WorldWideScience

Sample records for analysis scepa state

  1. State Clean Energy Policies Analysis (SCEPA): State Policy and the Pursuit of Renewable Energy Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lantz, E.; Oteri, F.; Tegen, S.; Doris, E.

    2010-02-01

    Future manufacturing of renewable energy equipment in the United States provides economic development opportunities for state and local communities. However, demand for the equipment is finite, and opportunities are limited. U.S. demand is estimated to drive total annual investments in renewable energy equipment to $14-$20 billion by 2030. Evidence from leading states in renewable energy manufacturing suggests that economic development strategies that target renewable energy sector needs by adapting existing policies attract renewable energy manufacturing more than strategies that create new policies. Literature suggests that the states that are most able to attract direct investment and promote sustained economic development can leverage diverse sets of durable assets--like human capital and modern infrastructure--as well as low barriers to market entry. State marketing strategies for acquiring renewable energy manufacturers are likely best served by an approach that: (1) is multi-faceted and long-term, (2) fits within existing broad-based economic development strategies, (3) includes specific components such as support for renewable energy markets and low barriers to renewable energy deployment, and (4) involves increased differentiation by leveraging existing assets when applicable.

  2. State Clean Energy Policies Analysis (SCEPA). State Policy and the Pursuit of Renewable Energy Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lantz, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Oteri, Frank [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tegen, Suzanne [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Doris, Elizabeth [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2010-02-01

    Future manufacturing of renewable energy equipment in the United States provides economic development opportunities for state and local communities. However, demand for the equipment is finite, and opportunities are limited. U.S. demand is estimated to drive total annual investments in renewable energy equipment to $14-$20 billion by 2030. Evidence from leading states in renewable energy manufacturing suggests that economic development strategies that target renewable energy sector needs by adapting existing policies attract renewable energy manufacturing more than strategies that create new policies. Literature suggests that the states that are most able to attract direct investment and promote sustained economic development can leverage diverse sets of durable assets—like human capital and modern infrastructure–as well as low barriers to market entry. State marketing strategies for acquiring renewable energy manufacturers are likely best served by an approach that: (1) is multi-faceted and long-term, (2) fits within existing broad-based economic development strategies, (3) includes specific components such as support for renewable energy markets and low barriers to renewable energy deployment, and (4) involves increased differentiation by leveraging existing assets when applicable.

  3. State Clean Energy Policies Analysis (SCEPA) Project: An Analysis of Renewable Energy Feed-in Tariffs in the United States (Revised)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Couture, T.; Cory, K.

    2009-06-01

    This report analyzes renewable energy feed-in tariff (FIT) policies and explores the different FIT policies currently implemented in the United States. It also discusses of a few proposed policies, the best practices in FIT policy design, and examines how FITs can be used to target state policy goals. The report covers current and potential future interactions between FITs and other state and federal energy policies while also providing an overview of the impacts FIT policies have in terms of renewable energy deployment, job creation, and economic development.

  4. State Clean Energy Practices: Renewable Energy Rebates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lantz, E.; Doris, E.

    2009-03-01

    This report functions as a primer for renewable energy rebate programs. It highlights the impacts of specific renewable energy rebate programs on renewable energy markets around the country, as well as rebate program impacts on overarching energy policy drivers. It also discusses lessons learned, challenges, ideal applications, keys to success, and complementary and alternative policies. Results indicate that rebate programs can have a strong deployment impact on emerging renewable energy markets. This report focuses on renewable energy rebate programs, which are being analyzed as part of the State Clean Energy Policies Analysis (SCEPA) project. SCEPA is being used to quantify the impacts of existing state policies, and to identify crucial policy attributes and their potential applicability to other states.

  5. State Clean Energy Practices. Renewable Energy Rebates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lantz, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Doris, Elizabeth [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2009-03-01

    This report functions as a primer for renewable energy rebate programs. It highlights the impacts of specific renewable energy rebate programs on renewable energy markets around the country, as well as rebate program impacts on overarching energy policy drivers. It also discusses lessons learned, challenges, ideal applications, keys to success, and complementary and alternative policies. Results indicate that rebate programs can have a strong deployment impact on emerging renewable energy markets. This report focuses on renewable energy rebate programs, which are being analyzed as part of the State Clean Energy Policies Analysis (SCEPA) project. SCEPA is being used to quantify the impacts of existing state policies, and to identify crucial policy attributes and their potential applicability to other states.

  6. State Clean Energy Practices: Renewable Fuel Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosey, G.; Kreycik, C.

    2008-07-01

    The State Clean Energy Policies Analysis (SCEPA) project is supported by the Weatherization and Intergovernmental Program within the Department of Energy's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. This project seeks to quantify the impacts of existing state policies, and to identify crucial policy attributes and their potential applicability to other states. The goal is to assist states in determining which clean energy policies or policy portfolios will best accomplish their environmental, economic, and security goals. For example, renewable fuel standards (RFS) policies are a mechanism for developing a market for renewable fuels in the transportation sector. This flexible market-based policy, when properly executed, can correct for market failures and promote growth of the renewable fuels industry better than a more command-oriented approach. The policy attempts to correct market failures such as embedded fossil fuel infrastructure and culture, risk associated with developing renewable fuels, consumer information gaps, and lack of quantification of the non-economic costs and benefits of both renewable and fossil-based fuels. This report focuses on renewable fuel standards policies, which are being analyzed as part of this project.

  7. State-Space Formulation for Circuit Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Marin, T.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a new state-space approach for temporal analysis of electrical circuits. The method systematically obtains the state-space formulation of nondegenerate linear networks without using concepts of topology. It employs nodal/mesh systematic analysis to reduce the number of undesired variables. This approach helps students to…

  8. A UML Profile for State Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Alex; Rasmussen, Robert

    2010-01-01

    State Analysis is a systems engineering methodology for the specification and design of control systems, developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The methodology emphasizes an analysis of the system under control in terms of States and their properties and behaviors and their effects on each other, a clear separation of the control system from the controlled system, cognizance in the control system of the controlled system's State, goal-based control built on constraining the controlled system's States, and disciplined techniques for State discovery and characterization. State Analysis (SA) introduces two key diagram types: State Effects and Goal Network diagrams. The team at JPL developed a tool for performing State Analysis. The tool includes a drawing capability, backed by a database that supports the diagram types and the organization of the elements of the SA models. But the tool does not support the usual activities of software engineering and design - a disadvantage, since systems to which State Analysis can be applied tend to be very software-intensive. This motivated the work described in this paper: the development of a preliminary Unified Modeling Language (UML) profile for State Analysis. Having this profile would enable systems engineers to specify a system using the methods and graphical language of State Analysis, which is easily linked with a larger system model in SysML (Systems Modeling Language), while also giving software engineers engaged in implementing the specified control system immediate access to and use of the SA model, in the same language, UML, used for other software design. That is, a State Analysis profile would serve as a shared modeling bridge between system and software models for the behavior aspects of the system. This paper begins with an overview of State Analysis and its underpinnings, followed by an overview of the mapping of SA constructs to the UML metamodel. It then delves into the details of these mappings and the

  9. Analysis of Joint Ventures Financial State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alla V. Dmitrenko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the basic techniques for the analysis of businesses financial state and methods that were adapted for the joint ventures activities, analyses joint venture financial state, makes conclusions and submits reasonable proposals for improvement of its future activities

  10. State-Recovery Analysis of Spritz

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ankele, Ralph; Kölbl, Stefan; Rechberger, Christian

    2015-01-01

    RC4 suffered from a range of plaintext-recovery attacks using statistical biases, which use substantial, albeit close-to-practical, amounts of known keystream in applications such as TLS or WEP/WPA. Spritz was recently proposed at the rump session of CRYPTO 2014 as a slower redesign of RC4...... the number of guessed values in our state recovery algorithm. Our third algorithm uses a probabilistic approach by considering the permutation table as probability distribution. All in all, rather than showing a weakness, our analysis supports the conjecture that compared to RC4, Spritz may also provide...

  11. Fractional State Space Analysis of Economic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Tenreiro Machado

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines modern economic growth according to the multidimensional scaling (MDS method and state space portrait (SSP analysis. Electing GDP per capita as the main indicator for economic growth and prosperity, the long-run perspective from 1870 to 2010 identifies the main similarities among 34 world partners’ modern economic growth and exemplifies the historical waving mechanics of the largest world economy, the USA. MDS reveals two main clusters among the European countries and their old offshore territories, and SSP identifies the Great Depression as a mild challenge to the American global performance, when compared to the Second World War and the 2008 crisis.

  12. Extending coherent state transforms to Clifford analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirwin, William D.; Mourão, José; Nunes, João P.; Qian, Tao

    2016-10-01

    Segal-Bargmann coherent state transforms can be viewed as unitary maps from L2 spaces of functions (or sections of an appropriate line bundle) on a manifold X to spaces of square integrable holomorphic functions (or sections) on Xℂ. It is natural to consider higher dimensional extensions of X based on Clifford algebras as they could be useful in studying quantum systems with internal, discrete, degrees of freedom corresponding to nonzero spins. Notice that the extensions of X based on the Grassmann algebra appear naturally in the study of supersymmetric quantum mechanics. In Clifford analysis, the zero mass Dirac equation provides a natural generalization of the Cauchy-Riemann conditions of complex analysis and leads to monogenic functions. For the simplest but already quite interesting case of X = ℝ, we introduce two extensions of the Segal-Bargmann coherent state transform from L2(ℝ, dx) ⊗ ℝm to Hilbert spaces of slice monogenic and axial monogenic functions and study their properties. These two transforms are related by the dual Radon transform. Representation theoretic and quantum mechanical aspects of the new representations are studied.

  13. LIQUIDITY ANALYSIS OF STATE BANK OF INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Gandhi R

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Modern customer has a high demand for quality of service than he/she had before. There is an urgent need for improving the customer service levels currently provided in the banking industry. Banks need to understand, foresee, the needs and expected levels of customer support which the customer expects when he/she steps into the branch and strive to stand up and excel in providing the service and making banking a truly delightful experience. The banker should change his/her agenda from Customer Satisfaction to Customer delight and then march towards Customer Ecstasy. This will be possible by maintaining the financial soundness of the firm. In this connection it has been given importance through this study. Since most of the Banking slightly deviate into the other areas like insurance, financial services and modern banking services such as Advisory services, Agent for receivables, custodian, instant loan provider, Forfeiter services and factoring services. A conscious attempt has been made to analysis the liquidity of state bank of India (SBI. The present study aimed to understand the financial soundness of the bank, the ratio analysis taken as tool. In this research work the secondary data mainly used, it has been collected in the form of the company manuals, Balance sheets and other documents. The data analyzed by some of the statistical tools such as ANOVA test and Multi variate test is used to analyze the interferences about the operating efficiency.

  14. ASAP: An Extensible Platform for State Space Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergaard, Michael; Evangelista, Sami; Kristensen, Lars Michael

    2009-01-01

    The ASCoVeCo State space Analysis Platform (ASAP) is a tool for performing explicit state space analysis of coloured Petri nets (CPNs) and other formalisms. ASAP supports a wide range of state space reduction techniques and is intended to be easy to extend and to use, making it a suitable tool...

  15. State of the Climate - Global Analysis

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The State of the Climate is a collection of periodic summaries recapping climate-related occurrences on both a global and national scale. The State of the Climate...

  16. STEM: Science Technology Engineering Mathematics. State-Level Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnevale, Anthony P.; Smith, Nicole; Melton, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    The science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) state-level analysis provides policymakers, educators, state government officials, and others with details on the projections of STEM jobs through 2018. This report delivers a state-by-state snapshot of the demand for STEM jobs, including: (1) The number of forecast net new and…

  17. Hyperentanglement-assisted Bell-state analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Walborn, S P; Monken, C H

    2003-01-01

    We propose a simple scheme for complete Bell-state measurement of photons using hyperentangled states - entangled in multiple degrees of freedom. In addition to hyperentanglement, our scheme requires only linear optics and single photon detectors, and is realizable with current technology. At the cost of additional classical communication, our Bell-state measurement can be implemented non-locally. We discuss the possible application of these results to quantum dense coding and quantum teleportation.

  18. Recurrence quantification analysis of chimera states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, M. S.; Szezech, J. D.; Batista, A. M.; Caldas, I. L.; Viana, R. L.; Lopes, S. R.

    2015-10-01

    Chimera states, characterised by coexistence of coherence and incoherence in coupled dynamical systems, have been found in various physical systems, such as mechanical oscillator networks and Josephson-junction arrays. We used recurrence plots to provide graphical representations of recurrent patterns and identify chimera states. Moreover, we show that recurrence plots can be used as a diagnostic of chimera states and also to identify the chimera collapse.

  19. An introduction to state space time series analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Commandeur, J.J.F. & Koopman, S.J.

    2007-01-01

    Providing a practical introduction to state space methods as applied to unobserved components time series models, also known as structural time series models, this book introduces time series analysis using state space methodology to readers who are neither familiar with time series analysis, nor wi

  20. An introduction to state space time series analysis.

    OpenAIRE

    Commandeur, J.J.F. & Koopman, S.J.

    2007-01-01

    Providing a practical introduction to state space methods as applied to unobserved components time series models, also known as structural time series models, this book introduces time series analysis using state space methodology to readers who are neither familiar with time series analysis, nor with state space methods. The only background required in order to understand the material presented in the book is a basic knowledge of classical linear regression models, of which a brief review is...

  1. Load Characteristics Analysis of State Grid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Wei; Zhou Feng; Han Xinyang; Shan Baoguo; Zhu Li

    2009-01-01

    @@ Introduction Analysis and forecast of load characteristics are important aspects in power market analysis and prediction.Correctly mastering grid load characteristics and its development trend is not only the vital basis for power planning,generation and operation,but also the important references for formulating the relevant policies.It is usually very hard to grasp the load characteristics of power grid.

  2. Pathway Analysis: State of the Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Campos, Miguel A.; Espinal-Enríquez, Jesús; Hernández-Lemus, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Pathway analysis is a set of widely used tools for research in life sciences intended to give meaning to high-throughput biological data. The methodology of these tools settles in the gathering and usage of knowledge that comprise biomolecular functioning, coupled with statistical testing and other algorithms. Despite their wide employment, pathway analysis foundations and overall background may not be fully understood, leading to misinterpretation of analysis results. This review attempts to comprise the fundamental knowledge to take into consideration when using pathway analysis as a hypothesis generation tool. We discuss the key elements that are part of these methodologies, their capabilities and current deficiencies. We also present an overview of current and all-time popular methods, highlighting different classes across them. In doing so, we show the exploding diversity of methods that pathway analysis encompasses, point out commonly overlooked caveats, and direct attention to a potential new class of methods that attempt to zoom the analysis scope to the sample scale. PMID:26733877

  3. Steady State Analysis of Towed Marine Cables

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Fei; HUANG Guo-liang; DENG De-heng

    2008-01-01

    Efficient numerical schemes were presented for the steady state solutions of towed marine cables. For most of towed systems, the steady state problem can be resolved into two-point boundary-value problem, or initial value problem in some special cases where the initial values are available directly. A new technique was proposed and attempted to solve the two-point boundary-value problem rather than the conventional shooting method due to its algorithm complexity and low efficiency. First, the boundary conditions are transformed into a set of nonlinear governing equations about the initial values, then bisection method is employed to solve these nonlinear equations with the aid of 4th order Runge-Kutta method. In common sense, non-uniform (sheared) current is assumed, which varies in magnitude and direction with depth. The schemes are validated through the DE Zoysa's example, then several numerical examples are also presented to illustrate the numerical schemes.

  4. RELIABILITY ANALYSIS FOR IMPLICIT LIMIT STATE EQUATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yan-ping; L(U) Zhen-zhou; YUE Zhu-feng

    2005-01-01

    In order to obtain the failure probability of the implicit limit state equation accurately, advanced mean value second order (AMVSO) method was presented, and advanced mean value (AMV) in conjunction with the response surface method (RSM)was also presented. The implementations were constructed on the basis of the advanced mean value first order (AMVFO) method and the RSM. The examples show that the accuracy of the AMVSO is higher than that of the AMVFO. The results of the AMV in conjunction with the RSM are not sensitive to the positions of the sampling points for determining the response surface equation, which illustrates the robustness of the presented method.

  5. Statistically optimal analysis of state-discretized trajectory data from multiple thermodynamic states

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Hao; Rosta, Edina; Noé, Frank

    2014-01-01

    We propose a discrete transition-based reweighting analysis method (dTRAM) for analyzing configuration-space-discretized simulation trajectories produced at different thermodynamic states (temperatures, Hamiltonians, etc.) dTRAM provides maximum-likelihood estimates of stationary quantities (probabilities, free energies, expectation values) at any thermodynamic state. In contrast to the weighted histogram analysis method (WHAM), dTRAM does not require data to be sampled from global equilibrium, and can thus produce superior estimates for enhanced sampling data such as parallel/simulated tempering, replica exchange, umbrella sampling, or metadynamics. In addition, dTRAM provides optimal estimates of Markov state models (MSMs) from the discretized state-space trajectories at all thermodynamic states. Under suitable conditions, these MSMs can be used to calculate kinetic quantities (e.g. rates, timescales). In the limit of a single thermodynamic state, dTRAM estimates a maximum likelihood reversible MSM, while i...

  6. Content Analysis Concerning State Green Lodging Certification Programs in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Yue

    2013-01-01

    The present thesis reports a content analysis study of state green lodging certification programs (SGLCPs) in the United States. The study explores how the government and industry associations operate and maintain SGLCPs. Through online research, the researcher found that 20 states have SGLCP. There are total 21 programs in operation currently. The study focused on the textual content of the 21 programs' websites. The study determined the rationale of SGLCPs adoption through analyzing prog...

  7. Evolution analysis of the states of the EZ model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Qing-Hua; Ding Yi-Ming; Dong Hong-Guang

    2009-01-01

    Based on suitable choice of states,this paper studies the stability of the equilibrium state of the EZ model by regarding the evolution of the EZ model as a Markov chain and by showing that the Markov chain is ergodic.The Markov analysis is applied to the EZ model with small number of agents,the exact equilibrium state for N=5 and numerical results for N=18 are obtained.

  8. States' Potential Enrollment of Adult Students: A Stochastic Frontier Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titus, Marvin A.; Pusser, Brian

    2011-01-01

    This study shows that financial aspects of state higher education policies, particularly tuition, have an impact on the level of enrollment of adult undergraduates within a state. This study also demonstrates how stochastic frontier analysis (SFA) can be utilized to examine the "potential" maximum enrollment of adult learners in…

  9. Charge-displacement analysis for excited states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronca, Enrico, E-mail: enrico@thch.unipg.it; Tarantelli, Francesco, E-mail: francesco.tarantelli@unipg.it [Istituto CNR di Scienze e Tecnologie Molecolari, via Elce di Sotto 8, I-06123 Perugia (Italy); Dipartimento di Chimica, Biologia e Biotecnologie, Università degli Studi di Perugia, via Elce di Sotto 8, I-06123 Perugia (Italy); Pastore, Mariachiara, E-mail: chiara@thch.unipg.it; Belpassi, Leonardo; De Angelis, Filippo [Istituto CNR di Scienze e Tecnologie Molecolari, via Elce di Sotto 8, I-06123 Perugia (Italy); Angeli, Celestino; Cimiraglia, Renzo [Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche e Farmaceutiche, Università degli Studi di Ferrara, via Borsari 46, I-44100 Ferrara (Italy)

    2014-02-07

    We extend the Charge-Displacement (CD) analysis, already successfully employed to describe the nature of intermolecular interactions [L. Belpassi et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132, 13046 (2010)] and various types of controversial chemical bonds [L. Belpassi et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130, 1048 (2008); N. Salvi et al., Chem. Eur. J. 16, 7231 (2010)], to study the charge fluxes accompanying electron excitations, and in particular the all-important charge-transfer (CT) phenomena. We demonstrate the usefulness of the new approach through applications to exemplary excitations in a series of molecules, encompassing various typical situations from valence, to Rydberg, to CT excitations. The CD functions defined along various spatial directions provide a detailed and insightful quantitative picture of the electron displacements taking place.

  10. Analysis of Control Power in Controlled Remote State Preparation Schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xihan; Ghose, Shohini

    2017-03-01

    We quantify and analyze the controller's power in controlled remote state preparation schemes. Our analysis provides a lower bound on the control power required for controlled remote preparation of arbitrary D-dimensional states. We evaluate several existing controlled remote state preparation protocols and show that some proposed non-maximally entangled channels are not suitable for perfect controlled remote preparation of arbitrary quantum states from the controller's point of view. We find that for remotely preparing D-dimensional states, the entropy of each controller should be no less than log2 D bits. Our new criteria are not only useful for evaluating controlled remote state preparation schemes but can also be used for other controlled quantum communication schemes.

  11. Reachability for Finite-State Process Algebras Using Static Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skrypnyuk, Nataliya; Nielson, Flemming

    2011-01-01

    In this work we present an algorithm for solving the reachability problem in finite systems that are modelled with process algebras. Our method uses Static Analysis, in particular, Data Flow Analysis, of the syntax of a process algebraic system with multi-way synchronisation. The results...... of the Data Flow Analysis are used in order to “cut off” some of the branches in the reachability analysis that are not important for determining, whether or not a state is reachable. In this way, it is possible for our reachability algorithm to avoid building large parts of the system altogether and still...

  12. State machine analysis of sensor data from dynamic processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, William R.; Brabson, John M.; Deland, Sharon M.

    2003-12-23

    A state machine model analyzes sensor data from dynamic processes at a facility to identify the actual processes that were performed at the facility during a period of interest for the purpose of remote facility inspection. An inspector can further input the expected operations into the state machine model and compare the expected, or declared, processes to the actual processes to identify undeclared processes at the facility. The state machine analysis enables the generation of knowledge about the state of the facility at all levels, from location of physical objects to complex operational concepts. Therefore, the state machine method and apparatus may benefit any agency or business with sensored facilities that stores or manipulates expensive, dangerous, or controlled materials or information.

  13. Numerical analysis of decoy state quantum key distribution protocols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrington, Jim W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rice, Patrick R [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    Decoy state protocols are a useful tool for many quantum key distribution systems implemented with weak coherent pulses, allowing significantly better secret bit rates and longer maximum distances. In this paper we present a method to numerically find optimal three-level protocols, and we examine how the secret bit rate and the optimized parameters are dependent on various system properties, such as session length, transmission loss, and visibility. Additionally, we show how to modify the decoy state analysis to handle partially distinguishable decoy states as well as uncertainty in the prepared intensities.

  14. Dynamic thermal analysis of machines in running state

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Lihui

    2014-01-01

    With the increasing complexity and dynamism in today’s machine design and development, more precise, robust and practical approaches and systems are needed to support machine design. Existing design methods treat the targeted machine as stationery. Analysis and simulation are mostly performed at the component level. Although there are some computer-aided engineering tools capable of motion analysis and vibration simulation etc., the machine itself is in the dry-run state. For effective machine design, understanding its thermal behaviours is crucial in achieving the desired performance in real situation. Dynamic Thermal Analysis of Machines in Running State presents a set of innovative solutions to dynamic thermal analysis of machines when they are put under actual working conditions. The objective is to better understand the thermal behaviours of a machine in real situation while at the design stage. The book has two major sections, with the first section presenting a broad-based review of the key areas of ...

  15. Analysis of current state and prospects of steel production development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protopopov, E. V.; Feyler, S. V.

    2016-09-01

    Data on world production of steel in the XXI century are provided. Analysis of current state and prospects of ferrous metallurgy development in the Russian Federation is carried out. Results of national steel production performance during 10 months of the year 2015 are given for different countries. Analysis of the main directions of metallurgical equipment import substitution aimed at technological independence in the industry is made. Russian ferrous metallurgy development predictions in its’ main directions up to 2030 is provided.

  16. Analysis of Member State RED implementation. Final Report (Task 2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, D.; Alberici, S.; Toop, G. [Ecofys, Utrecht (Netherlands); Kretschmer, B. [Institute for European Environmental Policy IEEP, London (United Kingdom)

    2012-12-15

    This report describes the way EU Member States have transposed the sustainability and chain of custody requirements for biofuels as laid down in the Renewable Energy Directive (RED) and Fuel Quality Directive (FQD). In the assessment of Member States' implementation, the report mainly focuses on effectiveness and administrative burden. Have Member States transposed the Directives in such a way that compliance with the sustainability criteria can be ensured as effectively as possible? To what extent does the Member States' implementation lead to unnecessary administrative burden for economic operators in the (bio)fuel supply chain? The report focuses specifically on the transposition of the sustainability and chain of custody requirements, not on the target for renewables on transport. This means that for example the double counting provision is not included as part of the scope of this report. This report starts with an introduction covering the implementation of the Renewable Energy (and Fuel Quality) Directive into national legislation, the methodology by which Member States were assessed against effectiveness and administrative burden and the categorisation of Member State's national systems for RED-implementation (Chapter 1). The report continues with a high level description of each Member State system assessed (Chapter 2). Following this, the report includes analysis of the Member States on the effectiveness and administrative burden of a number of key ('major') measures (Chapter 3). The final chapter presents the conclusions and recommendations (Chapter 4)

  17. Analysis of the State of Steam Generator Tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergunker, Olga [JSC OKB ' Gidropress' , 142103 Podolsk (Russian Federation)

    2008-07-01

    The problem of safe operation of SG heat exchanging tubes, of both economical and effective control of their state is still important these days. Issues connected with peculiarities of methods of SG tubes inspection, automated analysis of the inspection results, tubes state analysis and development of algorithms of forecasting their state are considered in this report. The need for effective use of extensive data arrays on SG operation has led to the necessity of creating software tools for collection, storage and analysis of these data. The data-analytical system 'NPP Steam Generators' meant for data systematization and visualization as well as various types of analyses of data on eddy current inspection of WWER-440 and WWER-1000 SG tubes is presented in this report. The main possibilities of the data-analytical system (DAS), the code current state and prospects of its development are shown. The main fields of DAS application are considered and some results of its practical use are mentioned, namely, in the field of forecasting SG tubes state. (authors)

  18. Petri nets for steady state analysis of metabolic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Klaus; Heiner, Monika; Koch, Ina

    2011-01-01

    Computer assisted analysis and simulation of biochemical pathways can improve the understanding of the structure and the dynamics of cell processes considerably. The construction and quantitative analysis of kinetic models is often impeded by the lack of reliable data. However, as the topological structure of biochemical systems can be regarded to remain constant in time, a qualitative analysis of a pathway model was shown to be quite promising as it can render a lot of useful knowledge, e. g., about its structural invariants. The topic of this paper are pathways whose substances have reached a dynamic concentration equilibrium (steady state). It is argued that appreciated tools from biochemistry and also low-level Petri nets can yield only part of the desired results, whereas executable high-level net models lead to a number of valuable additional insights by combining symbolic analysis and simulation.

  19. Steady state analysis of metabolic pathways using Petri nets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Klaus; Heiner, Monika; Koch, Ina

    2003-01-01

    Computer assisted analysis and simulation of biochemical pathways can improve the understanding of the structure and the dynamics of cell processes considerably. The construction and quantitative analysis of kinetic models is often impeded by the lack of reliable data. However, as the topological structure of biochemical systems can be regarded to remain constant in time, a qualitative analysis of a pathway model was shown to be quite promising as it can render a lot of useful knowledge, e. g., about its structural invariants. The topic of this paper are pathways whose substances have reached a dynamic concentration equilibrium (steady state). It is argued that appreciated tools from biochemistry and also low-level Petri nets can yield only part of the desired results, whereas executable high-level net models lead to a number of valuable additional insights by combining symbolic analysis and simulation.

  20. Analysis of ground state in random bipartite matching

    CERN Document Server

    Shi, Gui-Yuan; Liao, Hao; Zhang, Yi-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    In human society, a lot of social phenomena can be concluded into a mathematical problem called the bipartite matching, one of the most well known model is the marriage problem proposed by Gale and Shapley. In this article, we try to find out some intrinsic properties of the ground state of this model and thus gain more insights and ideas about the matching problem. We apply Kuhn-Munkres Algorithm to find out the numerical ground state solution of the system. The simulation result proves the previous theoretical analysis using replica method. In the result, we also find out the amount of blocking pairs which can be regarded as a representative of the system stability. Furthermore, we discover that the connectivity in the bipartite matching problem has a great impact on the stability of the ground state, and the system will become more unstable if there were more connections between men and women.

  1. Explaining state-to-state differences in seat belt use: A multivariate analysis of cultural variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnar, Lisa J; Eby, David W; Dasgupta, Kohinoor; Yang, Yang; Nair, Vijayan N; Pollock, Stephen M

    2012-07-01

    There is considerable variation in seat belt use within the United States despite extensive evidence that the use of seat belts saves lives. Previous studies have identified some important factors that affect belt use rates, including gender, age, race, vehicle type, seat-belt enforcement laws, and amount of fine for belt-use law violation. In this study, we examined the influence of additional socio-demographic factors on state-level use rates: education (percentage of high school educated population), racial composition (percentage White), median household income, political leaning (percentage Democrat), and a measure of religiosity. These variables, which collectively characterize the 'culture' of a state, have received little attention in seat-belt studies. The paper reports results from a multiple regression analysis of data from the 2008 Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS). Many of the use rate patterns in FARS data were consistent with those found in other data sets, suggesting that conclusions based on FARS data are likely to hold for the population-at-large. Of the five cultural factors considered in the study, three were identified as important in explaining the differences in seat belt use at the state level: religiosity, race (percentage White), and political leaning (percentage Democrat). The other two variables - income and education - were not significant. Hold-out analyses confirmed that this conclusion was consistent across different subsets of data. The findings from this study are preliminary and have to be confirmed on other data sets. Nevertheless, they demonstrate the potential usefulness of cultural factors in explaining state-to-state variation in seat belt use rates. If factors such as religiosity are indeed important, they can be used to develop culturally appropriate programs for increasing belt use.

  2. Identification and Analysis of Transition and Metastable Markov States

    CERN Document Server

    Martini, Linda; Hummer, Gerhard; Buchete, Nicolae-Viorel; Rosta, Edina

    2016-01-01

    We present a new method that enables the identification and analysis of both transition and metastable conformational states from atomistic or coarse-grained molecular dynamics (MD) trajectories. Our algorithm is presented and studied by using both analytical and actual examples from MD simulations of the helix-forming peptide Ala5, and of a larger system, the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) protein. In all cases, our method identifies automatically the corresponding transition states and metastable conformations in an optimal way, with the input of a set of relevant coordinates, by capturing accurately the intrinsic slowest relaxation rate. Our approach provides a general and easy to implement analysis method that provides unique insight into the molecular mechanism and the rare but crucial rate limiting conformational pathways occurring in complex dynamical systems such as molecular trajectories.

  3. Visualization and data analysis-current state and exascale challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahrens, James P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rodgers, David [SNL; Springmeyer, Becky [LLNL

    2010-12-21

    Talk about Visualization and Data Analysis Current State and Exascale challenges. The goal is to update with colleagues our current status in our research. What challenges we need to face, and what future possibilities. Our goal is to propose to approach the problems with the visualization approach operating on the supercomputing platform. This presentation is about the L2 Milestone, we intend to discuss further possibilities of enhancing our results and optimizing our solutions.

  4. Preliminary Analysis of a Fully Solid State Magnetocaloric Refrigeration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    Magnetocaloric refrigeration is an alternative refrigeration technology with significant potential energy savings compared to conventional vapor compression refrigeration technology. Most of the reported active magnetic regenerator (AMR) systems that operate based on the magnetocaloric effect use heat transfer fluid to exchange heat, which results in complicated mechanical subsystems and components such as rotating valves and hydraulic pumps. In this paper, we propose an alternative mechanism for heat transfer between the AMR and the heat source/sink. High-conductivity moving rods/sheets (e.g. copper, brass, iron, graphite, aluminum or composite structures from these) are utilized instead of heat transfer fluid significantly enhancing the heat transfer rate hence cooling/heating capacity. A one-dimensional model is developed to study the solid state AMR. In this model, the heat exchange between the solid-solid interfaces is modeled via a contact conductance, which depends on the interface apparent pressure, material hardness, thermal conductivity, surface roughness, surface slope between the interfaces, and material filled in the gap between the interfaces. Due to the tremendous impact of the heat exchange on the AMR cycle performance, a sensitivity analysis is conducted employing a response surface method, in which the apparent pressure, effective surface roughness and grease thermal conductivity are the uncertainty factors. COP and refrigeration capacity are presented as the response in the sensitivity analysis to reveal the important factors influencing the fully solid state AMR and optimize the solid state AMR efficiency. The performances of fully solid state AMR and traditional AMR are also compared and discussed in present work. The results of this study will provide general guidelines for designing high performance solid state AMR systems.

  5. DPABI: Data Processing & Analysis for (Resting-State) Brain Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Chao-Gan; Wang, Xin-Di; Zuo, Xi-Nian; Zang, Yu-Feng

    2016-07-01

    Brain imaging efforts are being increasingly devoted to decode the functioning of the human brain. Among neuroimaging techniques, resting-state fMRI (R-fMRI) is currently expanding exponentially. Beyond the general neuroimaging analysis packages (e.g., SPM, AFNI and FSL), REST and DPARSF were developed to meet the increasing need of user-friendly toolboxes for R-fMRI data processing. To address recently identified methodological challenges of R-fMRI, we introduce the newly developed toolbox, DPABI, which was evolved from REST and DPARSF. DPABI incorporates recent research advances on head motion control and measurement standardization, thus allowing users to evaluate results using stringent control strategies. DPABI also emphasizes test-retest reliability and quality control of data processing. Furthermore, DPABI provides a user-friendly pipeline analysis toolkit for rat/monkey R-fMRI data analysis to reflect the rapid advances in animal imaging. In addition, DPABI includes preprocessing modules for task-based fMRI, voxel-based morphometry analysis, statistical analysis and results viewing. DPABI is designed to make data analysis require fewer manual operations, be less time-consuming, have a lower skill requirement, a smaller risk of inadvertent mistakes, and be more comparable across studies. We anticipate this open-source toolbox will assist novices and expert users alike and continue to support advancing R-fMRI methodology and its application to clinical translational studies.

  6. Complex network analysis of state spaces for random Boolean networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shreim, Amer [Complexity Science Group, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, T2N 1N4 (Canada); Berdahl, Andrew [Complexity Science Group, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, T2N 1N4 (Canada); Sood, Vishal [Complexity Science Group, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, T2N 1N4 (Canada); Grassberger, Peter [Complexity Science Group, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, T2N 1N4 (Canada); Paczuski, Maya [Complexity Science Group, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, T2N 1N4 (Canada)

    2008-01-15

    We apply complex network analysis to the state spaces of random Boolean networks (RBNs). An RBN contains N Boolean elements each with K inputs. A directed state space network (SSN) is constructed by linking each dynamical state, represented as a node, to its temporal successor. We study the heterogeneity of these SSNs at both local and global scales, as well as sample to-sample fluctuations within an ensemble of SSNs. We use in-degrees of nodes as a local topological measure, and the path diversity (Shreim A et al 2007 Phys. Rev. Lett. 98 198701) of an SSN as a global topological measure. RBNs with 2 {<=} K {<=} 5 exhibit non-trivial fluctuations at both local and global scales, while K = 2 exhibits the largest sample-to-sample (possibly non-self-averaging) fluctuations. We interpret the observed 'multi scale' fluctuations in the SSNs as indicative of the criticality and complexity of K = 2 RBNs. 'Garden of Eden' (GoE) states are nodes on an SSN that have in-degree zero. While in-degrees of non-GoE nodes for K > 1 SSNs can assume any integer value between 0 and 2{sup N}, for K = 1 all the non-GoE nodes in a given SSN have the same in-degree which is always a power of two.

  7. GRAPHICAL ANALYSIS OF LAFFER'S THEORY FOR EUROPEAN UNION MEMBER STATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LILIANA BUNESCU

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Most times the current situation of one or another country depends on the historical development of own tax system. A practical question of any governance is to determine the optimal taxation rate level, bringing to the state the highest tax revenues. A good place to start is with what is popularly known as the Laffer curve. This paper aims to determine in graphical terms the level where European economies ranks by using Laffer curve based on the data series provided by the European Commission and the World Bank. Graphical analysis of Laffer's theory can emphasize only the positioning on one or another side of point for maximum tax revenues, a position that can influence fiscal policy decisions. Conclusions at European Union level are simple. Value of taxation rate for fiscal optimal point varies from one Member State to another, from 48.9% in Denmark to 28% in Romania, with an average of 37.1% for the EU-27.

  8. Equation of state for steam for systems analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muneer, T.

    1985-01-01

    For engineers involved in the analysis of thermal systems, it may be desirable to compute thermodynamic properties using an equation of state rather than tables or charts. In this work, a pressure explicit equation of state for steam is developed by curve fitting of P-V-T data. An efficient optimization method was used for the least-squares minimization. The five-constant, Beattie-Bridgeman equation developed here was found to perform well in computation of a property when the other two were provided. The equation is inherently simple in form, and therefore, computation of other thermodynamic properties such as enthalpy and entropy will be an easy matter. Thus, the equation will be invaluable in design and optimization of steam-based thermal systems.

  9. Stochastic Analysis of Land Degradation on Edo State Agricultural System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olotu Yahaya

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Edo state, like many other states in Niger-Delta and Nigeria as a nation has resultant land and water degradation problems such as persistent oil spillage, erosion of arable land, sedimentation of dam and reservoirs. This research study investigates the effects of land degradation in all the local government areas in Edo state. The results of the findings indicated that 28% corresponding to 634,416.3 ha of arable land had totally been affected by soil erosion. Highest erodibility index of 0.75 was obtained at Estako west (Auchi, while least value of 0.1 was found at Akoko-Edo local government area respectively. Between 1976 and 1997, 1,820,410.50 barrels of crude oil spilled with maximum spill value 600,511.02 barrels in 1984 and minimum spill of 5,956 barrels in 1989. Reduction of cassava production was estimated and analyzed. The result showed that the reduction is highly significant at 95% confidence interval. Etasko -west had the highest reduction from 7.26 MT/HA in 1993 to 1.1 MT/HA in 2002. In addition, analysis of erosion and land degradation control expenditures showed that little attention has been paid to controlling land degradation in the state. Erosion control expenditure was increased from 4.1% in 1990 to 10% in 2002. This increase is not significant at 0.01 and 0.05 levels of significance. All these constraints affect agricultural production, human well-being, social and economic growth of the people in Edo state.

  10. The proposed Diagnostic Instrumentation and Analysis Laboratory, Mississippi State University

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-11-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to authorize Mississippi State University (MSU) to proceed with the detailed design, construction and equipping of the proposed Diagnostic Instrumentation and Analysis Laboratory (DIAL). DOE grant funds are available to the University for the limited purpose of performing preliminary studies, including analysis necessary to conduct this environmental assessment. The proposed facility would be located in the Mississippi Research and Technology Park, adjacent to the Mississippi Agriculture and Forestry Experiment Station campus in Starkville, Mississippi. Total project cost is estimated at $7,953,600. This proposed laboratory would be designed to conduct research into combustion devices related to waste management and environmental restoration that is of importance to industry and government. The proposed facility`s role would be to develop diagnostic instrumentation capabilities in the area of combustion and related processes.

  11. Interactive state-space analysis of concurrent systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan, E.T.; Razouk, R.R.

    1987-10-01

    The introduction of concurrency into programs has added to the complexity of the software design process. This is most evident in the design of communications protocols where concurrency is inherent to the behavior of the system. The complexity exhibited by such software systems makes more evident the need for computer-aided tools for automatically analyzing behavior. The Distributed Systems project at UCI has been developing techniques and tools, based on Petri nets, which support the design and evaluation of concurrent software systems. Techniques based on constructing reachability graphs that represent projections and selections of complete state-spaces have been developed. This paper focuses attention on the computer-aided analysis of these graphs for the purpose of proving correctness of the modeled system. The application of the analysis technique to evaluating simulation results for correctness is discussed. The tool which supports this analysis (the reachability graph analyzer, RGA) is also described. This tool provides mechanisms for proving general system properties (e.g., deadlock-freeness) as well as system-specific properties. The tool is sufficiently general to allow a user to apply complex user-defined analysis algorithms to reachability graphs. The alternating-bit protocol, with a bounded channel, is used to demonstrate the power of the tool and to point to future extensions.

  12. Steady–State Exergy Analysis of a Simple Solar Still

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Cervantes–de Gortari.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a steady–state, theoretical exergy analysis of a solar still, focused on the exergy flows in the components of the still: collector plate, brine and glass cover. The analytical approach states an energy balance for each component resulting in three coupled equations where three parameters –solar irradiance, ambient temperature and insulation thickness– are studied. The energy balances are solved to find temperatures of each component; these temperatures are used to compute energy and exergy flows. Results in the steady–state regime show that the collector transports 13% of incident radiation exergy to the heat the brine, while in the brine the evaporation exergy accounts for the 6% of total exergy. Exergy/energy ratio shows that the most efficient component is the brine reaching more than 90% for almost any value of the parameters under study, while the collector has a 23% exergy/energy ratio for a 1,000 W/m2 solar energy input. The solar still is a device that uses efficiently the heating of a collector and the general discussion about its promotion should not, as it must be with almost every other solar device, be about thermodynamic limitations.

  13. Immigration and Muslim Immigrants: A Comparative Analysis of European States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha T. Duncan

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Immigration policies serve a number of functions for states. Governments may use policies as instruments of foreign policy, economic growth, population growth, and/ or national security. In this post-September 11, 2001 global environment, integration policies have become more assimilationist and immigration restrictions toward nationals from Muslim countries of origin have increased in the name of national security. While this trend is common among many Western states, Britain’s immigration stance toward Muslim migrants remains unchanged. This study examines changes in policies toward immigrants—changes that make these policies de facto immigration policies though they may not have been conceived as such—in the Netherlands, Germany, France, and the absence of this change in the UK. It seeks to answer the question: what explains reforms in the Netherlands, Germany, and France while British immigration policy remained unchanged? In this effort, the article emphasizes the impact of these changes on potential migrants from predominantly Muslim countries of origin. Based on a comparative case study analysis using process tracing, findings indicate that Dutch immigration/integration policy choices influence government policy changes in other West European countries. Through a learning process, governments experiencing similar socio-political challenges observe overlapping societal responses to them and optimize in creating policy alternatives by using short-cuts and adopting policies implemented in comparable states and situations.

  14. Diagnostics of subtropical plants functional state by cluster analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana Belous

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an application example of statistical methods for data analysis on diagnosis of the adaptive capacity of subtropical plants varieties. We depicted selection indicators and basic physiological parameters that were defined as diagnostic. We used evaluation on a set of parameters of water regime, there are: determination of water deficit of the leaves, determining the fractional composition of water and detection parameters of the concentration of cell sap (CCS (for tea culture flushes. These settings are characterized by high liability and high responsiveness to the effects of many abiotic factors that determined the particular care in the selection of plant material for analysis and consideration of the impact on sustainability. On the basis of the experimental data calculated the coefficients of pair correlation between climatic factors and used physiological indicators. The result was a selection of physiological and biochemical indicators proposed to assess the adaptability and included in the basis of methodical recommendations on diagnostics of the functional state of the studied cultures. Analysis of complex studies involving a large number of indicators is quite difficult, especially does not allow to quickly identify the similarity of new varieties for their adaptive responses to adverse factors, and, therefore, to set general requirements to conditions of cultivation. Use of cluster analysis suggests that in the analysis of only quantitative data; define a set of variables used to assess varieties (and the more sampling, the more accurate the clustering will happen, be sure to ascertain the measure of similarity (or difference between objects. It is shown that the identification of diagnostic features, which are subjected to statistical processing, impact the accuracy of the varieties classification. Selection in result of the mono-clusters analysis (variety tea Kolhida; hazelnut Lombardsky red; variety kiwi Monty

  15. State analysis requirements database for engineering complex embedded systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Matthew B.; Rasmussen, Robert D.; Ingham, Michel D.

    2004-01-01

    It has become clear that spacecraft system complexity is reaching a threshold where customary methods of control are no longer affordable or sufficiently reliable. At the heart of this problem are the conventional approaches to systems and software engineering based on subsystem-level functional decomposition, which fail to scale in the tangled web of interactions typically encountered in complex spacecraft designs. Furthermore, there is a fundamental gap between the requirements on software specified by systems engineers and the implementation of these requirements by software engineers. Software engineers must perform the translation of requirements into software code, hoping to accurately capture the systems engineer's understanding of the system behavior, which is not always explicitly specified. This gap opens up the possibility for misinterpretation of the systems engineer's intent, potentially leading to software errors. This problem is addressed by a systems engineering tool called the State Analysis Database, which provides a tool for capturing system and software requirements in the form of explicit models. This paper describes how requirements for complex aerospace systems can be developed using the State Analysis Database.

  16. Kinematical Analysis along Maximal Lactate Steady State Swimming Intensity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Figueiredo, Rafael Nazario, Marisa Sousa, Jailton Gregório Pelarigo, João Paulo Vilas-Boas, Ricardo Fernandes

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to conduct a kinematical analysis during swimming at the intensity corresponding to maximal lactate steady state (MLSS. Thirteen long distance swimmers performed, in different days, an intermittent incremental protocol of n x 200 m until exhaustion and two to four 30-min submaximal constant speed bouts to determine the MLSS. The video analysis, using APAS System (Ariel Dynamics Inc., USA, allowed determining the following relevant swimming determinants (in five moments of the 30-min test: 0, 25, 50, 75, and 100%: stroke rate, stroke length, trunk incline, intracyclic velocity variation, propelling efficiency, index of coordination and the time allotted to propulsion per distance unit. An ANOVA for repeated measures was used to compare the parameters mean values along each moment of analysis. Stoke rate tended to increase and stroke length to decrease along the test; a tendency to decrease was also found for intracyclic velocity variation and propelling efficiency whereas the index of coordination and the propulsive impulse remained stable during the MLSS test. It can be concluded that the MLSS is not only an intensity to maintain without a significant increase of blood lactate concentration, but a concomitant stability for some biomechanical parameters exists (after an initial adaptation. However, efficiency indicators seem to be more sensitive to changes occurring during swimming at this threshold intensity.

  17. Theoretical analysis of the state of balance in bipedal walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firmani, Flavio; Park, Edward J

    2013-04-01

    This paper presents a theoretical analysis based on classic mechanical principles of balance of forces in bipedal walking. Theories on the state of balance have been proposed in the area of humanoid robotics and although the laws of classical mechanics are equivalent to both humans and humanoid robots, the resulting motion obtained with these theories is unnatural when compared to normal human gait. Humanoid robots are commonly controlled using the zero moment point (ZMP) with the condition that the ZMP cannot exit the foot-support area. This condition is derived from a physical model in which the biped must always walk under dynamically balanced conditions, making the centre of pressure (CoP) and the ZMP always coincident. On the contrary, humans follow a different strategy characterized by a 'controlled fall' at the end of the swing phase. In this paper, we present a thorough theoretical analysis of the state of balance and show that the ZMP can exit the support area, and its location is representative of the imbalance state characterized by the separation between the ZMP and the CoP. Since humans exhibit this behavior, we also present proof-of-concept results of a single subject walking on an instrumented treadmill at different speeds (from slow 0.7 m/s to fast 2.0 m/s walking with increments of 0.1 m/s) with the motion recorded using an optical motion tracking system. In order to evaluate the experimental results of this model, the coefficient of determination (R2) is used to correlate the measured ground reaction forces and the resultant of inertial and gravitational forces (anteroposterior R² = 0.93, mediolateral R² = 0.89, and vertical R² = 0.86) indicating that there is a high correlation between the measurements. The results suggest that the subject exhibits a complete dynamically balanced gait during slow speeds while experiencing a controlled fall (end of swing phase) with faster speeds. This is quantified with the root-mean-square deviation (RMSD

  18. Measuring the Extent of European State Aid Control : An Econometric Analysis of the European Commission Decisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, E.; Ozbugday, F.C.

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides an analysis of the European Commission (EC) decisions on state aid control using data on 550 state aid cases approved by the EC between 1998 and 2009. More specifically, we measure the determinants of the duration of state aid, total budget of state aid and daily budget of state

  19. Measuring the Extent of European State Aid Control : An Econometric Analysis of the European Commission Decisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, E.; Ozbugday, F.C.

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides an analysis of the European Commission (EC) decisions on state aid control using data on 550 state aid cases approved by the EC between 1998 and 2009. More specifically, we measure the determinants of the duration of state aid, total budget of state aid and daily budget of state

  20. Data analysis methods for solid-state nanopores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plesa, Calin; Dekker, Cees

    2015-02-01

    We describe a number of techniques for the analysis of solid-state nanopore ionic current traces and introduce a new package of Matlab analysis scripts with GUI front ends. We discuss methods for the detection of the local baseline and propose a new detection algorithm that bypasses some of the classical weaknesses of moving-average detection. Our new approach removes detected events and re-creates an ideal event-free baseline subsequently used to recalculate the local baseline. Iterative operation of this algorithm causes both the moving average of the baseline current and its standard deviation to converge to their correct values. We explain different approaches to selecting events and building event populations, and we show the value of keeping track of the changes in parameters, such as the event rate and the pore resistance, throughout the course of the experiment. Finally, we introduce a new technique for separating unfolded events and detecting current spikes present within translocation events. This open source software package is available online at: http://ceesdekkerlab.tudelft.nl/downloads/

  1. Investigating echo state networks dynamics by means of recurrence analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Bianchi, Filippo Maria; Alippi, Cesare

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we elaborate over the well-known interpretability issue in echo state networks. The idea is to investigate the dynamics of reservoir neurons with time-series analysis techniques taken from research on complex systems. Notably, we analyze time-series of neuron activations with Recurrence Plots (RPs) and Recurrence Quantification Analysis (RQA), which permit to visualize and characterize high-dimensional dynamical systems. We show that this approach is useful in a number of ways. First, the two-dimensional representation offered by RPs provides a way for visualizing the high-dimensional dynamics of a reservoir. Our results suggest that, if the network is stable, reservoir and input denote similar line patterns in the respective RPs. Conversely, the more unstable the ESN, the more the RP of the reservoir presents instability patterns. As a second result, we show that the $\\mathrm{L_{max}}$ measure is highly correlated with the well-established maximal local Lyapunov exponent. This suggests that co...

  2. Finite State Machine Analysis of Remote Sensor Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbson, John M.

    1999-07-12

    The use of unattended monitoring systems for monitoring the status of high value assets and processes has proven to be less costly and less intrusive than the on-site inspections which they are intended to replace. However, these systems present a classic information overload problem to anyone trying to analyze the resulting sensor data. These data are typically so voluminous and contain information at such a low level that the significance of any single reading (e.g., a door open event) is not obvious. Sophisticated, automated techniques are needed to extract expected patterns in the data and isolate and characterize the remaining patterns that are due to undeclared activities. This paper describes a data analysis engine that runs a state machine model of each facility and its sensor suite. It analyzes the raw sensor data, converting and combining the inputs from many sensors into operator domain level information. It compares the resulting activities against a set of activities declared by an inspector or operator, and then presents the differences in a form comprehensible to an inspector. Although the current analysis engine was written with international nuclear material safeguards, nonproliferation, and transparency in mind, since there is no information about any particular facility in the software, there is no reason why it cannot be applied anywhere it is important to verify processes are occurring as expected, to detect intrusion into a secured area, or to detect the diversion of valuable assets.

  3. Dynamic analysis of composite columns in Inelastic state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Rezaie Hajidehi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study is analyzing Seismic behavior of composite columns in frame in inelastic state under dynamic load. Therefore, three type of composite column have been used in this paper. IPB Steel section embedded in concrete (type 1, Concrete-filled thin-walled steel sections (type 2, half concreted IPB sections (type 3 which are designed for 3 and 8 floor frame tenement in plastic way. Three earthquake accelerogram have been used for analyzing model seismic behavior and model analysis has been done in non-linear dynamic analysis with Seismostruct application. The results demonstrated that frame designed by composite columns type 1 and 3 in the flexural behavior, have similar construction behavior in the way that plasticity, softness and good function to dispose lateral forces are the same.  Although Type 2 composite model have large sections, have poor performance in tolerating flexural moment. This event refers to poor role of concrete in tension. On the other hand, the amount of concrete is important in Withstand compressive forces and in constructions with high compressive forces, type 1 and 2 have better performance.

  4. State of the art in benefit-risk analysis: introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhagen, H; Tijhuis, M J; Gunnlaugsdóttir, H; Kalogeras, N; Leino, O; Luteijn, J M; Magnússon, S H; Odekerken, G; Pohjola, M V; Tuomisto, J T; Ueland, Ø; White, B C; Holm, F

    2012-01-01

    Risk-taking is normal in everyday life if there are associated (perceived) benefits. Benefit-Risk Analysis (BRA) compares the risk of a situation to its related benefits and addresses the acceptability of the risk. Over the past years BRA in relation to food and food ingredients has gained attention. Food, and even the same food ingredient, may confer both beneficial and adverse effects. Measures directed at food safety may lead to suboptimal or insufficient levels of ingredients from a benefit perspective. In BRA, benefits and risks of food (ingredients) are assessed in one go and may conditionally be expressed into one currency. This allows the comparison of adverse and beneficial effects to be qualitative and quantitative. A BRA should help policy-makers to make more informed and balanced benefit-risk management decisions. Not allowing food benefits to occur in order to guarantee food safety is a risk management decision much the same as accepting some risk in order to achieve more benefits. BRA in food and nutrition is making progress, but difficulties remain. The field may benefit from looking across its borders to learn from other research areas. The BEPRARIBEAN project (Best Practices for Risk-Benefit Analysis: experience from out of food into food; http://en.opasnet.org/w/Bepraribean) aims to do so, by working together with Medicines, Food Microbiology, Environmental Health, Economics & Marketing-Finance and Consumer Perception. All perspectives are reviewed and subsequently integrated to identify opportunities for further development of BRA for food and food ingredients. Interesting issues that emerge are the varying degrees of risk that are deemed acceptable within the areas and the trend towards more open and participatory BRA processes. A set of 6 'state of the art' papers covering the above areas and a paper integrating the separate (re)views are published in this volume.

  5. Steady State Response Analysis of a Tubular Piezoelectric Print Head.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jiaqing; Liu, Yaxin; Huang, Bo

    2016-01-12

    In recent years, inkjet technology has played an important role in industrial materials printing and various sensors fabrication, but the mechanisms of the inkjet print head should be researched more elaborately. The steady state deformation analysis of a tubular piezoelectric print head, which can be classified as a plane strain problem because the radii of the tubes are considerably smaller than the lengths, is discussed in this paper. The geometric structure and the boundary conditions are all axisymmetric, so a one-dimensional mathematical model is constructed. By solving the model, the deformation field and stress field, as well as the electric potential distribution of the piezoelectric tube and glass tube, are obtained. The results show that the deformations are on the nanometer scale, the hoop stress is larger than the radial stress on the whole, and the potential is not linearly distributed along the radial direction. An experiment is designed to validate these computations. A discussion of the effect of the tubes' thicknesses on the system deformation status is provided.

  6. A Content Analysis of Protective Factors within States' Antibullying Laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Lori M.; Brown, James R.; Weddle, Daniel B.; Aalsma, Matthew C.

    2013-01-01

    State lawmakers have responded to school bullying by crafting antibullying legislation. By July 2011, 47 states enacted such laws, though varied widely in content and scope. This study systematically evaluated each state's antibullying legislation by focusing on the inclusion of individual, parental, and systemic protective factors through…

  7. An Analysis of State Autism Educational Assessment Practices and Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Erin E.; Harris, Bryn; Leech, Nancy; Stiff, Lillian; Choi, Gounah; Joel, Tiffany

    2016-01-01

    States differ in the procedures and criteria used to identify ASD. These differences are likely to impact the prevalence and age of identification for children with ASD. The purpose of the current study was to examine the specific state variations in ASD identification and eligibility criteria requirements. We examined variations by state in…

  8. Marketing analysis of the competitiveness of state-owned banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.V. Onishchenko

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The article investigated the competitive position of the Ukrainian state-owned banks in comparison with the largest commercial banks, representatives of the private sector. The main characteristics on which the state banks concede private has been defined. The main advantages and disadvantages of state-owned banks that have an impact on their competitiveness has been defined.

  9. Optical Bell-state analysis in the coincidence basis

    CERN Document Server

    Walborn, S P; Pádua, S; Monken, C H

    2003-01-01

    Many quantum information protocols require a Bell-state measurement of entangled systems. Most optical Bell-state measurements utilize two-photon interference at a beam splitter. By creating polarization-entangled photons with spontaneous parametric down-conversion using a first-order Hermite-Gaussian pump beam, we invert the usual interference behavior and perform an incomplete Bell-state measurement in the coincidence basis. We discuss the possibility of a complete Bell-state measurement in the coincidence basis using hyperentangled states [Phys. Rev. A, \\textbf{58}, R2623 (1998)].

  10. An Analysis of State Autism Educational Assessment Practices and Requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Erin E; Harris, Bryn; Leech, Nancy; Stiff, Lillian; Choi, Gounah; Joel, Tiffany

    2016-03-01

    States differ in the procedures and criteria used to identify ASD. These differences are likely to impact the prevalence and age of identification for children with ASD. The purpose of the current study was to examine the specific state variations in ASD identification and eligibility criteria requirements. We examined variations by state in autism assessment practices and the proportion of children eligible for special education services under the autism category. Overall, our findings suggest that ASD identification practices vary across states, but most states use federal guidelines, at least in part, to set their requirements. Implications and recommendations for policy and practice are discussed.

  11. Feasibility of probing solid state nuclear tracks by thermal analysis method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG TongSuo; ZHOU Bing; YANG XinXin; HE ShaoRong; HENG ShuYun; YUAN SunSheng

    2007-01-01

    The feasibility of probing solid state nuclear tracks by thermal analysis method is discussed both theoretically and experimentally. Comparison is made between the thermal analysis method and the optical microscope method, and it is demonstrated that this thermal analysis method is applicable to probing solid state nuclear tracks.

  12. Theoretical analysis of droplet transition from Cassie to Wenzel state

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘天庆; 李艳杰; 李香琴; 孙玮

    2015-01-01

    Whether droplets transit from the Cassie to the Wenzel state (C–W) on a textured surface is the touchstone that the superhydrophobicity of the surface is still maintained. However, the C–W transition mechanism, especially the spontaneous transition of small droplets, is still not very clear to date. The interface free energy gradient of a small droplet is firstly proposed and derived as the driving force for its C–W evolution in this study based on the energy and gradient analysis. Then the physical and mathematical model of the C–W transition is found after the C–W driving force or transition pressure, the resistance, and the parameters of the meniscus beneath the droplet are formulated. The results show that the micro/nano structural parameters significantly affect the C–W driving force and resistance. The smaller the pillar diameter and pitch, the minor the C–W transition pressure, and the larger the resistance. Consequently, the C–W transition is difficult to be completed for the droplets on nano-textured surfaces. Meanwhile if the posts are too short, the front of the curved liquid–air interface below the droplet will touch the structural substrate easily even though the three phase contact line (TPCL) has not depinned. When the posts are high enough, the TPCL beneath the drop must move firstly before the meniscus can reach the substrate. As a result, the droplet on a textured surface with short pillars is easy to complete its C–W evolution. On the other hand, the smaller the droplet, the easier the C–W shift, since the transition pressure becomes larger, which well explains why an evaporating drop will collapse spontaneously from composite to Wenzel state. Besides, both intrinsic and advancing contact angles affect the C–W transition as well. The greater the two angles, the harder the C–W transition. In the end, the C–W transition parameters and the critical conditions measured in literatures are calculated and compared, and the

  13. Transitions in state public health law: comparative analysis of state public health law reform following the Turning Point Model State Public Health Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Benjamin Mason; Hodge, James G; Gebbie, Kristine M

    2009-03-01

    Given the public health importance of law modernization, we undertook a comparative analysis of policy efforts in 4 states (Alaska, South Carolina, Wisconsin, and Nebraska) that have considered public health law reform based on the Turning Point Model State Public Health Act. Through national legislative tracking and state case studies, we investigated how the Turning Point Act's model legal language has been considered for incorporation into state law and analyzed key facilitating and inhibiting factors for public health law reform. Our findings provide the practice community with a research base to facilitate further law reform and inform future scholarship on the role of law as a determinant of the public's health.

  14. Reliability importance analysis of Markovian systems at steady state using perturbation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phuc Do Van [Institut Charles Delaunay - FRE CNRS 2848, Systems Modeling and Dependability Group, Universite de technologie de Troyes, 12, rue Marie Curie, BP 2060-10010 Troyes cedex (France); Barros, Anne [Institut Charles Delaunay - FRE CNRS 2848, Systems Modeling and Dependability Group, Universite de technologie de Troyes, 12, rue Marie Curie, BP 2060-10010 Troyes cedex (France)], E-mail: anne.barros@utt.fr; Berenguer, Christophe [Institut Charles Delaunay - FRE CNRS 2848, Systems Modeling and Dependability Group, Universite de technologie de Troyes, 12, rue Marie Curie, BP 2060-10010 Troyes cedex (France)

    2008-11-15

    Sensitivity analysis has been primarily defined for static systems, i.e. systems described by combinatorial reliability models (fault or event trees). Several structural and probabilistic measures have been proposed to assess the components importance. For dynamic systems including inter-component and functional dependencies (cold spare, shared load, shared resources, etc.), and described by Markov models or, more generally, by discrete events dynamic systems models, the problem of sensitivity analysis remains widely open. In this paper, the perturbation method is used to estimate an importance factor, called multi-directional sensitivity measure, in the framework of Markovian systems. Some numerical examples are introduced to show why this method offers a promising tool for steady-state sensitivity analysis of Markov processes in reliability studies.

  15. State Vectors-A New Method for Seismicity Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yin Xiangchu; Yu Huaizhong; Zhang Yongxian

    2004-01-01

    The concept of state vector stems from statistical physics, where it is usually used to describe the evolution of a continuum field in its way of coarse-graining. In this paper, the state vector is employed to depict the evolution of seismieity quantitatively, and some interesting results are presented. The authors investigated some famous earthquake cases (e.g., the Haieheng earthquake, the Tangshan earthquake, the west Kuulun Mountains earthquake, etc. ) and found that the state vectors evidently change prior to the occurrence of large earthquakes. Thus it is believed that the state vector can be used as a kind of precursor to predict large earthquakes.

  16. Biomass Feedstock Availability in the United States: 1999 State Level Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, Marie E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Perlack, Robert L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Turhollow, Anthony [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); de la Torre Ugarte, Daniel [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Becker, Denny A. [Science Applications International Corporation, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Graham, Robin L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Slinsky, Stephen E. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Ray, Daryll E. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Interest in using biomass feedstocks to produce power, liquid fuels, and chemicals in the U.S. is increasing. Central to determining the potential for these industries to develop is an understanding of the location, quantities, and prices of biomass resources. This paper describes the methodology used to estimate biomass quantities and prices for each state in the continental United States.

  17. Stability analysis of uniform equilibrium foam states for EOR processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ashoori, E.; Marchesin, D.; Rossen, W.R.

    2011-01-01

    The use of foam for mobility control is a promising mean to improve sweep efficiency in EOR. Experimental studies discovered that foam exhibits three different states (weak foam, intermediate foam, and strong foam). The intermediate-foam state is found to be unstable in the lab whereas the weak- and

  18. The State Data Analysis Gap: A Threat to Education Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheeky, Art

    2011-01-01

    Ever since the 2001 passage of the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB), states have faced a federal mandate to improve their ability to collect and analyze education data for the purpose of tracking and reporting the progress of their education reform efforts. With the assistance of federal funds, virtually all of the states are developing…

  19. Explicit Analysis of Creating Maximally Entangled State in the Mott Insulator State

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Min-Si; TIAN Li-Jun; ZHANG Hong-Biao

    2004-01-01

    @@ We clarify the essence of the method proposed by You (Phys. Rev. Lett. 90 (2004) 030402) to create the maximally entangled atomic N-GHZ state in the Mott insulator state. Based on the time-independent perturbation theory,we find that the validity of the method can be summarized as that the Hamiltonian governing the evolution is approximately equivalent to the type aJ2x + bJx, which is the well known form used to create the maximally entangled state.

  20. Mental State Talk Structure in Children’s Narratives: A Cluster Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliana Pinto

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analysed children’s Theory of Mind (ToM as assessed by mental state talk in oral narratives. We hypothesized that the children’s mental state talk in narratives has an underlying structure, with specific terms organized in clusters. Ninety-eight children attending the last year of kindergarten were asked to tell a story twice, at the beginning and at the end of the school year. Mental state talk was analysed by identifying terms and expressions referring to perceptual, physiological, emotional, willingness, cognitive, moral, and sociorelational states. The cluster analysis showed that children’s mental state talk is organized in two main clusters: perceptual states and affective states. Results from the study confirm the feasibility of narratives as an outlet to inquire mental state talk and offer a more fine-grained analysis of mental state talk structure.

  1. Generation and Analysis of Hidden Optical-Polarization States

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Ravi S

    2010-01-01

    A hybrid Optical-Device (Phase-Conjugating Mirror Michelson Interferometer), made up of Phase-conjugate mirror along with ordinary mirror and Polarization Beam-splitter, is formally designed and investigated for the generation of an unusual Optical-Polarization States. This weird yet 'essentially single-mode' optical-polarization state has non-random 'ratio of amplitudes' and non-random 'sum of phases' in orthogonal bases-modes contrary to usual 'truly single-mode' optical-polarization states of which non-random 'ratio of amplitudes' and non-random 'difference of phases' serves as optical-polarization characteristic parameters. Since it is seen not to be characterized by Stokes parameters, one may, therefore, assign the name 'Hidden Optical-Polarization States (HOPS)'. HOPS are characterized by a set of parameters, namely, Hidden Optical-Polarization parameters. Formal experimental schemes are presented to experimentally measure these parameters and, thus, offering characterization of HOPS.

  2. A dynamic analysis of net migration and state employment change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruidl, J S; Pulver, G C

    1991-01-01

    "The dynamic relationship of net migration and employment change is examined for ten selected states of the U.S. using a multivariate time series approach--a vector autoregression (VAR) model. Granger causality tests and dynamic multipliers provide information on the dynamic process. The results suggest a state-level process in which employment change occurs first, and net migration follows with a lag. The procedure appears promising in investigating the timing of net migration and regional employment change."

  3. Voice analysis as an objective state marker in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faurholt-Jepsen, M; Busk, J; Frost, M; Vinberg, M; Christensen, E M; Winther, O; Bardram, J E; Kessing, L V

    2016-07-19

    Changes in speech have been suggested as sensitive and valid measures of depression and mania in bipolar disorder. The present study aimed at investigating (1) voice features collected during phone calls as objective markers of affective states in bipolar disorder and (2) if combining voice features with automatically generated objective smartphone data on behavioral activities (for example, number of text messages and phone calls per day) and electronic self-monitored data (mood) on illness activity would increase the accuracy as a marker of affective states. Using smartphones, voice features, automatically generated objective smartphone data on behavioral activities and electronic self-monitored data were collected from 28 outpatients with bipolar disorder in naturalistic settings on a daily basis during a period of 12 weeks. Depressive and manic symptoms were assessed using the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale 17-item and the Young Mania Rating Scale, respectively, by a researcher blinded to smartphone data. Data were analyzed using random forest algorithms. Affective states were classified using voice features extracted during everyday life phone calls. Voice features were found to be more accurate, sensitive and specific in the classification of manic or mixed states with an area under the curve (AUC)=0.89 compared with an AUC=0.78 for the classification of depressive states. Combining voice features with automatically generated objective smartphone data on behavioral activities and electronic self-monitored data increased the accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of classification of affective states slightly. Voice features collected in naturalistic settings using smartphones may be used as objective state markers in patients with bipolar disorder.

  4. Coherent-state analysis of the quantum bouncing ball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, William H.; Fox, Ronald F.

    2006-03-01

    Gaussian-Klauder coherent states are applied to the bound “quantum bouncer,” a gravitating particle above an infinite potential boundary. These Gaussian-Klauder states, originally created for Rydberg atoms, provide an overcomplete set of wave functions that mimic classical trajectories for extended times through the utilization of energy localization. For the quantum bouncer, analytic methods are applied presently to compute first and second moments of position and momentum operators, and from these results, at least two scalings of Gaussian-Klauder parameters are highlighted, one of which tends to remains localized for markedly more bounces than comparable states that are Gaussian in position (by an order of magnitude in some cases). We close with a connection that compares Gaussian-Klauder states and positional Gaussian states directly for the quantum bouncer, relating the two through a known energy-position duality of Airy functions. Our results, taken together, ultimately reemphasize the primacy of energy localization as a key ingredient for long-lived classical correspondence in systems with smooth spectra.

  5. Analysis of Marketing of Garri in Delta State, Nigeria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ebewore S O; Idoge D E

    2015-01-01

    The study examined the marketing of a cassava-based product (garri) in Delta State, Nigeria. Data was collected from 168 respondents using structured questionnaire. A multi-stage sampling procedure was employed in selecting 168 respondents from six markets in Delta State where garri is produced and marketed. Data was analyzed by the calculation of percentages, means and running of regression. The study revealed that the marketing of garri in Delta State was predominantly a female activity. The study also revealed that the garri was marketed in three channels and that 46.4% were retailers. The study further revealed a reasonable degree of freedom of entry and exit in the garri business in Delta State. Each trader or marketer was able to earn an average profit margin of N2 190.00 (for garri marketers), while the marketing margins for garri was 13.1%. Although the marketers were faced with some challenges the average profit per marketer per month was reasonably high (N40 722). The study further showed that the socio-economic characteristics of the marketers to a large extent had a positive influence on the quantity of garri sold in the study area. From the findings it was recommended that storage facilities, extension services and good road network among others should be provided to improve the marketing of garri in Delta State, Nigeria.

  6. Analysis of slow transitions between nonequilibrium steady states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Dibyendu; Jarzynski, Christopher

    2016-06-01

    Transitions between nonequilibrium steady states obey a generalized Clausius inequality, which becomes an equality in the quasistatic limit. For slow but finite transitions, we show that the behavior of the system is described by a response matrix whose elements are given by a far-from-equilibrium Green-Kubo formula, involving the decay of correlations evaluated in the nonequilibrium steady state. This result leads to a fluctuation-dissipation relation between the mean and variance of the nonadiabatic entropy production, Δ {{s}\\text{na}} . Furthermore, our results extend—to nonequilibrium steady states—the thermodynamic metric structure introduced by Sivak and Crooks for analyzing minimal-dissipation protocols for transitions between equilibrium states.

  7. Voice analysis as an objective state marker in bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faurholt-Jepsen, M.; Busk, Jonas; Frost, M.

    2016-01-01

    Changes in speech have been suggested as sensitive and valid measures of depression and mania in bipolar disorder. The present study aimed at investigating (1) voice features collected during phone calls as objective markers of affective states in bipolar disorder and (2) if combining voice...... features, automatically generated objective smartphone data on behavioral activities and electronic self-monitored data were collected from 28 outpatients with bipolar disorder in naturalistic settings on a daily basis during a period of 12 weeks. Depressive and manic symptoms were assessed using...... and electronic self-monitored data increased the accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of classification of affective states slightly. Voice features collected in naturalistic settings using smartphones may be used as objective state markers in patients with bipolar disorder....

  8. Analysis of stability of a homogeneous state of anisotropic plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zakharov, V. Yu., E-mail: vladiyuz@mail.ru; Chernova, T. G., E-mail: chernova-tg@yandex.ru; Stepanov, S. E., E-mail: stepanov@bmstu-kaluga.ru [Bauman Moscow State Technical University, Kaluga Branch (Russian Federation)

    2015-04-15

    Small-amplitude waves in collisionless magnetized plasma are considered in the framework of one-fluid anisotropic magnetohydrodynamics with allowance for the anisotropy of the pressure and thermal flux. Stability of a homogeneous plasma state is analyzed using an eighth-order dispersion relation. Restrictions on the parameters of the homogeneous state at which the dispersion relation has no complex roots at any value of the angle between the wave vector and the unperturbed magnetic field are obtained. The applied method also makes it possible to determine the types of unstable waves.

  9. A State Space Modeling Approach to Mediation Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Fei; Preacher, Kristopher J.; Ferrer, Emilio

    2014-01-01

    Mediation is a causal process that evolves over time. Thus, a study of mediation requires data collected throughout the process. However, most applications of mediation analysis use cross-sectional rather than longitudinal data. Another implicit assumption commonly made in longitudinal designs for mediation analysis is that the same mediation…

  10. A Phenomenological Analysis of Higher Fock State Contributions to the XcJ Decays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Tao; WU Hui-Fang

    2001-01-01

    We present a phenomenological analysis of higher Fock state contributions to the XcJ decays by using the recent BES experimental data.It is found that the higher Fock state (cc)8g) makes an important contribution to the inclusive and exclusive processes with respect to that from the valence Fock state cc) of the XcJ and some constraints of these contributions are obtained for the Xco and Xc2 states in order to fit the experimental data.``

  11. Trend analysis of precipitation in Jharkhand State, India - Investigating precipitation variability in Jharkhand State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandniha, Surendra Kumar; Meshram, Sarita Gajbhiye; Adamowski, Jan Franklin; Meshram, Chandrashekhar

    2016-08-01

    Jharkhand is one of the eastern states of India which has an agriculture-based economy. Uncertain and erratic distribution of precipitation as well as a lack of state water resources planning is the major limitation to crop growth in the region. In this study, the spatial and temporal variability in precipitation in the state was examined using a monthly precipitation time series of 111 years (1901-2011) from 18 meteorological stations. Autocorrelation and Mann-Kendall/modified Mann-Kendall tests were utilized to detect possible trends, and the Theil and Sen slope estimator test was used to determine the magnitude of change over the entire time series. The most probable change year (change point) was detected using the Pettitt-Mann-Whitney test, and the entire time series was sub-divided into two parts: before and after the change point. Arc-Map 9.3 software was utilized to assess the spatial patterns of the trends over the entire state. Annual precipitation exhibited a decreasing trend in 5 out of 18 stations during the whole period. For annual, monsoon and winter periods of precipitation, the slope test indicated a decreasing trend for all stations during 1901-2011. The highest variability was observed in post-monsoon precipitation (77.87 %) and the lowest variability was observed in the annual series (15.76 %) over the 111 years. An increasing trend in precipitation in the state was found during the period 1901-1949, which was reversed during the subsequent period (1950-2011).

  12. An Analysis of South Carolina Per Pupil State Funding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aud, Susan L.

    2004-01-01

    In many states, including South Carolina, school choice is being discussed as perhaps the best way to both improve student achievement and spend education dollars more efficiently. The evidence from the 12 school choice programs currently running around the country is that the increased competition among public and private schools leads to more…

  13. State of the art applications of social network analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Can, Fazli; Polat, Faruk

    2014-01-01

    Social network analysis increasingly bridges the discovery of patterns in diverse areas of study as more data becomes available and complex. Yet the construction of huge networks from large data often requires entirely different approaches for analysis including; graph theory, statistics, machine learning and data mining. This work covers frontier studies on social network analysis and mining from different perspectives such as social network sites, financial data, e-mails, forums, academic research funds, XML technology, blog content, community detection and clique finding, prediction of user

  14. Coverage Modeling and Reliability Analysis Using Multi-state Function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Fault tree analysis is an effective method for predicting the reliability of a system. It gives a pictorial representation and logical framework for analyzing the reliability. Also, it has been used for a long time as an effective method for the quantitative and qualitative analysis of the failure modes of critical systems. In this paper, we propose a new general coverage model (GCM) based on hardware independent faults. Using this model, an effective software tool can be constructed to detect, locate and recover fault from the faulty system. This model can be applied to identify the key component that can cause the failure of the system using failure mode effect analysis (FMEA).

  15. Fear of Crime in the United States: A Multivariate Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemente, Frank; Kleiman, Michael B.

    1977-01-01

    Multivariate Nominal Scale Analysis (MNA) was used to assess the independent ability of each variable to predict respondents who indicated a fear of crime (42 percent) and those who did not (58 percent). (Author/AM)

  16. State Clean Energy Policies Analysis. State, Utility, and Municipal Loan Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lantz, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2010-05-01

    This report relies on six in-depth interviews with loan program administrators to provide descriptions of existing programs. Findings from the interviews are combined with a review of relevant literature to elicit best practices and lessons learned from existing loan programs. Data collected from each of the loan programs profiled are used to quantify the impacts of these specific loan programs on the commonly cited, overarching state clean energy goals of energy security, economic development, and environmental protection.

  17. Analysis of Ion Charge States in Solar Wind and CMEs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Arati Dasgupta; J. M. Laming

    2008-03-01

    We discuss needs in dielectronic recombination data motivated by recent work directed at a quantitative understanding of ion charge states of various elements observed in situ in the solar wind and CMEs. The competing processes of ionization and recombination lead to departures from collision ionization equilibrium. The use of this as a diagnostic of acceleration and heating processes of the solar wind and CMEs is sensitive to the accuracy of the atomic rates in a way that steady state ionization equilibrium plasmas are not. The most pressing need is dielectronic recombination rates for ions Fe8+-12+. These are among the dominant species observed in various regions of the solar wind and CMEs, and in remotely sensed EUV spectra.

  18. AGEING POPULATION: COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS AMONG EUROPEAN UNION STATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura DIACONU (MAXIM

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aging population is a global phenomenon, which has affected almost all the EU states. The consequences are very important since it affects the socio-economic environment usually on the long run. Some of them could consist in increasing the public expenditure on pensions, social security and health services, which will raise the overall burden on the working population. Sometimes, a significant reduction of the labour force will even diminish the growth rate of an economy. Considering these aspects, the present paper intends to analyse the demographic situation from the EU states, the factors that have generated it and to identify the possible future trends. To determine the evolution of the ageing population phenomenon, we have analysed some demographic indicators included in various statistical reports and databases, such as the fertility rate, the median age, the percentage of population over a certain age and the age dependency ratio.

  19. State-Space Methods for µ-Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Helmersson, Anders

    1994-01-01

    This paper discusses state-space methods for analyzing stability of continuous time linear systems subject to structured uncertainties. Four types of uncertainties are discussed: linear parametric and dynamic uncertainties (real and complex µ) and nonlinear parametric and dynamic uncertainties. The method employs LMIs equipped with a scaling matrix adapted to the type of uncertainty. For parametric uncertainties conservativeness is reduced by branch and bound schemes. Different types of uncer...

  20. Coupled state analysis of electron excitations in asymmetric collision systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehler, G.; Reus, T. de; Mueller, U.; Reinhardt, J.; Mueller, B.; Greiner, W.; Soff, G.

    1985-11-01

    A coupled channel formalism is presented, using relativistic basis states of the target atom. Screening effects are incorporated by means of an effective potential of the Hartree-Fock-Slater type. Relativistic wave packets are employed for the description of the continuum. The impact parameter dependence of the K-hole production in p-Ag collisions is calculated, including quadrupole contributions of the projectile Coulomb potential. The results are compared with experimental data. (orig.).

  1. Analysis of vegetative homeostasis state of elite handball players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prystupa Y.N.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to study characteristics and dynamic of elite handball players’ physiological indicators. Material: In experiment elite handball players (n=112, age 18-35 years participated. For determination of vegetative homeostasis state we analyzed variability of heart rhythm. The researches were conducted in laboratory conditions in rest state, in lying position during 5 minutes. Results: it was found that organism’s adaptation reactions to training loads go with different tension of regulation systems. At the end of competition period there appears hyper-kinetic syndrome. It witnessed insufficiency of means, which permit to maintain optimal regulation of cardio-vascular system and increase its functional potentials. Conclusions: indicators of cardio-vascular system and their dynamic w3itnessed maintaining of high level of handball players’ organism hemodynamic provisioning. High level of vegetative homeostasis pointed at certain degree of sportsmen’s fitness. Such state is sufficient for preservation of high potential of sympathetic -adrenaline system and overcoming of fatigue processes.

  2. State stability analysis for the fermionic projector in the continuum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoch, Stefan Ludwig

    2008-07-01

    The principle of the fermionic projector in the continuum gives an indication that there might be a deeper reason why elementary particles only appear with a few definite masses. In this thesis the existence of approximately state-stable configurations is shown. In order to achieve that, we make use of a variational principle for the fermionic projector in the continuum which contains certain contributions supported on the light cone. In a certain sense, these extra terms contain the structure of the underlying discrete spacetime. Lorentz invariant distributions and their convolutions are studied. Some of these are well-defined because the convolution integrals have compactly supported integrands. Other convolutions can be regularized such that the property of being ill-defined only plays a role on the light cone. These results are used to analyze the variational principle and to give criteria for state stability, which can be numerically analyzed. Some plots are presented to allow a decision about state stability and to show how possible configurations could look like. (orig.)

  3. SBWR Model for Steady-State and Transient Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Espinosa-Paredes

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a model of a simplified boiling water reactor (SBWR to analyze the steady-state and transient behavior. The SBWR model is based on approximations of lumped and distributed parameters to consider neutronics and natural circulation processes. The main components of the model are vessel dome, downcomer, lower plenum, core (channel and fuel, upper plenum, pressure, and level controls. Further consideration of the model is the natural circulation path in the internal circuit of the reactor, which governs the safety performance of the SBWR. To demonstrate the applicability of the model, the predictions were compared with plant data, manufacturer_s predictions, and RELAP5 under steady-state and transient conditions of a typical BWR. In steady-state conditions, the profiles of the main variables of the SBWR core such as superficial velocity, void fraction, temperatures, and convective heat transfer coefficient are presented and analyzed. The transient behavior of SBWR was analyzed during the closure of all main steam line isolation valves (MSIVs. Our results in this transient show that the cooling system due to natural circulation in the SBWR is around 70% of the rated core flow. According to the results shown here, one of the main conclusions of this work is that the simplified model could be very helpful in the licensing process.

  4. Complex Analysis of Financial State and Performance of Construction Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Algirdas Krivka

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the financial state and performance of large constructions enterprises by applying financial indicators. As there is no one single decisive financial indicator enabling to objectively assess enterprise performance, the multi-criteria decision making (MCDM methods are applied with four groups of financial ratios (profitability, liquidity, solvency and asset turnover acting as evaluation criteria, while the alternatives assessed are two enterprises compared throughout the reference period of three years, also with the average indicator values of the whole construction sector. The weights of the criteria have been estimated by involving competent experts with chi-square test employed to check the degree of agreement of expert estimates. The research methodology contributes to the issue of complex evaluation of enterprise financial state and performance, while the result of the multi-criteria assessment – the ranking of enterprises and sector average with respect to financial state and performance – could be considered worth attention from business owners, potential investors, customers or other possible stakeholders.

  5. Comparative proteome analysis of Milnesium tardigradum in early embryonic state versus adults in active and anhydrobiotic state.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Schokraie

    Full Text Available Tardigrades have fascinated researchers for more than 300 years because of their extraordinary capability to undergo cryptobiosis and survive extreme environmental conditions. However, the survival mechanisms of tardigrades are still poorly understood mainly due to the absence of detailed knowledge about the proteome and genome of these organisms. Our study was intended to provide a basis for the functional characterization of expressed proteins in different states of tardigrades. High-throughput, high-accuracy proteomics in combination with a newly developed tardigrade specific protein database resulted in the identification of more than 3000 proteins in three different states: early embryonic state and adult animals in active and anhydrobiotic state. This comprehensive proteome resource includes protein families such as chaperones, antioxidants, ribosomal proteins, cytoskeletal proteins, transporters, protein channels, nutrient reservoirs, and developmental proteins. A comparative analysis of protein families in the different states was performed by calculating the exponentially modified protein abundance index which classifies proteins in major and minor components. This is the first step to analyzing the proteins involved in early embryonic development, and furthermore proteins which might play an important role in the transition into the anhydrobiotic state.

  6. Comparative proteome analysis of Milnesium tardigradum in early embryonic state versus adults in active and anhydrobiotic state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schokraie, Elham; Warnken, Uwe; Hotz-Wagenblatt, Agnes; Grohme, Markus A; Hengherr, Steffen; Förster, Frank; Schill, Ralph O; Frohme, Marcus; Dandekar, Thomas; Schnölzer, Martina

    2012-01-01

    Tardigrades have fascinated researchers for more than 300 years because of their extraordinary capability to undergo cryptobiosis and survive extreme environmental conditions. However, the survival mechanisms of tardigrades are still poorly understood mainly due to the absence of detailed knowledge about the proteome and genome of these organisms. Our study was intended to provide a basis for the functional characterization of expressed proteins in different states of tardigrades. High-throughput, high-accuracy proteomics in combination with a newly developed tardigrade specific protein database resulted in the identification of more than 3000 proteins in three different states: early embryonic state and adult animals in active and anhydrobiotic state. This comprehensive proteome resource includes protein families such as chaperones, antioxidants, ribosomal proteins, cytoskeletal proteins, transporters, protein channels, nutrient reservoirs, and developmental proteins. A comparative analysis of protein families in the different states was performed by calculating the exponentially modified protein abundance index which classifies proteins in major and minor components. This is the first step to analyzing the proteins involved in early embryonic development, and furthermore proteins which might play an important role in the transition into the anhydrobiotic state.

  7. State space modelling and data analysis exercises in LISA Pathfinder

    CERN Document Server

    Nofrarias, M; Armano, M; Audley, H; Auger, G; Benedetti, M; Binetruy, P; Bogenstahl, J; Bortoluzzi, D; Bosetti, P; Brandt, N; Caleno, M; Cañizares, P; Cavalleri, A; Cesa, M; Chmeissani, M; Conchillo, A; Congedo, G; Cristofolin, I; Cruise, M; Danzmann, K; De Marchi, F; Diaz-Aguilo, M; Diepholz, I; Dixon, G; Dolesi, R; Dunbar, N; Fauste, J; Ferraioli, L; Fichter, V Ferroni W; Fitzsimons, E; Freschi, M; Marin, A García; Marirrodriga, C García; Gesa, R Gerndt L; Gibert, F; Giardini, D; Grimani, C; Grynagier, A; Guillaume, B; Guzmán, F; Harrison, I; Heinzel, G; Hernández, V; Hewitson, M; Hollington, D; Hough, J; Hoyland, D; Hueller, M; Huesler, J; Jennrich, O; Jetzer, P; Johlander, B; Killow, C; Llamas, X; Lloro, I; Lobo, A; Maarschalkerweerd, R; Madden, S; Mance, D; Mateos, I; McNamara, P W; Mendes, J; Mitchell, E; Monsky, A; Nicolini, D; Nicolodi, D; Pedersen, F; Perreur-Lloyd, M; Plagnol, E; Prat, P; Racca, G D; Ramos-Castro, J; Reiche, J; Perez, J A Romera; Robertson, D; Rozemeijer, H; Sanjuan, J; Schleicher, A; Schulte, M; Shaul, D; Stagnaro, L; Strandmoe, S; Steier, F; Sumner, T J; Taylor, A; Texier, D; Trenkel, C; Vitale, H-B Tu S; Wanner, G; Ward, H; Waschke, S; Wass, P; Weber, W J; Ziegler, T; Zweifel, P

    2013-01-01

    LISA Pathfinder is a mission planned by the European Space Agency to test the key technologies that will allow the detection of gravitational waves in space. The instrument on-board, the LISA Technology package, will undergo an exhaustive campaign of calibrations and noise characterisation campaigns in order to fully describe the noise model. Data analysis plays an important role in the mission and for that reason the data analysis team has been developing a toolbox which contains all the functionalities required during operations. In this contribution we give an overview of recent activities, focusing on the improvements in the modelling of the instrument and in the data analysis campaigns performed both with real and simulated data.

  8. State Space Modelling and Data Analysis Exercises in LISA Pathfinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nofrarias, M.; Antonucci, F.; Armano, M.; Audley, H.; Auger, G.; Benedetti, M.; Binetruy, P.; Bogenstahl, J.; Bortoluzzi, D.; Brandt, N.; Caleno, M.; Cavalleri, A.; Congedo, G.; Cruise, M.; Danzmann, K.; De Marchi, F.; Diaz-Aguilo, M.; Diepholz, I.; Dixon, G.; Dolesi, R.; Dunbar, N.; Fauste, J.; Ferraioli, L.; Ferroni, V.; Fichter, W.; Fitzsimons, E.; Freschi, M.; García Marirrodriga, C.; Gerndt, R.; Gesa, L.; Gibert, F.; Giardini, D.; Grimani, C.; Grynagier, A.; Guzmán, F.; Harrison, I.; Heinzel, G.; Hewitson, M.; Hollington, D.; Hoyland, D.; Hueller, M.; Huesler, J.; Jennrich, O.; Jetzer, P.; Johlander, B.; Karnesis, N.; Korsakova, N.; Killow, C.; Llamas, X.; Lloro, I.; Lobo, A.; Maarschalkerweerd, R.; Madden, S.; Mance, D.; Martin, V.; Mateos, I.; McNamara, P.; Mendes, J.; Mitchell, E.; Nicolodi, D.; Perreur-Lloyd, M.; Plagnol, E.; Prat, P.; Ramos-Castro, J.; Reiche, J.; Romera Perez, J. A.; Robertson, D.; Rozemeijer, H.; Russano, G.; Schleicher, A.; Shaul, D.; Sopuerta, C. F.; Sumner, T. J.; Taylor, A.; Texier, D.; Trenkel, C.; Tu, H. B.; Vitale, S.; Wanner, G.; Ward, H.; Waschke, S.; Wass, P.; Wealthy, D.; Wen, S.; Weber, W.; Ziegler, T.; Zweifel, P.

    2013-01-01

    LISA Pathfinder is a mission planned by the European Space Agency (ESA) to test the key technologies that will allow the detection of gravitational waves in space. The instrument on-board, the LISA Technology package, will undergo an exhaustive campaign of calibrations and noise characterisation campaigns in order to fully describe the noise model. Data analysis plays an important role in the mission and for that reason the data analysis team has been developing a toolbox which contains all the functionality required during operations. In this contribution we give an overview of recent activities, focusing on the improvements in the modelling of the instrument and in the data analysis campaigns performed both with real and simulated data.

  9. Characterization of esophageal physiology using mechanical state analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Eduard Leibbrandt

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The esophagus functions to transport swallowed fluids and food from the pharynx to the stomach. The esophageal muscles governing bolus transport comprise circular striated muscle of the proximal esophagus and circular smooth muscle of the distal esophagus. Longitudinal smooth muscle contraction provides a mechanical advantage to bolus transit during circular smooth muscle contraction. Esophageal striated muscle is directly controlled by neural circuits originating in the central nervous system, resulting in coordinated contractions. In contrast, the esophageal smooth muscle is controlled by enteric circuits modulated by extrinsic central neural connections resulting in neural relaxation and contraction. The esophageal muscles are modulated by sensory information arising from within the lumen. Contraction or relaxation, which changes the diameter of the lumen, alters the intraluminal pressure and ultimately inhibits or promotes flow of content. This relationship that exists between the changes in diameter and concurrent changes in intraluminal pressure has been used previously to identify the ‘mechanical states’ of the circular muscle; that is when the muscles are passively or actively, relaxing or contracting. Detecting these changes in the mechanical state of the muscle has been difficult and, as the current interpretation of esophageal motility is based largely upon pressure measurement (manometry, subtle changes in the muscle function during peristalsis can be missed. We hypothesized that quantification of mechanical states of the esophageal circular muscles and the pressure-diameter properties that define them, would allow objective characterization of the mechanisms that govern esophageal peristalsis. To achieve this we analyzed barium swallows captured by simultaneous videofluoroscopy and pressure with impedance recording. From these data we demonstrated that intraluminal impedance measurements could be used to determine changes in the

  10. PERSONAL INCOME TAX POLICY ANALYSIS: ALBANIA VS. UNITED STATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agim Binaj

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Personal income tax has become an important part of the Albania’s revenue system. Revenue from personal income tax was more than 27.9 billion ALL for the year of 2011 which makes up a 3% increase when compared to the previous year. This paper compares and contrasts Albanian and American income tax systems by describing many similarities as well as distinctive characteristics that were found. Professor Agim Binaj of Agricultural University of Tirana highlights the need for a fair personal income tax reform in Albania. This paper concludes with recommendations and an agenda for future research on tax policy using lessons from the United States tax system.

  11. ANALYSIS OF PENSION REFORMS IN EU MEMBER STATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELENA LUCIA CROITORU

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The demographic situation in the European Union is changing. Demographic trends have a significant impact on social policies in each state and in particular on social security pensions. By 2050, the number of young active population will decrease dramatically. Meanwhile, the older population will triple. And so, the pension expenditure will increase and regarding this many countries reform they pension systems. Pension systems in the European Union are very different, due to the fact, that there is a tradition regarding the way that pensions are granted and the various phases of the reform process.

  12. RESULTS OF 2011 STATE DUMA ELECTIONS: SOCIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa Fedotova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Sociological forecasting of political processes arose as a powerful industry. Nevertheless, results of the polls conducted by the major agencies diverged significantly with the voting in 2011 State Duma elections. The article analyses major complications in forecasting results of elections using sociological data, including psychological factors, role of mass media and administrative resource. The author identifies strategies of the opposition, as well as proves predominant importance of Vladimir Putin for the electoral success of the ruling party on the basis of the polls.

  13. Spectroscopic analysis of transition state energy levels - Bending-rotational spectrum and lifetime analysis of H3 quasibound states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Meishan; Mladenovic, Mirjana; Truhlar, Donald G.; Schwenke, David W.; Sharafeddin, Omar

    1989-01-01

    Converged quantum mechanical calculations of scattering matrices and transition probabilities are reported for the reaction of H with H2 with total angular momentum 0, 1, and 4 as functions of total energy in the range 0.85-1.15 eV on an accurate potential energy surface. The resonance structure is illustrated with Argand diagrams. State-to-state reactive collision delay times and lifetimes are presented. For J = 0, 1, and 4, the lowest-energy H3 resonance is at total energies of 0.983, 0.985, and 1.01 eV, respectively, with lifetimes of about 16-17 fs. For J = 1 and 4 there is a higher-energy resonance at 1.10-1.11 eV. For J = 1 the lifetime is about 4 fs and for J = 4 it is about 1 fs.

  14. Fiscal policy in Indonesia: Analysis of state budget 2017 in Islamic economic perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Jaelani, Aan

    2016-01-01

    This study of fiscal policy in State Budget (APBN) 2017 that the task of the Indonesian government to run them to create prosperity for the community. The state budget is prepared using the rules of public economics consisting of state revenues, state expenditures, and budget financing have the posture of the budget, the issues of fiscal policy, and the role of the government in carrying out its functions. With the analysis of Islamic economics, fiscal policy in the State Budget 2017 is the d...

  15. Analysis of quantization noise and state estimation with quantized measurements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The approximate correction of the additive white noise model in quantized Kalman filter is investigated under certain conditions. The probability density function of the error of quantized measurements is analyzed theoretically and experimentally. The analysis is based on the probability theory and nonparametric density estimation technique, respectively. The approximator of probability density function of quantized measurement noise is given. The numerical results of nonparametric density estimation algori...

  16. State Clean Energy Policies Analysis: State, Utility, and Municipal Loan Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lantz, E.

    2010-05-01

    High initial costs can impede the deployment of clean energy technologies. Financing can reduce these costs. And, state, municipal, and utility-sponsored loan programs have emerged to fill the gap between clean energy technology financing needs and private sector lending. In general, public loan programs are more favorable to clean energy technologies than are those offered by traditional lending institutions; however, public loan programs address only the high up-front costs of clean energy systems, and the technology installed under these loan programs rarely supports clean energy production at levels that have a notable impact on the broader energy sector. This report discusses ways to increase the impact of these loan programs and suggests related policy design considerations.

  17. A quantitative analysis of the state of knowledge of turtles of the United States and Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovich, Jeffrey E.; Ennen, Joshua R.

    2013-01-01

    The “information age” ushered in an explosion of knowledge and access to knowledge that continues to revolutionize society. Knowledge about turtles, as measured by number of published papers, has been growing at an exponential rate since the early 1970s, a phenomenon mirrored in all scientific disciplines. Although knowledge about turtles, as measured by number of citations for papers in scientific journals, has been growing rapidly, this taxonomic group remains highly imperiled suggesting that knowledge is not always successfully translated into effective conservation of turtles. We reviewed the body of literature on turtles of the United States and Canada and found that: 1) the number of citations is biased toward large-bodied species, 2) the number of citations is biased toward wide-ranging species, and 3) conservation status has little effect on the accumulation of knowledge for a species, especially after removing the effects of body size or range size. The dispersion of knowledge, measured by Shannon Weiner diversity and evenness indices across species, was identical from 1994 to 2009 suggesting that poorly studied species remained poorly-studied species while well-studied species remained well studied. Several species listed as threatened or endangered under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (e.g., Pseudemys alabamensis, Sternotherus depressus, and Graptemys oculifera) remain poorly studied with the estimated number of citations for each ranging from only 13-24. The low number of citations for these species could best be explained by their restricted distribution and/or their smaller size. Despite the exponential increase in knowledge of turtles in the United States and Canada, no species of turtle listed under the Endangered Species Act has ever been delisted for reason of recovery. Therefore, increased knowledge does not necessarily contribute appreciably to recovery of threatened turtles.

  18. 13C solid-state NMR analysis of heterogeneous structure of beeswax in native state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kameda, Tsunenori

    2005-12-01

    I investigated the molecular structure of natural wax from Japanese bees (Apis cerana japonica) in its native state (neither purified nor recrystallized) by 13C and 1H solid-state NMR. Two strong 13C peaks at 32.9 and 34.0 ppm were attributed to signals from internal-chain methylene carbons [int-(CH2)] in two types of crystal form. The peak at 32.9 ppm was assigned to an orthorhombic crystal form, and that at 34.0 ppm was assigned to a triclinic or monoclinic form. In both crystalline regions, bi-exponential decay of 13C spin-lattice relaxation [T1(C)] for the crystalline peaks due to chain diffusion was observed. 1H spin-lattice relaxation [T1(H)] values for protons of the CH3 group and for int-(CH2) in the crystalline and amorphous regions were identical; this was interpreted as being due to averaging of the T1(H) relaxation rates via spin diffusion. In contrast, although the T_{{1}_{\\rho}}(H) decay curves for protons of the CH3 group and for int-(CH2) in the amorphous and orthorhombic forms were almost identical, those of the triclinic or monoclinic forms were different. This unhomogeneous character of T_{{1}_{\\rho}}(H) was interpreted as resulting from differences in the molecular composition of each crystal form. Moreover, two components with long and short 1H spin-spin relaxation [T2(H)] values, arising from the mobile and rigid phases, respectively, were observed at above about -30 °C.

  19. {sup 13}C solid-state NMR analysis of heterogeneous structure of beeswax in native state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kameda, Tsunenori [National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-8634 (Japan)

    2005-12-21

    I investigated the molecular structure of natural wax from Japanese bees (Apis cerana japonica) in its native state (neither purified nor recrystallized) by {sup 13}C and {sup 1}H solid-state NMR. Two strong {sup 13}C peaks at 32.9 and 34.0 ppm were attributed to signals from internal-chain methylene carbons [int-(CH{sub 2})] in two types of crystal form. The peak at 32.9 ppm was assigned to an orthorhombic crystal form, and that at 34.0 ppm was assigned to a triclinic or monoclinic form. In both crystalline regions, bi-exponential decay of {sup 13}C spin-lattice relaxation [T{sub 1}(C)] for the crystalline peaks due to chain diffusion was observed. {sup 1}H spin-lattice relaxation [T{sub 1}(H)] values for protons of the CH{sub 3} group and for int-(CH{sub 2}) in the crystalline and amorphous regions were identical; this was interpreted as being due to averaging of the T{sub 1}(H) relaxation rates via spin diffusion. In contrast, although the T{sub 1{sub {rho}}}(H) decay curves for protons of the CH{sub 3} group and for int-(CH{sub 2}) in the amorphous and orthorhombic forms were almost identical, those of the triclinic or monoclinic forms were different. This unhomogeneous character of T{sub 1{sub {rho}}}(H) was interpreted as resulting from differences in the molecular composition of each crystal form. Moreover, two components with long and short {sup 1}H spin-spin relaxation [T{sub 2}(H)] values, arising from the mobile and rigid phases, respectively, were observed at above about -30 deg. C.

  20. Analysis of energy states in modulation doped multiquantum well heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, G.; Henderson, T.; Peng, C. K.; Huang, D.; Morkoc, H.

    1990-01-01

    A precise and effective numerical procedure to model the band diagram of modulation doped multiquantum well heterostructures is presented. This method is based on a self-consistent iterative solution of the Schroedinger equation and the Poisson equation. It can be used rather easily in any arbitrary modulation-doped structure. In addition to confined energy subbands, the unconfined states can be calculated as well. Examples on realistic device structures are given to demonstrate capabilities of this procedure. The numerical results are in good agreement with experiments. With the aid of this method the transitions involving both the confined and unconfined conduction subbands in a modulation doped AlGaAs/GaAs superlattice, and in a strained layer InGaAs/GaAs superlattice are identified. These results represent the first observation of unconfined transitions in modulation doped multiquantum well structures.

  1. Analysis of steady-state ductile crack growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niordson, Christian

    1999-01-01

    the finite element mesh remains fixed relative to the tip of the growing crack. Fracture is modelled using two different local crack growth criteria. One is a crack opening displacement criterion, while the other is a model in which a cohesive zone is imposed in front of the crack tip along the fracture zone......The fracture strength under quasi-static steady-state crack growth in an elastic-plastic material joined by a laser weld is analyzed. Laser welding gives high mismatch between the yield stress within the weld and the yield stress in the base material. This is due to the fast termic cycle, which....... Both models predict that in general a thinner laser weld gives higher interface strength. Furthermore, both fracture criteria show, that the preferred path of the crack is close outside the weld material; a phenomenon also observed in experiments....

  2. Quantum information analysis of electronic states at different molecular structures

    CERN Document Server

    Barcza, G; Marti, K H; Reiher, M

    2010-01-01

    We have studied transition metal clusters from a quantum information theory perspective using the density-matrix renormalization group (DMRG) method. We demonstrate the competition between entanglement and interaction localization. We also discuss the application of the configuration interaction based dynamically extended active space procedure which significantly reduces the effective system size and accelerates the speed of convergence for complicated molecular electronic structures to a great extent. Our results indicate the importance of taking entanglement among molecular orbitals into account in order to devise an optimal orbital ordering and carry out efficient calculations on transition metal clusters. We propose a recipe to perform DMRG calculations in a black-box fashion and we point out the connections of our work to other tensor network state approaches.

  3. Face Expression Recognition and Analysis: The State of the Art

    CERN Document Server

    Bettadapura, Vinay

    2012-01-01

    The automatic recognition of facial expressions has been an active research topic since the early nineties. There have been several advances in the past few years in terms of face detection and tracking, feature extraction mechanisms and the techniques used for expression classification. This paper surveys some of the published work since 2001 till date. The paper presents a time-line view of the advances made in this field, the applications of automatic face expression recognizers, the characteristics of an ideal system, the databases that have been used and the advances made in terms of their standardization and a detailed summary of the state of the art. The paper also discusses facial parameterization using FACS Action Units (AUs) and MPEG-4 Facial Animation Parameters (FAPs) and the recent advances in face detection, tracking and feature extraction methods. Notes have also been presented on emotions, expressions and facial features, discussion on the six prototypic expressions and the recent studies on e...

  4. An Adsorption Equilibria Model for Steady State Analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Ismail, Azhar Bin

    2016-02-29

    The investigation of adsorption isotherms is a prime factor in the ongoing development of adsorption cycles for a spectrum of advanced, thermally-driven engineering applications, including refrigeration, natural gas storage, and desalination processes. In this work, a novel semi-empirical mathematical model has been derived that significantly enhances the prediction of the steady state uptake in adsorbent surfaces. This model, a combination of classical Langmuir and a novel modern adsorption isotherm equation, allows for a higher degree of regression of both energetically homogenous and heterogeneous adsorbent surfaces compared to several isolated classical and modern isotherm models, and has the ability to regress isotherms for all six types under the IUPAC classification. Using a unified thermodynamic framework, a single asymmetrical energy distribution function (EDF) has also been proposed that directly relates the mathematical model to the adsorption isotherm types. This fits well with the statistical rate theory approach and offers mechanistic insights into adsorption isotherms.

  5. Strategic Sequencing for State Distributed PV Policies: A Quantitative Analysis of Policy Impacts and Interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doris, E.; Krasko, V.A.

    2012-10-01

    State and local policymakers show increasing interest in spurring the development of customer-sited distributed generation (DG), in particular solar photovoltaic (PV) markets. Prompted by that interest, this analysis examines the use of state policy as a tool to support the development of a robust private investment market. This analysis builds on previous studies that focus on government subsidies to reduce installation costs of individual projects and provides an evaluation of the impacts of policies on stimulating private market development.

  6. A state-level analysis of the economic impacts of medical tourism in Malaysia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klijs, J.; Ormond, M.E.; Mainil, T.; Peerlings, J.H.M.; Heijman, W.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    In Malaysia, a country that ranks among the world's most recognised medical tourism destinations, medical tourism is identified as a potential economic growth engine for both medical and non-medical sectors. A state-level analysis of economic impacts is important, given differences between states in

  7. Relaxation Mode Analysis and Markov State Relaxation Mode Analysis for Chignolin in Aqueous Solution at a Transition Temperature

    CERN Document Server

    Mitsutake, Ayori

    2015-01-01

    It is important to extract reaction coordinates or order parameters from protein simulations in order to investigate the local-minimum-energy states and the transition between them. The most popular method is principal component analysis, which extracts modes with large conformational fluctuation around an average structure. For protein systems, we recently have applied relaxation mode analysis, which investigate dynamics properties of structural fluctuations of proteins and extract slow relaxation modes. In this article, we apply relaxation mode analysis to extract reaction coordinates for the system, in which there are large conformational changes such as folding/unfolding simulation. We have performed a 750 ns simulation of chignolin at a transition temperature and observed many transitions between the most stable, misfolded and unfolded states. Here, we apply principal component analysis and relaxation mode analysis to the system. In relaxation mode analysis, we extract good reaction coordinates automatic...

  8. Analysis of Life Histories: A State Space Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajulton, Fernando

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available EnglishThe computer package LIFEHIST written by the author, is meant for analyzinglife histories through a state-space approach. Basic ideas on which the various programs have beenbuilt are described in this paper in a non-mathematical language. Users can use various programs formultistate analyses based on Markov and semi-Markov frameworks and sequences of transitions implied inlife histories. The package is under constant revision and programs for using a few specific modelsthe author thinks will be useful for analyzing longitudinal data will be incorporated in the nearfuture.FrenchLe système d'ordinateur LIFEHIST écrit par l'auteur est établi pour analyser desévénements au cours de la vie par une approche qui tient compte des états aucours du temps. Les idées fondamentales à la base des divers programmes dumodule sont décrites dans un langage non-mathématique. Le systèmeLIFEHIST peut être utilisé pour des analyses Markov et semi-Markov desséquences d’événements au cours de la vie. Le module est sous révisionconstante, et des programmes que l’auteur compte ajouter pour l'usage dedonnées longitudinales sont décrit.

  9. The state of organic solar cells-A meta analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Mikkel; Carlé, Jon Eggert; Søndergaard, Roar R.;

    2013-01-01

    Solar cells that convert sunlight into electrical power have demonstrated a large and consistent growth through several decades. The growth has spawned research on new technologies that potentially enable much faster, less costly and environmentally friendly manufacture from earth abundant materi...... materials. Here we review carbon based solar cells through a complete analysis of all the data that has been reported so far and we highlight what can be expected from carbon based technologies and draw scenarios of how it can be made of immediate use.......Solar cells that convert sunlight into electrical power have demonstrated a large and consistent growth through several decades. The growth has spawned research on new technologies that potentially enable much faster, less costly and environmentally friendly manufacture from earth abundant...

  10. Steady-state thermal-hydraulic analysis of SCWR assembly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaojing LIU; Xu CHENG

    2008-01-01

    Among the six gen-Ⅳ reactor concepts recom-mended by the gen-Ⅳ international forum (GIF), super-critical water-cooled reactor (SCWR), the only reactor with water as coolant, achieves a high thermal efficiency and, subsequently, has economic advantages over the existing reactors due to its high outlet temperature. A thermal-hydraulic analysis of the SCWR assembly is per-formed in this paper using the modified COBRA-Ⅳ code. Two approaches to reduce the hot channel factor are investigated: decreasing the moderator mass flow and increasing the thermal resistance between moderator channel and its adjacent sub-channels. It is shown that heat transfer deterioration cannot be avoided in SCWR fuel assembly. It is, therefore, highly required to calculate the cladding temperature accurately and to preserve the fuel rod cladding integrity under heat transfer deteriora-tion conditions.

  11. State Inspection for Transmission Lines Based on Independent Component Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Li-jia; JIANG Xiu-chen; SHENG Ge-hao; YANG Wei-wei

    2009-01-01

    Monitoring transmission towers is of great importance to prevent severe thefts on them and ensure the reliability and safety of the power grid operation. Independent component analysis (ICA) is a method for finding underlying factors or components from multivariate statistical data based on dimension reduction methods, and it is applicable to extract the non-stationary signals. FastICA based on negentropy is presented to effectively extract and separate the vibration signals caused by human activity in this paper. A new method combined empirical mode decomposition (EMD) technique with the adaptive threshold method is applied to extract the vibration pulses, and suppress the interference signals. The practical tests demonstrate that the method proposed in the paper is effective in separating and extracting the vibration signals.

  12. Pre-Steady-State Kinetic Analysis of Single-Nucleotide Incorporation by DNA Polymerases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yan; Peter Guengerich, F

    2016-06-01

    Pre-steady-state kinetic analysis is a powerful and widely used method to obtain multiple kinetic parameters. This protocol provides a step-by-step procedure for pre-steady-state kinetic analysis of single-nucleotide incorporation by a DNA polymerase. It describes the experimental details of DNA substrate annealing, reaction mixture preparation, handling of the RQF-3 rapid quench-flow instrument, denaturing polyacrylamide DNA gel preparation, electrophoresis, quantitation, and data analysis. The core and unique part of this protocol is the rationale for preparation of the reaction mixture (the ratio of the polymerase to the DNA substrate) and methods for conducting pre-steady-state assays on an RQF-3 rapid quench-flow instrument, as well as data interpretation after analysis. In addition, the methods for the DNA substrate annealing and DNA polyacrylamide gel preparation, electrophoresis, quantitation and analysis are suitable for use in other studies. © 2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  13. Using S-transform in EEG analysis for measuring an alert versus mental fatigue state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Yvonne; Thuraisingham, Ranjit; Wijesuriya, Nirupama; Craig, Ashley; Nguyen, Hung

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents research that investigated the effects of mental fatigue on brain activity using electroencephalogram (EEG) signals. Since EEG signals are considered to be non-stationary, time-frequency analysis has frequently been used for analysis. The S-transform is a time-frequency analysis method and is used in this paper to analyze EEG signals during alert and fatigue states during a driving simulator task. Repeated-measure MANOVA results show significant differences between alert and fatigue states within the alpha (8-13Hz) frequency band. The two sites demonstrating the greatest increases in alpha activity during fatigue were the Cz and P4 sites. The results show that S-transform analysis can be used to distinguish between alert and fatigue states in the EEG and also supports the use of the S-transform for EEG analysis.

  14. Measurement of solid state nuclear tracks in apatite by thermal analysis method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE ShaoRong; YANG TongSuo; LI TianXiang; LU BaiZuo; JI ShuLi; HENG ShuYun

    2009-01-01

    A new measurement method of thermal analysis for solid state nuclear tracks is proposed. The an-nealing heat emitted by the unit mass of solid state nuclear tracks in heavy particles of the sample is determined via micro-thermal analysis method. Hence, the number of solid state nuclear tracks in the unit mass of sample is determined. In particular, this paper introduces the method and its significance to measure the number of a-particles nuclear tracks in apatite by measuring the annealing heat of a-particles nuclear tracks. In addition, the mechanism of the measurement and potential applications are discussed.

  15. PIXE analysis of Thaumatococcus danielli in Osun state of Nigeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olabanji, S.O.; Osinkolu, G.A.; Pelemo, D.A., E-mail: skayode2002@yahoo.co.uk [Centre for Energy Research and Development (CERD), Obafemi Awolowo University (OAU), Ile-lfe (Nigeria); Oladele, A.T. [Department of Pharmacognosy, Facully of Pharmacy, Obafemi Awolowo University (OAU), Ile-lfe (Nigeria)

    2013-07-01

    Full text: Thaumatococcus danielli (Marantaceae Benn.) Benth [Miraculous berry] is a multi-purpose perennial herb that is widely distributed in the tropical rainforest areas of West Africa. The leaves are simple, broad with slender stems connected underground to the perennial rhizomes. Farmers grow it in pockets within cocoa (Theobroma cacao) and kola (Cola nitida) plantations in South western Nigeria, Ghana and Cameroon. Propagation is mainly by rhizomes cuttings and occasionally by the seed. T. danielli plays very important roles in the rural economy generating income for the peasant farmers and traders. T. danielli is used mainly in three ways by the people. The leaves are used in food wrapping because of its very good flavour and its preservative ability; and roof thatching while the stem is locally used as straw in weaving mats and in making baskets, bags, hats, hand fans and other artistic works. Research has shown that the fruits of T.danielli contain low-calorie protein named 'Thaumatin' which is about 2000 times as sweet as sucrose. The stems also can be processed to produce fibre industrially in addition to the industrial potential of Thaumatin. Thaumatin have been implicated to be suitable sweetener for diabetes patients. However, despite the great economic values, potentials and benefits of T. danielli, there is hardly any data on its elemental compositions. This work therefore presents the elemental composition of T. danielli plant's parts (Ieaves, stems, fruits (mesocarps), seeds and roots (rhizomes)) from six different towns in Osun State of Nigeria using the Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) technique. The 2.0 MV collimated proton beam from the NEC 1.7 MV 5SDH Tandem accelerator of the Centre for Energy Research and Development(CERD), Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-lfe, Nigeria was employed for the measurements. The results showed the detection of elements which include K, Ca, Fe, Mn, Sr, Zn, Pb, Br, and CI at various

  16. The current state of facial prosthetics – A multicenter analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiele, Oliver C; Brom, Jörn; Dunsche, Anton; Ehrenfeld, Michael; Federspil, Philippe; Frerich, Bernhard; Hölzle, Frank; Klein, Martin; Kreppel, Matthias; Kübler, Alexander C; Kübler, Norbert R; Kunkel, Martin; Kuttenberger, Johannes; Lauer, Günter; Mayer, Boris; Mohr, Christopher; Neff, Andreas; Rasse, Michael; Reich, Rudolf H; Reinert, Siegmar; Rothamel, Daniel; Sader, Robert; Schliephake, Henning; Schmelzeisen, Rainer; Schramm, Alexander; Sieg, Peter; Terheyden, Hendrik; Wiltfang, Jörg; Ziegler, Christoph M; Mischkowski, Robert A; Zöller, Joachim E

    2015-09-01

    Even though modern surgical techniques are dominating reconstructive facial procedures, the capability to use facial epitheses for reconstruction is still an important skill for the maxillofacial surgeon. We present an international multicenter analysis to clarify which techniques are used to fixate facial prostheses. We contacted all maxillofacial departments in Germany, Austria, Switzerland and Norway which were registered with the German society for oral and maxillofacial surgery (DGMKG). These centers were asked via electronical mail to provide information on the type of epithesis fixation systems currently in use. The return rate from 58 departments was 43.1% (n = 25). Overall, implant fixation was the preferred fixation system (92%). Plates were the second most common fixation technique (32%). No centers reported the standard use of non-invasive fixation techniques for permanent epithesis fixation. The main retention systems in use were magnets (24/25), other retention systems are used much less often. The current preferred fixation technique for facial epitheses consists of implant-based, magnet-fixated epitheses. For nasal prostheses, a plate-based, magnet-fixated system is often used.

  17. Fish welfare: the state of science by scientometrical analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nédia de Castilhos Ghisi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2014, Brazil produced 474.33 thousand tons of captive-bred fish. In addition, regulatory agencies of animal ethics and welfare have recently encouraged experiments to be done using simpler vertebrates, such as fish. The aim of this article was to perform a scientometric analysis of scientific production that deals with fish welfare, in an attempt to find trends and gaps in this line of research. Our analyses showed a growing concern about fish welfare, although several questions remained inadequately covered. The most studied species was the Atlantic salmon, with Norway having the most publications on this theme. There are controversies among scientists about fish capacity for suffering and enjoyment (sentience. As regards slaughter or euthanasia, some studies showed that some methods are more endorsed than others, because they effectively reduce suffering and improve the appearance of the meat. In respect of animals used for experimentation, the most recommended substances were benzocaine and MS222. Thus, despite the importance of this subject, few studies are decisive and there is still no consensus on how to improve fish welfare or even on how to reduce suffering at the moment of slaughter.

  18. Mood states modulate complexity in heartbeat dynamics: A multiscale entropy analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenza, G.; Nardelli, M.; Bertschy, G.; Lanata, A.; Scilingo, E. P.

    2014-07-01

    This paper demonstrates that heartbeat complex dynamics is modulated by different pathological mental states. Multiscale entropy analysis was performed on R-R interval series gathered from the electrocardiogram of eight bipolar patients who exhibited mood states among depression, hypomania, and euthymia, i.e., good affective balance. Three different methodologies for the choice of the sample entropy radius value were also compared. We show that the complexity level can be used as a marker of mental states being able to discriminate among the three pathological mood states, suggesting to use heartbeat complexity as a more objective clinical biomarker for mental disorders.

  19. Ground-State Analysis for an Exactly Solvable Coupled-Spin Hamiltonian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Mattei

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a Hamiltonian for two interacting su(2 spins. We use a mean-field analysis and exact Bethe ansatz results to investigate the ground-state properties of the system in the classical limit, defined as the limit of infinite spin (or highest weight. Complementary insights are provided through investigation of the energy gap, ground-state fidelity, and ground-state entanglement, which are numerically computed for particular parameter values. Despite the simplicity of the model, a rich array of ground-state features are uncovered. Finally, we discuss how this model may be seen as an analogue of the exactly solvable p+ip pairing Hamiltonian.

  20. Simulation and Analysis on Multiple Steady States of an Industrial Acetic Acid Dehydration System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李绍军; 黄定伟

    2011-01-01

    In this work, an industrial acetic acid dehydration system via heterogeneous azeotropic distillation is simulated by Aspen Plus software. Residue curves are used to analyze the distillating behavior, and appropriate operating region of the system is determined. Based on steady states simulation, a sensitivity analysis is carried out to detect the output multiple steady states in the system. Different solution branches are observered when the flow rates of the feed stream and the organic reflux stream are selected as manipulated variables. The performance of the column under different steady states is different. A method is oroposed to achieve the desired steady state.

  1. Uncertainty analysis of EUSES: interviews with representatives from EU Member States and industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jager T; ECO

    1998-01-01

    Ten representatives of the EU Member States and the chemical industry were interviewed to find out their views on applying uncertainty analysis to risk assessment of industrial chemicals. Although there was an interest expressed in this matter, uncertainty analysis was thought not to receive a high

  2. An Analysis of Corporal Punishment Practices in the State of Mississippi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams-Damond, Twyla A.

    2014-01-01

    The focus of this research mainly centers on a quantitative descriptive overview of corporal punishment practices in the state of Mississippi, but this study also includes a legal document analysis component. This study forms the Mississippi portion of a comprehensive analysis of the demographics of corporal punishment in the public schools of the…

  3. State-variable analysis of non-linear circuits with a desk computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, E.

    1981-01-01

    State variable analysis was used to analyze the transient performance of non-linear circuits on a desk top computer. The non-linearities considered were not restricted to any circuit element. All that is required for analysis is the relationship defining each non-linearity be known in terms of points on a curve.

  4. Bayesian network analysis revealed the connectivity difference of the default mode network from the resting-state to task-state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xia; Yu, Xinyu; Yao, Li; Li, Rui

    2014-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have converged to reveal the default mode network (DMN), a constellation of regions that display co-activation during resting-state but co-deactivation during attention-demanding tasks in the brain. Here, we employed a Bayesian network (BN) analysis method to construct a directed effective connectivity model of the DMN and compared the organizational architecture and interregional directed connections under both resting-state and task-state. The analysis results indicated that the DMN was consistently organized into two closely interacting subsystems in both resting-state and task-state. The directed connections between DMN regions, however, changed significantly from the resting-state to task-state condition. The results suggest that the DMN intrinsically maintains a relatively stable structure whether at rest or performing tasks but has different information processing mechanisms under varied states.

  5. Hopf and steady state bifurcation analysis in a ratio-dependent predator-prey model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lai; Liu, Jia; Banerjee, Malay

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, we perform spatiotemporal bifurcation analysis in a ratio-dependent predator-prey model and derive explicit conditions for the existence of non-constant steady states that emerge through steady state bifurcation from related constant steady states. These explicit conditions are numerically verified in details and further compared to those conditions ensuring Turing instability. We find that (1) Turing domain is identical to the parametric domain where there exists only steady state bifurcation, which implies that Turing patterns are stable non-constant steady states, but the opposite is not necessarily true; (2) In non-Turing domain, steady state bifurcation and Hopf bifurcation act in concert to determine the emergent spatial patterns, that is, non-constant steady state emerges through steady state bifurcation but it may be unstable if the destabilising effect of Hopf bifurcation counteracts the stabilising effect of diffusion, leading to non-stationary spatial patterns; (3) Coupling diffusion into an ODE model can significantly enrich population dynamics by inducing alternative non-constant steady states (four different states are observed, two stable and two unstable), in particular when diffusion interacts with different types of bifurcation; (4) Diffusion can promote species coexistence by saving species which otherwise goes to extinction in the absence of diffusion.

  6. Multivariate data analysis as a fast tool in evaluation of solid state phenomena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, Anna Cecilia; Miroshnyk, Inna; Karjalainen, Milja; Jouppila, Kirsi; Siiriä, Simo; Antikainen, Osmo; Rantanen, Jukka

    2006-04-01

    A thorough understanding of solid state properties is of growing importance. It is often necessary to apply multiple techniques offering complementary information to fully understand the solid state behavior of a given compound and the relations between various polymorphic forms. The vast amount of information generated can be overwhelming and the need for more effective data analysis tools is well recognized. The aim of this study was to investigate the use of multivariate data analysis, in particular principal component analysis (PCA), for fast analysis of solid state information. The data sets analyzed covered dehydration phenomena of a set of hydrates followed by variable temperature X-ray powder diffractometry and Raman spectroscopy and the crystallization of amorphous lactose monitored by Raman spectroscopy. Identification of different transitional states upon the dehydration enabled the molecular level interpretation of the structural changes related to the loss of water, as well as interpretation of the phenomena related to the crystallization. The critical temperatures or critical time points were identified easily using the principal component analysis. The variables (diffraction angles or wavenumbers) that changed could be identified by the careful interpretation of the loadings plots. The PCA approach provides an effective tool for fast screening of solid state information.

  7. Dynamic metabolic flux analysis--tools for probing transient states of metabolic networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniewicz, Maciek R

    2013-12-01

    Computational approaches for analyzing dynamic states of metabolic networks provide a practical framework for design, control, and optimization of biotechnological processes. In recent years, two promising modeling approaches have emerged for characterizing transients in cellular metabolism, dynamic metabolic flux analysis (DMFA), and dynamic flux balance analysis (DFBA). Both approaches combine metabolic network analysis based on pseudo steady-state (PSS) assumption for intracellular metabolism with dynamic models for extracellular environment. One strategy to capture dynamics is by combining network analysis with a kinetic model. Predictive models are thus established that can be used to optimize bioprocessing conditions and identify useful genetic manipulations. Alternatively, by combining network analysis with methods for analyzing extracellular time-series data, transients in intracellular metabolic fluxes can be determined and applied for process monitoring and control.

  8. A Fuzzy Approach of the Optimal Analysis Based of Failure States in Manufacturing Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Minca

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes an algorithm for prognosis in optimal analysis of manufacturing systems. Uncertain knowledge of such task requires for specific reasoning and adaptive model base of fuzzy logic analyzes. The proposed method performs the interfaces between the results provided by the fuzzy supervision model and the algorithm witch identify the real state of the monitored system. The supervisory system sends failure signals described in a fuzzy approach. These ones represent inputs values in the system of failure optimal analysis which identifies the current degradation states by recurrent identification cycle. The proposed algorithm has also predictive component capable to determine the possible evolution of the system state towards a critical state of failure.

  9. State-space analysis of the dynamic characteristics of a variable thrust liquid propellant rocket engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu-Lin

    This paper states the application of state-space method to the analysis of the dynamic characteristics of a variable thrust liquid propellant rocket engine and presents a set of state equations for describing the dynamic process of the engine. An efficient numerical method for solving these system equations is developed. The theoretical solutions agree well with the experimental data. The analysis leads to the following conclusion: the set coefficient of the pulse width, the working frequency of the solenoid valves and the deviation of the critical working points of these valves are important parameters for determining the dynamic response time and the control precision of this engine. The methods developed in this paper may be used effectively in the analysis of dynamic characteristics of variable thrust liquid propellant rocket engines.

  10. Optimization of steady-state ¹³C-labeling experiments for metabolic flux analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Nicholas J; Masakapalli, Shyam K; Ratcliffe, R George

    2014-01-01

    While steady-state (13)C metabolic flux analysis is a powerful method for deducing multiple fluxes in the central metabolic network of heterotrophic and mixotrophic plant tissues, it is also time-consuming and technically challenging. Key steps in the design and interpretation of steady-state (13)C labeling experiments are illustrated with a generic protocol based on applications to plant cell suspension cultures.

  11. Analysis of Pilot Feedback Regarding the Use of State Awareness Technologies During Complex Situations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Emory; Young, Steven D.; Daniels, Taumi; Santiago-Espada, Yamira; Etherington, Tim

    2016-01-01

    A flight simulation study was conducted at NASA Langley Research Center to evaluate flight deck systems that (1) predict aircraft energy state and/or autoflight configuration, (2) present the current state and expected future state of automated systems, and/or (3) show the state of flight-critical data systems in use by automated systems and primary flight instruments. Four new technology concepts were evaluated vis-à-vis current state-of-the-art flight deck systems and indicators. This human-in-the-loop study was conducted using commercial airline crews. Scenarios spanned a range of complex conditions and several emulated causal factors and complexity in recent accidents involving loss of state awareness by pilots (e.g. energy state, automation state, and/or system state). Data were collected via questionnaires administered after each flight, audio/video recordings, physiological data, head and eye tracking data, pilot control inputs, and researcher observations. This paper strictly focuses on findings derived from the questionnaire responses. It includes analysis of pilot subjective measures of complexity, decision making, workload, situation awareness, usability, and acceptability.

  12. Fuzzy analysis of serviceability limit state of slender steel beam under bending

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kala, Zdeněk; Valeš, Jan [Brno University of Technology, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Department of Structural Mechanics Vevefi St. 95, ZIP 602 00, Brno (Czech Republic)

    2015-03-10

    In the present paper, deformations of a beam under equal end moments solved with influence of lateral buckling are studied. It has been found by numerical studies that the lateral deflection of slender beam under major axis bending can be relatively high.The acceptability of high values of lateral deflections within the framework of serviceability limit state is discussed. In the next part of the paper, the limit value of maximum deflection was introduced as a fuzzy number. The fuzzy analysis of the maximum moment which causes the maximum deflection was carried out. The slendernesses of beams for which the serviceability limit state is the limiting state for design were identified.

  13. District Level Analysis of Urbanization from Rural-to-Urban Migration in the Rajasthan State

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Jayant; Smarandache, Florentin

    2009-01-01

    Migration has various dimensions; urbanization due to migration is one of them. In Rajasthan State, district level analysis of urbanization due to migrants shows trend invariably for all districts of the state, though the contribution in urbanization by migrants varies from district to district. In some districts the share of migrants moving to urban areas is very impressive, in others it is not that much high. The migrants' contribution is on the raising over the decades. In this paper, the district level migration in the Rajasthan State is examined in relation to total urbanization and urbanization due to migration.

  14. Steady-State Kinetic Analysis of DNA Polymerase Single-Nucleotide Incorporation Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Flaherty, Derek K.

    2014-01-01

    This unit describes the experimental procedures for the steady-state kinetic analysis of DNA synthesis across DNA nucleotides (native or modified) by DNA polymerases. In vitro primer extension experiments with a single nucleoside triphosphate species followed by denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the extended products is described. Data analysis procedures and fitting to steady-state kinetic models is presented to highlight the kinetic differences involved in the bypass of damaged versus undamaged DNA. Moreover, explanations concerning problems encountered in these experiments are addressed. This approach provides useful quantitative parameters for the processing of damaged DNA by DNA polymerases. PMID:25501593

  15. Chemical imaging and solid state analysis at compact surfaces using UV imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Jian X.; Rehder, Sönke; van den Berg, Frans;

    2014-01-01

    Fast non-destructive multi-wavelength UV imaging together with multivariate image analysis was utilized to visualize distribution of chemical components and their solid state form at compact surfaces. Amorphous and crystalline solid forms of the antidiabetic compound glibenclamide...... and excipients in a non-invasive way, as well as mapping the glibenclamide solid state form. An exploratory data analysis supported the critical evaluation of the mapping results and the selection of model parameters for the chemical mapping. The present study demonstrated that the multi-wavelength UV imaging...

  16. Uranium analysis by neutron induced fissionography method using solid state nuclear track detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Akyuez, T; Guezel, T; Akyuz, S

    1999-01-01

    In this study total twenty samples (eight reference materials and twelve sediment samples) were analysed for their uranium content which is in the range of 1-17 mu g/g, by neutron induced fissionography (NIF) method using solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs) in comparison with the results of neutron activation analysis (NAA), delayed neutron counting (DNC) technique or fluorometric method. It is found that NIF method using SSNTDs is very sensitive for analysis of uranium.

  17. Linear analysis near a steady-state of biochemical networks: control analysis, correlation metrics and circuit theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Hong

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Several approaches, including metabolic control analysis (MCA, flux balance analysis (FBA, correlation metric construction (CMC, and biochemical circuit theory (BCT, have been developed for the quantitative analysis of complex biochemical networks. Here, we present a comprehensive theory of linear analysis for nonequilibrium steady-state (NESS biochemical reaction networks that unites these disparate approaches in a common mathematical framework and thermodynamic basis. Results: In this theory a number of relationships between key matrices are introduced: the matrix A obtained in the standard, linear-dynamic-stability analysis of the steady-state can be decomposed as A = SRT where R and S are directly related to the elasticity-coefficient matrix for the fluxes and chemical potentials in MCA, respectively; the control-coefficients for the fluxes and chemical potentials can be written in terms of RT BS and ST BS respectively where matrix B is the inverse of A; the matrix S is precisely the stoichiometric matrix in FBA; and the matrix eAt plays a central role in CMC. Conclusion: One key finding that emerges from this analysis is that the well-known summation theorems in MCA take different forms depending on whether metabolic steady-state is maintained by flux injection or concentration clamping. We demonstrate that if rate-limiting steps exist in a biochemical pathway, they are the steps with smallest biochemical conductances and largest flux control-coefficients. We hypothesize that biochemical networks for cellular signaling have a different strategy for minimizing energy waste and being efficient than do biochemical networks for biosynthesis. We also discuss the intimate relationship between MCA and biochemical systems analysis (BSA.

  18. THE EVOLUTION OF STATE AID IN ROMANIA. ANALYSIS OF THE AUTOMOTIVE SECTOR 2007-2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George STEFAN

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study, according to our knowledge is among the few ones dealing with the analysis of state aid impact and of the way it was used at national level. Firstly, the goal of our study is to analyze the evolution of state aid in Romania, the impact on regional development, on creating jobs and value added. Secondly it is intented to see the contribution of automotive sector which received the highest amount of state aid to the trade balance from the current account between 2008-2015. Automotive sector is a key sector for the development of Romanian economy in the last 10 years for the manufacturing and assembly of cars and for companies producing equipment or auto parts. The paper is structured in seven parts which deal with topics like the state aid in the European Union and Romania, state aid schemes and funded sectors in Romania, sectorial and geographical distribution of the state aid, the analysis of the automotive sector for Romania.

  19. A Critical Analysis of Climate Change Factors and its Projected Future Values in Delta State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emaziye, P. O., R. N. Okoh

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The study focused on the critical analysis of climate change factors (temperature and rainfall and its projected future values in the state. The main objective was to determine the trends of climate change factors (temperature and rainfall. And the specific objective was to determine the projected future trends of climate change factors in the state. Multistage sampling procedure was used in the random selection of states, local government, communities and rural households for the research study. Annual mean time series data of temperature and rainfall were collected from Nigerian Meteorological Agency (NIMET. Data were also obtained from structure questionnaire survey. The collected data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, trend analysis and growth model. The study reveals that there were increasing trends of temperature values and decreasing rainfall values in the state. But their projected future values witnessed an increasing trend. The increasing trends in temperature values may lead to a situation were crops will be smothered by excessive heat thereby reducing food production in the state. The study therefore recommends that meteorological station units should be established in the rural farming households in the state where accessibility is extremely difficult. This will make available meteorological data (information to the reach of the poor rural farming household for the attainment of food production.

  20. Hydrodynamic analysis of propellers under steady state operation; Analise hidrodinamica de propulsores em regime permanente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conceicao, Carlos Antonio Levi da; Troyman, Antonio Carlos Ramos [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Oceanica

    1995-07-01

    Surface panel method has been applied to the propeller analysis. For the propeller modeling, the boss and blades surfaces have been discretized in quadrilateral panels with dipoles and sources constant distributions. The surface of the blade wakes have been represented by panels with dipole constant distributions. This discussion focused only the propeller under steady state operation.

  1. State-space-based harmonic stability analysis for paralleled grid-connected inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yanbo; Wang, Xiongfei; Chen, Zhe

    2016-01-01

    This paper addresses a state-space-based harmonic stability analysis of paralleled grid-connected inverters system. A small signal model of individual inverter is developed, where LCL filter, the equivalent delay of control system, and current controller are modeled. Then, the overall small signa...

  2. Incorporation of wind generation to the Mexican power grid: Steady state analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tovar, J.H.; Guardado, J.L.; Cisneros, F. [Inst. Tecnologico de Morelia (Mexico); Cadenas, R.; Lopez, S. [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Morelia (Mexico)

    1997-09-01

    This paper describes a steady state analysis related with the incorporation of large amounts of eolic generation into the Mexican power system. An equivalent node is used to represent individual eolic generators in the wind farm. Possible overloads, losses, voltage and reactive profiles and estimated severe contingencies are analyzed. Finally, the conclusions of this study are presented.

  3. Stuttering as a trait or state - an ALE meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyk, Michel; Kraft, Shelly Jo; Brown, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Stuttering is a speech disorder characterised by repetitions, prolongations and blocks that disrupt the forward movement of speech. An earlier meta-analysis of brain imaging studies of stuttering (Brown et al., 2005) revealed a general trend towards rightward lateralization of brain activations and hyperactivity in the larynx motor cortex bilaterally. The present study sought not only to update that meta-analysis with recent work but to introduce an important distinction not present in the first study, namely the difference between 'trait' and 'state' stuttering. The analysis of trait stuttering compares people who stutter (PWS) with people who do not stutter when behaviour is controlled for, i.e., when speech is fluent in both groups. In contrast, the analysis of state stuttering examines PWS during episodes of stuttered speech compared with episodes of fluent speech. Seventeen studies were analysed using activation likelihood estimation. Trait stuttering was characterised by the well-known rightward shift in lateralization for language and speech areas. State stuttering revealed a more diverse pattern. Abnormal activation of larynx and lip motor cortex was common to the two analyses. State stuttering was associated with overactivation in the right hemisphere larynx and lip motor cortex. Trait stuttering was associated with overactivation of lip motor cortex in the right hemisphere but underactivation of larynx motor cortex in the left hemisphere. These results support a large literature highlighting laryngeal and lip involvement in the symptomatology of stuttering, and disambiguate two possible sources of activation in neuroimaging studies of persistent developmental stuttering.

  4. Comment on "Network analysis of the state space of discrete dynamical systems"

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Chengqing; Shu, Shi

    2016-01-01

    This paper comments the letter entitled "Network analysis of the state space of discrete dynamical systems" by A. Shreim et al. [Physical Review Letters, 98, 198701 (2007)]. We found that some theoretical analyses are wrong and the proposed indicators based on parameters of phase network can not discriminate dynamical complexity of the discrete dynamical systems composed by 1-D Cellular Automata.

  5. Related Variety, Unrelated Variety and Technological Breakthroughs: An analysis of US State-Level Patenting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castaldi, C.; Frenken, K.; Los, B.

    2015-01-01

    Castaldi C., Frenken K. and Los B. Related variety, unrelated variety and technological breakthroughs: an analysis of US state-level patenting, Regional Studies. This paper investigates how variety affects the innovation output of a region. Borrowing arguments from theories of recombinant innovation

  6. An Efficient Implementation of Non-Linear Limit State Analysis Based on Lower-Bound Solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damkilde, Lars; Schmidt, Lotte Juhl

    2005-01-01

    Limit State analysis has been used in design for decades e.g. the yield line theory for concrete slabs or slip line solutions in geotechnics. In engineering practice manual methods have been dominating but in recent years the interest in numerical methods has been increasing. In this respect...

  7. Genetic analysis of Israel Acute Paralysis Virus: distinct clusters are circulating into the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israel acute paralysis virus (IAPV) is associated with colony collapse disorder of honey bees. Nonetheless, its role in the pathogenesis of the disorder and its geographic distribution are unclear. Here, we report phylogenetic analysis of IAPV obtained from bees in the United States, Canada, Austral...

  8. Nonlinear analysis of attractor describing the aerodynamic state of middle atmosphere based on matrix series into state-space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkachova, P.; Krot, A.; Minervina, H.

    It is well known that there is chaos in convective process in atmosphere and ocean. In particular,dynamic model of Lorenz [1] describes the Rayleigh-Benard convection phenomenon. Phase trajectories of Lorenz equation system are characterized by strange alternative properties: on the one hand, they diverge (because of positive Lyapunov exponents), on the second hand, they attract to the limited domain of phase space called an attractor [1]. The Lorenz attractor has specific geometrical structure and can be characterized by means of fractal dimension. In this connection the aim of this work is development of analysis of Lorenz attractor based on the proposed nonlinear decomposition into matrix series [2]. This analysis permits to estimate the values of characteristic parameters (including control one) of Lorenz attractors and predict their evolution in time. Using results of matrix decomposition [2], it is not difficult to see that the change of vector function (describing the Lorenz attractor) can be approximated by only linear and quadratic terms [3]. Because values of the first and second order derivatives can be calculated by means of numerical methods we can estimate the change of the vector function from computational experiment. In result, the values of parameters of the Lorenz's attractor can be estimated. This permits us to solve the identification task of the current dynamical state of a convective aerodynamic flows. Moreover, using the results of matrix decomposition we can estimate the minimal embedding dimension [4] for the Lorenz attractor based on experimental data. References: [1] P.Berge,Y.Pomeau and C.Vidal. L'ordre dans le chaos: Vers une approche deterministe de la turbulence. Hermann:Paris,1988. [2] A.M.Krot, "Matrix decompositions of vector functions and shift operators on the trajectories of a nonlinear dynamical system", Nonlinear Phenomena in Complex Systems,vol.4, N2, pp.106- 115, 2001. [3] A.M.Krot and P

  9. 40 CFR 1400.9 - Access to off-site consequence analysis information by State and local government officials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... CONSEQUENCE ANALYSIS INFORMATION DISTRIBUTION OF OFF-SITE CONSEQUENCE ANALYSIS INFORMATION Access to Off-Site Consequence Analysis Information by Government Officials. § 1400.9 Access to off-site consequence analysis... analysis information by State and local government officials. 1400.9 Section 1400.9 Protection...

  10. 11-cis retinal torsion: A QTAIM and stress tensor analysis of the S1 excited state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maza, Julio R.; Jenkins, Samantha; Kirk, Steven R.

    2016-05-01

    We investigate torsion about the C11-C12 bond mid-point for the S1 state of 11-cis retinal, using a QTAIM and stress tensor analysis. The QTAIM and stress tensor responses to a torsion ±α increase at a faster rate for the preferred direction of torsion though the CI seam. A QTAIM and stress tensor vector-based analysis provides an alternative way of characterising the asymmetry of the S1 potential energy surface. In the vicinity of the CI seam the ellipticity ε attained minimum values. The application of this analysis to molecular rotary motors is briefly discussed.

  11. Error-tolerant Finite State Recognition with Applications to Morphological Analysis and Spelling Correction

    CERN Document Server

    Oflazer, K

    1995-01-01

    Error-tolerant recognition enables the recognition of strings that deviate mildly from any string in the regular set recognized by the underlying finite state recognizer. Such recognition has applications in error-tolerant morphological processing, spelling correction, and approximate string matching in information retrieval. After a description of the concepts and algorithms involved, we give examples from two applications: In the context of morphological analysis, error-tolerant recognition allows misspelled input word forms to be corrected, and morphologically analyzed concurrently. We present an application of this to error-tolerant analysis of agglutinative morphology of Turkish words. The algorithm can be applied to morphological analysis of any language whose morphology is fully captured by a single (and possibly very large) finite state transducer, regardless of the word formation processes and morphographemic phenomena involved. In the context of spelling correction, error-tolerant recognition can be...

  12. Dynamic functional connectivity analysis reveals transient states of dysconnectivity in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Damaraju

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia is a psychotic disorder characterized by functional dysconnectivity or abnormal integration between distant brain regions. Recent functional imaging studies have implicated large-scale thalamo-cortical connectivity as being disrupted in patients. However, observed connectivity differences in schizophrenia have been inconsistent between studies, with reports of hyperconnectivity and hypoconnectivity between the same brain regions. Using resting state eyes-closed functional imaging and independent component analysis on a multi-site data that included 151 schizophrenia patients and 163 age- and gender matched healthy controls, we decomposed the functional brain data into 100 components and identified 47 as functionally relevant intrinsic connectivity networks. We subsequently evaluated group differences in functional network connectivity, both in a static sense, computed as the pairwise Pearson correlations between the full network time courses (5.4 minutes in length, and a dynamic sense, computed using sliding windows (44 s in length and k-means clustering to characterize five discrete functional connectivity states. Static connectivity analysis revealed that compared to healthy controls, patients show significantly stronger connectivity, i.e., hyperconnectivity, between the thalamus and sensory networks (auditory, motor and visual, as well as reduced connectivity (hypoconnectivity between sensory networks from all modalities. Dynamic analysis suggests that (1, on average, schizophrenia patients spend much less time than healthy controls in states typified by strong, large-scale connectivity, and (2, that abnormal connectivity patterns are more pronounced during these connectivity states. In particular, states exhibiting cortical–subcortical antagonism (anti-correlations and strong positive connectivity between sensory networks are those that show the group differences of thalamic hyperconnectivity and sensory hypoconnectivity

  13. Clinical gait analysis: comparing explicit state duration HMMs using a reference-based index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karg, Michelle; Seiberl, Wolfgang; Kreuzpointner, Florian; Haas, Johannes-Peter; Kulic, Dana

    2015-03-01

    In clinical gait analysis, the gait of a patient is recorded with optical motion capture and compared with a healthy reference group. High-dimensional gait datasets are difficult to interpret; machine learning can provide guidance regarding the most relevant gait phases and joint angles for visual analysis and quantify the difference between healthy and pathological gait. We propose an explicit state duration hidden Markov model (HMM) modeling the timeseries data of a subject or a group and the use of a reference-based measure that compares the most likely observations in each state. Based on this stochastic framework, the similarity between healthy and pathological gait can be quantified for each state, each joint angle, and each subject. This concept also includes an overall gait index useful for group comparison or the assessment of an individual's gait. For visualization, joint angle timeseries can be generated from the explicit state duration HMM. The accuracy of the explicit state duration HMM and the performance of the reference-based measures are evaluated on a dataset including strides of healthy subjects and patients suffering from arthritis.

  14. Steady-state analysis of activated sludge processes with a settler model including sludge compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, S; Zambrano, J; Carlsson, B

    2016-01-01

    A reduced model of a completely stirred-tank bioreactor coupled to a settling tank with recycle is analyzed in its steady states. In the reactor, the concentrations of one dominant particulate biomass and one soluble substrate component are modelled. While the biomass decay rate is assumed to be constant, growth kinetics can depend on both substrate and biomass concentrations, and optionally model substrate inhibition. Compressive and hindered settling phenomena are included using the Bürger-Diehl settler model, which consists of a partial differential equation. Steady-state solutions of this partial differential equation are obtained from an ordinary differential equation, making steady-state analysis of the entire plant difficult. A key result showing that the ordinary differential equation can be replaced with an approximate algebraic equation simplifies model analysis. This algebraic equation takes the location of the sludge-blanket during normal operation into account, allowing for the limiting flux capacity caused by compressive settling to easily be included in the steady-state mass balance equations for the entire plant system. This novel approach grants the possibility of more realistic solutions than other previously published reduced models, comprised of yet simpler settler assumptions. The steady-state concentrations, solids residence time, and the wastage flow ratio are functions of the recycle ratio. Solutions are shown for various growth kinetics; with different values of biomass decay rate, influent volumetric flow, and substrate concentration.

  15. Renewal Approach to the Analysis of the Asynchronous State for Coupled Noisy Oscillators

    CERN Document Server

    Farkhooi, Farzad

    2015-01-01

    We develop a framework in which the activity of nonlinear pulse-coupled oscillators is posed within the renewal theory. In this approach, the evolution of inter-event density allows for a self-consistent calculation that determines the asynchronous state and its stability. This framework, can readily be extended to the analysis of systems with more state variables. To exhibit this, we study a nonlinear pulse-coupled system, where couplings are dynamic and activity dependent. We investigate stability of this system and we show it undergoes a super-critical Hopf bifurcation to collective synchronization.

  16. An Identification Model of Health States of Machine Wear Based on Oil Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Jun-qing; LI Han-xiong; XUAO Xin-hua

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a modeling procedure for deriving a single value measure based on a regression model, and a method for determining a statistical threshold value as identification criterion of normal or abnormal states of machine wear. A real numerical example is examined by the method and identification criterion presented. The results indicate that the judgments by the presented methods are basically consistent with the real facts, and therefore the method and identification criterion are valuable for judging the normal or abnormal state of machine wear based on oil analysis.

  17. EFFICIENT STEADY-STATE ANALYSIS METHOD FOR CLOSED-LOOP PWM SWITCHING CONVERTERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Since the early70s,many s mall-signal fre-quency-domain modeling technique have been de-veloped to study the dynamic perfor mances and sta-bilities ofPWMs witching converters around thestatic operating point.However,the accuracy of thederived models relies on accurate deter mination ofthe steady state operating point,and usually manyperfor mances of circuits are given based on steady-state,so it is very essential to analyze the steadystate of circuits.Analysis methods for steadystate ofnonlinear circuits ca...

  18. SUPERENERGY-2: a multiassembly, steady-state computer code for LMFBR core thermal-hydraulic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basehore, K.L.; Todreas, N.E.

    1980-08-01

    Core thermal-hydraulic design and performance analyses for Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactors (LMFBRs) require repeated detailed multiassembly calculations to determine radial temperature profiles and subchannel outlet temperatures for various core configurations and subassembly structural analyses. At steady-state, detailed core-wide temperature profiles are required for core restraint calculations and subassembly structural analysis. In addition, sodium outlet temperatures are routinely needed for each reactor operating cycle. The SUPERENERGY-2 thermal-hydraulic code was designed specifically to meet these designer needs. It is applicable only to steady-state, forced-convection flow in LMFBR core geometries.

  19. Kinetic Analysis for Macrocyclizations Involving Anionic Template at the Transition State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Martí-Centelles

    2012-01-01

    competitive oligomerization/polymerization processes yielding undesired oligomeric/polymeric byproducts. The effect of anions has also been included in the kinetic models, as they can act as catalytic templates in the transition state reducing and stabilizing the transition state. The corresponding differential equation systems for each kinetic model can be solved numerically. Through a comprehensive analysis of these results, it is possible to obtain a better understanding of the different parameters that are involved in the macrocyclization reaction mechanism and to develop strategies for the optimization of the desired processes.

  20. Iterative cross-correlation analysis of resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liqin Yang

    Full Text Available Seed-based cross-correlation analysis (sCCA and independent component analysis have been widely employed to extract functional networks from the resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging data. However, the results of sCCA, in terms of both connectivity strength and network topology, can be sensitive to seed selection variations. ICA avoids the potential problems due to seed selection, but choosing which component(s to represent the network of interest could be subjective and problematic. In this study, we proposed a seed-based iterative cross-correlation analysis (siCCA method for resting state brain network analysis. The method was applied to extract default mode network (DMN and stable task control network (STCN in two independent datasets acquired from normal adults. Compared with the networks obtained by traditional sCCA and ICA, the resting state networks produced by siCCA were found to be highly stable and independent on seed selection. siCCA was used to analyze DMN in first-episode major depressive disorder (MDD patients. It was found that, in the MDD patients, the volume of DMN negatively correlated with the patients' social disability screening schedule scores.

  1. Fed-state gastric media and drug analysis techniques: Current status and points to consider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxevanis, Fotios; Kuiper, Jesse; Fotaki, Nikoletta

    2016-10-01

    Gastric fed state conditions can have a significant effect on drug dissolution and absorption. In vitro dissolution tests with simple aqueous media cannot usually predict drugs' in vivo response, as several factors such as the meal content, the gastric emptying and possible interactions between food and drug formulations can affect drug's pharmacokinetics. Good understanding of the effect of the in vivo fed gastric conditions on the drug is essential for the development of biorelevant dissolution media simulating the gastric environment after the administration of the standard high fat meal proposed by the FDA and the EMA in bioavailability/bioequivalence (BA/BE) studies. The analysis of drugs in fed state media can be quite challenging as most analytical protocols currently employed are time consuming and labour intensive. In this review, an overview of the in vivo gastric conditions and the biorelevant media used for their in vitro simulation are described. Furthermore an analysis of the physicochemical properties of the drugs and the formulations related to food effect is given. In terms of drug analysis, the protocols currently used for the fed state media sample treatment and analysis and the analytical challenges and needs emerging for more efficient and time saving techniques for a broad spectrum of compounds are being discussed.

  2. Mobile prehospital emergency care: an analysis of implementation in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dwyer, Gisele; Machado, Cristiani Vieira; Alves, Renan Paes; Salvador, Fernanda Gonçalves

    2016-06-01

    Mobile prehospital care is a key component of emergency care. The aim of this study was to analyze the implementation of the State of Rio de Janeiro's Mobile Emergency Medical Service (SAMU, acronym in Portuguese). The methodology employed included document analysis, visits to six SAMU emergency call centers, and semistructured interviews conducted with 12 local and state emergency care coordinators. The study's conceptual framework was based on Giddens' theory of structuration. Intergovernmental conflicts were observed between the state and municipal governments, and between municipal governments. Despite the shortage of hospital beds, the SAMUs in periphery regions were better integrated with the emergency care network than the metropolitan SAMUs. The steering committees were not very active and weaknesses were observed relating to the limited role played by the state government in funding, management, and monitoring. It was concluded that the SAMU implementation process in the state was marked by political tensions and management and coordination weaknesses. As a result, serious drawbacks remain in the coordination of the SAMU with the other health services and the regionalization of emergency care in the state.

  3. Mathematical analysis of steady-state solutions in compartment and continuum models of cell polarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zhenzhen; Chou, Ching-Shan; Yi, Tau-Mu; Nie, Qing

    2011-10-01

    Cell polarization, in which substances previously uniformly distributed become asymmetric due to external or/and internal stimulation, is a fundamental process underlying cell mobility, cell division, and other polarized functions. The yeast cell S. cerevisiae has been a model system to study cell polarization. During mating, yeast cells sense shallow external spatial gradients and respond by creating steeper internal gradients of protein aligned with the external cue. The complex spatial dynamics during yeast mating polarization consists of positive feedback, degradation, global negative feedback control, and cooperative effects in protein synthesis. Understanding such complex regulations and interactions is critical to studying many important characteristics in cell polarization including signal amplification, tracking dynamic signals, and potential trade-off between achieving both objectives in a robust fashion. In this paper, we study some of these questions by analyzing several models with different spatial complexity: two compartments, three compartments, and continuum in space. The step-wise approach allows detailed characterization of properties of the steady state of the system, providing more insights for biological regulations during cell polarization. For cases without membrane diffusion, our study reveals that increasing the number of spatial compartments results in an increase in the number of steady-state solutions, in particular, the number of stable steady-state solutions, with the continuum models possessing infinitely many steady-state solutions. Through both analysis and simulations, we find that stronger positive feedback, reduced diffusion, and a shallower ligand gradient all result in more steady-state solutions, although most of these are not optimally aligned with the gradient. We explore in the different settings the relationship between the number of steady-state solutions and the extent and accuracy of the polarization. Taken together

  4. Steady state analysis of Boolean molecular network models via model reduction and computational algebra

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background A key problem in the analysis of mathematical models of molecular networks is the determination of their steady states. The present paper addresses this problem for Boolean network models, an increasingly popular modeling paradigm for networks lacking detailed kinetic information. For small models, the problem can be solved by exhaustive enumeration of all state transitions. But for larger models this is not feasible, since the size of the phase space grows exponentially with the dimension of the network. The dimension of published models is growing to over 100, so that efficient methods for steady state determination are essential. Several methods have been proposed for large networks, some of them heuristic. While these methods represent a substantial improvement in scalability over exhaustive enumeration, the problem for large networks is still unsolved in general. Results This paper presents an algorithm that consists of two main parts. The first is a graph theoretic reduction of the wiring diagram of the network, while preserving all information about steady states. The second part formulates the determination of all steady states of a Boolean network as a problem of finding all solutions to a system of polynomial equations over the finite number system with two elements. This problem can be solved with existing computer algebra software. This algorithm compares favorably with several existing algorithms for steady state determination. One advantage is that it is not heuristic or reliant on sampling, but rather determines algorithmically and exactly all steady states of a Boolean network. The code for the algorithm, as well as the test suite of benchmark networks, is available upon request from the corresponding author. Conclusions The algorithm presented in this paper reliably determines all steady states of sparse Boolean networks with up to 1000 nodes. The algorithm is effective at analyzing virtually all published models even those of moderate

  5. Comparative Analysis of Empirical Path Loss Model for Cellular Transmission in Rivers State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.O.H Akinwole, Biebuma J.J

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comparative analysis of three empirical path loss models with measured data for urban, suburban, and rural areas in Rivers State. The three models investigated were COST 231 Hata, SUI,ECC-33models. A downlink data was collected at operating frequency of 2100MHz using drive test procedure consisting of test mobile phones to determine the received signal power (RSCP at specified receiver distanceson a Globacom Node Bs located in some locations in the State. This test was carried out for investigating the effectiveness of the commonly used existing models for Cellular transmission. The results analysed were based on Mean Square Error (MSE and Standard Deviation (SD and were simulated on MATLAB (7.5.0. The results show that COST 231 Hata model gives better predictions and therefore recommended for path loss predictions in River State.

  6. Using Analysis State to Construct a Forecast Error Covariance Matrix in Ensemble Kalman Filter Assimilation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Xiaogu; WU Guocan; ZHANG Shupeng; LIANG Xiao; DAI Yongjiu; LI Yong

    2013-01-01

    Correctly estimating the forecast error covariance matrix is a key step in any data assimilation scheme.If it is not correctly estimated,the assimilated states could be far from the true states.A popular method to address this problem is error covariance matrix inflation.That is,to multiply the forecast error covariance matrix by an appropriate factor.In this paper,analysis states are used to construct the forecast error covariance matrix and an adaptive estimation procedure associated with the error covariance matrix inflation technique is developed.The proposed assimilation scheme was tested on the Lorenz-96 model and 2D Shallow Water Equation model,both of which are associated with spatially correlated observational systems.The experiments showed that by introducing the proposed structure of the forecast error covariance matrix and applying its adaptive estimation procedure,the assimilation results were further improved.

  7. Steady State Thermo-Hydrodynamic Analysis of Two-Axial groove and Multilobe Hydrodynamic Bearings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Bhagat

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Steady state thermo-hydrodynamic analysis of two axial groove and multi lobe oil journal bearings is performed in this paper. To study the steady state thermo-hydrodynamic characteristics Reynolds equation is solved simultaneously along with the energy equation and heat conduction equation in bush and shaft. The effect of groove geometry, cavitation in the fluid film, the recirculation of lubricant, shaft speed has also been taken into account. Film temperature in case of three-lobe bearing is found to be high as compared to other studied bearing configurations. The data obtained from this analysis can be used conveniently in the design of such bearings, which are presented in dimensionless form.

  8. Preliminary analysis of the forest health state based on multispectral images acquired by Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Czapski Paweł

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this publication is to present the current progress of the work associated with the use of a lightweight unmanned platforms for various environmental studies. Current development in information technology, electronics and sensors miniaturisation allows mounting multispectral cameras and scanners on unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV that could only be used on board aircraft and satellites. Remote Sensing Division in the Institute of Aviation carries out innovative researches using multisensory platform and lightweight unmanned vehicle to evaluate the health state of forests in Wielkopolska province. In this paper, applicability of multispectral images analysis acquired several times during the growing season from low altitude (up to 800m is presented. We present remote sensing indicators computed by our software and common methods for assessing state of trees health. The correctness of applied methods is verified using analysis of satellite scenes acquired by Landsat 8 OLI instrument (Operational Land Imager.

  9. What do molecules do when we are not looking? State sequence analysis for stochastic chemical systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Pavel; Lefebvre, Jérémie; Perkins, Theodore J

    2012-12-07

    Many biomolecular systems depend on orderly sequences of chemical transformations or reactions. Yet, the dynamics of single molecules or small-copy-number molecular systems are significantly stochastic. Here, we propose state sequence analysis--a new approach for predicting or visualizing the behaviour of stochastic molecular systems by computing maximum probability state sequences, based on initial conditions or boundary conditions. We demonstrate this approach by analysing the acquisition of drug-resistance mutations in the human immunodeficiency virus genome, which depends on rare events occurring on the time scale of years, and the stochastic opening and closing behaviour of a single sodium ion channel, which occurs on the time scale of milliseconds. In both cases, we find that our approach yields novel insights into the stochastic dynamical behaviour of these systems, including insights that are not correctly reproduced in standard time-discretization approaches to trajectory analysis.

  10. LimitS - A system for limit state analysis and optimal material layout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damkilde, Lars; Krenk, Steen

    1997-01-01

    A system LimitS for limit state analysis and material optimization has been developed and implemented in a PC environment. The program is formulated in a general finite element format with stress-based elements. The solution method is based on the lower-bound theorem, where an optimal stress...... the statics and kinematics of the collapse mode are determined via the dual variables of the LP-problem. In LimitS the following element types are implemented: two- and three-dimensional beam elements; truss elements; triangular slab elements; and shear and stringer elements for plates with in-plane loading....... Examples of all three problem types are given including both limit state analysis and material optimization....

  11. Spatial characterization of poverty in the state of Bahia: an analysis of the 2010 Census

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eli Izidro dos Santos

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to make a characterization of poverty in the State of Bahia. To this end, it was made the use of spatial analysis tools, understanding that they are very important instruments to aid analysis in several areas of study. Thus, it was possible to measure the most diverse geographic scenarios faster and efficiency. This enables also greater agility in decision making, both businesses and governments in the implementation of intervention policies. And in the case of this study, the proposal for more effective public policies to combat poverty, as the study presents a multidimensional look at this issue from the proposal of the Poverty Index (IMP and compared to the Index ranking Human Development Index (HDI, which is demonstrated by the results found, the it is an efficient index for study of spatial poverty in the state of Bahia.

  12. AGRI-FOOD TRADE ANALYSIS: COMPARISON OF SLOVENIA WITH THE NINE NEW MEMBER STATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darja MAJKOVIČ

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The comparative analysis of trade with agricultural and food products of ten EU new member states (NMS, with emphasis on Slovenia, has been conducted at a highly disaggregated level. Slovenia has always been the net importer of agricultural and food products, and the same goes for the majority of ten NMS in the period analysed. For the purpose of assessing the similarities in their export structure, the export similarity index “S” has been used. By its use no significant overlap of export structures between NMS is revealed, but the slightly increase in resemblance is observed from 1999 to 2003, indicating the simultaneous restructuring of NMS’ agri-food sectors. Another indicator introduced in this comparative analysis is Revealed Comparative Advantage “RCA”, measuring competitiveness through major groups of products. Slovenia has the comparative advantage in comparison with the rest of new member states in following groups of products: meat, dairy products, beverages and others.

  13. High-throughput metabolic state analysis: The missing link in integrated functional genomics of yeasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villas-Bôas, Silas Granato; Moxley, Joel. F; Åkesson, Mats Fredrik

    2005-01-01

    The lack of comparable metabolic state assays severely limits understanding the metabolic changes caused by genetic or environmental perturbations. The present study reports the application of a novel derivatization method for metabolome analysis of yeast, coupled to data-mining software that ach......The lack of comparable metabolic state assays severely limits understanding the metabolic changes caused by genetic or environmental perturbations. The present study reports the application of a novel derivatization method for metabolome analysis of yeast, coupled to data-mining software...... that achieve comparable throughput, effort and cost compared with DNA arrays. Our sample workup method enables simultaneous metabolite measurements throughout central carbon metabolism and amino acid biosynthesis, using a standard GC-MS platform that was optimized for this Purpose. As an implementation proof...

  14. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS BETWEEN CENTRALIZED AND STATE-WISE TOURISM CAMPAIGNS IN INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunaina AHUJA

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose is to distinguish the initiatives taken by the state authorities and Central authorities to promote tourism in India. Gaps in the centralized promotional campaign, "Incredible India" are identified in this study. The methodology includes collection of secondary data and discursive analysis. Information relevance, Promotion strategy, and Key events and places were used for the comparative analysis for the purposes of the research paper. Above mentioned three factors need to be added to the centralized campaign, to give a holistic picture of India. The paper is unique as it is the first time that identification of gaps in the centralized campaign is done.

  15. Culture and health reporting: a comparative content analysis of newspapers in the United States and China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Lu; Peng, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Health reporting has the potential to educate the public and promote health behaviors. Culture influences the style of such communication. Following the theorization of national cultures by Hofstede and Hofstede (2005) and Wilber (2000), this study compares health reporting in the United States and China through a content analysis of leading newspapers. The authors discover significant differences in health reporting in terms of controllability attribution, temporal orientation, citation of authority sources, and use of statistics. As one of the first comparative content analysis studies of health reporting in Eastern and Western cultures, this study provides a unique cultural lens for health communication scholars to better understand health information in the news media.

  16. Analysis and design for the second order nonlinear continuous extended states observer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The extended state observer (ESO) is a novel observer for a class of uncertain systems. Since ESO adopts the continuous non-smooth structure, the classical observer design theory is hard to use for ESO analysis. In this note, the self-stable region (SSR) approach, which is a nonlinear synthesis method for nonlinear uncertain systems, will be used for ESO design and its stability analysis. The advantages of the non-smooth structure in ESO for improving the convergence properties and the estimation precision will be shown.

  17. Designing stable finite state machine behaviors using phase plane analysis and variable structure control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feddema, J.T.; Robinett, R.D.; Driessen, B.J.

    1998-03-10

    This paper discusses how phase plane analysis can be used to describe the overall behavior of single and multiple autonomous robotic vehicles with finite state machine rules. The importance of this result is that one can begin to design provably asymptotically stable group behaviors from a set of simple control laws and appropriate switching points with decentralized variable structure control. The ability to prove asymptotically stable group behavior is especially important for applications such as locating military targets or land mines.

  18. Analysis of United States Marine Corps operations in support of humanitarian assistance and disaster relief

    OpenAIRE

    Gastrock, Jared R.; Iturriaga, Juan J.

    2013-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. In order to improve the effectiveness of the United States Marine Corps (USMC) response to future international humanitarian assistance/disaster relief (HA/DR) missions, an analysis of the demands created by such disasters as well as the capabilities of the USMC is necessary. This research focuses on the primary response organization within the USMC, the Marine expeditionary unit (MEU),and those resources available to the MEU to condu...

  19. WELFARE AND HIGHER EDUCATION IN EU MEMBER STATES – COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriela Wronowska

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses the issues related to higher education in selected EU Member States and its contribution to the creation of wealth. Special emphasis was placed on the shape of education policy in selected countries through an analysis of the main indicators characterizing the same. The paper raises a number of questions which are important from the point of view of social policy: these questions relate to the policy of higher education funding and attempts to isolate and identify the rel...

  20. A Generalized Approach for the Steady-State Analysis of Dual-Bridge Resonant Converters

    OpenAIRE

    Gao-Yuan Hu; Xiaodong Li; Bo-Yue Luan

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a dual-bridge DC/DC resonant converter with a generalized series and parallel resonant tank is analyzed. A general approach based on Fundamental Harmonic Approximation is used to find the universal steady-state solutions. The analysis results for particular resonant tank configurations are exemplified with several typical resonant tank configurations respectively. The corresponded soft-switching conditions are discussed too. To illustrate the usefulness of the generalized appro...

  1. Computational Analysis of Aqueous Drug Solubility – Influence of the Solid State

    OpenAIRE

    Wassvik, Carola

    2006-01-01

    Aqueous solubility is a key parameter influencing the bioavailability of drugs and drug candidates. In this thesis computational models for the prediction of aqueous drug solubility were explored. High quality experimental solubility data for drugs were generated using a standardised protocol and models were developed using multivariate data analysis tools and calculated molecular descriptors. In addition, structural features associated with either solid-state limited or solvation limited sol...

  2. Continuous Affect State Annotation Using a Joystick-Based User Interface: Exploratory Data Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, K; C. Castellini; Van den Broek, E.L.

    2016-01-01

    The DLR (German Aerospace Center) aims to assess user’s affective state in motion simulators. To facilitate this goal, a joystick-based user interface was used to gather reports on user’s emotions. This user interface allowed continuous annotations, while video clips were watched. In parallel, several physiological parameters (e.g., electrodermal activity, heart and respiration rate) were acquired to record affective responses. An exploratory data analysis of the users’ ratings (incl. several...

  3. The Colombian-United States Free Trade Treaty: A Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA)

    OpenAIRE

    Cristian A Yepes

    2014-01-01

    "Free trade treaties are generally centered on defining some game rules to achieve commercial exchange. In this article, the contents of the text of the free trade treaty between Colombia and the United States are discussed using a critical discourse analysis, which will help to identify the power relationships in this discourse in the context of Colombian company management. The particularities of the free trade treaty are also analyzed from a linguistic point of view, and taking into accoun...

  4. A transduction path method of solid state sensor analysis and investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Dubay, Curtis L.

    1984-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This paper proposes a "transduction path" method of analysis for solid state sensors. It is based upon the idea that a sensor represents a transduction path from some input measurand to an electrical output. The transduction path may consist of one or more transduction or modification principles drawn from all fields of science. Also proposed is a "transduction path diagram" which provides a graphical representation of a transductio...

  5. HUMAN CAPITAL, INCOME, AND ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY: A STATE-LEVEL ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Goetz, Stephan J.; Debertin, David L.; Pagoulatos, Angelos

    1998-01-01

    An empirical analysis reveals that states with more highly educated populations have better environmental conditions, after controlling for income, population density, and industrial composition. The strategy of raising human capital stocks to maintain or improve environmental quality is proposed as a complement, if not an alternative, to direct government intervention, which consists of command and control, market incentives, and moral suasion. Under this approach, general education becomes ...

  6. Steady-state responses of axially accelerating viscoelastic beams: Approximate analysis and numerical confirmation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Nonlinear parametric vibration of axially accelerating viscoelastic beams is inves-tigated via an approximate analytical method with numerical confirmations. Based on nonlinear models of a finite-small-stretching slender beam moving at a speed with a periodic fluctuation, a solvability condition is established via the method of multiple scales for subharmonic resonance. Therefore, the amplitudes of steady-state periodic responses and their existence conditions are derived. The amplitudes of stable steady-state responses increase with the amplitude of the axial speed fluctuation, and decrease with the viscosity coefficient and the nonlinear coefficient. The minimum of the detuning parameter which causes the existence of a stable steady-state periodic response decreases with the amplitude of the axial speed fluctuation, and increases with the viscosity coefficient. Nu-merical solutions are sought via the finite difference scheme for a nonlinear par-tial-differential equation and a nonlinear integro-partial-differential equation. The calculation results qualitatively confirm the effects of the related parameters pre-dicted by the approximate analysis on the amplitude and the existence condition of the stable steady-state periodic responses. Quantitative comparisons demonstrate that the approximate analysis results have rather high precision.

  7. Expressions of excited states by triplet dimers in heisenberg antiferromagnetic ladders. Analysis of magnetic Raman spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natsume, Yuhei; Tada, Shinichiro; Suzuki, Toshihiko [Chiba Univ., Graduate School of Science and Technology, Chiba (Japan)

    2002-06-01

    Characteristic properties of excited states in antiferromagnetic ladder systems with spin-1/2 are investigated in relation with the theoretical analysis of the quite asymmetric shape of the peak for twice the spin gap {delta}{sub g} in magnetic Raman spectra. Here, the structure of exchange-scattering spectra are reproduced by the numerical calculation for the finite Heisenberg ladder, in which legs with antiferromagnetic bond J{sub c} is connected by rungs with antiferromagnetic bond J{sub r}. The singlet ground state in this system can be expressed as the ordering of singlet dimers on rungs in the ladder for J{sub c}/J{sub r} {yields} +0. In fact, the value of 0.1 is adopted to be the ratio of J{sub c}/J{sub r} in order to discuss the experimental work of the magnetic Raman spectra for the ladder of V{sup 4+} ions in the oxide compound CaV{sub 2}O{sub 5} reported in Konstantinovic et al., Phys. Rev. B61 (2000), 15185. As for this peak of 2{delta}{sub g}, quite an asymmetric observed shape is explained by the present calculation. According to the analysis of spectra, we discuss the expression of excited states by triplet dimers on rungs: The dominant contribution of the pair of triplet dimers on adjacent rungs to the corresponding state for 2{delta}{sub g} peak is pointed out. (author)

  8. Harmonic Instability Assessment Using State-Space Modeling and Participation Analysis in Inverter-Fed Power Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yanbo; Wang, Xiongfei; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a harmonic instability analysis method using state-space modeling and participation analysis in the inverter-fed ac power systems. A full-order state-space model for the droop-controlled Distributed Generation (DG) inverter is built first, including the time delay of the digit...

  9. Nonlinear Steady-State Vibration Analysis of a Beam with Breathing Cracks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiya, Keisuke; Yoshinaga, Terumitsu

    This paper presents a method for analysis of steady-state vibration of a beam with breathing cracks, which open and close during vibration. There are several papers treating problems of vibration analysis of a beam with breathing cracks. However, due to their treatments of the condition which determines the switch between the open and closed states of the crack, it is difficult for one to obtain steady-state vibration efficiently by methods such as the incremental harmonic balance method. Since opening and closing of a breathing crack depends on the sign of the bending moment, or the curvature, of the beam, the key point to this problem is explicit treatment of the bending moment. The mixed variational principle allows one to use deflection as well as bending moment as primary variables in the governing equation. In this paper a governing equation of a beam with breathing cracks is derived by a finite element procedure based on the mixed variational principle. Then, the derived governing equations are solved by combining the iteration method and the harmonic balance method. Finally, examples of analysis by the presented method are given.

  10. Computing the modal mass from the state space model in combined experimental-operational modal analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cara, Javier

    2016-05-01

    Modal parameters comprise natural frequencies, damping ratios, modal vectors and modal masses. In a theoretic framework, these parameters are the basis for the solution of vibration problems using the theory of modal superposition. In practice, they can be computed from input-output vibration data: the usual procedure is to estimate a mathematical model from the data and then to compute the modal parameters from the estimated model. The most popular models for input-output data are based on the frequency response function, but in recent years the state space model in the time domain has become popular among researchers and practitioners of modal analysis with experimental data. In this work, the equations to compute the modal parameters from the state space model when input and output data are available (like in combined experimental-operational modal analysis) are derived in detail using invariants of the state space model: the equations needed to compute natural frequencies, damping ratios and modal vectors are well known in the operational modal analysis framework, but the equation needed to compute the modal masses has not generated much interest in technical literature. These equations are applied to both a numerical simulation and an experimental study in the last part of the work.

  11. Reliability Analysis of a 3-Machine Power Station Using State Space Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WasiuAkande Ahmed

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available With the advent of high-integrity fault-tolerant systems, the ability to account for repairs of partially failed (but still operational systems become increasingly important. This paper presents a systemic method of determining the reliability of a 3-machine electric power station, taking into consideration the failure rates and repair rates of the individual component (machine that make up the system. A state-space transition process for a 3-machine with 23 states was developed and consequently, steady state equations were generated based on Markov mathematical modeling of the power station. Important reliability components were deduced from this analysis. This research simulation was achieved with codes written in Excel® -VBA programming environment. System reliability using state space approach proofs to be a viable and efficient technique of reliability prediction as it is able to predict the state of the system under consideration. For the purpose of neatness and easy entry of data, Graphic User Interface (GUI was designed.

  12. Regional frequency analysis to asses wind resource spatial and temporal variations in Washington State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortuza, M.; Demissie, D.

    2013-12-01

    According to the U.S. Department of Energy's annual wind technologies market report, the wind power capacity in the country grew from 2.5 gigawatts in early 2000 to 60 gigawatts in 2012, making it one of the largest new sources of electric capacity additions in the U.S. in recent years. With over 2.8 gigawatts of current capacity (eighth largest in the nation), Washington State plays a significant role in this rapidly increasing energy resource. To further expand and/or optimize these capacities, assessment of wind resource and its spatial and temporal variations are important. However, since at-site frequency analysis using meteorological data is not adequate for extending wind frequency to locations with no data, longer return period, and heterogeneous topography and surface, a regional frequency analysis based on L-moment method is adopted in this study to estimate regional wind speed patterns and return periods in Washington State using hourly mean wind speed data from 1979 - 2010. The analysis applies the k-means, hierarchical and self-organizing map clustering techniques to explore potential clusters or regions; statistical tests are then applied to identify homogeneous regions and appropriate probability distribution models. The result from the analysis is expected to provide essential knowledge about the areas with potential capacity of constructing wind power plants, which can also be readily extended to assist decisions on their daily operations.

  13. Stochastic analysis of ocean wave states with and without rogue waves

    CERN Document Server

    Hadjihosseini, A; Hoffmann, N P

    2014-01-01

    This work presents an analysis of ocean wave data including rogue waves. A stochastic approach based on the theory of Markov processes is applied. With this analysis we achieve a characterization of the scale dependent complexity of ocean waves by means of a Fokker-Planck equation, providing stochastic information of multi-scale processes. In particular we show evidence of Markov properties for increment processes, which means that a three point closure for the complexity of the wave structures seems to be valid. Furthermore we estimate the parameters of the Fokker-Planck equation by parameter-free data analysis. The resulting Fokker-Planck equations are verified by numerical reconstruction. This work presents a new approach where the coherent structure of rogue waves seems to be integrated into the fundamental statistics of complex wave states.

  14. Single-cell analysis of mixed-lineage states leading to a binary cell fate choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, Andre; Venkatasubramanian, Meenakshi; Chaudhri, Viren K; Aronow, Bruce J; Salomonis, Nathan; Singh, Harinder; Grimes, H Leighton

    2016-09-29

    Delineating hierarchical cellular states, including rare intermediates and the networks of regulatory genes that orchestrate cell-type specification, are continuing challenges for developmental biology. Single-cell RNA sequencing is greatly accelerating such research, given its power to provide comprehensive descriptions of genomic states and their presumptive regulators. Haematopoietic multipotential progenitor cells, as well as bipotential intermediates, manifest mixed-lineage patterns of gene expression at a single-cell level. Such mixed-lineage states may reflect the molecular priming of different developmental potentials by co-expressed alternative-lineage determinants, namely transcription factors. Although a bistable gene regulatory network has been proposed to regulate the specification of either neutrophils or macrophages, the nature of the transition states manifested in vivo, and the underlying dynamics of the cell-fate determinants, have remained elusive. Here we use single-cell RNA sequencing coupled with a new analytic tool, iterative clustering and guide-gene selection, and clonogenic assays to delineate hierarchical genomic and regulatory states that culminate in neutrophil or macrophage specification in mice. We show that this analysis captured prevalent mixed-lineage intermediates that manifested concurrent expression of haematopoietic stem cell/progenitor and myeloid progenitor cell genes. It also revealed rare metastable intermediates that had collapsed the haematopoietic stem cell/progenitor gene expression programme, instead expressing low levels of the myeloid determinants, Irf8 and Gfi1 (refs 9, 10, 11, 12, 13). Genetic perturbations and chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by sequencing revealed Irf8 and Gfi1 as key components of counteracting myeloid-gene-regulatory networks. Combined loss of these two determinants 'trapped' the metastable intermediate. We propose that mixed-lineage states are obligatory during cell-fate specification

  15. Large-scale Granger causality analysis on resting-state functional MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, Adora M.; Abidin, Anas Zainul; Leistritz, Lutz; Wismüller, Axel

    2016-03-01

    We demonstrate an approach to measure the information flow between each pair of time series in resting-state functional MRI (fMRI) data of the human brain and subsequently recover its underlying network structure. By integrating dimensionality reduction into predictive time series modeling, large-scale Granger Causality (lsGC) analysis method can reveal directed information flow suggestive of causal influence at an individual voxel level, unlike other multivariate approaches. This method quantifies the influence each voxel time series has on every other voxel time series in a multivariate sense and hence contains information about the underlying dynamics of the whole system, which can be used to reveal functionally connected networks within the brain. To identify such networks, we perform non-metric network clustering, such as accomplished by the Louvain method. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach to recover the motor and visual cortex from resting state human brain fMRI data and compare it with the network recovered from a visuomotor stimulation experiment, where the similarity is measured by the Dice Coefficient (DC). The best DC obtained was 0.59 implying a strong agreement between the two networks. In addition, we thoroughly study the effect of dimensionality reduction in lsGC analysis on network recovery. We conclude that our approach is capable of detecting causal influence between time series in a multivariate sense, which can be used to segment functionally connected networks in the resting-state fMRI.

  16. Institutional Knots: A Comparative Analysis of Cord Blood Policy in Canada and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denburg, Avram

    2016-02-01

    Umbilical cord blood is a rich source of blood stem cells, which are of critical clinical importance in the treatment of a variety of malignant and genetic conditions requiring stem cell transplantation. Many countries have established national public cord blood banks; such banks often coexist with a panoply of private options for cord blood banking. Until recently, Canada was the only G8 country without a national cord blood bank. This differs markedly from the United States, which years ago established a national cord blood bank policy and inventory. This article investigates potential reasons for this discrepancy through a comparative analysis of the evolution of programs and policies on national cord blood banking in Canada and the United States. My analysis suggests that cross-national discrepancies in policy on public cord blood banking were determined primarily by institutional factors, principal among them formal governmental structure and the legacy of past policies. Institutional entrepreneurialism in the health sector played a constitutive role in the earlier evolution of national cord blood policy in the United States as compared to Canada.

  17. MONTHLY PRICE ANALYSIS OF COWPEA (BEANS AND MAIZE IN AKWA IBOM STATE, SOUTHERN NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunday Brownson Akpan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The study examined the price transmission and market integration of Maize and Beans in the rural and urban markets of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. Average monthly prices (measured in naira per kilogram of Maize and Cowpea in rural and urban markets were used in the analysis. The data was obtained from the quarterly publications of the Akwa Ibom State Agricultural Development Programme (AKADEP. The data covered the period; January 2005 to June 2013. The trend analysis showed that, prices of Maize and Beans in the rural and urban markets had exponential growth rates that were less than unity, which suggested a possible co-movement of these prices in the study area. Also, the Pearson correlation coefficient generated for the pair of rural and urban prices of Maize and Beans revealed significant linear symmetric relationships. The result implies the existence of symmetric market information flows between the rural and urban markets for Maize and Beans in the state. The Granger causality test revealed bi-directional relationships between the rural and urban price of Maize and Beans in the study area. The co-integration test revealed the presence of co-integration between the rural and urban prices of Maize and Beans. The coefficients of the price variables in the co-integration equations for Maize and Beans markets converged to unity or law of one price which implied perfect market integration in the long run. The results of the error correction model (ECM also confirm the existence of the short run market integration between the rural and urban prices of Maize and Beans in the study area. In addition, it was discovered that, the rural price of Maize adjusted faster to the stable state in the long run than the urban price. Likewise, the urban price of Beans adjusted faster than its corresponding rural price. The index of market connection (IMC supported the high short run market integration for prices of Maize and Beans in rural and urban markets. Based

  18. A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF FLOW STATE IN BASKETBALL PERFORMANCE: A PSYCHOLOGICAL PROBE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishan Singh Deol

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : The present study was conducted to examine the flow state in basketball performance. Materials : The investigator had selected Forty Five (N=45 female basketball players of 19 to 25 years of age to act as subjects. They were divided into three groups; (i.e., N1=15; District, N2=15; State and N3=15 National. The purposive sampling technique was used to select the subjects. All the subjects, after having been informed about the objective and protocol of the study, gave their consent and volunteered to participate in this study. Statistical Analyses : To measure the level of dispositional flow state of the subjects, the flow state battery constructed by Jackson & Eklund (2004 was administered. One way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA was employed to find out the intra-group differences. Where F values were found significant, LSD (Least Significant Difference Post-hoc test was applied to find out the direction and degree of difference. For testing the hypotheses, the level of significance was set at 0.05. Results & Conclusion : The results revealed no significant differences were found among female basketball players on the sub-variables of Dispositional Flow Scale-2 i.e., Challenge Skill Balance, Action-Awareness Merging, Clear Goals, Unambiguous Feedback, Concentration on the Task at Hand, Sense of Control, Loss of Self-Consciousness, Time transformation and Autotelic experience.

  19. Factor Analysis of Subjective Psychological Experiences and States of Football Referees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš ZEMAN

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Correlations between values of components of subjective psychological experiences and states in 26 male football referees before the match and after the match were explored using factor analysis. For evaluation of subjective psychological experiences and states the standardized questionnaire SUPSO was used. The questionnaire was filled in twice by refer ees: before the match and immediately after the match. Four most important factors were described and named. The first factor was called "tendency to discomfort". It relates to referee ́s current mental state being probably a reflection of long - term negativ e circumstances in referee ́s life. It is neither related to the completed match, nor referee ́s temperament . The second factor was called "depression from failure" and it is connected directly to the completed match. It is probably determined by current ref eree ́s physical and mental conditions . The third and fourth factors proved to be consequences of temperament of referees. In conclusion, the two most important factors of current mental state of football referee during the game can probably be influenced b y a systematic psychological preparation . Psychological preparation should therefore become an effective part of the pre - match preparation of football referees.

  20. Reliable and Efficient Procedure for Steady-State Analysis of Nonautonomous and Autonomous Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Dobes

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The majority of contemporary design tools do not still contain steady-state algorithms, especially for the autonomous systems. This is mainly caused by insufficient accuracy of the algorithm for numerical integration, but also by unreliable steady-state algorithms themselves. Therefore, in the paper, a very stable and efficient procedure for the numerical integration of nonlinear differential-algebraic systems is defined first. Afterwards, two improved methods are defined for finding the steady state, which use this integration algorithm in their iteration loops. The first is based on the idea of extrapolation, and the second utilizes nonstandard time-domain sensitivity analysis. The two steady-state algorithms are compared by analyses of a rectifier and a C-class amplifier, and the extrapolation algorithm is primarily selected as a more reliable alternative. Finally, the method based on the extrapolation naturally cooperating with the algorithm for solving the differential-algebraic systems is thoroughly tested on various electronic circuits: Van der Pol and Colpitts oscillators, fragment of a large bipolar logical circuit, feedback and distributed microwave oscillators, and power amplifier. The results confirm that the extrapolation method is faster than a classical plain numerical integration, especially for larger circuits with complicated transients.

  1. Clean Energy in City Codes: A Baseline Analysis of Municipal Codification across the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, Jeffrey J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Aznar, Alexandra [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Dane, Alexander [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Day, Megan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mathur, Sivani [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Doris, Elizabeth [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Municipal governments in the United States are well positioned to influence clean energy (energy efficiency and alternative energy) and transportation technology and strategy implementation within their jurisdictions through planning, programs, and codification. Municipal governments are leveraging planning processes and programs to shape their energy futures. There is limited understanding in the literature related to codification, the primary way that municipal governments enact enforceable policies. The authors fill the gap in the literature by documenting the status of municipal codification of clean energy and transportation across the United States. More directly, we leverage online databases of municipal codes to develop national and state-specific representative samples of municipal governments by population size. Our analysis finds that municipal governments with the authority to set residential building energy codes within their jurisdictions frequently do so. In some cases, communities set codes higher than their respective state governments. Examination of codes across the nation indicates that municipal governments are employing their code as a policy mechanism to address clean energy and transportation.

  2. Attractor structure discriminates sleep states: recurrence plot analysis applied to infant breathing patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrill, Philip Ian; Wilson, Stephen James; Suresh, Sadasivam; Cooper, David M; Dakin, Carolyn

    2010-05-01

    Breathing patterns are characteristically different between infant active sleep (AS) and quiet sleep (QS), and statistical quantifications of interbreath interval (IBI) data have previously been used to discriminate between infant sleep states. It has also been identified that breathing patterns are governed by a nonlinear controller. This study aims to investigate whether nonlinear quantifications of infant IBI data are characteristically different between AS and QS, and whether they may be used to discriminate between these infant sleep states. Polysomnograms were obtained from 24 healthy infants at six months of age. Periods of AS and QS were identified, and IBI data extracted. Recurrence quantification analysis (RQA) was applied to each period, and recurrence calculated for a fixed radius in the range of 0-8 in steps of 0.02, and embedding dimensions of 4, 6, 8, and 16. When a threshold classifier was trained, the RQA variable recurrence was able to correctly classify 94.3% of periods in a test dataset. It was concluded that RQA of IBI data is able to accurately discriminate between infant sleep states. This is a promising step toward development of a minimal-channel automatic sleep state classification system.

  3. Is it Worth it? A Comparative Analysis of Cost-Benefit Projectionsfor State Renewables Portfolio Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Cliff; Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark

    2006-06-05

    State renewables portfolio standards (RPS) have emerged as one of the most important policy drivers of renewable energy capacity expansion in the U.S. Collectively, these policies now apply to almost 40% of U.S. electricity load, and may have substantial impacts on electricity markets, ratepayers, and local economies. As RPS policies have been proposed or adopted in an increasing number of states, a growing number of studies have attempted to quantify the potential impacts of these policies, focusing primarily on projecting cost impacts, but sometimes also estimating macroeconomic and environmental effects. This report synthesizes and analyzes the results and methodologies of twenty-six distinct state or utility-level RPS cost impact analyses completed since 1998 (see Figure 1 and Appendix for a complete list of the studies). Together, these studies model proposed or adopted RPS policies in seventeen different states. We highlight the key findings of these studies on the costs and benefits of RPS policies, examine the sensitivity of projected costs to model assumptions, assess the attributes of different modeling approaches, and suggest possible areas of improvement for future RPS analysis.

  4. Seismic fragility analysis of highway bridges considering multi-dimensional performance limit state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi'ang; Wu, Ziyan; Liu, Shukui

    2012-03-01

    Fragility analysis for highway bridges has become increasingly important in the risk assessment of highway transportation networks exposed to seismic hazards. This study introduces a methodology to calculate fragility that considers multi-dimensional performance limit state parameters and makes a first attempt to develop fragility curves for a multispan continuous (MSC) concrete girder bridge considering two performance limit state parameters: column ductility and transverse deformation in the abutments. The main purpose of this paper is to show that the performance limit states, which are compared with the seismic response parameters in the calculation of fragility, should be properly modeled as randomly interdependent variables instead of deterministic quantities. The sensitivity of fragility curves is also investigated when the dependency between the limit states is different. The results indicate that the proposed method can be used to describe the vulnerable behavior of bridges which are sensitive to multiple response parameters and that the fragility information generated by this method will be more reliable and likely to be implemented into transportation network loss estimation.

  5. New model of load transfer function for pile analysis based on disturbed state model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Qijian; YANG Linde; WU Jun

    2007-01-01

    Based on the disturbed state concept (DSC),a new model of load transfer function for pile analysis is established by the idea that the deformed material between pile and soil can be treated as a mixture of two constituent parts,which are in intact or critical state and assumed to obey random distribution.Starting from the homogenization theory of heterogeneous materials and statistics method,a parameter D to describe the disturbance degree is proposed,and a formula to determine the parameter has been derived by using the plastic displacement of a pile as distribution variable.In the model,shear intensity of elements in an intact state are simulated by Duncan-Zhang model and that in a critical state by Mohr-Coulomb criterion.The model of this paper has few parameters,which can reflect the aspects of load transfer function,such as hardening,softening and the effects of confining pressure.The well agreement between the in-situ data and the predicted shows that the validity of the model herein.So the proposed model in this paper is easy to be used in engineering practice.

  6. Texas State Building Energy Code: Analysis of Potential Benefits and Costs of Commercial Lighting Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richman, Eric E.; Belzer, David B.; Winiarski, David W.

    2005-09-15

    The State Energy Conservation Office of Texas has asked the U.S. Department of Energy to analyze the potential energy effect and cost-effectiveness of the lighting requirements in the 2003 IECC as they consider adoption of this energy code. The new provisions of interest in the lighting section of IECC 2003 include new lighting power densities (LPD) and requirements for automatic lighting shutoff controls. The potential effect of the new LPD values is analyzed as a comparison with previous values in the nationally available IECC codes and ASHRAE/IESNA 90.1. The basis for the analysis is a set of lighting models developed as part of the ASHRAE/IES code process, which is the basis for IECC 2003 LPD values. The use of the models allows for an effective comparison of values for various building types of interest to Texas state. Potential effects from control requirements are discussed, and available case study analysis results are provided but no comprehensive numerical evaluation is provided in this limited analysis effort.

  7. Advances and pitfalls in the analysis and interpretation of resting-state FMRI data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M Cole

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The last 15 years have witnessed a steady increase in the number of resting-state functional neuroimaging studies. The connectivity patterns of multiple functional, distributed, large-scale networks of brain dynamics have been recognised for their potential as useful tools in the domain of systems and other neurosciences. The application of functional connectivity methods to areas such as cognitive psychology, clinical diagnosis and treatment progression has yielded promising preliminary results, but is yet to be fully realised. This is due, in part, to an array of methodological and interpretative issues that remain to be resolved. We here present a review of the methods most commonly applied in this rapidly advancing field, such as seed-based correlation analysis and independent component analysis, along with examples of their use at the individual subject and group analysis levels and a discussion of practical and theoretical issues arising from this data ‘explosion’. We describe the similarities and differences across these varied statistical approaches to processing resting-state FMRI signals, and conclude that further technical optimisation and experimental refinement is required in order to fully delineate and characterise the gross complexity of the human neural functional architecture.

  8. Robust stability analysis of uncertain discrete-time systems with state delay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任正云; 张立群; 邵惠鹤

    2004-01-01

    The sufficient conditions of stability for uncertain discrete-time systems with state delay have been proposed by some researchers in the past few years, yet these results may be conservative in application. The stability analysis of these systems is discussed, and the necessary and sufficient condition of stability is derived by method other than constructing Lyapunov function and solving Riccati inequality. The root locations of system characteristic polynomial, which is obtained by augmentation approach and Laplace expansion, determine the stability of uncertain discrete-time systems with state delay, the system is stable if and only if all roots lie within the unit circle. In order to analyze robust stability of system characteristic polynomial effectively, Kharitonov theorem and edge theorem are applied. Example shows the practicability of these methods.

  9. A novel thermodynamic state recursion method for description of nonideal nonlinear chromatographic process of frontal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qian; OuYang, Liangfei; Liang, Heng; Li, Nan; Geng, Xindu

    2012-06-01

    A novel thermodynamic state recursion (TSR) method, which is based on nonequilibrium thermodynamic path described by the Lagrangian-Eulerian representation, is presented to simulate the whole chromatographic process of frontal analysis using the spatial distribution of solute bands in time series like as a series of images. TSR differs from the current numerical methods using the partial differential equations in Eulerian representation. The novel method is used to simulate the nonideal, nonlinear hydrophobic interaction chromatography (HIC) processes of lysozyme and myoglobin under the discrete complex boundary conditions. The results show that the simulated breakthrough curves agree well with the experimental ones. The apparent diffusion coefficient and the Langmuir isotherm parameters of the two proteins in HIC are obtained by the state recursion inverse method. Due to its the time domain and Markov characteristics, TSR is applicable to the design and online control of the nonlinear multicolumn chromatographic systems.

  10. Analysis of the intermediate-state contributions to neutrinoless double beta-minus decays

    CERN Document Server

    Hyvärinen, Juhani

    2016-01-01

    A comprehensive analysis of the structure of the nuclear matrix elements (NMEs) of neutrinoless double beta-minus decays to the 0^+ ground and first excited states is performed in terms of the contributing multipole states in the intermediate nuclei of neutrinoless double beta-minus transitions. We concentrate on the transitions mediated by the light (l-NMEs) Majorana neutrinos. As nuclear model we use the proton-neutron quasiparticle random-phase approximation (pnQRPA) with a realistic two-nucleon interaction based on the Bonn one-boson-exchange G matrix. In the computations we include the appropriate short-range correlations, nucleon form factors, higher-order nucleonic weak currents and restore the isospin symmetry by the isoscalar-isovector decomposition of the particle-particle proton-neutron interaction parameter g_{pp}.

  11. Relativistic analysis of nuclear ground state densities at 135 to 200 MeV

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M A Suhail; N Neeloffer; Z A Khan

    2005-12-01

    A relativistic analysis of p + 40Ca elastic scattering with different nuclear ground state target densities at 135 to 200 MeV is presented in this paper. It is found that the IGO densities are more consistent in reproducing the data over the energy range considered here. The reproduction of spin-rotation-function data with the simultaneous fitting of differential cross-section and analyzing power, and the appearance of wine-bottle-bottom shaped Re eff() in the transition energy region, sensitively depends on the input nuclear ground state densities and are not solely the relativistic characteristic signatures. We also found that the wine-bottle-bottom shaped Re eff() is preferred by the spin observables in the transition energy region (i.e. 181 MeV to 200 MeV).

  12. Analysis of thermomechanical states in single-pass GMAW surfaced steel element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winczek, Jerzy; Gawronska, Elzbieta; Murcinkova, Zuzana; Hatala, Michal; Pavlenko, Slavko; Makles, Krzysztof

    2017-03-01

    In the paper the model of temperature field, phase changes and stress states calculation during single-pass arc weld surfacing have been presented. In temperature field solution the temperature changes caused by the heat of weld and by electric arc have been taken into consideration. Kinetics of phase changes during heating is limited by temperature values at the beginning and at the end of austenitic transformation, while progress of phase transformations during cooling has been determined on the basis of time-temperature-transformation (TTT) - welding diagram. The analysis of stress state has been presented for S235 steel flat assuming planar section hypothesis and using integral equations of stress equilibrium. It has enabled a clear interpretation of influence of temperature field and phase transformation on stresses caused by surfacing using Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW) method.

  13. Comparative Analysis of China’s Energy Strategy in Central Asian States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Poshtich

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article addresses the influence of the energy factor on formulating China’s political and economic strategy towards Central Asia. Therefore, the article provides the profound analysis of the PRC energy strategy in the region, namely its principles, goals, objectives and mechanisms. The article also examines the key areas of energy cooperation between China and the five Central Asian states, as well as the major joint energy projects. Moreover, the article takes a close look at the Silk Road Economic Belt as one of the largest and most ambitious Chinese economic projects, for it is directly relevant to the development of energy cooperation in the region. The author also analyses the prospects as well as possible problems of further energy cooperation between China and Central Asian states

  14. Multivariate analysis applied to monthly rainfall over Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, Thábata T.; Oliveira-Júnior, José F.; Lyra, Gustavo B.; Gois, Givanildo; Zeri, Marcelo

    2016-10-01

    Spatial and temporal patterns of rainfall were identified over the state of Rio de Janeiro, southeast Brazil. The proximity to the coast and the complex topography create great diversity of rainfall over space and time. The dataset consisted of time series (1967-2013) of monthly rainfall over 100 meteorological stations. Clustering analysis made it possible to divide the stations into six groups (G1, G2, G3, G4, G5 and G6) with similar rainfall spatio-temporal patterns. A linear regression model was applied to a time series and a reference. The reference series was calculated from the average rainfall within a group, using nearby stations with higher correlation (Pearson). Based on t-test (p < 0.05) all stations had a linear spatiotemporal trend. According to the clustering analysis, the first group (G1) contains stations located over the coastal lowlands and also over the ocean facing area of Serra do Mar (Sea ridge), a 1500 km long mountain range over the coastal Southeastern Brazil. The second group (G2) contains stations over all the state, from Serra da Mantiqueira (Mantiqueira Mountains) and Costa Verde (Green coast), to the south, up to stations in the Northern parts of the state. Group 3 (G3) contains stations in the highlands over the state (Serrana region), while group 4 (G4) has stations over the northern areas and the continent-facing side of Serra do Mar. The last two groups were formed with stations around Paraíba River (G5) and the metropolitan area of the city of Rio de Janeiro (G6). The driest months in all regions were June, July and August, while November, December and January were the rainiest months. Sharp transitions occurred when considering monthly accumulated rainfall: from January to February, and from February to March, likely associated with episodes of "veranicos", i.e., periods of 4-15 days of duration with no rainfall.

  15. Model Analysis of Influences of Aerosol Mixing State upon Its Optical Properties in East Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Xiao; ZHANG Meigen; ZHU Lingyun; XU Liren

    2013-01-01

    The air quality model system RAMS (Regional Atmospheric Modeling System)-CMAQ (Models-3 Community Multi-scale Air Quality) coupled with an aerosol optical/radiative module was applied to investigate the impact of different aerosol mixing states (i.e.,externally mixed,half externally and half internally mixed,and internally mixed) on radiative forcing in East Asia.The simulation results show that the aerosol optical depth (AOD) generally increased when the aerosol mixing state changed from externally mixed to internally mixed,while the single scattering albedo (SSA) decreased.Therefore,the scattering and absorption properties of aerosols can be significantly affected by the change of aerosol mixing states.Comparison of simulated and observed SSAs at five AERONET (Aerosol Robotic Network) sites suggests that SSA could be better estimated by considering aerosol particles to be internally mixed.Model analysis indicates that the impact of aerosol mixing state upon aerosol direct radiative forcing (DRF) is complex.Generally,the cooling effect of aerosols over East Asia are enhanced in the northern part of East Asia (Northern China,Korean peninsula,and the surrounding area of Japan) and are reduced in the southern part of East Asia (Sichuan Basin and Southeast China) by internal mixing process,and the variation range can reach ±5 W m-2.The analysis shows that the internal mixing between inorganic salt and dust is likely the main reason that the cooling effect strengthens.Conversely,the internal mixture of anthropogenic aerosols,including sulfate,nitrate,ammonium,black carbon,and organic carbon,could obviously weaken the cooling effect.

  16. STATE-OF-THE-ART TASKS AND ACHIEVEMENTS OF PARALINGUISTIC SPEECH ANALYSIS SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Karpov

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available We present analytical survey of state-of-the-art actual tasks in the area of computational paralinguistics, as well as the recent achievements of automatic systems for paralinguistic analysis of conversational speech. Paralinguistics studies non-verbal aspects of human communication and speech such as: natural emotions, accents, psycho-physiological states, pronunciation features, speaker’s voice parameters, etc. We describe architecture of a baseline computer system for acoustical paralinguistic analysis, its main components and useful speech processing methods. We present some information on an International contest called Computational Paralinguistics Challenge (ComParE, which is held each year since 2009 in the framework of the International conference INTERSPEECH organized by the International Speech Communication Association. We present sub-challenges (tasks that were proposed at the ComParE Challenges in 2009-2016, and analyze winning computer systems for each sub-challenge and obtained results. The last completed ComParE-2015 Challenge was organized in September 2015 in Germany and proposed 3 sub-challenges: 1 Degree of Nativeness (DN sub-challenge, determination of nativeness degree of speakers based on acoustics; 2 Parkinson's Condition (PC sub-challenge, recognition of a degree of Parkinson’s condition based on speech analysis; 3 Eating Condition (EC sub-challenge, determination of the eating condition state during speaking or a dialogue, and classification of consumed food type (one of seven classes of food by the speaker. In the last sub-challenge (EC, the winner was a joint Turkish-Russian team consisting of the authors of the given paper. We have developed the most efficient computer-based system for detection and classification of the corresponding (EC acoustical paralinguistic events. The paper deals with the architecture of this system, its main modules and methods, as well as the description of used training and evaluation

  17. Brain connectivity analysis from EEG signals using stable phase-synchronized states during face perception tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamal, Wasifa; Das, Saptarshi; Maharatna, Koushik; Pan, Indranil; Kuyucu, Doga

    2015-09-01

    Degree of phase synchronization between different Electroencephalogram (EEG) channels is known to be the manifestation of the underlying mechanism of information coupling between different brain regions. In this paper, we apply a continuous wavelet transform (CWT) based analysis technique on EEG data, captured during face perception tasks, to explore the temporal evolution of phase synchronization, from the onset of a stimulus. Our explorations show that there exists a small set (typically 3-5) of unique synchronized patterns or synchrostates, each of which are stable of the order of milliseconds. Particularly, in the beta (β) band, which has been reported to be associated with visual processing task, the number of such stable states has been found to be three consistently. During processing of the stimulus, the switching between these states occurs abruptly but the switching characteristic follows a well-behaved and repeatable sequence. This is observed in a single subject analysis as well as a multiple-subject group-analysis in adults during face perception. We also show that although these patterns remain topographically similar for the general category of face perception task, the sequence of their occurrence and their temporal stability varies markedly between different face perception scenarios (stimuli) indicating toward different dynamical characteristics for information processing, which is stimulus-specific in nature. Subsequently, we translated these stable states into brain complex networks and derived informative network measures for characterizing the degree of segregated processing and information integration in those synchrostates, leading to a new methodology for characterizing information processing in human brain. The proposed methodology of modeling the functional brain connectivity through the synchrostates may be viewed as a new way of quantitative characterization of the cognitive ability of the subject, stimuli and information integration

  18. Non-linear ultimate strength and stability limit state analysis of a wind turbine blade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosemeier, Malo; Berring, Peter; Branner, Kim

    2016-01-01

    According to the design codes for wind turbine blades, it is sufficient to evaluate the blade's limit states using solely a linear analysis. This study, however, shows the need of non-linear analyses in blade design. Therefore, a geometrically non-linear structural response of a 34 m blade under......% of the design load at a full-scale test to failure and the blade has operated successfully in the field, GL's safety factors combined with the imperfection size may be too conservative. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd....

  19. Steady State Analysis of Small Molten Salt Reactor : Effect of Fuel Salt Flow on Reactor Characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Yamamoto, Takahisa; MITACHI, Koshi; Suzuki, Takashi

    2005-01-01

    The Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) is a thermal neutron reactor with graphite moderation and operates on the thorium-uranium fuel cycle. The feature of the MSR is that fuel salt flows inside the reactor during the nuclear fission reaction. In the previous study, the authors developed numerical model with which to simulate the effects of fuel salt flow on the reactor characteristics. In this study, we apply the model to the steady-state analysis of a small MSR system and estimate the effects of fue...

  20. Finite-key analysis of a practical decoy-state high-dimensional quantum key distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Haize; Bao, Wansu; Wang, Yang; Zhou, Chun; Chen, Ruike

    2016-05-01

    Compared with two-level quantum key distribution (QKD), high-dimensional QKD enables two distant parties to share a secret key at a higher rate. We provide a finite-key security analysis for the recently proposed practical high-dimensional decoy-state QKD protocol based on time-energy entanglement. We employ two methods to estimate the statistical fluctuation of the postselection probability and give a tighter bound on the secure-key capacity. By numerical evaluation, we show the finite-key effect on the secure-key capacity in different conditions. Moreover, our approach could be used to optimize parameters in practical implementations of high-dimensional QKD.

  1. Classification model of arousal and valence mental states by EEG signals analysis and Brodmann correlations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Rodriguez Aguinaga

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a methodology to perform emotional states classification by the analysis of EEG signals, wavelet decomposition and an electrode discrimination process, that associates electrodes of a 10/20 model to Brodmann regions and reduce computational burden. The classification process were performed by a Support Vector Machines Classification process, achieving a 81.46 percent of classification rate for a multi-class problem and the emotions modeling are based in an adjusted space from the Russell Arousal Valence Space and the Geneva model.

  2. Evaluation of phenotypic stability of cassava clones by AMMI analysis in northwestern Paraná state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Vinícius Kvitschal

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available High yield stability and adaptability of storage root are highly desirable attributes of cassava clones. Theobjective of this study was therefore to evaluate the effect of the genotype x environment interaction (G x E and the stability ofcassava clones developed at IAC. A subset of eight cassava genotypes was chosen in trials of storage root yield, arranged ina randomized complete block design with four replications, in two counties (Araruna and Maringá, in the northwesternregion of Paraná State, over five growing seasons (1997-2001. The G x E interaction was evaluated by joint varianceanalysis and stability and adaptability by AMMI analysis. The G x E interaction was significant (P<0.05 for storage rootyield. Results indicated AMMI analysis as an efficient tool for the evaluation of phenotypic adaptability and stability of cassavaclones and IAC 190 as the most promising clone.

  3. Computer-based analysis of cardiac state using entropies, recurrence plots and Poincare geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, K C; Chandran, V; Acharya, U R; Lim, C M

    2008-01-01

    Heart rate variability refers to the regulation of the sinoatrial node, the natural pacemaker of the heart by the sympathetic and parasympathetic branches of the autonomic nervous system. Heart rate variability is important because it provides a window to observe the heart's ability to respond to normal regulatory impulses that affect its rhythm. A computer-based intelligent system for analysis of cardiac states is very useful in diagnostics and disease management. Parameters are extracted from the heart rate signals and analysed using computers for diagnostics. This paper describes the analysis of normal and seven types of cardiac abnormal signals using approximate entropy (ApEn), sample entropy (SampEn), recurrence plots and Poincare plot patterns. Ranges of these parameters for various cardiac abnormalities are presented with an accuracy of more than 95%. Among the two entropies, ApEn showed better performance for all the cardiac abnormalities. Typical Poincare and recurrence plots are shown for various cardiac abnormalities.

  4. Harmonic Interaction Analysis in Grid Connected Converter using Harmonic State Space (HSS) Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kwon, Jun Bum; Wang, Xiongfei; Bak, Claus Leth

    2015-01-01

    An increasing number of power electronics based Distributed Generation (DG) systems and loads generate coupled harmonic as well as non-characteristic harmonic with each other. Several methods like impedance based analysis, which is derived from conventional small signal- and average-model, are in...... behavior interaction and dynamic transfer procedure. Frequency domain as well as time domain simulation results are represented by means of HSS modeling to verify the theoretical analysis. Experimental results are also included to validate the method....... during the modeling process. This paper investigates grid connected converter by means of Harmonic State Space (HSS) small signal model, which is modeled from Linear Time varying Periodically (LTP) system. Further, a grid connected converter harmonic matrix is investigated to analyze the harmonic...

  5. Transient and Steady-State Analysis of Nonlinear RF and Microwave Circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Lei(Lana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers a review of simulation methods currently available for the transient and steady-state analysis of nonlinear RF and microwave circuits. The most general method continues to be the time-marching approach used in Spice, but more recent methods based on multiple time dimensions are particularly effective for RF and microwave circuits. We derive nodal formulations for the most widely used multiple time dimension methods. We put special emphasis on methods for the analysis of oscillators based in the warped multitime partial differential equations (WaMPDE approach. Case studies of a Colpitts oscillator and a voltage controlled Clapp-Gouriet oscillator are presented and discussed. The accuracy of the amplitude and phase of these methods is investigated. It is shown that the exploitation of frequency-domain latency reduces the computational effort.

  6. Steady-state analysis of delay-locked loops tracking binary Markovian sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, Keisuke; Fujisaka, Hisato; Kamio, Takeshi; Ahn, Chang-Jun; Haeiwa, Kazuhisa

    We analyze stationary phase tracking error of delay-locked loops (DLL) in direct spread code division multiple access (DS-CDMA) using Markovian spreading sequences. The phase tracking error is caused by noise generated inside of DLLs by multiple access interferences. When binary Markovian sequences are used, the noise is not considered as white Gaussian noise. This makes analysis of the tracking error difficult. In this paper, we describe DLLs by stochastic difference equations and derive forward evolutional equations of the probability distribution of the states of DLLs. Applying path integral analysis to the evolutional equations, we obtained stationary distribution. We found from the distribution that Markovian spreading sequences with negative eigenvalue were effective in decreasing stationary phase tracking error of not only a type of DLL in asynchronous CDMA but also DLLs in chip-synchronous CDMA.

  7. Weighing the Costs and Benefits of State Renewables Portfolio Standards in the United States: A Comparative Analysis of State-Level Policy Impact Projections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Cliff; Wiser, Ryan; Mills, Andrew; Bolinger, Mark

    2008-01-07

    State renewables portfolio standards (RPS) have emerged as one of the most important policy drivers of renewable energy capacity expansion in the U.S. As RPS policies have been proposed or adopted in an increasing number of states, a growing number of studies have attempted to quantify the potential impacts of these policies, focusing primarily on cost impacts, but sometimes also estimating macroeconomic, risk reduction, and environmental effects. This article synthesizes and analyzes the results and methodologies of 31 distinct state or utility-level RPS cost-impact analyses completed since 1998. Together, these studies model proposed or adopted RPS policies in 20 different states. We highlight the key findings of these studies on the projected costs of state RPS policies, examine the sensitivity of projected costs to model assumptions, evaluate the reasonableness of key input assumptions, and suggest possible areas of improvement for future RPS analyses. We conclude that while there is considerable uncertainty in the study results, the majority of the studies project modest cost impacts. Seventy percent of the state RPS cost studies project retail electricity rate increases of no greater than one percent. Nonetheless, there is considerable room for improving the analytic methods, and therefore accuracy, of these estimates.

  8. Time series analysis applied to construct US natural gas price functions for groups of states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalashnikov, V.V. [Departamento de Ingenieria Industrial y de Sistemas, Tecnologico de Monterrey, Av. Eugenio Garza Sada 2501 Sur, Col. Tecnologico, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, 64849 (Mexico); Matis, T.I. [Deparment of Industrial Engineering, Texas Tech University, 2500 Broadway, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Perez-Valdes, G.A. [Departamento de Ingenieria Industrial y de Sistemas, Tecnologico de Monterrey, Av. Eugenio Garza Sada 2501 Sur, Col. Tecnologico, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, 64849 (Mexico); Deparment of Industrial Engineering, Texas Tech University, 2500 Broadway, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States)

    2010-07-15

    The study of natural gas markets took a considerably new direction after the liberalization of the natural gas markets during the early 1990s. As a result, several problems and research opportunities arose for those studying the natural gas supply chain, particularly the marketing operations. Consequently, various studies have been undertaken about the econometrics of natural gas. Several models have been developed and used for different purposes, from descriptive analysis to practical applications such as price and consumption forecasting. In this work, we address the problem of finding a pooled regression formula relating the monthly figures of price and consumption volumes for each state of the United States during the last twenty years. The model thus obtained is used as the basis for the development of two methods aimed at classifying the states into groups sharing a similar price/consumption relationship: a dendrogram application, and an heuristic algorithm. The details and further applications of these grouping techniques are discussed, along with the ultimate purpose of using this pooled regression model to validate data employed in the stochastic optimization problem studied by the authors. (author)

  9. Preserved consciousness in vegetative and minimal conscious states: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondziella, Daniel; Friberg, Christian K; Frokjaer, Vibe G; Fabricius, Martin; Møller, Kirsten

    2016-05-01

    Active, passive and resting state paradigms using functional MRI (fMRI) or EEG may reveal consciousness in the vegetative (VS) and the minimal conscious state (MCS). A meta-analysis was performed to assess the prevalence of preserved consciousness in VS and MCS as revealed by fMRI and EEG, including command following (active paradigms), cortical functional connectivity elicited by external stimuli (passive paradigms) and default mode networks (resting state). Studies were selected from multiple indexing databases until February 2015 and evaluated using the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies-2. 37 studies were identified, including 1041 patients (mean age 43 years, range 16-89; male/female 2.1:1; 39.5% traumatic brain injuries). MCS patients were more likely than VS patients to follow commands during active paradigms (32% vs 14%; OR 2.85 (95% CI 1.90 to 4.27; pconsciousness more often than active paradigms (38% vs 24%; OR 1.98 (95% CI 1.54 to 2.54; pevaluation. In conclusion, active paradigms may underestimate the degree of consciousness as compared to passive paradigms. While MCS patients show signs of preserved consciousness more frequently in both paradigms, roughly 15% of patients with a clinical diagnosis of VS are able to follow commands by modifying their brain activity. However, there remain important limitations at the single-subject level; for example, patients from both categories may show command following despite negative passive paradigms.

  10. Analysis of Physiochemical Parameters to Evaluate the Drinking Water Quality in the State of Perak, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Rahmanian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The drinking water quality was investigated in suspected parts of Perak state, Malaysia, to ensure the continuous supply of clean and safe drinking water for the public health protection. In this regard, a detailed physical and chemical analysis of drinking water samples was carried out in different residential and commercial areas of the state. A number of parameters such as pH, turbidity, conductivity, total suspended solids (TSS, total dissolved solids (TDS, and heavy metals such as Cu, Zn, Mg, Fe, Cd, Pb, Cr, As, Hg, and Sn were analysed for each water sample collected during winter and summer periods. The obtained values of each parameter were compared with the standard values set by the World Health Organization (WHO and local standards such as National Drinking Water Quality Standard (NDWQS. The values of each parameter were found to be within the safe limits set by the WHO and NDWQS. Overall, the water from all the locations was found to be safe as drinking water. However, it is also important to investigate other potential water contaminations such as chemicals and microbial and radiological materials for a longer period of time, including human body fluids, in order to assess the overall water quality of Perak state.

  11. Modal contribution and state space order selection in operational modal analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cara, F. Javier; Juan, Jesús; Alarcón, Enrique; Reynders, Edwin; De Roeck, Guido

    2013-07-01

    The estimation of modal parameters of a structure from ambient measurements has attracted the attention of many researchers in the last years. The procedure is now well established and the use of state space models, stochastic system identification methods and stabilization diagrams allows to identify the modes of the structure. In this paper the contribution of each identified mode to the measured vibration is discussed. This modal contribution is computed using the Kalman filter and it is an indicator of the importance of the modes. Also the variation of the modal contribution with the order of the model is studied. This analysis suggests selecting the order for the state space model as the order that includes the modes with higher contribution. The order obtained using this method is compared to those obtained using other well known methods, like Akaike criteria for time series or the singular values of the weighted projection matrix in the Stochastic Subspace Identification method. Finally, both simulated and measured vibration data are used to show the practicability of the derived technique. Finally, it is important to remark that the method can be used with any identification method working in the state space model.

  12. Analysis of stress-strain state of the spherical shallow shell with inclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.B. Kozin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Development of effective methods of determining the stress-strain state thin-walled structures with inclusions, reinforcements and other stress concentrators is an important task, both from a theoretical and practical point of view, by reason of their great practical application. Aim: The aim of the research is to analyze the elastic-deformed state of a spherical shallow shell. Materials and Methods: In this work, based on the generalized scheme of integral transformations, a constructive method of direct numerical-analytical solutions of boundary value problem of calculating the stress-strain state of a spherical shallow shell with the inclusion in bending is proposed. Results: The results of numerical calculations are presented. Calculations allow predicting the value of deformation of the cylindrical shells structure with reinforcements and determining the optimum parameters for the design or manufacture. The obtained results can be used in determining the strength characteristics of structural elements that consist of composite materials. The article contains comparative analysis of the results and demonstrates the effectiveness of the method for solving this class of problems.

  13. Analysis of two-orbital correlations in wave functions restricted to electron-pair states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boguslawski, Katharina; Tecmer, Paweł; Legeza, Örs

    2016-10-01

    Wave functions constructed from electron-pair states can accurately model strong electron correlation effects and are promising approaches especially for larger many-body systems. In this article, we analyze the nature and the type of electron correlation effects that can be captured by wave functions restricted to electron-pair states. We focus on the pair-coupled-cluster doubles (pCCD) ansatz also called the antisymmetric product of the 1-reference orbital geminal (AP1roG) method, combined with an orbital optimization protocol presented in Boguslawski et al. [Phys. Rev. B 89, 201106(R) (2014)], 10.1103/PhysRevB.89.201106, whose performance is assessed against electronic structures obtained form density-matrix renormalization-group reference data. Our numerical analysis covers model systems for strong correlation: the one-dimensional Hubbard model with a periodic boundary condition as well as metallic and molecular hydrogen rings. Specifically, the accuracy of pCCD/AP1roG is benchmarked using the single-orbital entropy, the orbital-pair mutual information, as well as the eigenvalue spectrum of the one-orbital and two-orbital reduced density matrices. Our study indicates that contributions from singly occupied states become important in the strong correlation regime which highlights the limitations of the pCCD/AP1roG method. Furthermore, we examine the effect of orbital rotations within the pCCD/AP1roG model on correlations between orbital pairs.

  14. A structural analysis of the A5/1 state transition graph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Beckmann

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available We describe efficient algorithms to analyze the cycle structure of the graph induced by the state transition function of the A5/1 stream cipher used in GSM mobile phones and report on the results of the implementation. The analysis is performed in five steps utilizing HPC clusters, GPGPU and external memory computation. A great reduction of this huge state transition graph of 2^64 nodes is achieved by focusing on special nodes in the first step and removing leaf nodes that can be detected with limited effort in the second step. This step does not break the overall structure of the graph and keeps at least one node on every cycle. In the third step the nodes of the reduced graph are connected by weighted edges. Since the number of nodes is still huge an efficient bitslice approach is presented that is implemented with NVIDIA's CUDA framework and executed on several GPUs concurrently. An external memory algorithm based on the STXXL library and its parallel pipelining feature further reduces the graph in the fourth step. The result is a graph containing only cycles that can be further analyzed in internal memory to count the number and size of the cycles. This full analysis which previously would take months can now be completed within a few days and allows to present structural results for the full graph for the first time. The structure of the A5/1 graph deviates notably from the theoretical results for random mappings.

  15. Engineering Complex Embedded Systems with State Analysis and the Mission Data System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingham, Michel D.; Rasmussen, Robert D.; Bennett, Matthew B.; Moncada, Alex C.

    2004-01-01

    It has become clear that spacecraft system complexity is reaching a threshold where customary methods of control are no longer affordable or sufficiently reliable. At the heart of this problem are the conventional approaches to systems and software engineering based on subsystem-level functional decomposition, which fail to scale in the tangled web of interactions typically encountered in complex spacecraft designs. Furthermore, there is a fundamental gap between the requirements on software specified by systems engineers and the implementation of these requirements by software engineers. Software engineers must perform the translation of requirements into software code, hoping to accurately capture the systems engineer's understanding of the system behavior, which is not always explicitly specified. This gap opens up the possibility for misinterpretation of the systems engineer s intent, potentially leading to software errors. This problem is addressed by a systems engineering methodology called State Analysis, which provides a process for capturing system and software requirements in the form of explicit models. This paper describes how requirements for complex aerospace systems can be developed using State Analysis and how these requirements inform the design of the system software, using representative spacecraft examples.

  16. The Future of New England. 1987 Survey of Business, Government and Higher Education Leaders. State by State Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New England Board of Higher Education, Boston, MA.

    Information from the 1987 Future of New England survey is presented, gaining the perspectives of the region's business, higher education, and government leaders about five major areas of concern to the New England states: economic growth, internationalization of the economy, education and training, environmental concerns, and public policy…

  17. Subgeometric Ergodicity Analysis of Continuous-Time Markov Chains under Random-Time State-Dependent Lyapunov Drift Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mokaedi V. Lekgari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate random-time state-dependent Foster-Lyapunov analysis on subgeometric rate ergodicity of continuous-time Markov chains (CTMCs. We are mainly concerned with making use of the available results on deterministic state-dependent drift conditions for CTMCs and on random-time state-dependent drift conditions for discrete-time Markov chains and transferring them to CTMCs.

  18. Multi-level bootstrap analysis of stable clusters in resting-state fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellec, Pierre; Rosa-Neto, Pedro; Lyttelton, Oliver C; Benali, Habib; Evans, Alan C

    2010-07-01

    A variety of methods have been developed to identify brain networks with spontaneous, coherent activity in resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We propose here a generic statistical framework to quantify the stability of such resting-state networks (RSNs), which was implemented with k-means clustering. The core of the method consists in bootstrapping the available datasets to replicate the clustering process a large number of times and quantify the stable features across all replications. This bootstrap analysis of stable clusters (BASC) has several benefits: (1) it can be implemented in a multi-level fashion to investigate stable RSNs at the level of individual subjects and at the level of a group; (2) it provides a principled measure of RSN stability; and (3) the maximization of the stability measure can be used as a natural criterion to select the number of RSNs. A simulation study validated the good performance of the multi-level BASC on purely synthetic data. Stable networks were also derived from a real resting-state study for 43 subjects. At the group level, seven RSNs were identified which exhibited a good agreement with the previous findings from the literature. The comparison between the individual and group-level stability maps demonstrated the capacity of BASC to establish successful correspondences between these two levels of analysis and at the same time retain some interesting subject-specific characteristics, e.g. the specific involvement of subcortical regions in the visual and fronto-parietal networks for some subjects.

  19. Factors responsible for mortality variation in the United States: A latent variable analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Tencza

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Factors including smoking, drinking, substance abuse, obesity, and health care have all been shown to affect health and longevity. The relative importance of each of these factors is disputed in the literature, and has been assessed through a number of methods. Objective: This paper uses a novel approach to identify factors responsible for interstate mortality variation. It identifies factors through their imprint on mortality patterns and can therefore identify factors that are difficult or impossible to measure directly, such as sensitive health behaviors. Methods: The analysis calculates age-standardized death rates by cause of death from 2000-2009 for white men and women separately. Only premature deaths between ages 20-64 are included. Latent variables responsible for mortality variation are then identified through a factor analysis conducted on a death-rate-by-state matrix. These unobserved latent variables are inferred from observed mortality data and interpreted based on their correlations with individual causes of death. Results: Smoking and obesity, substance abuse, and rural/urban residence are the three factors that make the largest contributions to state-level mortality variation among males. The same factors are at work for women but are less vividly revealed. The identification of factors is supported by a review of epidemiologic studies and strengthened by correlations with observable behavioral variables. Results are not sensitive to the choice of factor-analytic method used. Conclusions: The majority of interstate variation in mortality among white working-age adults in the United States is associated with a combination of smoking and obesity, substance abuse and rural/urban residence.

  20. Group-level spatial independent component analysis of Fourier envelopes of resting-state MEG data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramkumar, Pavan; Parkkonen, Lauri; Hyvärinen, Aapo

    2014-02-01

    We developed a data-driven method to spatiotemporally and spectrally characterize the dynamics of brain oscillations in resting-state magnetoencephalography (MEG) data. The method, called envelope spatial Fourier independent component analysis (eSFICA), maximizes the spatial and spectral sparseness of Fourier energies of a cortically constrained source current estimate. We compared this method using a simulated data set against 5 other variants of independent component analysis and found that eSFICA performed on par with its temporal variant, eTFICA, and better than other ICA variants, in characterizing dynamics at time scales of the order of minutes. We then applied eSFICA to real MEG data obtained from 9 subjects during rest. The method identified several networks showing within- and cross-frequency inter-areal functional connectivity profiles which resemble previously reported resting-state networks, such as the bilateral sensorimotor network at ~20Hz, the lateral and medial parieto-occipital sources at ~10Hz, a subset of the default-mode network at ~8 and ~15Hz, and lateralized temporal lobe sources at ~8Hz. Finally, we interpreted the estimated networks as spatiospectral filters and applied the filters to obtain the dynamics during a natural stimulus sequence presented to the same 9 subjects. We observed occipital alpha modulation to visual stimuli, bilateral rolandic mu modulation to tactile stimuli and video clips of hands, and the temporal lobe network modulation to speech stimuli, but no modulation of the sources in the default-mode network. We conclude that (1) the proposed method robustly detects inter-areal cross-frequency networks at long time scales, (2) the functional relevance of the resting-state networks can be probed by applying the obtained spatiospectral filters to data from measurements with controlled external stimulation.

  1. Whole brain resting-state analysis reveals decreased functional connectivity in major depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilya M. Veer

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently, both increases and decreases in resting-state functional connectivity have been found in major depression. However, these studies only assessed functional connectivity within a specific network or between a few regions of interest, while comorbidity and use of medication was not always controlled for. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to investigate whole-brain functional connectivity, unbiased by a priori definition of regions or networks of interest, in medication-free depressive patients without comorbidity. We analyzed resting-state fMRI data of 19 medication-free patients with a recent diagnosis of major depression (within six months before inclusion and no comorbidity, and 19 age- and gender-matched controls. Independent component analysis was employed on the concatenated data sets of all participants. Thirteen functionally relevant networks were identified, describing the entire study sample. Next, individual representations of the networks were created using a dual regression method. Statistical inference was subsequently done on these spatial maps using voxelwise permutation tests. Abnormal functional connectivity was found within three resting-state networks in depression: 1 decreased bilateral amygdala and left anterior insula connectivity in an affective network, 2 reduced connectivity of the left frontal pole in a network associated with attention and working memory, and 3 decreased bilateral lingual gyrus connectivity within ventromedial visual regions. None of these effects were associated with symptom severity or grey matter density. We found abnormal resting-state functional connectivity not previously associated with major depression, which might relate to abnormal affect regulation and mild cognitive deficits, both associated with the symptomatology of the disorder.

  2. Graph network analysis of immediate motor-learning induced changes in resting state BOLD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saber eSami

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have demonstrated that following learning tasks, changes in the resting state activity of the brain shape regional connections in functionally specific circuits. Here we expand on these findings by comparing changes induced in the resting state immediately following four motor tasks. Two groups of participants performed a visuo-motor joystick task with one group adapting to a transformed relationship between joystick and cursor. Two other groups were trained in either explicit or implicit procedural sequence learning. Resting state BOLD data were collected immediately before and after the tasks. We then used graph theory-based approaches that include statistical measures of functional integration and segregation to characterise changes in biologically plausible brain connectivity networks within each group. Our results demonstrate that motor learning reorganizes resting brain networks with an increase in local information transfer, as indicated by local efficiency measures that affect the brain's small world network architecture. This was particularly apparent when comparing two distinct forms of explicit motor learning: procedural learning and the joystick learning task. Both groups showed notable increases in local efficiency. However changes in local efficiency in the inferior frontal and cerebellar regions also distinguishes between the two learning tasks. Additional graph analytic measures on the "non-learning" visuo-motor performance task revealed reversed topological patterns in comparison with the three learning tasks. These findings underscore the utility of graph-based network analysis as a novel means to compare both regional and global changes in functional brain connectivity in the resting state following motor learning tasks.

  3. Profitability and Constraints Analysis of Women Entrepreneurs in Lagos State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.O. Otunaiya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This research assessed the constraints limiting the success of women entrepreneurs in selected local government areas of Lagos State, Nigeria. A sample of 120 women entrepreneurs were selected from three Local Government Areas of Lagos State in a two-stage sampling procedure. The data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics, constraint analysis, budgetary analysis and multiple regression analysis. The predominant primary occupation was found to be trading 45 with 92.5% of the women in their productive years. The finding also revealed that a vast majority (92.5% of the women entrepreneurs had formal education above primary level with 43.3% of them spent not less than 10 years in their business, which was presumed to benefit their enterprises. The women entrepreneurs faced certain constraints which affect their businesses, the highest ranked ones include; poor shop location (ranked 1st , lack of long term finance (ranked 2nd and competition from rivals (ranked 3rd among others. The women entrepreneurs earned 40 kobo on every 1 naira sale revenue. The multiple regression results revealed that main occupation, business membership strength, initial capital outlay and total variable cost had significant effect on the net income of the women. Policy options from the findings include: Increment in funds invested in the business enterprises of these women entrepreneurs alongside reduction in cost could boost the possible expansion of their enterprises; provision of psychological, moral and financial support from members of the family is needed for entrepreneurial development and Government should provide cheaper sources of credit to the women with little or no collateral to encourage their enterprises growth, self-reliance which are necessary ingredients for nation’s development.

  4. 3D visualisation and analysis of single and coalescing tracks in Solid state Nuclear Track Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wertheim, David; Gillmore, Gavin; Brown, Louise; Petford, Nick

    2010-05-01

    Exposure to radon gas (222Rn) and associated ionising decay products can cause lung cancer in humans (1). Solid state Nuclear Track Detectors (SSNTDs) can be used to monitor radon concentrations (2). Radon particles form tracks in the detectors and these tracks can be etched in order to enable 2D surface image analysis. We have previously shown that confocal microscopy can be used for 3D visualisation of etched SSNTDs (3). The aim of the study was to further investigate track angles and patterns in SSNTDs. A 'LEXT' confocal laser scanning microscope (Olympus Corporation, Japan) was used to acquire 3D image datasets of five CR-39 plastic SSNTD's. The resultant 3D visualisations were analysed by eye and inclination angles assessed on selected tracks. From visual assessment, single isolated tracks as well as coalescing tracks were observed on the etched detectors. In addition varying track inclination angles were observed. Several different patterns of track formation were seen such as single isolated and double coalescing tracks. The observed track angles of inclination may help to assess the angle at which alpha particles hit the detector. Darby, S et al. Radon in homes and risk of lung cancer : collaborative analysis of individual data from 13 European case-control studies. British Medical Journal 2005; 330, 223-226. Phillips, P.S., Denman, A.R., Crockett, R.G.M., Gillmore, G., Groves-Kirkby, C.J., Woolridge, A., Comparative Analysis of Weekly vs. Three monthly radon measurements in dwellings. DEFRA Report No., DEFRA/RAS/03.006. (2004). Wertheim D, Gillmore G, Brown L, and Petford N. A new method of imaging particle tracks in Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors. Journal of Microscopy 2010; 237: 1-6.

  5. Steady state thermal hydraulic analysis of LMR core using COBRA-K code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eui Kwang; Kim, Young Gyun; Kim Young In; Kim Young Cheol

    1997-02-01

    A thermal hydraulics analysis code COBRA-K is being developed by the KAERI LMR core design technology development team. COBRA-K is a part of the integrated computation system for LMR core design and analysis, the K-CORE system. COBRA-K is supposed to predict the flow and temperature distributions in LMR core. COBRA-K is an extension of the previously published COBRA-IV-I code with several functional improvements. Specially COBRA-K has been improved to analyze single and multi-assembly, and whole-core in the transient condition. This report describes the overall features of COBRA-K and gives general input descriptions. The 19 pin assembly experimental data of ORNL were used to verify the accuracy of this code for the steady state analysis. The comparative results show good agreements between the calculated and the measured data. And COBRA-K can be used to predict flow and temperature distributions for the LMR core design. (author). 7 refs., 6 tabs., 13 figs.

  6. Mandatory Pension System and Redistribution: The Comparative Analysis of Institutions in Baltic States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunajevas Eugenijus

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Mandatory pension systems occupy a central role in the system of social security because of the share of social expenditure in national economies. One of the goals of pension system is to redistribute incomes among individuals. However, it is not clear how the intentions to redistribute incomes coincide with the outcomes. In this paper, we will study the difference between the intentions as they are articulated within institutions, with the outcomes that are generated by them. We use the method of comparative institutional analysis in order to find out the differences. Our comparative institutional analysis is based on the grammar of institutions that is proposed by Crawford and Ostrom. Also, in order to understand the differences, we will compare the institutions in relatively similar cases – the Baltic States. The results show that there is a gap between the intentions and outcomes to redistribute incomes among individuals. The findings from the comparative institutional analysis suggest that the most redistributive old age pension system is in Estonia. However, according to the factual information from Eurostat, the greatest distributive effect is produced by the mandatory pension system of Lithuania.

  7. Data Structure Analysis to Represent Basic Models of Finite State Automation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Gurenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Complex system engineering based on the automaton models requires a reasoned data structure selection to implement them. The problem of automaton representation and data structure selection to be used in it has been understudied. Arbitrary data structure selection for automaton model software implementation leads to unnecessary computational burden and reduces the developed system efficiency. This article proposes an approach to the reasoned selection of data structures to represent finite algoristic automaton basic models and gives practical considerations based on it.Static and dynamic data structures are proposed for three main ways to assign Mealy and Moore automatons: a transition table, a matrix of coupling and a transition graph. A thirddimensional array, a rectangular matrix and a matrix of lists are the static structures. Dynamic structures are list-oriented structures: two-level and three-level Ayliff vectors and a multi-linked list. These structures allow us to store all required information about finite state automaton model components - characteristic set cardinalities and data of transition and output functions.A criterion system is proposed for data structure comparative evaluation in virtue of algorithmic features of automata theory problems. The criteria focused on capacitive and time computational complexity of operations performed in tasks such as equivalent automaton conversions, proving of automaton equivalence and isomorphism, and automaton minimization.A data structure comparative analysis based on the criterion system has done for both static and dynamic type. The analysis showed advantages of the third-dimensional array, matrix and two-level Ayliff vector. These are structures that assign automaton by transition table. For these structures an experiment was done to measure the execution time of automation operations included in criterion system.The analysis of experiment results showed that a dynamic structure - two

  8. Induced arousal following zolpidem treatment in a vegetative state after brain injury in 7 cases Analysis using visual single photon emission computerized tomography and digitized cerebral state monitor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bo Du; Aijun Shan; Di Yang; Wei Xiang

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Several studies have reported the use of zolpidem for induced arousal after permanent vegetative states. However, changes in brain function and EMG after zolpidem treatment requires further investigation. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of zolpidem, an unconventional drug, on inducing arousal in patients in a permanent vegetative state after brain injury using visual single photon emission computerized tomography and digitized cerebral state monitor. DESIGN: A self-controlled observation. SETTING: Shenzhen People's Hospital.PARTICIPANTS: Seven patients in a permanent vegetative state were selected from the Department of Neurosurgery, Shenzhen People's Hospital from March 2005 to May 2007. The group included 5 males and 2 females, 24–55 years of age, with a mean age of 38.5 years. All seven patients had been in a permanent vegetative statement for at least six months. The patient group included three comatose patients, who had sustained injuries to the cerebral cortex, basal ganglia, or thalamus in motor vehicle accidents, and four patients, who had suffered primary/secondary brain stem injury. Informed consents were obtained from the patients’ relatives. METHODS: The patients brains were imaged by 99Tcm ECD single photon emission computerized tomography prior to treatment with zolpidem [Sanofi Winthrop Industrie, France, code number approved by the State Food & Drug Administration (SFDA) J20040033, specification 10 mg per tablet. At 8:00 p.m., 10 mg zolpidem was dissolved with distilled water and administered through a nasogastric tube at 1 hour before and after treatment and 1 week following treatment, respectively. Visual analysis of cerebral perfusion changes in the injured brain regions before and after treatment was performed. Simultaneously, three monitoring parameters were obtained though a cerebral state monitor, which included cerebral state index, electromyographic index, and burst suppression index. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Comparison

  9. [Health state evaluation of power-shift steering transmission using PCA-AHP methodology based on spectrometric oil analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying-Feng; Ma, Biao; Zheng, Chang-Song; Zhang, Jin-Le; Fan, Yu-Heng

    2010-04-01

    Spectrometric oil analysis is an important method to study the running state of power-shift steering transmission (PSST). An evaluation model of PSST health state was developed on the basis of the theories of principal component analysis (PCA) and analytic hierarchy process (AHP) using spectrometric oil analysis data. Considering the concept of mechanical equipment and wear elements in spectrometric oil analysis data, the health value was employed to quantitatively describe the running state degree of PSST, and the grades of health state were classified based on the health values. The oil analysis data were studied during the process of choosing principal components. The weight vectors of principal components were obtained by using the AHP method. In the course, the conformation of judgement matrix and the consistency check were also studied. The evaluation model was developed by combining the PCA and AHP methods. This model has been proved to have better accuracy in evaluating the running state of PSST. This work is important for developing state evaluation of PSST.

  10. Application in pesticide analysis: Liquid chromatography - A review of the state of science for biomarker discovery and identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Book Chapter 18, titled Application in pesticide analysis: Liquid chromatography - A review of the state of science for biomarker discovery and identification, will be published in the book titled High Performance Liquid Chromatography in Pesticide Residue Analysis (Part of the C...

  11. Core Microstructure and Strain State Analysis in MgB2 Wires with Different Metal Sheaths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. E. Sobrero

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a detailed analysis of the effect of the sheath materials on the microstructure and superconducting properties of MgB2 wires produced by the powder-in-tube method (PIT. We reduced commercial MgB2 powder by attrition milling in nitrogen atmosphere using tungsten carbide balls and obtained powders with grain sizes lower than 150 nm and different strain states through this process. Several Ti, stainless steel, and copper monofilamentary wires were prepared using these powders by the PIT method. We investigated different thermal treatments and mechanical paths during the processing of the wires for the enhancement of the critical currents. The superconducting properties were determined by magnetization measurements in a SQUID magnetometer. The correlation between the thermal treatments, structure, and superconducting properties is discussed.

  12. Robustness of Operational Matrices of Differentiation for Solving State-Space Analysis and Optimal Control Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emran Tohidi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The idea of approximation by monomials together with the collocation technique over a uniform mesh for solving state-space analysis and optimal control problems (OCPs has been proposed in this paper. After imposing the Pontryagins maximum principle to the main OCPs, the problems reduce to a linear or nonlinear boundary value problem. In the linear case we propose a monomial collocation matrix approach, while in the nonlinear case, the general collocation method has been applied. We also show the efficiency of the operational matrices of differentiation with respect to the operational matrices of integration in our numerical examples. These matrices of integration are related to the Bessel, Walsh, Triangular, Laguerre, and Hermite functions.

  13. Strength analysis and optimization of welding robot mechanism in emergency stop state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdeněk Poruba

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The contribution deals with the strength analysis and optimization of the welding robot mechanism in emergency stop state. The common operational positioning of the welding robot is characterized by smooth course of speeds in the time. The resulting load does not differ significantly from the static loading. However the safety requirements given by the norm require the ability of emergency stop function. Since the course of speed in time is rather steep the higher values of acceleration and thus higher excitation force is expected. The dynamical simulation performed describes the response of the robot mechanism in the form of stress course in time, quantifies the peak values of the stress caused by the dynamical component of loading and highlights the potential risks associated with this phenomenon.

  14. Relating landfill gas emissions to atmospheric pressure using numerical modeling and state-space analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, T.G.; Christophersen, Mette; Moldrup, P.

    2003-01-01

    were applied: (I) State-space analysis was used to identify relations between gas flux and short-term (hourly) variations in atmospheric pressure. (II) A numerical gas transport model was fitted to the data and used to quantify short-term impacts of variations in atmospheric pressure, volumetric soil......-water content, soil gas permeability, soil gas diffusion coefficients, and biological CH4 degradation rate upon landfill gas concentration and fluxes in the soil. Fluxes and concentrations were found to be most sensitive to variations in volumetric soil water content, atmospheric pressure variations and gas...... permeability whereas variations in CH4 oxidation rate and molecular coefficients had less influence. Fluxes appeared to be most sensitive to atmospheric pressure at intermediate distances from the landfill edge. Also overall CH4 fluxes out of the soil over longer periods (years) were largest during periods...

  15. Place of origin and violent disagreement among Asian American families: analysis across five States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jong-Yi; Probst, Janice C; Moore, Charity G; Martin, Amy B; Bennett, Kevin J

    2011-08-01

    We examined the prevalence of and factors associated with violent and heated disagreements in the Asian American families, with an emphasis on place of birth differences between parent and child. Data were obtained from the 2003 National Survey of Children's Health, limited to five states with the highest concentration of Asian-Americans (n = 793). Multivariable analysis used generalized logistic regression models with a three-level outcome, violent and heated disagreement versus calm discussion. Violent disagreements were reported in 13.7% of Asian-American homes and 9.9% of white homes. Differential parent-child place of birth was associated with increased odds for heated disagreement in Asian-American families. Parenting stress increased the likelihood of violent disagreements in both Asian-American and white families. Asian-American families are not immune to potential family violence. Reducing parenting stress and intervening in culturally appropriate ways to reduce generation differences should be violence prevention priorities.

  16. Analysis of Cassava Product (Garri Marketing in Ekiti Local Government Area, Kwara State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olasore Abiodun Amos

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study is on analysis of cassava product (garri marketing in Ekiti Local Government Area, Kwara State, Nigeria. Data for the study were obtained from 150 respondents from the target group using a two-stage sampling procedure and analyzed using descriptive statistics, Gini Coefficient and Lorenz Curve. Gini Coefficient for all cassava product traders was estimated to be 0.624 or 62.4%. The estimated Gini Coefficient show high degree of inequality in the sales/income distribution. The Lorenz Curve plotted further revealed sales/income inequality among the traders. A wide gap between line of inequality and the plotted Lorenz Curve showed that there is a high inequality in the distribution of income among traders.

  17. Finite State Machine Based Evaluation Model for Web Service Reliability Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    M, Thirumaran; Abarna, S; P, Lakshmi

    2011-01-01

    Now-a-days they are very much considering about the changes to be done at shorter time since the reaction time needs are decreasing every moment. Business Logic Evaluation Model (BLEM) are the proposed solution targeting business logic automation and facilitating business experts to write sophisticated business rules and complex calculations without costly custom programming. BLEM is powerful enough to handle service manageability issues by analyzing and evaluating the computability and traceability and other criteria of modified business logic at run time. The web service and QOS grows expensively based on the reliability of the service. Hence the service provider of today things that reliability is the major factor and any problem in the reliability of the service should overcome then and there in order to achieve the expected level of reliability. In our paper we propose business logic evaluation model for web service reliability analysis using Finite State Machine (FSM) where FSM will be extended to analy...

  18. Steady-state analysis of the effect of reactive generation limits in voltage stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Echavarren, F.M.; Lobato, E.; Rouco, L. [School of Engineering of Universidad Pontificia Comillas, C/Alberto Aguilera, 23, 28015 Madrid (Spain)

    2009-09-15

    Voltage collapse phenomena are highly affected by reactive power generation limits. Saturation of the reactive power generation limits of a unit may result in a deterioration of the voltage stability. However, in some cases when the power network is operating close to the voltage collapse point, the reactive power generation saturation of a unit can change the system voltages immediately from stable to unstable; thus, a dynamic voltage collapse leading to blackout may follow. This paper presents a steady-state analysis of the immediate instability caused by reactive power generation saturation phenomena. For this purpose, the paper proposes a novel index that evaluates ''when'' and ''why'' a reactive power generation saturation will only result in a deterioration of the system voltage stability or, on the contrary, it will make the system voltages immediately unstable. (author)

  19. Analysis of excited-state Faraday anomalous dispersion optical filter at 1529 nm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Junyu; Yin, Longfei; Luo, Bin; Guo, Hong

    2016-06-27

    In this work, a detailed theoretical analysis of 1529 nm ES-FADOF (excited state Faraday anomalous dispersion optical filter) based on rubidium atoms pumped by 780 nm laser is introduced, where Zeeman splitting, Doppler broadening, and relaxation processes are considered. Experimental results are carefully compared with the derivation. The results prove that the optimal pumping frequency is affected by the working magnetic field. The population distribution among all hyperfine Zeeman sublevels under the optimal pumping frequency has also been obtained, which shows that 85Rb atoms are the main contribution to the population. The peak transmittance above 90% is obtained, which is in accordance with the experiment. The calculation also shows that the asymmetric spectra observed in the experiment are caused by the unbalanced population distribution among Zeeman sublevels. This theoretical model can be used for all kinds of calculations for FADOF.

  20. NMR analysis of native-state protein conformational flexibility by hydrogen exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Griselda; LeMaster, David M

    2009-01-01

    The rate of hydrogen exchange for the most protected amides of a protein is widely used to provide an estimate of global conformational stability by analyzing the exchange kinetics in the unfolded state in terms of model peptide exchange rates. The exchange behavior of the other amides of the protein which do not exchange via a global unfolding mechanism can provide insight into the smaller-scale conformational transitions that facilitate access to solvent as required for the exchange reaction. However, since the residual tertiary structure in the exchange-competent conformation can modulate the chemistry of the exchange reaction, equilibrium values estimated from normalization with model peptide rates are open to question. To overcome this limitation, the most robust approaches utilize differential analyses as a function of experimental variables such as denaturant concentration, temperature, pH, and mutational variation. Practical aspects of these various differential analysis techniques are considered with illustrations drawn from the literature.

  1. Economic analysis of locust beans processing and marketing in ilorin, kwara state, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.O. Farayola

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to estimate the economic analysis of locust bean processing and marketing in Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria. Primary data was used and purposive sampling technique was adopted to select the respondents used for the study. A total number of 60 respondents were interviewed. The data collected were analyzed using inferential statistical tool such as regression analysis. Budgetary analysis technique was also used to analyze the profitability of locust bean processing and marketing in the study area. Majority of the processors and marketers are making profits; 68.3% operate above breakeven point while 26.7% operate at breakeven point and the rest 5% was below the breakeven point, this indicates that they neither profit nor lost. The regression analysis result shows that quantity processed, family size and years of experience in processing are significant at 1%, 5% and 10% respectively while education level and stall rent is negative and significant at 1% and 5% respectively. F- Test also explained that independent variables are jointly significant at 1% probability level with an adjusted R2 of 78.9%. The overall rate of return on investment indicates that average rate of return is 0.5 (50%, which is positive. It is therefore concluded that profit made by the processors and marketers can be improved on by increasing the quantity of locust bean being processed through adoption of newly discovered method of processing and improved method of preservation, packaging and marketing of the product to international standard by reducing the odour of the product without the loss of essential nutrients and palability in order to generate foreign exchange. Also, rules and regulations against cutting of economic trees for alternative uses should be enforced to maximize their values.

  2. Selling Into the Sun: Price Premium Analysis of a Multi-State Dataset of Solar Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adomatis, Sandra [Adomatis Appraisal Services, Punta Gorda, FL (United States); Jackson, Thomas [Texas A & M Univ. and Real Property Analytics Inc., College Station, TX (United States); Graff-Zivin, Joshua [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States); Thayer, Mark [San Diego State Univ., CA (United States); Klise, Geoffrey [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wiser, Ryan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hoen, Ben [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Capturing the value that solar photovoltaic (PV) systems may add to home sales transactions is increasingly important. Our study enhances the PV-home-valuation literature by more than doubling the number of PV home sales analyzed (22,822 homes in total, 3,951 of which are PV) and examining transactions in eight states that span the years 2002–2013. We find that home buyers are consistently willing to pay PV home premiums across various states, housing and PV markets, and home types; average premiums across the full sample equate to approximately $4/W or $15,000 for an average-sized 3.6-kW PV system. Only a small and non-statistically significant difference exists between PV premiums for new and existing homes, though some evidence exists of new home PV system discounting. A PV green cachet might exist, i.e., home buyers might pay a certain amount for any size of PV system and some increment more depending on system size. The market appears to depreciate the value of PV systems in their first 10 years at a rate exceeding the rate of PV efficiency losses and the rate of straightline depreciation over the asset’s useful life. Net cost estimates—which account for government and utility PV incentives—may be the best proxy for market premiums, but income-based estimates may perform equally well if they accurately account for the complicated retail rate structures that exist in some states. Although this study focuses only on host-owned PV systems, future analysis should focus on homes with third-party-owned PV systems.

  3. Analysis And Assessment Of Forest Cover Change For The State Of Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, C. H.; Nelson, M. D.; Stueve, K.; Gormanson, D.

    2010-12-01

    The Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program of the USDA Forest Service is charged with documenting the status and trends of forest resources of the United States. Since the 1930s, FIA has implemented an intensive field campaign that collects measurements on plots distributed across all ownerships, historically completing analyses which include estimates of forest area, volume, mortality, growth, removals, and timber products output in various ways, such as by ownership, region, or State. Originally a periodic inventory, FIA has been measuring plots on an annual basis since the passage of the Agriculture Research, Extension and Education Reform Act of 1998 (Farm Bill). The resulting change in sampling design and intensity presents challenges to establishing baseline and measuring changes in forest area and biomass. A project jointly sponsored by the Forest Service and the National Aeronautics and Space Agency (NASA) titled “Integrating Landscape-scale Forest Measurements with Remote Sensing and Ecosystem Models to Improve Carbon Management Decisions” seeks to improve estimates of landscape- and continental-scale carbon dynamics and causes of change for North American forest land, and to use this information to support land management decisions. Specifically, we are developing and applying methods to scale up intensive biomass and carbon measurements from the field campaign to larger land management areas while simultaneously estimating change in the above-ground forest carbon stocks; the State of Wisconsin is being used as the testbed for this large-scale integration remote sensing with field measurements. Once defined, the temporal and spatial patterns of forest resources by watershed for Lake Superior and Lake Michigan outputs are being integrated into water quality assessments for the Great Lakes.

  4. State-space based analysis and forecasting of macroscopic road safety trends in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniou, Constantinos; Yannis, George

    2013-11-01

    In this paper, macroscopic road safety trends in Greece are analyzed using state-space models and data for 52 years (1960-2011). Seemingly unrelated time series equations (SUTSE) models are developed first, followed by richer latent risk time-series (LRT) models. As reliable estimates of vehicle-kilometers are not available for Greece, the number of vehicles in circulation is used as a proxy to the exposure. Alternative considered models are presented and discussed, including diagnostics for the assessment of their model quality and recommendations for further enrichment of this model. Important interventions were incorporated in the models developed (1986 financial crisis, 1991 old-car exchange scheme, 1996 new road fatality definition) and found statistically significant. Furthermore, the forecasting results using data up to 2008 were compared with final actual data (2009-2011) indicating that the models perform properly, even in unusual situations, like the current strong financial crisis in Greece. Forecasting results up to 2020 are also presented and compared with the forecasts of a model that explicitly considers the currently on-going recession. Modeling the recession, and assuming that it will end by 2013, results in more reasonable estimates of risk and vehicle-kilometers for the 2020 horizon. This research demonstrates the benefits of using advanced state-space modeling techniques for modeling macroscopic road safety trends, such as allowing the explicit modeling of interventions. The challenges associated with the application of such state-of-the-art models for macroscopic phenomena, such as traffic fatalities in a region or country, are also highlighted. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that it is possible to apply such complex models using the relatively short time-series that are available in macroscopic road safety analysis.

  5. Analysis of marine turtle strandings (Reptilia: Testudine occurring on coast of Bahia State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Lopes-Souza

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study provides an analysis of the occurrence and the spatial and temporal distribution of marine turtle strandings found in the south of the State of Bahia. Data was collected between January 2006 and June 2008. This study covers an area of 220 km of the southern coast of Bahia State (northeastern Brazil, and spatial analyses were made considering data collected in three bases suported by Petrobras-Petróleo Brasileiro S/A distributed in the area. The records were sorted according to month and year, species, age group and sex. A total of 260 stranding were reported: 183 of Chelonia mydas (74.1%, the most frequent species. The highest number of strandings was recorded in Gamboa do Morro Base. Juveniles presented the highest densities, but no differences between adults and small juveniles were detected. Males were more frequently stranded in Gamboa do Morro Base, while females were more frequent in Ilhéus Base. An increase in the number of stranding between 2006 and 2008 was noted; moreover, the months with more records were January, February, March, October and December. The number of stranding events was discontinuously distributed in the study area. This study also demonstrated the usefulness of implement different strategies of recording marine turtle strandings: direct monitoring efforts (patrol in remote beaches and educational campaigns applied on beaches frequented by tourists. This study demonstrated that, despite spatial nearby, the three bases attend independent biological systems and show different stranding dynamics, thus different conservancy actions should be implemented in order to improve the knowledge on natural history of sea-turtles in the southern coast of Bahia State.

  6. Ancestral state reconstruction by comparative analysis of a GRN kernel operating in echinoderms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkenbrack, Eric M; Ako-Asare, Kayla; Miller, Emily; Tekelenburg, Saira; Thompson, Jeffrey R; Romano, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Diverse sampling of organisms across the five major classes in the phylum Echinodermata is beginning to reveal much about the structure and function of gene regulatory networks (GRNs) in development and evolution. Sea urchins are the most studied clade within this phylum, and recent work suggests there has been dramatic rewiring at the top of the skeletogenic GRN along the lineage leading to extant members of the euechinoid sea urchins. Such rewiring likely accounts for some of the observed developmental differences between the two major subclasses of sea urchins-cidaroids and euechinoids. To address effects of topmost rewiring on downstream GRN events, we cloned four downstream regulatory genes within the skeletogenic GRN and surveyed their spatiotemporal expression patterns in the cidaroid Eucidaris tribuloides. We performed phylogenetic analyses with homologs from other non-vertebrate deuterostomes and characterized their spatiotemporal expression by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and whole-mount in situ hybridization (WMISH). Our data suggest the erg-hex-tgif subcircuit, a putative GRN kernel, exhibits a mesoderm-specific expression pattern early in Eucidaris development that is directly downstream of the initial mesodermal GRN circuitry. Comparative analysis of the expression of this subcircuit in four echinoderm taxa allowed robust ancestral state reconstruction, supporting hypotheses that its ancestral function was to stabilize the mesodermal regulatory state and that it has been co-opted and deployed as a unit in mesodermal subdomains in distantly diverged echinoderms. Importantly, our study supports the notion that GRN kernels exhibit structural and functional modularity, locking down and stabilizing clade-specific, embryonic regulatory states.

  7. Analysis of spontaneous oscillations for a three-state power-stroke model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washio, Takumi; Hisada, Toshiaki; Shintani, Seine A.; Higuchi, Hideo

    2017-02-01

    Our study considers the mechanism of the spontaneous oscillations of molecular motors that are driven by the power stroke principle by applying linear stability analysis around the stationary solution. By representing the coupling equation of microscopic molecular motor dynamics and mesoscopic sarcomeric dynamics by a rank-1 updated matrix system, we derived the analytical representations of the eigenmodes of the Jacobian matrix that cause the oscillation. Based on these analytical representations, we successfully derived the essential conditions for the oscillation in terms of the rate constants of the power stroke and the reversal stroke transitions of the molecular motor. Unlike the two-state model, in which the dependence of the detachment rates on the motor coordinates or the applied forces on the motors plays a key role for the oscillation, our three-state power stroke model demonstrates that the dependence of the rate constants of the power and reversal strokes on the strains in the elastic elements in the motor molecules plays a key role, where these rate constants are rationally determined from the free energy available for the power stroke, the stiffness of the elastic element in the molecular motor, and the working stroke size. By applying the experimentally confirmed values to the free energy, the stiffness, and the working stroke size, our numerical model reproduces well the experimentally observed oscillatory behavior. Furthermore, our analysis shows that two eigenmodes with real positive eigenvalues characterize the oscillatory behavior, where the eigenmode with the larger eigenvalue indicates the transient of the system of the quick sarcomeric lengthening induced by the collective reversal strokes, and the smaller eigenvalue correlates with the speed of sarcomeric shortening, which is much slower than lengthening. Applying the perturbation analyses with primal physical parameters, we find that these two real eigenvalues occur on two branches derived

  8. Appraising into the Sun: Six-State Solar Home Paired-Sale Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

    2015-11-12

    Although residential solar photovoltaic (PV) installations have proliferated, PV systems on some U.S. homes still receive no value during an appraisal because comparable home sales are lacking. To value residential PV, some previous studies have employed paired-sales appraisal methods to analyze small PV home samples in depth, while others have used statistical methods to analyze large samples. Our first-of-its-kind study connects the two approaches. It uses appraisal methods to evaluate sales price premiums for owned PV systems on single-unit detached houses that were also evaluated in a large statistical study. Independent appraisers evaluated 43 recent home sales pairs in six states: California, Oregon, Florida, Maryland, North Carolina, and Pennsylvania. We compare these results with contributory-value estimates—based on income (using the PV Value® tool), gross cost, and net cost—as well as hedonic modeling results from the recent statistical study. The results provide strong, appraisal-based evidence of PV premiums in all states. More importantly, the results support the use of cost- and incomebased PV premium estimates when paired-sales analysis is impossible. PV premiums from the paired-sales analysis are most similar to net PV cost estimates. PV Value® income results generally track the appraised premiums, although conservatively. The appraised premiums are in agreement with the hedonic modeling results as well, which bolsters the suitability of both approaches for estimating PV home premiums. Therefore, these results will benefit valuation professionals and mortgage lenders who increasingly are encountering homes equipped with PV and need to understand the factors that can both contribute to and detract from market value.

  9. Relative quantification in seed GMO analysis: state of art and bottlenecks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaouachi, Maher; Bérard, Aurélie; Saïd, Khaled

    2013-06-01

    Reliable quantitative methods are needed to comply with current EU regulations on the mandatory labeling of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and GMO-derived food and feed products with a minimum GMO content of 0.9 %. The implementation of EU Commission Recommendation 2004/787/EC on technical guidance for sampling and detection which meant as a helpful tool for the practical implementation of EC Regulation 1830/2003, which states that "the results of quantitative analysis should be expressed as the number of target DNA sequences per target taxon specific sequences calculated in terms of haploid genomes". This has led to an intense debate on the type of calibrator best suitable for GMO quantification. The main question addressed in this review is whether reference materials and calibrators should be matrix based or whether pure DNA analytes should be used for relative quantification in GMO analysis. The state of the art, including the advantages and drawbacks, of using DNA plasmid (compared to genomic DNA reference materials) as calibrators, is widely described. In addition, the influence of the genetic structure of seeds on real-time PCR quantitative results obtained for seed lots is discussed. The specific composition of a seed kernel, the mode of inheritance, and the ploidy level ensure that there is discordance between a GMO % expressed as a haploid genome equivalent and a GMO % based on numbers of seeds. This means that a threshold fixed as a percentage of seeds cannot be used as such for RT-PCR. All critical points that affect the expression of the GMO content in seeds are discussed in this paper.

  10. An analysis of at-home demand for ice cream in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, C G; Blayney, D P; Yen, S T; Cooper, J

    2009-12-01

    Ice cream has been manufactured commercially in the United States since the middle of the 19th century. Ice cream and frozen dessert products comprise an important and relatively stable component of the United States dairy industry. As with many other dairy products, ice cream is differentiated in several dimensions. A censored translog demand system model was employed to analyze purchases of 3 ice cream product categories. The objective of this study was to determine the effect that changes in retail prices and consumer income have on at-home ice cream consumption. The analysis was based on Nielsen 2005 home scan retail data and used marital status, age, race, education, female employment status, and location in the estimations of aggregate demand elasticities. Results revealed that price and consumer income were the main determinants of demand for ice cream products. Calculated own-price elasticities indicated relatively elastic responses by consumers for all categories except for compensated bulk ice cream. All expenditure elasticities were inelastic except for bulk ice cream, and most of the ice cream categories were substitutes. Ongoing efforts to examine consumer demand for these products will assist milk producers, dairy processors and manufacturers, and dairy marketers as they face changing consumer responses to food and diet issues.

  11. A finite state model for respiratory motion analysis in image guided radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Huanmei [College of Computer and Information Science, Northeastern University, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Sharp, Gregory C [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114 (United States); Salzberg, Betty [College of Computer and Information Science, Northeastern University, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Kaeli, David [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Northeastern University, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Shirato, Hiroki [Department of Radiation Medicine, Hokkaido University School of Medicine, Sapporo (Japan); Jiang, Steve B [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114 (United States)

    2004-12-07

    Effective image guided radiation treatment of a moving tumour requires adequate information on respiratory motion characteristics. For margin expansion, beam tracking and respiratory gating, the tumour motion must be quantified for pretreatment planning and monitored on-line. We propose a finite state model for respiratory motion analysis that captures our natural understanding of breathing stages. In this model, a regular breathing cycle is represented by three line segments, exhale, end-of-exhale and inhale, while abnormal breathing is represented by an irregular breathing state. In addition, we describe an on-line implementation of this model in one dimension. We found this model can accurately characterize a wide variety of patient breathing patterns. This model was used to describe the respiratory motion for 23 patients with peak-to-peak motion greater than 7 mm. The average root mean square error over all patients was less than 1 mm and no patient has an error worse than 1.5 mm. Our model provides a convenient tool to quantify respiratory motion characteristics, such as patterns of frequency changes and amplitude changes, and can be applied to internal or external motion, including internal tumour position, abdominal surface, diaphragm, spirometry and other surrogates.

  12. Analysis of source spectra, attenuation, and site effects from central and eastern United States earthquakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindley, G.

    1998-02-01

    This report describes the results from three studies of source spectra, attenuation, and site effects of central and eastern United States earthquakes. In the first study source parameter estimates taken from 27 previous studies were combined to test the assumption that the earthquake stress drop is roughly a constant, independent of earthquake size. 200 estimates of stress drop and seismic moment from eastern North American earthquakes were combined. It was found that the estimated stress drop from the 27 studies increases approximately as the square-root of the seismic moment, from about 3 bars at 10{sup 20} dyne-cm to 690 bars at 10{sup 25} dyne-cm. These results do not support the assumption of a constant stress drop when estimating ground motion parameters from eastern North American earthquakes. In the second study, broadband seismograms recorded by the United States National Seismograph Network and cooperating stations have been analysed to determine Q{sub Lg} as a function of frequency in five regions: the northeastern US, southeastern US, central US, northern Basin and Range, and California and western Nevada. In the third study, using spectral analysis, estimates have been made for the anelastic attenuation of four regional phases, and estimates have been made for the source parameters of 27 earthquakes, including the M{sub b} 5.6, 14 April, 1995, West Texas earthquake.

  13. Quantitative analysis of backbone motion in proteins using MAS solid-state NMR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevelkov, Veniamin; Fink, Uwe; Reif, Bernd

    2009-09-01

    We present a comprehensive analysis of protein dynamics for a micro-crystallin protein in the solid-state. Experimental data include (15)N T (1) relaxation times measured at two different magnetic fields as well as (1)H-(15)N dipole, (15)N CSA cross correlated relaxation rates which are sensitive to the spectral density function J(0) and are thus a measure of T (2) in the solid-state. In addition, global order parameters are included from a (1)H,(15)N dipolar recoupling experiment. The data are analyzed within the framework of the extended model-free Clore-Lipari-Szabo theory. We find slow motional correlation times in the range of 5 and 150 ns. Assuming a wobbling in a cone motion, the amplitude of motion of the respective amide moiety is on the order of 10 degrees for the half-opening angle of the cone in most of the cases. The experiments are demonstrated using a perdeuterated sample of the chicken alpha-spectrin SH3 domain.

  14. State and group dynamics of world stock market by principal component analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Nobi, Ashadun

    2015-01-01

    We study the dynamic interactions and structural changes in global financial indices in the years 1998-2012. We apply a principal component analysis (PCA) to cross-correlation coefficients of the stock indices. We calculate the correlations between principal components (PCs) and each asset, known as PC coefficients. A change in market state is identified as a change in the first PC coefficients. Some indices do not show significant change of PCs in market state during crises. The indices exposed to the invested capitals in the stock markets are at the minimum level of risk. Using the first two PC coefficients, we identify indices that are similar and more strongly correlated than the others. We observe that the European indices form a robust group over the observation period. The dynamics of the individual indices within the group increase in similarity with time, and the dynamics of indices are more similar during the crises. Furthermore, the group formation of indices changes position in two-dimensional spa...

  15. Nonlinear Seismic Analysis of Morrow Point Dam: A Study for the United States Bureau of Reclamation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noble, C R; Solberg, J

    2004-02-20

    This research and development project was sponsored by the United States Bureau of Reclamation (USBR), who are best known for the dams, power plants, and canals it constructed in the 17 western states. The mission statement of the USBR's Dam Safety Office, located in Denver, Colorado, is ''to ensure Reclamation dams do not present unacceptable risk to people, property, and the environment.'' The Dam Safety Office does this by quickly identifying the dams which pose an increased threat to the public, and quickly completing the related analyses in order to make decisions that will safeguard the public and associated resources. The research study described in this report constitutes one element of USBR's research and development work to advance their computational and analysis capabilities for studying the response of dams to strong earthquake motions. This project focused on the seismic response of Morrow Point Dam, which is located 263 km southwest of Denver, Colorado.

  16. Bayesian analysis of diagnostic test accuracy when disease state is unverified for some subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennello, Gene A

    2011-09-01

    Studies of the accuracy of medical tests to diagnose the presence or absence of disease can suffer from an inability to verify the true disease state in everyone. When verification is missing at random (MAR), the missing data mechanism can be ignored in likelihood-based inference. However, this assumption may not hold even approximately. When verification is nonignorably missing, the most general model of the distribution of disease state, test result, and verification indicator is overparameterized. Parameters are only partially identified, creating regions of ignorance for maximum likelihood estimators. For studies of a single test, we use Bayesian analysis to implement the most general nonignorable model, a reduced nonignorable model with identifiable parameters, and the MAR model. Simple Gibbs sampling algorithms are derived that enable computation of the posterior distribution of test accuracy parameters. In particular, the posterior distribution is easily obtained for the most general nonignorable model, which makes relatively weak assumptions about the missing data mechanism. For this model, the posterior distribution combines two sources of uncertainty: ignorance in the estimation of partially identified parameters, and imprecision due to finite sampling variability. We compare the three models on data from a study of the accuracy of scintigraphy to diagnose liver disease.

  17. Cointegration analysis for rice production in the states of Perlis and Johor, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shitan, Mahendran; Ng, Yung Lerd; Karmokar, Provash Kumar

    2015-02-01

    Rice is ranked the third most important crop in Malaysia after rubber and palm oil in terms of production. Unlike the industrial crops, although its contribution to Malaysia's economy is minimal, it plays a pivotal role in the country's food security as rice is consumed by almost everyone in Malaysia. Rice production is influenced by factors such as geographical location, temperature, rainfall, soil fertility, farming practices, etc. and hence the productivity of rice may differ in different state. In this study, our particular interest is to investigate the interrelationship between the rice production of Perlis and Johor. Data collected from Department of Agriculture, Government of Malaysia are tested for unit roots by Augmented Dickey-Fuller (ADF) unit root test while Engle-Granger (EG) procedure is used in the cointegration analysis. Our study shows that cointegrating relationship exists among the rice production in both states. The speed of adjustment coefficient of the error correction model (ECM) of Perlis is 0.611 indicating that approximately 61.1% of any deviation from the long-run path is corrected within a year by the production of rice in Johor.

  18. Spatial analysis techniques applied to uranium prospecting in Chihuahua State, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinojosa de la Garza, Octavio R.; Montero Cabrera, María Elena; Sanín, Luz H.; Reyes Cortés, Manuel; Martínez Meyer, Enrique

    2014-07-01

    To estimate the distribution of uranium minerals in Chihuahua, the advanced statistical model "Maximun Entropy Method" (MaxEnt) was applied. A distinguishing feature of this method is that it can fit more complex models in case of small datasets (x and y data), as is the location of uranium ores in the State of Chihuahua. For georeferencing uranium ores, a database from the United States Geological Survey and workgroup of experts in Mexico was used. The main contribution of this paper is the proposal of maximum entropy techniques to obtain the mineral's potential distribution. For this model were used 24 environmental layers like topography, gravimetry, climate (worldclim), soil properties and others that were useful to project the uranium's distribution across the study area. For the validation of the places predicted by the model, comparisons were done with other research of the Mexican Service of Geological Survey, with direct exploration of specific areas and by talks with former exploration workers of the enterprise "Uranio de Mexico". Results. New uranium areas predicted by the model were validated, finding some relationship between the model predictions and geological faults. Conclusions. Modeling by spatial analysis provides additional information to the energy and mineral resources sectors.

  19. Analysis to the entangled states from an extended Chaplygin gas model

    CERN Document Server

    Meng, X H; Ren, J; Meng, Xin He; Hu, Ming Guang; Ren, Jie

    2006-01-01

    With considerations of the recently released WMAP year three and supernova legacy survey (SNLS) data set analysis that favors models similar to the $% \\Lambda CDM$ model by possibly mild fluctuations around the vacuum energy or the cosmological constant, we extend the original Chaplygin Gas model (ECG) via modifying the Chaplygin Gas equation of state by two parameters to describe an entangled mixture state from an available matter and the rest component (which can take the cosmological constant or dark energy as in the current cosmic stage, or `curvature-like' term, or radiation component in the early epoch, as various phases) coexistence. At low redshifts, the connection of the ECG model and the Born-infeld field is set up. As paradigms, we use the data coming from the recently released SNLS for the first year and also the famous 157 type Ia supernova (Ia SNe) gold dataset to constrain the model parameters. The restricted results demonstrate clearly how large the entangled degree or the ratio between the en...

  20. Analysis of the tensor-tensor type scalar tetraquark states with QCD sum rules

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Zhi-Gang

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we study the ground states and the first radial excited states of the tensor-tensor type scalar hidden-charm tetraquark states with the QCD sum rules. We separate the ground state contributions from the first radial excited state contributions unambiguously, and obtain the QCD sum rules for the ground states and the first radial excited states, respectively. Then we search for the Borel parameters and continuum threshold parameters according to four criteria and obtain the masses of the tensor-tensor type scalar hidden-charm tetraquark states, which can be confronted to the experimental data in the future.

  1. Dominant Indicators of Bank Crises: Comparative Analysis for States with Different Levels of Economic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozlov Vladislav I.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to identification of common and distinctive regularities of development of banking systems with different levels of development of economy through study of the most important macro-economic and financial indicators. The article uses instruments of the applied statistics. The study is based on comparison of mean values of indicators in two groups of countries (countries with a high level of income and countries with a medium level of income, each of which is divided into two sub-groups based on whether there was banking crisis in 2008 or not. In the result of the study the article shows that there are both common and distinctive features of development of banking systems of countries with different levels of economic development. Thus, a typical scenario, characteristic for countries with developed economy that had banking crisis in 2008, includes availability of a relatively large-scale crediting of the economy under conditions of relatively low rates of economic growth and close connections of the national banking systems with banking systems of other countries. Development of banking systems of developing countries during the pre-crisis period is characterised with the following specific features: relatively high rates of growth of scales of crediting of the economy and high rates of economic growth under conditions of use of significant volumes of resources, borrowed in financial markets, and close connection of the national banking systems with banking systems of other countries. The study allows a more efficient use of experience of states with developed economy, since the described results give a possibility to adjust experience of other states, taking into account characteristic features of banking systems of developing countries. Also the study identified states, experience of which should be studied. The conducted analysis of interrelations of indicators could be used for building models of assessment of

  2. A corresponding-states analysis of the liquid-vapor equilibrium properties of common water models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fugel, Malte; Weiss, Volker C.

    2017-02-01

    Many atomistic potential models have been proposed to reproduce the properties of real water and to capture as many of its anomalies as possible. The large number of different models indicates that this task is by no means an easy one. Some models are reasonably successful for various properties, while others are designed to account for only a very few specific features of water accurately. Among the most popular models are SPC/E, TIP4P, TIP4P/2005, TIP4P/Ice, and TIP5P-E. Here, we report the equilibrium properties of the liquid-vapor coexistence, such as the densities of the liquid phase and the vapor phase, the interfacial tension between them, and the vapor pressure at saturation. From these data, the critical parameters are determined and subsequently used to cast the liquid-vapor coexistence properties into a corresponding-states form following Guggenheim's suggestions. Doing so reveals that the three TIP4P-based models display the same corresponding-states behavior and that the SPC/E model behaves quite similarly. Only the TIP5P-E model shows clear deviations from the corresponding-states properties of the other models. A comparison with data for real water shows that the reduced surface tension is well described, while the reduced coexistence curve is too wide. The models underestimate the critical compressibility factor and overestimate Guggenheim's ratio as well as the reduced boiling temperature (Guldberg's ratio). As demonstrated by the collapse of the data for the TIP4P-based models, these deviations are inherent to the specific model and cannot be corrected by a simple reparametrization. For comparison, the results for two recent polarizable models, HBP and BK3, are shown, and both models are seen to perform well in terms of absolute numbers and in a corresponding-states framework. The kind of analysis applied here can therefore be used as a guideline in the design of more accurate and yet simple multi-purpose models of water.

  3. A floristic analysis of the vegetation of Platberg, eastern Free State, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert F. Brand

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available A checklist of vascular plants of Platberg was compiled to determine species richness, rarity and endemism. The floristic analysis is part of the Department of Economic, Tourism and Environmental Affairs Free State biodiversity assessment programme and conservation management plan for Platberg. The analysis identified a total of 669 species belonging to 304 genera and 95 families, with 214 species belonging to the Monocotyledoneae and 438 species to the Dicotyledoneae. The largest family is Asteraceae with 126 species, followed by Poaceae with 73 species, Cyperaceae with 39 species, Fabaceae with 33 species, and Scrophulariaceae with 27 species. Various fynbos species were found, as well as 26 endemic/near-endemic species belonging to the Drakensberg Alpine Centre or Eastern Mountain Region. The results of this study revealed that Platberg shares inselberg floral richness and endemism that can be tracked via the Afromontane archipelago-like string of inselbergs and mountains, which stretch north through the Chimanimani Mountains, into Malawi, the Eastern Arc Mountains via Tanzania and north through Ethiopia, into Eurasia.Conservation implications: Platberg, as an inselberg, is a site of significant biological diversity, with high species richness, vegetation selection and ecosystem complexity. It shares floral richness and endemism via inselbergs and mountains throughout Africa. The high species richness, Red Data species and ecosystems make this area an important conservation site that should be legislated and protected.

  4. A techno-economic analysis of aquaculture business in Ogun State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kareem, R. O.; Williams, S. B.

    2009-05-01

    Fish supplies 25% of the total protein source in developing countries. A techno-economic analysis was performed for developing a good business proposal for aquaculture loans to enhance aquaculture development in Nigeria. A case study of catfish Clarias gariepinus framing was conducted in Abeokuta North Local Government of Ogun State, Nigeria. The results show that the fixed cost is N18 338 per year, and the variable cost is N459 700 per year, accounting for the largest amount of the total; therefore, a profit of N43 289 per month can be made. Sensitivity analysis was performed to assess any risk(s) that associated with unfavorable changes in government policy with particular reference to monetary policy. Positive net present value shows that the investment in fish farm is economically feasible and the net investment ratio is 3.52. Also, the benefit-cost ratio is 2.17. The internal rate of return (IRR) is 21% showing that the enterprise is able to offset the interest being charged on the loan. It is therefore worthwhile to invest into fish farm business in the study area. The study suggests that to better sustain the local aquaculture business, the government should create a good conducive environment to foster development of the fish farming. Government intervention is urgently needed to solve problems such as in traditional land tenure, grant credit facilities and subsidies, to enhance the aquacultural development in the country.

  5. Can molecular projected density of states (PDOS be systematically used in electronic conductance analysis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonatiuh Rangel

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Using benzenediamine and benzenedithiol molecular junctions as benchmarks, we investigate the widespread analysis of the quantum transport conductance in terms of the projected density of states (PDOS onto molecular orbitals (MOs. We first consider two different methods for identifying the relevant MOs: (1 diagonalization of the Hamiltonian of the isolated molecule and (2 diagonalization of a submatrix of the junction Hamiltonian constructed by considering only basis elements localized on the molecule. We find that these two methods can lead to substantially different MOs and hence PDOS. Furthermore, within Method 1, the PDOS can differ depending on the isolated molecule chosen to represent the molecular junction (e.g., with or without dangling bonds; within Method 2, the PDOS depends on the chosen basis set. We show that these differences can be critical when the PDOS is used to provide a physical interpretation of the conductance (especially when its value is small, as it happens typically at zero bias. In this work, we propose a new approach in an attempt to reconcile the two traditional methods. Although some improvements were achieved, the main problems remain unsolved. Our results raise more general questions and doubts on a PDOS-based analysis of the conductance.

  6. Multivariate Analysis Of Ground Water Characteristics Of Geological Formations Of Enugu State Of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orakwe

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The chemometric data mining techniques using principal factor analysis PFA and hierarchical cluster analysis CA was employed to evaluate and to examine the borehole characteristics of geological formations of Enugu State of Nigeria to determine the latent structure of the borehole characteristics and to classify 9 borehole parameters from 49 locations into borehole groups of similar characteristics. PFA extracted three factors which accounted for a large proportion of the variation in the data 77.305 of the variance. Out of nine parameters examined the first PFA had the highest number of variables loading on a single factor where four borehole parameters borehole depth borehole casing static water level and dynamic water level loaded on it with positive coefficient as the most significant parameters responsible for variation in borehole characteristics in the study. The CA employed in this study to identified three clusters. The first cluster delineated stations that characterise Awgu sandstone geological formation while the second cluster delineated Agbani sandstone geological formation. The third cluster delineated Ajali sandstone formation. The CA grouping of the borehole parameters showed similar trend with PFA hence validating the efficiency of chemometric data mining techniques in grouping of variations in the borehole characteristics in the geological zone of the study area.

  7. An Analysis of North Pacific Subsurface Temperatures Using State-Space Techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Bessey, Cindy

    2012-01-01

    North Pacific subsurface temperature data from the Simple Ocean Data Assimilation model at 10m, 50m, 75m, 100m and 150m depths, are analyzed using a combination of state-space decomposition and subspace identification techniques to examine the spatial structure of thermal variability within the upper water column. We identify four common trends from our analysis that display the major broad-scale patterns in the North Pacific over a 47 year period (1958-2004): (1) a basin-wide near-surface warming trend that identifies the mid 1980's as a change point from a cooling to a warming trend; (2) a contrasting cooling in the central basin and warming along the coast of North America that began in the early 1970's; (3) a cooling along the transition zone and the west coast of North America that becomes dominant around 1998; (4) and contrasting differences in the subarctic and subtropical gyres displaying differences in processes at each depth. We also provide a detailed analysis of the temperature variability at four...

  8. The Colombian-United States Free Trade Treaty: A Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian A. Yepes

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available "Free trade treaties are generally centered on defining some game rules to achieve commercial exchange. In this article, the contents of the text of the free trade treaty between Colombia and the United States are discussed using a critical discourse analysis, which will help to identify the power relationships in this discourse in the context of Colombian company management. The particularities of the free trade treaty are also analyzed from a linguistic point of view, and taking into account the variables such as access of goods into the market, customs procedures, business defense, public contracting, intellectual property rights, job-related and environmental issues. The results are associated with an analysis process of the discursive content of free trade treaties at three levels: grammar of the text, pragmatics of the text, and at a psychosocial level to understand the role that the discourse plays in the interpretation and reproduction of the social domination, with the aim that it may serve as an orientation for the management of Colombian export companies."

  9. Stoichiometric network reconstruction and analysis of yeast sphingolipid metabolism incorporating different states of hydroxylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavun Ozbayraktar, Fatma Betul; Ulgen, Kutlu O

    2011-04-01

    The first elaborate metabolic model of Saccharomyces cerevisiae sphingolipid metabolism was reconstructed in silico. The model considers five different states of sphingolipid hydroxylation, rendering it unique among other models. It is aimed to clarify the significance of hydroxylation on sphingolipids and hence to interpret the preferences of the cell between different metabolic pathway branches under different stress conditions. The newly constructed model was validated by single, double and triple gene deletions with experimentally verified phenotypes. Calcium sensitivity and deletion mutations that may suppress calcium sensitivity were examined by CSG1 and CSG2 related deletions. The model enabled the analysis of complex sphingolipid content of the plasma membrane coupled with diacylglycerol and phosphatidic acid biosynthesis and ATP consumption in in silico cell. The flux data belonging to these critically important key metabolites are integrated with the fact of phytoceramide induced cell death to propose novel potential drug targets for cancer therapeutics. In conclusion, we propose that IPT1, GDA1, CSG and AUR1 gene deletions may be novel candidates of drug targets for cancer therapy according to the results of flux balance and variability analyses coupled with robustness analysis.

  10. A techno-economic analysis of aquaculture business in Ogun State, Nigeria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R. O. KAREEM; S. B. WILLIAMS

    2009-01-01

    Fish supplies 25% of the total protein source in developing countries. A techno-economic analysis was performed for developing a good business proposal for aquaculture loans to enhance aquaculture development in Nigeria. A case study of catfish Clarias gariepinus framing was conducted in Abeokuta North Local Government of Ogun State, Nigeria. The results show that the fixed cost is N18 338 per year, and the variable cost is N459700 per year, accounting for the largest amount of the total; therefore, a profit of N43 289 per month can be made. Sensitivity analysis was performed to assess any risk(s) that associated with unfavorable changes in government policy with particular reference to monetary policy. Positive net present value shows that the investment in fish farm is economically feasible and the net investment ratio is 3.52. Also, the benefit-cost ratio is 2.17. The internal rate of return (IRR) is 21% showing that the enterprise is able to offset the interest being charged on the loan. It is therefore worthwhile to invest into fish farm business in the study area. The study suggests that to better sustain the local aquaculture business, the government should create a good conducive environment to fost er development of the fish farming. Government intervention is urgently needed to solve problems such as in traditional land tenure, grant credit facilities and subsidies, to enhance the aquacultural development in the country.

  11. Time-Domain Pure-state Polarization Analysis of Surface Waves Traversing California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, J; Walter, W R; Lay, T; Wu, R

    2003-11-04

    A time-domain pure-state polarization analysis method is used to characterize surface waves traversing California parallel to the plate boundary. The method is applied to data recorded at four broadband stations in California from twenty-six large, shallow earthquakes which occurred since 1988, yielding polarization parameters such as the ellipticity, Euler angles, instantaneous periods, and wave incident azimuths. The earthquakes are located along the circum-Pacific margin and the ray paths cluster into two groups, with great-circle paths connecting stations MHC and PAS or CMB and GSC. The first path (MHC-PAS) is in the vicinity of the San Andreas Fault System (SAFS), and the second (CMB-GSC) traverses the Sierra Nevada Batholith parallel to and east of the SAFS. Both Rayleigh and Love wave data show refractions due to lateral velocity heterogeneities under the path, indicating that accurate phase velocity and attenuation analysis requires array measurements. The Rayleigh waves are strongly affected by low velocity anomalies beneath Central California, with ray paths bending eastward as waves travel toward the south, while Love waves are less affected, providing observables to constrain the depth extent of the anomalies. Strong lateral gradients in the lithospheric structure between the continent and the ocean are the likely cause of the path deflections.

  12. Negotiating Gender in Professional Soccer: An Analysis of Female Footballers in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Kristiansen

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Youth soccer is thriving in the United States but the coun- try's professional soccer leagues over the past couple decades have had mixed results in terms of commercial viability with some leagues surviving (e.g., MLS and others ceasing (e.g., WUSA. While scholars and practitioners may offer explanations regarding the reasons for the specific challenges facing women's professional soccer leagues, the pre- sent study looked at this subject by examining one group of stakeholders - female elite athletes - and the players’ perceptions of gender in the USA professional soccer program. The findings of this qualitative analysis were concentrated in- to three interconnected themes. The first theme involved the participants' perceptions of role models and their socialization as soccer players. Media images and the invisibility of the female athlete formed the second theme. The third theme was the sexualization of elite female bodies and transgressions of compulsory heterosexuality boundaries. The analysis of the interviews revealed an interesting paradox of elite female athletes using gender to understand sports. The inter- viewed athletes used stereotypical notions of masculinity to increase their legitimacy as elite athletes, while at the same time devaluing the abilities of female coaches by using stereotypical notions of femininity. In addition to discussing the empirical results and interconnected themes, the implications of the findings are also detailed.

  13. The impact of "physiological correction" on functional connectivity analysis of pharmacological resting state fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalili-Mahani, Najmeh; Chang, Catie; van Osch, Matthias J; Veer, Ilya M; van Buchem, Mark A; Dahan, Albert; Beckmann, Christian F; van Gerven, Joop M A; Rombouts, Serge A R B

    2013-01-15

    Growing interest in pharmacological resting state fMRI (RSfMRI) necessitates developing standardized and robust analytical approaches that are insensitive to spurious correlated physiological signals. However, in pharmacological experiments physiological variations constitute an important aspect of the pharmacodynamic/pharmacokinetic profile of drug action; therefore retrospective corrective methods that discard physiological signals as noise may not be suitable. Previously, we have shown that template-based dual regression analysis is a sensitive method for model-free and objective detection of drug-specific effects on functional brain connectivity. In the current study, the robustness of this standard approach to physiological variations in a placebo controlled, repeated measures pharmacological RSfMRI study of morphine and alcohol in 12 healthy young men is tested. The impact of physiology-related variations on statistical inferences has been studied by: 1) modeling average physiological rates in higher level group analysis; 2) Regressing out the instantaneous respiration variation (RV); 3) applying retrospective image correction (RETROICOR) in the preprocessing stage; and 4) performing combined RV and heart rate correction (RVHRCOR) by regressing out physiological pulses convolved with canonical respiratory and cardiac hemodynamic response functions. Results indicate regional sensitivity of the BOLD signal to physiological variations, especially in the vicinity of large vessels, plus certain brain structures that are reported to be involved in physiological regulation, such as posterior cingulate, precuneus, medial prefrontal and insular cortices, as well as the thalamus, cerebellum and the brainstem. The largest impact of "correction" on final statistical test outcomes resulted from including the average respiration frequency and heart rate in the higher-level group analysis. Overall, the template-based dual regression method seems robust against physical

  14. Analysis of Relaxed States in Coaxial Helicity Injection Tokamaks on the Basis of Analytical Solutions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周登; 张澄

    2002-01-01

    The principle of the minimum energy dissipation rate is applied to toroidal plasmas with a coaxial direct current helicity injection. The relaxed states are analysed based on the analytical solutions of the resulting Euler-Lagrangian equations. Three typical states are found. The relaxed states are close to the Taylor state if the ratio of current density to magnetic field on the boundary is small enough. The states will deviate from the Taylor state when the ratio increases, but when it approaches a critical value the central part of relaxed plasmas may approach a force free state, and above the critical value both current and magnetic field may reverse in the central part.

  15. STATE-OWNED, ACQUISITION OR GREENFIELD BANKS IN THE NEW EU MEMBER STATES. A POST-CRISIS ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu Alin Moruţan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The political and economic changes taking place at the end of the 20th century have provided Western European banks the opportunity to enter into Central and Eastern European (CEE markets. Their entry was made either by greenfield investment or by acquisition of existing domestic banks. The motivations for the entry decision were various, e.g. managerial decisions, tightening profit margins in home markets, challengers imitation, profit-maximizations, looking for new customers in new markets, or keeping and extending relations with existing customers on the new markets where they are implanted. The expansion was amplified by the deregulation, the global capital expansion and the emergence of a single currency, throughout a period of prosperity and economic growth lasting for almost two decades (1990-2008. Until the crisis, changes in the CEE banking markets mainly concerned the increasing share of foreign capital (in market share, assets, number of branches and employees along with the diminishing importance of state-owned banks. After 2008, the process displays new features: the restructuring of banks, mergers or strategic acquisitions, reducing operations in certain countries or even exits, adjusting the number of units and employees, improving efficiency and profitability indicators etc. Domestic banks, both private and state-owned, have bridged the gap (at least in terms of efficiency separating them from the leaders, i.e. mostly the subsidiaries of large international banks. Apparently, greenfield banks are losing the importance they had in the preceding period (1990-2008. This paper aims at investigating the relation between foreign banks’ mode of entry into the emerging markets of CEE (i.e. acquisition vs greenfield and the strategies’ results on those markets, before and after the crisis. Although foreign banks have implemented common strategies at group level, often dependent on the entry mode, these strategies were influenced by

  16. ANALYSIS OF DISTURBANCE TORQUE INFLUENCE ON CRITICAL STATE IN ROTATIONAL SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogumił CHILIŃSKI

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Currently most of existing means of transport contains different types of rotational systems. In many cases the dynamics of such rotors substantially can influence exploitation of the whole vehicle. Moreover, in order to minimize mass of the whole object modern construction materials are applied. This causes that the dynamic phenomena may be fundamental of exploitation. The paper presents preliminary analysis of disturbance torque influence on critical state in rotational system. The consideration assumed simple physical object in the form of heavy disk embedded on weightless, elastic shaft. The shaft was supported on two bearings. In particular chapters of paper, path leading from proposition of physical model, by solution of it, to qualitative conclusions about considered object and torque disturbances influence of motion of this system, was presented. In introduction, outline of considered problem and potential opportunities of it, were demonstrated. In the next chapter, physical and mathematical model of the analysed object, was described. Next and also the last but one chapter gives a detailed discussion of mathematical model in the form of nonlinear ordinary differential equations proposed earlier. The first part of the chapter presents the possibility to solve such a problem, then it shows the simplifications which are used. Furthermore, the influence of used simplifications on the shape of analysed problem was demonstrated. Additionally, the possibility of equations solution presented in the paper was discussed. Moreover, the series of interesting properties of analysed system of equations has been shown based on founded approximate solutions. The whole paper was summarized with plans for future work and synthetic conclusions concerning the innovative control method of critical states.

  17. Eutrophication potential of lakes: an integrated analysis of trophic state, morphometry, land occupation, and land use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RF Silvino

    Full Text Available AbstractDespite being inside a protected area, Lake Sumidouro has been impacted by the anthropogenic occupation of the surrounding area since the 1970’s, compromising the ecological integrity of the lake and the sustainable use of natural resources. This study examined the current trophic classification of the lake and developed methods for improving it through an integrated analysis of morphometric and limnological parameters, land use and land occupation in the watershed, and eutrophication potential. Data for the limnological parameters, land use and land occupation, and morphometric characteristics of Lake Sumidouro were collected in the rainy and dry seasons of 2009 and 2010. Depending on the trophic classification system used, Lake Sumidouro is classified as oligotrophic to hypereutrophic. In our study, the highest concentration of nutrients occurred in the rainy season, indicating that high nutrient inputs played an important role during this period. Areas of anthropogenic occupation comprised approximately 62.9% of the total area of the watershed, with pasture and urban settlement as the main types of land use. The influent total phosphorus load was estimated to be 15,824.3 kg/year. To maintain mesotrophic conditions, this load must be reduced by 29.4%. By comparing the isolated use of trophic state indices, this study demonstrated that comparing the trophic state classification with morphometric analyses, land use and land occupation types in the watershed, and potential phosphorus load provided better information to guide management actions for restoration and conservation. Furthermore, this approach also allowed for evaluating the vulnerability of the environment to the eutrophication process.

  18. A Systematic Meta-Analysis of Toxoplasma gondii Prevalence in Food Animals in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Miao; Mishra, Abhinav; Buchanan, Robert L; Dubey, Jitender P; Hill, Dolores E; Gamble, H Ray; Jones, Jeffrey L; Pradhan, Abani K

    2016-03-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a widely distributed protozoan parasite. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reported that T. gondii is one of three pathogens (along with Salmonella and Listeria), that together account for >70% of all deaths due to foodborne illness in the United States. Food animals are reservoirs for T. gondii and act as one of the sources for parasite transmission to humans. Based on limited population-based data, the Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization estimated that approximately 22% of human T. gondii infections are meatborne. The objective of the current study was to conduct a systematic meta-analysis to provide a precise estimation of T. gondii infection prevalence in food animals produced in the United States. Four databases were searched to collect eligible studies. Prevalence was estimated in six animal categories (confinement-raised market pigs, confinement-raised sows, non-confinement-raised pigs, lamb, goats, and non-confinement-raised chickens) by a quality-effects model. A wide variation in prevalence was observed in each animal category. Animals raised outdoors or that have outdoor access had a higher prevalence as compared with animals raised indoors. T. gondii prevalence in non-confinement-raised pigs ranked the highest (31.0%) followed by goats (30.7%), non-confinement-raised chickens (24.1%), lambs (22.0%), confinement-raised sows (16.7%), and confinement-raised market pigs (5.6%). These results indicate that T. gondii-infected animals are a food safety concern. The computed prevalence can be used as an important input in quantitative microbial risk assessment models to further predict public health burden.

  19. Dysconnection topography in schizophrenia revealed with state-space analysis of EEG.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Jalili

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The dysconnection hypothesis has been proposed to account for pathophysiological mechanisms underlying schizophrenia. Widespread structural changes suggesting abnormal connectivity in schizophrenia have been imaged. A functional counterpart of the structural maps would be the EEG synchronization maps. However, due to the limits of currently used bivariate methods, functional correlates of dysconnection are limited to the isolated measurements of synchronization between preselected pairs of EEG signals. METHODS/RESULTS: To reveal a whole-head synchronization topography in schizophrenia, we applied a new method of multivariate synchronization analysis called S-estimator to the resting dense-array (128 channels EEG obtained from 14 patients and 14 controls. This method determines synchronization from the embedding dimension in a state-space domain based on the theoretical consequence of the cooperative behavior of simultaneous time series-the shrinking of the state-space embedding dimension. The S-estimator imaging revealed a specific synchronization landscape in schizophrenia patients. Its main features included bilaterally increased synchronization over temporal brain regions and decreased synchronization over the postcentral/parietal region neighboring the midline. The synchronization topography was stable over the course of several months and correlated with the severity of schizophrenia symptoms. In particular, direct correlations linked positive, negative, and general psychopathological symptoms to the hyper-synchronized temporal clusters over both hemispheres. Along with these correlations, general psychopathological symptoms inversely correlated within the hypo-synchronized postcentral midline region. While being similar to the structural maps of cortical changes in schizophrenia, the S-maps go beyond the topography limits, demonstrating a novel aspect of the abnormalities of functional cooperation: namely, regionally reduced or

  20. Integrity of central nervous function in diabetes mellitus assessed by resting state EEG frequency analysis and source localization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frøkjær, Jens B; Graversen, Carina; Brock, Christina;

    2016-01-01

    localization analysis identified sources with reduced activity in the left postcentral gyrus for the gamma band and in right superior parietal lobule for the alpha1 (8-10Hz) band. DM patients with clinical signs of autonomic dysfunction and gastrointestinal symptoms had evidence of altered resting state......Diabetes mellitus (DM) is associated with structural and functional changes of the central nervous system. We used electroencephalography (EEG) to assess resting state cortical activity and explored associations to relevant clinical features. Multichannel resting state EEG was recorded in 27...... healthy controls and 24 patients with longstanding DM and signs of autonomic dysfunction. The power distribution based on wavelet analysis was summarized into frequency bands with corresponding topographic mapping. Source localization analysis was applied to explore the electrical cortical sources...

  1. Quantum mechanics and experimental solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance analysis of strained molecular systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halling, Merrill David

    In this work 13C solid-state NMR and quantum mechanical studies of strained molecular systems are discussed. The chemical shift tensor values reported in this document were obtained using the FIREMAT method. Theoretical analyses of chemical shielding tensors were performed through the computer nodes operated by the Utah Center for High Performance Computing. Analyses were performed on sumanene, indenofluoranthene, tetrathiafulvalene, tetrathiafulvalene dimer, [2,2]paracyclophane, and 1,8-dioxa[8](2,7)pyrenophane. The FIREMAT data were fit using the TIGER data processing technique. TIGER provides a means to fit the FIREMAT data, accommodating its unique phase and relaxation characteristics. The details of the FIREMAT experiment are discussed in Chapter 1. The experimentally obtained chemical shift data were compared with calculated chemical shielding data. For these molecular systems, density functional theory was used along with the B3LYP exchange and correlation functionals. Multiple basis sets were used and relatively low errors are reported, between 2.0 ppm and 4.2 ppm. The errors reflect the difference between experimental and theoretical results. The relatively small errors are consistent with those of other polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and similar molecular systems. Chapter 2 discusses the three-dimensional aspect of tensor error analysis and how it is used in determining the errors associated with comparing two chemical shift tensors, i.e., theoretically derived and experimentally determined tensors. All error values reported and discussed in this dissertation are determined using this error analysis method. Molecular conformation may be explored by variation in chemical shift tensor principal values. The ring strain in curved polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons can be associated with downfield shifts in the delta33 component of the chemical shift tensor. This is discussed in Chapters 3 and 5, as it relates to sumanene, indenofluoranthene, [2

  2. Biplot analysis of strawberry genotypes recommended for the State of Espírito Santo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, A F; Teodoro, P E; Bhering, L L; Leal, N R; Tardin, F D; Daher, R F

    2016-08-26

    Most strawberry genotypes grown commercially in Brazil originate from breeding programs in the United States, and are therefore not adapted to the various soil and climatic conditions found in Brazil. Thus, quantifying the magnitude of genotype x environment (GE) interactions serves as a primary means for increasing average Brazilian strawberry yields, and helps provide specific recommendations for farmers on which genotypes meet high yield and phenotypic stability thresholds. The aim of this study was to use AMMI (additive main effects and multiplicative interaction) and GGE biplot (genotype main effects + genotype x environment interaction) analyses to identify high-yield, stable strawberry genotypes grown at three locations in Espírito Santo for two agricultural years. We evaluated seven strawberry genotypes (Dover, Camino Real, Ventana, Camarosa, Seascape, Diamante, and Aromas) at three locations (Domingos Martins, Iúna, and Muniz Freire) in agricultural years 2006 and 2007, totaling six study environments. Joint analysis of variance was calculated using yield data (t/ha), and AMMI and GGE biplot analysis was conducted following the detection of a significant genotypes x agricultural years x locations (G x A x L) interaction. During the two agricultural years, evaluated locations were allocated to different regions on biplot graphics using both methods, indicating distinctions among them. Based on the results obtained from the two methods used in this study to investigate the G x A x L interaction, we recommend growing the Camarosa genotype for production at the three locations assessed due to the high frequency of favorable alleles, which were expressed in all localities evaluated regardless of the agricultural year.

  3. QUANTITATIVE IMAGE ANALYSIS OF MICROSTRUCTURE EVOLUTION DURING SOLID STATE SINTERING OF W-Cu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Popa

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The microstructure evolution of W-Cu composites during solid state sintering at 1050°C is studied on samples quenched after different sintering times. The microstructure is formed by 3 phases: tungsten (W, copper (Cu and pores. During the process, the initial mixture of W- and Cu-powder is transformed by migration of Cu and rearrangement of W particles. These microstructural changes are studied to identify the underlying phenomena and to control the material properties. Based on experiments performed with two different W powders, this paper deals with various aspects of the quantitative analysis of the observed evolution. A careful preparation of the images is necessary. The porous samples are impregnated with a resin under vacuum before being cut and carefully polished. Low voltage (<10 kV is used during image acquisition on a scanning electron microscope. Area fraction measurements are used to check the quality of the images and the segmentation process. Classical measurements are used to study the spreading of Cu onto the surface of W particles: surface area of each phase, area of contact between phases, chord length distributions. New measurements based on classical methods are also developed to distinguish between two mechanisms of Cu migration in the microstructure : Cu spreading on W surface (wetting of the surface, and capillary penetration in the inter-W channels. An analysis of the location of Cu and pores in the space between W particles (inter-W space is performed using a granulometry based on 2D openings. It evidences the mechanism of capillary penetration of Cu in the inter-W space in the case of small W-particles.

  4. Economic Analysis of Rice Production among the Youths in Kwara State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham Falola

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Youths’ unemployment is one the major developmental challenges facing many developing countries. However, the youths usually show apathy towards agriculture, which is a potential solution to this menace, due to perceived non-lucrativeness of the venture. In the light of this, this study assessed economic performance of youth rice farmers using Kwara State as a case study. Data were collected from 120 respondents through questionnaire using a combination of purposive and random sampling techniques. Descriptive tools, cost and return analysis, and regression model were used for the analysis. Majority of the youths were male (74.17%, married (65.83%, less educated, had no access to extension services (61.67%, small scale farmers, financed their operations with personal savings (68.33% and had farming as a secodary occupation (73.34%. The gross margin, return to farm management and labour, gross ratio, operating ratio and return to capital invested by the farmers was N53,654.16/ha, N35,053.33/ha, 0.59, 0.36 and N1.80/ha respectively (1USD = NI58. Factors influencing rice output of the respondents were quantity of seeds, farm size, labour, age, level of education, farming experience, access to extension services. The major problems faceed by the youths were insufficient capital, inadequate knowledge on rice production, low output price, high input cost and transportation problems. There is need for encouraging the youth through provision of improved seeds, land, credit facility, good roads and extension services.

  5. Multi-state models for the analysis of time-to-event data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meira-Machado, Luís; de Uña-Alvarez, Jacobo; Cadarso-Suárez, Carmen

    2009-01-01

    The experience of a patient in a survival study may be modelled as a process with two states and one possible transition from an "alive" state to a "dead" state. In some studies, however, the "alive" state may be partitioned into two or more intermediate (transient) states, each of which...... corresponding to a particular stage of the illness. In such studies, multi-state models can be used to model the movement of patients among the various states. In these models issues, of interest include the estimation of progression rates, assessing the effects of individual risk factors, survival rates...... or prognostic forecasting. In this article, we review modelling approaches for multi-state models, and we focus on the estimation of quantities such as the transition probabilities and survival probabilities. Differences between these approaches are discussed, focussing on possible advantages and disadvantages...

  6. The Analysis of the Dynamic Equilibrium State in Linear Control System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Li

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses not a point of equilibrium to free system, but a certain family of equilibrium state of dynamical system with inputs. This equilibrium state depends on the input, so it is called the dynamic equilibrium state. The expression of the dynamic equilibrium state can be given under some certain condition. With deductions and proofs in linear control system, establish the expression of the dynamic equilibrium state in two cases, where the linear systems are nonsingular or singular. Also present the concept and the condition of the controllability of the dynamic equilibrium state. The controllability of the dynamic equilibrium state is different from the controllability of the state to system, but these two are closely related.

  7. Sample Selection Analysis of Wage Equation for Women In Ondo State Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sola Olorunfemi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The study analysis wage equation for women in Ondo State Nigeria, in other to identify the determinant factors of their wages. Data collected from 250 women heads of households through a multi-stage random system technique were analyzed. In order to deal with the zero wage problem associated with those who did not work, various single – equation models were applied. These include wage equation estimated by ordinary least squares; Heckman two-step sample selection model (Heckit and Maximum Likelihood Estimation. The test on the sample selection coefficients in the Heckman two-step indicates presence of sample selection bias and that the use of the censored sample model would lead to incorrect estimates. It was discovered that the number of children in the household is negatively related to wage of the women in the region. The study suggested that child bearing by women should be reduced as large family size puts pressure on family income and hours of work.

  8. Analysis of the complete detonation state of solutions of TNT in advanced oxidizers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Austing, J.L.; Tulis, A.J. [IIT Research Institute, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Patel, D.L.; Heberlein, D.C. [U.S. Army, Cecom, RD et E Center, NVESD, Virginia (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Solutions of TNT in liquid oxidizers such as dinitrogen tetroxide and chlorine trifluoride are different in chemical composition from that of TNT alone, which is an organic high explosive. The experimentally-measured detonation state of such solutions was mathematically analyzed in accordance with published correlations for conventional explosives. The computations verified that the Chapman-Jouguet density and adiabatic exponent were independent of the chemical composition and were functions only of the initial density. The detonation velocity of a TNT/Dinitrogen Tetroxide change was calculated from the Hugoniot data for the constituent elements by recourse to the method developed by Walker. The calculated velocity was 6.637 km/s, which differed from the experimental value by only 1.6 percent. Detonations of 50/50 by weight TNT/Chlorine Trifluoride solutions confined in glass tubes were conducted at diameters of 131 mm, 77 mm, and 43 mm, for purposes of assessing the diameter effect. The analysis was conducted according to the correlations of Eyring et al. Extrapolation of the detonation velocity-reciprocal diameter curve to infinite diameter established that the ideal detonation velocity was 7.732 km/s. The detonation at the three finite diameters propagated at the near-ideal velocity. The critical diameter was less than 43 mm. (authors) 11 refs.

  9. Symmetric bifurcation analysis of synchronous states of time-delayed coupled Phase-Locked Loop oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferruzzo Correa, Diego Paolo; Wulff, Claudia; Piqueira, José Roberto Castilho

    2015-05-01

    In recent years there has been an increasing interest in studying time-delayed coupled networks of oscillators since these occur in many real life applications. In many cases symmetry patterns can emerge in these networks, as a consequence a part of the system might repeat itself, and properties of this subsystem are representative of the dynamics on the whole phase space. In this paper an analysis of the second order N-node time-delay fully connected network is presented which is based on previous work: synchronous states in time-delay coupled periodic oscillators: a stability criterion. Correa and Piqueira (2013), for a 2-node network. This study is carried out using symmetry groups. We show the existence of multiple eigenvalues forced by symmetry, as well as the existence of Hopf bifurcations. Three different models are used to analyze the network dynamics, namely, the full-phase, the phase, and the phase-difference model. We determine a finite set of frequencies ω , that might correspond to Hopf bifurcations in each case for critical values of the delay. The Sn map is used to actually find Hopf bifurcations along with numerical calculations using the Lambert W function. Numerical simulations are used in order to confirm the analytical results. Although we restrict attention to second order nodes, the results could be extended to higher order networks provided the time-delay in the connections between nodes remains equal.

  10. Carbon-dot organic surface modifier analysis by solution-state NMR spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philippidis, Aggelos; Spyros, Apostolos, E-mail: aspyros@chemistry.uoc.gr; Anglos, Demetrios [University of Crete, NMR Laboratory, Department of Chemistry (Greece); Bourlinos, Athanasios B. [University of Ioannina, Physics Department (Greece); Zboril, Radek [Palacky University in Olomouc, Regional Centre of Advanced Technologies and Materials, Department of Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Science (Czech Republic); Giannelis, Emmanuel P. [Cornell University, Department of Materials Science and Engineering (United States)

    2013-07-15

    Carbon dots (C-dots) represent a new class of carbon-based materials that were discovered recently and have drawn the interest of the scientific community, particularly because of their attractive optical properties and their potential as fluorescent sensors. Investigation of the chemical structure of C-dots is extremely important for correlating the surface modifier composition with C-dot optical properties and allow for structure-properties fine tuning. In this article, we report the structural analysis of the surface modifiers of three different types of C-dot nanoparticles (Cwax, Cws, and Csalt) by use of 1D- and 2D-high-resolution NMR spectroscopy in solution. We unambiguously verify that the structure of the modifier chains remains chemically unchanged during the passivation procedure, and confirm the covalent attachment of the modifiers to the nanoparticle core, which contributes no signal to the solution-state NMR spectra. To our knowledge, this is the first study confirming the full structural assignment of C-dot organic surface modifiers by use of solution NMR spectroscopy.

  11. A Latent Class Analysis of Smokeless Tobacco Use in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Qiang; Vaughn, Michael G

    2016-08-01

    While there has been an escalating trend in the number of smokeless tobacco uses, mainly snuff, in the United States, it is unclear whether smokeless tobacco users are a homogenous class. The present investigation examines this question and identifies subtypes of smokeless tobacco users in order to better understand the characteristics of these individuals and guide appropriate intervention. Data on smokeless tobacco users (N = 2504) derived from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions was employed. A range of antisocial behaviors, from reflecting non-violent deviant acts, irresponsibility, and a disengaged lifestyle, to aggression and violence were used to estimate the number of subtypes of smokeless tobacco users using latent class analysis. Four latent classes emerged: Normative Class (50.2 %), Deviant Class (21.9 %), Disengaging Class (17.2 %), and Antisocial Class (10.5 %). Logistic regression shows that major depression, alcohol use disorder, and marijuana use disorder were associated with Deviant Class (OR's from 2.0 to 10.5). The same array of psychiatric disorders and general anxiety disorder were associated with greater odds of membership in the Disengaging Class (OR's from 2.6 to 7.4). Aforementioned psychiatric disorders and illicit drug use disorder were associated with the Antisocial Class (OR's from 3.8 to 38.1). Findings indicate that smokeless tobacco users are a heterogeneous population that may benefit from differential intervention strategies.

  12. Quasi-steady-state analysis of two-dimensional random intermittent search processes

    KAUST Repository

    Bressloff, Paul C.

    2011-06-01

    We use perturbation methods to analyze a two-dimensional random intermittent search process, in which a searcher alternates between a diffusive search phase and a ballistic movement phase whose velocity direction is random. A hidden target is introduced within a rectangular domain with reflecting boundaries. If the searcher moves within range of the target and is in the search phase, it has a chance of detecting the target. A quasi-steady-state analysis is applied to the corresponding Chapman-Kolmogorov equation. This generates a reduced Fokker-Planck description of the search process involving a nonzero drift term and an anisotropic diffusion tensor. In the case of a uniform direction distribution, for which there is zero drift, and isotropic diffusion, we use the method of matched asymptotics to compute the mean first passage time (MFPT) to the target, under the assumption that the detection range of the target is much smaller than the size of the domain. We show that an optimal search strategy exists, consistent with previous studies of intermittent search in a radially symmetric domain that were based on a decoupling or moment closure approximation. We also show how the decoupling approximation can break down in the case of biased search processes. Finally, we analyze the MFPT in the case of anisotropic diffusion and find that anisotropy can be useful when the searcher starts from a fixed location. © 2011 American Physical Society.

  13. ANALYSIS OF BREATHER STATE IN THIN BAR BY USING COLLECTIVE COORDINATE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Guang-hui; ZHANG Nian-mei; YANG Gui-tong

    2006-01-01

    Considering Peierls-Nabarro (P-N) force and viscous effect of material, the dynamic behavior of one-dimensional infinite metallic thin bar subjected to axially periodic load is investigated. Governing equation, which is sine-Gordon type equation, is derived. By means of collective-coordinates, the partial equation can be reduced to ordinary differential dynamical system to describe motion of breather. Nonlinear dynamic analysis shows that the amplitude and frequency of P-N force would influence positions of hyperbolic saddle points and change subharmonic bifurcation point, while the path to chaos through odd subharmonic bifurcations remains. Several examples are taken to indicate the effects of amplitude and period of P-N force on the dynamical response of the bar. The simulation states that the area of chaos is half-infinite. This area increases along with enhancement of the amplitude of P-N force. And the frequency of P-N force has similar influence on the system.

  14. People’s Health Service Preference at the State Borders [A Policy Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turniani Laksmiarti

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Indonesian has 497 District consisting of 399 districts and 98 cities, some districts are adjacent to other countries with relatively short travel time and easily, so presumably there are 12.000 Indonesian citizens who went to Malaysia each year and the data of National Health Care Group international Business Development -Singapore claimed 50 percent of international patients seeking treatment in Singapore is a citizen of Indonesia. This study aims to describe of the state border regions, in particular aspects of health regulations. Methods:Operational research with cross sectional design, in which data are collected in the same time (the same fiscal year. The research was conducted in 2012 in Sanggau and Batam District. The unit of analysis is the health workers and communities in the border region. Results: People in the border region who have the financial capability prefer to have treatment in the neighboring countries because of the resources (personnel, health equipment in the border areas health facilities are still inadequate and the referral access to the capital city could not be reached by the people compared to neighboring countries’ hospitals. Recommendations:The government and local governments improve preventive programs and health promotion, improve the health facilities so that there will be no lost of foreign exchange from the health sector towards the neighboring countries.

  15. A descriptive analysis of personality and gender at the Louisiana State University School of Veterinary Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Stephanie W; Gill, Marjorie S; Grenier, Charles; Taboada, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    The goals of this study were to explore the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator profile and gender differences of Louisiana State University veterinary students. A 12-year composite sample (N = 935) revealed that the personality profile was different from the published US population norm, but similar to the bimodal ESTJ-ISTJ profile found in Louisiana medical students. Significant gender differences were found among six of the 16 types. A 12-year trend analysis revealed a significant shift away from the prototypical ESTJ-ISTJ profile, culminating in a discernable heterogeneous profile for both males and females in the last four years. Composite scores for the 2004-2007 cohort (N = 331) revealed that the predominant types for women were ENFP, ESFJ, ESTJ, ISFJ, and ISTJ. For men, the predominant types were ESTJ, ESTP, INTP, and ISTJ. Post hoc tests confirmed significant gender differences for ESTP, INTP, ISTP, and ESFJ types. The evidence of significant gender differences and confirmation that personality profiles have begun to vary widely across the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator spectrum in the last four years have implications at the practical and theoretical levels. This could have profound effects on pedagogical considerations for faculty involved in veterinary medical education.

  16. ‘Grand Theft Archive’: A Quantitative Analysis of the State of Computer Game Preservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Gooding

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Computer games, like other digital media, are extremely vulnerable to long-term loss, yet little work has been done to preserve them. As a result we are experiencing large-scale loss of the early years of gaming history. Computer games are an important part of modern popular culture, and yet are afforded little of the respect bestowed upon established media such as books, film, television and music. We must understand the reasons for the current lack of computer game preservation in order to devise strategies for the future. Computer game history is a difficult area to work in, because it is impossible to know what has been lost already, and early records are often incomplete. This paper uses the information that is available to analyse the current status of computer game preservation, specifically in the UK. It makes a quantitative analysis of the preservation status of computer games, and finds that games are already in a vulnerable state. It proposes that work should be done to compile accurate metadata on computer games and to analyse more closely the exact scale of data loss, while suggesting strategies to overcome the barriers that currently exist.

  17. Analysis of Soil at Great Rann of Kutch of Gujarat State in Western India”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeep Kumar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Soil of “Great Rann of Kutch of Kutch district of Gujarat State in India" was investigated. It is tough area with high temperature, very less rainfall, scared vegetation and affected by salinity. Six sites were taken into account and properties of soil vary at different depths and sites. Three different depths of soil i.e. 0-15 cm, 15-30 and 30-45 were taken into account for analysis. Different physical and chemical parameters had been analysed. For study area field capacity, electrical conductivity, sodium, organic carbon, organic matter and nitrogen were found to be maximum (25.600%, 10.167 dsm-1, 64.781ppm, 0.967%, 1.667% and 0.083% at a depth of 0-15 cm. Water holding capacity, bulk density, particle density, porosity and pH were maximum (58.120%, 2.528%, 4.239%, 39.924% and 10.270 at 15-30 cm. Phosphorous was maximum (41.275 kg ha-1 at a depth of 30-45 cm. The outcome of the study illustrates that soil texture is clay loam type which easily forms hard clusters which are not beneficial for plant growth and to improve soil structure, reduce degradation of soil and increase plant diversity, Ca and salt tolerant plants play important role in the area.

  18. State and group dynamics of world stock market by principal component analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobi, Ashadun; Lee, Jae Woo

    2016-05-01

    We study the dynamic interactions and structural changes by a principal component analysis (PCA) to cross-correlation coefficients of global financial indices in the years 1998-2012. The variances explained by the first PC increase with time and show a drastic change during the crisis. A sharp change in PC coefficient implies a transition of market state, a situation which occurs frequently in the American and Asian indices. However, the European indices remain stable over time. Using the first two PC coefficients, we identify indices that are similar and more strongly correlated than the others. We observe that the European indices form a robust group over the observation period. The dynamics of the individual indices within the group increase in similarity with time, and the dynamics of indices are more similar during the crises. Furthermore, the group formation of indices changes position in two-dimensional spaces due to crises. Finally, after a financial crisis, the difference of PCs between the European and American indices narrows.

  19. Wavelet analysis of ultrasonic A-scan signal of solid-state welded joints

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    In the ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation of the quality of solid-state welded joints, such as friction bonding and diffusion bonding, the main difficulty is the identification of micro defects which are most likely to emerge in the welding process. The ultrasonic echo on the screen of a commercial ultrasonic detector due to a micro defect is so weak that it is completely masked by noise, and impossible to be pointed out. In the present paper, wavelet analysis (WA) is utilized to process A-scan ultrasonic signals from weak-bonding defects in friction bonding joints and porosity in diffusion bonding joints. First, perception of WA for engineers is given, which demonstrates the physical mechanism of WA when applied to signal processing. From this point of view, WA can be understood easily and more thoroughly. Then the signals from welding joints are decomposed into a time-scale plane by means of WA. We notice that noise and the signal echo attributed to the micro defect occupy different scales, which make it possible to enhance the signal-to-noise ratio of the signals by proper selection and threshold processing of the time-scale components of the signals, followed by reconstruction of the processed components.

  20. Analysis of Poverty Profiles and Socioeconomic Determinants of Welfare among Urban Households of Ekiti State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Akerele and S.A. Adewuyi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The study focused on assessment of household poverty and welfare among households in Ekiti State, Nigeria. Using a multistage sampling approach, a total of 80 households were selected and interviewed with the aid of well structured questionnaire. Data collected were subjected to analyses such as descriptive statistics, poverty index and multiple regression analysis. The result revealed the 38.30 percent of the households covered by the study were poor and would have to mobilize financial resources up to 41.80% of 1 US Dollar (N130 per day (for each household member to be able to escape poverty. Female headed households in the study area appear to be more vulnerable to income poverty with poverty incidence, depth and severity of values 0.221 and 0.239, 0.402 and 0.191, respectively. Highest levels of poverty were found among household with 7-9 dependants with values 1.00, 0.715 and 0.511 for the incidence, depth and severity of poverty respectively. Educational levels of household head and spouse, gender of household head and dependency ratio are factors that exact significance influence on household welfare. In order to reduce poverty and promote peoples’ welfare, policies that would promote employment opportunities; educational status of household head, spouse and household members as well as efforts to enhance women access to more productive resources and investment in infrastructural development are recommended.

  1. Tank monitor and control system (TMACS) performance analysis - under steady-state conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bass, R.B., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-30

    A means to predict the performance impacts to the TMACS computer system prior to further increases in the TMACS point configuration is studied. A series of CPU utilization measurements are made on the TMACS production and development computers. These measurements are under steady-state operating conditions for I/O point processing and remote terminal support.The data from these measurements are used to derive formulas that are then used to project CPU utilization for other configuration profiles. A configuration profile is described for (1) the current TMACS production system, (2) the maximum capacity of the current TMACS production system, and (3) a much larger target system, which reflects the anticipated size of the monitoring system for the upgrade project, W-314. The derived formulas are used to calculate CPU utilization for each of these configuration profiles. The formulas are validated by comparing the calculated with the measured results for the current production configuration. An analysis is performed that shows that the current system of 1.600 points can be expanded to 4,000 points without any changes. Furthermore, the current system can be expanded to 10,000 points to meet the requirements of the target system with the planned purchase of new-generation hardware and modifications to the logging and delta-check routines.

  2. Genetic variability analysis of Byrsonima crassifolia germplasm collected in Pará State using ISSR markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, S M; Moura, E F; Ramos, G K S; Oliveira, M S P

    2016-10-17

    Native of the Amazon, the nanche (Byrsonima crassifolia) is a fruit cultivated by family farmers and used in cooking; as such, it represents an opportunity for regional agribusiness. The Embrapa Eastern Amazon set up an active germplasm bank (BAG) consisting of 22 accessions sampled in 11 municipalities of Pará State. Due to its economic potential, there is an interest to advance the genetic breeding program of this species. The aim of this study was to characterize the BAG nanche collection using inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers. Accessions were genotyped using 23 pre-selected ISSR primers resulting in 109 amplified polymorphic and 51 monomorphic bands. With eight polymorphic bands each, the most polymorphic primers were UBC 809 and UBC 848. An unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic average cluster analysis based on Jaccard's coefficient indicated that the individuals clustered into two distinct groups. Accessions Igarapé Açu-2 and Augusto Corrêa-Pl 1 were most similar. The genetic dissimilarity values ranged from 0.10 to 0.59. We conclude that the ISSR markers were efficient in detecting polymorphisms in the nanche accessions, and that it is possible to infer the genetic variability among accessions of the collection. This demonstrate the importance of using molecular markers in poorly studied species and the advantages that this information can bring to the genetic improvement of such species.

  3. ANALYSIS OF INCOME INEQUALITIES AND FOOD SECURITY AMONG FARMERS IN ABIA STATE, SOUTH EASTERN NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nnanna M. AGWU

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The study analysed income inequalities and food security status of farmers in South Eastern Nigeria, using Abia State. Specifically, the study accessed the income inequalities of the farmers; determine the food security status of the farmers; estimate the factors that influence food security among the farmers in the study area. Multi-stage sampling technique was adopted in the selection of location and 180 respondents used for the study. The study employed Gini-coefficient, food security index and multiple regressions in the analysis of the data collected. Result shows that Gini coefficient value was 0.67, showing that there was high income inequality in the study area. Majority of the respondents, constituting about 68.57 percent were food insecurity in the study area. The regression results showed that age of the household head, educational attainment of the household head and monthly income of the head were the major determinants of food security status in the study area. The study recommends that government policies targeted at farmers should be strengthened, in order to bridge the gap in farmers’ income. Government should also create opportunities for small scale businesses to flourish in ural areas. This will provide the people the much needed income, amongst other things.

  4. Building Extraction from Airborne Laser Scanning Data: An Analysis of the State of the Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Tomljenovic

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article provides an overview of building extraction approaches applied to Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS data by examining elements used in original publications, such as data set area, accuracy measures, reference data for accuracy assessment, and the use of auxiliary data. We succinctly analyzed the most cited publication for each year between 1998 and 2014, resulting in 54 ISI-indexed articles and 14 non-ISI indexed publications. Based on this, we position some built-in features of ALS to create a comprehensive picture of the state of the art and the progress through the years. Our analyses revealed trends and remaining challenges that impact the community. The results show remaining deficiencies, such as inconsistent accuracy assessment measures, limitations of independent reference data sources for accuracy assessment, relatively few documented applications of the methods to wide area data sets, and the lack of transferability studies and measures. Finally, we predict some future trends and identify some gaps which existing approaches may not exhaustively cover. Despite these deficiencies, this comprehensive literature analysis demonstrates that ALS data is certainly a valuable source of spatial information for building extraction. When taking into account the short civilian history of ALS one can conclude that ALS has become well established in the scientific community and seems to become indispensable in many application fields.

  5. SURVIVAL ANALYSIS AND GROWTH OF Cordia trichotoma, BORAGINACEAE, LAMIALES, IN MATO GROSSO DO SUL STATE, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Luiz Salvadori

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509812357The evaluation of a plant survival percentage and growth may reflect its competitive ability in plantcommunity. Cordia trichotoma is a common native tree in Mato Grosso do Sul State and one of the mostpromising for planting. This study monitored the survival percentage and growth of Cordia trichotomaunder different conditions such as weeding and receiving or not fertilization. The experiment started inSeptember 2008 and it was concluded in March 2010. The seeds collection and sowing were held in urbanarea of Mundo Novo Municipality and the area for permanent planting to measure seedlings survival andgrowth was set at Japorã Municipality, Fazenda Santa Clara. Seedlings were planted in two categories: theuse or not of fertilizer and crowing resulting in four distinct groups: block fertilizer bare earth (ATN, bareland block without fertilizer (BTN, fertilizer and crown block (AC and without fertilizer and crownedblock (BC. The results indicated high survival of Cordia trichotoma in the seedling transplant system from bed to bags. The BC block showed the highest percentage of survival, but the smaller increments in height.The AC, ATN and BTN blocks presented the same survival pattern and similar average growth. However,there may be differences in nutritional and chemical composition of the soil suggesting sector analysis forfuture studies.

  6. The profitability analysis of artisanal fishing in Asa River of Kwara state, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.O. Adewumi,

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the profitability of artisanal fishing in river Asa in Asa Local Government Area of Kwara State, Nigeria. A total of 80 respondents were randomly selected for the study. Data were collected by the use of structured set of questionnaires. Three research questions guided the study. Results of profitability analysis showed that an average fisherman makes a Gross Margin of ₦52883.99/fisherman/month. The problems of artisanal fishing included lack of storages facilities, lack of government support and seasonal change in the volume of the river. The study recommends among others; fishermen should be given adequate training and the required assistance on modern fishing techniques and use of modern fishing equipment to ensure sustainability. There is also the need to organise the farmers into cooperatives to enable them have better access to government programmes and credits. It is also recommended that the government should build mini cold rooms with good storage facilities to help the fishermen overcome the problem of fish spoilage which reduces the quality of their products.

  7. Analysis of stress-strain state on top of a rectangular wedge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frishter Lyudmila Yur'evna

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Modeling singular solutions of the elasticity theory problems, which are determined by geometric factor - bird's mouth of the edge, make it necessary to analyze the solutions with some peculiarity, which are obtained experimentally with the help of photoelasticity method. In this article the peculiar stress-strain state is analyzed on the example of the known experimental solutions for a wedge under a concentrated force obtained by M. Frocht. Solution analysis for a wedge with a power-type peculiarity obtained experimentally by photoelasticity method, helps to detach a singular solution field, where fringe contour is not visible. Due to idealization of the boundary shape and loading technique, infinitely large stresses arise, which are obtained as a singular solution of the boundary problem in a planar domain. Comparison of theoretical and experimental solutions obtained for a wedge shows areas of overlap and areas of significant and insignificant differences as a result of the inability to experimentally apply the force to a single point.

  8. Semi-classical analysis of the inner product of Bethe states

    CERN Document Server

    Bettelheim, Eldad

    2014-01-01

    We study the inner product of two Bethe states, one of which is taken on-shell, in an inhomogeneous XXX chain in the Sutherland limit, where the number of magnons is comparable with the length L of the chain and the magnon rapidities arrange in a small number of macroscopically large Bethe strings. The leading order in the large L limit is known to be expressed through a contour integral of a dilogarithm. Here we derive the subleading term. Our analysis is based on a new contour-integral representation of the inner product in terms of a Fredholm determinant. We give two derivations of the sub-leading term. Besides a direct derivation by solving a Riemann-Hilbert problem, we give a less rigorous, but more intuitive derivation by field-theoretical methods. For that we represent the Fredholm determinant as an expectation value in a Fock space of chiral fermions and then bosonize. We construct a collective field for the bosonized theory, the short wave-length part of which may be evaluated exactly, while the long...

  9. Mentoring and New Teacher Induction in the United States: A Review and Analysis of Current Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullough, Robert V., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, current practices were reviewed in mentoring and induction across three large states--New York, Texas, and California--and one small state, Utah. Patterns and trends are described in the United States, program results and evolving views of mentoring are discussed, gaps in the research literature are identified, and the future of…

  10. A Comprehensive Analysis of High School Genetics Standards: Are States Keeping Pace with Modern Genetics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, M. J.; Pleasants, C.; Solow, L.; Wong, A.; Zhang, H.

    2011-01-01

    Science education in the United States will increasingly be driven by testing and accountability requirements, such as those mandated by the No Child Left Behind Act, which rely heavily on learning outcomes, or "standards," that are currently developed on a state-by-state basis. Those standards, in turn, drive curriculum and instruction.…

  11. The Adoption of Prepaid Tuition and Savings Plans in the American States: An Event History Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, William R.; McLendon, Michael K.; Hearn, James C.

    2010-01-01

    The past two decades have been a period of far-reaching policy experimentation in state financing of higher education. Between 1986 and 1999, 21 states adopted prepaid college tuition plans. Thirty-one states adopted some form of college savings plan. Both kinds of policies were designed to enhance the affordability of higher education during a…

  12. The Effect of Candidate Gender on Electoral Outcomes: A Six-State Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Susan; And Others

    Voter behavior is assessed toward female candidates for state legislatures in six states during 1970 to 1980. The sample consisted of 4,910 female and male candidates in state legislative elections to the lower house in Iowa, Missouri, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Wyoming. The relationship of party, incumbency, and urban or rural residency…

  13. A Comprehensive Analysis of High School Genetics Standards: Are States Keeping Pace with Modern Genetics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, M. J.; Pleasants, C.; Solow, L.; Wong, A.; Zhang, H.

    2011-01-01

    Science education in the United States will increasingly be driven by testing and accountability requirements, such as those mandated by the No Child Left Behind Act, which rely heavily on learning outcomes, or "standards," that are currently developed on a state-by-state basis. Those standards, in turn, drive curriculum and instruction. Given the…

  14. Voxel-based statistical analysis of cerebral glucose metabolism in patients with permanent vegetative state after acquired brain injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong Wook Kim; Hyoung Seop Kim; Young-Sil An; Sang Hee Im

    2010-01-01

    Background Permanent vegetative state is defined as the impaired level of consciousness longer than 12 months after traumatic causes and 3 months after non-traumatic causes of brain injury. Although many studies assessed the cerebral metabolism in patients with acute and persistent vegetative state after brain injury, few studies investigated the cerebral metabolism in patients with permanent vegetative state. In this study, we performed the voxel-based analysis of cerebral glucose metabolism and investigated the relationship between regional cerebral glucose metabolism and the severity of impaired consciousness in patients with permanent vegetative state after acquired brain injury.Methods We compared the regional cerebral glucose metabolism as demonstrated by F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography from 12 patients with permanent vegetative state after acquired brain injury with those from 12 control subjects. Additionally, covariance analysis was performed to identify regions where decreased changes in regional cerebral glucose metabolism significantly correlated with a decrease of level of consciousness measured by JFK-coma recovery scare. Statistical analysis was performed using statistical parametric mapping.Results Compared with controls, patients with permanent vegetative state demonstrated decreased cerebral glucose metabolism in the left precuneus, both posterior cingulate cortices, the left superior parietal lobule (Pcorrected <0.001), and increased cerebral glucose metabolism in the both cerebellum and the right supramarginal cortices (Pcorrected <0.001). In the covariance analysis, a decrease in the level of consciousness was significantly correlated with decreased cerebral glucose metabolism in the both posterior cingulate cortices (Puncorrected <0.005).Conclusion Our findings suggest that the posteromedial parietal cortex, which are part of neural network for consciousness, may be relevant structure for pathophysiological mechanism

  15. Urban sprawl, obesity, and cancer mortality in the United States: cross-sectional analysis and methodological challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Berrigan, David; Tatalovich, Zaria; Pickle, Linda W; Ewing, Reid; Ballard-Barbash, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    Background Urban sprawl has the potential to influence cancer mortality via direct and indirect effects on obesity, access to health services, physical activity, transportation choices and other correlates of sprawl and urbanization. Methods This paper presents a cross-sectional analysis of associations between urban sprawl and cancer mortality in urban and suburban counties of the United States. This ecological analysis was designed to examine whether urban sprawl is associated with total an...

  16. Dyadic analysis of child and parent trait and state pain catastrophizing in the process of children's pain communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birnie, Kathryn A; Chambers, Christine T; Chorney, Jill; Fernandez, Conrad V; McGrath, Patrick J

    2016-04-01

    When explored separately, child and parent catastrophic thoughts about child pain show robust negative relations with child pain. The objective of this study was to conduct a dyadic analysis to elucidate intrapersonal and interpersonal influences of child and parent pain catastrophizing on aspects of pain communication, including observed behaviours and perceptions of child pain. A community sample of 171 dyads including children aged 8 to 12 years (89 girls) and parents (135 mothers) rated pain catastrophizing (trait and state versions) and child pain intensity and unpleasantness following a cold pressor task. Child pain tolerance was also assessed. Parent-child interactions during the cold pressor task were coded for parent attending, nonattending, and other talk, and child symptom complaints and other talk. Data were analyzed using the actor-partner interdependence model and hierarchical multiple regressions. Children reporting higher state pain catastrophizing had greater symptom complaints regardless of level of parent state pain catastrophizing. Children reporting low state pain catastrophizing had similar high levels of symptom complaints, but only when parents reported high state pain catastrophizing. Higher child and parent state and/or trait pain catastrophizing predicted their own ratings of higher child pain intensity and unpleasantness, with child state pain catastrophizing additionally predicting parent ratings. Higher pain tolerance was predicted by older child age and lower child state pain catastrophizing. These newly identified interpersonal effects highlight the relevance of the social context to children's pain expressions and parent perceptions of child pain. Both child and parent pain catastrophizing warrant consideration when managing child pain.

  17. Assessment of current state of the art in modeling techniques and analysis methods for large space structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor, A. K.

    1983-01-01

    Advances in continuum modeling, progress in reduction methods, and analysis and modeling needs for large space structures are covered with specific attention given to repetitive lattice trusses. As far as continuum modeling is concerned, an effective and verified analysis capability exists for linear thermoelastic stress, birfurcation buckling, and free vibration problems of repetitive lattices. However, application of continuum modeling to nonlinear analysis needs more development. Reduction methods are very effective for bifurcation buckling and static (steady-state) nonlinear analysis. However, more work is needed to realize their full potential for nonlinear dynamic and time-dependent problems. As far as analysis and modeling needs are concerned, three areas are identified: loads determination, modeling and nonclassical behavior characteristics, and computational algorithms. The impact of new advances in computer hardware, software, integrated analysis, CAD/CAM stems, and materials technology is also discussed.

  18. ANALYSIS OF LINK STATE RESOURCE RESERVATION PROTOCOL FOR CONGESTION MANAGEMENT IN SMART WEB HOTSPOT ENVIRONMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anulika Okoye Joy1

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available With the wide spread of WiFi hotspots, concentrated traffic workload on Smart Web (SW can slow down the network performance. This paper presents a congestion management strategy considering real time activities in today’s smart web. With the SW context, cooperative packet recovery using resource reservation procedure for TCP flows was adapted for mitigating packet losses. This is to maintain data consistency between various access points of smart web hotspot. Using a real world scenario, it was confirmed that generic TCP cannot handle traffic congestion in a SW hotspot network. With TCP in scalable workload environments, continuous packet drops at the event of congestion remains obvious. This is unacceptable for mission critical domains. An enhanced Link State Resource Reservation Protocol (LSRSVP which serves as dynamic feedback mechanism in smart web hotspots is presented. The contextual behaviour was contrasted with the generic TCP model. For the LS-RSVP, a simulation experiment for TCP connection between servers at the remote core layer and the access layer was carried out while using selected benchmark metrics. From the results, under realistic workloads, a steady-state throughput response was achieved by TCP LS-RSVP to about 3650Bits/secs compared with generic TCP plots in a previous study. Considering network service availability, this was found to be dependent on fault-tolerance of the hotspot network. From study, a high peak threshold of 0.009 (i.e. 90% was observed. This shows fairly acceptable service availability behaviour compared with the existing TCP schemes. For packet drop effects, an analysis on the network behaviour with respect to the LS-RSVP yielded a drop response of about 0.000106 bits/sec which is much lower compared with the case with generic TCP with over 0.38 bits/sec. The latency profile of average FTP download response was found to be 0.030secs, but with that of FTP pload response, this yielded about 0.028 sec. The

  19. Analysis of steady-state and dynamical radially-symmetric problems of nonlinear viscoelasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanov, Alexey B.

    This thesis treats radially symmetric steady states and radially symmetric motions of nonlinearly elastic and viscoelastic plates and shells subject to dead-load and hydrostatic pressures on their boundaries and with the plate subject to centrifugal force. The plates and shells are described by specializations of the exact (nonlinear) equations of three-dimensional continuum mechanics. The treatment in every case is very general and encompasses large classes of constitutive functions (characterizing the material response). We first treat the radially symmetric steady states of plates and shells and the radially symmetric steady rotations of plates. We show that the existence, multiplicity, and qualitative behavior of solutions for problems accounting for the live loads due to hydrostatic pressure and centrifugal force depend critically on the material properties of the bodies, physically reasonable refined descriptions of which are given and examined here with great care, and on the nature of boundary conditions. he treatment here, giving new and sharp results, employs several different mathematical tools, ranging from phase-plane analysis to the mathematically more sophisticated direct methods of the Calculus of Variations, fixed-point theorems, and global continuation methods, each of which has different strengths and weaknesses for handling intrinsic difficulties in the mechanics. We then treat the initial-boundary-value problems for the radially symmetric motions of annular plates and spherical shells that consist of a nonlinearly viscoelastic material of strain-rate type. We discuss a range of physically natural constitutive equations. We first show that when the material is strong in a suitable sense relative to externally applied loads, solutions exist for all time, depend continuously on the data, and consequently are unique. We study the role of the constitutive restrictions and that of the regularity of the data in ensuring the preclusion of a total

  20. Dynamic analysis of V-folded cavity for TEM00 operation of end-pumped solid-state laser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cunfa Li; Xiangchun Shi

    2005-01-01

    Based on graphic analysis design method of optical resonator, a simple design expression of V-folded cavity of end-pumped solid-state lasers with TEMoo operation is described, which satisfies two criterias of the resonator design. We give numerical simulation of spot size as a function of thermal focal length using this design approach whose advantages axe validated experimentally.

  1. The Ideological Framing of "Dialect": An Analysis of Mainland China's State Media Coverage of "Dialect Crisis" (2002-2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xuesong

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on a study that analysed the ideological framing of "Chinese dialects" or "regional Chinese varieties" in the mainland China's state print media reports of "dialect crisis" and the associated efforts to sustain the use of these "dialects" from 2002 to 2012. The analysis revealed that…

  2. America in World War II: An Analysis of History Textbooks from England, Japan, Sweden, and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Stuart; Nicholls, Jason

    2005-01-01

    This study examined how textbooks from England, Japan, Sweden, and the United States portray America's role in World War II. Analysis of the central story lines revealed that historical information purveyed to students in different nations varies considerably. Accordingly, U.S. textbooks emphasize the significant and pre-eminent role that the…

  3. Spatial and phylogenetic analysis of the vesicular stomatitis virus epidemic in the southwestern United States in 2004-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    The southwestern United States has been incidentally affected by vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) epidemics during the last 100 years. By the time this manuscript was written, the last episodes were reported in 2004-2006. Results of space clustering and phylogenetic analysis techniques used here sug...

  4. Comment on `Stability analysis and controller synthesis for discrete linear time-delay systems with state saturation nonlinearities'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadepalli, Siva Kumar; Krishna Rao Kandanvli, V.; Kar, Haranath

    2015-11-01

    A recently reported paper (Ji, X., Liu, T., Sun, Y., and Su, H. (2011), 'Stability analysis and controller synthesis for discrete linear time-delay systems with state saturation nonlinearities', International Journal of Systems Science, 42, 397-406) for the global asymptotic stability analysis and controller synthesis for a class of discrete linear time delay systems employing state saturation nonlinearities is reviewed. It is claimed in Ji, Liu, Sun and Su (2011) that a previous approach by Kandanvli and Kar (Kandanvli, V.K.R and Kar, H. (2009), 'Robust stability of discrete-time state-delayed systems with saturation nonlinearities: Linear matrix inequality approach', Signal Processing, 89, 161-173) is recovered from their approach as a special case. It is shown that this claim is not justified.

  5. Winners and losers of state electricity boards reforms an organisational analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruet, J.

    2001-01-01

    article aims at giving a detailed analysis of the working and the rationality within the 'black box' that SEBs represent for many consultants. Indeed, SEBs are too often described as irrational bodies, and simplistic explanations in terms of 'political interference' or 'lack of credit' are given as reasons. Since the author feels that one cannot reform an organisation without understanding it from within, these rather narrow statements are discussed in section I. The systemic rationality of SEBs which is discussed in section II, shows the way the internal organisation of SEBs itself coherently leads to certain kind of decisions, at the expense of efficiency. It also focuses on how far the various organisational characteristics of SEBs are mutually enforcing. Section III points out that the 'structural reforms' taking place at the moment in India, do not substantially modify this systemic logic. It therefore calls for the very 'enterprisation' of SEBs (turning them from bodies with administrative functioning into actual public enterprises). Finally, all these analyses aim at casting a new light on the debate on privatisation. Section IV primarily shows that enterprisation is a prerequisite to proper privatisation, and that the question of 'whether to privatize or not' is less stringent than the one of 'how to enterprise'. Indeed, privatisation, like any economic tool, has its pros and cons. The very rationale of this article is based on the fact that in the present state of the Indian power sector, privatisation presents many cons, simply because investors are reluctant to bid. Since the push for privatisation is propelled by partly misleading visions of SEBs as being too rich in politicians and too poor in funds, this article attempts to focus on these arguments and their limits. (author)

  6. ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF SMALL HOLDER RICE PRODUCTION SYSTEMS IN EBONYI STATE SOUTH EAST, NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nwaobiala C.U.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Economic analysis of Upland and Swamp rice production in Ebonyi State, South east Nigeria was studied and analyzed in 2011 farming season. Purposive and multistage random sampling technique was used to select agricultural blocks, circles and rice farmers. The sample size was 240 rice farmers (120 Agricultural Development Programme (ADP Upland rice contact farmers and 120 Agricultural Development Programme (ADP Swamp contact rice farmers. Data for the analysis were collected from a structured questionnaire. The result indicates that mean ages of upland rice farmers was 37.3 years while swamp rice farmers had 39.2 years. The mean farming experience for both farmers were 8.5 years (upland rice farmers and 8.8 years (swamp rice farmers with farm sizes of 1.2 and 1.1 hectares for upland rice farmers and swamp rice farmers respectively. Upland rice farmers had an annual farm income of 189,410.00 NGN (1,222USD as against 201,166.00 NGN (1,297.85USD for Swamp rice farmers. The multiple regression (Cobb Douglas estimates of the determinants of output of upland rice showed that coefficients age, farming experience, farm size, variable inputs and farm income were positively signed at given levels of probability while capital inputs was negative. The Cobb Douglas regression estimates of the determinants of output of Swamp rice showed that the coefficients of education, labour cost, farm size, variable inputs and farm income were positively signed and significant at given levels of probability as well as capital inputs which was negative. The result indicates that net profit from Upland rice cultivation was 92,800.00 NGN (598.71USD with a Benefit Cost Ratio of N1.55 (1.56USD. The net profit from Swamp rice cultivation was 132,090.00 NGN (852.19USD and a Benefit Cost Ratio of 1.75 NGN (1.75USD. Access to credit to rice farmers, subsidy on farm inputs, dissemination of improved rice technologies by extension agents and formation of farmer groups were advocated

  7. An analysis of wind and solar energy resources for the State of Kuwait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhusainan, Haya Nasser

    Kuwait is an important producer of oil and gas. Its rapid socio-economic growth has been characterized by increasing population, high rates of urbanization, and substantial industrialization, which is transforming it into a large big energy consumer as well. In addition to urbanization, climatic conditions have played an important function in increasing demand for electricity in Kuwait. Electricity for thermal cooling has become essential in the hot desert climate, and its use has developed rapidly along with the economic development, urbanization, and population growth. This study examines the long-term wind and solar resources over the Kuwait to determine the feasibility of these resources as potential sustainable and renewable energy sources. The ultimate goal of this research is to help identify the potential role of renewable energy in Kuwait. This study will examine the drivers and requirements for the deployment of these energy sources and their possible integration into the electricity generation sector to illustrate how renewable energy can be a suitable resource for power production in Kuwait and to illustrate how they can also be used to provide electricity for the country. For this study, data from sixteen established stations monitored by the meteorological department were analyzed. A solar resource map was developed that identifies the most suitable locations for solar farm development. A range of different relevant variables, including, for example, electric networks, population zones, fuel networks, elevation, water wells, streets, and weather stations, were combined in a geospatial analysis to predict suitable locations for solar farm development and placement. An analysis of recommendations, future energy targets and strategies for renewable energy policy in Kuwait are then conducted. This study was put together to identify issues and opportunities related to renewable energy in the region, since renewable energy technologies are still limited in

  8. Analysis of International Commodity Shipping Data and the Shipment of NORM to the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baciak, James E.; Ely, James H.; Schweppe, John E.; Sandness, Gerald A.; Robinson, Sean M.

    2011-10-01

    As part of the Spreader Bar Radiation Detector project, PNNL analyzed US import data shipped through US ports collected over the 12 months of 2006 (over 4.5 million containers). Using these data, we extracted a variety of distributions that are of interest to modelers and developers of active and passive detection systems used to 'scan' IMCCs for potential contraband. This report expands on some of the analysis presented in an earlier report from LLNL, by investigation the foreign port distribution of commodities shipped to the US. The majority of containers shipped to the United States are 40 ft containers ({approx}70%); about 25% are 20 ft; and about 3.6% are 45 ft containers. A small fraction (<1%) of containers are of other more specialized sizes, and very few ports actually ship these unique size containers (a full distribution for all foreign ports is shown in Appendix A below). The primary foreign ports that ship the largest fraction of each container are shown in the table below. Given that 45 ft containers comprise 1 of out every 27 containers shipped to the US, and given the foreign ports from which they are shipped, they should not be ignored in screening; further testing and analysis of radiation measurements for national security with this size container is warranted. While a large amount of NORM is shipped in IMCCs, only a few specific commodities are shipped with enough frequency to present potential issues in screening IMCCs at ports. The majority of containers with NORM will contain fertilizers (5,700 containers), granite (59,000 containers), or ceramic (225,000 containers) materials. Fertilizers were generally shipping in either 20- or 40 ft containers with equal frequency. While granite is mostly shipped in 20 ft containers, ceramic materials can be shipped in either 20- or 40 ft containers. The size of container depended on the specific use of the ceramic or porcelain material. General construction ceramics (such as floor and roofing

  9. Measurement, modeling, and analysis of nonmethane hydrocarbons and ozone in the southeast United States national parks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Daiwen

    In this research, the sources, distributions, transport, ozone formation potential, and biogenic emissions of VOCs are investigated focusing on three Southeast United States National Parks: Shenandoah National Park, Big Meadows site (SHEN), Great Smoky Mountains National Park at Cove Mountain (GRSM) and Mammoth Cave National Park (MACA). A detailed modeling analysis is conducted using the Multiscale Air Quality SImulation Platform (MAQSIP) focusing on nonmethane hydrocarbons and ozone characterized by high O3 surface concentrations. Nine emissions perturbation using the Multiscale Air Quality SImulation Platform (MAQSIP) focusing on nonmethane hydrocarbons and ozone characterized by high O 3 surface concentrations. In the observation-based analysis, source classification techniques based on correlation coefficient, chemical reactivity, and certain ratios were developed and applied to the data set. Anthropogenic VOCs from automobile exhaust dominate at Mammoth Cave National Park, and at Cove Mountain, Great Smoky Mountains National Park, while at Big Meadows, Shenandoah National Park, the source composition is complex and changed from 1995 to 1996. The dependence of isoprene concentrations on ambient temperatures is investigated, and similar regressional relationships are obtained for all three monitoring locations. Propylene-equivalent concentrations are calculated to account for differences in reaction rates between the OH and individual hydrocarbons, and to thereby estimate their relative contributions to ozone formation. Isoprene fluxes were also estimated for all these rural areas. Model predictions (base scenario) tend to give lower daily maximum O 3 concentrations than observations by 10 to 30%. Model predicted concentrations of lumped paraffin compounds are of the same order of magnitude as the observed values, while the observed concentrations for other species (isoprene, ethene, surrogate olefin, surrogate toluene, and surrogate xylene) are usually an

  10. Level crossing analysis of chemically induced dynamic nuclear polarization: Towards a common description of liquid-state and solid-state cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosnovsky, Denis V; Jeschke, Gunnar; Matysik, Jörg; Vieth, Hans-Martin; Ivanov, Konstantin L

    2016-04-14

    Chemically Induced Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (CIDNP) is an efficient method of creating non-equilibrium polarization of nuclear spins by using chemical reactions, which have radical pairs as intermediates. The CIDNP effect originates from (i) electron spin-selective recombination of radical pairs and (ii) the dependence of the inter-system crossing rate in radical pairs on the state of magnetic nuclei. The CIDNP effect can be investigated by using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) methods. The gain from CIDNP is then two-fold: it allows one to obtain considerable amplification of NMR signals; in addition, it provides a very useful tool for investigating elusive radicals and radical pairs. While the mechanisms of the CIDNP effect in liquids are well established and understood, detailed analysis of solid-state CIDNP mechanisms still remains challenging; likewise a common theoretical frame for the description of CIDNP in both solids and liquids is missing. Difficulties in understanding the spin dynamics that lead to the CIDNP effect in the solid-state case are caused by the anisotropy of spin interactions, which increase the complexity of spin evolution. In this work, we propose to analyze CIDNP in terms of level crossing phenomena, namely, to attribute features in the CIDNP magnetic field dependence to Level Crossings (LCs) and Level Anti-Crossings (LACs) in a radical pair. This approach allows one to describe liquid-state CIDNP; the same holds for the solid-state case where anisotropic interactions play a significant role in CIDNP formation. In solids, features arise predominantly from LACs, since in most cases anisotropic couplings result in perturbations, which turn LCs into LACs. We have interpreted the CIDNP mechanisms in terms of the LC/LAC concept. This consideration allows one to find analytical expressions for a wide magnetic field range, where several different mechanisms are operative; furthermore, the LAC description gives a way to determine CIDNP sign

  11. Level crossing analysis of chemically induced dynamic nuclear polarization: Towards a common description of liquid-state and solid-state cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosnovsky, Denis V.; Jeschke, Gunnar; Matysik, Jörg; Vieth, Hans-Martin; Ivanov, Konstantin L.

    2016-04-01

    Chemically Induced Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (CIDNP) is an efficient method of creating non-equilibrium polarization of nuclear spins by using chemical reactions, which have radical pairs as intermediates. The CIDNP effect originates from (i) electron spin-selective recombination of radical pairs and (ii) the dependence of the inter-system crossing rate in radical pairs on the state of magnetic nuclei. The CIDNP effect can be investigated by using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) methods. The gain from CIDNP is then two-fold: it allows one to obtain considerable amplification of NMR signals; in addition, it provides a very useful tool for investigating elusive radicals and radical pairs. While the mechanisms of the CIDNP effect in liquids are well established and understood, detailed analysis of solid-state CIDNP mechanisms still remains challenging; likewise a common theoretical frame for the description of CIDNP in both solids and liquids is missing. Difficulties in understanding the spin dynamics that lead to the CIDNP effect in the solid-state case are caused by the anisotropy of spin interactions, which increase the complexity of spin evolution. In this work, we propose to analyze CIDNP in terms of level crossing phenomena, namely, to attribute features in the CIDNP magnetic field dependence to Level Crossings (LCs) and Level Anti-Crossings (LACs) in a radical pair. This approach allows one to describe liquid-state CIDNP; the same holds for the solid-state case where anisotropic interactions play a significant role in CIDNP formation. In solids, features arise predominantly from LACs, since in most cases anisotropic couplings result in perturbations, which turn LCs into LACs. We have interpreted the CIDNP mechanisms in terms of the LC/LAC concept. This consideration allows one to find analytical expressions for a wide magnetic field range, where several different mechanisms are operative; furthermore, the LAC description gives a way to determine CIDNP sign

  12. Big five personality and residential mobility: a state-level analysis of the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Stewart J H

    2015-01-01

    Relations of the state-aggregated Big Five personality scores of 619,397 residents to four 2005 state-level residential mobility criteria were examined with the 50 states as cases. Multiple regression controlling for five state demographic variables showed (a) higher state neuroticism was strongly associated with lower mobility, lower same-county mobility, and lower between-county mobility; (b) higher state extraversion was associated with lower mobility and lower same-county mobility, but only with neuroticism and/or conscientiousness controlled; and (c) conscientiousness was related to same-residence, same-county, and different-county mobility, but only without demographic variables controlled. Discussion is grounded in the dangers of cross-level speculation and the potential of a basic assumption of geographical psychology that an area's aggregate position on a dispositional variable is associated there with behavioral and psychological tendencies related to that variable.

  13. Automated glycopeptide analysis--review of current state and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallas, David C; Martin, William F; Hua, Serenus; German, J Bruce

    2013-05-01

    Glycosylation of proteins is involved in immune defense, cell-cell adhesion, cellular recognition and pathogen binding and is one of the most common and complex post-translational modifications. Science is still struggling to assign detailed mechanisms and functions to this form of conjugation. Even the structural analysis of glycoproteins-glycoproteomics-remains in its infancy due to the scarcity of high-throughput analytical platforms capable of determining glycopeptide composition and structure, especially platforms for complex biological mixtures. Glycopeptide composition and structure can be determined with high mass-accuracy mass spectrometry, particularly when combined with chromatographic separation, but the sheer volume of generated data necessitates computational software for interpretation. This review discusses the current state of glycopeptide assignment software-advances made to date and issues that remain to be addressed. The various software and algorithms developed so far provide important insights into glycoproteomics. However, there is currently no freely available software that can analyze spectral data in batch and unambiguously determine glycopeptide compositions for N- and O-linked glycopeptides from relevant biological sources such as human milk and serum. Few programs are capable of aiding in structural determination of the glycan component. To significantly advance the field of glycoproteomics, analytical software and algorithms are required that: (i) solve for both N- and O-linked glycopeptide compositions, structures and glycosites in biological mixtures; (ii) are high-throughput and process data in batches; (iii) can interpret mass spectral data from a variety of sources and (iv) are open source and freely available.

  14. Mass Forest Survey and State Forest Inventory Data: Specification of the Discrepancies, Causes, Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Farber

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available State forest inventory (SFI is a forest investigation that was not performed earlier in our country. Its purpose is to identify total forest area characteristics including wood volume in Russia. There are several papers about the existence of huge differences between actual forest management and SFI data. Nevertheless, at the Russian forest management committee of NFI data performed in Bryansk in 2013 it was still decided to use SFI data. The reasons for existence of differences in land category and forest formation were revealed on the basis of the two examples in Krasnoyarsk Territory Angara river region. The amount of sample items was 340. We compared the sample plots and compartment in order to identify the characteristics of differences between NFI data and forest management materials. We performed physical observation of sample plots and compartments of forest stands and relief maps in order to identify the potential differences. Reconciliation of sample plots of SFI data and compartment showed significant mistakes due to inhomogeneous structure of compartments and some forest management decision for third category. However, these issues do not influence on differences. Systematic errors occur because of SFI methodology peculiarities. This is the main reason for differences between traditional forest management and SFI data. These errors should be improved. The main conclusion made during the performed work is to refuse from stratification of total forest area characteristics at the planning stage of choosing the sample plots. The relief and soil hydrological characteristics should be taken into consideration in a stratification analysis. Sample plots location should be chosen based on the landscape peculiarities, far from the pathway, that will allow elimination of the systematic errors.

  15. Solid-state fluoroscopic imager for high-resolution angiography: parallel-cascaded linear systems analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedantham, Srinivasan; Karellas, Andrew; Suryanarayanan, Sankararaman

    2004-05-01

    Cascaded linear systems based modeling techniques have been used in the past to predict important system parameters that have a direct impact on image quality. Such models are also useful in optimizing system parameters to improve image quality. In this work, detailed analysis of a solid-state fluoroscopic imaging system intended for high-resolution angiography is presented with the use of such a model. The imaging system analyzed through this model uses four 8 x 8 cm three-side buttable interlined charge-coupled devices (CCDs) specifically designed for high-resolution angiography and tiled in a seamless fashion to achieve a field of view (FOV) of 16 x 16 cm. Larger FOVs can be achieved by tiling more CCDs in a similar manner. The system employs a CsI:Tl scintillator coupled to the CCDs by straight (nontapering) fiberoptics and can potentially be operated in 78, 156, or 234 microm pixel pitch modes. The system parameters analyzed through this model include presampling modulation transfer function, noise power spectrum, and detective quantum efficiency (DQE). The results of the simulations performed indicate that DQE(0) in excess of 0.6 is achievable, with the imager operating at 156 microm pixel pitch, 30 frames/s, and employing a 450-microm-thick CsI:Tl scintillator, even at a low fluoroscopic exposure rate of 1 microR/frame. Further, at a nominal fluoroscopic exposure rate of 2.5 microR/frame there was no noticeable degradation of the DQE even at the 78 microm pixel pitch mode suggesting that it is feasible to perform high-resolution angiography hitherto unattainable in clinical practice.

  16. Resting State EEG in Children With Learning Disabilities: An Independent Component Analysis Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäncke, Lutz; Alahmadi, Nsreen

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the neurophysiological underpinnings of learning disabilities (LD) in children are examined using resting state EEG. We were particularly interested in the neurophysiological differences between children with learning disabilities not otherwise specified (LD-NOS), learning disabilities with verbal disabilities (LD-Verbal), and healthy control (HC) children. We applied 2 different approaches to examine the differences between the different groups. First, we calculated theta/beta and theta/alpha ratios in order to quantify the relationship between slow and fast EEG oscillations. Second, we used a recently developed method for analyzing spectral EEG, namely the group independent component analysis (gICA) model. Using these measures, we identified substantial differences between LD and HC children and between LD-NOS and LD-Verbal children in terms of their spectral EEG profiles. We obtained the following findings: (a) theta/beta and theta/alpha ratios were substantially larger in LD than in HC children, with no difference between LD-NOS and LD-Verbal children; (b) there was substantial slowing of EEG oscillations, especially for gICs located in frontal scalp positions, with LD-NOS children demonstrating the strongest slowing; (c) the estimated intracortical sources of these gICs were mostly located in brain areas involved in the control of executive functions, attention, planning, and language; and (d) the LD-Verbal children demonstrated substantial differences in EEG oscillations compared with LD-NOS children, and these differences were localized in language-related brain areas. The general pattern of atypical neurophysiological activation found in LD children suggests that they suffer from neurophysiological dysfunction in brain areas involved with the control of attention, executive functions, planning, and language functions. LD-Verbal children also demonstrate atypical activation, especially in language-related brain areas. These atypical

  17. Analysis of wide-domain transcriptional regulation in solid-state cultures of Aspergillus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKelvey, Shauna M; Murphy, Richard A

    2010-05-01

    Many filamentous fungi secrete considerable quantities of enzymes including protease, cellulase and xylanase, which are of major industrial importance. Over the past few decades, many of these fungal enzymes have been isolated and their relevant genes characterised. Solid-state fermentation (SSF), an ancient technique described as a fermentation process performed on non-soluble material whereby the material acts as a physical support and as a source of nutrients, is widely employed in the production of industrially important enzymes. Control mechanisms governing gene expression in SSF however, have been rarely studied. The influence of carbon and nitrogen sources on the production and transcriptional regulation of hydrolase enzymes secreted by an Aspergillus strain was investigated with the hope of expanding on the relatively small amount of knowledge regarding cellular control of gene expression. This study involved screening a collection of fungal strains for protease, cellulase and xylanase production under SSF conditions. From this, one fungal strain was then chosen for further analysis. Factors affecting the secretion of the hydrolase enzymes were optimised, and following this, the influence of nutritional supplementation on the production and transcriptional regulation of the enzymes was investigated. Real-time PCR techniques were used to assess the relative expression levels of genes encoding hydrolase activities and of the genes encoding regulatory elements such as AreA, PacC and CreA in an effort to identify possible transcriptional regulation mechanisms. The complexity of gene regulation under SSF conditions became apparent during the study, as other factors such as post-transcriptional regulation appeared to play a far greater role than previously imagined.

  18. An economic analysis of the electricity generation potential from biogas resources in the state of Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraldo, Juan S.

    Anaerobic digestion is a process that is a common part of organic waste management systems and is used in concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs), wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), and municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills. The process produces biogas, which contains methane, and it can be burned to generate electricity. Previous reports have indicated that based on the availability of feedstocks there is a large potential for biogas production and use for electricity generation in the state of Indiana. However, these reports varied in their consideration of important factors that affect the technical and economic feasibility of being able to develop the resources available. The goal of this thesis is to make a more targeted assessment of the electricity generation potential from biogas resources at CAFOs, WWTPs, and MSW landfills in Indiana. A capital budgeting model is used to estimate the net present value (NPV) of biogas electricity projects at facilities that are identified as technically suitable. A statewide estimate of the potential generation capacity is made by estimating the number of facilities that could profitably undertake a biogas electricity project. In addition this thesis explored the impact that different incentive policies would have on the economic viability of these projects. The results indicated that the electricity generation potential is much smaller when technical and economic factors are taken into account in addition to feedstock availability. In particular it was found that projects at hog farms are unlikely to be economically feasible in the present even when financial incentives are considered. In total, 47.94 MW of potential generating capacity is estimated from biogas production at CAFOs, WWTPs, and MSW landfills. Though results indicated that 37.10 MW of capacity are economically feasible under current operating conditions, sensitivity analysis reveals that these projects are very sensitive to capital cost assumptions

  19. Qualitative Analysis on a Reaction-Diffusion Prey Predator Model and the Corresponding Steady-States

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qunyi BIE; Rui PENG

    2009-01-01

    The authors study a diffusive prey-predator model subject to the homogeneous Neumann boundary condition and give some qualitative descriptions of solutions to this reaction-diffusion system and its corresponding steady-state problem.The local and global stability of the positive constant steady-state are discussed,and then some results for nonexistence of positive non-constant steady-states are derived.

  20. An Analysis of Personal and Professional Development in the United States Navy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    PERSONAL AND PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN THE UNITED STATES NAVY by Caner Filiz Markelly Jean-Pierre March 2012 Thesis Advisor: Stephen L...States Navy 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Caner Filiz, Markelly Jean-Pierre 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Naval Postgraduate...DEVELOPMENT IN THE UNITED STATES NAVY Caner Filiz Lieutenant, Turkish Navy B.S., Turkish Naval Academy, 2002 Markelly Jean-Pierre Lieutenant

  1. State and National Energy and Environmental Risk Analysis Systems for underground injection control. Summary annual report, April 1992--April 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haas, M.R.

    1993-04-01

    ICF Resources` project, entitled {open_quotes}State and National Energy and Environmental Risk Analysis Systems for Underground Injection Control{close_quotes} includes two primary tasks (development of state and national systems respectively) and a technology transfer element. The state system was designed to assist states with data management related to underground injection control (UIC). However, during the current period, external changes (primarily pending regulatory changes at the federal level) have made the risk assessment protocol aspect of the state system of increased importance relative to data management. This protocol would assess the relative risk of groundwater contamination due to UIC activities in various areas of the state. The risk assessment system could be used to assist states in allocating scarce resources and potentially could form the analytical basis of a state variance program to respond to pending federal regulatory changes. Consequently, a substantial portion of the effort to date has been focused on this aspect of the project, The national energy and environmental risk analysis system (EERAS) is designed to enhance DOE`s analytical capabilities. This concept will be demonstrated using UIC data. The initial system design for EERAS has been completed but may be revised based on input from DOE and on the pending UIC regulatory changes. Data have been collected and organized and can be input once the file structure is finalized. The further development options for EERAS defined as part of this project will allow for the full development of the system beyond the current prototype phase which will enhance DOE`s analytical capabilities for responding to regulatory initiatives and for evaluating the benefits of risk-based regulatory approaches.

  2. Chinese state-owned commercial banks issue of Human Resource Management Analysis and Countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Hongquan

    2016-01-01

    In the information age, market competition in the financial sector increasingly incandescent, after carrying out the shares of state-owned commercial bank reform, human resource management determines the success of state-owned commercial banks, the rise and fall[1]. Thus, in the face of China's financial market is fully open to the great challenges of state-owned commercial banks must look for their own lack of human resource management, learn from the advanced experience at home and abroad, the establishment of state-owned commercial banks need to meet their own development, but also to actively cope with fierce competition modern human resources management system to meet the challenges.

  3. Tomographic causal analysis of two-qubit states and tomographic discord

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiktenko, Evgeny [Bauman Moscow State Technical University, 2nd Baumanskaya St., 5, Moscow 105005 (Russian Federation); Geoelectromagnetic Research Center of Schmidt Institute of Physics of the Earth, Russian Academy of Sciences, PO Box 30, Troitsk, Moscow Region 142190 (Russian Federation); Fedorov, Aleksey, E-mail: akf@rqc.ru [Bauman Moscow State Technical University, 2nd Baumanskaya St., 5, Moscow 105005 (Russian Federation); Russian Quantum Center, Novaya St. 100, Skolkovo, Moscow 143025 (Russian Federation)

    2014-05-01

    We study a behavior of two-qubit states subject to tomographic measurement. In this Letter we propose a novel approach to definition of asymmetry in quantum bipartite state based on its tomographic Shannon entropies. We consider two types of measurement bases: the first is one that diagonalizes density matrices of subsystems and is used in a definition of tomographic discord, and the second is one that maximizes Shannon mutual information and relates to symmetrical form quantum discord. We show how these approaches relate to each other and then implement them to the different classes of two-qubit states. Consequently, new subclasses of X-states are revealed.

  4. tdc.msm: an R library for the analysis of multi-state survival data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meira-Machado, Luís; Cadarso-Suárez, Carmen; de Uña-Alvarez, Jacobo

    2007-05-01

    The aim of this paper is to present an R library, called tdc.msm, developed to analyze multi-state survival data. In this library, the time-dependent regression model and multi-state models are included as two possible approaches for such data. For the multi-state modelling five different models are considered, allowing the user to choose between Markov and semi-Markov property, as well as to use homogeneous or non-homogeneous models. Specifically, the following multi-state models in continuous time were implemented: Cox Markov model; Cox semi-Markov model; homogeneous Markov model; non-homogeneous piecewise model and non-parametric Markov model. This software can be used to fit multi-state models with one initial state (e.g., illness diagnosis), a finite number of intermediate states, representing, for example, a change of treatment, and one absorbing state corresponding to a terminal event of interest. Graphical output includes survival estimates, transition probabilities estimates and smooth log hazard for continuous covariates.

  5. Analysis of Management Practices in Lagos State Tertiary Institutions through Total Quality Management Structural Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbdulAzeez, Abbas Tunde

    2016-01-01

    This research investigated total quality management practices and quality teacher education in public tertiary institutions in Lagos State. The study was therefore designed to analyse management practices in Lagos state tertiary institutions through total quality management structural framework. The selected public tertiary institutions in Lagos…

  6. Examining Intrinsic Thalamic Resting State Networks Using Graph Theory Analysis : Implications for mTBI detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    al., “Functional disintegration in paranoid schizophrenia using resting-state fMRI”, Schiz. Res, vol. 97, pp. 194–205, 2007. [24] L.Q. Uddin, et al...disruptions in the resting state networks and neurocognitive pathologies such as schizophrenia , Alzheimer’s disease and attention deficit hyperactive

  7. A Historical and Jurisprudential Analysis of Suzerain-Vassal State Relationships in the Qing Dynasty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Shiming

    2006-01-01

    Studies of suzerain-vassal state relationships in the Qing dynasty have been a focus of domestic and overseas academic circles.This paper examines the origins,semiotics,and legal principles of suzerain-vassal state relationships in the Qing dynasty with some innovative viewpoints.

  8. Multi-state analysis of the OCS ultraviolet absorption including vibrational structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Johan Albrecht; Johnson, Matthew Stanley; McBane, G.C.;

    2012-01-01

    The first absorption band of OCS (carbonyl sulfide) is analyzed using potential energy surfaces and transition dipole moment functions of the lowest four singlet and the lowest four triplet states. Excitation of the 2 (1)A' state is predominant except at very low photon energies. It is shown...

  9. Analysis of the Triply Heavy Baryon States with QCD Sum Rules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhi-Gang

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we study the (1/2)± and (3/2)± triply heavy baryon states in a systematic way by subtracting the contributions from the corresponding (1/2) and (3/2) triply heavy baryon states with the QCD sum rules, and make reasonable predictions for their masses.

  10. A Conceptual Analysis of State Support for Higher Education: Appropriations versus Need-Based Financial Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toutkoushian, Robert K.; Shafiq, M. Najeeb

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we use economic concepts to examine the choice that states make between giving appropriations to public colleges or need-based financial aid to students. We begin by reviewing the economic justification for state support for higher education. Next, we introduce a simple economic model for comparing and contrasting appropriations and…

  11. The Pennsylvania State University Child Sexual Abuse Scandal: An Analysis of Institutional Factors Affecting Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Alice R.

    2015-01-01

    The outcomes of The Pennsylvania State University (Penn State) child sexual abuse scandal have left many scholars and individuals questioning the university's collective identity. The goal of this research was to uncover the dominant themes that describe a problematic institutional response to the child sexual abuse incidents in order to provide…

  12. In situ chemical state analysis of buried polymer/metal adhesive interface by hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozawa, Kenichi, E-mail: ozawa.k.ab@m.titech.ac.jp [Department of Chemistry and Materials Science, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan); Kakubo, Takashi; Shimizu, Katsunori; Amino, Naoya [The Yokohama Rubber Co., Ltd., Oiwake, Hiratsuka 254-8601 (Japan); Mase, Kazuhiko [Institute of Materials Structure Science, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan); Ikenaga, Eiji; Nakamura, Tetsuya; Kinoshita, Toyohiko; Oji, Hiroshi [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute (JASRI), SPring-8, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan)

    2014-11-30

    Highlights: • Chemical state analysis of the buried rubber/brass interface is conducted by HAXPES. • Ultrathin rubber films are prepared on the brass surface by two methods. • A high density of Cu{sub 2}S is found on the rubber side of the buried adhesive layer. • The chemical states of the buried and exposed interfaces are compared. - Abstract: Chemical state analysis of adhesive interfaces is important to understand an adhesion mechanism between two different materials. Although photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) is an ideal tool for such an analysis, the adhesive interfaces must be exposed to the surface because PES is essentially a surface sensitive technique. However, an in situ observation is possible by hard X-ray PES (HAXPES) owing to its large probing depth. In the present study, HAXPES is applied to investigate the adhesive interface between rubber and brass without exposing the interface. It is demonstrated that copper sulfides formed at the buried rubber/brass interface are distinguished from S-containing species in the rubber overlayer. The chemical state of the buried interface is compared with that of the “exposed” interface prepared by so-called a filter-paper method.

  13. Macro-level pedestrian and bicycle crash analysis: Incorporating spatial spillover effects in dual state count models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Qing; Lee, Jaeyoung; Eluru, Naveen; Abdel-Aty, Mohamed

    2016-08-01

    This study attempts to explore the viability of dual-state models (i.e., zero-inflated and hurdle models) for traffic analysis zones (TAZs) based pedestrian and bicycle crash frequency analysis. Additionally, spatial spillover effects are explored in the models by employing exogenous variables from neighboring zones. The dual-state models such as zero-inflated negative binomial and hurdle negative binomial models (with and without spatial effects) are compared with the conventional single-state model (i.e., negative binomial). The model comparison for pedestrian and bicycle crashes revealed that the models that considered observed spatial effects perform better than the models that did not consider the observed spatial effects. Across the models with spatial spillover effects, the dual-state models especially zero-inflated negative binomial model offered better performance compared to single-state models. Moreover, the model results clearly highlighted the importance of various traffic, roadway, and sociodemographic characteristics of the TAZ as well as neighboring TAZs on pedestrian and bicycle crash frequency.

  14. Econometric analysis of the demand for gasoline at the state level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, D.L.

    1978-07-01

    An investigation into factors influencing levels of highway gasoline use per household and per vehicle at the state level shows use per vehicle ranged from 588.7 gal in Pennsylvania to 900.0 gal in Arkansas in 1975. Household use in the same year was lowest in New York (864.5 gal) and highest in Wyoming (2222.0 gal). Determinants of the demand for highway gasoline were identified based on economic theory of the demand for travel. Exploratory theoretical analyses led to the conclusion that important state-specific influences were not being adequately accounted for by the available time series (1966 to 1975) of cross-sectional (state) variables. These state effects appeared to be strongly correlated with income. Two time-series cross-sectional (TSCS) regression techniques were employed, producing reasonable and consistent models. Elasticity estimates were slightly higher than estimates using earlier data. In order to analyze the determinants of differences in state gasoline use rates, a two-phase modeling approach was used which first estimates a demand equation utilizing key socio-economic variables. The TSCS technique used to estimate the equation produces quantitative estimates of state-specific deviations from predicted consumption levels. In the second stage these state-specific effects are regressed against a set of explanatory variables describing such state characteristics as spatial structure, climate, and employment in agriculture. State household gasoline-use rates were found to be negatively related to population density, percent of population living in metropolitan areas, agricultural employment, severe winter weather, and small car share of the vehicle fleet. They were positively related to the percentage of the population of working age and to the level of tourist activity. A companion report (ORNL-5391, ''An Investigation of the Variability of Gasoline Consumption among States,'' D. L. Greene) summarizes the major findings of this

  15. Both trait and state mindfulness predict lower aggressiveness via anger rumination: A multilevel mediation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenlohr-Moul, Tory A; Peters, Jessica R; Pond, Richard S; DeWall, C Nathan

    2016-06-01

    Trait mindfulness, or the capacity for nonjudgmental, present-centered attention, predicts lower aggression in cross-sectional samples, an effect mediated by reduced anger rumination. Experimental work also implicates state mindfulness (i.e., fluctuations around one's typical mindfulness) in aggression. Despite evidence that both trait and state mindfulness predict lower aggression, their relative impact and their mechanisms remain unclear. Higher trait mindfulness and state increases in mindfulness facets may reduce aggression-related outcomes by (1) limiting the intensity of anger, or (2) limiting rumination on anger experiences. The present study tests two hypotheses: First, that both trait and state mindfulness contribute unique variance to lower aggressiveness, and second, that the impact of both trait and state mindfulness on aggressiveness will be uniquely partially mediated by both anger intensity and anger rumination. 86 participants completed trait measures of mindfulness, anger intensity, and anger rumination, then completed diaries for 35 days assessing mindfulness, anger intensity, anger rumination, anger expression, and self-reported and behavioral aggressiveness. Using multilevel zero-inflated regression, we examined unique contributions of trait and state mindfulness facets to daily anger expression and aggressiveness. We also examined the mediating roles of anger intensity and anger rumination at both trait and state levels. Mindfulness facets predicted anger expression and aggressiveness indirectly through anger rumination after controlling for indirect pathways through anger intensity. Individuals with high or fluctuating aggression may benefit from mindfulness training to reduce both intensity of and rumination on anger.

  16. Capitalism, the state and health care in the age of austerity: a Marxist analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Sam

    2013-01-01

    The capacity to provide satisfactory nursing care is being increasingly compromised by current trajectories of healthcare funding and governance. The purpose of this paper is to examine how well Marxist theories of the state and its relationship with capital can explain these trajectories in this period of ever-increasing austerity. Following a brief history of the current crisis, it examines empirically the effects of the crisis, and of the current trajectory of capitalism in general, upon the funding and organization of the UK and US healthcare systems. The deleterious effect of growing income inequalities to the health of the population is also addressed. Marx's writings on the state and its relation to the capitalist class were fragmentary and historically and geographically specific. From them, we can extract three theoretical variants: the instrumentalist theory of the state, where the state has no autonomy from capital; the abdication theory, whereby capital abstains from direct political power and relies on the state to serve its interests; and the class-balance theory, whereby the struggle between two opposed classes allows the state to assert itself. Discussion of modern Marxist interpretations includes Poulantzas's abdication theory and Miliband's instrumentalist theory. It is concluded that, despite the pluralism of electoral democracies, the bourgeoisie do have an overweening influence upon the state. The bourgeoisie's ownership of the means of production provides the foundation for its influence because the state is obliged to rely on it to manage the supply of goods and services and the creation of wealth. That power is further reinforced by the infiltration of the bourgeoisie into the organs of state. The level of influence has accelerated rapidly over recent decades. One of the consequences of this has been that healthcare systems have become rich pickings for the evermore confident bourgeoisie.

  17. Genetic analysis of leukosis incidence in United States Holstein and Jersey populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdalla, E A; Rosa, G J M; Weigel, K A; Byrem, T

    2013-09-01

    Bovine leukosis (BL) is a retroviral disease caused by the bovine leukosis virus that affects only cattle. It is associated with decreased milk production and increased cull rates due to development of lymphosarcoma. The virus also affects the immune system. Infected cows display a weak response to some vaccinations. It is important to determine if the heritability of BL susceptibility is greater than zero, or if the environment is the only factor that can be used to reduce the transmission and incidence of the disease. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to estimate the heritability for BL incidence and the genetic merit of sires for leukosis resistance in Holstein and Jersey cattle. Continuous scores and binary milk ELISA results for 13,217 Holstein cows from 114 dairy herds across 16 states and 642 Jersey cows from 8 dairy herds were considered. Data were obtained from commercial testing records at Antel BioSystems (Lansing, MI). Out of the 13,859 animals tested, 38% were found to be infected with the disease. Linear and threshold animal models were used to analyze the continuous and binary data, respectively. Results from both models were similar in terms of estimated breeding values and variance components in their respective scales. Estimates of heritability obtained with the 2 approaches were approximately 8% for both breeds, indicating a considerable genetic component underlying BL disease incidence. The correlation between the estimated breeding values from the 2 models was larger than 0.90, and the lists of top 10% bulls selected from each model had about 80% overlap for both breeds. In summary, results indicate that a simple linear model using the continuous ELISA scores as the response variable was a reasonable approach for the genetic analysis of BL incidence in cattle. In addition, the levels of heritability found indicate that genetic selection could also be used to decrease susceptibility to bovine leukosis virus infection in Holstein and Jersey

  18. Mortality Analysis of Trauma Patients in General Intensive Care Unit of a State Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İskender Kara

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the mortality rate and factors affecting the mortality of trauma patients in general intensive care unit (ICU of a state hospital. Material and Method: Data of trauma patients hospitalized between January 2012 and March 2013 in ICU of Konya Numune Hospital were retrospectively analyzed. Demographic characteristics and clinical data of patients were recorded. Patients were divided into two groups as survivors and dead. Mortality rate and factors affectin mortality were examined. Results: A total of 108 trauma patients were included in the study. The mortality rate of overall group was 19.4%. Median age of the patients was 44.5 years and 75.9% of them were males. Median Glasgow Coma Scale of death group was lower (5 (3-8 vs. 15 (13-15, p<0.0001, median APACHE II score was higher (20 (15-26 vs. 10 (8-13, p<0.0001 and median duration of ICU stay was longer (27 (5-62,5 vs. 2 (1-5, p<0.0001 than those in the survival group. The most common etiology of trauma was traffic accidents (47.2% and 52.7% of patients had head trauma. The rate of patients with any fracture was significantly higher in the survival group (66.7% vs. 33.3%, p=0.007. The rate of erythrocyte suspension, fresh frozen plasma, trombocyte suspension and albumin were 38.9%, 27.8%, 0.9% and 8.3%, respectively in all group. The number of patients invasive mechanically ventilated was 27.8% and median length of stay of these patients were 5 (1.75-33.5 days. The rate of operated patients was 42.6%. The rate of tracheostomy, renal replacement therapy, bronchoscopy and percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy enforcements were higher in the death group. The advanced age (p=0.016, OR: 1.054; 95% CI: 1.010-1100 and low GCS (p<0.0001, OR: 0.583; 95% CI: 0.456-0.745 were found to be independent risk factors the ICU mortality of trauma patients in logistic regression analysis. Conclusion: We believe that the determination of these risk factors affecting

  19. Cultural Diplomacy of Slavic European Union Member States: A Cross-country Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udovič Boštjan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the role of cultural diplomacy in Slavic EU Member States. Its basic idea is to present the main characteristics of cultural diplomacy as a field of possible cooperation between the Slavic EU member countries. The conclusions of the research are three: firstly, the cultural diplomacy of the Slavic EU Member States is fragmented and diversified. Secondly, each country promotes its own cultural diplomacy and there is almost no cooperation between countries in the cultural field. Finally, cultural diplomacy is still an omitted instrument of Slavic EU Member States and a fertile ground for future collaboration within the EU and in the region of Central Europe.

  20. Funding Homeland Security Programs at the State Level: A Multiple Policy Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    most populous in the United States.37 It leads the nation in pork, corn , soybean and egg production , the main drivers of its economy. It is also a...by the Iowa Secretary of State as organizations that provide a service or product to the public generally not offered by for-profit corporations...be a quiet and relatively safe place to live that ranks 33rd in the nation in violent crime. The state is the nation’s leading producer of ethanol

  1. Reliability Analysis for the Fatigue Limit State of the ASTRID Offshore Platform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrouwenvelder, A.C.W.M.; Gostelie, E.M.

    1986-01-01

    A reliability analysis with respect to fatigue failure was performed for a concrete gravity platform designed for the Troll field. The reliability analysis was incorporated in the practical design-loop to gain more insight into the complex fatigue problem. In the analysis several parameters relating

  2. MEDICATION SYSTEM ANALYSIS OF AN UNIVERSITY HOSPITAL IN THE STATE OF GOIÁS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Elisa Bauer de Camargo Silva

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The medication errors can bring serious consequences to patients, professionals andhealthcare institutions, they have multiple causes, amongst them failures related to theprofessionals and related to the medication system. This study’s objective was to identify and toanalyse the medication system process, its failures in order to propose improvement actions to thehospital. This exploratory descriptive study took place in the medical clinical unit and in thepharmacy of a general and university hospital of the state of Goiás, after approval of theCommittee of the Ethics of the correspondent hospital. The sample included: (first phase apharmacist, (third phase 40 professionals divided into 12 resident physicians (30%, 20 nursingprofessionals (50%, 8 pharmacy team members (20%; 294 patient charts were also used. Thedata was collected in 2002 and consisted of an interview with the professional in charge of themedication system, and non-participant observation of the environment and actions of theprofessionals and the academic people, interviews with the professionals and patient chartanalysis. The professionals were asked to sign on the “Free Will Participation Agreement”. It waspossible based on the data collected to describe the following processes: handwriting medicationprescription using carbon paper, individually dose dispensing and that the nursing professional whoadministrates the drug is not the same that prepares it in the clinical unit. The results based on the21 days of observation of the drug prescription, dispensing and administration processes were: theenvironment is the main problem in the prescription (75% and dispensing (30,6% processes, it isa noisy place and interruptions frequently occur; safety failures during the technique and inadvancedrug preparation appeared in the top (46,8% in the preparation process. The datacollection also allowed to build a chart of the 60 steps from drug prescription to monitoring. Theresults from

  3. [State Recognition of Solid Fermentation Process Based on Near Infrared Spectroscopy with Adaboost and Spectral Regression Discriminant Analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shuang; Liu, Guo-hai; Xia, Rong-sheng; Jiang, Hui

    2016-01-01

    In order to achieve the rapid monitoring of process state of solid state fermentation (SSF), this study attempted to qualitative identification of process state of SSF of feed protein by use of Fourier transform near infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy analysis technique. Even more specifically, the FT-NIR spectroscopy combined with Adaboost-SRDA-NN integrated learning algorithm as an ideal analysis tool was used to accurately and rapidly monitor chemical and physical changes in SSF of feed protein without the need for chemical analysis. Firstly, the raw spectra of all the 140 fermentation samples obtained were collected by use of Fourier transform near infrared spectrometer (Antaris II), and the raw spectra obtained were preprocessed by use of standard normal variate transformation (SNV) spectral preprocessing algorithm. Thereafter, the characteristic information of the preprocessed spectra was extracted by use of spectral regression discriminant analysis (SRDA). Finally, nearest neighbors (NN) algorithm as a basic classifier was selected and building state recognition model to identify different fermentation samples in the validation set. Experimental results showed as follows: the SRDA-NN model revealed its superior performance by compared with other two different NN models, which were developed by use of the feature information form principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA), and the correct recognition rate of SRDA-NN model achieved 94.28% in the validation set. In this work, in order to further improve the recognition accuracy of the final model, Adaboost-SRDA-NN ensemble learning algorithm was proposed by integrated the Adaboost and SRDA-NN methods, and the presented algorithm was used to construct the online monitoring model of process state of SSF of feed protein. Experimental results showed as follows: the prediction performance of SRDA-NN model has been further enhanced by use of Adaboost lifting algorithm, and the correct

  4. Numerical analysis of magnetic states mixing in the Heisenberg model with the dihedral symmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaśniewicz-Pacer K.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The total spin number S is not a ‘good quantum number for’ the Heisenberg model with singleion anisotropy, so the Hamiltonian eigenstates with different S may form linear combinations. Sometimes it is assumed that S can be used as an ‘approximate quantum number’, though some results show that mixing of S-states is important in investigations of magnetic molecules. Some small spin systems with the dihedral symmetry are analyzed to investigate different schemes of mixing and its dependence on the anisotropy parameter. The results show various behavior of the magnetic state mixing. The mean (over a state value of total spin is quite stable for the ground state, but in other cases this dependence is nonlinear and sometimes non-monotonic.

  5. Analysis of All-Optical State Generator for "Encoding a Qubit in an Oscillator"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Policarpo, S. C.; Vasconcelos, H. M.

    2016-06-01

    The fault-tolerant quantum computation scheme proposed by Gottesman (Phys. Rev. A 64, 012310 (2001)) can be performed using relatively simple linear optical resources and provides a natural protection against arbitrary small errors. On the other hand, preparing the initial GKP states is a difficult task. A few proposals to generate GKP states have been done over the last years. Our objective here is to analyze the performance of a particular GKP generator that uses cat states, linear optical devices, squeezing, and homodyne detection. We use numerical simulations to study the behavior of the fidelity between the generated and the ideal states and show that the proposal in consideration is indeed a promising scheme.

  6. A magnetoencephalography analysis of resting state power spectrum of inpatients with major depressive disorder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤浩

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the discrepancies of magne-toencephalography(MEG) spectral power between female patients with major depressive disorder and nondepressed subjects in resting state. Methods Whole head MEG recordings were obtained in 12 female patients with major

  7. Comparative Analysis Of River Conservation In The United States And South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Both the United States and South Africa are recognized for their strong and innovative approaches to the conservation of river ecosystems. These national programs possess similar driving legislation and ecoregional classification schemes supported by comprehensive monitoring prog...

  8. Multivariate data analysis as a fast tool in evaluation of solid state phenomena

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anna Cecilia; Miroshnyk, Inna; Karjalainen, Milja

    2006-01-01

    analyzed covered dehydration phenomena of a set of hydrates followed by variable temperature X-ray powder diffractometry and Raman spectroscopy and the crystallization of amorphous lactose monitored by Raman spectroscopy. Identification of different transitional states upon the dehydration enabled...

  9. Analysis of the mass and width of the $Y(4274)$ as axialvector molecule-like state

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Zhi-Gang

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we assign the $Y(4274)$ to be the color octet-octet type axialvector molecule-like state with $J^{PC}=1^{++}$ tentatively, and construct the color octet-octet type axialvector current to study its mass and width with the QCD sum rules in details. The predicted mass favors assigning the $Y(4274)$ to be the color octet-octet type molecule-like state, but the predicted width disfavors assigning the $Y(4274)$ to be the color octet-octet type molecule-like state strongly. The $Y(4274)$ may be the conventional charmonium state $\\chi_{c1}(\\rm 3P)$, and it is important to observe the decay $Y(4274)\\to J/\\psi \\omega$ to diagnose the nature of the $Y(4274)$.

  10. An Analysis of Education Expenditures in the Welfare State in the Post 1980 Period in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Düriye Toprak

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available  The welfare state that had become stronger gradually in the post-2nd World War has been in the process of restructuring after the 1980 period as a result of globalisation and neo-liberal policies. Social welfare state has had responsibilities in different fields ranging from health to education and from social security to poverty reduction. In Turkey, the education expenditures may be accepted as social expenditures contributing to general social welfare of the society. The goal of this study is to explain the social welfare state briefly, to review the methodological approaches to social expenditures in the context of the social welfare state, and to examine and compare the level of education expenditures in Turkey and some other countries. 

  11. The impact of "physiological correction" on functional connectivity analysis of pharmacological resting state fMRI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khalili-Mahani, N.; Chang, C.; Osch, M.J.; Veer, I.M.; Buchem, van M.A.; Dahan, A.; Beckmann, C.F.

    2013-01-01

    Growing interest in pharmacological resting state fMRI (RSfMRI) necessitates developing standardized and robust analytical approaches that are insensitive to spurious correlated physiological signals. However, in pharmacological experiments physiological variations constitute an important aspect of

  12. Mixed-Effects State Space Models for Analysis of Longitudinal Dynamic Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Dacheng; Lu, Tao; Niu, Xu-Feng; Wu, Hulin

    2010-01-01

    The rapid development of new biotechnologies allows us to deeply understand biomedical dynamic systems in more detail and at a cellular level. Many of the subject-specific biomedical systems can be described by a set of differential or difference equations which are similar to engineering dynamic systems. In this paper, motivated by HIV dynamic studies, we propose a class of mixed-effects state space models based on the longitudinal feature of dynamic systems. State space models with mixed-ef...

  13. Socio-economic Analysis of Cassava Marketing in Benue State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Benjamin C. Asogwa; J. A. C. Ezihe; P.I. Ater

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the socio-economics of cassava marketing in Benue State, Nigeria. Data were collected from randomly sampled 107 cassava marketers in Benue State, using a structured questionnaire. The study revealed that most of the cassava marketers had secondary education (72.9%). The study also revealed that marketing of cassava is mostly undertaken by females (57%). The result showed that married people (59.8%) were mostly involved in the marketing of cassava. The s...

  14. INBOUND INTERNATIONAL TOURISM TO THE UNITED STATES: A PANEL DATA ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    E.M. Ekanayake; Mihalis Halkides; John R. Ledgerwood

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to analyze the demand for tourist arrivals to the United States, using the panel cointegration technique. The study attempts to identify and measure the impact of the main determinants of inbound international tourism flows to the United States. The study uses annual data from 1986 to 2011 for tourist arrivals from 50 major countries of tourist origin. The specified model includes several country-specific determinants. The panel unit root tests indicate all the ...

  15. Path analysis examining relationships among antecedents of anxiety, multidimensional state anxiety, and triathlon performance

    OpenAIRE

    1995-01-01

    The official published version of this article can be found at the link below. This is a authors’ draft of the paper: Copyright @ Perceptual and Motor Skills, 1995 The study explored predictive paths for antecedents of anxiety, state anxiety responses, and performance. Male triathletes (N = 175) completed a modified Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 which included the original intensity scale and a direction scale of Jones and Swain. They also completed a 23-item Prerace Questionna...

  16. Steady State Analysis of Convex Combination of Affine Projection Adaptive Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Radhika

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to propose an adaptive algorithm using convex combinational approach to have both fast convergence and less steady state error simultaneously. For this purpose, we have used two affine projection adaptive filters with complementary nature (both in step size and projection order as the component filters. The first component filter has high projection order and large step size which makes it to have fast convergence at the cost of more steady state error. The second component filter has slow convergence and less steady state error due to the selection of small step size and projection order. Both are combined using convex combiner so as to have best final output with fast convergence and less steady state error. Each of the component filters are updated using their own error signals and stochastic gradient approach is used to update the convex combiner so as to have minimum overall error. By using energy conservation argument, analytical treatment of the combination stage is made in stationary environment. It is found that during initial stage the proposed scheme converges to the fast filter which has good convergence later it converges to either of the two (whichever has less steady state error and towards the end, the final output converges to slow filter which is superior in lesser steady state error. Experimental results proved that the proposed algorithm has adopted the best features of the component filters.

  17. Multiple trends of tertiarization: A comparative input–output analysis of the service sector expansion between Brazil and United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kênia Barreiro de Souza

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The service sector expansion has shown to be a multiple trend process, producing distinct sectorial compositions. The present paper aims to make a comparison between two large economies in different stages of development with an extensive service sector (Brazil and United States, by focusing on final and intermediary demand changes and sectorial productivity as well. Input–output matrices for Brazil and United States were used and two applications were carried out: structural decomposition analysis and total factor productivity. Main results are as follows. Firstly, the growth in services was fostered by several factors, among which household consumption assumes an important role for both countries. Second, inter-industrial linkages play a major role only for United States. Thirdly, there is now evidence of cost disease for Brazil. Finally, productivity is lower in Brazil, nonetheless labor productivity increased above the average in some service sectors.

  18. Analysis of off-state leakage mechanisms in GaN-based MIS-HEMTs: Experimental data and numerical simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, F. A.; Bisi, D.; Meneghini, M.; Verzellesi, G.; Zanoni, E.; Van Hove, M.; You, S.; Decoutere, S.; Marcon, D.; Stoffels, S.; Ronchi, N.; Meneghesso, G.

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents an extensive analysis of the off-state conduction mechanisms in AlGaN/GaN Meta-Insulator-Semiconductor (MIS) transistors. Based on combined bi-dimensional numerical simulation and experimental measurements, we demonstrate the following relevant results: (i) under off-state bias conditions, the drain current can show a significant increase when the drain bias is swept up to 600 V; (ii) several mechanisms can be responsible for off-state current conduction, including band-to-band tunneling and impact ionization; (iii) two-dimensional numerical simulations indicate that band-to-band tunneling plays a major role, while impact ionization does not significantly contribute to the overall leakage. Temperature-dependent I-V measurements were also carried out to identify the origin of the vertical drain-bulk leakage.

  19. Mexico in the United States: Analysis of the Processes that Shape the «Illegalized» Mexican Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Pilar Tudela-Vázquez

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In 2006, migrant rights demonstrations in the United States became important scenarios of Mexican identity. This work attempts to approach this phenomenon by analyzing, from a historical perspective, the processes involved in ascription to this identity in the US nation state project, from parameters of subordinated belonging. For this purpose, three axes of analysis are proposed: 1 incorporating the production of external political identities as a constituent aspect of the national community, ascribed to the nation-state political model; 2 recognizing the current role of colonial heritage; 3 incorporating the interrelation between the consolidation of a market economy and the legal production of a precarious and expendable workforce. The article’s main aim is to address «illegality» as a dynamic sociopolitical space, rather than as a legal status, from which to produce new formulas of active citizenship.

  20. Dalitz Plot Analysis Of Neutral B-meson Decays To Charged Kaon, Charged Pion, And Neutral Pion Final States

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Z

    2005-01-01

    This thesis describes a Dalitz plot analysis of B0 → K+π−π 0 decays. The data sample comprises 213 million &Ugr;(4 S) → BB¯ decays collected with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric-energy B Factory at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center in California (SLAGC). Preliminary results are presented for measurements of the inclusive branching fraction, quasi-two-body fractions and CP-violating charge asymmetries for intermediate states including K*(892)+π − and ρ(770)−K +. Observations of B0 decays to the Kπ S-wave intermediate states, K*0 (1430)+π− and K*0 (1430)0π0, are reported. Evidence of the decay B0 → K*(892) 0π0 is seen. We set tipper limits at 90% confidence level on branching fractions of the nonresonant and other less significant intermediate states.

  1. The effects of scope condition-based participant exclusion on experimental outcomes in expectation states research: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dippong, Joseph

    2012-03-01

    Expectation states theory employs several scope statements to specify the situational conditions that must be met for any test of the theory to be considered valid (Foschi, 1997). Collective orientation and task orientation are two scope conditions that researchers frequently implement as selection criteria for a participant's inclusion in an analytic sample. Although excluding participants who fail to meet scope conditions is theoretically consistent, researchers have yet to establish how this practice affects experimental outcomes. I employ meta-analysis to compare studies within the expectation states tradition in which participants are excluded for failure to meet scope conditions to studies in which no similar exclusions are made. Results suggest that studies that exclude participants for scope violations demonstrate a decreased baseline tendency to reject influence. I contend that adopting a more universal approach to the measurement and application of scope conditions would be methodologically and theoretically beneficial to expectation states research.

  2. ANALYSIS OF PRO-POOR GROWTH AMONG THE MUNICIPAL DISTRICTS OF THE STATE OF CEARÁ - BRAZIL: SPATIAL APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wellington Ribeiro Justo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the for-poor growth among the municipal districts of the State of Ceará in 2003. Initially it explores the recent literature of the theme as well as of the spatial econometric. Soon after it makes the spatial analysis of the variables through maps and in more robust way through the Exploratory Analysis of Given Spatial (AEDE being used the LISA methodology (Local Indicators of Spatial Association and the statistics I of Moran. Estimates the elasticity income-poverty and elasticity inequality-poverty. The tests indicated the need to incorporate variables in the estimates that learn the spatial externalities. The results suggest for-poor growth in the municipal districts from Ceará in agreement with results aggregate for the Ceará state appointed in recent literature.

  3. Particulate Air Pollution, Exceptional Aging, and Rates of Centenarians: A Nationwide Analysis of the United States, 1980–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccarelli, Andrea A.; Hales, Nick; Burnett, Richard T.; Jerrett, Michael; Mix, Carter; Dockery, Douglas W.; Pope, C. Arden

    2016-01-01

    Background: Exceptional aging, defined as reaching age 85 years, shows geographic inequalities that may depend on local environmental conditions. Links between particulate pollution—a well-recognized environmental risk factor—and exceptional aging have not been investigated. Objectives: We conducted a nationwide analysis of ~28 million adults in 3,034 United States counties to determine whether local PM2.5 levels (particulate matter air pollution and low rates of smoking, poverty, and obesity. Improvements in these determinants may contribute to increasing exceptional aging. Citation: Baccarelli AA, Hales N, Burnett RT, Jerrett M, Mix C, Dockery DW, Pope CA III. 2016. Particulate air pollution, exceptional aging, and rates of centenarians: a nationwide analysis of the United States, 1980–2010. Environ Health Perspect 124:1744–1750; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP197 PMID:27138440

  4. Why farmers adopt best management practice in the United States: A meta-analysis of the adoption literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgart-Getz, Adam; Stalker Prokopy, Linda; Floress, Kristin

    2012-01-01

    This meta-analysis of both published and unpublished studies assesses factors believed to influence adoption of agricultural Best Management Practices in the United States. Using an established statistical technique to summarize the adoption literature in the United States, we identified the following variables as having the largest impact on adoption: access to and quality of information, financial capacity, and being connected to agency or local networks of farmers or watershed groups. This study shows that various approaches to data collection affect the results and comparability of adoption studies. In particular, environmental awareness and farmer attitudes have been inconsistently used and measured across the literature. This meta-analysis concludes with suggestions regarding the future direction of adoption studies, along with guidelines for how data should be presented to enhance the adoption of conservation practices and guide research.

  5. Analysis of Transient and Steady-State Behavior of a Multichannel Filtered-x Partial-Error Affine Projection Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sicuranza Giovanni L

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides an analysis of the transient and the steady-state behavior of a filtered-x partial-error affine projection algorithm suitable for multichannel active noise control. The analysis relies on energy conservation arguments, it does not apply the independence theory nor does it impose any restriction to the signal distributions. The paper shows that the partial-error filtered-x affine projection algorithm in presence of stationary input signals converges to a cyclostationary process, that is, the mean value of the coefficient vector, the mean-square error and the mean-square deviation tend to periodic functions of the sample time.

  6. Engineering Evaluation/Cost Analysis for Power Burst Facility (PER-620) Final End State and PBF Vessel Disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B. C. Culp

    2007-05-01

    Preparation of this engineering evaluation/cost analysis is consistent with the joint U.S. Department of Energy and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Policy on Decommissioning of Department of Energy Facilities Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, (DOE and EPA 1995) which establishes the Comprehensive Environmental, Response, Compensation, and Liability Act non-time critical removal action process as an approach for decommissioning. The scope of this engineering evaluation/cost analysis is to evaluate alternatives and recommend a preferred alternative for the final end state of the PBF and the final disposal location for the PBF vessel.

  7. Analysis on the reconstruction accuracy of the Fitch method for inferring ancestral states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grünewald Stefan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As one of the most widely used parsimony methods for ancestral reconstruction, the Fitch method minimizes the total number of hypothetical substitutions along all branches of a tree to explain the evolution of a character. Due to the extensive usage of this method, it has become a scientific endeavor in recent years to study the reconstruction accuracies of the Fitch method. However, most studies are restricted to 2-state evolutionary models and a study for higher-state models is needed since DNA sequences take the format of 4-state series and protein sequences even have 20 states. Results In this paper, the ambiguous and unambiguous reconstruction accuracy of the Fitch method are studied for N-state evolutionary models. Given an arbitrary phylogenetic tree, a recurrence system is first presented to calculate iteratively the two accuracies. As complete binary tree and comb-shaped tree are the two extremal evolutionary tree topologies according to balance, we focus on the reconstruction accuracies on these two topologies and analyze their asymptotic properties. Then, 1000 Yule trees with 1024 leaves are generated and analyzed to simulate real evolutionary scenarios. It is known that more taxa not necessarily increase the reconstruction accuracies under 2-state models. The result under N-state models is also tested. Conclusions In a large tree with many leaves, the reconstruction accuracies of using all taxa are sometimes less than those of using a leaf subset under N-state models. For complete binary trees, there always exists an equilibrium interval [a, b] of conservation probability, in which the limiting ambiguous reconstruction accuracy equals to the probability of randomly picking a state. The value b decreases with the increase of the number of states, and it seems to converge. When the conservation probability is greater than b, the reconstruction accuracies of the Fitch method increase rapidly. The reconstruction

  8. A Content Analysis of Immigration in Traditional, New, and Non-Gateway State Standards for U.S. History and Civics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilburn, Jeremy; Journell, Wayne; Buchanan, Lisa Brown

    2016-01-01

    In this content analysis of state U.S. History and Civics standards, we compared the treatment of immigration across three types of states with differing immigration demographics. Analyzing standards from 18 states from a critical race methodology perspective, our findings indicated three sets of tensions: a unified American story versus local…

  9. Gaussian anamorphosis in the analysis step of the EnKF: a joint state-variable/observation approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Amezcua

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The analysis step of the (ensemble Kalman filter is optimal when (1 the distribution of the background is Gaussian, (2 state variables and observations are related via a linear operator, and (3 the observational error is of additive nature and has Gaussian distribution. When these conditions are largely violated, a pre-processing step known as Gaussian anamorphosis (GA can be applied. The objective of this procedure is to obtain state variables and observations that better fulfil the Gaussianity conditions in some sense. In this work we analyse GA from a joint perspective, paying attention to the effects of transformations in the joint state-variable/observation space. First, we study transformations for state variables and observations that are independent from each other. Then, we introduce a targeted joint transformation with the objective to obtain joint Gaussianity in the transformed space. We focus primarily in the univariate case, and briefly comment on the multivariate one. A key point of this paper is that, when (1–(3 are violated, using the analysis step of the EnKF will not recover the exact posterior density in spite of any transformations one may perform. These transformations, however, provide approximations of different quality to the Bayesian solution of the problem. Using an example in which the Bayesian posterior can be analytically computed, we assess the quality of the analysis distributions generated after applying the EnKF analysis step in conjunction with different GA options. The value of the targeted joint transformation is particularly clear for the case when the prior is Gaussian, the marginal density for the observations is close to Gaussian, and the likelihood is a Gaussian mixture.

  10. A Spatial Hedonic Analysis of the Effects of Wind Energy Facilities on Surrounding Property Values in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoen, Ben [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Wiser, Ryan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Cappers, Peter [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Brown, Jason P. [Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City, MO (United States); Jackson, Thomas [Real Analytics Inc. and Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Thayer, Mark A. [San Diego State Univ., CA (United States)

    2013-08-21

    This report summarizes a new analysis, building on previously published research, about wind energy’s effects on residential property values. This study helps fill research gaps by collecting and analyzing data from 27 counties across nine U.S. states, related to 67 different wind facilities, and constructs a pooled model that investigates average effects near the turbines across the sample while controlling for local variables, such as sale prices of nearby homes.

  11. Structural and Deformation Analysis of Clasts in the Sedimentary Units of the Camarinha Formation, Paraná State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamim Bley de Brito Neves

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Sedimentary units of Camarinha Formation (Paraná State, Southern Brazil are affected by the Lancinha TranscurrentShear Zone, and show brittle and brittle-ductile features such as folds, fractures, tilted and truncated layers, cataclasticfoliation, fracture cleavage, and stretched clasts. Analysis of these features revealed their compatibility with theRiedel Model and confi rms the right-lateral movement of the Lancinha Fault. Low values of the X-axis plunge are typicalof transcurrent zones.

  12. Trace-level beryllium analysis in the laboratory and in the field: State of the art, challenges, and opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BRISSON, MICHAEL

    2006-03-30

    Control of workplace exposure to beryllium is a growing issue in the United States and other nations. As the health risks associated with low-level exposure to beryllium are better understood, the need increases for improved analytical techniques both in the laboratory and in the field. These techniques also require a greater degree of standardization to permit reliable comparison of data obtained from different locations and at different times. Analysis of low-level beryllium samples, in the form of air filters or surface wipes, is frequently required for workplace monitoring or to provide data to support decision-making on implementation of exposure controls. In the United States and the United Kingdom, the current permissible exposure level is 2 {micro}g/m{sup 3} (air), and the United States Department of Energy has implemented an action level of 0.2 {micro}g/m{sup 3} (air) and 0.2 {micro}g/100 cm{sup 2} (surface). These low-level samples present a number of analytical challenges, including (1) a lack of suitable standard reference materials, (2) unknown robustness of sample preparation techniques, (3) interferences during analysis, (4) sensitivity (sufficiently low detection limits), (5) specificity (beryllium speciation), and (6) data comparability among laboratories. Additionally, there is a need for portable, real-time (or near real-time) equipment for beryllium air monitoring and surface wipe analysis that is both laboratory-validated and field-validated in a manner that would be accepted by national and/or international standards organizations. This paper provides a review of the current analytical requirements for trace-level beryllium analysis for worker protection, and also addresses issues that may change those requirements. The current analytical state of the art and relevant challenges facing the analytical community will be presented, followed by suggested criteria for real-time monitoring equipment. Recognizing and addressing these challenges will

  13. Theoretical analysis of thermal effects in fiber laser from the moment when pump is turned on to steady-state

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zilun Chen; Jing Hou; Zongfu Jiang

    2007-01-01

    A theoretical analysis of the pump-induced temperature change and associated thermal phase shift occurring in a fiber laser is presented. The temperature rise and thermal phase shift from the moment when pump is turned on to steady-state in fiber lasers, such as Yb-doped fiber laser, are numerical calculated.With the same parameters, the numerical solution is in good agreement with the finite-element (ANSYS software) simulation.

  14. Proposal to use vibration analysis steering components and car body to monitor, for example, the state of unbalance wheel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janczur, R.

    2016-09-01

    The results of road tests of car VW Passat equipped with tires of size 195/65 R15, on the influence of the unbalancing front wheel on vibration of the parts of steering system, steering wheel and the body of the vehicle have been presented in this paper. Unbalances wheels made using weights of different masses, placed close to the outer edge of the steel rim and checked on the machine Hunter GSP 9700 for balancing wheels. The recorded waveforms vibration steering components and car body, at different constant driving speeds, subjected to spectral analysis to determine the possibility of isolating vibration caused by unbalanced wheel in various states and coming from good quality asphalt road surface. The results were discussed in terms of the possibility of identifying the state of unbalancing wheels and possible changes in radial stiffness of the tire vibration transmitted through the system driving wheel on the steering wheel. Vibration analysis steering components and car body, also in the longitudinal direction, including information from the CAN bus of the state of motion of the car, can be used to monitor the development of the state of unbalance wheel, tire damage or errors shape of brake discs or brake drums, causing pulsations braking forces.

  15. A Dynamic State Metabolic Journey: From Mass Spectrometry to Network Analysis via Estimation of Kinetic Parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Dhanasekaran, Arockia R.

    2011-01-01

    In the post-genomic era, there is a dire need for tools to perform metabolic analyses that include the structural, functional, and regulatory analysis of metabolic networks. This need arose because of the lag between the two phases of metabolic engineering, namely, synthesis and analysis. Molecular biological tools for synthesis like recombinant DNA technology and genetic engineering have advanced a lot farther than tools for systemic analysis. Consequently, bioinformatics is poised to play ...

  16. New Approaches for Very Short-term Steady-State Analysis of An Electrical Distribution System with Wind Farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Bracale

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Distribution networks are undergoing radical changes due to the high level of penetration of dispersed generation. Dispersed generation systems require particular attention due to their incorporation of uncertain energy sources, such as wind farms, and due to the impacts that such sources have on the planning and operation of distribution networks. In particular, the foreseeable, extensive use of wind turbine generator units in the future requires that distribution system engineers properly account for their impacts on the system. Many new technical considerations must be addressed, including protection coordination, steady-state analysis, and power quality issues. This paper deals with the very short-term, steady-state analysis of a distribution system with wind farms, for which the time horizon of interest ranges from one hour to a few hours ahead. Several wind-forecasting methods are presented in order to obtain reliable input data for the steady-state analysis. Both deterministic and probabilistic methods were considered and used in performing deterministic and probabilistic load-flow analyses. Numerical applications on a 17-bus, medium-voltage, electrical distribution system with various wind farms connected at different busbars are presented and discussed.

  17. Exergy analysis of the FIGUEIRA thermal power plant operation - state of Parana, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanescu, George; Lima, Joao E. [Parana Univ., Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica]. E-mails: stanescu@demec.ufpr.br; joeduli@demec.ufpr.br; Andrade, Carlos de [FIGUEIRA Thermal Power Plant, Figueira, PR (Brazil)]. E-mail: ccarlosaandrade@zipmail.com.br

    2000-07-01

    Exergy analysis is a powerful tool to evaluate, design and improve the thermal systems. The method of exergy analysis or availability analysis is well suited for furthering the goal of increasing the efficiency of existing power generation systems, and the capability of more effective energy resource use. Exergy analysis of the FIGUEIRA thermal power plant is presented. Exergy losses occurring in various components are considered and the exergy balance is shown in tabular form. Results clearly reveal that the steam generator is the principal site of thermodynamic losses, while the condenser is relatively unimportant. (author)

  18. Analysis of vibratory states in phonation using spectral features of the electroglottographic signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selamtzis, Andreas; Ternström, Sten

    2014-11-01

    The vocal folds can oscillate in several different ways, manifest to practitioners and clinicians as "registers" or "mechanisms," of which the two most often considered are modal voice and falsetto voice. Here these will be taken as instances of different "vibratory states," i.e., distinct quasi-stationary patterns of vibration of the vocal folds. State transitions are common in biomechanical nonlinear oscillators, and they are often abrupt and impossible to predict exactly. Therefore, vibratory states are a source of confounding variation, for instance when acquiring a voice range profile (VRP). In the quest for a state-based, non-invasive VRP, a semi-automatic method based on the short-term spectrum of the electroglottographic (EGG) signal was developed. The method identifies rapid vibratory state transitions, such as the modal-falsetto switch, and clusters the EGG data based on their similarities in the relative levels and phases of the lower frequency components. Productions of known modal and falsetto voice were accurately clustered by a Gaussian mixture model. When mapped into the VRP, this EGG-based clustering revealed connected regions of different vibratory sub-regimes in both modal and falsetto.

  19. Survey and Analysis on Accounting Supervision of State-owned Agricultural Enterprises in Chongqing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Li

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to accelerate the construction of Chongqing as the center of finance, trade, logistics and technology education in the upper reaches of the Yangtze River, improve the corporate governance structure and accounting supervision approaches, establish favorable accounting supervision system in state-owned agricultural enterprises and advance the overall listing of state-owned agricultural enterprises. We take the form of questionnaire, interview, documentary research and action research and adopt information collecting methods by telephone, visit, network and random questionnaire to investigate the state-owned agricultural enterprises in the main districts of Chongqing. We found some factors that caused the weakening accounting supervision mechanism in state-owned agricultural enterprises, such as the legal system of accounting supervision in the existing state-owned agricultural enterprises is not perfect, the control systems of internal accounting are different, the person in charge of the unit exceeds his power and external supervision departments do not fulfill their duty. We need to improve organizational structure, information-based internal auditing system and post responsibility system of accounting personnel’s.

  20. Hazard analysis in active landslide areas in the State of Veracruz, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilde, Martina; Morales Barrera, Wendy V.; Rodriguez Elizarrarás, Sergio R.; Solleiro Rebolledo, Elizabeth; Sedov, Sergey; Terhorst, Birgit

    2016-04-01

    The year 2013 was characterized by strong storms and hurricanes like the Hurricanes Barbara and Ingrid and the tropical storms Barry and Fernand, which occurred between June and November affecting especially the coastal regions of Mexico. First of all, the State of Veracruz experienced a series of intense rainfalls and as consequences of these events over 780 landslides were registered. More than 45000 people suffered from evacuations. Located on the coast of the Gulf of Mexico, Veracruz has a wide range of altitude differences. The area with the highest elevations reaches from 5675 m.a.s.l. (Pico de Orizaba, the highest mountain of Mexico) to approximately 3000 m.a.s.l. and is characterized by steep slopes and V-shaped valleys. The mountains are part of the Sierra Madre Oriental and the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt. Plateaus and rounded hills are typical for the intermediate zones (3000 - 500 m.a.s.l.). The lowest zone (from 500 m.a.s.l. to sea level) is defined by moderate slopes, large rivers and coastal plain areas. The geology shows a variety and complexity of sedimentary and volcanic rocks. The sedimentary formations comprise claystones, siltstones, sandstones and calcareous rocks. Plateaus of basalts and andesites and deposits of ignimbrites are representative for this area. Even though Veracruz is a region highly endangered by landslides, currently there are no susceptibility maps or any other relevant information with high spatial resolution. Because of the lack of high definite information about the landslide hazards in this area, detailed investigations about the conditions (geology, geomorphology, thresholds, etc.) are indispensable. A doctoral grant from the German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD) allowed to carry out investigations in areas affected by large landslides in the year 2013. The selected study sites comprise damaged infrastructures and settlements. With a multi-methodological and interdisciplinary approach different processes and types of

  1. On the Error State Selection for Stationary SINS Alignment and Calibration Kalman Filters-Part II: Observability/Estimability Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Felipe O; Hemerly, Elder M; Leite Filho, Waldemar C

    2017-02-23

    This paper presents the second part of a study aiming at the error state selection in Kalman filters applied to the stationary self-alignment and calibration (SSAC) problem of strapdown inertial navigation systems (SINS). The observability properties of the system are systematically investigated, and the number of unobservable modes is established. Through the analytical manipulation of the full SINS error model, the unobservable modes of the system are determined, and the SSAC error states (except the velocity errors) are proven to be individually unobservable. The estimability of the system is determined through the examination of the major diagonal terms of the covariance matrix and their eigenvalues/eigenvectors. Filter order reduction based on observability analysis is shown to be inadequate, and several misconceptions regarding SSAC observability and estimability deficiencies are removed. As the main contributions of this paper, we demonstrate that, except for the position errors, all error states can be minimally estimated in the SSAC problem and, hence, should not be removed from the filter. Corroborating the conclusions of the first part of this study, a 12-state Kalman filter is found to be the optimal error state selection for SSAC purposes. Results from simulated and experimental tests support the outlined conclusions.

  2. A comparative analysis of business structures suitable for farmer-owned wind power projects in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolinger, Mark [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, MS 90-4000, One Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)]. E-mail: mabolinger@lbl.gov; Wiser, Ryan [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, MS 90-4000, One Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2006-09-15

    For years, farmers in the United States have looked with envy on their European counterparts' ability to profitably farm the wind through ownership of distributed, utility-scale wind projects. Only within the past few years, however, has farmer- or community-owned wind power development become a reality in the United States. The primary hurdle to this type of development in the United States has been devising and implementing suitable business and legal structures that enable such projects to take advantage of tax-based federal incentives for wind power. This article discusses the limitations of such incentives in supporting farmer- or community-owned wind projects, describes four ownership structures that potentially overcome such limitations, and finally conducts comparative financial analysis on those four structures, using as an example a hypothetical 1.5 MW farmer-owned project located in the state of Oregon. We find that material differences in the competitiveness of each structure do exist, but that choosing the best structure for a given project will largely depend on the conditions at hand; e.g., the ability of the farmer(s) to utilize tax credits, preference for individual versus 'cooperative' ownership, and the state and utility service territory in which the project will be located.

  3. A comparative analysis of business structures suitable forfarmer-owned wind power projects in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan

    2004-11-11

    For years, farmers in the United States have looked with envy on their European counterparts' ability to profitably farm the wind through ownership of distributed, utility-scale wind projects. Only within the past few years, however, has farmer- or community-owned wind power development become a reality in the United States. The primary hurdle to this type of development in the United States has been devising and implementing suitable business and legal structures that enable such projects to take advantage of tax-based federal incentives for wind power. This article discusses the limitations of such incentives in supporting farmer- or community-owned wind projects, describes four ownership structures that potentially overcome such limitations, and finally conducts comparative financial analysis on those four structures, using as an example a hypothetical 1.5 MW farmer-owned project located in the state of Oregon. We find that material differences in the competitiveness of each structure do exist, but that choosing the best structure for a given project will largely depend on the conditions at hand; e.g., the ability of the farmer(s) to utilize tax credits, preference for individual versus ''cooperative'' ownership, and the state and utility service territory in which the project will be located.

  4. On the Error State Selection for Stationary SINS Alignment and Calibration Kalman Filters—Part II: Observability/Estimability Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe O. Silva

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the second part of a study aiming at the error state selection in Kalman filters applied to the stationary self-alignment and calibration (SSAC problem of strapdown inertial navigation systems (SINS. The observability properties of the system are systematically investigated, and the number of unobservable modes is established. Through the analytical manipulation of the full SINS error model, the unobservable modes of the system are determined, and the SSAC error states (except the velocity errors are proven to be individually unobservable. The estimability of the system is determined through the examination of the major diagonal terms of the covariance matrix and their eigenvalues/eigenvectors. Filter order reduction based on observability analysis is shown to be inadequate, and several misconceptions regarding SSAC observability and estimability deficiencies are removed. As the main contributions of this paper, we demonstrate that, except for the position errors, all error states can be minimally estimated in the SSAC problem and, hence, should not be removed from the filter. Corroborating the conclusions of the first part of this study, a 12-state Kalman filter is found to be the optimal error state selection for SSAC purposes. Results from simulated and experimental tests support the outlined conclusions.

  5. Governance, globalization and non-state actors: an analysis from the perspective of international law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Soldano Garcez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article aims to address the connection between governance and non-state actors, phenomenon intensified in the current world scenario of globalization. Undeniably, these actors are part of the implementation mechanisms and efficiency of governance, however they still appear in the center of the doctrinal debate about (the lack or recognition of their legal personalities. According to this background, this article discusses, at first, governance and globalization, studying the three lines of thought about globalization. After, highlights the main non-state actors nowadays, examing the activity of those for the governance processes. Finally, it analyzes the controversy about the recognition of the international legal personality of these non-state actors.

  6. A comparative analysis of leaving home in the United States, the Netherlands and West Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigate how leaving the parental home differs between three countries with different welfare-state and housing systems: the USA, the Netherlands and West Germany. Using longitudinal survey data, we examine the transitions of leaving home to live with and without a partner. We find that, much more than in the European countries, union formation has become separated from leaving home in the USA. We also find a different impact of level of education and employment status on leaving-home patterns in the European countries with their social-welfare state system than in the US system in which market forces prevail. The differences are not just related to welfare-state systems but also to the sizes of the countries and the geographical dispersion of jobs and educational opportunities.

  7. A methodology for stochastic analysis of share prices as Markov chains with finite states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mettle, Felix Okoe; Quaye, Enoch Nii Boi; Laryea, Ravenhill Adjetey

    2014-01-01

    Price volatilities make stock investments risky, leaving investors in critical position when uncertain decision is made. To improve investor evaluation confidence on exchange markets, while not using time series methodology, we specify equity price change as a stochastic process assumed to possess Markov dependency with respective state transition probabilities matrices following the identified state pace (i.e. decrease, stable or increase). We established that identified states communicate, and that the chains are aperiodic and ergodic thus possessing limiting distributions. We developed a methodology for determining expected mean return time for stock price increases and also establish criteria for improving investment decision based on highest transition probabilities, lowest mean return time and highest limiting distributions. We further developed an R algorithm for running the methodology introduced. The established methodology is applied to selected equities from Ghana Stock Exchange weekly trading data.

  8. Adaptive relaxation for the steady-state analysis of Markov chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Graham

    1994-01-01

    We consider a variant of the well-known Gauss-Seidel method for the solution of Markov chains in steady state. Whereas the standard algorithm visits each state exactly once per iteration in a predetermined order, the alternative approach uses a dynamic strategy. A set of states to be visited is maintained which can grow and shrink as the computation progresses. In this manner, we hope to concentrate the computational work in those areas of the chain in which maximum improvement in the solution can be achieved. We consider the adaptive approach both as a solver in its own right and as a relaxation method within the multi-level algorithm. Experimental results show significant computational savings in both cases.

  9. Charge state distribution analysis of Al and Pb ions from the laser ion source at IMP

    CERN Document Server

    Shan, Sha; Zhang-Min, Li; Xiao-Hong, Guo; Lun-Cai, Zhou; Guo-Zhu, Cai; Liang-ting, Sun; Xue-Zhen, Zhang; Huan-Yu, Zhao; Xi-Meng, Chen; Hong-Wei, Zhao

    2013-01-01

    A prototype laser ion source that could demonstrate the possibility of producing intense pulsed high charge state ion beams has been established with a commercial Nd:YAG laser (E max = 3 J, 1064 nm, 8-10 ns) to produce laser plasma for the research of Laser Ion Source (LIS). At the laser ion source test bench, high purity (99.998 %) aluminum and lead targets have been tested for laser plasma experiment. An Electrostatic Ion Analyzer (EIA) and Electron Multiply Tube (EMT) detector were used to analyze the charge state and energy distribution of the ions produced by the laser ion source. The maximum charge states of Al12+ and Pb7+ were achieved. The results will be presented and discussed in this paper.

  10. Application of multivariate analysis of vari-ance (MANOVA to distance refractive vari-ability and mean distance refractive state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Abelman

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Refractive state can be regarded as a dynam-ic quantity. Multiple measurements of refractive state can be determined easily and rapidly on a number of different occasions using an autore-fractor. In an experimental trial undertaken by Gillan, a 30-year-old female was subjected to 30 autorefractor measurements each taken at vari-ous intervals before and after the instillation of Mydriacyl 1% (tropicamide into her right eye. The purpose of this paper is to apply multivar-iate analysis of variance (MANOVA to Gillan’s sample data in order to assess whether instillation of Mydriacyl into the eye affects variability of distance refractive state as well as mean distance refractive state as measured by an autorefractor. In  five  of  the  seven  cases  where  pairwise hypotheses  tests  were  performed,  it  is  con-cluded that at a 99% level of confidence there is no difference in variability of distance refrac-tive state before and after cycloplegia. In two of the three cases where MANOVA was applied, there is a significant difference at a 95% and at a 99% level of confidence in both variability of distance refractive state and mean distance refractive  state  with  and  without  cycloplegia.

  11. A Brief Economic Analysis of the Looming Nursing Shortage In the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snavely, Timothy M

    2016-01-01

    The United States is projected to experience a nursing shortage in the coming years as market forces begin to shift away from equilibrium. A return to pre-recession work levels, aging baby boomers, and insufficient numbers of nursing graduates adversely affect the supply of nurses The aging population, a rise in chronic care management needs, and the Affordable Care Act will result in an increasing demand for them. Returning to a state of equilibrium is critical if our health care system is to ensure care that is accessible, safe, and cost effective.

  12. Fatwa On Waqf: Specialized Analysis In Hand Over Of Waqf Lands by State Authority

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd Afandi Bin Mat Rani

    2015-01-01

    This paper tries to analyze the fatwa regarding issues of hand over of waqf lands to the State Authorities which have been going on since the year 1951 to 2006. Though it may only focus on several states in Malaysia, such revelations can act as strong exemplary of the current and overall fatwa that has been issued by the authorized party. This is due to the idea that the approaches and development of fatwa are very much similar to each other. However, fatwa regarding the law of hand over of w...

  13. Time-frequency analysis of the sea state with the "Andrea" freak wave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Cherneva

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The non-linear and non-stationary properties of a special field wave record are analyzed with the Wigner spectrum with the Choi–Williams kernel. The wave time series, which was recorded at the Ekofisk complex in the Central North Sea at 00:40 UTC on 9 November 2007, contains an abnormally high wave known as "Andrea" wave. The ability of the Wigner spectrum to reveal the wave energy distribution in frequency and time is demonstrated. The results are compared with previous investigations for different sea states and also the state with the abnormal Draupner's New Year wave.

  14. Geometric Analysis of an Integrated Pest Management Model Including Two State Impulses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wencai Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available According to integrated pest management strategies, we construct and investigate the dynamics of a Holling-Tanner predator-prey system with state dependent impulsive effects by releasing natural enemies and spraying pesticide at different thresholds. Applying the Dulacs criterion, the global stability of the positive equilibrium in the system without impulsive effect is discussed. By using impulsive differential equation geometry theory and the method of successor functions, we prove the existence of periodic solution of the system with state dependent impulsive effects. Furthermore, the stability conditions of periodic solutions are obtained. Some simulations are exerted to illustrate the feasibility of our main results.

  15. Time-frequency analysis of the sea state with the "Andrea" freak wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherneva, Z.; Guedes Soares, C.

    2014-02-01

    The non-linear and non-stationary properties of a special field wave record are analyzed with the Wigner spectrum with the Choi-Williams kernel. The wave time series, which was recorded at the Ekofisk complex in the Central North Sea at 00:40 UTC on 9 November 2007, contains an abnormally high wave known as "Andrea" wave. The ability of the Wigner spectrum to reveal the wave energy distribution in frequency and time is demonstrated. The results are compared with previous investigations for different sea states and also the state with the abnormal Draupner's New Year wave.

  16. Time-frequency analysis of the sea state with the Andrea freak wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherneva, Z.; Guedes Soares, C.

    2014-12-01

    The nonlinear and nonstationary properties of a special field wave record are analysed with the Wigner spectrum with the Choi-Williams kernel. The wave time series, which was recorded at the Ekofisk complex in the central North Sea at 00:40 UTC (universal time coordinated) on 9 November 2007, contains an abnormally high wave known as the "Andrea" wave. The ability of the Wigner spectrum to reveal the wave energy distribution in frequency and time is demonstrated. The results are compared with previous investigations for different sea states and also the state with Draupner's abnormal "New Year" wave.

  17. Analysis of Rotational Transitions of Methyl Formate in the Ground and First Excited Torsional States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shozo Tsunekawa

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The microwave spectrum of methyl formate has been observed in the 7-200 GHz region, and new 437 lines have been assigned to the first excited A torsional substate. Both excited state lines and ground state lines reported previously were analyzed simultaneously on the basis of an internal axis method Hamiltonian. A total of 3514 lines were fitted to a 10th-order reduced Hamiltonian model involving 67 molecular parameters to a 1s standard deviation of 179 kHz.

  18. Query cost estimation through remote system contention states analysis over the Internet

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Weiru; Liao, Z; Hong, Jun

    2004-01-01

    Query processing over the Internet involving autonomous data sources is a major task in data integration. It requires the estimated costs of possible queries in order to select the best one that has the minimum cost. In this context, the cost of a query is affected by three factors: network congestion, server contention state, and complexity of the query. In this paper, we study the effects of both the network congestion and server contention state on the cost of a query. We refer to these tw...

  19. Genre Analysis: The State of the Art (An Online Interview with Vijay Kumar Bhatia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Vijay Kumar; Salmani Nodoushan, M. A.

    2015-01-01

    In this interview, Vijay Bhatia freely reflects on his personal experiences, perceptions, and views about the development of Genre Analysis in the early eighties towards Critical Genre Analysis today. He offers his impressions about how professionals construct, interpret, use and often exploit generic resources in their everyday practice to meet…

  20. Physico-Geometrical Kinetics of Solid-State Reactions in an Undergraduate Thermal Analysis Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koga, Nobuyoshi; Goshi, Yuri; Yoshikawa, Masahiro; Tatsuoka, Tomoyuki

    2014-01-01

    An undergraduate kinetic experiment of the thermal decomposition of solids by microscopic observation and thermal analysis was developed by investigating a suitable reaction, applicable techniques of thermal analysis and microscopic observation, and a reliable kinetic calculation method. The thermal decomposition of sodium hydrogen carbonate is…

  1. Experimental analysis of the steady-state behaviour of beam systems with discontinuous support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vorst, E.L.B. van de; Campen, D.H. van; Kraker, A. de; Fey, R.H.B.

    1996-01-01

    This paper deals with the experimental analysis of the long-term behaviour of periodically excited linear beams supported by a one-sided spring or an elastic stop. Numerical analysis of the beams showed subharmonic, quasi-periodic and chaotic behaviour. Furthermore, in the beam system with the one-s

  2. Group Counseling with United States Racial Minority Groups: A 25-Year Content Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark-Rose, Rose M.; Livingston-Sacin, Tina M.; Merchant, Niloufer; Finley, Amanda C.

    2012-01-01

    A 25-year content analysis was conducted of published group work articles that focused on 5 racial groups (African American, Asian American/Pacific Islander, Latino/a, Native American, and Intercultural group). Articles were included if they described an intervention or conceptual model with 1 of the racial groups. The analysis revealed 15 content…

  3. Analyzing the State of Static Analysis: A Large-Scale Evaluation in Open Source Software

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beller, M.; Bholanath, R.; McIntosh, S.; Zaidman, A.E.

    2016-01-01

    The use of automatic static analysis has been a software engineering best practice for decades. However, we still do not know a lot about its use in real-world software projects: How prevalent is the use of Automated Static Analysis Tools (ASATs) such as FindBugs and JSHint? How do developers use th

  4. Mixed-effects state-space models for analysis of longitudinal dynamic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dacheng; Lu, Tao; Niu, Xu-Feng; Wu, Hulin

    2011-06-01

    The rapid development of new biotechnologies allows us to deeply understand biomedical dynamic systems in more detail and at a cellular level. Many of the subject-specific biomedical systems can be described by a set of differential or difference equations that are similar to engineering dynamic systems. In this article, motivated by HIV dynamic studies, we propose a class of mixed-effects state-space models based on the longitudinal feature of dynamic systems. State-space models with mixed-effects components are very flexible in modeling the serial correlation of within-subject observations and between-subject variations. The Bayesian approach and the maximum likelihood method for standard mixed-effects models and state-space models are modified and investigated for estimating unknown parameters in the proposed models. In the Bayesian approach, full conditional distributions are derived and the Gibbs sampler is constructed to explore the posterior distributions. For the maximum likelihood method, we develop a Monte Carlo EM algorithm with a Gibbs sampler step to approximate the conditional expectations in the E-step. Simulation studies are conducted to compare the two proposed methods. We apply the mixed-effects state-space model to a data set from an AIDS clinical trial to illustrate the proposed methodologies. The proposed models and methods may also have potential applications in other biomedical system analyses such as tumor dynamics in cancer research and genetic regulatory network modeling.

  5. A Fiscal Analysis of Proposed Education Access Grants in Minneapolis. School Choice Issues in the State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maas, Ericca

    2005-01-01

    This study examines the fiscal impact of model legislation that would create Education Access Grants in Minnesota. The legislation would provide grants for low-income students to attend private schools. Specifically, this study examines the effect of implementing Education Access Grants in Minneapolis, the state's largest metropolitan area. It…

  6. State of the art analysis of online fault location on AC cables in underground transmission systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian Flytkjær; Gudmundsdottir, Unnur Stella; Bak, Claus Leth

    2011-01-01

    In this article the state of the art research for online fault location on cross-bonded transmission level cables is presented. The article is focused on the difficulties in using the algorithms developed for OHL-systems and distribution cables directly on cross-bonded transmission cables...

  7. Planning for Development in the Arab Gulf States: A content Analysis of Current Development Plans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidt, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: This paper analyses current development plans published by the GCC states (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates) in order to explore the region’s future growth trajectory: what barriers to growth are foreseen and how can they be anticipated; what...

  8. Fatwa On Waqf: Specialized Analysis In Hand Over Of Waqf Lands by State Authority

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Afandi Bin Mat Rani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper tries to analyze the fatwa regarding issues of hand over of waqf lands to the State Authorities which have been going on since the year 1951 to 2006. Though it may only focus on several states in Malaysia, such revelations can act as strong exemplary of the current and overall fatwa that has been issued by the authorized party. This is due to the idea that the approaches and development of fatwa are very much similar to each other. However, fatwa regarding the law of hand over of waqf lands by the government are rarely discussed and are often decided by the State Fatwa Committee as well as the National Fatwa Committee. Despite the hand over as an intention for country’s development, the procedures in dealing with this issue are not correctly applied as approved by the Mufti nor is it referred to Islamic State Council or ‘Majlis Agama Islam Negeri’ (MAIN, including the waqf lands entrusted to the Muslim community. This could be the effect of Land Acquisition Act 1960 which stood out more than its counterpart; MAIN, though the latter being the only authorized endowment trustee in Malaysia. This paper addresses various issues on constraints of waqf procedures and suggestions in improving its effectiveness.

  9. The analysis of association between traits when differences between trait States matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregorius, Hans-Rolf

    2011-12-01

    Because of their elementary significance in almost all fields of science, measures of association between two variables or traits are abundant and multiform. One aspect of association that is of considerable interest, especially in population genetics and ecology, seems to be widely ignored. This aspect concerns association between complex traits that show variable and arbitrarily defined state differences. Among such traits are genetic characters controlled by many and potentially polyploid loci, species characteristics, and environmental variables, all of which may be mutually and asymmetrically associated. A concept of directed association of one trait with another is developed here that relies solely on difference measures between the states of a trait. Associations are considered at three levels: between individual states of two variables, between an individual state of one variable and the totality of the other variable, and between two variables. Relations to known concepts of association are identified. In particular, measures at the latter two levels turn out to be interpretable as measures of differentiation. Examples are given for areas of application (search for functional relationships, distribution of variation over populations, genomic associations, spatiogenetic structure).

  10. 77 FR 47501 - Applications for New Awards; Technical Assistance on State Data Collection, Analysis, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-08

    ... and 618 of IDEA, which may include the development of open source data system software that addresses... Assistance Center Help Desk, email PrivacyTA@ed.gov or call, toll free, 855-249-3072. For more information... information from sources such as SPPs and APRs to assess State data system and data quality needs for the...

  11. Improving Students' Data Analysis and Presentation Skills: The Ocean State Circuits, Inc. Forecasting Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroes, James R.; Chen, Yuwen; Mangiameli, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Many potential employers expect that newly hired students will arrive on-the-job with the ability to analyze data, utilize spreadsheets, and communicate findings and recommendations. We designed the Ocean State Circuits, Inc. Forecasting Project to address these gaps in our students' knowledge of analytical tools (such as the "vlookup()"…

  12. The Changing Role of State Appropriations for Higher Education: An Econometric Analysis from 1985-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushrush, Christopher E.

    2013-01-01

    Traditionally, public funding of higher education has been viewed as cyclical, where support falls during times of economic downturn and then recovers as the economy improves. This view, however, is being challenged as budgetary shortfalls are becoming more common for states, even in times of economic growth, due to structural constraints. Using…

  13. Analysis and prediction of the alpha-function parameters used in cubic equations of state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Privata, Romain; Viscontea, Maxime; Zazoua-Khames, Anis

    2015-01-01

    The performance of two generalized alpha functions (Soave and generalized Twu functions requiring the acentric factor as input parameter) and two parameterizable alpha functions (Mathias-Copeman and Twu) incorporated in cubic equations of state (Redlich-Kwong and Peng-Robinson) are evaluated...

  14. Contemporary Development of Academic Reference Librarianship in the United States: A 44-Year Content Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hanrong; Tang, Yingqi; Knight, Carley

    2010-01-01

    This study analyzes job advertisements to identify the contemporary development of academic reference librarianship in the United States. Results show that more job openings, higher educational backgrounds, more duties & responsibilities, and variety of titles were assigned to academic reference librarian positions from 1966 through 2009.…

  15. EU membership and the press: An analysis of the Brussels correspondents from the new member states

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lecheler, S.

    2008-01-01

    In light of the 2004 and 2007 enlargement of the European Union with 12 new member states we need to reconsider what we know about the Brussels press corps. Brussels journalists play a pivotal role in the European integration process. They act as agents of Europeanization, wedged between complex Eur

  16. An Analysis of University Students' Levels of Self-Control According to Their Ego States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaygusuz, Canani; Ozpolat, Ahmet Ragip

    2016-01-01

    Problem Statement: Although it is well known that parents' methods of raising their children significantly affect their children's personalities and how they face life, this study has been designed because there is a lack of specific research on which ego states of adults are associated with self-control. In the present study, self-control and ego…

  17. Stewart analysis of apparently normal acid-base state in the critically ill

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moviat, M.; Boogaard, M. van den; Intven, F.; Voort, P. van der; Hoeven, H. van der; Pickkers, P.

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: This study aimed to describe Stewart parameters in critically ill patients with an apparently normal acid-base state and to determine the incidence of mixed metabolic acid-base disorders in these patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a prospective, observational multicenter study of

  18. Continuous affect state annotation using a joystick-based user interface : Exploratory data analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sharma, Karan; Castellini, Claudio; van den Broek, E.L.

    2016-01-01

    The DLR (German Aerospace Center) aims to assess user’s affective state in motion simulators. To facilitate this goal, a joystick-based user interface was used to gather reports on user’s emotions. This user interface allowed continuous annotations, while video clips were watched. In parallel, sever

  19. Racism as Policy: A Critical Race Analysis of Education Reforms in the United States and England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillborn, David

    2014-01-01

    Critical race theory (CRT) views education as one of the principal means by which white supremacy is maintained and presented as normal in society. The article applies CRT to two real-world case studies: changes to education statutes in the state of Arizona (USA) and the introduction of a new measure of educational success in England, the English…

  20. A Comparative Analysis of Internal Communication and Public Relations Audits. State of the Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dozier, David M.; Hellweg, Susan A.

    A review of current literature regarding the state of the art in the conduct of internal communication and public relations audits by public relations practitioners reveals that these two related measurement activities are of considerable importance to the practice of public relations. Public relations audits are concerned with exploratory…

  1. Principal dynamic mode analysis of neural mass model for the identification of epileptic states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yuzhen; Jin, Liu; Su, Fei; Wang, Jiang; Deng, Bin

    2016-11-01

    The detection of epileptic seizures in Electroencephalography (EEG) signals is significant for the diagnosis and treatment of epilepsy. In this paper, in order to obtain characteristics of various epileptiform EEGs that may differentiate different states of epilepsy, the concept of Principal Dynamic Modes (PDMs) was incorporated to an autoregressive model framework. First, the neural mass model was used to simulate the required intracerebral EEG signals of various epileptiform activities. Then, the PDMs estimated from the nonlinear autoregressive Volterra models, as well as the corresponding Associated Nonlinear Functions (ANFs), were used for the modeling of epileptic EEGs. The efficient PDM modeling approach provided physiological interpretation of the system. Results revealed that the ANFs of the 1st and 2nd PDMs for the auto-regressive input exhibited evident differences among different states of epilepsy, where the ANFs of the sustained spikes' activity encountered at seizure onset or during a seizure were the most differentiable from that of the normal state. Therefore, the ANFs may be characteristics for the classification of normal and seizure states in the clinical detection of seizures and thus provide assistance for the diagnosis of epilepsy.

  2. Special Education in Australia and the United States: A Cross-Cultural Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safran, Stephen P.

    1989-01-01

    This paper compares and contrasts American and Australian special education, noting the overlap in general issues such as federal/state government role, legal/judicial involvement, identification practices, funding, mainstreaming, and parent advocacy. Specific policies and practices which have evolved along separate paths due to historical,…

  3. How Welfare States Shape the Gender Pay Gap: A Theoretical and Comparative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, Hadas; Shalev, Michael

    2009-01-01

    We assess the impact of the welfare state on cross-national variation in the gender wage gap. Earnings inequality between men and women is conceptualized as resulting from their different locations in the class hierarchy, combined with the severity of wage differentials between and within classes. This decomposition contributes to identifying…

  4. 77 FR 26522 - Proposed Priority; Technical Assistance on State Data Collection, Analysis, and Reporting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-04

    ... quantitative data under each of the indicators and qualitative information, such as an explanation of how the... this qualitative and quantitative information. \\1\\ The following Web sites provide more information on... who are homeless children or are wards of the State and children with disabilities attending...

  5. How sensitive are retirement decisions to financial incentives? : A stated preference analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Soest, A.H.O.; Vonkova, H.

    2014-01-01

    We study the effects of financial incentives on retirement decisions using stated preference data. Dutch survey respondents were given hypothetical retirement scenarios describing age(s) of (partial and full) retirement and replacement rate(s). A stylized model is estimated in which utility is the d

  6. Analysis of Classroom Management Problems in Primary Schools in Delta State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oghuvbu, Enamiroro Patrick; Atakpo, Theresa Edirin

    2008-01-01

    This article identifies classroom management problems, their causes, and possible ways to reduce these problems in primary schools located in Delta State, Nigeria. A total of 600 teachers selected from twelve local government areas participated in this study. Data were collected in a checklist containing 27 items and a two section questionnaire…

  7. An Analysis and Evaluation of Regional Cost of Education Indexes for New York State. Study #5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furno, Orlando F.; Gaughan, James M.

    The proposed New York State Cost of Education Index would be a statistical measure of the price changes in the goods and services purchased by local districts. Data would be available on a regional basis. Many statistical procedures and theoretical considerations involved in constructing such an index are similar to those used for the Consumer…

  8. Analysis of Convergence Rates of Some Gibbs Samplers on Continuous State Spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Aaron

    2011-01-01

    We use a non-Markovian coupling and small modi?cations of techniques from the theory of ?nite Markov chains to analyze some Markov chains on continuous state spaces. The ?rst is a Gibbs sampler on narrow contingency tables, the second a gen- eralization of a sampler introduced by Randall and Winkler.

  9. Developing Leaders of Character at the United States Military Academy: A Relational Developmental Systems Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callina, Kristina Schmid; Ryan, Diane; Murray, Elise D.; Colby, Anne; Damon, William; Matthews, Michael; Lerner, Richard M.

    2017-01-01

    A paucity of literature exists on the processes of character development within diverse contexts. In this article, the authors use the United States Military Academy at West Point (USMA) as a sample case for understanding character development processes within an institution of higher education. The authors present a discussion of relational…

  10. Multiscale entropy analysis of resting-state magnetoencephalogram with tensor factorisations in Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Escudero, Javier; Evrim, Acar Ataman; Fernández, Alberto;

    2015-01-01

    dynamics. We consider the "refined composite multiscale entropy" (rcMSE), which computes entropy "profiles" showing levels of physiological complexity over temporal scales for individual signals. We compute the rcMSE of resting-state magnetoencephalogram (MEG) recordings from 36 patients with Alzheimer...

  11. Scanning of hadron cross-section at DAPHNE by analysis of initial-state radiative events

    CERN Document Server

    Konchatnij, M I

    1999-01-01

    The initial-state radiative events in electron-positron annihilation into hadrons at DAPHNE have been considered. The coresponding cross-section with the full first order radiative correction has been calculated. The analytical calculations take into account the realistic angular acceptance and energy cut of DAPHNE photon detector.

  12. Analysis of Plasticity, Fracture and Friction in Steady State Plate Cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Bo Cerup; Wierzbicki, Tomasz

    1996-01-01

    A closed form solution to the problem of steady state wedge cutting through a ductile metal plate is presented. The considered problem is an idealization of a ship bottom raking process, i.e. a continuous cutting damage of a ship bottom by a hard knife-like rock in a grounding event. A new...

  13. A constitutive analysis of transient and steady-state elongational viscosities of bidisperse polystyrene blends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Manfred H.; Rolon-Garrido, Victor H.; Nielsen, Jens Kromann

    2008-01-01

    The transient and steady-state elongational viscosity data of three bidisperse polystyrene blends were investigated recently by Nielsen et al. [J. Rheol. 50, 453-476 (2006)]. The blends contain a monodisperse high molar mass component (M-L= 390 kg/ mol) in a matrix of a monodisperse small molar m...

  14. Gradual retirement, financial incentives, and labour supply of older workers : evidence from a stated preference analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsayed, A.E.A.; de Grip, A.; Fouarge, D.; Montizaan, R.M.

    2015-01-01

    Using data from a stated preferences experiment in the Netherlands, we find that replacing full-time pension schemes with schemes that offer gradual retirement opportunities induce workers to retire one year later on average. Total life-time labour supply, however, decreases with 3.4 months because

  15. Gradual retirement, financial incentives, and labour supply of older workers: Evidence from a stated preference analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsayed, A.E.A.; de Grip, A.; Fouarge, D.; Montizaan, R.M.

    2015-01-01

    Using data from a stated preferences experiment in the Netherlands, we find that replacing full-time pension schemes with schemes that offer gradual retirement opportunities induce workers to retire one year later on average. Total life-time labour supply, however, decreases with 3.4 months because

  16. Multiple steady states detection in a packed-bed reactive distillation column using bifurcation analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramzan, Naveed; Faheem, Muhammad; Gani, Rafiqul

    2010-01-01

    A packed reactive distillation column producing ethyl tert-butyl ether from tert-butyl alcohol and ethanol was simulated for detection of multiple steady states using Aspen Plus®. A rate-based approach was used to make the simulation model more realistic. A base-case was first developed and fine...

  17. Edge Reduction for EVMDDs to Speed Up Analysis of Multi-State Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    for two-variable numeric function generators using multiple-valued decision diagrams,” IEICE Trans. on Information and Systems, Vol. E93-D, No. 8, pp...of multi-state systems,” IEICE Transactions on Information and Systems, Vol.E97-D, No.9, pp.2234–2242, Sept. 2014. [16] J. E. Ramirez-Marquez and D. W

  18. Upper esophageal sphincter mechanical states analysis: a novel methodology to describe UES relaxation and opening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omari, Taher I; Wiklendt, Lukasz; Dinning, Philip; Costa, Marcello; Rommel, Nathalie; Cock, Charles

    2014-01-01

    The swallowing muscles that influence upper esophageal sphincter (UES) opening are centrally controlled and modulated by sensory information. Activation of neural inputs to these muscles, the intrinsic cricopharyngeus muscle and extrinsic suprahyoid muscles, results in their contraction or relaxation, which changes the diameter of the lumen, alters the intraluminal pressure and ultimately inhibits or promotes flow of content. This relationship that exists between the changes in diameter and concurrent changes in intraluminal pressure has been used previously to calculate the "mechanical states" of the muscle; that is when the muscles are passively or actively, relaxing or contracting. Diseases that alter the neural pathways to these muscles can result in weakening the muscle contractility and/or decreasing the muscle compliance, all of which can cause dysphagia. Detecting these changes in the mechanical state of the muscle is difficult and as the current interpretation of UES motility is based largely upon pressure measurement (manometry), subtle changes in the muscle function during swallow can be missed. We hypothesized that quantification of mechanical states of the UES and the pressure-diameter properties that define them, would allow objective characterization of the mechanisms that govern the timing and extent of UES opening during swallowing. To achieve this we initially analyzed swallows captured by simultaneous videofluoroscopy and UES pressure with impedance recording. From these data we demonstrated that intraluminal impedance measurements could be used to determine changes in the internal diameter of the lumen when compared to videofluoroscopy. Then using a database of pressure-impedance studies, recorded from young and aged healthy controls and patients with motor neuron disease, we calculated the UES mechanical states in relation to a standardized swallowed bolus volume, normal aging and dysphagia pathology. Our results indicated that eight different

  19. Cluster analysis applied to the spatial and temporal variability of monthly rainfall in Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teodoro, Paulo Eduardo; de Oliveira-Júnior, José Francisco; da Cunha, Elias Rodrigues; Correa, Caio Cezar Guedes; Torres, Francisco Eduardo; Bacani, Vitor Matheus; Gois, Givanildo; Ribeiro, Larissa Pereira

    2016-04-01

    The State of Mato Grosso do Sul (MS) located in Brazil Midwest is devoid of climatological studies, mainly in the characterization of rainfall regime and producers' meteorological systems and rain inhibitors. This state has different soil and climatic characteristics distributed among three biomes: Cerrado, Atlantic Forest and Pantanal. This study aimed to apply the cluster analysis using Ward's algorithm and identify those meteorological systems that affect the rainfall regime in the biomes. The rainfall data of 32 stations (sites) of the MS State were obtained from the Agência Nacional de Águas (ANA) database, collected from 1954 to 2013. In each of the 384 monthly rainfall temporal series was calculated the average and applied the Ward's algorithm to identify spatial and temporal variability of rainfall. Bartlett's test revealed only in January homogeneous variance at all sites. Run test showed that there was no increase or decrease in trend of monthly rainfall. Cluster analysis identified five rainfall homogeneous regions in the MS State, followed by three seasons (rainy, transitional and dry). The rainy season occurs during the months of November, December, January, February and March. The transitional season ranges between the months of April and May, September and October. The dry season occurs in June, July and August. The groups G1, G4 and G5 are influenced by South Atlantic Subtropical Anticyclone (SASA), Chaco's Low (CL), Bolivia's High (BH), Low Levels Jet (LLJ) and South Atlantic Convergence Zone (SACZ) and Maden-Julian Oscillation (MJO). Group G2 is influenced by Upper Tropospheric Cyclonic Vortex (UTCV) and Front Systems (FS). The group G3 is affected by UTCV, FS and SACZ. The meteorological systems' interaction that operates in each biome and the altitude causes the rainfall spatial and temporal diversity in MS State.

  20. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 13 (IRAVT013300133) on State Route 133, crossing an Ira Brook Tributary, Ira, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehmler, Erick M.

    1996-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure IRA-VT01330013 on State Route 133 crossing an Ira Brook Tributary, Ira, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D.