoloyer performing on high-energy scale mode at maximum production to obtain a nano structured Ni-20Cr alloy. The phase transformations and structural changes occurring during mechanical alloying were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and optical microscopy (Om). A gradual solid solubility of Cr and the subsequent formation of crystalline metastable solid solutions described in terms of the Avrami-Ero fe ev kinetics model were calculated. The XRD analysis of the structure indicates that cumulative lattice strain contributes to the driving force for solid solution between Ni and Cr during B M. Microstructure evolution has shown, additionally to the lamellar length refinement commonly observed, the folding of lamellae in the final processing stage. Om observations revealed that the lamellar spacing of Ni rich zones reaches a steady value near 500 nm and almost disappears after 30 h of milling. (Author)

  18. Study of structural evolution and photoluminescent properties at room temperature of Ca(Zr,Ti)O{sub 3} powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavalcante, L.S. [Laboratorio Interdisciplinar de Eletroquimica e Ceramica-LIEC, Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, P.O. Box 676, 13565-905 Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: laeciosc@bol.com.br; Simoes, A.Z.; Espinosa, J.W.M. [Laboratorio Interdisciplinar em Ceramica, Departamento de Fisico-Quimica, Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Estadual Paulista, P.O. Box 355, 14801-907 Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Santos, L.P.S. [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica do Maranhao-CEFET, Departamento de Quimica, CEP 64009-700, Sao Luis, MA (Brazil); Longo, E.; Varela, J.A. [Laboratorio Interdisciplinar em Ceramica, Departamento de Fisico-Quimica, Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Estadual Paulista, P.O. Box 355, 14801-907 Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Pizani, P.S. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, P.O. Box 676, 13565-905 Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil)

    2008-09-22

    Calcium zirconate titanate, Ca(Zr{sub 0.05}Ti{sub 0.95})O{sub 3} (CZT) powders has been synthesized by the polymeric precursor method. The structural evolution and analysis of the CZT powders were monitored by the X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy (FT-Raman) and ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy (UV-vis). The decomposition of precursor resin was accompanied by evolution of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential thermogravimetric analysis (DTA). UV-vis measurements suggested that the presence of intermediary energy levels in the band gap are favorable for the intense and broad photoluminescence (PL) in structurally disordered CZT powders at room temperature. TGA and DTA have been employed to correlate the ranges of temperature with the structural order-disorder degree in the CZT lattice that are responsible by PL emission.

  19. CODSTRAN: Composite durability structural analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamis, C. C.; Smith, G. T.

    1978-01-01

    CODSTRAN (COmposite Durability STRuctural ANalysis) is an integrated computer program being developed for the prediction of defect growth and fracture of composite structures subjected to service loads and environments. CODSTRAN is briefly described with respect to organization, capabilities and present status. Application of CODSTRAN current capability to a flat composite laminate with a center slit which was subjected to axial tension loading predicted defect growth which is in good agreement with C-scan ultrasonic test records.

  20. Spectral properties of the temporal evolution of brain network structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rong; Zhang, Zhen-Zhen; Ma, Jun; Yang, Yong; Lin, Pan; Wu, Ying

    2015-12-01

    The temporal evolution properties of the brain network are crucial for complex brain processes. In this paper, we investigate the differences in the dynamic brain network during resting and visual stimulation states in a task-positive subnetwork, task-negative subnetwork, and whole-brain network. The dynamic brain network is first constructed from human functional magnetic resonance imaging data based on the sliding window method, and then the eigenvalues corresponding to the network are calculated. We use eigenvalue analysis to analyze the global properties of eigenvalues and the random matrix theory (RMT) method to measure the local properties. For global properties, the shifting of the eigenvalue distribution and the decrease in the largest eigenvalue are linked to visual stimulation in all networks. For local properties, the short-range correlation in eigenvalues as measured by the nearest neighbor spacing distribution is not always sensitive to visual stimulation. However, the long-range correlation in eigenvalues as evaluated by spectral rigidity and number variance not only predicts the universal behavior of the dynamic brain network but also suggests non-consistent changes in different networks. These results demonstrate that the dynamic brain network is more random for the task-positive subnetwork and whole-brain network under visual stimulation but is more regular for the task-negative subnetwork. Our findings provide deeper insight into the importance of spectral properties in the functional brain network, especially the incomparable role of RMT in revealing the intrinsic properties of complex systems. PMID:26723151

  1. Evolution analysis of the states of the EZ model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on suitable choice of states, this paper studies the stability of the equilibrium state of the EZ model by regarding the evolution of the EZ model as a Markov chain and by showing that the Markov chain is ergodic. The Markov analysis is applied to the EZ model with small number of agents, the exact equilibrium state for N = 5 and numerical results for N = 18 are obtained. (cross-disciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  2. Structure and Evolution of Convection Band Occurred over the Korean Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, W.; Lee, T.

    2011-12-01

    A significant portion of the annual precipitation on the Korean peninsula is produced by heavy precipitation systems (HPSs) during summer. HPSs over the Korean peninsula could be classified into four major types (convection bands, cloud clusters, isolated thunderstorms, and squall lines) by phenomenological analysis. Among four major types of HPSs, convection bands (CBs) tend to concentrate a large amount of rainfall over limited area due to their quasi-stationary behavior for several hours. Convective cells embedded in CB move along the band and new cells are continuously formed in the upstream of the band. In this study, the structure and evolution of CB have been investigated using NCEP Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR) data and Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. Thirty CB cases occurred during 2000-2010 were selected to conduct composite analysis. We obtained several profiles which represent northern area (NA), southern area (SA), and upstream area (UA) of CB by composite analysis. Modest band-perpendicular wind component (5 m s-1) is found in the level of 925-1000 hPa in SA, while band-perpendicular wind component of NA is nearly zero. Additionally, equivalent potential temperature in the lower-troposphere of SA is about 10 K larger than that of NA. Low-level band-perpendicular wind component of SA seems to play an important role in the development of CB by providing the environment for large-scale convergence and transporting warm and moist air from southern area of CB. Band-parallel wind component is predominant in the middle- and lower-troposphere. On the basis of the results of composite analysis, ideal simulation for the evolution of CB was set up. The analysis for the evolution of CB is in progress.

  3. STRUCTURAL EVOLUTION AND COMPOSITION CHANGE IN THE SURFACE REGION OF POLYPROPYLENE/CLAY NANOCOMPOSITES ANNEALED AT HIGH TEMPERATURES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐涛

    2009-01-01

    A model experiment was done to clear the formation mechanism of protective layers during combustion of polypropylene(PP)/organically modified montmorillonite(OMMT) nanocomposites.The investigation was focused on the effects of annealing temperature on the structural changes and protective layer formation.The decomposition of OMMT and degradation of PP/OMMT nanocomposites were characterized by means of thermogravimetric analysis(TGA).The structural evolution and composition change in the surface region of...

  4. Structural evolution of tetragonal MnO2 and its electrochemical behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafi, P. Muhammed; Bose, A. Chandra

    2016-05-01

    MnO2 nanoparticles were synthesized by simple chemical precipitation method and were subjected to different heat treatment process. The structural evolution of as-prepared MnO2 nanoparticles at different annealing temperature was confirmed by XRD analysis. The weight loss as well as the heat flow associated with the thermal decomposition was studied by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) along with differential thermal analysis (DTA). The functional group and phase formation were confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Finally electrochemical properties were evaluated using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and galvanostatic charge-discharge techniques. The cyclic voltammogram and charge-discharge curve of 450 ˚C annealed MnO2 nanoparticles exhibited relatively good capacitive behavior.

  5. An Analysis of the Evolutions of Real Estate Market and Purchasing Power within the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    C. Sipos; A. BUGLEA

    2014-01-01

    The paper analyzes to what extent the evolution of the real estate market in the EU countries is influenced by the purchasing power of the citizens of those countries. This analysis is based on the developments of GDP per capita, purchasing power parities, House Price Index and production in construction in period 2008 - 2013 in the EU countries and is structured on three research hypotheses.The first research hypothesis assumes that purchasing power, quantified both by GDP per capita and thr...

  6. Influence Activation Model: A New Perspective in Social Influence Analysis and Social Network Evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Yang; Chawla, Nitesh V.; Lichtenwalter, Ryan N.; Dong, Yuxiao

    2016-01-01

    What drives the propensity for the social network dynamics? Social influence is believed to drive both off-line and on-line human behavior, however it has not been considered as a driver of social network evolution. Our analysis suggest that, while the network structure affects the spread of influence in social networks, the network is in turn shaped by social influence activity (i.e., the process of social influence wherein one person's attitudes and behaviors affect another's). To that end,...

  7. Structural analysis for LMFBR applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Firstly, we discuss the use of elastic analysis for structural design of LMFBR components. The elastic analysis methods have been used for structural design of the Fast Breeder Test Reactor as well as the proposed prototype Test Breeder Reactor. The design of Fast Breeder Test Reactor which is nearing completion is the same as that of Rapsodie. Nevertheless, the design had to he checked against the latest design codes available, namely the ASME Code case 1592. This paper however, is confined to Structural analysis of PFBR components. The problems faced in the design of some of the components, in particular, the inner vessel (plenum separator) are discussed. As far as design codes are concerned, we make use of ASME Code Section III and the Code Case N-47, for high temperature design. The problem faced in the use of these rules are also described along with the description of analysis. Studies in the field of cyclic loading include extension of Bree's breakdown and plastic cycling criteria for ratchet free operation to biaxial stress fields. In other fields, namely, inelastic analysis, piping analysis in the creep regime etc. we are only at a start

  8. Contribution for the assessment and simplified calculation of structures taking into account hysteresis evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By defining a scalar function of comparison in general and isolating one-dimensional cyclic hysteresis curves for field elements, the foundation is laid for a unified way of judging systems with chain-type structure taking into account hysteresis evolution. A general description of this evolution leads to certain evolutionary properties, with the 'linear' and 'uniform' evolution covering the usual methods for low-cycle fatigue (Miner's rule, Manson-Coffin, Rainflow, etc.). For the more realistic case of an 'exponential' and 'consistent' evolution, experimentally verifiable typ-functions are given which enable with fair accuracy an approximate time-domain computation of a system regarding hysteresis evolution. (orig.)

  9. Population genomics of dengue virus serotype 4: insights into genetic structure and evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waman, Vaishali P; Kasibhatla, Sunitha Manjari; Kale, Mohan M; Kulkarni-Kale, Urmila

    2016-08-01

    The spread of dengue disease has become a global public health concern. Dengue is caused by dengue virus, which is a mosquito-borne arbovirus of the genus Flavivirus, family Flaviviridae. There are four dengue virus serotypes (1-4), each of which is known to trigger mild to severe disease. Dengue virus serotype 4 (DENV-4) has four genotypes and is increasingly being reported to be re-emerging in various parts of the world. Therefore, the population structure and factors shaping the evolution of DENV-4 strains across the world were studied using genome-based population genetic, phylogenetic and selection pressure analysis methods. The population genomics study helped to reveal the spatiotemporal structure of the DENV-4 population and its primary division into two spatially distinct clusters: American and Asian. These spatial clusters show further time-dependent subdivisions within genotypes I and II. Thus, the DENV-4 population is observed to be stratified into eight genetically distinct lineages, two of which are formed by American strains and six of which are formed by Asian strains. Episodic positive selection was observed in the structural (E) and non-structural (NS2A and NS3) genes, which appears to be responsible for diversification of Asian lineages in general and that of modern lineages of genotype I and II in particular. In summary, the global DENV-4 population is stratified into eight genetically distinct lineages, in a spatiotemporal manner with limited recombination. The significant role of adaptive evolution in causing diversification of DENV-4 lineages is discussed. The evolution of DENV-4 appears to be governed by interplay between spatiotemporal distribution, episodic positive selection and intra/inter-genotype recombination. PMID:27169727

  10. Structure and evolution of high-mass stellar mergers

    CERN Document Server

    Glebbeek, Evert; Zwart, Simon Portegies; Pols, Onno R

    2013-01-01

    In young dense clusters repeated collisions between massive stars may lead to the formation of a very massive star (above 100 Msun). In the past the study of the long-term evolution of merger remnants has mostly focussed on collisions between low-mass stars (up to about 2 Msun) in the context of blue-straggler formation. The evolution of collision products of more massive stars has not been as thoroughly investigated. In this paper we study the long-term evolution of a number of stellar mergers formed by the head-on collision of a primary star with a mass of 5-40 Msun with a lower mass star at three points in its evolution in order to better understand their evolution. We use smooth particle hydrodynamics (SPH) calculations to model the collision between the stars. The outcome of this calculation is reduced to one dimension and imported into a stellar evolution code. We follow the subsequent evolution of the collision product through the main sequence at least until the onset of helium burning. We find that l...

  11. Thermodynamic analysis of the evolution of gases from solid fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Postrzednik, S.

    1981-01-01

    An analysis was made of the physical chemical phenomena accompanying the evolution of gases from solid fuel. The results of the analysis are represented in the form of a mathematical model of the micro- and macroscale processes. In the latter case the model encompasses aspects of the coking of coal, among them heat transfer, generation of volatiles and their forward movement through the charge, the time for running through the cycle, process productivity and intensification, and other things. Sample solutions and numerical calculations for the process are presented. The data are compared with the work of other authors.

  12. Harmonic analysis method for nonlinear evolution equations, I

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Baoxiang; Hao, Chengchun

    2011-01-01

    This monograph provides a comprehensive overview on a class of nonlinear evolution equations, such as nonlinear Schrödinger equations, nonlinear Klein-Gordon equations, KdV equations as well as Navier-Stokes equations and Boltzmann equations. The global wellposedness to the Cauchy problem for those equations is systematically studied by using the harmonic analysis methods. This book is self-contained and may also be used as an advanced textbook by graduate students in analysis and PDE subjects and even ambitious undergraduate students.

  13. Structural analysis of aligned RNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Björn

    2006-01-01

    The knowledge about classes of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) is growing very fast and it is mainly the structure which is the common characteristic property shared by members of the same class. For correct characterization of such classes it is therefore of great importance to analyse the structural features in great detail. In this manuscript I present RNAlishapes which combines various secondary structure analysis methods, such as suboptimal folding and shape abstraction, with a comparative approach known as RNA alignment folding. RNAlishapes makes use of an extended thermodynamic model and covariance scoring, which allows to reward covariation of paired bases. Applying the algorithm to a set of bacterial trp-operon leaders using shape abstraction it was able to identify the two alternating conformations of this attenuator. Besides providing in-depth analysis methods for aligned RNAs, the tool also shows a fairly well prediction accuracy. Therefore, RNAlishapes provides the community with a powerful tool for structural analysis of classes of RNAs and is also a reasonable method for consensus structure prediction based on sequence alignments. RNAlishapes is available for online use and download at http://rna.cyanolab.de. PMID:17020924

  14. Structure and evolution of the magnetochrome domains: no longer alone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal eArnoux

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB can swim along Earth’s magnetic field lines, thanks to the alignment of dedicated cytoplasmic organelles. These organelles, termed magnetosomes, are proteolipidic vesicles filled by a 35-120 nm crystal of either magnetite or greigite. The formation and alignment of magnetosomes are mediated by a group of specific genes, the mam genes, encoding the magnetosome-associated proteins. The whole process of magnetosome biogenesis can be divided into four sequential steps; (i cytoplasmic membrane invagination, (ii magnetosomes alignment, (iii iron crystal nucleation and (iv species-dependent mineral size and shape control. Since both magnetite and greigite are a mix of iron(III and iron(II, iron redox state management within the magnetosome vesicle is a key issue. Recently, studies have started pointing out the importance of a MTB-specific c-type cytochrome domain found in several magnetosome-associated proteins (MamE, P, T and X. This magnetochrome (MCR domain is almost always found in tandem, and this tandem is either found alone (MamT, in combination with a PDZ domain (MamP, a domain of unknown function (MamX or with a trypsin combined to one or two PDZ domains (MamE. By taking advantage of new genomic data available on MTB and a recent structural study of MamP, which helped define the MCR domain boundaries, we attempt to retrace the evolutionary history within and between the different MCR-containing proteins. We propose that the observed tandem repeat of MCR is the result of a convergent evolution and attempt to explain why this domain is rarely found alone.

  15. Structure and evolution of the magnetochrome domains: no longer alone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnoux, Pascal; Siponen, Marina I; Lefèvre, Christopher T; Ginet, Nicolas; Pignol, David

    2014-01-01

    Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) can swim along Earth's magnetic field lines, thanks to the alignment of dedicated cytoplasmic organelles. These organelles, termed magnetosomes, are proteolipidic vesicles filled by a 35-120 nm crystal of either magnetite or greigite. The formation and alignment of magnetosomes are mediated by a group of specific genes, the mam genes, encoding the magnetosome-associated proteins. The whole process of magnetosome biogenesis can be divided into four sequential steps; (i) cytoplasmic membrane invagination, (ii) magnetosomes alignment, (iii) iron crystal nucleation and (iv) species-dependent mineral size and shape control. Since both magnetite and greigite are a mix of iron (III) and iron (II), iron redox state management within the magnetosome vesicle is a key issue. Recently, studies have started pointing out the importance of a MTB-specific c-type cytochrome domain found in several magnetosome-associated proteins (MamE, P, T, and X). This magnetochrome (MCR) domain is almost always found in tandem, and this tandem is either found alone (MamT), in combination with a PDZ domain (MamP), a domain of unknown function (MamX) or with a trypsin combined to one or two PDZ domains (MamE). By taking advantage of new genomic data available on MTB and a recent structural study of MamP, which helped define the MCR domain boundaries, we attempt to retrace the evolutionary history within and between the different MCR-containing proteins. We propose that the observed tandem repeat of MCR is the result of a convergent evolution and attempt to explain why this domain is rarely found alone. PMID:24723915

  16. Understanding the Structure and Evolution of Nearby Disk Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zheng

    2014-01-01

    In order to understand the structure and evolution of disk galaxies, we studied the stellar and gaseous components as well as the star formation rate in nearby disk galaxies. We used PS1 medium deep survey images to derive five-band (grizy) surface brightness profiles down to 30 ABmag/arcsec^2 for about 700 galaxies. From these stellar mass and mass-to-light ratio radial profiles are derived. The stellar mass radial profiles tend to bend-up at large radii, this often traces an extended old stellar population. The mass-to-light ratio profiles tend to rise outside the r25 radii. We also find a larger fraction of up-bending surface brightness profiles than Polen & Trujillo (2006). This may be because their sample is biased towards low surface brightness galaxies. We used HIPASS data as well as VLA HI 21cm data to study the gas component and dynamics of disk galaxies. We used the GALEX UV images to study the star formation of a HI-selected star-forming sample of about 400 galaxies, compiling a database of FUV and NUV radial profiles and related parameters. We used this to study the star forming efficiency (SFE, star formation rate per unit area divided by gas surface mass density) of the sample galaxies. We found that the UV based SFE has a tighter relationship with HI mass than an H_alpha based SFE as typically used in previous studies and the UV SFE is flat across wide range of stellar mass. We constructed a simple model to predict the distribution of interstellar medium and star formation rate in an equilibrium disk with constant two-fluid Toomre Q. This model can reproduces the SFE relations we derived.

  17. Compact structure and proteins of pasta retard in vitro digestive evolution of branched starch molecular structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Wei; Sissons, Mike; Warren, Frederick J; Gidley, Michael J; Gilbert, Robert G

    2016-11-01

    The roles that the compact structure and proteins in pasta play in retarding evolution of starch molecular structure during in vitro digestion are explored, using four types of cooked samples: whole pasta, pasta powder, semolina (with proteins) and extracted starch without proteins. These were subjected to in vitro digestion with porcine α-amylase, collecting samples at different times and characterizing the weight distribution of branched starch molecules using size-exclusion chromatography. Measurement of α-amylase activity showed that a protein (or proteins) from semolina or pasta powder interacted with α-amylase, causing reduced enzymatic activity and retarding digestion of branched starch molecules with hydrodynamic radius (Rh)protein(s) was susceptible to proteolysis. Thus the compact structure of pasta protects the starch and proteins in the interior of the whole pasta, reducing the enzymatic degradation of starch molecules, especially for molecules with Rh>100nm. PMID:27516291

  18. Real Time Pore Structure Evolution during Olivine Mineral Carbonation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, W.; Fusseis, F.; Lisabeth, H. P.; Xiao, X.

    2014-12-01

    Aqueous carbonation of ultramafic rocks has been proposed as a promising method for long-term, secure sequestration of carbon dioxide. While chemical kinetics data indicate that carbonation reaction in olivine is one of the fastest among the mg-bearing minerals, in practice, the factors that limit the extent and rate of carbonation in ultramafic rocks are fluid supply and flux. On the one hand, reaction products could produce passivating layer that prohibits further reactions. On the other hand, the increases in solid volume during carbonation could lead to cracking and create new fluid paths. Whether carbonation in ultramafic rocks is self-limiting or self-sustaining has been hotly debated. Experimental evidence of precipitation of reaction products during olivine carbonation was reported. To date, reaction-driven cracking has not been observed. In this paper, we present the first real-time pore structure evolution data using the x-ray synchrotron microtomography. Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) solution was injected into porous olivine aggregates and in-situ pore structure change during olivine carbonation at a constant confining pressure (12 MPa) and a temperature of 200oC was captured at 30 min. interval for ~160 hours. Shortly after the experiment started, filling-in of the existing pores by precipitation of reaction products was visible. The size of the in-fills kept increasing as reactions continued. After ~48 hours, cracking around the in-fill materials became visible. After ~60 hours, these cracks started to show a clear polygonal pattern, similar to the crack patterns usually seen on the surface of drying mud. After ~72 hours, some of the cracks coalesced into large fractures that cut-through the olivine aggregates. New fractures continued to develop and at the end of the experiment, the sample was completely disintegrated by these fractures. We also conducted nanotomography experiments on a sub-volume of the reacted olivine aggregate. Orthogonal sets of

  19. Effect of spatial structure on the evolution of cooperation based on game models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Zhang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available To elucidate the mechanisms for the evolution of cooperation has been a core problem in biology, economics and sociology. Evolutionary game theory has proven to be an efficient approach to investigate the problem by using models based on so-called social dilemmas. Spatial structure is indicated to have an important effect on the evolution of cooperation and has been intensively studied during recent years. From this perspective, we review our studies in evolutionary dynamics based on a repeated game with three strategies, 'always defect' (ALLD, 'tit-for-tat' (TFT, and 'always cooperate' (ALLC. With mathematical analysis and numerical simulations, the results show that cooperation can be promoted in spatially-structured populations. Cooperators prevail against defectors by forming stable clusters, which is called the `spatial selection'. Meanwhile, lattice structure also inhibits cooperation due to the advantage of being spiteful. Furthermore, simulations demonstrate that a slight enforcement of ALLC can only promote cooperation when there is weak network reciprocity, while the catalyst effect of TFT on cooperation is verified.

  20. Effect of offshore structures on shoreline evolution, Atlantic Generating Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A distorted scale hydraulic model investigation was performed to determine the potential effect, if any, of a proposed offshore nuclear power plant on shoreline evolution. Model measurements of current patterns and breaking wave characteristics (height, depth and angle to shoreline) were used to calculate longshore transport rates in the potentially affected areas. It was concluded that the proposed construction would have a negligible effect on future shoreline evolution

  1. Structure and evolution of Apetala3, a sex-linked gene in Silene latifolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cegan Radim

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The evolution of sex chromosomes is often accompanied by gene or chromosome rearrangements. Recently, the gene AP3 was characterized in the dioecious plant species Silene latifolia. It was suggested that this gene had been transferred from an autosome to the Y chromosome. Results In the present study we provide evidence for the existence of an X linked copy of the AP3 gene. We further show that the Y copy is probably located in a chromosomal region where recombination restriction occurred during the first steps of sex chromosome evolution. A comparison of X and Y copies did not reveal any clear signs of degenerative processes in exon regions. Instead, both X and Y copies show evidence for relaxed selection compared to the autosomal orthologues in S. vulgaris and S. conica. We further found that promoter sequences differ significantly. Comparison of the genic region of AP3 between the X and Y alleles and the corresponding autosomal copies in the gynodioecious species S. vulgaris revealed a massive accumulation of retrotransposons within one intron of the Y copy of AP3. Analysis of the genomic distribution of these repetitive elements does not indicate that these elements played an important role in the size increase characteristic of the Y chromosome. However, in silico expression analysis shows biased expression of individual domains of the identified retroelements in male plants. Conclusions We characterized the structure and evolution of AP3, a sex linked gene with copies on the X and Y chromosomes in the dioecious plant S. latifolia. These copies showed complementary expression patterns and relaxed evolution at protein level compared to autosomal orthologues, which suggests subfunctionalization. One intron of the Y-linked allele was invaded by retrotransposons that display sex-specific expression patterns that are similar to the expression pattern of the corresponding allele, which suggests that these transposable elements

  2. Chromatin structure and evolution in the human genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunlop Malcolm G

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evolutionary rates are not constant across the human genome but genes in close proximity have been shown to experience similar levels of divergence and selection. The higher-order organisation of chromosomes has often been invoked to explain such phenomena but previously there has been insufficient data on chromosome structure to investigate this rigorously. Using the results of a recent genome-wide analysis of open and closed human chromatin structures we have investigated the global association between divergence, selection and chromatin structure for the first time. Results In this study we have shown that, paradoxically, synonymous site divergence (dS at non-CpG sites is highest in regions of open chromatin, primarily as a result of an increased number of transitions, while the rates of other traditional measures of mutation (intergenic, intronic and ancient repeat divergence as well as SNP density are highest in closed regions of the genome. Analysis of human-chimpanzee divergence across intron-exon boundaries indicates that although genes in relatively open chromatin generally display little selection at their synonymous sites, those in closed regions show markedly lower divergence at their fourfold degenerate sites than in neighbouring introns and intergenic regions. Exclusion of known Exonic Splice Enhancer hexamers has little affect on the divergence observed at fourfold degenerate sites across chromatin categories; however, we show that closed chromatin is enriched with certain classes of ncRNA genes whose RNA secondary structure may be particularly important. Conclusion We conclude that, overall, non-CpG mutation rates are lowest in open regions of the genome and that regions of the genome with a closed chromatin structure have the highest background mutation rate. This might reflect lower rates of DNA damage or enhanced DNA repair processes in regions of open chromatin. Our results also indicate that dS is a poor

  3. Social dilemmas in an online social network: The structure and evolution of cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate two paradigms for studying the evolution of cooperation-Prisoner's Dilemma and Snowdrift game in an online friendship network, obtained from a social networking site. By structural analysis, it is revealed that the empirical social network has small-world and scale-free properties. Besides, it exhibits assortative mixing pattern. Then, we study the evolutionary version of the two types of games on it. It is found that cooperation is substantially promoted with small values of game matrix parameters in both games. Whereas the competent cooperators induced by the underlying network of contacts will be dramatically inhibited with increasing values of the game parameters. Further, we explore the role of assortativity in evolution of cooperation by random edge rewiring. We find that increasing amount of assortativity will to a certain extent diminish the cooperation level. We also show that connected large hubs are capable of maintaining cooperation. The evolution of cooperation on empirical networks is influenced by various network effects in a combined manner, compared with that on model networks. Our results can help understand the cooperative behaviors in human groups and society

  4. Evolution of grain and subgrain structure during cold rolling of commercial-purity titanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: → EBSD analysis of cold-rolled titanium revealed three stages of structure evolution. → These stages are defined by plots of the boundaries density as a function of strain. → The first stage is associated with twinning. → Dislocation density increases and substructure forms at the second stage. → The third stage is related to the formation of high-angle boundaries. - Abstract: The evolution of microstructure in commercial-purity titanium during cold rolling to a thickness strain of 2.6 was quantified using electron backscatter diffraction. The measurements were analyzed in terms of the mean grain size and the density of boundaries (the ratio of total boundary length to the scanned area). The density of high-angle boundaries as a function of thickness strain had three distinct stages, each of which was associated with a different mechanism of microstructure formation, i.e., (i) twinning, (ii) an increase in dislocation density and the formation of substructure, and (iii) the formation of deformation-induced high-angle boundaries. The influence of twinning on the kinetics of microstructure evolution was also interpreted.

  5. Analysis of the Science and Technology Preservice Teachers' Opinions on Teaching Evolution and Theory of Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Töman, Ufuk; Karatas, Faik Özgür; Çimer, Sabiha Odabasi

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we investigate of science and technology teachers' opinions about the theory of evolution and the evolution teaching. The aim of this study, we investigate of science and technology teachers' opinions about the theory of evolution and the evolution teaching. This study is a descriptive study. Open-ended questions were used to…

  6. Structural Analysis of Complex Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Dehmer, Matthias

    2011-01-01

    Filling a gap in literature, this self-contained book presents theoretical and application-oriented results that allow for a structural exploration of complex networks. The work focuses not only on classical graph-theoretic methods, but also demonstrates the usefulness of structural graph theory as a tool for solving interdisciplinary problems. Applications to biology, chemistry, linguistics, and data analysis are emphasized. The book is suitable for a broad, interdisciplinary readership of researchers, practitioners, and graduate students in discrete mathematics, statistics, computer science,

  7. China’s Structural Energy Conservation: Analysis and Proposals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张雷; 黄园淅

    2008-01-01

    Given the increasing dependence of development on energy consumption, an understanding of the rules and trends of national energy consumption is required for boosting social energy conservation. By using two models -- the structural evolution energy consumption model and the structural evolution per-unit energy consumption model, this article attempts to make an international comparison of the industrial structure development versus energy consumption patterns in the United States, the United Kingdom, France, Germany, Japan, and India. The results of this analysis indicate that the dominance of secondary industry over the industrial structure evolution process noticeably accelerates national energy consumption at the initial stage of modernization. Subsequently, a slowdown in energy consumption as a result of industrial structure development yields effects as the diversification process speeds up. Under such influence, energy consumption per unit of GDP follows an inverted U-shaped curve from rise to decline. As one of the world’s major energy producers and consumers, China has long employed a one- sided sector development policy. Under the influence of this policy, national energy conservation endeavors have been inhibited by the rigidity in its industry structural evolution. Thus, in China, energy consumption per unit of GDP has remained at a high level.

  8. Structural Analysis of Plate Based Tensegrity Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Frederik; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Damkilde, Lars

    2013-01-01

    Plate tensegrity structures combine tension cables with a cross laminated timber plate and can then form e.g. a roof structure. The topology of plate tensegrity structures is investigated through a parametric investigation. Plate tensegrity structures are investigated, and a method for...... determination of the structures pre-stresses is used. A parametric investigation is performed to determine a more optimized form of the plate based tensegrity structure. Conclusions of the use of plate based tensegrity in civil engineering and further research areas are discussed....

  9. Models of the Protocellular Structures, Functions and Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohorille, Andrew; New, Michael; Keefe, Anthony; Szostak, Jack W.; Lanyi, Janos F.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    In the absence of extinct or extant record of protocells, the most direct way to test our understanding of the origin of cellular life is to construct laboratory models that capture important features of protocellular systems. Such efforts are currently underway in a collaborative project between NASA-Ames, Harvard medical School and University of California. They are accompanied by computational studies aimed at explaining self-organization of simple molecules into ordered structures. The centerpiece of this project is a method for the in vitro evolution of protein enzymes toward arbitrary catalytic targets. A similar approach has already been developed for nucleic acids: First, a very large population of candidate molecules is generated using a random synthetic approach. Next, the small numbers of molecules that can accomplish the desired task are selected. These molecules are next vastly multiplied using the polymerase chain reaction. A mutagenic approach, in which the sequences of selected molecules are randomly altered, can yield further improvements in performance or alterations of specificities. Unfortunately, the catalytic potential of nucleic acids is rather limited. Proteins are more catalytically capable but cannot be directly amplified. In the new technique, this problem is circumvented by covalently linking each protein of the initial, diverse, pool to the RNA sequence that codes for it. Then, selection is performed on the proteins, but the nucleic acids are replicated. To date, we have obtained "a proof of concept" by evolving simple, novel proteins capable of selectively binding adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP). Our next goal is to create an enzyme that can phosphorylate amino acids and another to catalyze the formation of peptide bonds in the absence of nucleic acid templates. This latter reaction does not take place in contemporary cells. once developed, these enzymes will be encapsulated in liposomes so that they will function in a simulated cellular

  10. Structural Evolution of a Granular Pack under Manual Tapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iikawa, Naoki; Bandi, Mahesh M.; Katsuragi, Hiroaki

    2015-09-01

    We experimentally study a two-dimensional (2D) granular pack of photoelastic disks subject to vertical manual tapping. Using bright- and dark-field images, we employ gradient-based image analysis methods to analyze various structural quantities. These include the packing fraction (ϕ), force per disk (Fd), and force chain segment length (l) as functions of the tapping number (τ). The increase in the packing fraction with the tapping number is found to exponentially approach an asymptotic value. An exponential distribution is observed for the cumulative numbers of both the force per disk Fd:Ncum(Fd) = AFexp ( - Fd/F0), and the force chain segment length l:Ncum(l) = Alexp ( - l/l0). Whereas the coefficient AF varies with τ for Fd, l shows no dependence on τ. The τ dependences of Fd and ϕ allow us to posit a linear relationship between the total force of the granular pack Ftot*(τ ) and ϕ(τ).

  11. Kinematic and Structural Evolution of Field and Cluster Spiral Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Ziegler, Bodo L; Da Rocha, Cristiano; Böhm, Asmus; Peletier, Reynier F; Verdugo, Miguel

    2009-01-01

    To understand the processes that build up galaxies we investigate the stellar structure and gas kinematics of spiral and irregular galaxies out to redshift 1. We target 92 galaxies in four cluster (z = 0.3 & 0.5) fields to study the environmental influence. Their stellar masses derived from multiband VLT/FORS photometry are distributed around but mostly below the characteristic Schechter-fit mass. From HST/ACS images we determine morphologies and structural parameters like disk length, position angle and ellipticity. Combining the spectra of three slit positions per galaxy using the MXU mode of VLT/FORS2 we construct the two-dimensional velocity field from gas emission lines for 16 cluster members and 33 field galaxies. The kinematic position angle and flatness are derived by a Fourier expansion of elliptical velocity profiles. To trace possible interaction processes, we define three irregularity indicators based on an identical analysis of local galaxies from the SINGS project. Our distant sample display...

  12. Structure and evolution of the Y-chromosomal and mitochondrial DNA of cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkaar, Edward Louis Christian

    2004-01-01

    The research described in this thesis is focused on the structure and evolution of the bovine Y-chromosome and the use of paternal markers in molecular diagnostics. The Y-chromosome has emerged together with the X-chromosome early during the evolution of the mammals by differentiation of a pair of a

  13. MICROMECHANICS ANALYSIS ON EVOLUTION OF CRACK IN VISCOELASTIC MATERIALS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张双寅

    2002-01-01

    A preliminary analysis on crack evolution in viscoelastic materials was presented Based on the equivalent inclusion concept of micro mechanics theory, the explicit expressions of crack opening displacement δ and energy release rate G were derived,indicating that both δ and G are increasing with time. The equivalent modulus of the viscoelastic solid comprising cracks was evaluated. It is proved that the decrease of the modulus comes from two mechanisms: one is the viscoelasticity of the material; the other is the crack opening which is getting larger with time.

  14. Temporal evolution of the chemical structure during the pattern transfer by ion-beam sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, N.-B.; Jeong, S.; Yu, S.; Ihm, H.-I.; Kim, J.-S.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Chemical analyses of the individual nano structures simultaneously with the investigation of their morphological evolution were performed. • Degradation of the transferred pattern starts before the overlayer is fully removed. • The chemical analysis reveals the severe reduction of the sputter yield of the material forming the overlayer near the interface due to the compound formation, requesting caution in the practice of the pattern transfer. - Abstract: Ru films patterned by ion-beam sputtering (IBS) serve as sacrificial masks for the transfer of the patterns to Si(1 0 0) and metallic glass substrates by continued IBS. Under the same sputter condition, however, both bare substrates remain featureless. Chemical analyses of the individual nano structures simultaneously with the investigation of their morphological evolution reveal that the pattern transfer, despite its apparent success, suffers from premature degradation before the mask is fully removed by IBS. Moreover, the residue of the mask or Ru atoms stubbornly remains near the surface, resulting in unintended doping or alloying of both patterned substrates.

  15. Temporal evolution of the chemical structure during the pattern transfer by ion-beam sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Chemical analyses of the individual nano structures simultaneously with the investigation of their morphological evolution were performed. • Degradation of the transferred pattern starts before the overlayer is fully removed. • The chemical analysis reveals the severe reduction of the sputter yield of the material forming the overlayer near the interface due to the compound formation, requesting caution in the practice of the pattern transfer. - Abstract: Ru films patterned by ion-beam sputtering (IBS) serve as sacrificial masks for the transfer of the patterns to Si(1 0 0) and metallic glass substrates by continued IBS. Under the same sputter condition, however, both bare substrates remain featureless. Chemical analyses of the individual nano structures simultaneously with the investigation of their morphological evolution reveal that the pattern transfer, despite its apparent success, suffers from premature degradation before the mask is fully removed by IBS. Moreover, the residue of the mask or Ru atoms stubbornly remains near the surface, resulting in unintended doping or alloying of both patterned substrates

  16. The Evolution and Internal Structure of Jupiter and Saturn with Compositional Gradients

    CERN Document Server

    Vazan, A; Podolak, M; Kovetz, A

    2016-01-01

    The internal structure of gas giant planets may be more complex than the commonly assumed core-envelope structure with an adiabatic temperature profile. Different primordial internal structures as well as various physical processes can lead to non-homogenous compositional distributions. A non-homogenous internal structure has a significant impact on the thermal evolution and final structure of the planets. In this paper, we present alternative structure and evolution models for Jupiter and Saturn allowing for non-adiabatic primordial structures and the mixing of heavy elements by convection as these planets evolve. We present the evolution of the planets accounting for various initial composition gradients, and in the case of Saturn, include the formation of a helium-rich region as a result of helium rain. We investigate the stability of regions with composition gradients against convection, and find that the helium shell in Saturn remains stable and does not mix with the rest of the envelope. In other cases,...

  17. Properties and evolution of anisotropic structures in collisionless plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Karimov, A R; Stenflo, L

    2016-01-01

    A new class of exact electrostatic solutions of the Vlasov-Maxwell equations based on the Jeans's theorem is proposed for studying the evolution and properties of two-dimensional anisotropic plasmas that are far from thermodynamic equilibrium. In particular, the free expansion of a slab of electron-ion plasma into vacuum is investigated.

  18. Probabilistic methods for structural response analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Y.-T.; Burnside, O. H.; Cruse, T. A.

    1988-01-01

    This paper addresses current work to develop probabilistic structural analysis methods for integration with a specially developed probabilistic finite element code. The goal is to establish distribution functions for the structural responses of stochastic structures under uncertain loadings. Several probabilistic analysis methods are proposed covering efficient structural probabilistic analysis methods, correlated random variables, and response of linear system under stationary random loading.

  19. Generalized Dromion Structures of New (2 + 1)-Dimensional Nonlinear EvolutionEquation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jie-Fang

    2001-01-01

    We derive the generalized dromions of the new (2 + 1)-dimensional nonlinear evolution equation by the arbitrary function presented in the bilinearized linear equations. The rich soliton and dromion structures for this system are released.

  20. An SAO-based approach to technology evolution analysis using patent information: Case study—graphene sensors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhengyin; HU; Shu; FANG; Ling; WEI; Yi; WEN; Xian; ZHANG; Min; WANG

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper introduces an approach to technology evolution analysis using patent information based on Subject-Action-Object(SAO) structures.Design/methodology/approach: First, SAO structures were extracted from patent documents and were cleaned. Second, several dimension-reduction techniques were used to generate technology topics. Then, the hierarchical relationships between technology topics were calculated based on patent clustering. Finally, technology evolution maps were drawn by adding a timeline.Findings: This approach can reveal technology evolution processes from multiple perspectives than other approaches.Research limitations: The semantic annotation of an SAO type is not very accurate and the semantic types of technology topics need to be enriched.Practical implications: The approach can be applied to draw technology evolution maps using different types of technology topics such as problem or solution.Originality/value: This approach offers an analytical dimension and more details than existing techniques, and it helps identify fundamental and emerging technologies more accurately and comprehensively.

  1. Alpha-synuclein gene structure,evolution,and protein aggregation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lili Xiong; Peng Zhao; Zhiyun Guo; Jianhua Zhang; Diqiang Li; Canquan Mao

    2010-01-01

    α-synuclein,a member of the synuclein family,is predominately expressed in brain tissues,where it is the major component of Lewy bodies,the major hallmark of Parkinson's disease.We analyzed the phylogenetics,gene structure,and effects of different forms of α-synuclein on in vitro protein aggregation.The synuclein phylogenetic tree showed that sequences could be classified into α,β,and γ protein groups.The orthologous gene α-,β-and γ-synuclein showed similar evolutionary distance to the paralogous gene α-,β-and γ-synuclein.Bioinformatics analysis suggests that the amino-acid sequence of human α-synuclein can be divided into three regions: N-terminal amphipathic region(1-60),central hydrophobic non-amyloid beta component segment(61-95),and the C-terminal acidic part(96-140).The mutant site of A30P is at the second exon of α-synuclein,whereas E46K is located at the third exon of α-synuclein.α-synuclein alternative splicing results in four isomers,and five exons,all of which participate in protein coding,comprising 140 amino acids to produce the major α-synuclein in vivo.The threeα-synuclein isoforms are products of alternative splicing,α-synuclein 126,112 and 98.We also review the genetic and cellular factors that affect the aggregation of α-synuclein and compounds that inhibit aggregation.A better understanding of α-synuclein sequences,structure,and function may allow better targeted therapy and diagnosis of α-synuclein in Parkinson's disease and other neurodegenerative diseases.

  2. Distribution functions for internal interface energy as a characteristic of submicrocrystalline copper structure evolution under low-temperature annealing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, P.; Rakhmatulina, T.; Koznikov, A.; Belyaeva, I.

    2015-10-01

    Submicrocrystalline structure of 99.99% pure copper produced by equal channel angular pressing was under investigation. After deformation the samples were subjected to low-temperature annealing. Grain and subgrain structure was studied by scanning tunnel microscopy. Internal interface energy was estimated using the method based on measurement of dihedral angles (ψ) of the boundary grooves formed by electrochemical etching. Analysis of the differential and cumulative distribution functions for relative grain boundary energy enabled to qualitatively evaluate energy redistribution between the boundaries of different types and internal bulk crystallites and to study evolution of submicrocrystalline structure under low-temperature annealing.

  3. Microeconomic co-evolution model for financial technical analysis signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotundo, G.; Ausloos, M.

    2007-01-01

    Technical analysis (TA) has been used for a long time before the availability of more sophisticated instruments for financial forecasting in order to suggest decisions on the basis of the occurrence of data patterns. Many mathematical and statistical tools for quantitative analysis of financial markets have experienced a fast and wide growth and have the power for overcoming classical TA methods. This paper aims to give a measure of the reliability of some information used in TA by exploring the probability of their occurrence within a particular microeconomic agent-based model of markets, i.e., the co-evolution Bak-Sneppen model originally invented for describing species population evolutions. After having proved the practical interest of such a model in describing financial index so-called avalanches, in the prebursting bubble time rise, the attention focuses on the occurrence of trend line detection crossing of meaningful barriers, those that give rise to some usual TA strategies. The case of the NASDAQ crash of April 2000 serves as an illustration.

  4. Transient evolution of the global mode in turbulent swirling jets: experiments and modal stability analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Rukes, Lothar; Paschereit, Oliver; Oberleithner, Kilian

    2016-01-01

    Modal linear stability analysis has proven very successful in the analysis of coherent structures of turbulent flows. Formally, it describes the evolution of a disturbance in the limit of infinite time. In this work we apply modal linear stability analysis to a turbulent swirling jet undergoing a control parameter transient. The flow undergoes a transition from a non-vortex breakdown state to a state with a strong recirculation bubble and the associated global mode. High-speed Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) measurements are the basis for a local linear stability analysis of the temporarily evolving base flow. This analysis reveals that the onset of the global mode is strongly linked to the formation of the internal stagnation point. Several transition scenarios are discussed and the ability of a frequency selection criterion to predict the wavemaker location, frequency and growth rate of the global mode are evaluated. We find excellent agreement between the linear global mode frequency and the experimental ...

  5. The structural evolution process and the electronic properties of armchair silicon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Deng-Hui; Tang, Yu-Chao; Yao, Cheng-Peng; Zhu, Heng-Jiang

    2016-04-01

    The structural evolution process of the capped armchair single- and double-walled SiNTs grown from silicon clusters was investigated using the DFT method. The evolution process was described quantitatively by monitoring change of the geometry structures. The initial structural configuration of the single- and double-walled SiNTs was determined by optimizing structure of the small silicon clusters. The evolution process of the SWSiNTs is through forming tubular clusters with a global reconstruction from structure of the double-rings. Then, it elongates through the layer-by-layer growth process with local reconstructions. Eventually, the infinite SiNTs can be constructed with corresponding repeat unit, designed by the periodic characteristics on the basis of tubular clusters. Eventually, All of the SiNTs have a narrow band gap. From calculation of band structure, the band gap which occurs oscillations and gradually decreases with increase of the diameter, length, and the number of walls.

  6. Structural Analysis of Fungal Cerebrosides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana eBarreto-Bergter

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Of the ceramide monohexosides (CMHs, gluco- and galactosylceramides are the main neutral glycosphingolipids expressed in fungal cells. Their structural determination is greatly dependent on the use of mass spectrometric techniques, including fast atom bombardment-mass spectrometry (FAB-MS, electrospray ionization (ESI-MS, and energy collision-induced dissociation mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/CID-MS. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR has also been used successfully. Such a combination of techniques, combined with classical analytical separation, such as HPTLC and column chromatography, has led to the structural elucidation of a great number of fungal CMHs. The structure of fungal CMH is conserved among fungal species and consists of a glucose or galactose residue attached to a ceramide moiety containing 9-methyl-4,8-sphingadienine with an amidic linkage to hydroxylated fatty acids, most commonly having 16 or 18 carbon atoms and unsaturation between C-3 and C-4. Along with their unique structural characteristics, fungal CMHs have a peculiar subcellular distribution and striking biological properties. Fungal cerebrosides were also characterized as antigenic molecules directly or indirectly involved in cell growth or differentiation in Schizophyllum commune, Cryptococcus neoformans, Pseudallescheria boydii, Candida albicans, Aspergillus nidulans, A.fumigatus and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. Besides classical techniques for cerebroside (CMH analysis, we now describe new approaches, combining conventional TLC and mass spectrometry, as well as emerging technologies for subcellular localization and distribution of glycosphingolipids by SIMS and imaging MALDI TOF .

  7. Structural analysis of nuclear components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    THe report describes the activities accomplished in the project 'Structural Analysis Project of Nuclear Power Plant Components' during the years 1974-1982 in the Nuclear Engineering Laboratory at the Technical Research Centre of Finland. The objective of the project has been to develop Finnish expertise in structural mechanics related to nuclear engineering. The report describes the starting point of the research work, the organization of the project and the research activities on various subareas. Further the work done with computer codes is described and also the problems which the developed expertise has been applied to. Finally, the diploma works, publications and work reports, which are mainly in Finnish, are listed to give a view of the content of the project. (author)

  8. 雪峰山早中生代构造演化:构造学和年代学分析木%Tectonic evolution of the Early Mesozoic Xuefengshan belt:Insights from structural analysis and geochronological constraints

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    褚杨; 林伟; Michel Faure; 王清晨

    2011-01-01

    In the center of the South China Block,in Hunan Province, the Xuefengshan Belt providesa well-exposed example of intracontinental orogens. Detail field observations indicate that the Xuefengshan Belt can be divided into: ( 1 ) the Western Outer Zone,characterized by km-scale box-fold structure; (2) the Central Xuefengshan Zone, where the dip of the cleavage surface exhibits a fan-like pattern, separated from the Western Outer Zone by the Xuefengshan Main Thrust,the most deformed and metamorphosed region in this belt; (3)and the Eastern Zone,deformed mainly in the brittle-ductile level, characterized by top-to-the-NW structures and also some back-folding structures. The Xuefengshan Belt results of polyphase deformation: D1,characterized by a widespread top-to-the-NW ductile shearing. D2 corresponds to a SE-directed back thrusting and folding event. D3 consists of upright folds with vertical cleavage and lineation. The tectonic evolution of the Early Mesozoic Xuefengshan Belt is possibly originated by the continental subduction in response to the northwest directed subduction of the Pacific plate.%雪峰山主体地处湖南省境内,位于华南板块的中心区域,是一条典型的陆内造山带.通过详细的野外地质观察,我们将其分为3个构造单元:西部外区,主要以大型箱状褶皱为主;中部区,与西部区以主逆冲断层相分隔,劈理发育呈扇状,是雪峰山构造带的核心区域,也是变质级别最深、变形最强的区域;东部区,变形集中在脆韧性区域之上,以极性北西构造为主,并有反向构造发育.研究区经历了3期构造变形:D1为上部指向北西的韧性剪切,广泛发育于整个区域;D2代表了一期反向褶皱一逆冲构造事件;D3则以水平挤压为主,形成了直立的褶皱、劈理和线理.雪峰山的构造演化表明华南板块东南缘古太平洋板块向北西方向的俯冲可能引发了早中生代的陆内俯冲造山过程.

  9. Precambrian crustal evolution and Cretaceous–Palaeogene faulting in West Greenland: Structural analysis of the northern Nagssugtoqidian orogen, West Greenland: an example of complex tectonic patterns in reworked high-grade metamorphic terrains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazur, Stanislaw

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Structural analysis of the deeply eroded northern flank of the Palaeoproterozoic Nagssugtoqidian orogen shows marked regional variations in both the orientation and type of fabrics, as is characteristic of Precambrian high-grade terrains subjected to polyphase deformation. Here we investigate the relationship between strain, metamorphic grade, and the resulting structural patterns. The study area south of Aasiaat in West Greenland consists of amphibolite- togranulite-gradeArchaean orthogneisses and relatively thin supracrustal units. The regional foliation displays a WSW–ENE to SW–NE strike associated with steep to moderate dips towards the WNW or SSE. Lineation trends are WSW–ENE and generally plunge gently towards the WSW. Mesoscopic fold hinges are usually colinear with the regional lineation. A systematic change in the plunge of lineations occurs across the south-western part of the study area. Towards the south, the lineation plunge progressively increases, despite the generally uniform strike of foliation. This southward increase of lineation pitch is typically associated with the transition from L > S or L = S shape fabrics in rocks characterised by a low pitch, to S > L or S fabrics in the zone of moderate to high pitch. The structural patterns point to subdivision of the study area into a southern domain mostly characterised by S or S > L shape fabrics and a moderate to high angle of lineation pitch, and a northern domain showing L > S or L = S fabrics and low angles of lineation pitch. This subdivision corresponds well with the map scale boundary between granulite facies rocks in the south and amphibolite facies rocks farther north. The observed structural pattern may be explained by two alternative tectonic models: (1 northward indentation of the previously cooled granulite block into the rheologically weaker amphibolite domain, and (2 strain partitioning within a mid-crustal transpression zone. In model 2 the northern domain

  10. Genetic Programs of Structural Evolution of Hybrid Electromechanical Objects

    OpenAIRE

    Shinkarenko V. F.; Gaidaienko Iu; Ahmad N Al-Husban

    2012-01-01

    In this paper the interconnected genetic models defining algorithms of intrageneric synthesis of hybrid electromechanical structures are considered. The authors analyze the space of admissible crossing and define the variety of genetically admissible classes of hybrid structures. The recommendations about the use of models in problems of a structural prediction and innovative synthesis of new versions of hybrid electromechanical objects are given.

  11. The structural, metamorphic and magmatic evolution of Mesoproterozoic orogens

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, Nick M. W.; Slagstad, Trond; Viola, Giulio

    2015-01-01

    The Mesoproterozoic (1600–1000 Ma) is an Era of Earth history that has been defined in the literature as being quiescent in terms of both tectonics and the evolution of the biosphere and atmosphere (Holland, 2006, Piper, 2013b and Young, 2013). The ‘boring billion’ is an informal term that is given to a time period overlapping the Mesoproterozoic period, extending from 1.85 to 0.85 Ga (Holland, 2006). Orogenesis was not absent from this period however, with various continents featuring active...

  12. Thermo-plastic finite element analysis for metal honeycomb structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Zhanling

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with thermal-plastic analysis for the metal honeycomb structure. The heat transfer equation and thermal elastoplastic constitutive equation of a multilayer panel are established and studied numerically using ANSYS software. The paper elucidates that only the outer skin produces easily plastic deformation, and the outer skin still exists some residual stress and residual deformation after cooling. The dynamic evolution of plastic deformation and material performance degradation under high energy thermal load are revealed.

  13. Visualization and Evolution of the Scientific Structure of Fuzzy Sets Research in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Herrera, A. G.; Cobo, M. J.; Herrera-Viedma, E.; Herrera, F.; Bailon-Moreno, R.; Jimenez-Contreras, E.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Presents the first bibliometric study on the evolution of the fuzzy sets theory field. It is specially focused on the research carried out by the Spanish community. Method. The CoPalRed software, for network analysis, and the co-word analysis technique are used. Analysis: Bibliometric maps showing the main associations among the…

  14. THE EVOLUTION OF THEORETICAL APPROACHES OF THE CORPORATIONS’ ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor BAZILEVICH

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article explores the basis of methodology of the corporations' analysis. It is summarized the theoretical approaches to determine their economic substance. Characteristic features inherent in corporations are identified. It is stated that the study of the evolution of scientific views on the problem of the formation and development corporations in the world economic literature has revealed the most significant in terms of theoretical and methodological concept, updated the need for scientific development of the problem of formation of corporations in the economic system. Nowadays the scientists are united by a perception of corporations as a difficult economic institution, but there is no unity of opinion on its essential features. Thus, a holistic theory of corporations is at the stage of active formation.

  15. Conservation of mRNA secondary structures may filter out mutations in Escherichia coli evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Chursov, Andrey; Frishman, Dmitrij; Shneider, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Recent reports indicate that mutations in viral genomes tend to preserve RNA secondary structure, and those mutations that disrupt secondary structural elements may reduce gene expression levels, thereby serving as a functional knockout. In this article, we explore the conservation of secondary structures of mRNA coding regions, a previously unknown factor in bacterial evolution, by comparing the structural consequences of mutations in essential and nonessential Escherichia coli genes accumul...

  16. Superhydrophobic hierarchically structured surfaces in biology: evolution, structural principles and biomimetic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthlott, W; Mail, M; Neinhuis, C

    2016-08-01

    A comprehensive survey of the construction principles and occurrences of superhydrophobic surfaces in plants, animals and other organisms is provided and is based on our own scanning electron microscopic examinations of almost 20 000 different species and the existing literature. Properties such as self-cleaning (lotus effect), fluid drag reduction (Salvinia effect) and the introduction of new functions (air layers as sensory systems) are described and biomimetic applications are discussed: self-cleaning is established, drag reduction becomes increasingly important, and novel air-retaining grid technology is introduced. Surprisingly, no evidence for lasting superhydrophobicity in non-biological surfaces exists (except technical materials). Phylogenetic trees indicate that superhydrophobicity evolved as a consequence of the conquest of land about 450 million years ago and may be a key innovation in the evolution of terrestrial life. The approximate 10 million extant species exhibit a stunning diversity of materials and structures, many of which are formed by self-assembly, and are solely based on a limited number of molecules. A short historical survey shows that bionics (today often called biomimetics) dates back more than 100 years. Statistical data illustrate that the interest in biomimetic surfaces is much younger still. Superhydrophobicity caught the attention of scientists only after the extreme superhydrophobicity of lotus leaves was published in 1997. Regrettably, parabionic products play an increasing role in marketing.This article is part of the themed issue 'Bioinspired hierarchically structured surfaces for green science'. PMID:27354736

  17. Tectonic evolution and mantle structure of the Caribbean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Benthem, S.; Govers, R.; Spakman, W.; Wortel, R.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate whether predictions of mantle structure from tectonic reconstructions are in agreement with a detailed tomographic image of seismic P wave velocity structure under the Caribbean region. In the upper mantle, positive seismic anomalies are imaged under the Lesser Antilles and Puerto Ric

  18. A SIMPLE ANALYSIS OF THE GEOTECTONIC EVOLUTIONAL CHARACTERS OF TONGLIN AREA,ANHUI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAO Yong-jun; PENG Sheng-lin; LIU Liang-ming

    2001-01-01

    Tonglin area is one of the areas where there exist many copper ore deposits.The geotectonic property has many titles.Most of geological scholars call it the lower Yangtze platform depression and divide the geotectonic stages into formation of basement,sedimentaion of cover and intreplate deformation.According to the diwa theory,this paper classifies it as the Jiangsu-Hubei geodepressional system of the Central China geodepressional region.According to the analysis of the features of structural layers,the geotectonic evolution of the region is divided into four stages: pre-geosyncline,geosyncline,platform and diwa.

  19. Evolution of molecular structure in alkoxide-derived lithium niobate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on structural rearrangements during the sol-gel processing of lithium niobate investigated by FTIR and Raman spectroscopic methods. The reaction of lithium ethoxide with niobium ethoxide resulted in the formation of a bimetallic alkoxide, LiNb(OEt)6, which could be crystallized from solution. Single crystals were comprised of helical polymeric units consisting of niobium octahedra linked by lithium in cetrahedral (distorted) coordination. Successive crystallizations from solution allowed for the enhanced purification of the alkoxide precursor. Hydrolysis of the bimetallic alkoxide resulted in the formation of an amorphous network structure, which contained niobium-oxygen octahedral units modified by lithium. Heat-treatment facilitated structural rearrangements for the niobium environment, which allowed for the formation of the lithium niobate crystal structure. Further heat-treatment above 700 degrees C resulted in structural changes associated with lithium oxide volatility

  20. Structural characteristics of Pavonis Mons, Mars, and implications for its volcano-tectonic evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwinner, Klaus; Head, James W.; Wilson, Lionel

    2010-05-01

    Pavonis Mons is the smallest of the three large Tharsis Montes volcanic edifices on Mars. While Viking-based studies have already revealed main structural features of these shields and have provided a framework on their evolution, detailed information on major aspects of their volcano-tectonic structure and evolution is still incomplete. In particular this is the case for the nature of asymmetries that develop along a NE direction, roughly coincident with the crest line of the Tharsis rise, as well as the evolution of the magma reservoir as the shields were built above the ground, and the related consequences for caldera formation and edifice stability. In addition, different morpho-structural features of the Martian shields have been discussed controversially, such as flank "terraces", rillelike channels, and evidence of flank instabilities. We have analyzed recently available high-resolution data, in particular DTMs with up to 50 m grid spacing derived from HRSC data, as well as high-resolution imagery (HRSC, CTX, HIRISE) and regional-scale MOLA DTMs for obtaining new constraints on the volcano-tectonic structure and evolution of Pavonis. We mapped tectonic elements (faults and fractures, wrinkle ridges, collapse pits), main volcanic elements (vent locations, limits of shield, apron and caldera floor units), and elements of flank morphology. Analysis of edifice morphometry is based on slope maps and slope statistics. We were able to identify several major fault systems affecting flanks and base of the edifice. Widespread occurrence of normal faulting from 2-3 km below the summit plateau to the base shows that the middle and lower flanks are characterized by extension. While the summit plateau and uppermost flanks show evidence for compressional deformation, including wrinkle ridges and downslope-convex flank facets interpreted as surface expression of flank thrusts, the system of intersecting flank facets that have been denoted as compressional "terraces" instead

  1. Building intuition of iron evolution during solar cell processing through analysis of different process models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morishige, Ashley E.; Laine, Hannu S.; Schön, Jonas; Haarahiltunen, Antti; Hofstetter, Jasmin; del Cañizo, Carlos; Schubert, Martin C.; Savin, Hele; Buonassisi, Tonio

    2015-09-01

    An important aspect of Process Simulators for photovoltaics is prediction of defect evolution during device fabrication. Over the last twenty years, these tools have accelerated process optimization, and several Process Simulators for iron, a ubiquitous and deleterious impurity in silicon, have been developed. The diversity of these tools can make it difficult to build intuition about the physics governing iron behavior during processing. Thus, in one unified software environment and using self-consistent terminology, we combine and describe three of these Simulators. We vary structural defect distribution and iron precipitation equations to create eight distinct Models, which we then use to simulate different stages of processing. We find that the structural defect distribution influences the final interstitial iron concentration ([]) more strongly than the iron precipitation equations. We identify two regimes of iron behavior: (1) diffusivity-limited, in which iron evolution is kinetically limited and bulk [] predictions can vary by an order of magnitude or more, and (2) solubility-limited, in which iron evolution is near thermodynamic equilibrium and the Models yield similar results. This rigorous analysis provides new intuition that can inform Process Simulation, material, and process development, and it enables scientists and engineers to choose an appropriate level of Model complexity based on wafer type and quality, processing conditions, and available computation time.

  2. The evolution of the plasmoidal structure in the pinched column in plasma focus discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubes, P.; Paduch, M.; Cikhardt, J.; Klir, D.; Kravarik, J.; Rezac, K.; Cikhardtova, B.; Kortanek, J.; Zielinska, E.

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, a description is provided of the evolution of the dense spherical-like structures—plasmoids—formed in the pinched column of the dense plasma focus at the current of 1 MA at the final phase of implosion of the deuterium plasma sheath and at the phase of evolution of instabilities both at the time of HXR and neutron production. At the stratification of the plasma column, the plasma injected to the dense structures from the axially neighboring regions forms small turbulences which increase first the toroidal structures, and finally generates a non-chaotic current plasmoidal structure with central maximal density. This spontaneous evolution supports the hypothesis of the spheromak-like model of the plasmoid and its sub-millimeter analogy, high-energy spot. These spots, also called nodules formed in the filamentary structure of the current can be a source of the energy capable of accelerating the fast charged particles.

  3. The structure evolution process and the electronic properties of armchair boron nitride nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Chengpeng; Tang, Yuchao; Liu, Denghui; Zhu, Hengjiang

    2016-04-01

    We report the results of density functional calculations on the structural evolution and electronic properties of armchair boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs), including SWBNNTs and DWBNNTs. Our results show that the initial structural configuration of the BNNTs was determined by the small boron nitride clusters. The evolution process of the BNNTs is through forming tubular clusters with a global reconstruction from structure of the double-rings. Then, it elongates through the layer-by-layer growth process with local reconstructions. Eventually, the infinite BNNTs can be constructed with corresponding repeat unit, designed by the periodic characteristics on the basis of tubular clusters. From the band structure of armchair BNNTs, it can be found the gap slightly increases with increasing diameter of the tube, decrease with the increasing of the walls. Moreover, the evolution process provides a better way to understand the growth mechanism of armchair BNNTs in atomic-level and guide the production of armchair BNNTs in industrial.

  4. Tabletop imaging of structural evolutions in chemical reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Ibrahim, Heide; Beaulieu, Samuel; Schmidt, Bruno E; Thiré, Nicolas; Bisson, Éric; Hebeisen, Christoph T; Wanie, Vincent; Giguére, Mathieu; Kieffer, Jean-Claude; Sanderson, Joseph; Schuurman, Michael S; Légaré, François

    2014-01-01

    The introduction of femto-chemistry has made it a primary goal to follow the nuclear and electronic evolution of a molecule in time and space as it undergoes a chemical reaction. Using Coulomb Explosion Imaging we have shot the first high-resolution molecular movie of a to and fro isomerization process in the acetylene cation. So far, this kind of phenomenon could only be observed using VUV light from a Free Electron Laser [Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 263002 (2010)]. Here we show that 266 nm ultrashort laser pulses are capable of initiating rich dynamics through multiphoton ionization. With our generally applicable tabletop approach that can be used for other small organic molecules, we have investigated two basic chemical reactions simultaneously: proton migration and C=C bond-breaking, triggered by multiphoton ionization. The experimental results are in excellent agreement with the timescales and relaxation pathways predicted by new and definitively quantitative ab initio trajectory simulations.

  5. Evolution of the Magnetic Field Structure of the Crab Pulsar

    CERN Document Server

    Lyne, Andrew; Weltevrede, Patrick; Jordan, Christine; Stappers, Ben; Bassa, Cees; Kramer, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Pulsars are highly-magnetised rotating neutron stars and are well-known for the stability of their signature pulse shapes, allowing high-precision studies of their rotation. However, during the past 22 years, the radio pulse profile of the Crab pulsar has shown a steady increase in the separation of the main pulse and interpulse components at 0.62$^{\\rm o}\\pm$0.03$^{\\rm o}$ per century. There are also secular changes in the relative strengths of several components of the profile. The changing component separation indicates that the axis of the dipolar magnetic field, embedded in the neutron star, is moving towards the stellar equator. This evolution of the magnetic field could explain why the pulsar does not spin down as expected from simple braking by a rotating dipolar magnetic field.

  6. Structure, function and evolution of topologically associating domains (TADs) at HOX loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonfat, Nicolas; Duboule, Denis

    2015-10-01

    Hox genes encode transcription factors necessary for patterning the major developing anterior to posterior embryonic axis. In addition, during vertebrate evolution, various subsets of this gene family were co-opted along with the emergence of novel body structures, such as the limbs or the external genitalia. The morphogenesis of these axial structures thus relies in part upon the precisely controlled transcription of specific Hox genes, a mechanism involving multiple long-range enhancers. Recently, it was reported that such regulatory mechanisms were largely shared between different developing tissues, though with some specificities, suggesting the recruitment of ancestral regulatory modalities from one tissue to another. The analysis of chromatin architectures at HoxD and HoxA loci revealed the existence of two flanking topologically associating domains (TADs), precisely encompassing the adjacent regulatory landscapes. Here, we discuss the function of these TADs in the control of Hox gene regulation and we speculate about their capacity to serve as structural frameworks for the emergence of novel enhancers. In this view, TADs may have been used as genomic niches to evolve pleiotropic regulations found at many developmental loci. PMID:25913784

  7. Structure evolution of carbon black under ionic-liquid-assisted microwave irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The interactions between the carbon black (CB) and the ionic liquid (IL), 1-butyl-3-methyl-imiazolium hexafluorophosphate ([BMIM+][PF6-]), are firstly examined. The CB, mixed with the IL via simple blending, is then subjected to microwave (MW) irradiation to prepare the modified CB. The structure evolutions of the modified CB such as the microcrystalline structure and surface chemistry are revealed by Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and pore analysis. After mixing but before MW irradiation, the microcrystalline arrangement of CB turns to be more ordering and microcrystalline size (La) to be a little bigger but with a limited degree. Under MW irradiation, the IL undergoes severe decomposition. The combination of localized high temperature (proposed to be higher than 425 deg. C) and the decomposition of the IL leads to substantial structure changes of the CB. The graphitization of the CB surface, the disordering of the microcrystalline and the decrease in La are disclosed. In addition, compared with the untreated CB, the CB treated with IL-assisted MW irradiation is found to have much higher volume of the smaller mesopore.

  8. Structural Evolution of Human Recombinant alfaB-Crystallin under UV Irradiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sugiyama, Masaaki; Fujii, Noriko; Morimoto, Yukio;

    2008-01-01

    External stresses cause certain proteins to lose their regular structure and aggregate. In order to clarify this abnormal aggregation process, a structural evolution of human recombinant aB-crystallin under UV irradiation was observed with in situ small-angle neutron scattering. The abnormal...

  9. Structure and fluid evolution of Yili basin and their relation to sandstone type uranium mineralization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on the summary of strata and structure distribution of Yili basin, the relation of structure and fluid evolution to sandstone type ur alum mineraliation are analyzed. It is found that uranium mineralization in Yili basin experienced ore hosting space forming, pre-alteration of hosting space, hosting space alteration and uranium formation stages. (authors)

  10. Magnetic structure evolution in mechanically milled nanostructured ZnFe2O4 particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Jianzhong; Wynn, P.; Mørup, Steen;

    1999-01-01

    Nanostructured partially-inverted ZnFe2O4 particles have been prepared from bulk ZnFe2O4 by high-energy ball milling in an open container. The grain size reduction, cation site distributions, and the evolution of magnetic structures have been studied by x-ray diffraction with Rietveld structure...

  11. The (De-)evolution of Evolution Games: A Content Analysis of the Representation of Evolution Through Natural Selection in Digital Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leith, Alex P.; Ratan, Rabindra A.; Wohn, Donghee Yvette

    2016-04-01

    Given the diversity and complexity of education game mechanisms and topics, this article contributes to a theoretical understanding of how game mechanisms "map" to educational topics through inquiry-based learning. Namely, the article examines the presence of evolution through natural selection (ENS) in digital games. ENS is a fundamentally important and widely misunderstood theory. This analysis of ENS portrayal in digital games provides insight into the use of games in teaching ENS. Systematic database search results were coded for the three principles of ENS: phenotypic variation, differential fitness, and fitness heritability. Though thousands of games use the term evolution, few presented elements of evolution, and even fewer contained all principles of ENS. Games developed to specifically teach evolution were difficult to find through Web searches. These overall deficiencies in ENS games reflect the inherent incompatibility between game control elements and the automatic process of ENS.

  12. The (De-)evolution of Evolution Games: A Content Analysis of the Representation of Evolution Through Natural Selection in Digital Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leith, Alex P.; Ratan, Rabindra A.; Wohn, Donghee Yvette

    2016-08-01

    Given the diversity and complexity of education game mechanisms and topics, this article contributes to a theoretical understanding of how game mechanisms "map" to educational topics through inquiry-based learning. Namely, the article examines the presence of evolution through natural selection (ENS) in digital games. ENS is a fundamentally important and widely misunderstood theory. This analysis of ENS portrayal in digital games provides insight into the use of games in teaching ENS. Systematic database search results were coded for the three principles of ENS: phenotypic variation, differential fitness, and fitness heritability. Though thousands of games use the term evolution, few presented elements of evolution, and even fewer contained all principles of ENS. Games developed to specifically teach evolution were difficult to find through Web searches. These overall deficiencies in ENS games reflect the inherent incompatibility between game control elements and the automatic process of ENS.

  13. Probabilistic structural analysis methods of hot engine structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamis, C. C.; Hopkins, D. A.

    1989-01-01

    Development of probabilistic structural analysis methods for hot engine structures is a major activity at Lewis Research Center. Recent activities have focused on extending the methods to include the combined uncertainties in several factors on structural response. This paper briefly describes recent progress on composite load spectra models, probabilistic finite element structural analysis, and probabilistic strength degradation modeling. Progress is described in terms of fundamental concepts, computer code development, and representative numerical results.

  14. The importance of inherited structures in slope evolution: the Ridnaun Valley case, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorzi, L.; Flaim, L.; Massironi, M.; Genevois, R.; Stead, D.

    2013-12-01

    The south facing slope of the Ridnaun Valley (South Tyrol, Italy) comprises the crystalline units belonging to the Austoalpine Nappe of the Alpine orogenic wedge and shows evidence of quaternary gravitational evolution which is highly dependent on the interaction between the slope trend and the brittle/ductile structural setting. The slope valley is incised within the paragneiss rocks of the Oetztal - Stubei Unit and the micaschists of the Schneeberg Unit. These two units are separated by a NNW gentle dipping tectonic contact, which obliquely intersects the E-W slope, and is characterized by multiple ultracataclasitic layers that follow the regional low angle north-dipping schistosity. Folds with sub-horizontal E-trending axes induce a change in the dip direction of the regional schistosity from N dipping (unfavorable to the slip) to SE dipping (favorable to the slip). NNE-SSW and N-S trending faults, having a mean thickness of incoherent fault breccias of 1 m, affect the entire slope. These along with the folds and the ultracataclastic layers, have significant influence on rock mass mechanical properties and on mechanisms and timing of the observed gravitational phenomena. Field work and ALS-HRDEM analysis has revealed different gravitational movements along the slope. A fully evolved gravitational collapse, having the features of a Rock Avalanche (RA), characterizes the central part covering an area of about 2.4 km2; whereas to the east and west of the RA, deep seated gravitational slope deformations (DSGSDs) still affect the slope. An ongoing gravitational deformation is apparent in the uphill sections of the slope, next to the crown area of the RA. PS and DS - SAR interferometry data (provided by the Geological Survey of the Autonomous Province of Bolzano, Italy), testify an ongoing movement on both the DSGSDs bordering the RA, highlighting a most unstable area at the western sector. The heterogeneous behavior of the slope is most likely controlled by the

  15. Competitive Processes and the Evolution of Governance Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Ricketts Martin

    2000-01-01

    Cet article examine la concurrence entre des structures de gouvernance des entreprises. Il y est souligné quune panoplie de structures constitutionnelles peut être observée dans le cadre marchand et que cette variété a servi des objectifs transactionnels importants sur un plan historique. Larticle met en contraste les approches coasienne et autrichienne de lexplication des structures de gouvernance. Nous examinons la tendance récente du déplacement de la propriété des entreprises vers les inv...

  16. Computational analysis of damage and failure evolution in ceramic coatings under thermal loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceramic coatings on metallic substrates greatly improve the performance of various structures (gas turbines, aircraft engines, etc.) and also widen their functional applications, serving as thermal barriers and/or wear-resistant coatings. Ceramic coatings are characterized by randomness in distribution of pores, anisotropy of thermoelastic properties and their change with distance from a substrate. These factors, together with a mismatch in coefficients of thermal expansion of coatings and substrates, can cause damage evolution and failure initiation even under purely thermal loading in the absence of external mechanical loads. Microstructure of ceramic coatings greatly affects parameters of transition to macroscopic failure initiation and development. Damage evolution processes in ceramics can be studied using a numerical model based on ideas of continuum damage mechanics (CDM) developed in. This approach incorporates a thermodynamically based CDM-model of damage in alumina and an account for spatial randomness in material properties (initial porosity) linked with manufacturing of ceramic materials. It allows an adequate description of high-temperature loading and of size effect in alumina. This model is applied to analyses of damage evolution in alumina thermal barriers on a titan substrate under conditions of thermal loading by means of the original modeling scheme and advanced finite element analysis. The specific type of microstructure of alumina coatings is integrated into numerical modeling in terms of the random distribution of initial porosity. Two different levels of simulations are exploited: (a) macroscopic for analysis of general thermomechanical processes in the coating-substrate system under various conditions and (b) microscopic for analysis of local processes in the direct vicinity of pores in alumina. Effects of different types of microstructure (determined by modification of manufacturing processes for coatings) on damage evolution and quality of

  17. Structural evolution during fragile-to-strong transition in CuZr(Al) glass-forming liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, C.; Hu, L.N.; Sun, Q.J.; Zheng, H.J.; Zhang, C.Z.; Yue, Yuanzheng

    2015-01-01

    In the present work, we show experimental evidence for the dynamic fragile-to-strong (F-S) transition in a series of CuZr(Al) glass-forming liquids (GFLs). A detailed analysis of the dynamics of 98 glass-forming liquids indicates that the F-S transition occurs around Tf-s ≈ 1.36 Tg. Using the...... hyperquenching-annealing-x-ray scattering approach, we have observed a three-stage evolution pattern of medium-range ordering (MRO) structures during the F-S transition, indicating a dramatic change of the MRO clusters around Tf-s upon cooling. The F-S transition in CuZr(Al) GFLs is attributed to the competition...... among the MRO clusters composed of different locally ordering configurations. A phenomenological scenario has been proposed to explain the structural evolution from the fragile to the strong phase in the CuZr(Al) GFLs....

  18. Probabilistic structural analysis methods development for SSME

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamis, C. C.; Hopkins, D. A.

    1988-01-01

    The development of probabilistic structural analysis methods is a major part of the SSME Structural Durability Program and consists of three program elements: composite load spectra, probabilistic finite element structural analysis, and probabilistic structural analysis applications. Recent progress includes: (1) the effects of the uncertainties of several factors on the HPFP blade temperature pressure and torque, (2) the evaluation of the cumulative distribution function of structural response variables based on assumed uncertainties on primitive structural variables, and (3) evaluation of the failure probability. Collectively, the results obtained demonstrate that the structural durability of critical SSME components can be probabilistically evaluated.

  19. Design of structurally distinct proteins using strategies inspired by evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, T M; Williams, B; Williams, T; Xu, X; Eletsky, A; Federizon, J F; Szyperski, T; Kuhlman, B

    2016-05-01

    Natural recombination combines pieces of preexisting proteins to create new tertiary structures and functions. We describe a computational protocol, called SEWING, which is inspired by this process and builds new proteins from connected or disconnected pieces of existing structures. Helical proteins designed with SEWING contain structural features absent from other de novo designed proteins and, in some cases, remain folded at more than 100°C. High-resolution structures of the designed proteins CA01 and DA05R1 were solved by x-ray crystallography (2.2 angstrom resolution) and nuclear magnetic resonance, respectively, and there was excellent agreement with the design models. This method provides a new strategy to rapidly create large numbers of diverse and designable protein scaffolds. PMID:27151863

  20. Kinematic and Structural Evolution of Field and Cluster Spiral Galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Ziegler, Bodo L.; Kutdemir, Elif; Da Rocha, Cristiano; Böhm, Asmus; Peletier, Reynier F; Verdugo, Miguel

    2009-01-01

    To understand the processes that build up galaxies we investigate the stellar structure and gas kinematics of spiral and irregular galaxies out to redshift 1. We target 92 galaxies in four cluster (z = 0.3 & 0.5) fields to study the environmental influence. Their stellar masses derived from multiband VLT/FORS photometry are distributed around but mostly below the characteristic Schechter-fit mass. From HST/ACS images we determine morphologies and structural parameters like disk length, positi...

  1. MADS-box gene evolution-structure and transcription patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Bo; Pedersen, Louise B; Skipper, Martin;

    2002-01-01

    This study presents a phylogenetic analysis of 198 MADS-box genes based on 420 parsimony-informative characters. The analysis includes only MIKC genes; therefore several genes from gymnosperms and pteridophytes are excluded. The strict consensus tree identifies all major monophyletic groups known...

  2. Risk Analysis of Marine Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Peter Friis

    1998-01-01

    Basic concepts of risk analysis is introduced. Formulation and analysis of fault and event trees are treated.......Basic concepts of risk analysis is introduced. Formulation and analysis of fault and event trees are treated....

  3. Structural and Stratigraphic Evolution of the Iberia and Newfoundland Rifted Margins: A Quantitative Modeling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohn, G.; Karner, G. D.; Manatschal, G.; Johnson, C. A.

    2014-12-01

    Rifted margins develop generally through polyphased extensional events leading eventually to break-up. We investigate the spatial and temporal evolution of the Iberia-Newfoundland rifted margin from its Permian post-orogenic stage to early Cretaceous break-up. We have applied Quantitative Basin Analysis to integrate seismic stratigraphic interpretations and drill hole data of representative sections across the Iberia-Newfoundland margins with kinematic models for the thinning of the lithosphere and subsequent isostatic readjustment. Our goal is to predict the distribution of extension and thinning, environments of deposition, crustal structure and subsidence history as functions of space and time. The first sediments deposited on the Iberian continental crust were in response to Permian lithospheric thinning, associated with magmatic underplating and subsequent thermal re-equilibration of the lithosphere. During late Triassic-early Jurassic rifting, a broadly distributed depth-independent lithospheric extension occurred, followed by late Jurassic rifting that increasingly focused with time and became depth-dependent during the early Cretaceous. However, there exists a temporality in the along-strike deformation of the Iberia-Newfoundland margin: significant Valanginian-Hauterivian deformation characterizes the northern Galicia Bank-Flemish Cap while the southern Iberian-Newfoundland region is characterized by Tithonian-early Berriasian extension. Deformation localized with time on both margins leading to late Aptian break-up. To match the distribution and magnitude of subsidence across the profiles requires significant thinning of middle/lower crustal level and subcontinental lithospheric mantle, leading to the formation of the hyper-extended domains. The late-stage deformation of both margins was characterized by a predominantly brittle deformation of the residual continental crust, leading to exhumation of subcontinental mantle and ultimately to seafloor

  4. Customer Perception Driven Product Evolution : Facilitation of Structured Feedback Collection

    OpenAIRE

    Khriyenko, Oleksiy

    2016-01-01

    Competitive environment not only requires effective advertising strategies from the product producers and service providers, but also to do comprehensive and sufficient analysis of their customers to understand their needs and expectations. Successfully involving customers into a product/service co-creation process, companies more likely increase their future revenue. Customer feedback analysis is widely applied in marketing and product development. Among other challenges (e.g. cu...

  5. Total Lightning Characteristics and Electric Structure Evolution in a Hailstorm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Dong; ZHANG Yijun; MENG Qing; LU Weitao; YI Xiaoyuan

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, total lightning data observed by SAFIR3000 3-D Lightning Locating System was combined with radar data to analyze characteristics of the lightning activity and electric structure of a hailstorm that occurred in Beijing on 31 May 2005. The results indicated that there were two active periods for the lightning activity during the hailstorm process. The hail shooting was found in the first period. After the end of the hail shooting, lightning frequency decreased suddenly. However, more active lightning activities occurred in the second period with lots of them appearing in the cloud anvil region. The peak of the lightning frequency came about 5 rain prior to the hail shooting. Only 6.16% of the total lightning was cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning, among which 20% had positive polarity. This percentage was higher than that in normal thunderstorms. In addition, heavier positive CG lightning discharge occurred before rather than after the hail shooting. In the stage of the hail shooting, the electric structure of the hailstorm was inverted, with the main negative charge region located around the -40℃ level and the main positive charge region around the -15℃ level. In addition, a weak negative charge region existed below the positive charge region transitorily. After the hail shooting, the electric structure underwent fast and persistent adjustments and became a normal tripole, with positive charge in the upper and lower levels and negative charge in the middle levels. However, the electric structure was tilted under the influence of the westerly wind in the middle and upper levels. The lightning activity and electric structure were closely related to the dynamic and microphysical processes of the hailstorm. It was believed that severe storms with stronger updrafts were more conducive to an inverted tripolar electric structure than normal thunderstorms, and the inverted distribution could then facilitate more positive CG lightning in the severe storms.

  6. Quasar Evolution Driven by Galaxy Encounters in Hierarchical Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Menci, N; Fontana, A; Giallongo, E; Poli, F; Vittorini, V

    2003-01-01

    We link the evolution of the galaxies in the hierarchical clustering scenario with the changing accretion rates of cold gas onto the central massive black holes that power the quasars. We base on galaxy interactions as main triggers of accretion; the related scaling laws are taken up from Cavaliere & Vittorini (2000), and grafted to a semi-analytic code for galaxy formation. As a result, at high $z$ the protogalaxies grow rapidly by hierarchical merging; meanwhile, much fresh gas is imported and also destabilized, so the holes are fueled at their full Eddington rates. At lower $z$ the galactic dynamical events are mostly encounters in hierarchically growing groups; now the refueling peters out, as the residual gas is exhausted while the destabilizing encounters dwindle. So, with no parameter tuning other than needed for stellar observables, our model uniquely produces at $z>3$ a rise, and at $z\\lesssim 2.5 $ a decline of the bright quasar population as steep as observed. In addition, our results closely f...

  7. Robustness Analysis of Kinetic Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2009-01-01

    The present paper considers robustness of kinetic structures. Robustness of structures has obtained a renewed interest due to a much more frequent use of advanced types of structures with limited redundancy and serious consequences in case of failure. Especially for these types of structural syst...

  8. Structural evolution of ZTA composites during synthesis and processing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Exare, C.; Kiat, J. M.; Guiblin, N.; Porcher, F.; Petříček, Václav

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 35, č. 4 (2015), s. 1273-1283. ISSN 0955-2219 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-03276S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : ceramics * alumina–zirconia composites * structural properties * strain effect * size effect Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 2.947, year: 2014

  9. Correlation between atomic structure evolution and strength in a bulk metallic glass at cryogenic temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, J; Wang, G; Liu, Z Y; Bednarčík, J; Gao, Y L; Zhai, Q J; Mattern, N; Eckert, J

    2014-01-01

    A model Zr41.25Ti13.75Ni10Cu12.5Be22.5 (at.%) bulk metallic glass (BMG) is selected to explore the structural evolution on the atomic scale with decreasing temperature down to cryogenic level using high energy X-ray synchrotron radiation. We discover a close correlation between the atomic structure evolution and the strength of the BMG and find out that the activation energy increment of the concordantly atomic shifting at lower temperature is the main factor influencing the strength. Our results might provide a fundamental understanding of the atomic-scale structure evolution and may bridge the gap between the atomic-scale physics and the macro-scale fracture strength for BMGs. PMID:24469299

  10. Modeling high temperature materials behavior for structural analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Naumenko, Konstantin

    2016-01-01

    This monograph presents approaches to characterize inelastic behavior of materials and structures at high temperature. Starting from experimental observations, it discusses basic features of inelastic phenomena including creep, plasticity, relaxation, low cycle and thermal fatigue. The authors formulate constitutive equations to describe the inelastic response for the given states of stress and microstructure. They introduce evolution equations to capture hardening, recovery, softening, ageing and damage processes. Principles of continuum mechanics and thermodynamics are presented to provide a framework for the modeling materials behavior with the aim of structural analysis of high-temperature engineering components.

  11. Fluorous 'ponytails' lead to strong gelators showing thermally induced structure evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Harshita; Armitage, Sarah E; Kline, Steven R; Damodaran, Krishna K; Kennedy, Stuart R; Atwood, Jerry L; Steed, Jonathan W

    2015-11-21

    Appending perfluoroalkyl substituents to bis(urea) gelators results in significantly decreased inter-chain interactions with markedly thinner fibres and hence more cross-linked and more transparent gels with potential applications in the crystallisation of fluorinated pharmaceuticals. Gel structure has been probed by detailed SANS measurements which indicate a surprising structure evolution on thermal cycling, not seen for hydrocarbon analogues. The SANS data are complemented by the single crystal X-ray structure of one fluorinated gelator. PMID:26364926

  12. Structural Evolution of the Gold-rich Ashanti Belt, SW Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Perrouty, Stephane

    2012-01-01

    The Paleoproterozoic Ashanti Belt hosts numerous world class gold deposits such as the Obuasi deposit (60 million ounces) and the Tarkwa deposit (40 million ounces). Characterising the regional structural and magmatic evolution provides new insight into the geotectonic context forming these deposits. In this work, we propose (1) a new geologic and structural map of the area using field observations and airborne geophysical data, (2) a structural context of early gold mineralisation in the Was...

  13. 一个锢囚状中尺度对流系统的多尺度结构分析%An analysis of the multi-scale structure and evolution of a meso-scale occluding convective system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易笑园; 李泽椿; 姚学祥; 王红艳; 孙晓磊

    2011-01-01

    The composite Doppler radar data at the Beijing, Tianjin and Qinhuangdao stations, the satellite data, the automatic meteorological observing stations data and the NCEP 1° × 1° reanalysis data were used to analyze the multi-scale structure and evolution of a meso-scale occluding convective system in the east part of the Huabei plain, which caused severe heavy rainfall on 18 July 2007. The methods of the meso-scale filtering, the 4DVAR single Doppler radar retrieval, and the horizontal and vertical section analyses were employed in this paper. The results show that firstly, this MaCS experienced 3 phases including the intialization and developing, the maturation and the dissipation. The cold cloud top of the MαCS changed from an elongated top to a circle one with only single center again to a polygon top with several centers as shown in the satellite images. It is seen from the radar data that a meso-scale convective system under the cold top was a occluding squall-line mesoscale convective system, whose two cross meso-β-scale line-squall convective systems were composed of several MγCSs arranged in the form of a line with independent strong radar reflectivity center and life-cycle. In the occluding phase of the MaCS the active MγCSs caused local severe rainfall. In the occluded phase, those MγCSs were closely organized together so as to make their edges become obscured with the occluded point corresponding to the cold cloud top center of the MαCS. In the dissipation phase, with the pattern of crossing disappearing and cloud top dropping, the radar echo-top and the reflectivity both showed an eddy feature. Secondly, severe ascending motion existed in the MαCS whose center appears from 600 hPa to 500 hPa. At the height of 200 hPa, an anti-cyclonic circulation had an effect on the shape of cold cloud top. At the height of 700 hPa, the cold air flow brought by the cyclonic circulation weakened physically the intensity of MαCS. Thirdly, the structure and

  14. Subsurface defects structural evolution in nano-cutting of single crystal copper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Quanlong; Bai, Qingshun; Chen, Jiaxuan; Sun, Yazhou; Guo, Yongbo; Liang, Yingchun

    2015-07-01

    In this work, molecular dynamics simulation is performed to study the subsurface defects structural distribution and its evolution during nano-cutting process of single crystal copper. The formation mechanism of chip and machined surface is interviewed by analyzing the dislocation evolution and atomic migration. The centro-symmetry parameter and spherical harmonics method are adopted to characterize the distribution and evolution of the subsurface defect structures and local atomic structures. The results show that stacking faults, dislocation loops, "V-shaped" dislocation loops, and plenty of point defects are formed during the machined surface being formed in shear-slip zone. In subsurface damage layers, stair-rod dislocation, stacking fault tetrahedra, atomic cluster defect, and vacancy defect are formed. And the formation mechanism of stair-rod dislocation is investigated by atomic-scale structure evolution. The local atomic structures of subsurface defects are icosahedrons, hexagonal close packed, body-centered cubic, and defect face center cubic, and the variations of local atomic structures are investigated.

  15. THE GALACTIC STRUCTURE AND CHEMICAL EVOLUTION TRACED BY THE POPULATION OF PLANETARY NEBULAE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Planetary nebulae (PNe) derive from the evolution of ∼1-8 Msun mass stars, corresponding to a wide range of progenitor ages, and thus are essential probes of the chemical evolution of galaxies, and indispensable to constrain the results from chemical models. We use an extended and homogeneous data set of Galactic PNe to study the metallicity gradients and the Galactic structure and evolution. The most up-to-date abundances, distances (calibrated with Magellanic Cloud PNe), and other parameters have been employed, together with a novel homogeneous morphological classification, to characterize the different PN populations. We confirm that morphological classes have a strong correlation with Peimbert's type PN, and also with their distribution on the Galactic landscape. We studied the α-element distribution within the Galactic disk, and found that the best selected disk population (i.e., excluding bulge and halo component), together with the most reliable PN distance scale yields to a radial oxygen gradient of Δlog(O/H)/ΔRG = -0.023 ± 0.006 dex kpc-1 for the whole disk sample, and of Δlog(O/H)/ΔRG = -0.035 ± 0.024, -0.023 ± 0.005, and -0.011 ± 0.013 dex kpc-1, respectively for Type I, II, and III PNe, i.e., for high-, intermediate-, and low-mass progenitors. Neon gradients for the same PN types confirm the trend. Accurate statistical analysis shows moderately high uncertainties in the slopes, but also confirms the trend of steeper gradient for PNe with more massive progenitors, indicating a possible steepening with time of the Galactic disk metallicity gradient for what the α-elements are concerned. We found that the metallicity gradients are almost independent on the distance scale model used, as long as these scales are equally well calibrated with the Magellanic Clouds. The PN metallicity gradients presented here are consistent with the local metallicity distribution; furthermore, oxygen gradients determined with young and intermediate age PNe show good

  16. Structural evolution of an alkali sulfate activated slag cement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobasher, Neda; Bernal, Susan A.; Provis, John L.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the effect of sodium sulfate content and curing duration (from fresh paste up to 18 months) on the binder structure of sodium sulfate activated slag cements was evaluated. Isothermal calorimetry results showed an induction period spanning the first three days after mixing, followed by an acceleration-deceleration peak corresponding to the formation of bulk reaction products. Ettringite, a calcium aluminium silicate hydrate (C-A-S-H) phase, and a hydrotalcite-like Mg-Al layered double hydroxide have been identified as the main reaction products, independent of the Na2SO4 dose. No changes in the phase assemblage were detected in the samples with curing from 1 month up to 18 months, indicating a stable binder structure. The most significant changes upon curing at advanced ages observed were growth of the AFt phase and an increase in silicate chain length in the C-A-S-H, resulting in higher strength.

  17. The evolution of structural changes in ettringite during thermal decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Michael R.; Brady, Steven K.; Berliner, Ronald; Conradi, Mark S.

    2006-04-01

    The thermal decomposition of ettringite, Ca 6[Al(OH) 6] 2(SO 4) 3·˜26H 2O, was studied with pulsed neutron time-of-flight diffraction combined with Rietveld structure refinement. Like prior investigations, transition from a crystalline to amorphous state occurred following the loss of ˜20 water molecules. In contrast to earlier investigations, which relied upon indirect measurements of water and hydroxyl occupancies, the present study inferred the occupancies directly from Rietveld crystal structure refinement of the diffraction data. The decomposition pathway was shown to be more complex than previously envisioned, involving the simultaneous loss of hydroxyl and water molecules. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy studies of the rigid lattice lineshapes of fully and partially hydrated ettringite were performed and confirmed our decomposition model.

  18. The evolution of structural changes in ettringite during thermal decomposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thermal decomposition of ettringite, Ca6[Al(OH)6]2(SO4)3.∼26H2O, was studied with pulsed neutron time-of-flight diffraction combined with Rietveld structure refinement. Like prior investigations, transition from a crystalline to amorphous state occurred following the loss of ∼20 water molecules. In contrast to earlier investigations, which relied upon indirect measurements of water and hydroxyl occupancies, the present study inferred the occupancies directly from Rietveld crystal structure refinement of the diffraction data. The decomposition pathway was shown to be more complex than previously envisioned, involving the simultaneous loss of hydroxyl and water molecules. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy studies of the rigid lattice lineshapes of fully and partially hydrated ettringite were performed and confirmed our decomposition model

  19. The structure and evolution of cold dark matter halos

    CERN Document Server

    Diemand, Jürg

    2009-01-01

    In the standard cosmological model a mysterious cold dark matter (CDM) component dominates the formation of structures. Numerical studies of the formation of CDM halos have produced several robust results that allow unique tests of the hierarchical clustering paradigm. Universal properties of halos, including their mass profiles and substructure properties are roughly consistent with observational data from the scales of dwarf galaxies to galaxy clusters. Resolving the fine grained structure of halos has enabled us to make predictions for ongoing and planned direct and indirect dark matter detection experiments. While simulations of pure CDM halos are now very accurate and in good agreement (recently claimed discrepancies are addressed in detail in this review), we are still unable to make robust, quantitative predictions about galaxy formation and about how the dark matter distribution changes in the process. Whilst discrepancies between observations and simulations have been the subject of much debate in th...

  20. Structure evolution of implanted polymers: Buried conductive layer formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The polarization, temperature and frequency dependence of the conductivity of polyethylene and poliamide-6 films implanted with B+ ions at 60-100 keV to various fluences were investigated. The phenomenon of hysteresis was observed in the d.c. current-voltage dependence for the polymers implanted with moderate fluences. This effect was attributed to the aligning of electric dipoles (attributed to the carbon-rich clusters) in the implanted layer by the applied electric field. The possibility of fabrication of a sandwich structure insulator/conductive layer/insulator combining the ion implantation with the electrochemical deposition of dielectric polymer poly-ortho-phenylenediamine from solution was demonstrated. The spatial characteristics of this structure enable the control of the conductance of the concealed carbonaceous layer by applying an external electric field that opens the way for fabrication of a transistor-like electronic switch

  1. Structural evolution during the reduction of chemically derived graphene oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagri, Akbar; Mattevi, Cecilia; Acik, Muge; Chabal, Yves J; Chhowalla, Manish; Shenoy, Vivek B

    2010-07-01

    The excellent electrical, optical and mechanical properties of graphene have driven the search to find methods for its large-scale production, but established procedures (such as mechanical exfoliation or chemical vapour deposition) are not ideal for the manufacture of processable graphene sheets. An alternative method is the reduction of graphene oxide, a material that shares the same atomically thin structural framework as graphene, but bears oxygen-containing functional groups. Here we use molecular dynamics simulations to study the atomistic structure of progressively reduced graphene oxide. The chemical changes of oxygen-containing functional groups on the annealing of graphene oxide are elucidated and the simulations reveal the formation of highly stable carbonyl and ether groups that hinder its complete reduction to graphene. The calculations are supported by infrared and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements. Finally, more effective reduction treatments to improve the reduction of graphene oxide are proposed. PMID:20571578

  2. Evolution of Tertiary Structure of Viral RNA Dependent Polymerases

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Černý, Jiří; Černá, B.; Valdés, James J.; Grubhoffer, Libor; Růžek, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 5 (2014), e96070. E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP502/11/2116; GA ČR GAP302/12/2490; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0032 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Q-BETA replicase * C virus RNA * crystal structure Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.234, year: 2014

  3. Differential human capital and structural evolution in agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Rogers, John L.

    1994-01-01

    The growth of market capitalism and the technological advances of the last two centuries underlie the relentless process of structural change in agriculture. Substantial occupational migration out of farming and geographical migration from rural to urban areas is a characteristic of most, if not all, economies in the 20th century. The process of rural-urban migration, and the resulting urban problems have received considerable attention. The fate of the residual farm population has received l...

  4. Merit, Approbation and the Evolution of Social Structure

    OpenAIRE

    Cowan, Robin; Jonard, Nicolas

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we study a society in which individuals gain utility from income and from social approbation. Income is correlated with class. Approbation is given to an unobservable trait, which must be signalled through the agent’s social mobility, i.e. class change. Mobility is driven by a simple mechanism involving inheritance, effort and ability. Thus social structure (class composition) is affected by individuals’ quest for approbation, and we study how that affects the emergence and mult...

  5. The evolution of stellar structures in dwarf galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Bastian, N.; Weisz, D. R.; Skillman, E. D.; McQuinn, K. B. W.; Dolphin, A. E.; Gutermuth, R. A.; Cannon, J. M.; Ercolano, B.; Gieles, M.; Kennicutt, R. C.; Walter, F.

    2010-01-01

    We present a study of the variation of spatial structure of stellar populations within dwarf galaxies as a function of the population age. We use deep Hubble Space Telescope/Advanced Camera for Surveys imaging of nearby dwarf galaxies in order to resolve individual stars and create composite colour-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) for each galaxy. Using the obtained CMDs, we select Blue Helium Burning stars (BHeBs), which can be unambiguously age-dated by comparing the absolute magnitude of individu...

  6. Evolution of organizational structure and strategy of the automobile industry

    OpenAIRE

    Heng, S.H.; Wibbelink, R.

    2000-01-01

    This paper is a historically oriented study of the automobile industry. It sets out to understand why have the structure and strategy of the dominant companies in the automobile industry changed in the way they have done. Our findings suggest three factors at work, namely the knowledge of car production and of customers, the capability of the technological system, and the business environment. The knowledge system represents the level of know-how and the availability of information. In a sens...

  7. Structured habitats and the evolution of anticompetitor toxins in bacteria.

    OpenAIRE

    Chao, L.; Levin, B R

    1981-01-01

    We demonstrate that in liquid cultures, defined in this study as a mass habitat, the outcome of competition between Escherichia coli that produce an antibacterial toxin (colicin) and sensitive E. coli is frequency dependent; the colicinogenic bacteria are at an advantage only when fairly common (frequencies in excess of 2 X 10(-2)). However, we also show that in a soft agar matrix, a structured habitat, the colicinogenic bacteria have an advantage even when initially rare (frequencies as low ...

  8. Nonlinear Evolution of Cosmological Structures in Warm Dark Matter Models

    CERN Document Server

    Schneider, Aurel; Maccio, Andrea V; Moore, Ben

    2011-01-01

    The dark energy dominated warm dark matter (WDM) model is a promising alternative cosmological scenario. We explore large-scale structure formation in this paradigm. We do this in two different ways: with the halo model approach and with the help of an ensemble of high resolution N-body simulations. Combining these quasi-independent approaches, leads to a physical understanding of the important processes which shape the formation of structures. We take a detailed look at the halo mass function, the concentrations and the linear halo bias of WDM. In all cases we find interesting deviations with respect to CDM. In particular, the concentration-mass relation displays a turnover for group scale dark matter haloes, for the case of WDM particles with masses of the order ~0.25 keV. This may be interpreted as a hint for top-down structure formation on small scales. We implement our results into the halo model and find much better agreement with simulations. On small scales the WDM halo model now performs as well as i...

  9. Effect of Ni on eutectic structural evolution in hypereutectic Al-Mg2Si cast alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: → By the injection of rod-like NiAl3 phase in Al-Mg2Si alloys, Al-Mg2Si binary eutectic structure gradually evolves into Al-Mg2Si-NiAl3 ternary eutectic. → The ternary eutectic presents a unique double rod structure that rod-like NiAl3 and Mg2Si uniformly distribute in Al matrix. → The mechanism of structural evolution was analyzed in terms of the detailed microstructural observations. → The high temperature (350 deg. C) tensile strength of the alloy increases by 23% due to the eutectic structural evolution. - Abstract: The aim of this work is to investigate the eutectic structural evolution of hypereutectic Al-20% Mg2Si with Ni addition under a gravity casting process. Three-dimensional morphologies of eutectic phases were observed in detail using field emission scanning electron microscopy, after Al matrix was removed by deep etching or extraction. The results show that Al-Mg2Si binary eutectic gradually evolves into Al-Mg2Si-NiAl3 ternary eutectic with the increase of Ni content, and flake-like eutectic Mg2Si transforms into rods. The ternary eutectic presents a unique double rod structure that rod-like NiAl3 and Mg2Si uniformly distribute in Al matrix. Further, the high temperature (350 deg. C) tensile strength of the alloy increases by 23% due to the eutectic structure evolution, and the mechanism of structural evolution was discussed and analyzed in terms of the detailed microstructural observations.

  10. Thermally Induced Structural Evolution and Performance of Mesoporous Block Copolymer-Directed Alumina Perovskite Solar Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Tan, Kwan Wee; Moore, David T.; Saliba, Michael; Sai, Hiroaki; Estroff, Lara A.; Hanrath, Tobias; Snaith, Henry J.; Wiesner, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    Structure control in solution-processed hybrid perovskites is crucial to design and fabricate highly efficient solar cells. Here, we utilize in situ grazing incidence wide-angle X-ray scattering and scanning electron microscopy to investigate the structural evolution and film morphologies of methylammonium lead tri-iodide/chloride (CH3NH3PbI3–x Cl x ) in mesoporous block copolymer derived alumina superstructures during thermal annealing. We show the CH3NH3PbI3–x Cl x material evolution to be ...

  11. Correlation between atomic structure evolution and strength in a bulk metallic glass at cryogenic temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Tan, J.; Wang, G.; Z. Y. LIU; Bednarčík, J.; Gao, Yan; Zhai, Q. J.; Mattern, N.; Eckert, J.

    2014-01-01

    A model Zr41.25Ti13.75Ni10Cu12.5Be22.5 (at.%) bulk metallic glass (BMG) is selected to explore the structural evolution on the atomic scale with decreasing temperature down to cryogenic level using high energy X-ray synchrotron radiation. We discover a close correlation between the atomic structure evolution and the strength of the BMG and find out that the activation energy increment of the concordantly atomic shifting at lower temperature is the main factor influencing the strength. Our res...

  12. Rational engineering of enzyme allosteric regulation through sequence evolution analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Seong Yang

    Full Text Available Control of enzyme allosteric regulation is required to drive metabolic flux toward desired levels. Although the three-dimensional (3D structures of many enzyme-ligand complexes are available, it is still difficult to rationally engineer an allosterically regulatable enzyme without decreasing its catalytic activity. Here, we describe an effective strategy to deregulate the allosteric inhibition of enzymes based on the molecular evolution and physicochemical characteristics of allosteric ligand-binding sites. We found that allosteric sites are evolutionarily variable and comprised of more hydrophobic residues than catalytic sites. We applied our findings to design mutations in selected target residues that deregulate the allosteric activity of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase. Specifically, charged amino acids at less conserved positions were substituted with hydrophobic or neutral amino acids with similar sizes. The engineered proteins successfully diminished the allosteric inhibition of E. coli FBPase without affecting its catalytic efficiency. We expect that our method will aid the rational design of enzyme allosteric regulation strategies and facilitate the control of metabolic flux.

  13. Multidimensional analysis of Drosophila wing variation in Evolution Canyon

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vincent Debat; Raphael Cornette; Abraham B. Koral; Eviatar Nevo; David Soulet; Jean R. David

    2008-12-01

    Environmental stress has been suggested to be a major evolutionary force, both through inducing strong selection and because of its direct impact on developmental buffering processes that alter the evolvability of organisms. In particular, temperature has attracted much attention because of its importance as an ecological feature and the relative ease with which it can be experimentally manipulated in the lab. Evolution Canyon, Lower Nahal Oren, Israel, is a well studied natural site where ecological parameters are suspected to drive evolutionary differentiation. In this study, using Drosophila melanogaster isofemale lines derived from wild flies collected on both slopes of the canyon, we investigated the effect of developmental temperature upon the different components of phenotypic variation of a complex trait: the wing. Combining geometric and traditional morphometrics, we find only limited evidence for a differentiation among slopes. Investigating simultaneously phenotypic plasticity, genetic variation among isofemale lines, variation among individuals and fluctuating asymmetry, we could not identify a consistent effect of the stressful conditions encountered on the south facing slope. The prevailing structuring effect is that of the experimentally manipulated temperature which clearly influences wing mean size and shape. Variability, in contrast, is not consistently affected by temperature. Finally, we investigated the specific relationship between individual variation and fluctuating asymmetry. Using metric multi-dimensional scaling we show that the related patterns of wing shape variation are not identical, supporting the view that the underlying developmental processes are to a certain extent different.

  14. Thermal and Structural Evolution of Asteroid (4) Vesta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidsson, Bjorn

    2013-10-01

    Placing the formation and evolution of a large differentiated planetesimal like asteroid (4) Vesta into a broader context of Solar System chronology has important implications for our understanding of planetary formation. Vesta is here assumed to form instantaneously at t=1.0 Myr after CAI by low-velocity contraction of a boulder swarm created by streaming instabilities. A novel computer code tracks the last phase of formation, from a radius R=564 km swarm with 90% porosity, via cold-pressing, to hydrostatic equilibrium at R=314 km, porosity above 42% and bulk density d=2.00 g/cc. The code then calculates temperature versus depth and time for an initially homogeneous mixture of metal and rock which contains radioactive Al-26 and Fe-60. Heat conductivities and specific heat capacities are functions of temperature and porosity. The porosity profile is updated continuously as a result of hot-pressing. When the first sign of metal melting occurs at t=1.68 Myr, the core porosity is 35%, R=310 km and d= 2.20 g/cc. The gradual melting of metal and its flow towards the center is modeled. Initially only void spaces are filled out, but as the liquid fraction reaches a threshold, silicate grains migrate upward, thus finalizing the differentiation. Around this time, efficient hot-pressing of weakened warm rock leads to substantial shrinking. By t=1.9 Myr, R=270 km, d=3.14 g/cc, and a compact solid rock mantle separates a ~110 km liquid metal core from a ~10km porous metal/rock crust. At t=2.1 Myr rock melting is initiated, and is completed 0.8 Myr later. The densities of metal and rock are considered temperature dependent, resulting in swelling or shrinking of the body, as well as density gradients within core and mantle. Efforts are ongoing to allow the resulting buoyancy to drive convection, with the corresponding energy transport accounted for. This will allow for studies of the duration of the magnetic dynamo, and more realistic changes of temperature, radius, and density

  15. Thermally induced structural evolution and performance of mesoporous block copolymer-directed alumina perovskite solar cells.

    KAUST Repository

    Tan, Kwan Wee

    2014-04-11

    Structure control in solution-processed hybrid perovskites is crucial to design and fabricate highly efficient solar cells. Here, we utilize in situ grazing incidence wide-angle X-ray scattering and scanning electron microscopy to investigate the structural evolution and film morphologies of methylammonium lead tri-iodide/chloride (CH3NH3PbI(3-x)Cl(x)) in mesoporous block copolymer derived alumina superstructures during thermal annealing. We show the CH3NH3PbI(3-x)Cl(x) material evolution to be characterized by three distinct structures: a crystalline precursor structure not described previously, a 3D perovskite structure, and a mixture of compounds resulting from degradation. Finally, we demonstrate how understanding the processing parameters provides the foundation needed for optimal perovskite film morphology and coverage, leading to enhanced block copolymer-directed perovskite solar cell performance.

  16. Kinematic Analysis of Tensegrity Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Whittier, William Brooks

    2002-01-01

    Tensegrity structures consist of isolated compression members (rigid bars) suspended by a continuous network of tension members (cables). Tensegrity structures can be used as variable geometry truss (VGT) mechanisms by actuating links to change their length. This paper will present a new method of position finding for tensegrity structures that can be used for actuation as VGT mechanisms. Tensegrity structures are difficult to understand and mathematically model. This difficulty is p...

  17. Review: Evolution of GnIH structure and function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomohiro eOsugi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Discovery of gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH in the Japanese quail in 2000 was the first to demonstrate the existence of a hypothalamic neuropeptide inhibiting gonadotropin release. We now know that GnIH regulates reproduction by inhibiting gonadotropin synthesis and release via action on the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH system and the gonadotrope in various vertebrates. GnIH peptides identified in birds and mammals have a common LPXRF-amide (X = L or Q motif at the C-terminus and inhibits pituitary gonadotropin secretion. However, the function and structure of GnIH peptides were diverse in fish. Goldfish GnIHs possessing a C-terminal LPXRF-amide motif had both stimulatory and inhibitory effects on gonadotropin synthesis or release. The C-terminal sequence of grass puffer and medaka GnIHs were MPQRF-amide. To investigate the evolutionary origin of GnIH and its ancestral structure and function, we searched for GnIH in agnathans, the most ancient lineage of vertebrates. We identified GnIH precursor gene and mature GnIH peptides with C-terminal QPQRF-amide or RPQRF-amide from the brain of sea lamprey. Lamprey GnIH fibers were in close proximity to GnRH-III neurons. Further, one of lamprey GnIHs stimulated the expression of lamprey GnRH-III peptide in the hypothalamus and gonadotropic hormone β mRNA expression in the pituitary. We further identified the ancestral form of GnIH, which had a C-terminal RPQRF-amide, and its receptors in amphioxus, the most basal chordate species. The amphioxus GnIH inhibited cAMP signaling in vitro. In sum, the original forms of GnIH may date back to the time of the emergence of early chordates. GnIH peptides may have had various C-terminal structures slightly different from LPXRF-amide in basal chordates, which had stimulatory and/or inhibitory functions on reproduction. The C-terminal LPXRF-amide structure and its inhibitory function on reproduction may be selected in later-evolved vertebrates, such as

  18. Structure evolution of AZ61 magnesium alloy in SIMA process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Hong; ZHANG Fa-yun; JIE Xiao-ping

    2005-01-01

    The effect of prior compressive deformation, isothermal temperature and holding time on the structure of AZ61 magnesium alloy fabricated by strain-induced melt activation(SIMA) processing was investigated. The specimens were subjected under deformation ratios of 0%, 22% and 40% and various heat treatment time and temperature regions. The results indicate that the ideal technological parameters of semi-solid AZ61 alloy produced with non-dendrites are recommended as 22% (prior compressive deformation), 595 ℃ (heat treatment temperature) and 40 min(time). The as-cast AZ61 magnesium alloy isn't fit for semi-solid forming.

  19. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE RECENT EVOLUTIONS OF ROMANIAN AND EUROPEAN UNION'S COMPETITIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felea Adrian Ioan

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The main subject of this paper refers to an analysis of the recent trends and evolution of Romanian competitiveness compared to the European Union competitiveness and it is structured in four main parts. The first section of the paper regards an introduction of the competitiveness evolution process, recalling the three actual evaluation models of the competitiveness level. In the second part of the paper there can be found the competitiveness indexes practiced and published by the World Economic Forum, indicators that are structured on three main levels as following: the Global Competitiveness Index and its aggregate indicators that are developed on three categories of factors that are essential for the competitiveness process (Basic requirements, Efficienty Enhancers, Innovation and sophistication factors and the indexes associated to the twelve pillars of competitiveness: Institutions, Infrastructure, Macroeconomic stability, Health and primary education, Higer education and training, Goods market efficiency, Labor market efficiency, Financial market sophistication Technological readiness, Market size, Business sophistication, Innovation. Based on the values obtained after consulting the World Economic Forum Reports and regarding the competitiveness from a global perspective, the third part of the paper presents a comparative analyisis of the evolution of the Romanian competitiveness process and the one of the EU25. In the last part of the paper there can be found the conclusions of this analysis, with respect to the values found This paper is part of the doctoral thesis entitled "Increased Competitiveness in the Romanian economy, in the context of Sustainable Development, coordinated by Professor Michael Berinde University of Oradea, Faculty of Economics. Doctoral research is supported by Human Resources Development Operational Programme 2007-2013, Contract POSDRU/CPP107/DMI1.5/S/80272 , "Doctoral programs to train researchers performing

  20. The evolution of field-induced structure of confined ferrofluid emulsions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors report a real-time study of the evolution of the structure of confined ferrofluid emulsions during the ''liquid-solid'' phase transition. A monodisperse oil-in-water ferrofluid emulsion is used. The structure evolution of the emulsion after rapidly applying a magnetic field is probed by the static light scattering. The scattering pattern exhibits pronounced rings reflecting the formation of chains and their coalescence to columns or even ''worm'' structures. The scattering ring is found to decrease in size and brighten in intensity with time. To monitor the structure evolution in time, both the ring peak position in scattering wave vector, qmax, and the peak intensity, Imax, are measured as a function of time. Both qmax and Imax saturate in less than 0.5 seconds after applying a magnetic field. At a constant cell thickness of 25 μm, the evolution of structure is essentially independent of volume fraction ranging from 0.015 to 0.13. In addition, a very good scaling is found in the scattered light intensity as a function of the scattering wave vector

  1. The evolution of field-induced structure of confined ferrofluid emulsions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mou, T.; Flores, G.A.; Liu, J. (California State Univ., Long Beach, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy); Bibette, J. (Centre de Recherche Paul Pascal, Pessac (France)); Richard, J. (Rhone-Poulenc Recherches, Aubervilliers (France))

    1994-09-01

    The authors report a real-time study of the evolution of the structure of confined ferrofluid emulsions during the ''liquid-solid'' phase transition. A monodisperse oil-in-water ferrofluid emulsion is used. The structure evolution of the emulsion after rapidly applying a magnetic field is probed by the static light scattering. The scattering pattern exhibits pronounced rings reflecting the formation of chains and their coalescence to columns or even ''worm'' structures. The scattering ring is found to decrease in size and brighten in intensity with time. To monitor the structure evolution in time, both the ring peak position in scattering wave vector, q[sub max], and the peak intensity, I[sub max], are measured as a function of time. Both q[sub max] and I[sub max] saturate in less than 0.5 seconds after applying a magnetic field. At a constant cell thickness of 25 [mu]m, the evolution of structure is essentially independent of volume fraction ranging from 0.015 to 0.13. In addition, a very good scaling is found in the scattered light intensity as a function of the scattering wave vector.

  2. Comparative Structural Models of Similarities and Differences between "Vehicle" and "Target" in Order to Teach Darwinian "Evolution"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcelos, Maria Fatima; Nagem, Ronaldo L.

    2010-01-01

    Our objective is to contribute to the teaching of Classical Darwinian "Evolution" by means of a study of analogies and metaphors. Throughout the history of knowledge about "Evolution" and in Science teaching, tree structures have been used an analogs to refer to "Evolution," such as by Darwin in the "Tree of Life" passage contained in "On The…

  3. Impact origin of the Sudbury structure: Evolution of a theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowman, Paul D., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reviews the origin, development, and present status of the widely accepted theory, proposed by Robert S. Dietz in 1962, that the Sudbury structure was formed by meteoritic or asteroidal impact. The impact theory for the origin of the Sudbury structure seems supported by a nearly conclusive body of evidence. However, even assuming an impact origin to be correct, at least three major questions require further study: (1) the original size and shape of the crater, before tectonic deformation and erosion; (2) the source of the melt now forming the Sudbury Igneous Complex; and (3) the degree, if any, to which the Ni-Cu-platinum group elements are meteoritic. The history of the impact theory illustrates several under-appreciated aspects of scientific research: (1) the importance of cross-fertilization between space research and terrestrial geology; (2) the role of the outsider in stimulating thinking by insiders; (3) the value of small science, at least in the initial stages of an investigation, Dietz's first field work having been at his own expense; and (4) the value of analogies (here, between the Sudbury Igneous Complex and the maria), which although incorrect in major aspects, may trigger research on totally new lines. Finally, the Sudbury story illustrates the totally unpredictable and, by implication, unplannable nature of basic research, in that insight to the origin of the world's then-greatest Ni deposit came from the study of tektites and the Moon.

  4. Structure and Function Evolution of Thiolate Monolayers on Gold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grant Alvin Edwards

    2006-05-01

    The use of n-alkanethiolate self-assembled monolayers on gold has blossomed in the past few years. These systems have functioned as models for common interfaces. Thiolate monolayers are ideal because they are easily modified before or after deposition. The works contained within this dissertation include interfacial characterization (inbred reflection absorption spectroscopy, ellipsometry, contact angle, scanning probe microscopy, and heterogeneous electron-transfer kinetics) and various modeling scenarios. The results of these characterizations present ground-breaking insights into the structure, function, and reproducible preparation of these monolayers. Surprisingly, three interfacial properties (electron-transfer, contact angle, and ellipsometry) were discovered to depend directly on the odd-even character of the monolayer components. Molecular modeling was utilized to investigate adlayer orientation, and suggests that these effects are adlayer structure specific. Finally, the electric force microscopy and theoretical modeling investigations of monolayer samples are presented, which show that the film dielectric constant, thickness, and dipole moment directly affect image contrast. In addition, the prospects for utilization of this emerging technique are outlined.

  5. Structural Analysis of Thin Concrete Shells

    OpenAIRE

    Ghebreselasie, Hanibal Muruts; Situ, Yuting

    2015-01-01

    From the perspective of structural engineering, shells due to their spatial curvature, possess a structurally efficient way of carrying loads acting perpendicular to their surfaces. However, the nature and geometry of shells makes them complicated to understand or predict their structural behaviour. The structural analysis of thin concrete shells can be conducted numerically using finite element analysis(FEA) or/and analytically on the basis of classical theory of thin shells. ...

  6. Tectonic evolution and mantle structure of the Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benthem, Steven; Govers, Rob; Spakman, Wim; Wortel, Rinus

    2013-06-01

    investigate whether predictions of mantle structure from tectonic reconstructions are in agreement with a detailed tomographic image of seismic P wave velocity structure under the Caribbean region. In the upper mantle, positive seismic anomalies are imaged under the Lesser Antilles and Puerto Rico. These anomalies are interpreted as remnants of Atlantic lithosphere subduction and confirm tectonic reconstructions that suggest at least 1100 km of convergence at the Lesser Antilles island arc during the past ~45 Myr. The imaged Lesser Antilles slab consists of a northern and southern anomaly, separated by a low-velocity anomaly across most of the upper mantle, which we interpret as the subducted North America-South America plate boundary. The southern edge of the imaged Lesser Antilles slab agrees with vertical tearing of South America lithosphere. The northern Lesser Antilles slab is continuous with the Puerto Rico slab along the northeastern plate boundary. This results in an amphitheater-shaped slab, and it is interpreted as westward subducting North America lithosphere that remained attached to the surface along the northeastern boundary of the Caribbean plate. At the Muertos Trough, however, material is imaged until a depth of only 100 km, suggesting a small amount of subduction. The location and length of the imaged South Caribbean slab agrees with proposed subduction of Caribbean lithosphere under the northern South America plate. An anomaly related to proposed Oligocene subduction at the Nicaragua rise is absent in the tomographic model. Beneath Panama, a subduction window exists across the upper mantle, which is related to the cessation of subduction of the Nazca plate under Panama since 9.5 Ma and possibly the preceding subduction of the extinct Cocos-Nazca spreading center. In the lower mantle, two large anomaly patterns are imaged. The westernmost anomaly agrees with the subduction of Farallon lithosphere. The second lower mantle anomaly is found east of

  7. THE FORMATION, EVOLUTION AND OPTIMAZATIONOF TERRITORIAL STRUCTURE IN THE SOUTHERN CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    With the change of geopolitical pattern of the world, pacific rim area increases economic cooperation, instead of military antagonism. After reform and open to outside world, the southern China takes in an amount of investment from Hongkong, Macao and Taiwan, taking advantage of superior geo-environment and thus forms a topical model of core-periphery in the southern China. The core-periphery model in the southern China is territorially made of three parts: core area-Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan; peripherial area Zhujiang delta; second core area-parts of Hunan Province, Jiangxi Province, Fujian Province and Hainan Province and Cuangxi Zhnang Autonomous Region. Its evolutional stage of this model can be divided into four stages: (1) the stage of polarization of core area; (2) the stage of the second core area strongly controlled by core area; (3) the transitional stage of the second area; (4) the stage of the southern China space integrity. Taking the core-periphrial model in the southern China as an integrity of interrelational and rational division, its whole functional organized system is “input-product-assemble-output”, core area is mainly then as the managed and transported center, the second area plays a product and productive control function and becomes center of manufacturing, study and development, periphrial area constructs as the center of material and raw material and the base of agricultural and side-line products. Based on the analysis of the formative structure, evolutional law and the design of territorial function, we suggust the way of territerial optimazation as follows: (1) establishing the large hinterland which takes Xijiang basin as its core; (2) construct the high and renewed technological corridor; (3) constructing stable and varied material and raw material base; (4) reinforcing the organization and adjustment and managment between core area,periphrial area and second periphrial area. (5) constucting the varied corridor among core area

  8. Aluminum polyphosphate gels structural evolution probed by NMR spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this work was to investigate how the structure of aluminum polyphosphate gels change upon aging and drying. This is essential if one is interested in using a gel as a matrix to synthesize organic-inorganic hybrid materials. The liquid and solid samples were characterized by 27Al and 31P NMR spectroscopy. Larger polyphosphate chains make the main contribution to gel formation and the smaller units are expelled into the supernatant solution. Polyphosphate chains undergo hydrolysis and chain scission upon gelation. Samples aged in a moisture-rich environment turn into viscous liquids as a consequence of water uptake, followed by extensive hydrolysis. Samples exposed to low relative humidity environments dry yielding brittle samples in which larger chains are stable. Vacuum-dried samples still contain ca. 30%-weight water. (author)

  9. Further Evidence for Cosmological Evolution of the Fine Structure Constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe the results of a search for time variability of the fine structure constant α using absorption systems in the spectra of distant quasars. Three large optical data sets and two 21 cm and mm absorption systems provide four independent samples, spanning ∼23% to 87% of the age of the universe. Each sample yields a smaller α in the past and the optical sample shows a 4σ deviation: Δα/α=-0.72±0.18 x 10-5 over the redshift range 0.5< z<3.5 . We find no systematic effects which can explain our results. The only potentially significant systematic effects push Δα/α towards positive values; i.e., our results would become more significant were we to correct for them

  10. Patterning and evolution of floral structures - marking time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKim, Sarah; Hay, Angela

    2010-08-01

    The diversity of flowering structures dazzles the eye, dominates the landscape, and invites evolutionary questions regarding the development of such variety. Comparative work in a number of genetically tractable plant species has addressed how diverse floral architectures develop, and started to reveal the balance between conservation and divergence of the patterning mechanisms responsible for when and where flowers form on a plant. We highlight findings from Petunia where conserved LFY/UFO function is under species-specific regulation, and a novel mechanism involving WOX homeodomain proteins for modulating cyme development in diverse nightshades. We also draw attention to recent findings in Arabidopsis of miRNA and chromatin-based timing mechanisms controlling floral development, and illustrate how genetic studies in Arabidopsis relatives can reveal how evolutionary changes in such mechanisms generate diversity in form. PMID:20452201

  11. Decision analysis for deteriorating structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measures that improve durability of a structure usually increase its initial cost. Thus, in order to make a decision about a cost-effective solution the life-cycle cost of a structure including cost of structural failure needs to be considered. Due to uncertainties associated with structural properties, loads and environmental conditions the cost of structural failure is a random variable. The paper derives probability distributions of the cost of failure of a single structure and a group of identical structures when single or multiple failures are possible during the service life of a structure. The probability distributions are based on cumulative probabilities of failure of a single structure over its service life. It is assumed that failures occur at discrete points in time, the cost of failure set at the time of decision making remains constant for a particular design solution and the discount rate is a deterministic parameter not changing with time. The probability distributions can be employed to evaluate the expected life-cycle cost or the expected utility, which is then used in decision making. An example, which considers the selection of durability specifications for a reinforced concrete structure built on the coast, illustrates the use of the derived probability distributions

  12. A numerical model for the evolution of internal structure of cavitation cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Tezhuan; Wang, Yiwei; Liao, Lijuan; Huang, Chenguang

    2016-07-01

    Bubble size distributions in cloud cavitation are important in cavitating flows. In this study, a numerical model was developed to study the evolution of the internal structure of cloud cavitation. The model includes (1) an evolution equation of bubble number density, which considers the bubble breakup effect and (2) the multiphase Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations with a modified cavitation model for background cavitating flows. The proposed model was validated with a flow over a projectile. Results show that the numerical model can predict the evolution of the internal structure of cloud cavitation. Comparisons of the proposed model and Singhal model were discussed. The effects of re-entrant jet and bubble number density on cavitating flows were also investigated.

  13. Kinematic Morphology of Large-scale Structure: Evolution from Potential to Rotational Flow

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Xin; Aragon-Calvo, Miguel A; Neyrinck, Mark C; Eyink, Gregory L

    2013-01-01

    As an alternative way of describing the cosmological velocity field, we discuss the evolution of rotational invariants constructed from the velocity gradient tensor. Compared with the traditional divergence-vorticity decomposition, these invariants, defined as coefficients of characteristic equation of the velocity gradient tensor, enable a complete classification of all possible flow patterns in the dark-matter comoving frame, including both potential and vortical flows. Before shell-crossing, different categories of potential flow are highly associated with cosmic web structure, because of the coherent evolution of density and velocity. This correspondence is even preserved at some level when vorticity is generated after shell-crossing. The evolution from the potential to vortical flow can be traced continuously by these invariants. With the help of this tool, we show that the vorticity is generated in a particular way that is highly correlated with the large-scale structure. This includes a distinct spatia...

  14. Structure and Evolution of Mediterranean Forest Research: A Science Mapping Approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierfrancesco Nardi

    Full Text Available This study aims at conducting the first science mapping analysis of the Mediterranean forest research in order to elucidate its research structure and evolution. We applied a science mapping approach based on co-term and citation analyses to a set of scientific publications retrieved from the Elsevier's Scopus database over the period 1980-2014. The Scopus search retrieved 2,698 research papers and reviews published by 159 peer-reviewed journals. The total number of publications was around 1% (N = 17 during the period 1980-1989 and they reached 3% (N = 69 in the time slice 1990-1994. Since 1995, the number of publications increased exponentially, thus reaching 55% (N = 1,476 during the period 2010-2014. Within the thirty-four years considered, the retrieved publications were published by 88 countries. Among them, Spain was the most productive country, publishing 44% (N = 1,178 of total publications followed by Italy (18%, N = 482 and France (12%, N = 336. These countries also host the ten most productive scientific institutions in terms of number of publications in Mediterranean forest subjects. Forest Ecology and Management and Annals of Forest Science were the most active journals in publishing research in Mediterranean forest. During the period 1980-1994, the research topics were poorly characterized, but they become better defined during the time slice 1995-1999. Since 2000s, the clusters become well defined by research topics. Current status of Mediterranean forest research (20092014 was represented by four clusters, in which different research topics such as biodiversity and conservation, land-use and degradation, climate change effects on ecophysiological responses and soil were identified. Basic research in Mediterranean forest ecosystems is mainly conducted by ecophysiological research. Applied research was mainly represented by land-use and degradation, biodiversity and conservation and fire research topics. The citation analyses

  15. Structure and Evolution of Mediterranean Forest Research: A Science Mapping Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardi, Pierfrancesco; Di Matteo, Giovanni; Palahi, Marc; Scarascia Mugnozza, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    This study aims at conducting the first science mapping analysis of the Mediterranean forest research in order to elucidate its research structure and evolution. We applied a science mapping approach based on co-term and citation analyses to a set of scientific publications retrieved from the Elsevier’s Scopus database over the period 1980–2014. The Scopus search retrieved 2,698 research papers and reviews published by 159 peer-reviewed journals. The total number of publications was around 1% (N = 17) during the period 1980–1989 and they reached 3% (N = 69) in the time slice 1990–1994. Since 1995, the number of publications increased exponentially, thus reaching 55% (N = 1,476) during the period 2010–2014. Within the thirty-four years considered, the retrieved publications were published by 88 countries. Among them, Spain was the most productive country, publishing 44% (N = 1,178) of total publications followed by Italy (18%, N = 482) and France (12%, N = 336). These countries also host the ten most productive scientific institutions in terms of number of publications in Mediterranean forest subjects. Forest Ecology and Management and Annals of Forest Science were the most active journals in publishing research in Mediterranean forest. During the period 1980–1994, the research topics were poorly characterized, but they become better defined during the time slice 1995–1999. Since 2000s, the clusters become well defined by research topics. Current status of Mediterranean forest research (20092014) was represented by four clusters, in which different research topics such as biodiversity and conservation, land-use and degradation, climate change effects on ecophysiological responses and soil were identified. Basic research in Mediterranean forest ecosystems is mainly conducted by ecophysiological research. Applied research was mainly represented by land-use and degradation, biodiversity and conservation and fire research topics. The citation analyses

  16. Structure and Evolution of Mediterranean Forest Research: A Science Mapping Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardi, Pierfrancesco; Di Matteo, Giovanni; Palahi, Marc; Scarascia Mugnozza, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    This study aims at conducting the first science mapping analysis of the Mediterranean forest research in order to elucidate its research structure and evolution. We applied a science mapping approach based on co-term and citation analyses to a set of scientific publications retrieved from the Elsevier's Scopus database over the period 1980-2014. The Scopus search retrieved 2,698 research papers and reviews published by 159 peer-reviewed journals. The total number of publications was around 1% (N = 17) during the period 1980-1989 and they reached 3% (N = 69) in the time slice 1990-1994. Since 1995, the number of publications increased exponentially, thus reaching 55% (N = 1,476) during the period 2010-2014. Within the thirty-four years considered, the retrieved publications were published by 88 countries. Among them, Spain was the most productive country, publishing 44% (N = 1,178) of total publications followed by Italy (18%, N = 482) and France (12%, N = 336). These countries also host the ten most productive scientific institutions in terms of number of publications in Mediterranean forest subjects. Forest Ecology and Management and Annals of Forest Science were the most active journals in publishing research in Mediterranean forest. During the period 1980-1994, the research topics were poorly characterized, but they become better defined during the time slice 1995-1999. Since 2000s, the clusters become well defined by research topics. Current status of Mediterranean forest research (20092014) was represented by four clusters, in which different research topics such as biodiversity and conservation, land-use and degradation, climate change effects on ecophysiological responses and soil were identified. Basic research in Mediterranean forest ecosystems is mainly conducted by ecophysiological research. Applied research was mainly represented by land-use and degradation, biodiversity and conservation and fire research topics. The citation analyses revealed highly

  17. Stochastic analysis of the time evolution of Laminar-Turbulent bands of plane Couette flow

    CERN Document Server

    Rolland, Joran

    2015-01-01

    This article is concerned with the time evolution of the oblique laminar-turbulent bands of transitional plane Couette flow under the influence of turbulent noise. Our study is focused on the amplitude of modulation of turbulence. In order to guide the numerical study of the flow, we first perform an analytical and numerical analysis of a Stochastic Ginzburg-Landau equation for a complex order parameter. The modulus of this order parameter models the amplitude of modulation of turbulence. Firstly, we compute the autocorrelation function of said modulus once the band is established. Secondly, we perform a calculation of average and fluctuations around the exponential growth of the order parameter. This type of analysis is similar to the Stochastic Structural Stability Theory. We then perform numerical simulations of the Navier-Stokes equations in order to confront these predictions with the actual behaviour of the bands. Computation of the autocorrelation function of the modulation of turbulence shows quantita...

  18. Helium-Related Defect Evolution in Titanium Films by Slow Positron Beam Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various helium-containing titanium films were deposited on Si substrates by magnetron sputtering under different helium/argon (He/Ar) ambiances. Helium concentrations and corresponding depth profiles in the Ti films are obtained by elastic recoil detection analysis (ERDA). X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements are carried out to evaluate the crystallization of the titanium films. Vacancy-type defects and their depth profiles were revealed by slow positron beam analysis (SPBA). It is found that the defect-characteristic parameter S rises with the increment of the He/Ar flow ratios. The variation of S indicates the formation and evolution of various He-related defects, with uniform distribution into the depth around 400 nm. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  19. Structure and Evolution of Pre-Main Sequence Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Schulz, Norbert S; Bautz, Mark W; Canizares, Claude C; Davis, John; Dewey, Dan; Huenemoerder, David P; Heilmann, Ralf; Houck, John; Marshall, Herman L; Nowak, Mike; Schattenburg, Mark; Audard, Marc; Drake, Jeremy; Gagne, Marc; Kastner, Joel; Kallman, Tim; Lautenegger, Maurice; Lee, Julia; Miller, Jon; Montmerle, Thierry; Mukai, Koji; Osten, Rachel; Parerels, Frits; Pollock, Andy; Preibisch, Thomas; Raymond, John; Reale, Fabio; Smith, Randall; Testa, Paola; Weintraub, David

    2009-01-01

    Low-mass pre-main sequence (PMS) stars are strong and variable X-ray emitters, as has been well established by EINSTEIN and ROSAT observatories. It was originally believed that this emission was of thermal nature and primarily originated from coronal activity (magnetically confined loops, in analogy with Solar activity) on contracting young stars. Broadband spectral analysis showed that the emission was not isothermal and that elemental abundances were non-Solar. The resolving power of the Chandra and XMM X-ray gratings spectrometers have provided the first, tantalizing details concerning the physical conditions such as temperatures, densities, and abundances that characterize the X-ray emitting regions of young star. These existing high resolution spectrometers, however, simply do not have the effective area to measure diagnostic lines for a large number of PMS stars over required to answer global questions such as: how does magnetic activity in PMS stars differ from that of main sequence stars, how do they ...

  20. Structured Sparse Principal Component Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    R. Jenatton; G. Obozinski; Bach, F.

    2009-01-01

    We present an extension of sparse PCA, or sparse dictionary learning, where the sparsity patterns of all dictionary elements are structured and constrained to belong to a prespecified set of shapes. This \\emph{structured sparse PCA} is based on a structured regularization recently introduced by [1]. While classical sparse priors only deal with \\textit{cardinality}, the regularization we use encodes higher-order information about the data. We propose an efficient and simple optimization proced...

  1. FINE STRUCTURE OF FLARE RIBBONS AND EVOLUTION OF ELECTRIC CURRENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emission of solar flares across the electromagnetic spectrum is often observed in the form of two expanding ribbons. The standard flare model explains flare ribbons as footpoints of magnetic arcades, emitting due to interaction of energetic particles with the chromospheric plasma. However, the physics of this interaction and properties of the accelerated particles are still unknown. We present results of multiwavelength observations of the C2.1 flare of 2013 August 15, observed with the New Solar Telescope of the Big Bear Solar Observatory, and the Solar Dynamics Observatory, GOES, and Fermi spacecraft. The observations reveal previously unresolved sub-arcsecond structure of flare ribbons in regions of strong magnetic field consisting from numerous small-scale bright knots. We observe a red-blue asymmetry of Hα flare ribbons with a width as small as ∼100 km. We discuss the relationship between the ribbons and vertical electric currents estimated from vector magnetograms, and show that Joule heating can be responsible for energization of Hα knots in the ribbons

  2. Surnames and dialects in France: population structure and cultural evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scapoli, C; Goebl, H; Sobota, S; Mamolini, E; Rodriguez-Larralde, A; Barrai, I

    2005-11-01

    To study the isonymy structure of France as related to local language variations, the surname distributions of 6.03 million telephone users registered for the year 2002 were analysed in the 21 conterminous regions, their 94 departments and in 809 towns of the Country. For regions and departments the differences among local dialects were quantified according to the dialecto-metrization of the Atlas Linguistique Français. We found that Lasker's distance between regions was correlated with geographic distance with r=0.692+/-0.040, while Euclidean (r=0.546+/-0.058) and Nei's (r=0.610+/-0.048) distances were less correlated. Slightly lower correlations were observed for departments. Also, dialectometric distance was correlated with geography (r=0.582+/-0.069 for regions and r=0.617+/-0.015 for departments). The correlations between Lasker and dialectometric matrix distances for regions and departments are r=0.625+/-0.046 and 0.544+/-0.014, respectively, indicating that the common cause generating surname and language diversity accounts for about 35% of the differentiation. Both Lasker and dialectometric distances identify very similar boundaries between Poitou, Centre, Bourgogne and Franche Comptée at the North, and Aquitaine, Limousin, Auvergne, Rhône-Alpes in the South. Average Fisher's alpha for France was 7877 the highest value observed for the European countries studied to date. The size of alpha in most French towns indicates considerable recent immigration. PMID:15935393

  3. Rheological, structural and chemical evolution of bitumen under gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bitumen derived from crude oil by fractional distillation has been used in the nuclear industry as a radioactive waste encapsulation matrix. When subjected to α, β and γ self-irradiation, this organic matrix undergoes radiolysis, generating hydrogen bubbles and modifying the physical and chemical properties of the material. In this paper, the effects of irradiation on bitumen materials, especially in terms of its physical, chemical, structural and rheological properties, were characterized at radiation doses ranging from 1 to 7 MGy. An increase in the shear viscosity and melt yield stress was observed with increasing doses. Similarly, the elastic and viscous moduli (G' and G'') increase with the dose, with a more pronounced increase for G' that reflects enhanced elasticity arising from radiation-induced cross-linking. In addition, a low-frequency plateau is observed for G', reflecting pseudo-solid behavior and leading to an increase of the complex viscosity. This behavior is due to increased interactions between asphaltene particles, and to aromatization of the bitumen by γ-radiations. Cross-linking of bitumen enhances its strength, as confirmed by various techniques (modulated DSC, DTA/TGA, SEC, FTIR and XRD). (authors)

  4. The evolution of stellar structures in dwarf galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Bastian, N; Skillman, E D; McQuinn, K B W; Dolphin, A E; Gutermuth, R A; Cannon, J M; Ercolano, B; Gieles, M; Kennicutt, R C; Walter, F

    2010-01-01

    We present a study of the variation of spatial structure of stellar populations within dwarf galaxies as a function of the population age. We use deep Hubble Space Telescope/Advanced Camera for Surveys imaging of nearby dwarf galaxies in order to resolve individual stars and create composite colour-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) for each galaxy. Using the obtained CMDs, we select Blue Helium Burning stars (BHeBs), which can be unambiguously age-dated by comparing the absolute magnitude of individual stars with stellar isochrones. Additionally, we select a very young (<10 Myr) population of OB stars for a subset of the galaxies based on the tip of the young main-sequence. By selecting stars in different age ranges we can then study how the spatial distribution of these stars evolves with time. We find, in agreement with previous studies, that stars are born within galaxies with a high degree of substructure which is made up of a continuous distribution of clusters, groups and associations from parsec to hundreds...

  5. Diverse Structural Evolution at z > 1 in Cosmologically Simulated Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Snyder, Gregory F; Moody, Christopher; Peth, Michael; Freeman, Peter; Ceverino, Daniel; Primack, Joel; Dekel, Avishai

    2014-01-01

    From mock Hubble Space Telescope images, we quantify non-parametric statistics of galaxy morphology, thereby predicting the emergence of relationships among stellar mass, star formation, and observed rest-frame optical structure at 1 10^10 M_sun contain relatively more disc-dominated light profiles than those with lower mass, reflecting significant disc brightening in some haloes at 1 10^10 M_sun. We analyze a cosmological major merger at z~1.5 and find that the newly proposed MID morphology diagnostics trace later stages while G-M20 trace earlier ones. MID is sensitive also to clumpy star-forming discs. The observability time of typical MID-enhanced events in our simulation sample is less than 100 Myr. A larger sample of cosmological assembly histories may be required to calibrate such diagnostics in the face of their sensitivity to viewing angle, segmentation algorithm, and various phenomena such as clumpy star formation and minor mergers.

  6. Star counts as an indicator of galactic structure and quasar evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahcall, J. N.; Soneira, R. M.

    1980-01-01

    A detailed model of the stellar content of the Galaxy is described briefly. Illustrative applications of the model are made, using existing data, to indicate how star counts can be used to determine some parameters of galactic structure, to detect a massive (stellar) halo, and to constrain models of quasar evolution.

  7. In Situ Observation of the Dislocation Structure Evolution During a Strain Path Change in Copper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wejdemann, Christian; Poulsen, Henning Friis; Lienert, Ulrich;

    2013-01-01

    The evolution of deformation structures in individual grains embedded in polycrystalline copper specimens during strain path changes is observed in situ by high-resolution reciprocal space mapping with high-energy synchrotron radiation. A large number of individual subgrains is resolved; their...

  8. Novel Phase at High Density and Their Role in the Structure and Evolution of Neutron Stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a pedagogic discussion on the role of novel phases of dense baryonic matter in ''neutron'' stars. Qualitative aspects of the physics that drives phase transitions and some of its astrophysical consequences are discussed. Observable aspects of neutron star structure and early evolution of the newly born neutron star are discussed in some detail. (author)

  9. Novel Phases at High Density and their Roles in the Structure and Evolution of Neutron Stars

    OpenAIRE

    Reddy, Sanjay

    2002-01-01

    We present a pedagogic discussion on the role of novel phases of dense baryonic matter in ``neutron'' stars. Qualitative aspects of the physics that drives phase transitions and some of its astrophysical consequences are discussed. Observable aspects of neutron star structure and early evolution of the newly born neutron star are discussed in some detail.

  10. Structural Evolution in Photoactive Yellow Protein Studied by Femtosecond Stimulated Raman Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshizawa M.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Ultrafast structural evolution in photoactive yellow protein (PYP is studied by femtosecond stimulated Raman spectroscopy. A comparison between wild-type PYP and E46Q mutant reveals that the hydrogen-bonding network surrounding the chromophore of PYP is immediately rearranged in the electronic excited state.

  11. Kinematic morphology of large-scale structure: evolution from potential to rotational flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xin; Szalay, Alex; Aragón-Calvo, Miguel A.; Neyrinck, Mark C.; Eyink, Gregory L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2014-09-20

    As an alternative way to describe the cosmological velocity field, we discuss the evolution of rotational invariants constructed from the velocity gradient tensor. Compared with the traditional divergence-vorticity decomposition, these invariants, defined as coefficients of the characteristic equation of the velocity gradient tensor, enable a complete classification of all possible flow patterns in the dark-matter comoving frame, including both potential and vortical flows. We show that this tool, first introduced in turbulence two decades ago, is very useful for understanding the evolution of the cosmic web structure, and in classifying its morphology. Before shell crossing, different categories of potential flow are highly associated with the cosmic web structure because of the coherent evolution of density and velocity. This correspondence is even preserved at some level when vorticity is generated after shell crossing. The evolution from the potential to vortical flow can be traced continuously by these invariants. With the help of this tool, we show that the vorticity is generated in a particular way that is highly correlated with the large-scale structure. This includes a distinct spatial distribution and different types of alignment between the cosmic web and vorticity direction for various vortical flows. Incorporating shell crossing into closed dynamical systems is highly non-trivial, but we propose a possible statistical explanation for some of the phenomena relating to the internal structure of the three-dimensional invariant space.

  12. Analysis of piezoelectric structures and devices

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Weiqiu; Wang, Ji

    2013-01-01

    This edited work covers piezoelectric materials in the form of beams, plates, shells, and other structural components in modern devices and structures. Applications are frequency control and detection functions in resonators, sensors, actuators, oscillations, and other smart and intelligent structures. The contributions cover novel methods for the analysis of piezoelectric structures including wave propagation, high frequency vibration, material characterization, and optimization of structures. Understanding of these methods is increasingly important in the design and modelling of next generat

  13. Robustness Analysis of Kinetic Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2009-01-01

    Kinetic structures in architecture follows a new trend which is emerging in responsive architecture coined by Nicholas Negroponte when he proposed that architecture may benefit from the integration of computing power into built spaces and structures, and that better performing, more rational buil...

  14. The QCD analysis of xF_3 structure function based on the analytic approach

    OpenAIRE

    Sidorov, A. V.; Solovtsova, O. P.

    2013-01-01

    We apply analytic perturbation theory to the QCD analysis of the xF_3 structure function data of the CCFR collaboration. We use different approaches for the leading order Q^2 evolution of the xF_3 structure function and compare the extracted values of the parameter Lambda_QCD and the shape of the higher twistcontribution. Our consideration is based on the Jacobi polynomial expansion method of the unpolarized structure function. The analysis shows that the analytic approach provides reasonable...

  15. Cluster Structure in Cosmological Simulations I: Correlation to Observables, Mass Estimates, and Evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Jeltema, Tesla E.; Hallman, Eric J.; Burns, Jack O.; Motl, Patrick M

    2007-01-01

    We use Enzo, a hybrid Eulerian AMR/N-body code including non-gravitational heating and cooling, to explore the morphology of the X-ray gas in clusters of galaxies and its evolution in current generation cosmological simulations. We employ and compare two observationally motivated structure measures: power ratios and centroid shift. Overall, the structure of our simulated clusters compares remarkably well to low-redshift observations, although some differences remain that may point to incomple...

  16. Fluorous ‘ponytails’ lead to strong gelators showing thermally induced structure evolution.

    OpenAIRE

    Kumari, Harshita; Armitage, Sarah E.; Kline, Steven R.; Damodaran, Krishna K.; Kennedy, Stuart R.; Atwood, Jerry L.; Steed, Jonathan W

    2015-01-01

    Appending perfluoroalkyl substituents to bis(urea) gelators results in significantly decreased inter-chain interactions with markedly thinner fibres and hence more cross-linked and more transparent gels with potential applications in the crystallisation of fluorinated pharmaceuticals. Gel structure has been probed by detailed SANS measurements which indicate a surprising structure evolution on thermal cycling, not seen for hydrocarbon analogues. The SANS data are complemented by the single cr...

  17. Bayesian large-scale structure inference and cosmic web analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Leclercq, Florent

    2015-01-01

    Surveys of the cosmic large-scale structure carry opportunities for building and testing cosmological theories about the origin and evolution of the Universe. This endeavor requires appropriate data assimilation tools, for establishing the contact between survey catalogs and models of structure formation. In this thesis, we present an innovative statistical approach for the ab initio simultaneous analysis of the formation history and morphology of the cosmic web: the BORG algorithm infers the primordial density fluctuations and produces physical reconstructions of the dark matter distribution that underlies observed galaxies, by assimilating the survey data into a cosmological structure formation model. The method, based on Bayesian probability theory, provides accurate means of uncertainty quantification. We demonstrate the application of BORG to the Sloan Digital Sky Survey data and describe the primordial and late-time large-scale structure in the observed volume. We show how the approach has led to the fi...

  18. Structural similarity of loops in protein families: toward the understanding of protein evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Madej Thomas; Panchenko Anna R

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background Protein evolution and protein classification are usually inferred by comparing protein cores in their conserved aligned parts. Structurally aligned protein regions are separated by less conserved loop regions, where sequence and structure locally deviate from each other and do not superimpose well. Results Our results indicate that even longer protein loops can not be viewed as "random coils" and for the majority of protein families in our test set there exists a linear co...

  19. Amplitude and phase evolution of optical fields inside periodic photonic structures

    OpenAIRE

    Flück, E.; Hammer, M; Otter, A.M.; Korterik, J P; Kuipers, L.; Hulst, van der, R.W.M.

    2003-01-01

    Optical amplitude distributions of light inside periodic photonic structures are visualized with subwavelength resolution. In addition, using a phase-sensitive photon scanning tunneling microscope, we simultaneously map the phase evolution of light. Two different structures, which consist of a ridge wave-guide containing periodic arrays of nanometer scale features, are investigated. We determine the wavelength dependence of the exponential decay rate inside the periodic arrays. Furthermore, v...

  20. Gene structure and evolution of transthyretin in the order Chiroptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khwanmunee, Jiraporn; Leelawatwattana, Ladda; Prapunpoj, Porntip

    2016-02-01

    Bats are mammals in the order Chiroptera. Although many extensive morphologic and molecular genetics analyses have been attempted, phylogenetic relationships of bats has not been completely resolved. The paraphyly of microbats is of particular controversy that needs to be confirmed. In this study, we attempted to use the nucleotide sequence of transthyretin (TTR) intron 1 to resolve the relationship among bats. To explore its utility, the complete sequences of TTR gene and intron 1 region of bats in Vespertilionidae: genus Eptesicus (Eptesicus fuscus) and genus Myotis (Myotis brandtii, Myotis davidii, and Myotis lucifugus), and Pteropodidae (Pteropus alecto and Pteropus vampyrus) were extracted from the retrieved sequences, whereas those of Rhinoluphus affinis and Scotophilus kuhlii were amplified and sequenced. The derived overall amino sequences of bat TTRs were found to be very similar to those in other eutherians but differed from those in other classes of vertebrates. However, missing of amino acids from N-terminal or C-terminal region was observed. The phylogenetic analysis of amino acid sequences suggested bat and other eutherian TTRs lineal descent from a single most recent common ancestor which differed from those of non-placental mammals and the other classes of vertebrates. The splicing of bat TTR precursor mRNAs was similar to those of other eutherian but different from those of marsupial, bird, reptile and amphibian. Based on TTR intron 1 sequence, the inferred evolutionary relationship within Chiroptera revealed more closely relatedness of R. affinis to megabats than to microbats. Accordingly, the paraphyly of microbats was suggested. PMID:26681450

  1. Directed Evolution of Glutathione Transferases Guided by Multivariate Data Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Kurtovic, Sanela

    2008-01-01

    Evolution of enzymes with novel functional properties has gained much attention in recent years. Naturally evolved enzymes are adapted to work in living cells under physiological conditions, circumstances that are not always available for industrial processes calling for novel and better catalysts. Furthermore, altering enzyme function also affords insight into how enzymes work and how natural evolution operates. Previous investigations have explored catalytic properties in the directed evol...

  2. Dislocation structure evolution and its effects on cyclic deformation response of AISI 316L stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: → The cyclic deformation response of AISI 316L steel is investigated at 20 deg. C. → The corresponding microstructure evolution is characterised by electron microscopy. → A 3D representation of dislocation evolution is proposed based on the observation. → The 3D representation gives a good explanation of the microstructure complexity. → The cyclic deformation response is discussed based on the microstructure evolution. - Abstract: The cyclic deformation response of an austenitic stainless steel is characterised in terms of its cyclic peak tensile stress properties by three stages of behaviour: a hardening stage followed by a softening stage, and finally a stable stress response stage. A series of tests have been performed and interrupted at selected numbers of cycles in the different stages of mechanical response. At each interruption point, specimens have been examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) with different beam directions by means of the tilting function in order to investigate the formation and the development of dislocation structures from the as-received condition until the end of fatigue life. A new 3D representation of dislocation structure evolution during cyclic loading is proposed on the basis of the microstructural observations. The 3D representation provides a deeper insight into the development of dislocation structures in AISI 316L during low cycle fatigue loading at room temperature. By investigating the dislocation evolution, the study shows that the hardening response is mainly associated with an increase of total dislocation density, whereas the softening stage is a result of the formation of dislocation-free regions. Further development of the dislocation structure into a cellular structure is responsible for the stable stress response stage.

  3. A topological analysis of plasma flow structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new topological analysis of the plasma flow structures is presented for some pressure-gradient-driven turbulence results. The analysis is done by separating the structures into radial layers and studying each layer separately. This allows for the identification of flow cycles and flow filaments and the determination of the life of the cycles and length of the filaments. (paper)

  4. The IQD gene family in soybean: structure, phylogeny, evolution and expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Feng

    Full Text Available Members of the plant-specific IQ67-domain (IQD protein family are involved in plant development and the basal defense response. Although systematic characterization of this family has been carried out in Arabidopsis, tomato (Solanum lycopersicum, Brachypodium distachyon and rice (Oryza sativa, systematic analysis and expression profiling of this gene family in soybean (Glycine max have not previously been reported. In this study, we identified and structurally characterized IQD genes in the soybean genome. A complete set of 67 soybean IQD genes (GmIQD1-67 was identified using Blast search tools, and the genes were clustered into four subfamilies (IQD I-IV based on phylogeny. These soybean IQD genes are distributed unevenly across all 20 chromosomes, with 30 segmental duplication events, suggesting that segmental duplication has played a major role in the expansion of the soybean IQD gene family. Analysis of the Ka/Ks ratios showed that the duplicated genes of the GmIQD family primarily underwent purifying selection. Microsynteny was detected in most pairs: genes in clade 1-3 might be present in genome regions that were inverted, expanded or contracted after the divergence; most gene pairs in clade 4 showed high conservation with little rearrangement among these gene-residing regions. Of the soybean IQD genes examined, six were most highly expressed in young leaves, six in flowers, one in roots and two in nodules. Our qRT-PCR analysis of 24 soybean IQD III genes confirmed that these genes are regulated by MeJA stress. Our findings present a comprehensive overview of the soybean IQD gene family and provide insights into the evolution of this family. In addition, this work lays a solid foundation for further experiments aimed at determining the biological functions of soybean IQD genes in growth and development.

  5. Nonlinear structural analysis using integrated force method

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    N R B Krishnam Raju; J Nagabhushanam

    2000-08-01

    Though the use of the integrated force method for linear investigations is well-recognised, no efforts were made to extend this method to nonlinear structural analysis. This paper presents the attempts to use this method for analysing nonlinear structures. General formulation of nonlinear structural analysis is given. Typically highly nonlinear bench-mark problems are considered. The characteristic matrices of the elements used in these problems are developed and later these structures are analysed. The results of the analysis are compared with the results of the displacement method. It has been demonstrated that the integrated force method is equally viable and efficient as compared to the displacement method.

  6. Neutron diffraction analysis of crystal magnetic structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An investigation of the state-of-the art of the neutron diffraction analysis of magnetic structures from the point of view of the theory of crystal symmetry is given. Various and numerous structures determined from the neutron diffraction analysis investigations can be classified and described with the theory of space group representations of crystals. The analysis of quite a number of various magnetic structures shows that they arise according to Landau hypothesis. The foundations of a symmetry analysis of magnetic structures and the methods for their determination are given. A physical explanation is given for the existence of magnetic structures. The experimental investigations of the crystal lattice distortions accompanying a magnetic ordering are reviewed. In this review is given a symmetry approach to the description of the magnetic structures of crystals; and a possibility to analyze them by a scattering of nonpolarized and polarized neutrons

  7. Morphological diversity and evolution of egg and clutch structure in amphibians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altig, R.; McDiarmid, R.W.

    2007-01-01

    The first part of this synthesis summarizes the morphology of the jelly layers surrounding an amphibian ovum. We propose a standard terminology and discuss the evolution of jelly layers. The second part reviews the morphological diversity and arrangement of deposited eggs?the ovipositional mode; we recognize 5 morphological classes including 14 modes. We discuss some of the oviductal, ovipositional, and postovipositional events that contribute to these morphologies. We have incorporated data from taxa from throughout the world but recognize that other types will be discovered that may modify understanding of these modes. Finally, we discuss the evolutionary context of the diversity of clutch structure and present a first estimate of its evolution.

  8. A study on structural evolution of 142-164Nd isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constrained Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov theory with SLy5 Skyrme force has been applied for even-even 142-164Nd isotopes to investigate the structural evolution of Nd isotopic chain. In this work, ground-state energies and charge radii of Nd isotopes have been carried out as in good agreement with the experimental data. The systematic investigation of ground-state shape evolution between spherical U(5) and axially deformed SU(3) for 142-164Nd has been studied by using potential energy curves

  9. Evolution of the structure of the VT6 alloy subjected to equal-channel angular pressing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Investigation results are reported on the evolution of microstructure and mechanical properties of a two-phase titanium alloy of VT6 (Ti-6Al-4V) with initial globular structure subjected to equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP) at 700 Deg C with 1-12 passes. Experimental results permit studying the evolution of mean grain size, phase morphology, microhardness, mechanical behavior depending on the quantity of ECAP passes. The possibility is found to refine intensively the microstructure in VT6 alloy billets using ECAP

  10. Climate-dependent evolution of Antarctic ectotherms: An integrative analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pörtner, Hans O.

    2006-04-01

    The paper explores the climate-dependent evolution of marine Antarctic fauna and tries to identify key mechanisms involved as well as the driving forces that have caused the physiological and life history characteristics observed today. In an integrative approach it uses the recent concept of oxygen and capacity limited thermal tolerance to identify potential links between molecular, cellular, whole-organism, and ecological characteristics of marine animal life in the Antarctic. As a generalized pattern, minimization of baseline energy costs, for the sake of maximized growth in the cold, appears as one over-arching principle shaping the evolution and functioning of Antarctic marine ectotherms. This conclusion is supported by recent comparisons with (sub-) Arctic ectotherms, where elevated levels of energy turnover result at unstable, including cold temperatures, and are related to wide windows of thermal tolerance and associated metabolic features. At biochemical levels, metabolic regulation at low temperatures in general, is supported by the cold compensation of enzyme kinetic parameters like substrate affinities and turnover numbers, through minute structural modifications of the enzyme molecule. These involve a shift in protein folding, sometimes supported by the replacement of individual amino acids. The hypothesis is developed that efficient metabolic regulation at low rates in Antarctic marine stenotherms occurs through high mitochondrial densities at low capacities and possibly enhanced levels of Arrhenius activation energies or activation enthalpies. This contrasts the more costly patterns of metabolic regulation at elevated rates in cold-adapted eurytherms. Energy savings in Antarctic ectotherms, largely exemplified in fish, typically involve low-cost, diffusive oxygen distribution due to high density of lipid membranes, loss of haemoglobin, myoglobin and the heat shock response, reduced anaerobic capacity, large myocytes with low ion exchange activities

  11. Complete Chloroplast Genome of the Wollemi Pine (Wollemia nobilis: Structure and Evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Yee S Yap

    Full Text Available The Wollemi pine (Wollemia nobilis is a rare Southern conifer with striking morphological similarity to fossil pines. A small population of W. nobilis was discovered in 1994 in a remote canyon system in the Wollemi National Park (near Sydney, Australia. This population contains fewer than 100 individuals and is critically endangered. Previous genetic studies of the Wollemi pine have investigated its evolutionary relationship with other pines in the family Araucariaceae, and have suggested that the Wollemi pine genome contains little or no variation. However, these studies were performed prior to the widespread use of genome sequencing, and their conclusions were based on a limited fraction of the Wollemi pine genome. In this study, we address this problem by determining the entire sequence of the W. nobilis chloroplast genome. A detailed analysis of the structure of the genome is presented, and the evolution of the genome is inferred by comparison with the chloroplast sequences of other members of the Araucariaceae and the related family Podocarpaceae. Pairwise alignments of whole genome sequences, and the presence of unique pseudogenes, gene duplications and insertions in W. nobilis and Araucariaceae, indicate that the W. nobilis chloroplast genome is most similar to that of its sister taxon Agathis. However, the W. nobilis genome contains an unusually high number of repetitive sequences, and these could be used in future studies to investigate and conserve any remnant genetic diversity in the Wollemi pine.

  12. Structure and evolution of irradiated accretion disks. I - Static thermal equilibrium structure. II - Dynamical evolution of a thermally unstable torus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuchman, Y.; Mineshige, S.; Wheeler, J. C.

    1990-01-01

    The thermal equilibrum structure and dynamical behavior of externally irradiated accretion disks are investigated. For radiative disks only the surface layer is heated, while for convective disks the heat penetrates deeply into the disk. For sufficiently strong radiation and given irradiation flux F(irr), the disk is completely stabilized against thermal instabilities of the sort invoked to explain dwarf novae. For moderately strong irradiation there is still an unstable branch in the thermal equilibrium curve. In typical soft X-ray transients, the disk is unstable against the dwarf-nova type instability. Fixed F(irr) on accretion disk annuli reduces the amplitude and the quiescent times and increases the outburst duration of the resultant light curves. Varying F(irr) in proportion to the mass accretion rate at the disks's inner edge results in light curves with a plateau in the decay from outbursts. In the case when irradiation is suddenly switched on, a temperature inversion results which leads to the formation of an accretion corona.

  13. Mathematical and computational analyses of cracking formation fracture morphology and its evolution in engineering materials and structures

    CERN Document Server

    Sumi, Yoichi

    2014-01-01

    This book is about the pattern formation and the evolution of crack propagation in engineering materials and structures, bridging mathematical analyses of cracks based on singular integral equations, to computational simulation of engineering design. The first two parts of this book focus on elasticity and fracture and provide the basis for discussions on fracture morphology and its numerical simulation, which may lead to a simulation-based fracture control in engineering structures. Several design concepts are discussed for the prevention of fatigue and fracture in engineering structures, including safe-life design, fail-safe design, damage tolerant design. After starting with basic elasticity and fracture theories in parts one and two, this book focuses on the fracture morphology that develops due to the propagation of brittle cracks or fatigue cracks.   In part three, the mathematical analysis of a curved crack is precisely described, based on the perturbation method. The stability theory of interactive ...

  14. Protein Evolution in Cell and Tissue Development: Going Beyond Sequence and Transcriptional Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Dickinson, Daniel J.; Weis, William I.; Nelson, W. James

    2011-01-01

    Studies of animal evolution often focus on sequence and transcriptional analysis, based on an assumption that the evolution of development is driven by changes in gene expression. We argue that biochemical and cell biological approaches are also required, because sequence-conserved proteins can have different biochemical, cellular and developmental properties.

  15. Accelerated protein evolution analysis reveals genes and pathways associated with the evolution of mammalian longevity

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yang; de Magalhães, João Pedro

    2011-01-01

    The genetic basis of the large species differences in longevity and aging remains a mystery. Thanks to recent large-scale genome sequencing efforts, the genomes of multiple species have been sequenced and can be used for cross-species comparisons to study species divergence in longevity. By analyzing proteins under accelerated evolution in several mammalian lineages where maximum lifespan increased, we identified genes and processes that are candidate targets of selection when longevity evolv...

  16. Quantitative tracking of grain structure evolution in a nanocrystalline metal during cyclic loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molecular dynamics simulations were used to quantify mechanically induced structural evolution in nanocrystalline Al with an average grain size of 5 nm. A polycrystalline sample was cyclically strained at different temperatures, while a recently developed grain tracking algorithm was used to measure the relative contributions of novel deformation mechanisms such as grain rotation and grain sliding. Sample texture and grain size were also tracked during cycling, to show how nanocrystalline plasticity rearranges overall grain structure and alters the grain boundary network. While no obvious texture is developing during cycling, the processes responsible for plasticity act collectively to alter the interfacial network. Cyclic loading led to the formation of many twin boundaries throughout the sample as well as the occasional coalescence of neighboring grains, with higher temperatures causing more evolution. A temperature-dependent cyclic strengthening effect was observed, demonstrating that both the structure and properties of nanocrystalline metals can be dynamic during loading. (paper)

  17. Probabilistic structural analysis by extremum methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nafday, Avinash M.

    1990-01-01

    The objective is to demonstrate discrete extremum methods of structural analysis as a tool for structural system reliability evaluation. Specifically, linear and multiobjective linear programming models for analysis of rigid plastic frames under proportional and multiparametric loadings, respectively, are considered. Kinematic and static approaches for analysis form a primal-dual pair in each of these models and have a polyhedral format. Duality relations link extreme points and hyperplanes of these polyhedra and lead naturally to dual methods for system reliability evaluation.

  18. Non-linear analysis of concrete structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Work in progress on the inelastic analysis of concrete structures using the finite element method is described. The study serves two objectives, the working stress design and the ultimate load analysis. The distribution of temperature, of particular importance in nuclear structures, is studied. The basis for the non linear analysis of instantaneous deformations is given, based in plasticity theory. Linear and non linear viscoelasticity based in the state variables approach are studied. Several numerical examples are presented. (Author)

  19. Topography and Tropical Cyclone Structure Influence on Eyewall Evolution in Typhoon Sinlaku (2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Hsiang Chih

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Typhoon Sinlaku (2008 was a tropical system that affected many countries in East Asia. Besides the loss of life and economic damage, many scientific questions are associated with this system that need to be addressed. A series of numerical simulations were conducted in this study using V3.2 of the advanced research version of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF-ARW model to examine the impacts of different terrain conditions and vortex structures on the eyewall evolution when Sinlaku was crossing Taiwan. The sensitivity experiments using different vortex structures show that a storm of the same intensity with a larger eyewall radius tends to induce stronger wind and rainfall at the outer part of the storm during the terrain-crossing period. This result suggests that the vortex contained with larger angular momentum is more favorable to reform a new eyewall from the contraction of the outer rainband after being affected by terrain. Based on these sensitivity experiments it is suggested that the topography and the tropical cyclone (TC structure play important roles in regulating the outer tangential wind speed and modulating the unique eyewall evolutions for TCs passing Taiwan. A stronger vortex structure could lead to more precipitation at the outer part of the storm during the terrain influenced period, implying that the forecasters should pay attention to the storm intensity and also the storm structure which is an important dynamic feature that modulates the eyewall evolution and rainfall distribution of a landfalling storm.

  20. Macroeconomic Models used in the Structural Analysis of the Gross Domestic Product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin Anghelache

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a use case for macro economical models, the objective being the structural analysis of the Gross Domestic Product. The authors offer a snapshot on GDP evolution, the econometric models proposed for analysis are designed with the help of EViews software. Its performances are determined through the optics of the statistical tests.

  1. MACROECONOMIC MODELS USED IN THE STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS OF THE GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT

    OpenAIRE

    Constantin Anghelache; Gabriela Victoria Anghelache

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a use case for macro economical models, the objective being the structural analysis of the Gross Domestic Product. The authors offer a snapshot on GDP evolution, the econometric models proposed for analysis are designed with the help of EViews software. Its performances are determined through the optics of the statistical tests.

  2. The unusual morphology, structure, and magnetic property evolution of glassy carbon upon high pressure treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, C.Q.; Wang, X.; Liu, Z.X.; Zhang, Y.L.; Li, F.Y.; Yu, R.C. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). Inst. of Physics. Beijing High Pressure Research Center

    2003-12-01

    Glassy carbon (GC) has been high-pressure high-temperature treated. An interesting morphology evolution from the pristine sample to the high pressure products was observed. It is found that GC can be graphitized under pressure at a temperature much lower than that at ambient condition. Furthermore the in-situ structure and electrical measurements of GC and graphitized glassy carbon (GGC) under high temperature and high pressure have been investigated up to 30 GPa. We particularly emphasize the unusual magnetic properties of GC treated under high pressures and high temperatures. A paramagnetic to ferromagnetic-like, and then to superconducting (a diamagnetic signal with hysteresis magnetic response) -like behavior, which can be observed at temperatures as high as 80 K, appears as a successive evolution from the initial GC to GGC in accordance with three regions distinguished by the graphitization temperature. This interesting evolution of magnetic properties probably evokes the new understanding of carbon element. (author)

  3. Structural Analysis of the Upper Internal Structure in PGSFR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, S. H.; Koo, G. H. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    The upper internal structure (UIS) is a package of hardware suspended from the rotating plug to about 20 cm above the core assemblies. The functions of the UIS are to support shroud tubes containing the primary and secondary control rod drivelines and preserve critical alignments between these drivelines and the core lattice, under normal and off-normal conditions. In addition, the UIS produces sufficient coolant mixing to mitigate thermal transients to downstream components and provides an opening for the In-Vessel transfer machine to access inner core positions without interfacing with the control rod drive lines and the upper core instrumentation package. The radial position of the shroud tube is fixed by three horizontal guide plates and the lower guide plate is close to the core assemblies and is perforated to permit most of the core effluent to reach the region between guide plates. In this study, the primary stress analysis for dead weight was carried out and the thermal stress analysis considering the coolant temperature around the UIS was performed. In addition, the mode characteristics of the structure by the natural frequency analysis were evaluated. The structural analysis model is developed to evaluate the structural integrity of the UIS. The primary stress analysis, the thermal stress analysis and the natural frequency analysis for the UIS are performed, and the maximum stresses and displacements are evaluated. From the analysis results, it is confirmed that the large local stresses don't occur near the holes and through the wall thicknesses of the structure. In addition, the maximum temperature of the UIS is calculated as 545 .deg. C from the thermal analysis and the structure should be evaluated by the ASME design rules at a high temperature. In the future, the more detailed design will be performed by the high temperature evaluation procedure according to the ASME SEC. III, Div.5.

  4. Modeling and structural analysis of honeycomb structure mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yeping

    2012-09-01

    In development of large-scale astronomical telescopes, some promising new technology and method such as honeycomb structure mirrors and silicon carbide mirrors are applied for primary mirrors. Especially in space telescopes, the mirror lightweight design is becoming the key technology and honeycomb structure mirrors are normally required more and more to reduce the cost and increase the feasibility of the telescopes system. In this paper, a parameter FEA model of a two meters honeycomb structure mirror has been built, by using the engineering analysis software ANSYS. Through this model, the structural analysis, thermal deformation analysis and the simulation active correction of low-order frequency aberration by the finite element method have been presented.

  5. Formation and evolution of tweed structures on high-purity aluminum polycrystalline foils under cyclic tension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peculiarities of formation and evolution of tweed structures on the surface of high-purity aluminum polycrystalline foils under cyclic tension were studied using an atom force microscope and a white light interferometer. Tweed structures of micron and submicron sizes were found on the foils at different number of cycles. In the range of 42,000 < N < 95,000 cycles destruction of tweed patterns is observed, which leads to their disappearance from the surface of the foils. Formation of tweed structures of various scales is discussed in terms of the Grinfeld instability

  6. Formation and evolution of tweed structures on high-purity aluminum polycrystalline foils under cyclic tension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuznetsov, P. V., E-mail: kpv@ispms.tsc.ru [Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science SB RAS, Tomsk, 634055 (Russian Federation); National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Vlasov, I. V. [Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science SB RAS, Tomsk, 634055 (Russian Federation); Sklyarova, E. A.; Smekalina, T. V. [National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation)

    2015-10-27

    Peculiarities of formation and evolution of tweed structures on the surface of high-purity aluminum polycrystalline foils under cyclic tension were studied using an atom force microscope and a white light interferometer. Tweed structures of micron and submicron sizes were found on the foils at different number of cycles. In the range of 42,000 < N < 95,000 cycles destruction of tweed patterns is observed, which leads to their disappearance from the surface of the foils. Formation of tweed structures of various scales is discussed in terms of the Grinfeld instability.

  7. Optimization Modeling and Evolution Analysis of Beijing' s Industrial Structure under Energy Constraints%能源约束视角下北京市产业结构的优化模拟与演进分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐志鹏; 刘卫东; 付承伟; 武红

    2012-01-01

    利用北京市1987年-2007年的地区投入产出表,在能源消耗总量约束条件下构建了北京市1987年、1992年、1997年、2002年和2007年五个时期的投入产出优化模型,通过产业结构调整的手段来实现经济效益最大。通过五个历史时期的优化模拟,采用灰色关联度分析比较了各个历史时期的真实产业结构与优化产业结构的相似程度。研究表明:①北京市的产业结构调整的重点在于发展第三产业,包括批发和零售业、金融保险业和其他社会服务业部门;②除1987年外,北京市其他各时期工业调整方向需要降低大部分工业的比重,2002年和2007年则需要适度提高纺织服装鞋帽皮革羽绒制品业、通用专用设备制造业、交通运输设备制造业、电气机械及器材制造业和通信设备计算机及其他电子设备制造业的比重;③通过比较五个时期北京市产业结构的优化模拟,得出北京市1997年的产业结构优化程度最高,2002年则最低,同时数据显示北京市2002年以后的产业结构优化程度低于2002年以前,北京市产业结构优化仍旧具有较大的调整潜力。最后,提出了北京市产业结构未来调整的方向。%This study developed an input-output optimization model for Beijing under constraints of energy consumption,with the objective to maximize economic benefits by industrial structure adjustment in 1987,1992,1997,2002,and 2007,respectively,based on Beijing’s input-output tables.The similarity of the industrial structure between simulations and reality was analyzed by the grey interconnection degree method.Results show that 1)the emphasis of Beijing’s industrial structure adjustment is the development of the tertiary industry,involving increasing the proportions of three sectors,i.e.,wholesale and retail trade,finance and insurance,and other social services;2)Except 1987,the proportions of a majority of Beijing’s industries should be

  8. Structure and evolution of low-mass W UMa type systems -- II. with angular momentum loss

    CERN Document Server

    Li, L; Zhang, F

    2004-01-01

    In a preceding paper, using Eggleton's evolution code we have discussed the structure and evolution of low-mass W UMa type contact binaries without angular momentum loss (AML). The models exhibit cyclic behavior about a state of marginal contact on a thermal time-scale. Part of the time of each cycle is spent in contact and part in a semi-detached state. According to observations, W UMa systems suffer AML. We present the models of low-mass contact binaries with AML due to gravitational wave radiation (GR) or magnetic stellar wind (MSW) are presented. We find that gravitational radiation cannot prevent the cyclic evolution of W UMa systems, and the effect of gravitational radiation on the cyclic behavior of contact binary evolution is almost negligible. We also find that the most likely AML mechanism for W UMa systems is magnetic braking, and that magnetic braking effects can increase the period of the cyclic evolution, and shorten the fraction of the time spent in the poor thermal contact state. If W UMa star...

  9. Structural analysis of DNA by autoradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the past 10 years, molecular biology has rapidly been developing owing to easy structural analysis of DNA, a fundamental substance involved in life function. The application of highly sensitive RI with the production of large amounts of DNA and with no change in the chemical property of the substance to be tested has greatly contributed to molecular biology. For the development of life science and biotechnology, it is essential to analyze basic arrangement of DNA, identify genes, predict amino acid arrangement of proteins, and clarify regulation mechanism involved in genes. To understand DNA function sufficiently, analysis of secondary or tertiary structure, as well as primary structure of DNA, is extremely important. In this paper, the primary DNA structural analysis is provided in relation to RI application. Structural analysis of DNA can be classified into (1) hybridization method and (2) basic arrangement determination method. The application of DNA analysis is discussed in terms of the following: (1) varified analysis of the antibody, (2) isolation and analysis of carcinogenic genes, and (3) gene diagnosis. There is a problem with manual process in the structural analysis of DNA. Currently, automatic apparatuses for extraction, purification, reaction, isolation, and detection of DNA have been developing. (N.K.)

  10. Cenozoic structures and the tectonic evolution of the eastern North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, O.R.; Nielsen, S.B.; Egholm, D.L.;

    2011-01-01

    or cover tectonism took place. Our objectives are thus 1) to analyze the interaction between basement and cover structures, and if possible 2) to relate the structures to the regional tectonic evolution. The Zechstein evaporites pinch out onto the Ringkøbing-Fyn High, which in the eastern North Sea...... including decompaction in the Central Graben along the Arne-Elin trend shows that two phases of basement related inversion took place duringthe Paleocene-Eocene and the Oligocene. Halokinetics and differential compaction across the Paleogene inversion structure explain later tectonic signals...... detachment surfaces withinthe sedimentary succession and basement structures. Here we define basement structures by offsets in the pre Zechstein succession. Cover structures are confined to the post Zechstein succession, or part hereof, and detach internally along surfaces in the post Zechstein succession...

  11. THE ROLE OF THE RELIEF IN THE EVOLUTION, STRUCTURE AND FUNCTIONALITY OF THE ZALĂU URBAN AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDREEA MARIA VÂTCĂ

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The role of the relief in the evolution, structure and functionality of the Zalău urban area. The relief represents an important condition for a settlement’s emergence and for its social, economical and territorial evolution. Moreover, it influences the urban structure and the functional organisation of a city. As a result, the configuration of the main built-up area of Zalău has been determined by geomorphological factors which provided, through the hydrographical convergences, a suitable area for territorial expansion. The city’s longitudinal development has unfavourable consequences on the urban functionality. At the same time with the expansion on this direction, the city’s transversal development takes place through the emergence of the Dumbrava Nord neighbourhood. Some dwellings were also built on the slopes, generating stepped apartment blocks and access ways perpendicular to level curves, increasing in this way the value of investments. The extension of the inhabited area, through holiday or permanent houses being built at the foot of the Meseş Mountain and near the Zalău - Aghireş and Zalău-Moigrad roads, confirms the new trend in the urban development of Zalău: The following study analyses the relationships among the relief, the urban built-up area and the territorial development. Thus, the cartographic documentation has included: shooting directory plans from 1939, topographic maps from 1970 and orthophotoplans from 2005, which were used to determine the chronological limits of the built-up area and to analyse their spatial evolution in relationship with the demographic evolution and the favourable characteristics of the relief (<5° declivity and < 250 m altitude. All these are based on geomorphologic mapping and GIS analysis. As a main result, an expansion tendency of the built-up area was identified in relationship with an increase in comfort, which at the same time is being restricted to some extent by geographical

  12. A conceptual approach to model co-evolution of urban structures

    CERN Document Server

    Schweitzer, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Urban structures encompass settlements, characterized by the spatial distribution of built-up areas, but also transportation structures, to connect these built-up areas. These two structures are very different in their origin and function, fulfilling complementary needs: (i) to access space, and (ii) to occupy space. Their evolution cannot be understood by looking at the dynamics of urban aggregations and transportation systems separately. Instead, existing built-up areas feed back on the further development of transportation structures, and the availability of the latter feeds back on the future growth of urban aggregations. To model this co-evolution, we propose an agent-based approach that builds on existing agent-based models for the evolution of trail systems and of urban settlements. The key element in these separate approaches is a generalized communication of agents by means of an adaptive landscape. This landscape is only generated by the agents, but once it exists, it feeds back on their further act...

  13. Finite Element Analysis and Understanding the Biomechanics and Evolution of Living and Fossil Organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayfield, Emily J.

    2007-05-01

    Finite element analysis (FEA) is a technique that reconstructs stress, strain, and deformation in a digital structure. Although commonplace in engineering and orthopedic science for more than 30 years, only recently has it begun to be adopted in the zoological and paleontological sciences to address questions of organismal morphology, function, and evolution. Current research tends to focus on either deductive studies that assume a close relationship between form and function or inductive studies that aim to test this relationship, although explicit hypothesis-testing bridges these two standpoints. Validation studies have shown congruence between in vivo or in vitro strain and FE-inferred strain. Future validation work on a broad range of taxa will assist in phylogenetically bracketing our extinct animal FE-models to increase confidence in our input parameters, although currently, FEA has much potential in addressing questions of form-function relationships, providing appropriate questions are asked of the existing data.

  14. Robustness Analysis of Timber Truss Structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rajčić, Vlatka; Čizmar, Dean; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning;

    2010-01-01

    The present paper discusses robustness of structures in general and the robustness requirements given in the codes. Robustness of timber structures is also an issues as this is closely related to Working group 3 (Robustness of systems) of the COST E55 project. Finally, an example of a robustness...... evaluation of a widespan timber truss structure is presented. This structure was built few years ago near Zagreb and has a span of 45m. Reliability analysis of the main members and the system is conducted and based on this a robustness analysis is preformed....

  15. Micro-structural evolution of rubber/clay nanocomposites with vulcanization process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Brominated isobutyl-isoprene rubber/clay nanocomposite (BIIRCN and ethylene-propylene-diene-monomer rubber/clay nanocomposite (EPDMCN were prepared by melt blending. The micro-structural evolution of these two kinds of rubber/clay nanocomposites (RCNs with vulcanization process was investigated using wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD and transmission electron microscope (TEM. The WAXD results revealed that the intercalated structure of organically modified clay (OMC changed throughout the whole curing process. The intercalated structure kept on changing beyond the vulcanization stage of T90. The interlayer space of intercalated silicate in uncured BIIRCN is larger than that in uncured EPDMCN. However, the intercalated structure for EPDMCN changed by a larger extent than that for BIIRCN during the vulcanization process, and the interlayer space of the intercalated structure is larger in the cured EPDMCN than that in the cured BIIRCN. It was found that the intercalant (i.e., octadecylamine, ODA for OMC could shorten the scorch time of the curing reaction, and increase the curing rate, which was attributed to the further intercalation during vulcanization. TEM results indicated that the spatial distribution of OMC is much better in BIIR (a polar rubber matrix than that in EPDM (a non-polar rubber matrix. The changes in spatial dispersion structure during vulcanization for EPDMCN and BIIRCN show different trends. In conclusion, the polarity of the rubber is the determining factor influencing the evolution of both the intercalated structure and the spatial dispersion of clay during vulcanization.

  16. Intrinsic Permeability Evolution in High Temperature Concrete : An Experimental and Numerical Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    DAL PONT, S; Schrefler, BA; EHRLACHER, A

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental and thermo-hydro-chemical-mechanical numerical analysis of concrete at high temperatures, aiming at the definition of a law describing the evolution of intrinsic permeability. The evaluation of heat and mass transfers, evolution of the phases composing the porous medium, and mechanical performances of concrete are taken into account in a full three phases coupled analysis. An experimental set-up and a numerical simulation are then presented. A hollow cylind...

  17. NAPS: Network Analysis of Protein Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarty, Broto; Parekh, Nita

    2016-07-01

    Traditionally, protein structures have been analysed by the secondary structure architecture and fold arrangement. An alternative approach that has shown promise is modelling proteins as a network of non-covalent interactions between amino acid residues. The network representation of proteins provide a systems approach to topological analysis of complex three-dimensional structures irrespective of secondary structure and fold type and provide insights into structure-function relationship. We have developed a web server for network based analysis of protein structures, NAPS, that facilitates quantitative and qualitative (visual) analysis of residue-residue interactions in: single chains, protein complex, modelled protein structures and trajectories (e.g. from molecular dynamics simulations). The user can specify atom type for network construction, distance range (in Å) and minimal amino acid separation along the sequence. NAPS provides users selection of node(s) and its neighbourhood based on centrality measures, physicochemical properties of amino acids or cluster of well-connected residues (k-cliques) for further analysis. Visual analysis of interacting domains and protein chains, and shortest path lengths between pair of residues are additional features that aid in functional analysis. NAPS support various analyses and visualization views for identifying functional residues, provide insight into mechanisms of protein folding, domain-domain and protein-protein interactions for understanding communication within and between proteins. URL:http://bioinf.iiit.ac.in/NAPS/. PMID:27151201

  18. Structural analysis of the Jebel Fadeloun anticline, Tunisia: Impact of fractures and faults on the petrophysical properties of carbonate rocks

    OpenAIRE

    Kjelkenes, Fredrik Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    Recognizing the structure, evolution and fluid flow within the earth's crust is a critical issue for both academic and applied geoscience. This study presents structural analysis of an anticline, which aim is to elucidate the (1) structure and evolution of the fold, as well as the associated faults and fractures, (2) to better investigate how tectonics have impacted the microstructural character of the host rock, and (3) to discuss possible implications for petro...

  19. Structural classification of proteins and structural genomics: new insights into protein folding and evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This review article surveys the protein structures determined by Joint Center for Structural Genomics and published in this special issue of Acta Crystallographica Section F. During the past decade, the Protein Structure Initiative (PSI) centres have become major contributors of new families, superfamilies and folds to the Structural Classification of Proteins (SCOP) database. The PSI results have increased the diversity of protein structural space and accelerated our understanding of it. This review article surveys a selection of protein structures determined by the Joint Center for Structural Genomics (JCSG). It presents previously undescribed β-sheet architectures such as the double barrel and spiral β-roll and discusses new examples of unusual topologies and peculiar structural features observed in proteins characterized by the JCSG and other Structural Genomics centres

  20. Thermochronological and structural evolution of the Huaibei coalfield in eastern China: Constrains from zircon fission-track data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan Jingqiang, E-mail: tanjingqiang@gmail.co [College of Earth Science, Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, 19 A Yuquan Road, Beijing 100049 (China); GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam, Telegrafenberg, Potsdam 14473 (Germany); Ju Yiwen, E-mail: juyw03@163.co [College of Earth Science, Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, 19 A Yuquan Road, Beijing 100049 (China); Yuan Wanming [State Key Laboratory of Geological Processes and Mineral Resources, China University of Geosciences, Beijing 100083 (China); Hou Quanlin [College of Earth Science, Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, 19 A Yuquan Road, Beijing 100049 (China); Pan Jienan [College of Earth Science, Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, 19 A Yuquan Road, Beijing 100049 (China); Institute of Resources and Environment, Henan Polytechnic University, Jiaozuo 454000 (China); Fan Junjia [College of Earth Science, Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, 19 A Yuquan Road, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2011-02-15

    Zircon fission-track (ZFT) analysis was performed on 12 samples, which were collected at the depths between 300 m and 1133 m in different structural units of the Huaibei coalfield in eastern China. The ZFT dating and decomposition results indicate the age populations can be divided into three periods, which are 213 {+-} 21 Ma-230 {+-} 21 Ma, 252 {+-} 32 Ma-304 {+-} 21 Ma and 378 {+-} 39 Ma-933 {+-} 16 Ma. These periods are less than, close to and greater than the depositional age, respectively. The continental collision between the north and south China plates impacted on its thermal and structural evolution strongly, but it is possible the burial and magmatism merely resulted in partial annealing on ZFT. Obvious differences of structural and thermal evolution exist in both the EW and NS directions. And the differences in the EW direction were mainly resulted from the tectonic movements in late Indosinian and Yanshanian, but the NS direction differences were on account of the magmatic activity in Yanshanian.

  1. SANS study of the structural evolution in NIPA/SA gel on dehydration

    CERN Document Server

    Sugiyama, M; Maeda, Y; Hara, K

    2002-01-01

    Mesoscopic structures of N-isopropylacryl-amide/sodium acrylate (NIPA/SA) gels with several water contents were investigated with a small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) method in order to make clear their structural evolution on dehydration. The evolution of the SANS profile with a decrease in the water content in the gel could be classified into three stages. In the beginning, there was no peak in the SANS profile except for the central part, which steadily intensified. With the further water dissipation, a side peak appeared at around 0.02 A sup - sup 1 , the intensity of which increased up to a certain water content and then decreased. These results indicate that the water dissipation in the NIPA/SA gel occurs inhomogeneously. (orig.)

  2. Comparison of thermal analysis and differential thermal analysis for evaluating solid fraction evolution during solidification of Al-Si alloys

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandez-Calvo, Ana Isabel; Niklas, Andrea; Lacaze, Jacques

    2010-01-01

    Both thermal analysis (TA) and differential thermal analysis (DTA) have been used since long to evaluate latent heat release and solid fraction evolution during solidification of metallic alloys. TA makes use of cooling curves recorded under "natural" cooling while DTA consists in recording the temperature difference between the sample temperature and an inert reference during a controlled cooling, i.e. at imposed constant cooling rate. In both cases, the solid fraction evolution is deduced f...

  3. Advanced X-Ray scattering methods for the study of structure and its evolution in soft materials with fiber symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three recently developed evaluation methods for the automated quantitative analysis of X-ray scattering data (small-angle (SAXS) and wide-angle (WAXS)) are presented. They are applicable to extensive series of 2D patterns that are recorded in studies of polymer materials with uniaxial symmetry. The experiments comprise time-resolved studies (melting, crystallization, mechanical properties and fatigue) as well as microbeam-scanning for the study of nanostructure gradients. The methods appear suitable to manage the data flood from modern synchrotron radiation setups aiming at the extraction of quantitative information on the structure evolution inside the material. In microbeam-scanning experiments the recorded scattering patterns are smeared. It is proposed to reconstruct desmeared scattering patterns by an X-ray scattering fiber-computer-tomography (XS-FCT). Reconstruction aberrations yield additional structure information. The true structure variation along the fiber radius is established. Compared to general tomography the experiment is faster by a factor of 100, and reconstruction is faster by a factor of 104. In WAXS fiber patterns should first be mapped into reciprocal space before analysis. After having corrected an erroneous tilt-angle equation, automatic tilt-angle tracking and mapping becomes possible. If polymers fail at low strain, the determination of strain and of structural parameters from the scattering patterns require very high accuracy because the observed variations are subtle. Suitable methods are presented both for the high-precision determination of the macroscopic strain, and for the determination of subtle variations of structure parameters.

  4. Analysis of MELCOR code structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong Ha; Park, Sun Hee

    2000-04-01

    MELCOR executes in two parts. The first is a MELGEN program, in which most of the input is specified, processed, and checked. The second part of MELCOR is the MELCOR program itself, which advances the program through time based on the database generated by MELGEN and any additional MELCOR input. In particular, MELCOR execution involves two steps: (1) a setup mode in MEXSET, during which the database is read from the restart file and any additional input is processed, and (2) a run mode in MEXRUN, which advances the simulation through time, updating the time-dependent portion of the database each cycle. MELGEN and MELCOR share a structured and modular architecture that facilitates the incorporation of additional or altenative phenomenological modes. This structure consists of four primary levels: executive level, database manager routine level, package level, and utility level. MELCOR is composed of 24 different packages, each of which models a different portion of the accident phenomenology or program control. To identify the relation of the MELCOR subroutines with the packages, first two or three letters of the package's name are duplicated in the name of the subroutines. The same rule applies to the naming of the common block. Data flows and the specific subroutines in the MELGEN and MELCOR are analyzed by their functions according to the hierarchy of four levels for model improvement and replacement during the integral code development project.

  5. Analysis of MELCOR code structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MELCOR executes in two parts. The first is a MELGEN program, in which most of the input is specified, processed, and checked. The second part of MELCOR is the MELCOR program itself, which advances the program through time based on the database generated by MELGEN and any additional MELCOR input. In particular, MELCOR execution involves two steps: (1) a setup mode in MEXSET, during which the database is read from the restart file and any additional input is processed, and (2) a run mode in MEXRUN, which advances the simulation through time, updating the time-dependent portion of the database each cycle. MELGEN and MELCOR share a structured and modular architecture that facilitates the incorporation of additional or altenative phenomenological modes. This structure consists of four primary levels: executive level, database manager routine level, package level, and utility level. MELCOR is composed of 24 different packages, each of which models a different portion of the accident phenomenology or program control. To identify the relation of the MELCOR subroutines with the packages, first two or three letters of the package's name are duplicated in the name of the subroutines. The same rule applies to the naming of the common block. Data flows and the specific subroutines in the MELGEN and MELCOR are analyzed by their functions according to the hierarchy of four levels for model improvement and replacement during the integral code development project

  6. An empirical formulation to describe the evolution of the high burnup structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present work the behavior of fuel pellets for LWR power reactors in the high burnup range (average burnup higher than about 45 MWd/kgU) is analyzed. For extended irradiation periods, a considerable Pu concentration is reached in the pellet periphery (rim zone), that contributes to local burnup. Gradually, a new microstructure develops in that ring, characterized by small grains and large pores as compared with those of the original material. In this region Xe is absent from the solid lattice (although it continues to be dissolved in the rest of the pellet). The porous microstructure in the pellet edge causes local changes in the mechanical and thermal properties, thus affecting the overall fuel behavior. It is generally accepted that the evolution of porosity in the high burnup structure (HBS) is determinant of the retention capacity of the fission gases rejected from the fuel matrix. This is the reason why, during the latest years a considerable effort has been devoted to characterizing the parameters that influence porosity. Although the mechanisms governing the microstructural transformation have not been completely elucidated yet, some empirical expressions can be given, and this is the intention of the present work, for representing the main physical parameters. Starting from several works published in the open literature, some mathematical expressions were developed to describe the behavior and progress of porosity at local burnup values ranging from 60 to 300 MWd/kgU. The analysis includes the interactions of different orders between pores, the growth of the pore radius by capturing vacancies, the evolution of porosity, pore number density and overpressure within the closed pores, the inventory of fission gas dissolved in the matrix and retained in the pores. The model is mathematically expressed by a system of non-linear differential equations. In the present work, results of this calculation scheme are compared with experimental data available in

  7. A Comprehensive study of Cavities on the Sun: Structure, Formation, and Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karna, Nishu; Zhang, Jie; Pesnell, William D.

    2016-05-01

    Coronal cavities are large-scale structures in the Sun's corona that are closely related with the long-term evolution of the magnetic field in the photosphere as well as associated with the energetic solar activity such as prominence eruptions and coronal mass ejections. They are observed as circular or elliptical-shaped relatively low-density dark regions above the solar limb in EUV, X-ray, and white-light coronal images. We used SDO/AIA limb synoptic maps, constructed from annuli above the solar limb, to systematically identify cavities. We observed 429 coronal prominence cavities between May 20, 2010 and Feb 1, 2015. We examined correlations between height, width, and length of the cavities. Based on the fitting of the shape of the cross section, we classified cavities in three types: prolate (38%), oblate (27%) and circular (35%). We found that the cavities of all shapes are common in shorter length while circular and oblate cavities are more common in the longer length. In general, we found that the overall 3-D topology of long stable cavities can be characterized as a long tube with an elliptical cross-section. Next, we investigated the pattern of cavity location and found that cavity systematically drifts towards the pole. We found that cavities form a belt by making a plot using SDO/HMI surface magnetogram similar to classical buttery diagram of sunspots, we call that the cavity belt. Our analysis showed that the cavity belts migrated towards higher latitude with time and the cavity belts disappeared after the polar magnetic field reversal. This result shows that cavity evolution provides new insight into the solar cycle. Moreover, we studied the underlying magnetic field of a circumpolar crown cavity (Mar 21, 2013- Oct 25, 2013) that was observed for several Carrington Rotations. Our results showed that the underlying polarity inversion line of cavities is formed between the trailing part of decayed active regions and the unipolar magnetic field in the

  8. An empirical formulation to describe the evolution of the high burnup structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemes, Martín; Soba, Alejandro; Denis, Alicia

    2015-01-15

    In the present work the behavior of fuel pellets for LWR power reactors in the high burnup range (average burnup higher than about 45 MWd/kgU) is analyzed. For extended irradiation periods, a considerable Pu concentration is reached in the pellet periphery (rim zone), that contributes to local burnup. Gradually, a new microstructure develops in that ring, characterized by small grains and large pores as compared with those of the original material. In this region Xe is absent from the solid lattice (although it continues to be dissolved in the rest of the pellet). The porous microstructure in the pellet edge causes local changes in the mechanical and thermal properties, thus affecting the overall fuel behavior. It is generally accepted that the evolution of porosity in the high burnup structure (HBS) is determinant of the retention capacity of the fission gases rejected from the fuel matrix. This is the reason why, during the latest years a considerable effort has been devoted to characterizing the parameters that influence porosity. Although the mechanisms governing the microstructural transformation have not been completely elucidated yet, some empirical expressions can be given, and this is the intention of the present work, for representing the main physical parameters. Starting from several works published in the open literature, some mathematical expressions were developed to describe the behavior and progress of porosity at local burnup values ranging from 60 to 300 MWd/kgU. The analysis includes the interactions of different orders between pores, the growth of the pore radius by capturing vacancies, the evolution of porosity, pore number density and overpressure within the closed pores, the inventory of fission gas dissolved in the matrix and retained in the pores. The model is mathematically expressed by a system of non-linear differential equations. In the present work, results of this calculation scheme are compared with experimental data available in

  9. Semantic Antinomies and Deep Structure Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuber, Ryszard

    1975-01-01

    This article discusses constructions known as semantic antinomies, that is, the paradoxical results of false presuppositions, and how they can be dealt with by means of deep structure analysis. See FL 508 186 for availability. (CLK)

  10. Structure of technology evolution: The way on which ICT industry emerged in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Kibae; Jung, Sungdo; Lee, Changjun; Hwang, Junseok

    2013-01-01

    The role of ICT in the economic growth in Korea is a great attraction to the telecommunication society interested in the relationship among ICT, innovation policy and economic growth. However, prior research concentrates on investigating the effect of policy on innovation and economic growth, but misses the mechanism how a policy affects the technological system which interacts with public institutes, universities and private firms. In this paper, we analyze the structure of technology evolut...

  11. Vertical Moist Thermodynamic Structure and Spatial–Temporal Evolution of the MJO in AIRS Observations

    OpenAIRE

    Tian, Baijun; Waliser, Duane E.; Fetzer, Eric J.; Lambrigtsen, Bjorn H.; Yung, Yuk L.; Wang, Bin

    2006-01-01

    The atmospheric moisture and temperature profiles from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS)/Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit on the NASA Aqua mission, in combination with the precipitation from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), are employed to study the vertical moist thermodynamic structure and spatial–temporal evolution of the Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO). The AIRS data indicate that, in the Indian Ocean and western Pacific, the temperature anomaly exhibits a trimodal ve...

  12. Internal Structure of Elementary Particle and Possible Deterministic Mechanism of Biological Evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Melkikh, Alexei V.

    2004-01-01

    The possibility of a complicated internal structure of an elementary particle was analyzed. In this case a particle may represent a quantum computer with many degrees of freedom. It was shown that the probability of new species formation by means of random mutations is negligibly small. Deterministic model of evolution is considered. According to this model DNA nucleotides can change their state under the control of elementary particle internal degrees of freedom.

  13. Community structure and the evolution of interdisciplinarity in Slovenia's scientific collaboration network

    OpenAIRE

    Lužar, Borut; Levnajić, Zoran; Povh, Janez; Perc, Matjaž

    2014-01-01

    Interaction among the scientific disciplines is of vital importance in modern science. Focusing on the case of Slovenia, we study the dynamics of interdisciplinary sciences from 1960 to 2010. Our approach relies on quantifying the interdisciplinarity of research communities detected in the coauthorship network of Slovenian scientists over time. Examining the evolution of the community structure, we find that the frequency of interdisciplinary research is only proportional with the overall gro...

  14. Independent Effects of Protein Core Size and Expression on Residue-Level Structure-Evolution Relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Franzosa, Eric A.; Yu Xia

    2012-01-01

    Recently, we demonstrated that yeast protein evolutionary rate at the level of individual amino acid residues scales linearly with degree of solvent accessibility. This residue-level structure-evolution relationship is sensitive to protein core size: surface residues from large-core proteins evolve much faster than those from small-core proteins, while buried residues are equally constrained independent of protein core size. In this work, we investigate the joint effects of protein core size ...

  15. Numerical Model of Beach Topography Evolution due to Waves and Currents: Special Emphasis on Coastal Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Pham, Thanh Nam

    2010-01-01

    The beach topography change in the nearshore zone may be induced by natural phenomena such as wind, wave, storm, tsunami, and sea level rise. However, it can also be caused by man-made structures and activities, for example, groins, detached breakwaters, seawalls, dredging, and beach nourishment. Therefore, understanding the beach topography evolution in this zone is necessary and important for coastal engineering projects, e.g., constructing harbors, maintaining navigation channels, and prot...

  16. Structure and dynamics of a primordial catalytic fold generated by in vitro evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Chao, Fa-An; Morelli, Aleardo; Haugner, John C.; Churchfield, Lewis; Hagmann, Leonardo N.; Shi, Lei; Masterson, Larry R.; Sarangi, Ritimukta; Veglia, Gianluigi; Seelig, Burckhard

    2012-01-01

    Engineering functional protein scaffolds capable of carrying out chemical catalysis is a major challenge in enzyme design. Starting from a non-catalytic protein scaffold, we recently generated a novel RNA ligase by in vitro directed evolution. This artificial enzyme lost its original fold and adopted an entirely novel structure with dramatically enhanced conformational dynamics, demonstrating that a primordial fold with suitable flexibility is sufficient to carry out enzymatic function.

  17. Simultaneous optimization of enzyme activity and quaternary structure by directed evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Vamvaca, Katherina; Butz, Maren; Walter, Kai U.; Taylor, Sean V.; Hilvert, Donald

    2005-01-01

    Natural evolution has produced efficient enzymes of enormous structural diversity. We imitated this natural process in the laboratory to augment the efficiency of an engineered chorismate mutase with low activity and an unusual hexameric topology. By applying two rounds of DNA shuffling and genetic selection, we obtained a 400-fold more efficient enzyme, containing three non-active-site mutations. Detailed biophysical characterization of the evolved variant suggests that it exists predominant...

  18. Measurement of reaction rates of interest in stellar structure and evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terrasi, F.; D`Onofrio, A. [Dipt. di Scienze Ambientali, Seconda Univ. di Napoli, Caserta (Italy)]|[INFN, Napoli (Italy); Campajola, L.; Imbriani, G. [INFN, Napoli (Italy)]|[Dipt. di Scienze Fisiche, Univ. Federico II, Napoli (Italy); Gialanella, L. [INFN, Napoli (Italy)]|[Dipt. di Scienze Fisiche, Univ. Federico II, Napoli (Italy)]|[Inst. fuer Experimentalphysik III, Ruhr-Univ. Bochum, Bochum (Germany); Greife, U.; Rolfs, C.; Strieder, F.; Trautvetter, H.P. [Inst. fuer Experimentalphysik III, Ruhr-Univ. Bochum, Bochum (Germany); Roca, V.; Romano, M. [INFN, Napoli (Italy)]|[Dipt. di Scienze Fisiche, Univ. Federico II, Napoli (Italy); Straniero, O. [Osservatorio Astronomico di Collurania, Teramo (Italy)

    1998-06-01

    Accurate determinations of reaction rates at astrophysical energies are very important in stellar structure and evolution studies. The cases of two key reactions, namely {sup 7}Be(p,{gamma}){sup 8}B and {sup 12}C({alpha},{gamma}){sup 16}O are discussed, both from the point of view of their astrophysical interest and of the experimental difficulties in the measurement of their cross section. (orig.)

  19. Evolution of fine structure populations as a test of solid target effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The evolution of fine structure components of Balmer α transition following electron capture by fully stripped 33 MeV/u Kr36+ ions in carbon targets has been studied in the target thicknesses range 10 - 200 μg/cm2. Our results cannot be explained by a rate-equations model (binary collisions including l-changing process), but constitute a first indication of a possible wake-field induced Stark mixing of the substates. (orig.)

  20. Structural Dynamics and Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luthman, Briana L.

    2013-01-01

    This project consists of two parts, the first will be the post-flight analysis of data from a Delta IV launch vehicle, and the second will be a Finite Element Analysis of a CubeSat. Shock and vibration data was collected on WGS-5 (Wideband Global SATCOM- 5) which was launched on a Delta IV launch vehicle. Using CAM (CAlculation with Matrices) software, the data is to be plotted into Time History, Shock Response Spectrum, and SPL (Sound Pressure Level) curves. In this format the data is to be reviewed and compared to flight instrumentation data from previous flights of the same launch vehicle. This is done to ensure the current mission environments, such as shock, random vibration, and acoustics, are not out of family with existing flight experience. In family means the peaks on the SRS curve for WGS-5 are similar to the peaks from the previous flights and there are no major outliers. The curves from the data will then be compiled into a useful format so that is can be peer reviewed then presented before an engineering review board if required. Also, the reviewed data will be uploaded to the Engineering Review Board Information System (ERBIS) to archive. The second part of this project is conducting Finite Element Analysis of a CubeSat. In 2010, Merritt Island High School partnered with NASA to design, build and launch a CubeSat. The team is now called StangSat in honor of their mascot, the mustang. Over the past few years, the StangSat team has built a satellite and has now been manifested for flight on a SpaceX Falcon 9 launch in 2014. To prepare for the final launch, a test flight was conducted in Mojave, California. StangSat was launched on a Prospector 18D, a high altitude rocket made by Garvey Spacecraft Corporation, along with their sister satellite CP9 built by California Polytechnic University. However, StangSat was damaged during an off nominal landing and this project will give beneficial insights into what loads the CubeSat experienced during the crash

  1. Structure and evolution of the large scale solar and heliospheric magnetic fields. Ph.D. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeksema, J. T.

    1984-01-01

    Structure and evolution of large scale photospheric and coronal magnetic fields in the interval 1976-1983 were studied using observations from the Stanford Solar Observatory and a potential field model. The solar wind in the heliosphere is organized into large regions in which the magnetic field has a componenet either toward or away from the sun. The model predicts the location of the current sheet separating these regions. Near solar minimum, in 1976, the current sheet lay within a few degrees of the solar equator having two extensions north and south of the equator. Soon after minimum the latitudinal extent began to increase. The sheet reached to at least 50 deg from 1978 through 1983. The complex structure near maximum occasionally included multiple current sheets. Large scale structures persist for up to two years during the entire interval. To minimize errors in determining the structure of the heliospheric field particular attention was paid to decreasing the distorting effects of rapid field evolution, finding the optimum source surface radius, determining the correction to the sun's polar field, and handling missing data. The predicted structure agrees with direct interplanetary field measurements taken near the ecliptic and with coronameter and interplanetary scintillation measurements which infer the three dimensional interplanetary magnetic structure. During most of the solar cycle the heliospheric field cannot be adequately described as a dipole.

  2. Small-angle neutron scattering study of structural evolution of different phases in protein solution

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V K Aswal; S Chodankar; J Kohlbrecher; R Vavrin; A G Wagh

    2008-10-01

    Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) has been used to study the structural evolution of different phases in protein solution leading to crystallization, denaturation and gelation. The protein solution under crystallization mostly consists of monomers and dimers, and higher-mers are not observed as they are perhaps formed in very small numbers. The onset and the rate of crystallization strongly depend on the salt concentration. Protein denaturation on addition of surfactant occurs due to the formation of micelle-like clusters along the unfolded polypeptide chains of the protein. The structure of such protein{surfactant complex is found to be independent of the size of the micelles in their pure surfactant solutions. The structure of temperature-induced protein gels shows a fractal structure. Rheology of these gels shows a strong dependence on varying pH or protein concentration, whereas the structure of such gels is found to be similar.

  3. Small-angle neutron scattering study of structural evolution of different phases in protein solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) has been used to study the structural evolution of different phases in protein solution leading to crystallization, denaturation and gelation. The protein solution under crystallization mostly consists of monomers and dimmers, and higher-mers are not observed as they are perhaps formed in very small numbers. The onset and the rate of crystallization strongly depend on the salt concentration. Protein denaturation on addition of surfactant occurs due to the formation of micelle-like clusters along the unfolded polypeptide chains of the protein. The structure of such protein-surfactant complex is found to be independent of the size of the micelles in their pure surfactant solutions. The structure of temperature-induced protein gels shows a fractal structure. Rheology of these gels shows a strong dependence on varying pH or protein concentration, whereas the structure of such gels is found to be similar. (author)

  4. Genome structure drives patterns of gene family evolution in ciliates, a case study using Chilodonella uncinata (Protista, Ciliophora, Phyllopharyngea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Feng; Song, Weibo; Katz, Laura A

    2014-08-01

    In most lineages, diversity among gene family members results from gene duplication followed by sequence divergence. Because of the genome rearrangements during the development of somatic nuclei, gene family evolution in ciliates involves more complex processes. Previous work on the ciliate Chilodonella uncinata revealed that macronuclear β-tubulin gene family members are generated by alternative processing, in which germline regions are alternatively used in multiple macronuclear chromosomes. To further study genome evolution in this ciliate, we analyzed its transcriptome and found that (1) alternative processing is extensive among gene families; and (2) such gene families are likely to be C. uncinata specific. We characterized additional macronuclear and micronuclear copies of one candidate alternatively processed gene family-a protein kinase domain containing protein (PKc)-from two C. uncinata strains. Analysis of the PKc sequences reveals that (1) multiple PKc gene family members in the macronucleus share some identical regions flanked by divergent regions; and (2) the shared identical regions are processed from a single micronuclear chromosome. We discuss analogous processes in lineages across the eukaryotic tree of life to provide further insights on the impact of genome structure on gene family evolution in eukaryotes. PMID:24749903

  5. Analysis on the Characteristics of Fluvial Evolution with Climate Changes from Numerical Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zhenzhen

    2014-05-01

    Landform evolution is one part of the Earth system behaviors. Products from the landform evolution are faithful records for the global change. They are created by complex interaction between geomorphic processes and environmental factors, and be able to provide the most important and intuitive evidences for investigating the interaction between the Earth's tectonic processes and climate changes. Because of very limited geodetic and geological data, we need a profound understanding of how landscapes respond and erode in response to changes in tectonic or climate boundary conditions. Quantitative study on landform evolution in different spatial and temporal scales using numerical simulation has important scientific interest and practical significance for investigating the nonlinear coupling relationship and response mechanism between tectonic activity, climate change, and surface processes. Under background of the global climate change, rivers have been a major focus of research in landform evolution because they are patently sensitive to tectonic and climate forcing via their channel characteristics. According to the existing research on the channel profiles, in this study, we employ numerical method incorporated with remote sensing techniques to investigate the surface process response to climate-tectonic-landscape through analysis and verification exploration. We build a numerical model based on the theory of geomorphic evolution, and take study on dynamical processes of the channel profile evolution with tectonic and climate boundary. Primary simulation results show that the linear diffusion is not enough to demonstrate the whole evolution. The analyses show that erosion plays a major role in fluvial evolution. Analysis on the dynamic processes of fluvial evolution, clarification its morphological characteristics, and exploration its formation and evolution is helpful for thorough study and understanding the relationship between the various factors of fluvial

  6. Structure of Marketing Planning: A Reflective Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Augusto Toledo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to promote a reflective analysis about the action planning structure in the marketing context. The work was structured in the form of essay and presents the theoretical aspects about the Marketing Planning. The intention of the article is to provide critical insights into the needs of planning marketing activities. For this purpose the document is organized as of an introduction that contextualizes the subject, accompanied by a critical analysis. Finally, the final considerations are placed in distinction.

  7. Structure of Marketing Planning: A Reflective Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Luciano Augusto Toledo; Adriana Beatriz Madeira; Guilherme Farias Shiraishi; Marcos Garber

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to promote a reflective analysis about the action planning structure in the marketing context. The work was structured in the form of essay and presents the theoretical aspects about the Marketing Planning. The intention of the article is to provide critical insights into the needs of planning marketing activities. For this purpose the document is organized as of an introduction that contextualizes the subject, accompanied by a critical analysis. Finally, the final considerati...

  8. Analysis model of structure-HDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Presents the model established for Structure-HDS(hydraulic damper system) analysis on the basis of the theoretical analysis model of non-compressed fluid in the round pipe will an uniform velocity used as the basic variable, and pressure losses resulting from cross section changes of fluid route taken into consideration. Which provides necessary basis for researches on earthquake responses of a structure with a spacious first story, equipped with HDS at first floor.

  9. Dynamic analysis and design of offshore structures

    CERN Document Server

    Chandrasekaran, Srinivasan

    2015-01-01

    This book  attempts to provide readers with an overall idea of various types of offshore platform geometries. It covers the various environmental loads encountered by these structures, a detailed description of the fundamentals of structural dynamics in a class-room style, estimate of damping in offshore structures and their applications in the preliminary analysis and design. Basic concepts of structural dynamics are emphasized through simple illustrative examples and exercises. Design methodologies and guidelines, which are FORM based concepts are explained through a few applied example structures. Each chapter also has tutorials and exercises for self-learning. A dedicated chapter on stochastic dynamics will help the students to extend the basic concepts of structural dynamics to this advanced domain of research. Hydrodynamic response of offshore structures with perforated members is one of the recent research applications, which is found to be one of the effective manner of retrofitting offshore structur...

  10. Structural analysis of impeller for SMART MCP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The structural integrity of the MCP impeller is important for the safe and reliable operation of the SMART, since the impeller is operated for long period inside the reactor under high pressure and high temperature. In this study, an analysis model to evaluate the structural integrity of axial pump impeller has been developed and the stress state in the impeller of SMART MCP has been calculated for the applied centrifugal and hydraulic forces. The structural integrity of the impeller has been demonstrated by comparing the analysis results with the allowable stresses. The modal analysis of the impeller has been also performed to investigate the possibility of the resonances of the impeller blades with the rotational frequencies. As a means to reduce the time required for the analysis, a cyclic symmetric analysis model with optimum boundary conditions is proposed by comparing the results from full model analyses

  11. Computational structural analysis and finite element methods

    CERN Document Server

    Kaveh, A

    2014-01-01

    Graph theory gained initial prominence in science and engineering through its strong links with matrix algebra and computer science. Moreover, the structure of the mathematics is well suited to that of engineering problems in analysis and design. The methods of analysis in this book employ matrix algebra, graph theory and meta-heuristic algorithms, which are ideally suited for modern computational mechanics. Efficient methods are presented that lead to highly sparse and banded structural matrices. The main features of the book include: application of graph theory for efficient analysis; extension of the force method to finite element analysis; application of meta-heuristic algorithms to ordering and decomposition (sparse matrix technology); efficient use of symmetry and regularity in the force method; and simultaneous analysis and design of structures.

  12. Evolution of dislocation structures following a change in loading conditions studied by in situ high resolution reciprocal space mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wejdemann, Christian

    the pre-deformation axis. In the X-ray diffraction experiments a technique was employed with which it is possible to obtain high-resolution reciprocal space maps from individual bulk grains. The high-resolution reciprocal space maps contain features related to the dislocation structure in the grains......: A spread-out ‘cloud’ of low intensity caused by diffraction from the dislocation walls and a number of sharp peaks of high intensity caused by diffraction from the individual subgrains. By acquiring reciprocal space maps at a number of different strain levels the evolution of the dislocation structures can...... be studied, and by analyzing the sharp peaks information about the strain in the individual subgrains and about the intra-granular stresses can be obtained. For the analysis of the reciprocal space maps a mathematical method was developed to partition the intensity distribution into two components...

  13. Entity Authentication:Analysis using Structured Intuition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Naveed; Jensen, Christian D.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a new method for the analysis that uses intuition of the analyst in a structured way. First we define entity authentication in terms of fine level authentication goals (FLAGs). Then we use some relevant structures in protocol narrations and use them to justify FLAGs for...

  14. MBS Analysis Of Kinetic Structures Using ADAMS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Nielsen, Søren R.K.

    2009-01-01

    The present paper considers multibody system (MBS) analysis of kinetic structures using the software package ADAMS. Deployable, foldable, expandable and reconfigurable kinetic structures can provide a change in the geometric morphology of the envelope by contributing to making it adaptable to e.g...

  15. Regional scale analysis of the altimetric stream network evolution

    OpenAIRE

    T. Ghizzoni; Lomazzi, M.; Roth, G; Rudari, R.

    2006-01-01

    Floods result from the limited carrying capacity of stream channels when compared to the discharge peak value. The transit of flood waves - with the associated erosion and sedimentation processes - often modifies local stream geometry. In some cases this results in a reduction of the stream carrying capacity, and consequently in an enhancement of the flooding risk. A mathematical model for the prediction of potential altimetric stream network evolution due to erosion and sedimentation p...

  16. Analysis of Haptics Evolution from Web Search Engines’ Data

    OpenAIRE

    Agnès Guerraz; Céline Loscos

    2009-01-01

    This article proposes using search engine results data such as the number of results containing relevant terms, to measure the evolution of Haptics, the field devoted to the science and technology of the sense of touch. Haptics is a complex discipline which is at the intersection of the knowledge of several specialized fields like robotics, computer science, psychology, and mathematics. It can also appear as a new and emergent discipline due to the fact that many promising haptic interfaces, ...

  17. Data Warehouse: Analysis into its Evolution, Benefits and Pitfalls

    OpenAIRE

    Cheah, Darren Yao Chun

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to investigate the benefits and advantage of a data warehouse when applied to several industries, that being the banking and finance, retail, travel and manufacturing industries. The author will discuss the evolution of usage of the data warehouse. The author will also investigate the reasons for which a data warehouse project can fail and the disadvantages and potential pitfalls of the data warehouse

  18. Analysis of Haptics Evolution from Web Search Engines’ Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnès Guerraz

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes using search engine results data such as the number of results containing relevant terms, to measure the evolution of Haptics, the field devoted to the science and technology of the sense of touch. Haptics is a complex discipline which is at the intersection of the knowledge of several specialized fields like robotics, computer science, psychology, and mathematics. It can also appear as a new and emergent discipline due to the fact that many promising haptic interfaces, which allow innovative multimodal applications in many fields, have become mature only recently. The study presented in this article uses data collected at different periods of time (in December 1999, January 2004, January 2005, November 2006 and April 2007 onWeb search engines from requests on three different terminologies: haptique, haptik and haptics, taken respectively from French, German, and English languages. The evolution of Haptics is seemingly reflected by to the online frequency of these specific terms over time. This evolution has been measured by considering the Internet community through search engines such as Google or Yahoo!

  19. Evolution of structure with Fe layer thickness in low dimensional Fe/Tb multilayered structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on the atomic structure of a series of low-dimensional Fe/Tb multilayered structures which has been explored using a conversion-electron, extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) technique. A structural transition from a close-packed amorphous structure to a body-centered crystalline structure is detected to occur over an Fe layer thickness range of 12.5 Angstrom to 15.0 Angstrom (Tb thickness is held constant at 4.5 Angstrom). Magnetic properties, specifically, magnetization, anisotropy field, and Kerr rotation angle, are measured and found to change significantly in response to this transition. Exploitation of the polarization properties of synchrotron radiation allowed for the description of the atomic structure both perpendicular and parallel to the sample plane

  20. Structural Characteristics and Evolution of Jurassic Basins in the East of Middle Qilian Block

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑孟林; 李明杰; 曹春潮; 张勇军; 徐世陆

    2003-01-01

    Structural characteristics of the Jurassic basins of Xining, Minhe, and Xiji in the east of middle Qilian were researched based on the data obtained by gravitational, magnetic, and seismic methods. The result shows that each of these three basins is an independent structural unit with a NW strike and being separated by upheavals. Two groups of faults with NW and NE directions are developed in the basin, which controls the formation and evolution of the (Jurassic basins). The NW faults are the main ones while the NE faults are the secondary for controlling the sedimentation. Of the three basins, the Minhe basin is the favorable prospecting area.

  1. Temperature evolution of magnetic structure of HoFeO$_3$ by single crystal neutron diffraction

    OpenAIRE

    Chatterji, T.; Meven, M.; Brown, P.J.

    2016-01-01

    We have investigated the temperature evolution of the magnetic structures of HoFeO$_3$ by single crystal neutron diffraction. The three different magnetic structures found as a function of temperature for \\hfo\\ are described by the magnetic groups Pb$'$n$'2_1$, Pbn$2_1$ and Pbn$'2_1'$ and are stable in the temperature ranges $\\approx$ 600-55~K, 55-37~K and 35$>T>2$~K respectively. In all three the fundamental coupling between the Fe sub-lattices remains the same and only their orientation and...

  2. Regional evolution of geological structure in south China and U mineralization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper states the development laws of regional geological structure of South China and its controlling effect on uranium deposit evolution, and the characteristics of rich uranium formation in different periods of geology-history are analysed. It also discusses the relationship between the distribution of time and space and tectonic structure and environmental vicissitudes. The rock-magma activities-the strong formation of the Diwa Era is of great significance to the formation of uranium deposits within the region, especially to the formation of a series of multi-genesis polygene uranium deposits which are a potential direction in which to look for minerals within the region

  3. Regional evolution of geological structure in south China and U mineralization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper states the development laws of regional geological structure of South China and its controlling effect on uranium deposit evolution, and the characteristics of rich uranium formation in different periods of geo-history are analysed. It also discusses the relationship between the distribution of time and space and tectonic structure and environmental vicissitudes. The rock-magma activities-the strong formation of the Diwa Era is of great significance to the formation of uranium deposits within the region, especially to the formation of a series of multi-genesis polygene uranium deposits which are a potential direction in which to look for minerals within the region

  4. The relationship between uranium-polymetallic metallogenesis and structure-magmatic evolution in western Sichuan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tectonic movement in western Sichuan, frequent magmatic activity, with multistage, multistage on the characteristics of the Caledonian-Himalayan magmatism have to Indosinian most strongly, more widely distributed, rock type complex. From the structure evolution point of view, the Jurassic-Cretaceous granitic magmatism and collision-related melting of silver, tin, lead, zinc mining, mainly along the Chola Mountain-Genie structure with a distribution of igneous rocks, of which uranium is also Related to this magmatic belt, and from the known deposits, mineralization, outliers (belts) and radioactive hot springs point of view, Chola Mountain-Genie tectonic magmatic belt also has a certain look for uranium prospects. (authors)

  5. Evolution of the electronic and ionic structure of Mg clusters with increase in cluster size

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyalin, Andrey G.; Solov'yov, Ilia; Solov'yov, Andrey V.;

    2003-01-01

    The optimized structure and electronic properties of neutral and singly charged magnesium clusters have been investigated using ab initio theoretical methods based on density-functional theory and systematic post–Hartree-Fock many-body perturbation theory accounting for all electrons in the system....... We have investigated the appearance of the elements of the hcp structure and metallic evolution of the magnesium clusters, as well as the stability of linear chains and rings of magnesium atoms. The results obtained are compared with the available experimental data and the results of other...

  6. STRUCTURE EVOLUTION OF THE CYLINDRICAL PHASE OF DIBLOCK COPOLYMERS IN FILMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-ge Tan; Zi-yu Wang; Wen-fang Zhu; Qing-gong Song; Hui Li; Cui-qin Bai

    2008-01-01

    In the weak segregation limit,the structure evolution of the hexagonal cylindrical phase of diblock copolymers in films was investigated.Employing the Landau-Brazovskii mean field theory,we obtained three amplitude parameters as functions of temperature,surface field strength and film thickness.By controlling confinement size and surface field strength,lamellae and undulated lamellae appear in the cylindrical bulk phase of diblock copolymers."Phase diagrams" of confinement-induced structures are constructed at different surface field strengths.The obtained theoretical results are in agreement with relevant theoretical and experimental results.

  7. Bayesian analysis of cosmic structures

    CERN Document Server

    Kitaura, Francisco-Shu

    2011-01-01

    We revise the Bayesian inference steps required to analyse the cosmological large-scale structure. Here we make special emphasis in the complications which arise due to the non-Gaussian character of the galaxy and matter distribution. In particular we investigate the advantages and limitations of the Poisson-lognormal model and discuss how to extend this work. With the lognormal prior using the Hamiltonian sampling technique and on scales of about 4 h^{-1} Mpc we find that the over-dense regions are excellent reconstructed, however, under-dense regions (void statistics) are quantitatively poorly recovered. Contrary to the maximum a posteriori (MAP) solution which was shown to over-estimate the density in the under-dense regions we obtain lower densities than in N-body simulations. This is due to the fact that the MAP solution is conservative whereas the full posterior yields samples which are consistent with the prior statistics. The lognormal prior is not able to capture the full non-linear regime at scales ...

  8. Structure and evolution of the first CoRoT exoplanets: Probing the Brown Dwarf/Planet overlapping mass regime

    CERN Document Server

    Leconte, J; Chabrier, G; Barman, T; Levrard, B

    2009-01-01

    We present detailed structure and evolution calculations for the first transiting extrasolar planets discovered by the space-based CoRoT mission. Comparisons between theoretical and observed radii provide information on the internal composition of the CoRoT objects. We distinguish three different categories of planets emerging from these discoveries and from previous ground-based surveys: (i) planets explained by standard planetary models including irradiation, (ii) abnormally bloated planets and (iii) massive objects belonging to the overlapping mass regime between planets and brown dwarfs. For the second category, we show that tidal heating can explain the relevant CoRoT objects, providing non-zero eccentricities. We stress that the usual assumption of a quick circularization of the orbit by tides, as usually done in transit light curve analysis, is not justified a priori, as suggested recently by Levrard et al. (2009), and that eccentricity analysis should be carefully redone for some observations. Finally...

  9. The Empirical Analysis of Income and Food Consumption Structure of Urban Residents in China

    OpenAIRE

    Yanbing Cai; Xueni Liu

    2013-01-01

    Using the panel data of food income and expenditure, this study further analyzes how income influences on food consumption structure based on analysis of evolution characteristics of income and food consumption structure of urban residents in China during 2000-2010 year. In addition, the study compares the difference of food consumption structure of eastern, central and western areas in China. The results are showed as following: with the improvement of income level, the Engel’s coefficients ...

  10. Structural Analysis of a Tracked Vehicle Hull .

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mala

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available The hull of a tracked military vehicle is complex in geometry and loading pattern. Analytical studies were carried out using numerically integrated elements for system analysis (NISA, a general finite element programme developed by the Engineering Mechanics Research Corporation (EMRC, USA. Structural changes in the initial design were made to bring deflection within acceptable limits. Dynamic stress levels for the hull structure, were determined from strain gauge measurements. The resultant stresses were obtained adding the static and dynamic values. Finite element analysis was found to be very useful to check the rigidity of the structure at design stage and to suggest suitable design stage and to suggest suitable modifications.

  11. Structural Analysis in a Conceptual Design Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padula, Sharon L.; Robinson, Jay H.; Eldred, Lloyd B.

    2012-01-01

    Supersonic aircraft designers must shape the outer mold line of the aircraft to improve multiple objectives, such as mission performance, cruise efficiency, and sonic-boom signatures. Conceptual designers have demonstrated an ability to assess these objectives for a large number of candidate designs. Other critical objectives and constraints, such as weight, fuel volume, aeroelastic effects, and structural soundness, are more difficult to address during the conceptual design process. The present research adds both static structural analysis and sizing to an existing conceptual design framework. The ultimate goal is to include structural analysis in the multidisciplinary optimization of a supersonic aircraft. Progress towards that goal is discussed and demonstrated.

  12. 基于主成分分析法的山东半岛蓝色经济区多中心空间结构演变研究%Research on the evolution of polycentric spatial structure of Shandong Peninsula Blue Economic Zone based on principal component analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马学广; 窦鹏

    2015-01-01

    多中心城市区域是当代区域发展的主要模式,也是区域研究的重要方面。而多中心区域空间结构的研判也是制定适宜区域政策的前提,是推动多中心城市区域健康可持续发展的重要基础。利用山东半岛蓝色经济区各城市2013年、2008年、2003年的统计年鉴数据,以县(区)行政单元为基本空间单元,辅以城市行政空间单元,采用主成分分析法和聚类分析法,测算蓝色经济区最近10年的空间组织格局演变过程。研究发现,山东半岛蓝色经济区经历了从“核心-边缘”特征明显的单中心模式到“多中心”结构特征的空间结构演变过程,其空间发展的“去单核化”和“多中心性”特征较明显。%Polycentric urban region is the main model of the present regional development, and it is also an important aspect of the regional study. The judgment of regional spatial structure of multiple centers is the premise of making appropriate regional policy, and it is also an important basis for promoting the healthy and sustainable development of polycentric urban regions. By using the statistical yearbook data (the year of 2013, 2008 and 2003) of Shandong Peninsula Blue Economic Zone (SPBEZ) of each city, taking the county (district) administrative unit as the basic spatial unit and supplemented by urban administrative space unit, and adopting principal component analysis and cluster analysis to calculate the spatial structure evolution process of SPBEZ in recent 10 years. Research suggests that SPBEZ has experienced obvious spatial structure change from the core-periphery feature of single-center mode to significant development course of polycentric, which features from single core to multiple centers.

  13. Evolution of kinetically controlled In-induced surface structure on Si(5 5 7) surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Evolution of In induced superstructures on Si(5 5 7) surface during RT and HT adsorption/desorption process. • Kinetics is governed by substrate temperature which exhibits various growth modes (FM, SK, VB) under different conditions. • Strain relaxation play significant role in the commencement of desorption/rearrangement of atoms. • A consolidated phase diagram of In/Si(5 5 7) interface has been reported with new √3 × √3-R30° and 4 × 1 phases. - Abstract: This paper introduces issue of kinetically controlled and temperature driven superstructural phase transition of Indium (In) on atomically clean high index Si(5 5 7)-7 × 1 surface. Auger electron spectroscopy analysis reveals that at room-temperature (RT) with a controlled incident flux of 0.002 ML/s; In overlayers evolve through the Frank-van der Merwe growth mode and yield a (1 × 1) diffraction pattern for coverage ≥1 ML. For substrate temperature <500°C, growth of In follows Stranski–Krastanov growth mode while for temperature >500°C island growth is observed. On annealing the In/Si(5 5 7) interface in the temperature range 250–340°C, clusters to two dimensional (2D) layer transformation on top of a stable monolayer is predominated. In-situ RT and HT adsorption and thermal desorption phenomena revealed the formation of coverage and temperature dependent thermally stable In induced superstructural phases such as (4 × 1) at 0.5 ML (520°C), (√3 × √3-R30°) at 0.3 ML (560°C) and (7 × 7) at 0.1 ML (580°C). These indium induced superstructures could be utilized as potential substrate for the growth of various exotic 1D/2D structures

  14. Evolution of kinetically controlled In-induced surface structure on Si(5 5 7) surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chauhan, Amit Kumar Singh [Physics of Energy Harvesting, (CSIR-NPL), Dr. K.S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi 110012 (India); Department of Physics, JMI, New Delhi 110025 (India); Eldose, Nirosh M.; Mishra, Monu [Physics of Energy Harvesting, (CSIR-NPL), Dr. K.S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi 110012 (India); Niazi, Asad; Nair, Lekha [Department of Physics, JMI, New Delhi 110025 (India); Gupta, Govind, E-mail: govind@nplindia.org [Physics of Energy Harvesting, (CSIR-NPL), Dr. K.S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi 110012 (India)

    2014-09-30

    Highlights: • Evolution of In induced superstructures on Si(5 5 7) surface during RT and HT adsorption/desorption process. • Kinetics is governed by substrate temperature which exhibits various growth modes (FM, SK, VB) under different conditions. • Strain relaxation play significant role in the commencement of desorption/rearrangement of atoms. • A consolidated phase diagram of In/Si(5 5 7) interface has been reported with new √3 × √3-R30° and 4 × 1 phases. - Abstract: This paper introduces issue of kinetically controlled and temperature driven superstructural phase transition of Indium (In) on atomically clean high index Si(5 5 7)-7 × 1 surface. Auger electron spectroscopy analysis reveals that at room-temperature (RT) with a controlled incident flux of 0.002 ML/s; In overlayers evolve through the Frank-van der Merwe growth mode and yield a (1 × 1) diffraction pattern for coverage ≥1 ML. For substrate temperature <500°C, growth of In follows Stranski–Krastanov growth mode while for temperature >500°C island growth is observed. On annealing the In/Si(5 5 7) interface in the temperature range 250–340°C, clusters to two dimensional (2D) layer transformation on top of a stable monolayer is predominated. In-situ RT and HT adsorption and thermal desorption phenomena revealed the formation of coverage and temperature dependent thermally stable In induced superstructural phases such as (4 × 1) at 0.5 ML (520°C), (√3 × √3-R30°) at 0.3 ML (560°C) and (7 × 7) at 0.1 ML (580°C). These indium induced superstructures could be utilized as potential substrate for the growth of various exotic 1D/2D structures.

  15. Structural evolutions of an obsidian and its fused glass by shock-wave compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimoda, K.; Okuno, M.; Syono, Y.; Kikuchi, M.; Fukuoka, K.; Koyano, M.; Katayama, S.

    2004-10-01

    Shock-recovery experiments for obsidian and its fused glass have been carried out with pressure up to 35 GPa. Structural evolution accompanying the shock compression was investigated using X-ray diffraction technique, Raman and infrared spectroscopy. The densities of obsidian and its fused glass increased with applied shock pressure up to ˜25 GPa. Densification reached a maximum of 4.7 and 3.6% for obsidian and its fused glass, respectively. The densification mechanism is attributed to reduction of the T O T angle, and changes in ring statistics in the structure. Density reduction observed at greater than 25 GPa of applied shock pressure is due to partial annealing of the high-density glass structures brought by high post-shock residual temperature. The density of fused glass is almost equal to its original value at 35 GPa while the shocked obsidian has a slightly lower value than its original value. Amorphization of crystallites present in the obsidian due to shock compression is probably the cause of the density decrease. The structural evolution observed in shock-compressed obsidian and its fused glass can be explained by densification resulting from average T O T angle reduction and increase of small rings, and subsequent structural relaxation by high post-shock temperature at applied shock compression above ˜25 GPa.

  16. Structural Analysis Of Offshore Structures Exposed To Blast Loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans Jakup; Thygesen, Ulf; Kristensen, Anders;

    2002-01-01

    Numerical methods for simulations of blast loads and resulting structural response are investigated and compared to results obtained from tests. The CFD code EXSIM is used for the simulation of the blast load. This code provides a load profile wich is entered in the FEM analysis model....

  17. Mineral matter effects on char structural evolution and oxidation kinetics during coal char combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lunden, M.; Yang, N.; Headley, T.; Shaddix, C.; Hardesty, D.

    1997-10-01

    The authors report on recent investigations of the evolution of char structure during carbon burnout and the role of mineral matter in determining this structure. Char samples collected in a carefully controlled laminar, flame-supported entrained flow reactor have been characterized using a number of microscopy tools. Observations of the inorganic structure of chars produced at a variety of combustion conditions are coupled with in-situ optical measurements of the char particle population with an eye towards identifying the mechanism of mineral interaction and its effects on carbon burnout kinetics during pulverized coal char combustion. Preliminary results show a surprising amount of inorganic mineral in solid solution with the carbonaceous matrix. This intimate mixing of organic and inorganic constituents may affect reactivity by both blocking oxygen access to active carbon sites and influencing the microscopic carbon structure that evolves during combustion.

  18. On modeling micro-structural evolution using a higher order strain gradient continuum theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El-Naaman, S. A.; Nielsen, K. L.; Niordson, C. F.

    2016-01-01

    Published experimental measurements on deformed metal crystals show distinct pattern formation, in which dislocations are arranged in wall and cell structures. The distribution of dislocations is highly non-uniform, which produces discontinuities in the lattice rotations. Modeling the experimenta......Published experimental measurements on deformed metal crystals show distinct pattern formation, in which dislocations are arranged in wall and cell structures. The distribution of dislocations is highly non-uniform, which produces discontinuities in the lattice rotations. Modeling the...... experimentally observed micro-structural behavior, within a framework based on continuous field quantities, poses obvious challenges, since the evolution of dislocation structures is inherently a discrete and discontinuous process. This challenge, in particular, motivates the present study, and the aim is to...

  19. Kinematic Analysis of a Hybrid Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duan Q.J.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a kinematic analysis and simulation of a hybrid structure applied to the new design cable‐suspended feed structure (CSFS for the next generation of large spherical radio telescopes. First, considering the requirement that feeds should be tilted from 40° to 60° and that the tracking precision in steady state is 4mm, a novel design of the feed supporting structure including a cable‐cabin structure, an AB axis structure and a Stewart platform is performed. Next, kinematic analysis and the simulation of the CSFS are done. Simulations have been developed in combination with the 50m CSFS model, which demonstrate the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed three‐level cable‐suspended feed system.

  20. Probabilistic structural analysis computer code (NESSUS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiao, Michael C.

    1988-01-01

    Probabilistic structural analysis has been developed to analyze the effects of fluctuating loads, variable material properties, and uncertain analytical models especially for high performance structures such as SSME turbopump blades. The computer code NESSUS (Numerical Evaluation of Stochastic Structure Under Stress) was developed to serve as a primary computation tool for the characterization of the probabilistic structural response due to the stochastic environments by statistical description. The code consists of three major modules NESSUS/PRE, NESSUS/FEM, and NESSUS/FPI. NESSUS/PRE is a preprocessor which decomposes the spatially correlated random variables into a set of uncorrelated random variables using a modal analysis method. NESSUS/FEM is a finite element module which provides structural sensitivities to all the random variables considered. NESSUS/FPI is Fast Probability Integration method by which a cumulative distribution function or a probability density function is calculated.

  1. First Steps in Eukaryogenesis: Physical Phenomena in the Origin and Evolution of Chromosome Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chela-Flores, Julian

    1998-04-01

    Our present understanding of the origin and evolution of chromosomes differs considerably from current understanding of the origin and evolution of the cell itself. Chromosome origins have been less prominent in research, as the emphasis has not shifted so far appreciably from the phenomenon of primeval nucleic acid encapsulation to that of the origin of gene organization, expression, and regulation. In this work we discuss some reasons why preliminary steps in this direction are being taken. We have been led to examine properties that have contributed to raise the ancestral prokaryotic programmes to a level where we can appreciate in eukaryotes a clear departure from earlier themes in the evolution of the cell from the last common ancestor. We shift our point of view from evolution of cell morphology to the point of view of the genes. In particular, we focus attention on possible physical bases for the way transmission of information has evolved in eukaryotes, namely, the inactivation of whole chromosomes. The special case of the inactivation of the X chromosome in mammals is discussed, paying particular attention to the physical process of the spread of X inactivation in monotremes (platypus and echidna). When experimental data is unavailable some theoretical analysis is possible based on the idea that in certain cases collective phenomena in genetics, rather than chemical detail, are better correlates of complex chemical processes.

  2. First steps in eukaryogenesis: Physical phenomena in the origin and evolution of chromosome structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our present understanding of the origin and evolution of chromosomes differs considerably from current understanding of the origin and evolution of the cell itself. Chromosome origins have been less prominent in research, as the emphasis has not shifted so far appreciably from the phenomenon of primeval nucleic acid encapsulation to that of the origin of gene organization, expression, and regulation. In this work we discuss some reasons why preliminary steps in this direction are being taken. We have been led to examine properties that have contributed to raise the ancestral prokaryotic programmes to a level where we can appreciate in eukaryotes a clear departure from earlier themes in the evolution of the cell from the last common ancestor. We shift our point of view from evolution of cell morphology to the point of view of the genes. In particular, we focus attention on possible physical bases for the way transmission of information has evolved in eukaryotes, namely, the inactivation of whole chromosomes. The special case of inactivation of the X chromosome in mammals is discussed, paying particular attention to the physical process of the spread of X inactivation in monotremes (platypus and echidna.) When experimental data is unavailable some theoretical analysis is possible based on the idea that in certain cases collective phenomena in genetics, rather than chemical detail, are better correlates of complex chemical processes. (author). Abstract only

  3. First steps in eukaryogenesis: Physical phenomena in the origin and evolution of chromosome structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our present understanding of the origin and evolution of chromosomes differs considerably from current understanding of the origin and evolution of the cell itself. Chromosome origins have been less prominent in research, as the emphasis has not shifted so far appreciably from the phenomenon of primeval nucleic acid encapsulation to that of the origin of gene organization, expression, and regulation. In this work we discuss some reasons why preliminary steps in this direction are being taken. We have been led to examine properties that have contributed to raise the ancestral prokaryotic programmes to a level where we can appreciate in eukaryotes a clear departure from earlier themes in the evolution of cell from the last common ancestor. We shift our point of view from evolution of cell morphology to the point of view of the genes. In particular we focus attention on possible physical bases for the way transmission of information has evolved in eukaryotes, namely, the inactivation of whole chromosomes. The special case of the inactivation of the X chromosome in mammals is discussed, paying particular attention to the physical process of the spread of X inactivation in monotremes (platypus and echidna). When experimental data is unavailable some theoretical analysis is possible based on the idea that in certain cases collective phenomena in genetics, rather than chemical detail, are better correlates of complex chemical processes. (author). 65 refs

  4. FEM structural analysis of ITER gravity supports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because of the complexity of the load cases, the gravity support of ITER endures several large forces during operation besides the dead weight of the magnet system, such as electromagnetic force on the magnets, thermal load and seismic loads (SL). In order to verify the reliability of the design, and make the gravity support operate safely under the various load cases, it is very important to analyze the applied force on the gravity support in different load cases. In this paper, finite-element-method (FEM) is used for the structural analysis. 3-D FEM models of the overall gravity support system, with 20 degree sector and 360 degree respectively, are created by ANSYS according to different load cases. The 20 degree model in the torus is used for the structural analysis of the gravity support system under the several symmetric load combinations, and the 360 degree model is used for the structural analysis under the load combinations with the asymmetric SL. The analysis results are given, such as the static structural analysis and the buckling analysis for the different load combinations, and the modal analysis for the natural frequencies. The calculation results reveal that all of the gravity support components have enough safety margins against various load combinations. (authors)

  5. Cluster Structure in Cosmological Simulations. I. Correlation to Observables, Mass Estimates, and Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeltema, Tesla E.; Hallman, Eric J.; Burns, Jack O.; Motl, Patrick M.

    2008-07-01

    We use Enzo, a hybrid Eulerian adaptive mesh refinement/N-body code including nongravitational heating and cooling, to explore the morphology of the X-ray gas in clusters of galaxies and its evolution in current-generation cosmological simulations. We employ and compare two observationally motivated structure measures: power ratios and centroid shift. Overall, the structure of our simulated clusters compares remarkably well to low-redshift observations, although some differences remain that may point to incomplete gas physics. We find no dependence on cluster structure in the mass-observable scaling relations, TX-M and YX-M, when using the true cluster masses. However, estimates of the total mass based on the assumption of hydrostatic equilibrium, as assumed in observational studies, are systematically low. We show that the hydrostatic mass bias strongly correlates with cluster structure and, more weakly, with cluster mass. When the hydrostatic masses are used, the mass-observable scaling relations and gas mass fractions depend significantly on cluster morphology, and the true relations are not recovered even if the most relaxed clusters are used. We show that cluster structure, via the power ratios, can be used to effectively correct the hydrostatic mass estimates and mass scaling relations, suggesting that we can calibrate for this systematic effect in cosmological studies. Similar to observational studies, we find that cluster structure, particularly centroid shift, evolves with redshift. This evolution is mild but will lead to additional errors at high redshift. Projection along the line of sight leads to significant uncertainty in the structure of individual clusters: less than 50% of clusters which appear relaxed in projection based on our structure measures are truly relaxed.

  6. Identification of Semaphorin 5A Interacting Protein by Applying Apriori Knowledge and Peptide Complementarity Related to Protein Evolution and Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anguraj Sadanandam; Michelle L. Varney; Rakesh K. Singh

    2008-01-01

    In the post-genomic era, various computational methods that predict proteinprotein interactions at the genome level are available; however, each method has its own advantages and disadvantages, resulting in false predictions. Here we developed a unique integrated approach to identify interacting partner(s) of Semaphorin 5A (SEMA5A), beginning with seven proteins sharing similar ligand interacting residues as putative binding partners. The methods include Dwyer and Root-Bernstein/Dillon theories of protein evolution, hydropathic complementarity of protein structure, pattern of protein functions among molecules, information on domain-domain interactions, co-expression of genes and protein evolution. Among the set of seven proteins selected as putative SEMA5A interacting partners, we found the functions of Plexin B3 and Neuropilin-2 to be associated with SEMA5A.We modeled the semaphorin domain structure of Plexin B3 and found that it shares similarity with SEMA5A. Moreover, a virtual expression database search and RT-PCR analysis showed co-expression of SEMA5A and Plexin B3 and these proteins were found to have co-evolved. In addition, we confirmed the interaction of SEMA5A with Plexin B3 in co-immunoprecipitation studies. Overall, these studies demonstrate that an integrated method of prediction can be used at the genome level for discovering many unknown protein binding partners with known ligand binding domains.

  7. Identification of semaphorin 5A interacting protein by applying apriori knowledge and peptide complementarity related to protein evolution and structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadanandam, Anguraj; Varney, Michelle L; Singh, Rakesh K

    2008-12-01

    In the post-genomic era, various computational methods that predict protein-protein interactions at the genome level are available; however, each method has its own advantages and disadvantages, resulting in false predictions. Here we developed a unique integrated approach to identify interacting partner(s) of Semaphorin 5A (SEMA5A), beginning with seven proteins sharing similar ligand interacting residues as putative binding partners. The methods include Dwyer and Root-Bernstein/Dillon theories of protein evolution, hydropathic complementarity of protein structure, pattern of protein functions among molecules, information on domain-domain interactions, co-expression of genes and protein evolution. Among the set of seven proteins selected as putative SEMA5A interacting partners, we found the functions of Plexin B3 and Neuropilin-2 to be associated with SEMA5A. We modeled the semaphorin domain structure of Plexin B3 and found that it shares similarity with SEMA5A. Moreover, a virtual expression database search and RT-PCR analysis showed co-expression of SEMA5A and Plexin B3 and these proteins were found to have co-evolved. In addition, we confirmed the interaction of SEMA5A with Plexin B3 in co-immunoprecipitation studies. Overall, these studies demonstrate that an integrated method of prediction can be used at the genome level for discovering many unknown protein binding partners with known ligand binding domains. PMID:19329067

  8. Driving electrocatalytic activity by interface electronic structure control in a metalloprotein hybrid catalyst for efficient hydrogen evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behera, Sushant Kumar; Deb, Pritam; Ghosh, Arghya

    2016-08-17

    The rational design of metalloprotein hybrid structures and precise calculations for understanding the role of the interfacial electronic structure in regulating the HER activity of water splitting sites and their microscopic effect for obtaining robust hydrogen evolution possess great promise for developing highly efficient nano-bio hybrid HER catalysts. Here, we employ high-accuracy linear-scaling density functional theory calculations using a near-complete basis set and a minimal parameter implicit solvent model within the self-consistent calculations, on silver (Ag) ions assimilated on bacteriorhodopsin (bR) at specific binding sites. Geometry optimization indicates the formation of active sites at the interface of the metalloprotein complex and the density of states reflects the metallic nature of the active sites. The reduced value of the canonical orbital gap indicates the state of dynamic nature after Ag ion assimilation on active sites and smooth electron transfer. These incorporated active protein sites are more efficient in electrolytic splitting of water than pristine sites due to their low value of Gibbs free energy for the HER in terms of hydrogen coverages. Volcano plot analysis and the free energy diagram are compared for understanding the hydrogen evolution efficiency. Moreover, the essential role of the interfacial electronic properties in regulating the HER catalytic activity of water splitting sites and enhancing the efficiency is elucidated. PMID:27499158

  9. Geostatistical investigation into the temporal evolution of spatial structure in a shallow water table

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. W. Lyon

    2006-01-01

    during many rain events. During the summer, when evaporation exceeds precipitation, the ranges of the indicator semivariograms decreased during rainfall events due to isolated responses in the water table. For the longer, monthly time interval, semivariograms exhibited higher sills and shorter ranges during spring and lower sills and longer ranges during the summer. For this long time interval, there was a good correlation between probability of exceeding the time-variable median water table and the soil topographical wetness index during the spring. Indicator kriging incorporating both the short and long time interval structure of the shallow water table (hard and soft data, respectively provided more realistic maps that agreed better with actual observations than the hard data alone. This technique to represent both event-based and seasonal trends incorporates the hillslope-scale hydrological processes to capture significant patterns in the shallow water table. Geostatistical analysis of the spatial and temporal evolution of the shallow water table gives information about the formation of saturated areas important in the understanding hydrological processes working at this and other hillslopes.

  10. Evolution of the solar nebula. I. Nonaxisymmetric structure during nebula formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numerical solutions of the equations of hydrodynamics, gravitation, and radiative transfer in three spatial dimensions are used to model the formation and time evolution of the early solar nebula in order to learn whether or not gravitational torques between nonaxisymmetric structures in the solar nebula can transport angular momentum rapidly enough to produce nebula clearing on astronomically indicated (10 to the 5 to 10 to the 7 yr) time scales. The models involve solutions for the collapse of spherical clouds with assumed initial density and rotation profiles onto protosuns of variable mass. Most of the models assume uniform initial density and rotation, and have variations in the initial parameters of cloud mass, cloud rotation rate, and protosun mass which are chosen to simulate a range of possible phases of early solar nebula evolution. The models show little tendency for directly forming small numbers of giant gaseous protoplanets through gaseous gravitational instability. 69 refs

  11. Structural and functional evolution of 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myllykoski, Matti; Seidel, Leonie; Muruganandam, Gopinath; Raasakka, Arne; Torda, Andrew E; Kursula, Petri

    2016-06-15

    2',3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase (CNPase) is an abundant membrane-associated enzyme within the vertebrate myelin sheath. While the physiological function of CNPase still remains to be characterized in detail, it is known - in addition to its in vitro enzymatic activity - to interact with other proteins, small molecules, and membrane surfaces. From an evolutionary point of view, it can be deduced that CNPase is not restricted to myelin-forming cells or vertebrate tissues. Its evolution has involved gene fusion, addition of other small segments with distinct functions, such as membrane attachment, and possibly loss of function at the polynucleotide kinase-like domain. Currently, it is unclear whether the enzymatic function of the conserved phosphodiesterase domain in vertebrate myelin has a physiological role, or if CNPase could actually function - like many other classical myelin proteins - in a more structural role. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Myelin Evolution. PMID:26367445

  12. Scale covariant gravitation. V - Kinetic theory. VI - Stellar structure and evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, S.-H.; Canuto, V. M.

    1981-01-01

    A scale covariant kinetic theory for particles and photons is developed. The mathematical framework of the theory is given by the tangent bundle of a Weyl manifold. The Liouville equation is derived, and solutions to corresponding equilibrium distributions are presented and shown to yield thermodynamic results identical to the ones obtained previously. The scale covariant theory is then used to derive results of interest to stellar structure and evolution. A radiative transfer equation is derived that can be used to study stellar evolution with a variable gravitational constant. In addition, it is shown that the sun's absolute luminosity scales as L approximately equal to GM/kappa, where kappa is the stellar opacity. Finally, a formula is derived for the age of globular clusters as a function of the gravitational constant using a previously derived expression for the absolute luminosity.

  13. On the origin of the eukaryotic chromosome: the role of noncanonical DNA structures in telomere evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garavís, Miguel; González, Carlos; Villasante, Alfredo

    2013-01-01

    The transition of an ancestral circular genome to multiple linear chromosomes was crucial for eukaryogenesis because it allowed rapid adaptive evolution through aneuploidy. Here, we propose that the ends of nascent linear chromosomes should have had a dual function in chromosome end protection (capping) and chromosome segregation to give rise to the "proto-telomeres." Later on, proper centromeres evolved at subtelomeric regions. We also propose that both noncanonical structures based on guanine-guanine interactions and the end-protection proteins recruited by the emergent telomeric heterochromatin have been required for telomere maintenance through evolution. We further suggest that the origin of Drosophila telomeres may be reminiscent of how the first telomeres arose. PMID:23699225

  14. Structure and Evolution of Magnetic Fields Associated with Solar Eruptions (Invited Review)

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Haimin

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews the studies of solar photospheric magnetic field evolution in active regions and its relationship to solar flares. It is divided into two topics, the magnetic structure and evolution leading to solar eruptions and the rapid changes of photospheric magnetic field associated with eruptions. For the first topic, we describe the magnetic complexity, new flux emergence, flux cancellation, shear motions, sunspot rotation, and magnetic helicity injection, which may all contribute to the storage and buildup of energy and triggering of solar eruptions. For the second topic, we concentrate on the observations of rapid and irreversible changes of photospheric magnetic field associated with flares, and the implication on the restructuring of three-dimensional magnetic field. In particular, we emphasize the recent advances in observations of photospheric magnetic field, as state-of-the-art observing facilities (such as Hinode and Solar Dynamic Observatory) become available. The linkage between observati...

  15. Evolution and mechanism of the periodical structures formed on Ti plate under femtosecond laser irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dong; Chen, Chuansong; Man, Baoyuan; Meng, Xue; Sun, Yanna; Li, Feifei

    2016-08-01

    This work investigates the femtosencond laser (fs-laser) induced periodical surface structures (FLIPSS) on titanium plate including the concentric rings, microgrooves and subwavelength ripples. The evolution of the three types of the structures at different laser fluence and shot number is investigated experimentally in detail. The competition mechanisms exist among the different FLIPSS. A processing window for each resulting FLIPSS is obtained. In order to give an overall understanding of the FLIPSS, the formation mechanisms of each type of FLIPSS are discussed. The formation of the ripples is well explained by the propagating of the surface plasma wave (SPW) on the air/Ti interface. The evolutions of the ripple distribution are well understood according to this model as well. It is concluded that the interaction of the scattered wave of the laser light with the surface wave is concluded to give rise to the microgroove structure. According to our observation, the shape of the concentric rings does not change with the variation of the laser fluence and pulse number. The structure could be originated from the optical interference between the transmitted and reflected laser beams by the two surfaces of the biconvex lens. This investigation could not only make a further understanding of the formations of FLIPSS but also provide the possibility to control the surface morphologies in laser processing.

  16. Elastic behavior and pressure-induced structure evolution of topaz up to 45 GPa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatta, G. D.; Morgenroth, W.; Dera, P.; Petitgirard, S.; Liermann, H.-P.

    2014-09-01

    The behavior of a natural topaz, Al2.00Si1.05O4.00(OH0.26F1.75), has been investigated by means of in situ single-crystal synchrotron X-ray diffraction up to 45 GPa. No phase transition or change in the compressional regime has been observed within the pressure-range investigated. The compressional behavior was described with a third-order Birch-Murnaghan equation of state (III-BM-EoS). The III-BM-EoS parameters, simultaneously refined using the data weighted by the uncertainties in P and V, are as follows: K V = 158(4) GPa and K V ' = 3.3(3). The confidence ellipse at 68.3 % (Δχ2 = 2.30, 1σ) was calculated starting from the variance-covariance matrix of K V and K' obtained from the III-BM-EoS least-square procedure. The ellipse is elongated with a negative slope, indicating a negative correlation of the parameters K V and K V ', with K V = 158 ± 6 GPa and K V ' = 3.3 ± 4. A linearized III-BM-EoS was used to obtain the axial-EoS parameters (at room- P), yielding: K( a) = 146(5) GPa [ β a = 1/(3 K( a)) = 0.00228(6) GPa-1] and K'( a) = 4.6(3) for the a-axis; K( b) = 220(4) GPa [ β b = 0.00152(4) GPa-1] and K'( b) = 2.6(3) for the b-axis; K( c) = 132(4) GPa [ β c = 0.00252(7) GPa-1] and K'( c) = 3.3(3) for the c-axis. The elastic anisotropy of topaz at room- P can be expressed as: K( a): K( b): K( c) = 1.10:1.67:1.00 ( β a: β b: β c = 1.50:1.00:1.66). A series of structure refinements have been performed based on the intensity data collected at high pressure, showing that the P-induced structure evolution at the atomic scale is mainly represented by polyhedral compression along with inter-polyhedral tilting. A comparative analysis of the elastic behavior and P/ T-stability of topaz polymorphs and "phase egg" (i.e., AlSiO3OH) is carried out.

  17. Evolution of phase segregation and eutectic structures in AgPb18SbTe20

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The evolution of phase segregation in stoichiometric quenched AgPbmSbTe2+m (m = 18, Lead-Antimony-Silver-Tellurium - LAST-18) compounds was studied starting from the known pseudo-binary diagrams among Ag2Te, PbTe, Sb2Te3 and AgSbTe2. The compositions of secondary phases indicate that liquid phase during cooling, even under quenching conditions, follows mainly the liquidus line on the 2PbTe-Ag0.45Sb0.55Te1.05 quasi-binary section of the phase diagram until it reaches a critical point (18 mol.% of 2PbTe) and then turns to Ag2Te- and Sb2Te3-rich sides of quasi-ternary system. This has led to the formation of various secondary phases at various stages during the solidification, whose microstructural features and morphology strongly depend upon their chemical composition. Moreover, during solidification the local compositional fluctuations of liquid phase in combination with the shift of liquid composition towards Sb-rich side of the phase diagram resulted in the development of eutectic microstructures in some regions of LAST-18 matrix phase. This suggests there exists a miscibility gap and eutectic point below 600 C on the 2PbTe-Ag0.45Sb0.55Te1.05 boundary line. These eutectic lamellar structures with a cumulative composition close to LAST-3 are on the 200-500 nm length scales and possess thermal conductivity of 0.55-0.65 W/m K at room temperature. The low thermal conductivity of lamellar eutectic structures was later confirmed on bulk samples using laser flash analysis, where the samples were synthesized by quenching and annealing. The results clearly demonstrate that one can engineer the microstructures in LAST compounds by selecting the appropriate initial composition from quasi PbTe-Ag2Te-Sb2Te3 ternary phase diagram to lower the thermal conductivity further. (copyright 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  18. Structural and metamorphic evolution of western part of the Tauern Window, Eastern Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukovská, Z.; Jerabek, P.

    2014-12-01

    The Tauern Window in the Eastern Alps represent a tectonic window, where Penninic continental units and overlying Piemontais oceanic units crop out from below the Austroalpine crystalline nappes. The window is formed by Subpenninic nappe system composed of Variscan basement (Zentralgneiss) with Mesozoic cover sequences overlain by Penninic nappes. The studied nappes were previously recognized as Lower and Upper Schieferhülle and their P-T conditions of up to blueschist facies were determined by Selverstone (1988, 1993).Our detailed structural and petrological study focused mainly on tectono-metamorphic evolution of different nappes. The Zentralgneiss cover sequences consist mainly of schists, amphibolites and quartzites with originally subhorizontal - gently westward dipping fabric. Dominant fabric was later deformed during deformation stages D2 and D3 that are preserved in the form of folds and cleavages. The later one mainly in the W part of studied area. The Penninic nappes are composed of deformed greenschists, micaschists and marbles, which are together folded by large-scale open folds during D2. The metamorphic PT conditions were reconstructed by using the phase equilibrium modelling and chemical composition/zoning of garnets, which are mostly synkinematic to the formation of the main deformation fabric. The compositional zoning in garnets revealed an overall prograde PT evolution with PT increase up to 3.5 kbar and 100°C associated with the main deformation event. The structural and petrological record show the relation of nappe evolution and unroofing of the complex such as described in Jeřábek et al. (2012) from West Carpathians. The E-W stretching and prograde metamorphic evolution is associated with burial, while exhumation is associated with formation of subhorizontal cleavage and dip-slip kinematics towards W contrary to previously published studies.

  19. SPATIAL STRUCTURE EVOLUTION OF SYSTEM OF RECREATION BUSINESS DISTRICT--A Case of Suzhou City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Li-mei; TAO Wei

    2003-01-01

    The growing attention on urban tourism was very widespread. There are two angles to study urban tourism: supply-side and demand-side. And the supply-side of the tourism remains very important. The RBD (Recreation Business District) is a useful framework to understand the components of urban tourism and how they fit together. The paper begins with a review on the RBD and the spatial structure of tourism in urban areas and then attempts to develop a more general understanding of the spatial structure evolution of RBDs in a tourist-historic citySuzhou. The spatial structures and functions of the RBDs in Suzhou are examined, based on field observations, interviews with city officials and industry leaders, and a review of available documents. The urban tourism of Suzhou has developed in a range of contexts, that various types of RBDs have emerged as a result of different urban development strategies. The spatial structure has evolved from the past "Single-cored Structure" to "Double-cored Structure"at present, and then to "Chain Structure" in the future. The spatial form and evolution of RBD in Suzhou are closely relative with its urban spatial expansion. Urban area dispersal is the prerequisite of the emergence of the RBD. Planning and constructing the RBD becomes a new impetus to urban growth or renewal. Finally, a number of strategies for planning and developing the RBD in Suzhou are suggested. The different RBDs should adopt different strategies.Intensification can be the possible strategy for the RBDs in the ancient city. Accreting with the urban theme park or engrafting on the Jinji Lake is suggested respectively for the RBD in the Suzhou New District and the Suzhou Industrial Park.

  20. Magnetic Structure of Continental Crust:Implications for Crustal Structure and Evolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Magnetic structure of the continental crust is one of the important geophysical aspects of continental lithosphere. This paper reviews the achievements in the research into the magnetic structure and its significance for crustal tectonics, composition, metamorphic facies, crust-mantle interaction and magnetization of deep crust. Further studies are suggested according to the basic principles of rock and mineral magnetism in terms of petrology, geochemistry and structural geol ogy. Emphasis is placed on new geological ideas and synthetic studies of the relationship between deep geological processes and interpretation of gravity, magnetic, electrical and seismic data. The relationships between magnetic, density, electricity, velocity, geothermal structures and deep geodynamic processes are taken as a system for the research into the deep geology.