WorldWideScience

Sample records for analysis reveals convergent

  1. Massive comparative genomic analysis reveals convergent evolution of specialized bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Raoult Didier; Pontarotti Pierre; Royer-Carenzi Manuela; Merhej Vicky

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Genome size and gene content in bacteria are associated with their lifestyles. Obligate intracellular bacteria (i.e., mutualists and parasites) have small genomes that derived from larger free-living bacterial ancestors; however, the different steps of bacterial specialization from free-living to intracellular lifestyle have not been studied comprehensively. The growing number of available sequenced genomes makes it possible to perform a statistical comparative analysis of...

  2. Systematic Analysis Reveals that Cancer Mutations Converge on Deregulated Metabolism of Arachidonate and Xenobiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatto, Francesco; Schulze, Almut; Nielsen, Jens

    2016-07-19

    Mutations are the basis of the clonal evolution of most cancers. Nevertheless, a systematic analysis of whether mutations are selected in cancer because they lead to the deregulation of specific biological processes independent of the type of cancer is still lacking. In this study, we correlated the genome and transcriptome of 1,082 tumors. We found that nine commonly mutated genes correlated with substantial changes in gene expression, which primarily converged on metabolism. Further network analyses circumscribed the convergence to a network of reactions, termed AraX, that involves the glutathione- and oxygen-mediated metabolism of arachidonic acid and xenobiotics. In an independent cohort of 4,462 samples, all nine mutated genes were consistently correlated with the deregulation of AraX. Among all of the metabolic pathways, AraX deregulation represented the strongest predictor of patient survival. These findings suggest that oncogenic mutations drive a selection process that converges on the deregulation of the AraX network. PMID:27396332

  3. Systematic Analysis Reveals that Cancer Mutations Converge on Deregulated Metabolism of Arachidonate and Xenobiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Gatto

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Mutations are the basis of the clonal evolution of most cancers. Nevertheless, a systematic analysis of whether mutations are selected in cancer because they lead to the deregulation of specific biological processes independent of the type of cancer is still lacking. In this study, we correlated the genome and transcriptome of 1,082 tumors. We found that nine commonly mutated genes correlated with substantial changes in gene expression, which primarily converged on metabolism. Further network analyses circumscribed the convergence to a network of reactions, termed AraX, that involves the glutathione- and oxygen-mediated metabolism of arachidonic acid and xenobiotics. In an independent cohort of 4,462 samples, all nine mutated genes were consistently correlated with the deregulation of AraX. Among all of the metabolic pathways, AraX deregulation represented the strongest predictor of patient survival. These findings suggest that oncogenic mutations drive a selection process that converges on the deregulation of the AraX network.

  4. Genomic convergence analysis of schizophrenia: mRNA sequencing reveals altered synaptic vesicular transport in post-mortem cerebellum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joann Mudge

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia (SCZ is a common, disabling mental illness with high heritability but complex, poorly understood genetic etiology. As the first phase of a genomic convergence analysis of SCZ, we generated 16.7 billion nucleotides of short read, shotgun sequences of cDNA from post-mortem cerebellar cortices of 14 patients and six, matched controls. A rigorous analysis pipeline was developed for analysis of digital gene expression studies. Sequences aligned to approximately 33,200 transcripts in each sample, with average coverage of 450 reads per gene. Following adjustments for confounding clinical, sample and experimental sources of variation, 215 genes differed significantly in expression between cases and controls. Golgi apparatus, vesicular transport, membrane association, Zinc binding and regulation of transcription were over-represented among differentially expressed genes. Twenty three genes with altered expression and involvement in presynaptic vesicular transport, Golgi function and GABAergic neurotransmission define a unifying molecular hypothesis for dysfunction in cerebellar cortex in SCZ.

  5. Convergence analysis of combinations of different methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Y. [Clarkson Univ., Potsdam, NY (United States)

    1994-12-31

    This paper provides a convergence analysis for combinations of different numerical methods for solving systems of differential equations. The author proves that combinations of two convergent linear multistep methods or Runge-Kutta methods produce a new convergent method of which the order is equal to the smaller order of the two original methods.

  6. Convergence Estimates for Multidisciplinary Analysis and Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arian, Eyal

    1997-01-01

    A quantitative analysis of coupling between systems of equations is introduced. This analysis is then applied to problems in multidisciplinary analysis, sensitivity, and optimization. For the sensitivity and optimization problems both multidisciplinary and single discipline feasibility schemes are considered. In all these cases a "convergence factor" is estimated in terms of the Jacobians and Hessians of the system, thus it can also be approximated by existing disciplinary analysis and optimization codes. The convergence factor is identified with the measure for the "coupling" between the disciplines in the system. Applications to algorithm development are discussed. Demonstration of the convergence estimates and numerical results are given for a system composed of two non-linear algebraic equations, and for a system composed of two PDEs modeling aeroelasticity.

  7. Convergence analysis in near-field imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is devoted to the mathematical analysis of the direct and inverse modeling of the diffraction by a perfectly conducting grating surface in the near-field regime. It is motivated by our effort to analyze recent significant numerical results, in order to solve a class of inverse rough surface scattering problems in near-field imaging. In a model problem, the diffractive grating surface is assumed to be a small and smooth deformation of a plane surface. On the basis of the variational method, the direct problem is shown to have a unique weak solution. An analytical solution is introduced as a convergent power series in the deformation parameter by using the transformed field and Fourier series expansions. A local uniqueness result is proved for the inverse problem where only a single incident field is needed. On the basis of the analytic solution of the direct problem, an explicit reconstruction formula is presented for recovering the grating surface function with resolution beyond the Rayleigh criterion. Error estimates for the reconstructed grating surface are established with fully revealed dependence on such quantities as the surface deformation parameter, measurement distance, noise level of the scattering data, and regularity of the exact grating surface function. (paper)

  8. Core Backbone Convergence Mechanisms and Microloops Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelali Ala

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article we study approaches that can be used to minimise the convergence time, we also make a focus on microloops phenomenon, analysis and means to mitigate them. The convergence time reflects the time required by a network to react to a failure of a link or a router failure itself. When all nodes (routers have updated their respective routing and forwarding databases, we can say the network has converged. This study will help in building real-time and resilient network infrastructure, the goal is to make any evenement in the core network, as transparent as possible to any sensitive and real-time flows. This study is also, a deepening of earlier works presented in [10] and [11].

  9. Iterative Learning Controller - Rate of Convergence Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Shaikh, I. U. H., Khalili, H. H., Brown, M.

    2010-01-01

    Iterative Learning Control (ILC) is one of the Intelligent Control Systems which improves the transient performance of systems operating in a repetitive manner. After each repetition or batch, the controller learns to produce the best possible control input signal. Convergence analysis of the first order D - type ILC algorithm has been investigated. It generates the control input update for the next batch based on the derivative of the error between the desired and actual outputs during the c...

  10. Evolutionary and Functional Analysis of Old World Primate TRIM5 Reveals the Ancient Emergence of Primate Lentiviruses and Convergent Evolution Targeting a Conserved Capsid Interface.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin R McCarthy

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The widespread distribution of lentiviruses among African primates, and the lack of severe pathogenesis in many of these natural reservoirs, are taken as evidence for long-term co-evolution between the simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIVs and their primate hosts. Evidence for positive selection acting on antiviral restriction factors is consistent with virus-host interactions spanning millions of years of primate evolution. However, many restriction mechanisms are not virus-specific, and selection cannot be unambiguously attributed to any one type of virus. We hypothesized that the restriction factor TRIM5, because of its unique specificity for retrovirus capsids, should accumulate adaptive changes in a virus-specific fashion, and therefore, that phylogenetic reconstruction of TRIM5 evolution in African primates should reveal selection by lentiviruses closely related to modern SIVs. We analyzed complete TRIM5 coding sequences of 22 Old World primates and identified a tightly-spaced cluster of branch-specific adaptions appearing in the Cercopithecinae lineage after divergence from the Colobinae around 16 million years ago. Functional assays of both extant TRIM5 orthologs and reconstructed ancestral TRIM5 proteins revealed that this cluster of adaptations in TRIM5 specifically resulted in the ability to restrict Cercopithecine lentiviruses, but had no effect (positive or negative on restriction of other retroviruses, including lentiviruses of non-Cercopithecine primates. The correlation between lineage-specific adaptations and ability to restrict viruses endemic to the same hosts supports the hypothesis that lentiviruses closely related to modern SIVs were present in Africa and infecting the ancestors of Cercopithecine primates as far back as 16 million years ago, and provides insight into the evolution of TRIM5 specificity.

  11. Convergence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darcie, Thomas E.; Doverspike, Robert; Zirngibl, Martin; Korotky, Steven K.

    2005-09-01

    Call for Papers: Convergence The Journal of Optical Networking (JON) invites submissions to a special issue on Convergence. Convergence has become a popular theme in telecommunications, one that has broad implications across all segments of the industry. Continual evolution of technology and applications continues to erase lines between traditionally separate lines of business, with dramatic consequences for vendors, service providers, and consumers. Spectacular advances in all layers of optical networking-leading to abundant, dynamic, cost-effective, and reliable wide-area and local-area connections-have been essential drivers of this evolution. As services and networks continue to evolve towards some notion of convergence, the continued role of optical networks must be explored. One vision of convergence renders all information in a common packet (especially IP) format. This vision is driven by the proliferation of data services. For example, time-division multiplexed (TDM) voice becomes VoIP. Analog cable-television signals become MPEG bits streamed to digital set-top boxes. T1 or OC-N private lines migrate to Ethernet virtual private networks (VPNs). All these packets coexist peacefully within a single packet-routing methodology built on an optical transport layer that combines the flexibility and cost of data networks with telecom-grade reliability. While this vision is appealing in its simplicity and shared widely, specifics of implementation raise many challenges and differences of opinion. For example, many seek to expand the role of Ethernet in these transport networks, while massive efforts are underway to make traditional TDM networks more data friendly within an evolved but backward-compatible SDH/SONET (synchronous digital hierarchy and synchronous optical network) multiplexing hierarchy. From this common underlying theme follow many specific instantiations. Examples include the convergence at the physical, logical, and operational levels of voice and

  12. Convergence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prasad, Ramjee

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the main conclusions which can be drawn from the discussions on Future Communication Systems and lessons on Unpredictable Future of Wireless Communication Systems. Future systems beyond the third generation are already under discussions in international bodies, such as ITU, WW...... and R&D programmes worldwide. The incoming era is characterized by the convergence of networks and access technology and the divergence of applications. Future mobile communication systems should bring something more than only faster data or wireless internet access....

  13. Quantitative analysis of harmonic convergence in mosquito auditory interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldersley, Andrew; Champneys, Alan; Homer, Martin; Robert, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    This article analyses the hearing and behaviour of mosquitoes in the context of inter-individual acoustic interactions. The acoustic interactions of tethered live pairs ofAedes aegyptimosquitoes, from same and opposite sex mosquitoes of the species, are recorded on independent and unique audio channels, together with the response of tethered individual mosquitoes to playbacks of pre-recorded flight tones of lone or paired individuals. A time-dependent representation of each mosquito's non-stationary wing beat frequency signature is constructed, based on Hilbert spectral analysis. A range of algorithmic tools is developed to automatically analyse these data, and used to perform a robust quantitative identification of the 'harmonic convergence' phenomenon. The results suggest that harmonic convergence is an active phenomenon, which does not occur by chance. It occurs for live pairs, as well as for lone individuals responding to playback recordings, whether from the same or opposite sex. Male-female behaviour is dominated by frequency convergence at a wider range of harmonic combinations than previously reported, and requires participation from both partners in the duet. New evidence is found to show that male-male interactions are more varied than strict frequency avoidance. Rather, they can be divided into two groups: convergent pairs, typified by tightly bound wing beat frequencies, and divergent pairs, that remain widely spaced in the frequency domain. Overall, the results reveal that mosquito acoustic interaction is a delicate and intricate time-dependent active process that involves both individuals, takes place at many different frequencies, and which merits further enquiry. PMID:27053654

  14. Convergence and Rate Analysis of Neural Networks for Sparse Approximation

    CERN Document Server

    Balavoine, Aurèle; Rozell, Christopher J

    2011-01-01

    We present an analysis of the Locally Competitive Algorithm (LCA), a Hopfield-style neural network that solves sparse approximation problems (e.g., approximating a vector from a dictionary using just a few non-zero coefficients). This class of problems plays a significant role in both theories of neural coding and applications in signal processing, but traditional analysis approaches are difficult because the objective functions are non-smooth. Specifically, we characterize the convergence properties of this system by showing that the LCA is globally convergent to a fixed point corresponding to the exact solution of the objective function, and (under some mild conditions) this solution is reached in finite time. Furthermore, we characterize the convergence rate of the system by showing that the LCA converges exponentially fast with an analytically bounded convergence rate (that depends on the specifics of a given problem). We support our analysis with several illustrative simulations.

  15. ERROR CONVERGENCE ANALYSIS FOR LOCAL HYPERTHERMIA APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NEERU MALHOTRA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The accuracy of numerical solution for electromagnetic problem is greatly influenced by the convergence of the solution obtained. In order to quantify the correctness of the numerical solution the errors produced on solving the partial differential equations are required to be analyzed. Mesh quality is another parameter that affects convergence. The various quality metrics are dependent on the type of solver used for numerical simulation. The paper focuses on comparing the performance of iterative solvers used in COMSOL Multiphysics software. The modeling of coaxial coupled waveguide applicator operating at 485MHz has been done for local hyperthermia applications using adaptive finite element method. 3D heat distribution within the muscle phantom depicting spherical leison and localized heating pattern confirms the proper selection of the solver. The convergence plots are obtained during simulation of the problem using GMRES (generalized minimal residual and geometric multigrid linear iterative solvers. The best error convergence is achieved by using nonlinearity multigrid solver and further introducing adaptivity in nonlinear solver.

  16. Strategic and financial perspectives. The energy convergence. Analysis and conclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Born with the market liberalization, the energy convergence is relatively recent, it exists two types of energy convergence: the simplest form consists in managing activities including several energies, the most advanced form consists in selling several energies to the same customer. Economic analysis, market, technologies are studied through the different kinds of energy, electric power, petroleum, gas, coal, uranium

  17. Convergence of the Key Algorithm of Traffic-Flow Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Muka, László; Lencse, Gábor

    2006-01-01

    The traffic-flow analysis (TFA) [1] is a novel method for the performance estimation of communication systems. TFA contains an important algorithm called "correction for the finite capacity". The convergence of that algorithm is proven in this paper. The speed of convergence is also examined.

  18. Convergence analysis of household expenditures using the absolute β-convergence method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anto Domazet

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The paper examines the convergence of household expenditures, in terms of a possible usage of the standardized, rather than consumer-tailored marketing, mainly on a regional level. Objectives: The main goal of this research is to study the existence of consumption expenditure convergence in the EU-27 countries, in the period between 2000 and 2007. Methods/Approach: The analysis used the absolute β-convergence method, in order to investigate the existence of a negative correlation between the growth over time in the overall consumption expenditure in EU member- countries for each individual product and service category and the initial expenditure level. Results: According to the obtained results, in the period between 2000 and 2007, the EU-27 countries reached a high level of consumer expenditure convergence, which provides a basis for developing a regional concept of the standardized international marketing for these countries’ markets. Conclusions: The results provide an empirical contribution to claims on consumer convergence in the countries included into economic integrations. Also, the obtained results can be used to create a basis for defining and applying the regional marketing concept for companies focusing on the EU-27 countries’ market.

  19. The analysis of the convergence of ant colony optimization algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Qingbao; WANG Lingling

    2007-01-01

    The ant colony optimization algorithm has been widely studied and many important results have been obtained.Though this algorithm has been applied to many fields.the analysis about its convergence is much less,which will influence the improvement of this algorithm.Therefore,the convergence of this algorithm applied to the traveling salesman problem(TSP)was analyzed in detail.The conclusion that this algorithm will definitely converge to the optimal solution under the condition of 0<q0<1 was proved true.In addition,the influence on its convergence caused by the properties of the closed path,heuristic functions,the pheromone and q0 was analyzed.Based on the above-mentioned,some conclusions about how to improve the speed of its convergence are obtained.

  20. Dictionary Learning for Sparse Coding: Algorithms and Convergence Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Chenglong; Ji, Hui; Quan, Yuhui; Shen, Zuowei

    2016-07-01

    In recent years, sparse coding has been widely used in many applications ranging from image processing to pattern recognition. Most existing sparse coding based applications require solving a class of challenging non-smooth and non-convex optimization problems. Despite the fact that many numerical methods have been developed for solving these problems, it remains an open problem to find a numerical method which is not only empirically fast, but also has mathematically guaranteed strong convergence. In this paper, we propose an alternating iteration scheme for solving such problems. A rigorous convergence analysis shows that the proposed method satisfies the global convergence property: the whole sequence of iterates is convergent and converges to a critical point. Besides the theoretical soundness, the practical benefit of the proposed method is validated in applications including image restoration and recognition. Experiments show that the proposed method achieves similar results with less computation when compared to widely used methods such as K-SVD. PMID:26452248

  1. Euro area structural convergence? A multi-criterion cluster analysis.

    OpenAIRE

    Irac, D.; Lopez, J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a classification of the old member countries of the euro area in a structural data rich environment and run a convergence analysis using the same framework. First, we use a clustering approach and identify two structurally distinct groups of countries that are not modified between 1995 and 2007: the South Countries Group (SCG) – composed of Greece, Italy, Portugal and Spain – and the Other Countries Group (OCG). Second, we propose a convergence metrics and reach three key ...

  2. Financial Convergence Analysis: Implication for Insurance and Pension Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia P. Kuznetsova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The proposed paper is one of a set of articles dedicated to the new phenomenon in the global and national financial markets – financial convergence – and is focused on theoretical issues. The hypothesis of the article is to argue whether the financial convergence determines the directions of financial market (namely, insurance and pension sectors development. Adequately the goal of this paper is to analyze the existence of convergence processes in the insurance and pension markets. Methods of systematic and logical analysis are used. In the first part authors give brief history of the convergence phenomenon research. Then the paper analyses influence of financial convergence on insurance and pension markets, manifested in the following effects: mix of financial institutions functions; distribution channels advantages, increase of insurance and pension funds companies’ competitiveness; governance models convergence. The major results of the study are: demographic shifts in different developed and emerging markets countries caused the need to reform the social security systems and public pension schemes and refocus them to the market-based financial convergence model; pension funds, acting as institutional investors, are the leading players in the contemporary global financial market; competition at the financial market causes the expansion of a number of services offered by various organizations: banks, insurance companies, pension funds and so on, which offer a wide range of services not directly related to their core businesses; the mixing of financial institutions functions from the insurance, pension and banking sectors, increased competition for customers at the national and global financial market.

  3. Assessing the Validity of Discourse Analysis: Transdisciplinary Convergence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaipal-Jamani, Kamini

    2014-01-01

    Research studies using discourse analysis approaches make claims about phenomena or issues based on interpretation of written or spoken text, which includes images and gestures. How are findings/interpretations from discourse analysis validated? This paper proposes transdisciplinary convergence as a way to validate discourse analysis approaches to…

  4. Convergence Analysis of a Class of Computational Intelligence Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junfeng Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Computational intelligence approaches is a relatively new interdisciplinary field of research with many promising application areas. Although the computational intelligence approaches have gained huge popularity, it is difficult to analyze the convergence. In this paper, a computational model is built up for a class of computational intelligence approaches represented by the canonical forms of generic algorithms, ant colony optimization, and particle swarm optimization in order to describe the common features of these algorithms. And then, two quantification indices, that is, the variation rate and the progress rate, are defined, respectively, to indicate the variety and the optimality of the solution sets generated in the search process of the model. Moreover, we give four types of probabilistic convergence for the solution set updating sequences, and their relations are discussed. Finally, the sufficient conditions are derived for the almost sure weak convergence and the almost sure strong convergence of the model by introducing the martingale theory into the Markov chain analysis.

  5. Investigating Convergence Patterns for Numerical Methods Using Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Sheldon P.

    2013-01-01

    The article investigates the patterns that arise in the convergence of numerical methods, particularly those in the errors involved in successive iterations, using data analysis and curve fitting methods. In particular, the results obtained are used to convey a deeper level of understanding of the concepts of linear, quadratic, and cubic…

  6. Convergence Analysis of a Cascade Architecture Neural Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, Tuan A.; Stubberub, Allen R.; Daud, Taher; Thakoor, Anil

    1997-01-01

    In this paper, we present a mathematical foundation, including a convergence analysis, for cascading architecture neural networks. From this, a mathematical foundation for the casade correlation learning algorithm can also be found. Furthermore, it becomes apparent that the cascade correlation scheme is a special case of an efficient hardware learning algorithm called Cascade Error Projection.

  7. Strategic and financial perspectives. The energy convergence. Analysis and conclusions; Perspectives strategiques et financieres. La convergence energetique. Analyse et conclusions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desbois, M.; Lehujeur, Ch

    1999-07-01

    Born with the market liberalization, the energy convergence is relatively recent, it exists two types of energy convergence: the simplest form consists in managing activities including several energies, the most advanced form consists in selling several energies to the same customer. Economic analysis, market, technologies are studied through the different kinds of energy, electric power, petroleum, gas, coal, uranium.

  8. Convergence of the discrete dipole approximation. I. Theoretical analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Yurkin, Maxim A; Hoekstra, Alfons G

    2006-01-01

    We performed a rigorous theoretical convergence analysis of the discrete dipole approximation (DDA). We prove that errors in any measured quantity are bounded by a sum of a linear and quadratic term in the size of a dipole d, when the latter is in the range of DDA applicability. Moreover, the linear term is significantly smaller for cubically than for non-cubically shaped scatterers. Therefore, for small d errors for cubically shaped particles are much smaller than for non-cubically shaped. The relative importance of the linear term decreases with increasing size, hence convergence of DDA for large enough scatterers is quadratic in the common range of d. Extensive numerical simulations were carried out for a wide range of d. Finally we discuss a number of new developments in DDA and their consequences for convergence.

  9. Global Sensitivity Analysis of Environmental Models: Convergence, Robustness and Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarrazin, Fanny; Pianosi, Francesca; Khorashadi Zadeh, Farkhondeh; Van Griensven, Ann; Wagener, Thorsten

    2015-04-01

    Global Sensitivity Analysis aims to characterize the impact that variations in model input factors (e.g. the parameters) have on the model output (e.g. simulated streamflow). In sampling-based Global Sensitivity Analysis, the sample size has to be chosen carefully in order to obtain reliable sensitivity estimates while spending computational resources efficiently. Furthermore, insensitive parameters are typically identified through the definition of a screening threshold: the theoretical value of their sensitivity index is zero but in a sampling-base framework they regularly take non-zero values. There is little guidance available for these two steps in environmental modelling though. The objective of the present study is to support modellers in making appropriate choices, regarding both sample size and screening threshold, so that a robust sensitivity analysis can be implemented. We performed sensitivity analysis for the parameters of three hydrological models with increasing level of complexity (Hymod, HBV and SWAT), and tested three widely used sensitivity analysis methods (Elementary Effect Test or method of Morris, Regional Sensitivity Analysis, and Variance-Based Sensitivity Analysis). We defined criteria based on a bootstrap approach to assess three different types of convergence: the convergence of the value of the sensitivity indices, of the ranking (the ordering among the parameters) and of the screening (the identification of the insensitive parameters). We investigated the screening threshold through the definition of a validation procedure. The results showed that full convergence of the value of the sensitivity indices is not necessarily needed to rank or to screen the model input factors. Furthermore, typical values of the sample sizes that are reported in the literature can be well below the sample sizes that actually ensure convergence of ranking and screening.

  10. Simulation and Analysis of Converging Shock Wave Test Problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramsey, Scott D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Shashkov, Mikhail J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-06-21

    Results and analysis pertaining to the simulation of the Guderley converging shock wave test problem (and associated code verification hydrodynamics test problems involving converging shock waves) in the LANL ASC radiation-hydrodynamics code xRAGE are presented. One-dimensional (1D) spherical and two-dimensional (2D) axi-symmetric geometric setups are utilized and evaluated in this study, as is an instantiation of the xRAGE adaptive mesh refinement capability. For the 2D simulations, a 'Surrogate Guderley' test problem is developed and used to obviate subtleties inherent to the true Guderley solution's initialization on a square grid, while still maintaining a high degree of fidelity to the original problem, and minimally straining the general credibility of associated analysis and conclusions.

  11. Convergence analysis of neutronic/thermohydraulic coupling behavior of SCWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The neutronic/thermohydraulic coupling (N–T coupling) calculations play an important role in core design and stability analysis. The traditional iterative method is not applicable for some new reactors (such as supercritical water-cooled reactor) which have intense N–T coupling behavior. In this paper, the mathematical model of N–T coupling based on fixed point theory is established firstly, with the convergent criterion, which can show the real-time convergence situation of iteration. Secondly, the self-adaptive relaxation factor and corresponding algorithm are proposed. Thirdly, the convergence analysis of the method of self-adaptive relaxation factor and common relaxation iteration has been performed, based on three calculation examples of SCWR fuel assembly. The results show that the proposed algorithm can efficiently reduce the calculation time and be adapted to different coupling cases and different initial distribution. It is easy to program, providing convenience for reactor design and analysis. This research also provides the theoretical basis for further study of N–T coupling behavior of new reactors such as SCWR

  12. Character State Reconstruction of Call Diversity in the Neoconocephalus Katydids Reveals High Levels of Convergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick, Katy; Schul, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    The katydid genus Neoconocephalus is characterized by high diversity of the acoustic communication system. Both male signals and female preferences have been thoroughly studied in the past. This study used Bayesian character state reconstruction to elucidate the evolutionary history of diverse call traits, based on an existing, well supported phylogenetic hypothesis. The most common male call pattern consisted of continuous calls comprising one fast pulse rate; this pattern is the likely ancestral state in this genus. Three lines of call divergence existed among the species of the genus. First, four species had significantly slower pulse rates. Second, five species had alternating pulse periods, resulting in a double pulse rhythm. Third, several species had discontinuous calls, when pulses were grouped into rhythmically repeated verses. Bayesian character state reconstruction revealed that the double-pulse pattern likely evolved convergently five times; the slow pulse rate also evolved four times independently. Discontinuous calls have evolved twice and occur in two clades; each of which contains reversals to the ancestral continuous calls. Pairwise phylogenetically independent contrast analyses among the three call traits found no significant correlations among the character states of the different traits, supporting the independent evolution of the three call traits. PMID:27110432

  13. Theoretical analysis on convergence behavior of rank filters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE; Wanzhou

    2004-01-01

    This paper systematically studies the convergence behavior of rank filters. The problem of convergence behavior of rank filters has been solved completely for bounded sequences. Moreover, some properties of its limiting sequences and recurrent sequences are obtained.

  14. On the convergence analysis of the optimized gradient methods

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Donghwan; Fessler, Jeffrey A.

    2015-01-01

    We recently proposed optimized gradient methods (OGM) that minimize smooth and convex functions with a convergence bound that is twice as small as that of Nesterov's fast gradient methods (FGM) and that have efficient formulations that are similar to Nesterov's FGM. However, the analytic convergence bound was found only for the last iterate of a secondary sequence of OGM in the previous work. This paper provides an analytic convergence bound for the primary sequence of OGM. We then discuss ad...

  15. A stochastic convergence analysis for Tikhonov regularization with sparsity constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we investigate convergence properties of Tikhonov regularization for linear ill-posed problems under a stochastic error model. Namely, we assume that we are given a finite amount of measurements, each contaminated by Gaussian noise with zero mean and known finite variance. Using Besov-space penalty terms to promote sparse solutions with respect to a preassigned wavelet basis, the Ky Fan metric allows us to lift deterministic convergence results into the stochastic setting. In particular, we formulate a general convergence theorem and propose a formula to directly calculate a suitable regularization parameter. This immediately leads to convergence rates. Numerical examples are presented to verify the theoretical results. (paper)

  16. Convergence analysis of the Wolf method for Coulombic interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angoshtari, Arzhang [School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332 (United States); Yavari, Arash, E-mail: arash.yavari@ce.gatech.ed [School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332 (United States)

    2011-03-07

    A rigorous proof for convergence of the Wolf method (Wolf et al., 1999) for calculating electrostatic energy of a periodic lattice is presented. In particular, we show that for an arbitrary lattice of unit cells, the lattice sum obtained via Wolf method converges to the one obtained via Ewald method.

  17. Convergence analysis of the Wolf method for Coulombic interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A rigorous proof for convergence of the Wolf method (Wolf et al., 1999 ) for calculating electrostatic energy of a periodic lattice is presented. In particular, we show that for an arbitrary lattice of unit cells, the lattice sum obtained via Wolf method converges to the one obtained via Ewald method.

  18. Convergent Validity of Revealed and Stated Recreation Behavior with Quality Change: A Comparison of Multiple and Single Site Demands

    OpenAIRE

    John C. Whitehead; Daniel Phaneuf; Christopher F. Dumas; Jim Herstine; Jeffrey Hill; Bob Buerger

    2007-01-01

    We consider the convergent validity of several demand models using beach recreation data. Two models employ multiple site data: a count data demand system model and the Kuhn-Tucker demand system model. We explore the role of existing variation in beach width in explaining trip choices, and analyze a hypothetical 100 foot increase in beach width. We compare these models to a single equation model where we jointly estimate revealed and stated preference trip data, and focus on a hypothetical sc...

  19. Analysis of an unconditionally convergent stabilized finite element formulation for incompressible magnetohydrodynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Badia, Santiago; Codina, Ramon; Planas Badenas, Ramon

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we analyze a recently proposed stabilized finite element formulation for the approximation of the resistive magnetohydrodynamics equations. The novelty of this formulation with respect to existing ones is the fact that it always converges to the physical solution, even when it is singular. We have performed a detailed stability and convergence analysis of the formulation in a simplified setting. From the convergence analysis, we infer that a particular type of meshes with a macr...

  20. Sensitivity Analysis and Statistical Convergence of a Saltating Particle Model

    CERN Document Server

    Maldonado, S

    2016-01-01

    Saltation models provide considerable insight into near-bed sediment transport. This paper outlines a simple, efficient numerical model of stochastic saltation, which is validated against previously published experimental data on saltation in a channel of nearly horizontal bed. Convergence tests are systematically applied to ensure the model is free from statistical errors emanating from the number of particle hops considered. Two criteria for statistical convergence are derived; according to the first criterion, at least $10^3$ hops appear to be necessary for convergent results, whereas $10^4$ saltations seem to be the minimum required in order to achieve statistical convergence in accordance with the second criterion. Two empirical formulae for lift force are considered: one dependent on the slip (relative) velocity of the particle multiplied by the vertical gradient of the horizontal flow velocity component; the other dependent on the difference between the squares of the slip velocity components at the to...

  1. Gradient flow approach to geometric convergence analysis of preconditioned eigensolvers

    OpenAIRE

    Knyazev, Andrew V.; Neymeyr, Klaus

    2008-01-01

    Preconditioned eigenvalue solvers (eigensolvers) are gaining popularity, but their convergence theory remains sparse and complex. We consider the simplest preconditioned eigensolver--the gradient iterative method with a fixed step size--for symmetric generalized eigenvalue problems, where we use the gradient of the Rayleigh quotient as an optimization direction. A sharp convergence rate bound for this method has been obtained in 2001--2003. It still remains the only known such bound for any o...

  2. Analysis of scientific approaches to research of convergence theories

    OpenAIRE

    Газуда, Леся Михайлівна

    2015-01-01

    The scientific and theoretical approaches to the study of convergence theories are analyzed and summarized in the article. Feasibility of updating process of territorial convergence of economic systems with differential features of development is outlined. It is proved a necessity of developing a promising concept for the development of rural border areas, which will promote sustainable development based on the consideration of socio-economic, natural and environmental characteristics of the ...

  3. An empirical analysis of airline business model convergence

    OpenAIRE

    Daft, Jost; Albers, Sascha

    2014-01-01

    Based on a sample of 26 European passenger airlines, this study analyzes the development of airline business models over time. We used various distance measures to calculate concrete differentiation levels among these airlines between 2004 and 2012. The results indicate increasing similarity among these airlines, which lends support to the generally assumed convergence trend. The present paper complements the mostly qualitative and anecdotal literature on convergence in the airline industry, ...

  4. A simple cell-based assay reveals that diverse neuropsychiatric risk genes converge on primary cilia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron Marley

    Full Text Available Human genetic studies are beginning to identify a large number of genes linked to neuropsychiatric disorders. It is increasingly evident that different genes contribute to risk for similar syndromes and, conversely, the same genes or even the same alleles cross over traditional diagnostic categories. A current challenge is to understand the cellular biology of identified risk genes. However, most genes associated with complex neuropsychiatric phenotypes are not related through a known biochemical pathway, and many have an entirely unknown cellular function. One possibility is that diverse disease-linked genes converge at a higher-level cellular structure. The synapse is already known to be one such convergence, and emerging evidence suggests the primary cilium as another. Because many genes associated with neuropsychiatric illness are expressed also outside the nervous system, as are cilia, we tested the hypothesis that such genes affect conserved features of the primary cilium. Using RNA interference to test 41 broadly expressed candidate genes associated with schizophrenia, bipolar affective disorder, autism spectrum disorder and intellectual disability, we found 20 candidates that reduce ciliation in NIH3T3 cells when knocked down, and three whose manipulation increases cilia length. Three of the candidate genes were previously implicated in cilia formation and, altogether, approximately half of the candidates tested produced a ciliary phenotype. Our results support the hypothesis that primary cilia indeed represent a conserved cellular structure at which the effects of diverse neuropsychiatric risk genes converge. More broadly, they suggest a relatively simple cell-based approach that may be useful for exploring the complex biological underpinnings of neuropsychiatric disease.

  5. Convergence Analysis of a Finite Difference Scheme for the Gradient Flow associated with the ROF Model

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, Qianying; Lai, Ming-Jun; Wang, Jingyue

    2013-01-01

    We present a convergence analysis of a finite difference scheme for the time dependent partial different equation called gradient flow associated with the Rudin-Osher-Fatemi model. We devise an iterative algorithm to compute the solution of the finite difference scheme and prove the convergence of the iterative algorithm. Finally computational experiments are shown to demonstrate the convergence of the finite difference scheme. An application for image denoising is given.

  6. On the Convergence of the Homotopy Analysis Method for Solving Fredholm Integral Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behzad GHANBARI

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to study the convergence of the Homotopy analysis method (HAM for solving Fredholm integral equations. A sufficient condition for convergence of the method is illustrated. The validity of the presented condition for convergence of the HAM is studied for two examples. The comparison of the obtained results by the method with an exact solution shows that the method is reliable and capable of providing analytic treatment for solving such equations.

  7. Comparative genomics reveals convergent rates of evolution in ant–plant mutualisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Benjamin E. R.; Moreau, Corrie S.

    2016-01-01

    Symbiosis—the close and often long-term interaction of species—is predicted to drive genome evolution in a variety of ways. For example, parasitic interactions have been shown to increase rates of molecular evolution, a trend generally attributed to the Red Queen Hypothesis. However, it is much less clear how mutualisms impact the genome, as both increased and reduced rates of change have been predicted. Here we sequence the genomes of seven species of ants, three that have convergently evolved obligate plant–ant mutualism and four closely related species of non-mutualists. Comparing these sequences, we investigate how genome evolution is shaped by mutualistic behaviour. We find that rates of molecular evolution are higher in the mutualists genome wide, a characteristic apparently not the result of demography. Our results suggest that the intimate relationships of obligate mutualists may lead to selective pressures similar to those seen in parasites, thereby increasing rates of evolution. PMID:27557866

  8. ASYMPTOTIC ANALYSIS OF SHELLS VIA Γ-CONVERGENCE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Karine Genevey

    2000-01-01

    We give a new justification of the linear membrane and flexural shell models.We prove that the sequence of scaled energy functionals associated with the scaled problem Γ-converges to the energy functional associated with a two-dimensional model. This two-dimensional model is a membrane or flexural one, depending on the geometric and kinematic conditions. Then, a classical argument allows to give a new proof of the convergence theorems recently obtained by P.G. Ciarlet, V.Lods and B. Miara.

  9. Maximum-entropy clustering algorithm and its global convergence analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Constructing a batch of differentiable entropy functions touniformly approximate an objective function by means of the maximum-entropy principle, a new clustering algorithm, called maximum-entropy clustering algorithm, is proposed based on optimization theory. This algorithm is a soft generalization of the hard C-means algorithm and possesses global convergence. Its relations with other clustering algorithms are discussed.

  10. Wireless Networks : Analysis, Protocols, Architecture and Towards Convergence

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, P.R.

    2003-01-01

    International audience We present a brief account of some recent work of our group in four areas: i) Information theoretic limits on how much traffic wireless networks can carry. ii) Information theoretically optimal strategies for operating wireless networks. iii) Protocols for media access control, power control, clustering, and routing. iv) The importance of architecture in the oncoming convergence of control with communication and computing.

  11. A note on the convergence of the Zakharov-Kuznetsov equation by homotopy analysis method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Fallahzadeh

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the convergence of Zakharov-Kuznetsov (ZK equation by homotopy analysis method (HAM is investigated. A theorem is proved to guarantee the convergence of HAMand to find the series solution of this equation via a reliable algorithm.

  12. Holocene turbidites reveal earthquake supercycles at a slow convergence plate boundary (Northern Algeria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratzov, Gueorgui; Cattaneo, Antonio; Babonneau, Nathalie; Yelles, Karim; Bracene, Rabah; Lateb, Tassadite; Déverchere, Jacques

    2014-05-01

    Ongoing evidence for earthquake clustering calls upon records over numerous earthquake cycles to improve seismic hazard assessments, especially at places where recurrence times overstep historical records. Here, we show that meaningful information of large earthquakes recurrence intervals over several seismic cycles may be obtained using turbidite record offshore the Algerian margin. The Africa-Eurasia plate boundary is slowly convergent (~3mm/yr), with deformation in the investigated margin segment accommodated mainly onland, along thrusts and strike-slip faults. Historically, two relatively large earthquakes stroke the area in 1954 (Orléansville M6.7) and 1980 (El Asnam M7.3). Holocene turbidites emplaced offshore are triggered by thirteen earthquakes. Most of them tune to paleoseismic record of the El Asnam fault onland, whereas two are slightly diachronous (Boumerdes M6.9 earthquake occurred in 2003. Preliminary results retrieved the traces of historical earthquakes, and established Holocene time-series. They support a similar bimodal seismic distribution, suggesting that earthquake supercycling should be a major strain release process along the Africa-Eurasia plate boundary.

  13. A moment-convergence method for stochastic analysis of biochemical reaction networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiajun; Nie, Qing; Zhou, Tianshou

    2016-05-01

    Traditional moment-closure methods need to assume that high-order cumulants of a probability distribution approximate to zero. However, this strong assumption is not satisfied for many biochemical reaction networks. Here, we introduce convergent moments (defined in mathematics as the coefficients in the Taylor expansion of the probability-generating function at some point) to overcome this drawback of the moment-closure methods. As such, we develop a new analysis method for stochastic chemical kinetics. This method provides an accurate approximation for the master probability equation (MPE). In particular, the connection between low-order convergent moments and rate constants can be more easily derived in terms of explicit and analytical forms, allowing insights that would be difficult to obtain through direct simulation or manipulation of the MPE. In addition, it provides an accurate and efficient way to compute steady-state or transient probability distribution, avoiding the algorithmic difficulty associated with stiffness of the MPE due to large differences in sizes of rate constants. Applications of the method to several systems reveal nontrivial stochastic mechanisms of gene expression dynamics, e.g., intrinsic fluctuations can induce transient bimodality and amplify transient signals, and slow switching between promoter states can increase fluctuations in spatially heterogeneous signals. The overall approach has broad applications in modeling, analysis, and computation of complex biochemical networks with intrinsic noise.

  14. Quantile Regression Analysis on Convergence of China’s Regional Economic Growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kun; HE

    2014-01-01

    Using quantile regression method,this paper made an empirical analysis on convergence of China’s regional economic growth since the reform and opening-up.It firstly introduced principle of quantile regression method and related theories of convergence of economic growth.Through discussing interprovincial variation coefficient of GDP per capita,it carried out σ convergence analysis on economic growth and divided 3 decades since the reform and opening-up into 3 stages.Then,it made a comparative analysis of absolute β convergence on 3 stages using least-squares estimation and quantile regression method,and also stressed the advantage of quantile regression method.On this basis,it made an in-depth study on conditional β convergence at 3 stages.Empirical results indicate that there is absolute and conditional convergence at the first stage,no convergence at the second stage,and weak convergence at the third stage.Finally,it discussed weak points in this study and came up with recommendations for future studies.

  15. The Power of Inbreeding: NGS-Based GWAS of Rice Reveals Convergent Evolution during Rice Domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongru; Xu, Xun; Vieira, Filipe Garrett; Xiao, Yunhua; Li, Zhikang; Wang, Jun; Nielsen, Rasmus; Chu, Chengcai

    2016-07-01

    Low-coverage whole-genome sequencing is an effective strategy for genome-wide association studies in humans, due to the availability of large reference panels for genotype imputation. However, it is unclear whether this strategy can be utilized in other species without reference panels. Using simulations, we show that this approach is even more relevant in inbred species such as rice (Oryza sativa L.), which are effectively haploid, allowing easy haplotype construction and imputation-based genotype calling, even without the availability of large reference panels. We sequenced 203 rice varieties with well-characterized phenotypes from the United States Department of Agriculture Rice Mini-Core Collection at an average depth of 1.5× and used the data for mapping three traits. For the first two traits, amylose content and seed length, our approach leads to direct identification of the previously identified causal SNPs in the major-effect loci. For the third trait, pericarp color, an important trait underwent selection during domestication, we identified a new major-effect locus. Although known loci can explain color variation in the varieties of two main subspecies of Asian domesticated rice, japonica and indica, the new locus identified is unique to another domesticated rice subgroup, aus, and together with existing loci, can fully explain the major variation in pericarp color in aus. Our discovery of a unique genetic basis of white pericarp in aus provides an example of convergent evolution during rice domestication and suggests that aus may have a domestication history independent of japonica and indica. PMID:27179918

  16. Stochastic analysis and convergence velocity estimation of genetic algorithms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭观七; 喻寿益

    2003-01-01

    Formulizations of mutation and crossover operators independent of representation of solutions are proposed. A kind of precisely quantitative Markov chain of populations of standard genetic algorithms is modeled. It is proved that inadequate parameters of mutation and crossover probabilities degenerate standard genetic algorithm to a class of random search algorithms without selection bias toward any solution based on fitness. After introducing elitist reservation, the stochastic matrix of Markov chain of the best-so-far individual with the highest fitness is derived.The average convergence velocity of genetic algorithms is defined as the mathematical expectation of the mean absorbing time steps that the best-so-far individual transfers from any initial solution to the global optimum. Using the stochastic matrix of the best-so-far individual, a theoretic method and the computing process of estimating the average convergence velocity are proposed.

  17. Human Capital Convergence in Greece: A Panel Data Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    George Liaskos; Papadas, Christos T.

    2009-01-01

    The neoclassical growth model has been supported by a large amount of regional and cross-country studies providing evidence of â-convergence. Nevertheless, it faces theoretical and empirical challenges which are still the subject of research on the dynamics of growth. Consideration of human capital accumulation has strengthened the theoretical foundations of the model, especially its open economy version. It has also improved the explanatory power of the model and its usefulness in quantitati...

  18. Convergence Analysis of Two-Node CMFD Method for Two-Group Neutron Diffusion Eigenvalue Problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nonlinear coarse-mesh finite difference method with two-node local problem (CMFD2N) is proven to be unconditionally stable for neutron diffusion eigenvalue problem. The explicit expression of current correction factor (CCF) has been derived based on the analytic two-node nodal method (ANM2N) and Fourier analysis is applied to the linearized algorithm. There have been several successes applying the Cefus and Larsen's approach to algorithms with fixed source neutron diffusion problems. It is numerically and analytically proven that the convergence rate for CMFD2N algorithm is independent of the whole problem size but dependent on only the mesh size, and also unconditionally stable at least for the given problem. The convergence rate of the CMFD2N algorithm is explicitly calculated by Fourier analysis. From the form of the analytically calculated convergence rate, it is possible to know that the convergence rate is dependent on a product of the mesh size and the converged second harmonic buckling, which is defined by cross section data. The theoretically calculated convergence rate is identical with the numerically measured convergence rate. It is analytically proven that the convergence rate is unconditionally stable for the neutron diffusion eigenvalue problem

  19. Correlation Analysis between Nominal and Real Convergence. The Romanian Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius-Corneliu Marinas

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze the sources of the correlation between the nominal and real convergence, as well as the impact of the macroeconomic politics on it. The perspective of Euro adoption will impose stricter management of monetary and budgetary politics, which will affect negatively the catching up process of the economic delays given the lack of higher economic flexibility. This enables a more rapid adjustment of the economy to some persistent shocks as a result of applying growth aggregate supply politics.

  20. Space–time convergence analysis on BWR stability using TRACE/PARCS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Quantify TRACE/PARCS space–time discretization error for BWR stability prediction. ► Establish space and time discretization necessary for space–time converged models. ► Show that the space–time converged model gives more reliable results for both stable and unstable reactor. ► Use of the space–time converged model increases confidence in the prediction of BWR stability. -- Abstract: Unstable behavior of Boiling Water Reactors (BWRs) is known to occur during operation at certain power and flow conditions. Even though BWR instability is not a severe safety concern, it could cause reactor scram and significantly decrease the economic performance of the plant. This paper aims to (a) quantify TRACE/PARCS space–time discretization error for simulation of BWR stability, (b) establish space (nodalization) and time discretization necessary for space–time converged model and (c) show that the space–time converged model gives more reliable results for both stable and unstable reactor. The space–time converged model is obtained when further refinement of numerical discretization parameters (nodalization and time step) has negligible effect on the solution. The study is significant because performing a space–time convergence analysis is a necessary step of qualification of the TRACE/PARCS model, and use of the space–time converged model increases confidence in the prediction of BWR stability.

  1. Convergence analysis of a monotonic penalty method for American option pricing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kai; Yang, Xiaoqi; Teo, Kok Lay

    2008-12-01

    This paper is devoted to study the convergence analysis of a monotonic penalty method for pricing American options. A monotonic penalty method is first proposed to solve the complementarity problem arising from the valuation of American options, which produces a nonlinear degenerated parabolic PDE with Black-Scholes operator. Based on the variational theory, the solvability and convergence properties of this penalty approach are established in a proper infinite dimensional space. Moreover, the convergence rate of the combination of two power penalty functions is obtained.

  2. Decompositions of Hilbert spaces, stability analysis and convergence probabilities for discrete-time quantum dynamical semigroups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate convergence properties of discrete-time semigroup quantum dynamics, including asymptotic stability, probability and speed of convergence to pure states and subspaces. These properties are of interest in both the analysis of uncontrolled evolutions and the engineering of controlled dynamics for quantum information processing. Our results include two Hilbert space decompositions that allow for deciding the stability of the subspace of interest and for estimating of the speed of convergence, as well as a formula to obtain the limit probability distribution for a set of orthogonal invariant subspaces. (paper)

  3. Finite element method and isogeometric analysis in electronic structure calculations: convergence study

    CERN Document Server

    Cimrman, Robert; Kolman, Radek; Tůma, Miroslav; Vackář, Jiří

    2015-01-01

    We compare convergence of isogeometric analysis (IGA), a spline modification of finite element method (FEM), with FEM in the context of our real space code for ab-initio electronic structure calculations of non-periodic systems. The convergence is studied on simple sub-problems that appear within the density functional theory approximation to the Schr\\"odinger equation: the Poisson problem and the generalized eigenvalue problem. We also outline the complete iterative algorithm seeking a fixed point of the charge density of a system of atoms or molecules, and study IGA/FEM convergence on a benchmark problem of nitrogen atom.

  4. Breaks and Convergence in U.S. Regional Crime Rates: Analysis of Their Presence and Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Steve Cook; Duncan Watson

    2013-01-01

    The literature examining the relative properties of U.S. regional crime rates is extended. Using a novel method, convergence in alternative classifications of crime is detected over the period 1965 to 2009. Subsequent statistical analysis identifies distinct epochs in the evolution of crime which match those noted anecdotally in the literature. The findings concerning convergence within these epochs prove interesting, with results found to vary both between the alternative crime classificatio...

  5. Convergence analysis of sectional methods for solving aggregation population balance equations: The fixed pivot technique

    OpenAIRE

    Giri, Ankik Kumar; Hausenblas, Erika

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce the convergence analysis of the fixed pivot technique given by S.Kumar and Ramkrishna \\cite{Kumar:1996-1} for the nonlinear aggregation population balance equations which are of substantial interest in many areas of science: colloid chemistry, aerosol physics, astrophysics, polymer science, oil recovery dynamics, and mathematical biology. In particular, we investigate the convergence for five different types of uniform and non-uniform meshes which turns out that th...

  6. Estimation of the convergence order of rigorous coupled-wave analysis for OCD metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yuan; Liu, Shiyuan; Chen, Xiuguo; Zhang, Chuanwei

    2011-12-01

    In most cases of optical critical dimension (OCD) metrology, when applying rigorous coupled-wave analysis (RCWA) to optical modeling, a high order of Fourier harmonics is usually set up to guarantee the convergence of the final results. However, the total number of floating point operations grows dramatically as the truncation order increases. Therefore, it is critical to choose an appropriate order to obtain high computational efficiency without losing much accuracy in the meantime. In this paper, the convergence order associated with the structural and optical parameters has been estimated through simulation. The results indicate that the convergence order is linear with the period of the sample when fixing the other parameters, both for planar diffraction and conical diffraction. The illuminated wavelength also affects the convergence of a final result. With further investigations concentrated on the ratio of illuminated wavelength to period, it is discovered that the convergence order decreases with the growth of the ratio, and when the ratio is fixed, convergence order jumps slightly, especially in a specific range of wavelength. This characteristic could be applied to estimate the optimum convergence order of given samples to obtain high computational efficiency.

  7. Application of Convergence Confinement Analysis to the study of preceding displacement of a squeezing rock tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitagawa, T.; Kumeta, T.; Ichizyo, T.; Soga, S.; Sato, M.; Yasukawa, M.

    1991-01-01

    This paper deals with a study on the geomechanical behavior of the rock mass around the tunnel. The Convergence Confinement Analysis is one of the most appropriate way to estimate this behavior. Elasto-plastic models proposed by Hoek and Brown, Egger and Kastner were adopted in this study. Measurements of the preceding displacement were performed in a road tunnel in Japan, the geology of which is Neogene squeezing mudstone. The measured data was compared with the results of Convergence Confinement Analysis. The preceding displacement was about 40% against the upper bench face converged displacement and 17% against the final converged displacement. Meanwhile, it increased drastically in lower bench excavation step. Back analysis was also executed to calculate the extension of the plastic zone of the rock mass, which was half of that estimated by Convergence Confinement Analysis in upper bench excavation step. But, in lower bench excavation step, the results of the two analyses were very similar. The support pressure and support stiffness were also calculated.

  8. Nominal Convergence

    OpenAIRE

    Aurel Iancu

    2008-01-01

    After presenting the institutional construction during the pre-accession and post-accession to the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU), the exchange rate mechanisms (ERM) in several countries and the convergence criteria, we go on with a brief analysis of the way the CEE countries cope with the convergence criteria in accordance with the Maastricht Treaty. Then, the study deals with a topic often discussed in the scientific literature and included on the agenda of decision-makers at various lev...

  9. Convergence of finite element calculations of shielding factors in multigroup reactor analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finite Element-Spherical Harmonics Transport calculations can lead to accurate values of group shielding factors in reactor analysis. A benchmark problem in resonance absorption in a lattice unit cell is considered to study the convergence of the results obtained by this approach. The treatment refers to a representative symmetry portion of the unit cell for which the boundary conditions can be handled precisely for any specified order of the angular expansion of the neutron flux. Complementary approaches using variational methods are available to bracket desired results of the analysis, such as shielding factors or effective resonance integrals, between upper and lower bounds. This convergence is discussed

  10. A genotype network reveals homoplastic cycles of convergent evolution in influenza A (H3N2) haemagglutinin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Andreas

    2014-07-01

    Networks of evolving genotypes can be constructed from the worldwide time-resolved genotyping of pathogens like influenza viruses. Such genotype networks are graphs where neighbouring vertices (viral strains) differ in a single nucleotide or amino acid. A rich trove of network analysis methods can help understand the evolutionary dynamics reflected in the structure of these networks. Here, I analyse a genotype network comprising hundreds of influenza A (H3N2) haemagglutinin genes. The network is rife with cycles that reflect non-random parallel or convergent (homoplastic) evolution. These cycles also show patterns of sequence change characteristic for strong and local evolutionary constraints, positive selection and mutation-limited evolution. Such cycles would not be visible on a phylogenetic tree, illustrating that genotype network analysis can complement phylogenetic analyses. The network also shows a distinct modular or community structure that reflects temporal more than spatial proximity of viral strains, where lowly connected bridge strains connect different modules. These and other organizational patterns illustrate that genotype networks can help us study evolution in action at an unprecedented level of resolution. PMID:24827434

  11. Determining the area of convergence in Bloodstain Pattern Analysis: a probabilistic approach

    CERN Document Server

    Camana, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    A complete procedure for identifying the area of convergence of blood drops originated from a single static source is presented. Both for bloodstains lying on an horizontal and on a vertical plane a complete study is developed, based on error analysis and on an opportunely defined joint probability density for the orientation of the horizontal projections of the trajectories of the drops. The method generates a probabilistic map for the area of convergence, directly linking the angles of impact, and their uncertainties, to the projection on the ground of the point of origin. One of the objectives consists in providing a statistical definition of area of convergence, extending to this topic the mathematical accuracy of the calculation of the angle of impact in bloodstain pattern analysis (BPA).

  12. Convergence study of isogeometic analysis in poisson problem

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cimrman, R.; Kolman, Radek; Vejchodský, Tomáš

    Praha : Ústav termomechaniky AV ČR, v. v. i, 2015 - (Plešek, J.; Gabriel, D.; Kolman, R.; Masák, J.), s. 15-16 ISBN 978-80-87012-56-7. [Výpočty konstrukcí metodou konečných prvků 2015. Praha (CZ), 26.11.2015] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP101/12/2315 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 ; RVO:67985840 Keywords : poisson problem * isogeometric analysis * finite element method Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  13. Spectrum analysis of hydrogen plasma in spherically convergent beam fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spectroscopic analysis of spherical glow discharge fusion device was carried out using hydrogen gas. Effects of the discharge current and cathode voltage on spectrum profiles of hydrogen Balmar lines were measured. The profiles of all hydrogen lines were broadened with the cathode voltage. From the relationship between the maximum broadening width and the cathode voltage, it was indicated that the broadening was caused by the Doppler effect. From the spatial distribution of emission intensity, it was found that plasma core size became larger with discharge current and smaller with cathode voltage. (author)

  14. Spectrum analysis of hydrogen plasma in spherically convergent beam fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogasawara, Kazuki; Yamauchi, Kunihito; Watanabe, Masato; Sunaga, Yoshitaka; Hotta, Eiki [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Dept. of Energy Sciences, Yokohama, Kanagawa (Japan); Okino, Akitoshi [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Dept. of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Tokyo (Japan)

    2001-09-01

    Spectroscopic analysis of spherical glow discharge fusion device was carried out using hydrogen gas. Effects of the discharge current and cathode voltage on spectrum profiles of hydrogen Balmar lines were measured. The profiles of all hydrogen lines were broadened with the cathode voltage. From the relationship between the maximum broadening width and the cathode voltage, it was indicated that the broadening was caused by the Doppler effect. From the spatial distribution of emission intensity, it was found that plasma core size became larger with discharge current and smaller with cathode voltage. (author)

  15. Do Regional Price Levels Converge?

    OpenAIRE

    Christian Dreger; Reinhold Kosfeld

    2010-01-01

    We investigate price level convergence on the base of regional data for 439 German districts. Prices refer to the overall consumer price index as well as to the index without housing prices. To increase the efficiency of the testing framework, the analysis is based on panel unit root tests. First and second generation tests are applied. They indicate a lack of regional price convergence, as the null hypothesis of a unit root is usually not rejected. The second generation tests reveal that the...

  16. Comparative studies on the administrative convergence revealed by national strategies of administrative reform in some South-Eastern European states

    OpenAIRE

    Lucica MATEI; Matei, Ani; Zanovschi, Diana; Stoian, Oana

    2010-01-01

    The paper has as main topic the administrative convergence and its reflection in the national strategies of administrative reform in some states in South Eastern Europe. Having a complex content, sometimes even ambigous, the administrative convergence will have as finality the integration in the European Administrative Space and the administrative reforms as support. From this prospect, the South-Eastern Europe has a certain specificity emphasised by: different positions of the states under d...

  17. A note on convergence analysis of NURBS curve when weights approach infinity

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Mao

    2016-01-01

    This article considers the convergence of NURBS curve when weights approach infinity. We shows that limit of NURBS curve dose not exist when independent variables weights approach infinity. Further, pointwise convergence uniform convergence and $L^1$ convergence are researched.

  18. Convergence analysis of the rebalance methods in multiplying finite slab having periodic boundary conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Ser Gi; Lee, Young Ouk; Song, Jae Seung [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejon (Korea, Republic of)], e-mail: hongsg@kaeri.re.rr, e-mail: yolee@kaeri.re.rr, e-mail: jssong@kaeri.re.rr

    2009-07-01

    This paper analyzes the convergence of the rebalance iteration methods for the discrete ordinates transport equation in the multiplying finite slab problem. The finite slab is assumed to be homogeneous and it has the periodic boundary conditions. A general formulation is used to include three well-known rebalance methods of the linearized form in a unified way. The rebalance iteration methods considered in this paper are the CMR (Coarse-Mesh Rebalance), the CMFD (Coarse-Mesh Finite Difference), and p-CMFD (Partial Current-Based Coarse Mesh Finite Difference) methods which have been popularly used in the reactor physics. The convergence analysis is performed with the well-known Fourier analysis through a linearization. The analyses are applied for one-group problems. The theoretical analysis shows that there are one fundamental mode and N-1 Eigen-modes which determine the convergence if the finite slab is divided into N uniform meshes. The numerical tests show that the Fourier convergence analysis provides the reasonable estimate of the numerical spectral radii for the model problems and the spectral radius for the finite slab approaches the one for the infinite slab as the thickness of the slab increases. (author)

  19. Convergence analysis of the rebalance methods in multiplying finite slab having periodic boundary conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper analyzes the convergence of the rebalance iteration methods for the discrete ordinates transport equation in the multiplying finite slab problem. The finite slab is assumed to be homogeneous and it has the periodic boundary conditions. A general formulation is used to include three well-known rebalance methods of the linearized form in a unified way. The rebalance iteration methods considered in this paper are the CMR (Coarse-Mesh Rebalance), the CMFD (Coarse-Mesh Finite Difference), and p-CMFD (Partial Current-Based Coarse Mesh Finite Difference) methods which have been popularly used in the reactor physics. The convergence analysis is performed with the well-known Fourier analysis through a linearization. The analyses are applied for one-group problems. The theoretical analysis shows that there are one fundamental mode and N-1 Eigen-modes which determine the convergence if the finite slab is divided into N uniform meshes. The numerical tests show that the Fourier convergence analysis provides the reasonable estimate of the numerical spectral radii for the model problems and the spectral radius for the finite slab approaches the one for the infinite slab as the thickness of the slab increases. (author)

  20. Convergence rate analysis of the first-stage Runge–Kutta-type regularizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work is devoted to the convergence rate analysis of the first stage Runge–Kutta-type iterative regularization method under the Hölder-type source condition together with Morozov's discrepancy principle. Our result shows that the order optimal rate can be obtained

  1. Convergence Time Analysis of Particle Swarm Optimization Based on Particle Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Hong Chen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyze the convergence time of particle swarm optimization (PSO on the facet of particle interaction. We firstly introduce a statistical interpretation of social-only PSO in order to capture the essence of particle interaction, which is one of the key mechanisms of PSO. We then use the statistical model to obtain theoretical results on the convergence time. Since the theoretical analysis is conducted on the social-only model of PSO, instead of on common models in practice, to verify the validity of our results, numerical experiments are executed on benchmark functions with a regular PSO program.

  2. A convergence analysis for a sweeping preconditioner for block tridiagonal systems of linear equations

    KAUST Repository

    Bagci, Hakan

    2014-11-11

    We study sweeping preconditioners for symmetric and positive definite block tridiagonal systems of linear equations. The algorithm provides an approximate inverse that can be used directly or in a preconditioned iterative scheme. These algorithms are based on replacing the Schur complements appearing in a block Gaussian elimination direct solve by hierarchical matrix approximations with reduced off-diagonal ranks. This involves developing low rank hierarchical approximations to inverses. We first provide a convergence analysis for the algorithm for reduced rank hierarchical inverse approximation. These results are then used to prove convergence and preconditioning estimates for the resulting sweeping preconditioner.

  3. Tikhonov regularization applied to the inverse problem of option pricing: convergence analysis and rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egger, Herbert; Engl, Heinz W.

    2005-06-01

    This paper investigates the stable identification of local volatility surfaces σ(S, t) in the Black-Scholes/Dupire equation from market prices of European Vanilla options. Based on the properties of the parameter-to-solution mapping, which assigns option prices to given volatilities, we show stability and convergence of approximations gained by Tikhonov regularization. In the case of a known term-structure of the volatility surface, in particular, if the volatility is assumed to be constant in time, we prove convergence rates under simple smoothness and decay conditions on the true volatility. The convergence rate analysis sheds light onto the importance of an appropriate a priori guess for the unknown volatility and the nature of the ill-posedness of the inverse problem, caused by smoothing properties and the nonlinearity of the direct problem. Finally, the theoretical results are illustrated by numerical experiments.

  4. Integrative network analysis unveils convergent molecular pathways in Parkinson's disease and diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose A Santiago

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Shared dysregulated pathways may contribute to Parkinson's disease and type 2 diabetes, chronic diseases that afflict millions of people worldwide. Despite the evidence provided by epidemiological and gene profiling studies, the molecular and functional networks implicated in both diseases, have not been fully explored. In this study, we used an integrated network approach to investigate the extent to which Parkinson's disease and type 2 diabetes are linked at the molecular level. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Using a random walk algorithm within the human functional linkage network we identified a molecular cluster of 478 neighboring genes closely associated with confirmed Parkinson's disease and type 2 diabetes genes. Biological and functional analysis identified the protein serine-threonine kinase activity, MAPK cascade, activation of the immune response, and insulin receptor and lipid signaling as convergent pathways. Integration of results from microarrays studies identified a blood signature comprising seven genes whose expression is dysregulated in Parkinson's disease and type 2 diabetes. Among this group of genes, is the amyloid precursor protein (APP, previously associated with neurodegeneration and insulin regulation. Quantification of RNA from whole blood of 192 samples from two independent clinical trials, the Harvard Biomarker Study (HBS and the Prognostic Biomarker Study (PROBE, revealed that expression of APP is significantly upregulated in Parkinson's disease patients compared to healthy controls. Assessment of biomarker performance revealed that expression of APP could distinguish Parkinson's disease from healthy individuals with a diagnostic accuracy of 80% in both cohorts of patients. CONCLUSIONS: These results provide the first evidence that Parkinson's disease and diabetes are strongly linked at the molecular level and that shared molecular networks provide an additional source for identifying highly sensitive biomarkers

  5. Sustainable development induction in organizations: a convergence analysis of ISO standards management tools' parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlin, Fabrício Kurman; Pereira, Vera Lúciaduarte do Valle; Pacheco, Waldemar

    2012-01-01

    Organizations are part of an environment in which they are pressured to meet society's demands and acting in a sustainable way. In an attempt to meet such demands, organizations make use of various management tools, among which, ISO standards are used. Although there are evidences of contributions provided by these standards, it is questionable whether its parameters converge for a possible induction for sustainable development in organizations. This work presents a theoretical study, designed on structuralism world view, descriptive and deductive method, which aims to analyze the convergence of management tools' parameters in ISO standards. In order to support the analysis, a generic framework for possible convergence was developed, based on systems approach, linking five ISO standards (ISO 9001, ISO 14001, OHSAS 18001, ISO 31000 and ISO 26000) with sustainable development and positioning them according to organization levels (strategic, tactical and operational). The structure was designed based on Brundtland report concept. The analysis was performed exploring the generic framework for possible convergence based on Nadler and Tushman model. The results found the standards can contribute to a possible sustainable development induction in organizations, as long as they meet certain minimum conditions related to its strategic alignment. PMID:22317134

  6. Regional Convergence and Sustainable Development in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the convergence theory of economic growth, this paper extends this concept to the human development index and carries out an empirical analysis of regional development in China between 1997 and 2006. Our research shows that the conditional convergence has been identified. Investment in fixed assets, government expenditure on education, health and infrastructure construction have positive effects on regional convergence of social development. Population weighted analysis of human development index provides support for weak convergence amongst provinces. Analysis of dynamics of regional distribution reveals the club convergence, which indicate two different convergence states. Central China is in the shade and lags behind, giving rise to the so-called “central downfall”. To solve this problem, the “Rise of Central China” Plan is necessary to promote the connection between coastal and inland regions of China and reduce the regional development gap.

  7. Analysis of convergent gene transcripts in the obligate intracellular bacterium Rickettsia prowazekii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Woodard

    Full Text Available Termination of transcription is an important component of bacterial gene expression. However, little is known concerning this process in the obligate intracellular pathogen and model for reductive evolution, Rickettsia prowazekii. To assess transcriptional termination in this bacterium, transcripts of convergent gene pairs, some containing predicted intrinsic terminators, were analyzed. These analyses revealed that, rather than terminating at a specific site within the intervening region between the convergent genes, most of the transcripts demonstrated either a lack of termination within this region, which generated antisense RNA, or a putative non-site-specific termination that occurred throughout the intervening sequence. Transcripts terminating at predicted intrinsic terminators, as well as at a putative Rho-dependant terminator, were also examined and found to vary based on the rickettsial host environment. These results suggest that transcriptional termination, or lack thereof, plays a role in rickettsial gene regulation.

  8. POLICY CONVERGENCE IN EUROPEAN EMERGING POLITIES: A CONTENT ANALYSIS ON SELECTED CROSS-BORDER COOPERATION STRUCTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin COJANU

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper starts from the hypothesis that the viability of emerging territorial units depends on the way their members reach a converging approach towards issues of common concern. Based on previous results, we rank ten selected cross-border cooperation structures (CBCS according to their institutional strength as a measure of assessment of their viability as polity. Data are then collected for each CBCS for three areas of cooperation, i.e. economy, society, and environment, in the form of policy documents. The analysis uses text mining techniques to explore the content of documents on each selected region and on each areas of cooperation. The results are further explored inside a thematic mapping of clusters, which is analysed through content analysis. The goal is to investigate and assess what is the cross-border cooperation level of policy convergence inside EU selected case studies, based on the emerging themes.

  9. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD Analysis of Natural Convection of Convergent-Divergent Fins in Marine Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Alawadhi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD analysis was carried out for the convergent-divergent fins arranged inline and staggered on the base plate as per the experimental setup provided in the technical paper [1]. This paper reports on the validation of results of modeling and simulation in CFD. The simulation was carried out using the ANSYS 12.0 as the CFD modeling software. The main objective of the CFD analysis was to calculate the temperature distribution on the surface of the base plate and surface of the convergent-divergent fins for the given inline and staggered arrangement of fins due to the effect of natural convection heat transfer for different heat power inputs, and also to compare the CFD results with the experimental results.

  10. Convergence Analysis of the Lowest Order Weakly Penalized Adaptive Discontinuous Galerkin Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Gudi, Thirupathi; Guzmán, Johnny

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we prove convergence of the weakly penalized adaptive discontinuous Galerkin methods. Unlike other works, we derive the contraction property for various discontinuous Galerkin methods only assuming the stabilizing parameters are large enough to stabilize the method. A central idea in the analysis is to construct an auxiliary solution from the discontinuous Galerkin solution by a simple post processing. Based on the auxiliary solution, we define the adaptive algorithm which gu...

  11. Aspects of incidence of convergence telejournalism: analysis of fragments of context instances Brazilian

    OpenAIRE

    Eloisa Joseane da Cunha Klein

    2012-01-01

    This text reflects on the affectations of mediatization on the field of journalism in the context of digital convergence, considering changes in news production, shift in the relationship of the actors in the field and with the reception. The text makes preliminary considerations on the ways in which television journalism interacts with digital tools - from partial analysis of how television program Profession Reporter uses such tools. Also stressed are two cases on the affectation of the soc...

  12. Analysis of the Convergence Process by EXIT Charts for Parallel Implementations of Turbo Decoders

    OpenAIRE

    Sanchez, O.; Jego, Christophe; JEZEQUEL, Michel

    2013-01-01

    International audience Iterative process is a general principle in decoding powerful FEC codes such as turbo codes. However, the mutual information exchange during the iterative process is not easy to analyze and to describe. A useful technique to help the designer is the EXtrinsic Information Transfer (EXIT) chart. Unfortunately, this method cannot be directly applied to the decoding convergence analysis if parallel processing has to be exploited for the design of turbo decoders. In this ...

  13. Convergence analysis of a class of massively parallel direction splitting algorithms for the Navier-Stokes equations in simple domains

    KAUST Repository

    Guermond, Jean-Luc

    2012-01-01

    We provide a convergence analysis for a new fractional timestepping technique for the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations based on direction splitting. This new technique is of linear complexity, unconditionally stable and convergent, and suitable for massive parallelization. © 2012 American Mathematical Society.

  14. Experimental and numerical performance analysis of a converging channel heat exchanger for PV cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Effect of varying converging angle on temperature characteristics of PV surface studied. • Optical, CFD, thermal, and electrical models developed for the analysis. • Experimental measurements carried out for two configurations for June and December. • Using this cooling technique, maximum cell temperature reduction was 57.8%. • Maximum percentage improvement in power output was 35.5%. - Abstract: An experimental and numerical investigation of a cooling technique called as converging channel cooling intended to achieve low and uniform temperature on the surface of PV panel is presented in this paper. Experimental evaluation for an uncooled PV system and a converging channel cooled PV system was carried out subjected to the hot climate of Saudi Arabia for the month of June and December. Detailed modeling was performed using numerical analysis to investigate the effect of changing the converging angle on the thermal characteristics of the PV system. Based on the developed model, two degrees angle showed the best performance in terms of temperature distribution and average cell temperature with a standard deviation of 0.91 °C. A comprehensive system model was developed to assess the performance of PV systems numerically by coupling the optical, radiation, thermal, computational fluid dynamics, and electrical model. Thermal measurements for an uncooled PV showed cell temperature as high as 71.2 °C and 48.3 °C for the month of June and December, respectively. By employing converging cooling, cell temperature was reduced significantly to 45.1 °C for June and to 36.4 °C for December. Maximum percentage improvement in power output was 35.5% whereas maximum percentage increase in the conversion efficiency was 36.1% when compared to the performance of an uncooled PV system. For cost feasibility of an uncooled and cooled PV system, levelized cost of energy (LCE) analysis was performed using the annual energy yield simulation for both systems. LCE

  15. Diclosure and transparency in public sector: an analysis of convergence of the principles of governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luzia Zorzal

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Studies on disclosure of private institutions are common, but do not occur when it comes to public institutions, where the disclosure of management is still very limited. Purpose: The article is part of doctorate research in Information Science in progress and investigates the principles of disclosure and transparency in the light of good governance practices applied to the public sector, to reduce information asymmetry and presents part of this research. Methodology: The methodological procedures were performed literature search and content analysis to identify the principles and standards of good governance practices recommended for public administration, aiming to systematize these recommendations as instruments of governance and verify the convergence of the principles of disclosure and transparency. Results: Partial results show convergence of disclosure and transparency principles. Conclusions: Indicate that public institutions should worry about performing the practices of good governance as a way to mitigate the informational asymmetry.

  16. Aspects of incidence of convergence telejournalism: analysis of fragments of context instances Brazilian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eloisa Joseane da Cunha Klein

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This text reflects on the affectations of mediatization on the field of journalism in the context of digital convergence, considering changes in news production, shift in the relationship of the actors in the field and with the reception. The text makes preliminary considerations on the ways in which television journalism interacts with digital tools - from partial analysis of how television program Profession Reporter uses such tools. Also stressed are two cases on the affectation of the social uses of digital media on the television news: the first, linked to the impact of a Profession Reporter edition on domestic violence (2009, the second, the impact of a case highlighted in social networks in TV journalism. Thus, we consider the issues of communication circulation, accentuated by digital convergence

  17. Analysis of convergence for initial condition estimation of coupled map lattices based on symbolic dynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Li-Sha; Kang Xiao-Yun; Lin Lan-Xin

    2010-01-01

    A novel approach to the inverse problem of diffusively coupled map lattices is systematically investigated by utilizing the symbolic vector dynamics. The relationship between the performance of initial condition estimation and the structural feature of dynamical system is proved theoretically. It is found that any point in a spatiotemporal coupled system is not necessary to converge to its initial value with respect to sufficient backward iteration, which is directly relevant to the coupling strength and local mapping function. When the convergence is met, the error bound in estimating the initial condition is proposed in a noiseless environment, which is determined by the dimension of attractors and metric entropy of the system. Simulation results further confirm the theoretic analysis, and prove that the presented method provides the important theory and experimental results for better analysing and characterizing the spatiotemporal complex behaviours in an actual system.

  18. IT-BT convergence technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book explains IT-BT convergence technology as the future technology, which includes a prolog, easy IT-BT convergence technology that has infinite potentials for new value, policy of IT-BT convergence technology showing the potential of smart Korea, IT-BT convergence opening happy future, for the new future of IT powerful nation Korea with IT-BT convergence technology and an epilogue. This book reveals the conception, policy, performance and future of IT-BT convergence technology.

  19. Convergence Insufficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Conditions Frequently Asked Questions Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Convergence Insufficiency En Español Read in Chinese What is convergence insufficiency? Convergence insufficiency is the inability to maintain ...

  20. Labour Productivity Convergence in 52 Industries: A Panel Data Analysis of Some European Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Tahir Mahmood

    2012-01-01

    ? -convergence and the speed of convergence of labour productivity for 52 industries are studied with a panel of data including 13 European countries. We use fixed effect approach to model the heterogeneity across countries. In primary sector and in service sector, the existence of ? - convergence is found for all industries. In manufacturing sector, convergence is found for all industries except for electronic and computing equipment industries. In general the speed of convergence estimates ...

  1. Convergence Analysis of Contrastive Divergence Algorithm Based on Gradient Method with Errors

    OpenAIRE

    Xuesi Ma; Xiaojie Wang

    2015-01-01

    Contrastive Divergence has become a common way to train Restricted Boltzmann Machines; however, its convergence has not been made clear yet. This paper studies the convergence of Contrastive Divergence algorithm. We relate Contrastive Divergence algorithm to gradient method with errors and derive convergence conditions of Contrastive Divergence algorithm using the convergence theorem of gradient method with errors. We give specific convergence conditions of Contrastive Divergence ...

  2. Metafroniter energy efficiency with CO2 emissions and its convergence analysis for China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper measures the energy efficiency performance with carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in 30 provinces in China during the period of 1997–2011 using a meta-frontier framework with the improved directional distance function (DDF). We construct a new environmental production possibility set by combining the super-efficiency and sequential data envelopment analysis (DEA) models to avoid “discriminating power problem” and “technical regress” when evaluating efficiency by DDF. Then, it is used in a meta-frontier framework to reflect the technology heterogeneities across east, central and west China. The results indicate that eastern China achieved the highest progress inefficiency relative to the metafrontier, followed by western and the central China. By focusing on technology gaps, we offer some suggestions for the different groups based on group-frontier and meta-frontier analyses. The inefficiency can be attributed to managerial failure for eastern and western China, and technological differences for central China. The convergence analysis shows that energy and CO2 emission governance will produce negative effects on economic growth, and it is suitable and acceptable to introduce rigorous environmental measures in eastern China. - Highlights: • We present an improved DEA model to calculate the directional distance function. • The improved directional distance function combines with a meta-frontier analysis. • The reasons of energy inefficiency are varied for different regions. • Convergence analysis means east China should introduce rigorous environmental policy

  3. Nominal Convergence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurel Iancu

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available After presenting the institutional construction during the pre-accession and post-accession to the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU, the exchange rate mechanisms (ERM in several countries and the convergence criteria, we go on with a brief analysis of the way the CEE countries cope with the convergence criteria in accordance with the Maastricht Treaty. Then, the study deals with a topic often discussed in the scientific literature and included on the agenda of decision-makers at various levels, in order to clarify the following major issues: a shorter transition to the euro, the exchange rate equilibrium versus the inflation rate diminution and the Balassa-Samuelson effect, the exchange rates and the exchange rate deviation index, evidences concerning the real exchange rate equilibrium and the appreciation of the exchange rate in the CEE countries.

  4. The convergence space of minimal usco mappings

    OpenAIRE

    Anguelov, R; Kalenda, O. F. K.

    2006-01-01

    A convergence structure generalizing the order convergence structure on the set of Hausdorff continuous interval functions is defined on the set of minimal usco maps. The properties of the obtained convergence space are investigated and essential links with the pointwise convergence and the order convergence are revealed. The convergence structure can be extended to a uniform convergence structure so that the convergence space is complete. The important issue of the denseness of the subset of...

  5. Confocal Raman microspectroscopy reveals a convergence of the chemical composition in methanogenic archaea from a Siberian permafrost-affected soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Paloma; Hermelink, Antje; Lasch, Peter; de Vera, Jean-Pierre; König, Nicole; Burckhardt, Oliver; Wagner, Dirk

    2015-12-01

    Methanogenic archaea are widespread anaerobic microorganisms responsible for the production of biogenic methane. Several new species of psychrotolerant methanogenic archaea were recently isolated from a permafrost-affected soil in the Lena Delta (Siberia, Russia), showing an exceptional resistance against desiccation, osmotic stress, low temperatures, starvation, UV and ionizing radiation when compared to methanogens from non-permafrost environments. To gain a deeper insight into the differences observed in their resistance, we described the chemical composition of methanogenic strains from permafrost and non-permafrost environments using confocal Raman microspectroscopy (CRM). CRM is a powerful tool for microbial identification and provides fingerprint-like information about the chemical composition of the cells. Our results show that the chemical composition of methanogens from permafrost-affected soils presents a high homology and is remarkably different from strains inhabiting non-permafrost environments. In addition, we performed a phylogenetic reconstruction of the studied strains based on the functional gene mcrA to prove the different evolutionary relationship of the permafrost strains. We conclude that the permafrost methanogenic strains show a convergent chemical composition regardless of their genotype. This fact is likely to be the consequence of a complex adaptive process to the Siberian permafrost environment and might be the reason underlying their resistant nature. PMID:26499486

  6. Labour Productivity Convergence in 52 Industries: A Panel Data Analysis of Some European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahir Mahmood

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Beta convergence and the speed of convergence of labour productivity for 52 industries are studied with a panel of data including 13 European countries. We use fixed effect approach to model the heterogeneity across countries. In primary sector and in service sector, the existence of -convergence is found for all industries. In manufacturing sector, convergence is found for all industries except for electronic and computing equipment industries. In general the speed of convergence estimates show slow adjustment. Speed is highest in the capital intensive industries. In primary production the convergence is slowest in agriculture and fastest in fishing industry. In manufacturing sector the convergence is slowest in food, drink and tobacco, and it is fastest in oil refining and nuclear fuel manufacturing industries. By augmenting the productivity models with labour utilization variable speeds up the convergence. Labour utilization is positively related to productivity growth in primary production industries, ICT producing manufacturing industries, and ICT producing services industries.

  7. A Study on Diffusion Pattern of Technology Convergence: Patent Analysis for Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Jae Young Choi; Seongkyoon Jeong; Kyunam Kim

    2015-01-01

    Technology convergence indicates that technologies of different application areas are converted into a new and common unity of technology. Its range spans from inter-field, whereby technologies are converged between heterogeneous fields in homogeneous sector, to a wider inter-sector, whereby technologies belong to heterogeneous technology sector are converged. This paper determined the definition of technology convergence from previous literature and classified patents into technology catego...

  8. Convergence analysis for general linear methods applied to stiff delay differential equations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    For Runge-Kutta methods applied to stiff delay differential equations (DDEs), the concept of D-convergence was proposed, which is an extension to that of B-convergence in ordinary differential equations (ODEs). In this paper, D-convergence of general linear methods is discussed and the previous related results are improved. Some order results to determine D-convergence of the methods are obtained.

  9. Convergence analysis of variational and non-variational multigrid algorithms for the Laplace-Beltrami operator

    KAUST Repository

    Bonito, Andrea

    2012-09-01

    We design and analyze variational and non-variational multigrid algorithms for the Laplace-Beltrami operator on a smooth and closed surface. In both cases, a uniform convergence for the V -cycle algorithm is obtained provided the surface geometry is captured well enough by the coarsest grid. The main argument hinges on a perturbation analysis from an auxiliary variational algorithm defined directly on the smooth surface. In addition, the vanishing mean value constraint is imposed on each level, thereby avoiding singular quadratic forms without adding additional computational cost. Numerical results supporting our analysis are reported. In particular, the algorithms perform well even when applied to surfaces with a large aspect ratio. © 2011 American Mathematical Society.

  10. Searching for convergent evolution in manganese superoxidase dismutase using hydrophobic cluster analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heng Xiang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available There are numerous examples of convergent evolution in nature. Major ecological adaptations such as flight, loss of limbs in vertebrates, pesticide resistance, adaptation to a parasitic way of life, etc., have all evolved more than once, as seen by their analogous functions in separate taxa. But what about protein evolution? Does the environment have a strong enough influence on intracellular processes that enzymes and other functional proteins play, to evolve similar functional roles separately in different organisms? Manganese Superoxide Dismutase (MnSOD is a manganesedependant metallo-enzyme which plays a crucial role in protecting cells from anti-oxidative stress by eliminating reactive (superoxide oxygen species. It is a ubiquitous housekeeping enzyme found in nearly all organisms. In this study we compare phylogenies based on MnSOD protein sequences to those based on scores from Hydrophobic Cluster Analysis (HCA. We calculated HCA similarity values for each pair of taxa to obtain a pair-wise distance matrix. A UPGMA tree based on the HCA distance matrix and a common tree based on the primary protein sequence for MnSOD was constructed. Differences between these two trees within animals, enterobacteriaceae, planctomycetes and cyanobacteria are presented and cited as possible examples of convergence. We note that several residue changes result in changes in hydrophobicity at positions which apparently are under the effect of positive selection.

  11. Food Price Inflation Rates in the Euro Zone: Distribution Dynamics and Convergence Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelos Liontakis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available It is widely recognized that inflation as a monetary phenomenon is determined by money supply changes. In the short run, however, several factors may lead to inflation rate differentials among different regions in the same country or among different countries in a monetary union. This paper examines the mean reversion attitude of food price inflation rates in the Euro zone, borrowing the concepts and developments from the recent growth literature and using panel unit root tests. Additionally, in order to capture sufficiently the evolving distributional dynamics, nonparametric econometric methods are also implemented. Finally, the comovement of the inflation rates among different food subgroups is also explored. The data consist of monthly observations of the EU harmonized consumer price indices of food and three different food subgroups (meat, bread and cereals, and vegetables for the 12 older member states of the Euro zone, covering the period from 1997 to 2010. The results do not fully support the hypothesis of the food price inflation rates convergence for the whole period under investigation. Mean reversion shows up in different time periods and in different food categories. Moreover, the analysis of distribution dynamics sheds light to different aspects of convergence and highlights processes like club formation and polarization.

  12. Stability and convergence analysis of the quasi-dynamics method for the initial pebble packing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The simulation for the pebble flow recirculation within Pebble Bed Reactors (PBRs) requires an efficient algorithm to generate an initial overlap-free pebble configuration within the reactor core. In the previous work, a dynamics-based approach, the Quasi-Dynamics Method (QDM), has been proposed to generate densely distributed pebbles in PBRs with cylindrical and annular core geometries. However, the stability and the efficiency of the QDM were not fully addressed. In this work, the algorithm is reformulated with two control parameters and the impact of these parameters on the algorithm performance is investigated. Firstly, the theoretical analysis for a 1-D packing system is conducted and the range of the parameter in which the algorithm is convergent is estimated. Then, this estimation is verified numerically for a 3-D packing system. Finally, the algorithm is applied to modeling the PBR fuel loading configuration and the convergence performance at different packing fractions is presented. Results show that the QDM is efficient in packing pebbles within the realistic range of the packing fraction in PBRs, and it is capable in handling cylindrical geometry with packing fractions up to 63.5%. (authors)

  13. Convergence analysis of particle swarm optimization (PSO) method on the with-in host dengue infection treatment model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handayani, D.; Nuraini, N.; Tse, O.; Saragih, R.; Naiborhu, J.

    2016-04-01

    PSO is a computational optimization method motivated by the social behavior of organisms like bird flocking, fish schooling and human social relations. PSO is one of the most important swarm intelligence algorithms. In this study, we analyze the convergence of PSO when it is applied to with-in host dengue infection treatment model simulation in our early research. We used PSO method to construct the initial adjoin equation and to solve a control problem. Its properties of control input on the continuity of objective function and ability of adapting to the dynamic environment made us have to analyze the convergence of PSO. With the convergence analysis of PSO we will have some parameters that ensure the convergence result of numerical simulations on this model using PSO.

  14. 组织趋同性分析%The Organizational Convergence Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋冯艳

    2012-01-01

    在当今全球化经济迅猛发展的时局下,组织的结构不断出现趋同化的现象.文章从对组织理论发展的研究着手,分析组织与环境之间的关系,得出这种趋同现象背后的原因主要是制度要求以及市场竞争趋于完全性.%Under the situation of rapid development of economic globalization, the organizational structure tends to be same. The analysis of the relationship between organization and its environment is based on the research of the organization theory development. It concludes that the main reason of convergence is the institutional requirements and market competition.

  15. Do the Spanish regions converge? A unit root analysis for the HDI of the Spanish regions

    OpenAIRE

    Montañés, Antonio; Olmos, Lorena

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyses to what extent the Spanish regions have undergone a process of convergence since 1980. The application of unit root techniques to the data of the Human Development Index allow us to show that the evolution of the Spanish economy can be understood as a sum of divergent forces, while the per capita GDP offers much more evidence in favour of convergence. These insights encourage the use of different economic measures when studying stochastic convergence.

  16. A BUSINESS MODEL ANALYSIS FOR THE SUPPLY CHAIN CONVERGENT OF SERVICES

    OpenAIRE

    MYUNG-HWAN RIM; HYUN-SOO HAN; YEONG-WHA SAWNG

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we explore the merging of supply chains between media and telecommunications as an example of business application of industry convergence. The goal of this study is to provide managerial insight into the various facets of convergence of supply chains so that companies can effectively exploit business opportunities presented by the accelerating process of digital convergence and related technological innovations. In this study, the focus is set on business models, rather than b...

  17. Analysis of the diversity of population and convergence of genetic algorithms based on Negentropy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Lianying; Wang Anmin

    2005-01-01

    With its wide use in different fields, the problem of the convergence of simple genetic algorithms (GAs) has been concerned. In the past, the research on the convergence of GAs was based on Holland' s model theorem. The diversity of the evolutionary population and the convergence of GAs are studied by using the concept of negentropy based on the discussion of the characteristic of GA. Some test functions are used to test the convergence of GAs, and good results have been obtained. It is shown that the global optimization may be obtained by selecting appropriate parameters of simple GAs if the evolution time is enough.

  18. Convergency analysis of the high-order mimetic finite difference method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipnikov, Konstantin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Veiga Da Beirao, L [UNIV DEGLI STUDI; Manzini, G [NON LANL

    2008-01-01

    We prove second-order convergence of the conservative variable and its flux in the high-order MFD method. The convergence results are proved for unstructured polyhedral meshes and full tensor diffusion coefficients. For the case of non-constant coefficients, we also develop a new family of high-order MFD methods. Theoretical result are confirmed through numerical experiments.

  19. Implicit methods for equation-free analysis: convergence results and analysis of emergent waves in microscopic traffic models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marschler, Christian; Sieber, Jan; Berkemer, Rainer;

    2014-01-01

    We introduce a general formulation for an implicit equation-free method in the setting of slow-fast systems. First, we give a rigorous convergence result for equation-free analysis showing that the implicitly defined coarse-level time stepper converges to the true dynamics on the slow manifold wi...... equilibria on the macroscopic level in the equation-free setup. The collapse of the traffic jam to the free flow then corresponds to a saddle-node bifurcation of this macroscopic equilibrium. We continue this bifurcation in two parameters using equation-free analysis....... within an error that is exponentially small with respect to the small parameter measuring time scale separation. Second, we apply this result to the idealized traffic modeling problem of phantom jams generated by cars with uniform behavior on a circular road. The traffic jams are waves that travel slowly...... against the direction of traffic. Equation-free analysis enables us to investigate the behavior of the microscopic traffic model on a macroscopic level. The standard deviation of cars' headways is chosen as the macroscopic measure of the underlying dynamics such that traveling wave solutions correspond to...

  20. An empirical analysis of gasoline price convergence for 20 OECD countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bentzen, J.

    2003-07-01

    Two decades have passed now since the oil price shocks of the 1970s and since then energy prices have - apart from short periods of price instability - evolved relatively smoothly in the industrialized countries. Energy taxes in many countries differ markedly thereby causing differences in final energy prices, but as similar tax levels are becoming more common, e.g. in the European Union, convergence concerning energy prices might be expected to appear. In the present paper national gasoline price data covering the time period since the 1970s for a sample of OECD countries are used in order to test for this often addressed topic of convergence. The empirical part of the paper applies different time series based tests of convergence, where gasoline prices exhibit convergence for most OECD-Europe countries in the case where US$ is used for measurement of the energy prices indicating a convergence or tax harmonization process is taking place for these countries. (au)

  1. An empirical analysis of gasoline price convergence for 20 OECD countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two decades have passed now since the oil price shocks of the 1970s and since then energy prices have - apart from short periods of price instability - evolved relatively smoothly in the industrialized countries. Energy taxes in many countries differ markedly thereby causing differences in final energy prices, but as similar tax levels are becoming more common, e.g. in the European Union, convergence concerning energy prices might be expected to appear. In the present paper national gasoline price data covering the time period since the 1970s for a sample of OECD countries are used in order to test for this often addressed topic of convergence. The empirical part of the paper applies different time series based tests of convergence, where gasoline prices exhibit convergence for most OECD-Europe countries in the case where US$ is used for measurement of the energy prices indicating a convergence or tax harmonization process is taking place for these countries. (au)

  2. Monte-Carlo based uncertainty analysis: Sampling efficiency and sampling convergence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monte Carlo analysis has become nearly ubiquitous since its introduction, now over 65 years ago. It is an important tool in many assessments of the reliability and robustness of systems, structures or solutions. As the deterministic core simulation can be lengthy, the computational costs of Monte Carlo can be a limiting factor. To reduce that computational expense as much as possible, sampling efficiency and convergence for Monte Carlo are investigated in this paper. The first section shows that non-collapsing space-filling sampling strategies, illustrated here with the maximin and uniform Latin hypercube designs, highly enhance the sampling efficiency, and render a desired level of accuracy of the outcomes attainable with far lesser runs. In the second section it is demonstrated that standard sampling statistics are inapplicable for Latin hypercube strategies. A sample-splitting approach is put forward, which in combination with a replicated Latin hypercube sampling allows assessing the accuracy of Monte Carlo outcomes. The assessment in turn permits halting the Monte Carlo simulation when the desired levels of accuracy are reached. Both measures form fairly noncomplex upgrades of the current state-of-the-art in Monte-Carlo based uncertainty analysis but give a substantial further progress with respect to its applicability.

  3. Convergence Analysis of the Numerical Solution for Cathode Design of Aero-engine Blades in Electrochemical Machining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhiyong; Niu Zongwei

    2007-01-01

    As a main difficult problem encountered in electrochemical machining (ECM), the cathode design is tackled, at present, with various numerical analysis methods such as finite difference, finite element and boundary element methods. Among them, the finite element method presents more flexibility to deal with the irregularly shaped workpieces. However, it is very difficult to ensure the convergence of finite element numerical approach. This paper proposes an accurate model and a finite element numerical approach of cathode design based on the potential distribution in inter-electrode gap. In order to ensure the convergence of finite element numerical approach and increase the accuracy in cathode design, the cathode shape should be iterated to eliminate the design errors in computational process. Several experiments are conducted to verify the macbining accuracy of the designed cathode. The experimental results have proven perfect convergence and good computing accuracy of the proposed finite element numerical approach by the high surface quality and dimensional accuracy of the machined blades.

  4. Convergence analysis of Chauvin's PCA learning algorithm with a constant learning rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The convergence of Chauvin's PCA learning algorithm with a constant learning rate is studied in this paper by using a DDT method (deterministic discrete-time system method). Different from the DCT method (deterministic continuous-time system method), the DDT method does not require that the learning rate converges to zero. An invariant set of Chauvin's algorithm with a constant learning rate is obtained so that the non-divergence of this algorithm can be guaranteed. Rigorous mathematic proofs are provided to prove the local convergence of this algorithm

  5. Convergence analysis of filtered-X LMS algorithm with secondary path modeling error

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Xu; CHEN Duanshi

    2003-01-01

    A more relaxed sufficient condition for the convergence of filtered-X LMS (FXLMS)algorithm is presented. It is pointed out that if some positive real condition for secondary pathtransfer function and its estimates is satisfied within all the frequency bands, FXLMS algorithmconverges whatever the reference signal is like. But if the above positive real condition is satisfiedonly within some frequency bands, the convergence of FXLMS algorithm is dependent on thedistribution of power spectral density of the reference signal, and the convergence step size isdetermined by the distribution of some specific correlation matrix eigenvalues.Applying the conclusion above to the Delayed LMS (DLMS) algorithm, it is shown thatDLMS algorithm with some error of time delay estimation converges in certain discrete fre-quency bands, and the width of which are determined only by the "time-delay estimation errorfrequency" which is equal to one fourth of the inverse of estimated error of the time delay.

  6. The multigrid algorithm applied to a degenerate equation: A convergence analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almendral Vázquez, Ariel; Fredrik Nielsen, Bjørn

    2009-03-01

    In this paper we analyze the convergence properties of the Multigrid Method applied to the Black-Scholes differential equation arising in mathematical finance. We prove, for the discretized single-asset Black-Scholes equation, that the multigrid V-cycle possesses optimal convergence properties. Furthermore, through a series of numerical experiments we test the performance of the method for single-asset option problems. Throughout the paper we focus on models of European options.

  7. A Local and Global Search Combined Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm and Its Convergence Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Particle swarm optimization algorithm (PSOA) is an advantage optimization tool. However, it has a tendency to get stuck in a near optimal solution especially for middle and large size problems and it is difficult to improve solution accuracy by fine-tuning parameters. According to the insufficiency, this paper researches the local and global search combine particle swarm algorithm (LGSCPSOA), and its convergence and obtains its convergence qualification. At the same time, it is tested with a ...

  8. Weak Convergence and Weak Convergence

    OpenAIRE

    Narita Keiko; Shidama Yasunari; Endou Noboru

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we deal with weak convergence on sequences in real normed spaces, and weak* convergence on sequences in dual spaces of real normed spaces. In the first section, we proved some topological properties of dual spaces of real normed spaces. We used these theorems for proofs of Section 3. In Section 2, we defined weak convergence and weak* convergence, and proved some properties. By RNS_Real Mizar functor, real normed spaces as real number spaces already defined in the article [18...

  9. Simplified Multi-Stage and Per Capita Convergence. An analysis of two climate regimes for differentiation of commitments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Den Elzen, M.G.J.; Berk, M.M.; Lucas, P.

    2004-07-01

    This report describes and analyses in detail two climate regimes for differentiating commitments: the simplified Multi-Stage and Per Capita Convergence approaches. The Multi-Stage approach consists of a system to divide countries into groups with different types of commitments (stages). The Per Capita Convergence defines emission permits on the basis of a convergence of per capita emissions. The analysis focuses on two global greenhouse gas emission profiles resulting in long-term CO2-equivalent concentrations stabilising at 550 and 650 ppmv (S550e and S650e profile). The abatement efforts (allocations) for Annex I regions for S550e for all variants generally range from 25%-50% below 1990 levels in 2025 and 70-85% in 2050. For S650e, these efforts range from 10% increase to 25% reduction in 2025 and 40-60% reduction in 2050. For non-Annex I regions, the results are generally more differentiated for the various commitment schemes, stabilization targets and time horizons than for Annex I regions. The analysis further highlights the major strengths and weakness of the Multi-Stage and Per Capita Convergence variants, and points at important obstacles and pre-conditions for their feasibility and acceptability.

  10. Simplified Multi-Stage and Per Capita Convergence. An analysis of two climate regimes for differentiation of commitments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes and analyses in detail two climate regimes for differentiating commitments: the simplified Multi-Stage and Per Capita Convergence approaches. The Multi-Stage approach consists of a system to divide countries into groups with different types of commitments (stages). The Per Capita Convergence defines emission permits on the basis of a convergence of per capita emissions. The analysis focuses on two global greenhouse gas emission profiles resulting in long-term CO2-equivalent concentrations stabilising at 550 and 650 ppmv (S550e and S650e profile). The abatement efforts (allocations) for Annex I regions for S550e for all variants generally range from 25%-50% below 1990 levels in 2025 and 70-85% in 2050. For S650e, these efforts range from 10% increase to 25% reduction in 2025 and 40-60% reduction in 2050. For non-Annex I regions, the results are generally more differentiated for the various commitment schemes, stabilization targets and time horizons than for Annex I regions. The analysis further highlights the major strengths and weakness of the Multi-Stage and Per Capita Convergence variants, and points at important obstacles and pre-conditions for their feasibility and acceptability

  11. Is China’s carbon reduction target allocation reasonable? An analysis based on carbon intensity convergence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The reasonability of Chinese government’s CO2 emissions reduction allocation plan is examined. • The stochastic convergence and β-convergence are tested using the provincial panel data. • Both fixed effects and Generalized Method of Moments (GMM) estimators are utilized. • The provinces with high carbon intensity tend to experience faster reduction in carbon intensity, and vise versa. - Abstract: To curb CO2 emissions, the Chinese government has announced ambitious goals to reduce the CO2 intensity of GDP, and the total target has been allocated to all Chinese provinces during the twelfth “Five-year Plan” period (2011–2015). Although setting the target allocation plan is an efficient way to achieve this goal, some key questions, including how the plan is designed, remained unanswered. From an economic perspective, this requires us to test for the existence of convergence in the CO2 intensity of GDP because the convergence is one of the most important intrinsic economic characteristics that policy makers should take into account: if the convergence exists, the provinces with a higher CO2 intensity of GDP tend to experience a more rapid reduction in the intensity and therefore could share a heavier burden of the intensity reduction. The existence of stochastic convergence and β-convergence is verified by employing different estimation methods and using various estimation specifications. As a result, the direct policy implication is that provinces with high CO2 intensity should be assigned tougher reduction targets to cut CO2 intensity at higher speeds, while the provinces with low carbon intensity should be allowed to reduce the CO2 intensity at a relatively lower speed. Because some social and economic indicators such as GDP per capita, industrial structure and population density may influence CO2 intensity, the policy makers should take all these factors into consideration to design reasonable reduction target allocation plan

  12. Convergence Analysis of Differential Evolution Variants on Unconstrained Global Optimization Functions

    CERN Document Server

    Shanmugavelayutham, G Jeyakumar C

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we present an empirical study on convergence nature of Differential Evolution (DE) variants to solve unconstrained global optimization problems. The aim is to identify the competitive nature of DE variants in solving the problem at their hand and compare. We have chosen fourteen benchmark functions grouped by feature: unimodal and separable, unimodal and nonseparable, multimodal and separable, and multimodal and nonseparable. Fourteen variants of DE were implemented and tested on fourteen benchmark problems for dimensions of 30. The competitiveness of the variants are identified by the Mean Objective Function value, they achieved in 100 runs. The convergence nature of the best and worst performing variants are analyzed by measuring their Convergence Speed (Cs) and Quality Measure (Qm).

  13. An Analysis of the Convergence Level of Tangible Assets (PPE) According to Romanian National Accounting Regulation and IFRS for Smes

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Madalina Buculescu (Costica); Bogdan Nicolae Velicescu

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims a comparative analysis between IFRS for SMEs and Romanian national accounting regulations concerning measurement of formal convergence level of definitions, treatment and policies of Property, Plant and Equipment (PPE) and highlighting main national fiscal rules related. With the purpose to not contribute only to the measurement of PPE formal level of harmonization, we intend to analyze some PPE related accounting practices used by Romanian certified accountants. To this effec...

  14. Conditional Convergence of Nonresident Tuition Rates at Public Research Universities: A Panel Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titus, Marvin A.; Vamosiu, Adriana; Gupta, Anubha

    2015-01-01

    The current study examines how nonresident tuition among public research universities has converged toward a national average over the 1987-2006 time period in the USA. Using dynamic fixed-effect panel modeling estimated via GMM (and instrumental variables fixed-effect model to account for endogeneity), we inquire (1) how do competitive market…

  15. A SPECTRAL METHOD FOR PANTOGRAPH-TYPE DELAY DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS AND ITS CONVERGENCE ANALYSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ishtiaq Ali; Hermann Brunner; Tao Tang

    2009-01-01

    We propose a novel numerical approach for delay differential equations with vanishing proportional delays based on spectral methods. A Legendre-collocation method is employed to obtain highly accurate numerical approximations to the exact solution. It is proved theoretically and demonstrated numerically that the proposed method converges exponentially provided that the data in the given pantograph delay differential equation are smooth.

  16. Convergence in Education Policy? A Quantitative Analysis of Policy Change and Stability in OECD Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobi, Anja P.; Teltemann, Janna

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we quantitatively assess education policy change in OECD countries. While research has frequently underlined the importance of international exchange for national policy development, it is yet unclear whether resulting policies are converging. By distinguishing different kinds of education policy goals, we hypothesise that…

  17. Convergence, Admissibility, and Fit of Alternative Confirmatory Factor Analysis Models for MTMM Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lance, Charles E.; Fan, Yi

    2016-01-01

    We compared six different analytic models for multitrait-multimethod (MTMM) data in terms of convergence, admissibility, and model fit to 258 samples of previously reported data. Two well-known models, the correlated trait-correlated method (CTCM) and the correlated trait-correlated uniqueness (CTCU) models, were fit for reference purposes in…

  18. Analysis of Long-Term Anisotropic Convergence in Drifts Excavated in Callovo-Oxfordian Claystone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guayacán-Carrillo, Lina-María; Sulem, Jean; Seyedi, Darius M.; Ghabezloo, Siavash; Noiret, Aurélien; Armand, Gilles

    2016-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to analyze the convergence measurements in drifts of the Underground Research Laboratory (URL) of the French National Radioactive Waste Management Agency (Andra), excavated in Callovo-Oxfordian claystone. These measurements show an anisotropic closure, which depends on the drift orientations with respect to the horizontal in situ stresses. This anisotropic character of the deformation is taken into account by assuming that the drifts section evolves following an elliptical shape. The characteristics of the deformed elliptical section are evaluated following the methodology proposed by Vu et al. (Rock Mech Rock Eng 46:231-246, 2013). Then, using the semi-empirical law proposed by Sulem et al. (Int J Rock Mech Min Sci Geomech Abstr 24:145-154, 1987), the convergence evolution is fitted independently for each axis of the ellipse. This method allows to distinguish two effects: the face advance and the time-dependent behavior of the ground. The results for the two drift orientations (along the major horizontal stress and perpendicular to it) show very close values for the parameters describing the time-dependent properties of the ground, the distance of influence of the face, and the extent of the decompressed zone around the drift. Finally, the model is validated by keeping these parameters as constants and by simulating the convergence data on a new drift. It is shown that with a period of about 40 days of convergence monitoring, the model can provide valuable insights for predictions of the convergence evolution in the long term.

  19. A new convergence analysis and perturbation resilience of some accelerated proximal forward-backward algorithms with errors

    CERN Document Server

    Reem, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Many problems in science and engineering involve, as part of their solution process, the consideration of a separable function which is the sum of two convex functions, one of them possibly non-smooth. Recently a few works have discussed inexact versions of several accelerated proximal methods aiming at solving this minimization problem. This paper shows that inexact versions of a method of Beck and Teboulle (FISTA) preserve, in a Hilbert space setting, the same (non-asymptotic) rate of convergence under some assumptions on the decay rate of the error terms. The notion of inexactness discussed here seems to be rather simple, but, interestingly, when comparing to related works, similar decay rates of the errors terms yield similar convergence rates. The derivation sheds some light on the somewhat mysterious origin of some parameters which appear in various accelerated methods. A consequence of the analysis is that the accelerated method is perturbation resilient, making it suitable, in principle, for the super...

  20. A Local and Global Search Combined Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm and Its Convergence Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weitian Lin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Particle swarm optimization algorithm (PSOA is an advantage optimization tool. However, it has a tendency to get stuck in a near optimal solution especially for middle and large size problems and it is difficult to improve solution accuracy by fine-tuning parameters. According to the insufficiency, this paper researches the local and global search combine particle swarm algorithm (LGSCPSOA, and its convergence and obtains its convergence qualification. At the same time, it is tested with a set of 8 benchmark continuous functions and compared their optimization results with original particle swarm algorithm (OPSOA. Experimental results indicate that the LGSCPSOA improves the search performance especially on the middle and large size benchmark functions significantly.

  1. The Convergence Processes in Europe and Latvia

    OpenAIRE

    Aleksejs Melihovs; Igors Kasjanovs

    2011-01-01

    This paper, attempting to tackle separately real and structural convergence, is an in-depth study of the convergence processes in Latvia and Europe. Latvia's structural convergence towards both the EU and other neighbouring (Baltic) countries is estimated using the Krugman index. Real convergence processes in the EU, distinguishing between ? convergence and beta convergence, are likewise studied. In addition, cluster analysis with grouping European countries by their structural features is co...

  2. Human capital, growth and convergence traps: Implications from a cross-country analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Petrakis, P.E.; Stamatakis, D.

    2005-01-01

    This article, adapted from Tamura?s theoretical proposition, empirically investigates capital convergence in three country groups belonging to significantly different development categories: G7, developed and developing. Human capital evaluation, in this context, goes beyond enrolment and/or attainment rates. In addition to enrolments and government spending, alternative factors determining human capital effectiveness synthesize an idea of enhanced human capital proxy. Empirical results indic...

  3. Computing the Stackelberg/Nash equilibria using the extraproximal method: Convergence analysis and implementation details for Markov chains games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trejo Kristal K.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present the extraproximal method for computing the Stackelberg/Nash equilibria in a class of ergodic controlled finite Markov chains games. We exemplify the original game formulation in terms of coupled nonlinear programming problems implementing the Lagrange principle. In addition, Tikhonov’s regularization method is employed to ensure the convergence of the cost-functions to a Stackelberg/Nash equilibrium point. Then, we transform the problem into a system of equations in the proximal format. We present a two-step iterated procedure for solving the extraproximal method: (a the first step (the extra-proximal step consists of a “prediction” which calculates the preliminary position approximation to the equilibrium point, and (b the second step is designed to find a “basic adjustment” of the previous prediction. The procedure is called the “extraproximal method” because of the use of an extrapolation. Each equation in this system is an optimization problem for which the necessary and efficient condition for a minimum is solved using a quadratic programming method. This solution approach provides a drastically quicker rate of convergence to the equilibrium point. We present the analysis of the convergence as well the rate of convergence of the method, which is one of the main results of this paper. Additionally, the extraproximal method is developed in terms of Markov chains for Stackelberg games. Our goal is to analyze completely a three-player Stackelberg game consisting of a leader and two followers. We provide all the details needed to implement the extraproximal method in an efficient and numerically stable way. For instance, a numerical technique is presented for computing the first step parameter (λ of the extraproximal method. The usefulness of the approach is successfully demonstrated by a numerical example related to a pricing oligopoly model for airlines companies.

  4. Sectoral Energy, and Labour, Productivity Convergence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper empirically investigates the development of cross-country differences in energy- and labour productivity. The analysis is performed at a detailed sectoral level for 14 OECD countries, covering the period 1970-1997. A ρ-convergence analysis reveals that the development over time of the cross-country variation in productivity performance differs across sectors as well as across different levels of aggregation. Both patterns of convergence as well as divergence are found. Cross-country variation of productivity levels is typically larger for energy than for labour. A β-convergence analysis provides support for the hypothesis that in most sectors lagging countries tend to catch up with technological leaders, in particular in terms of energy productivity. Moreover, the results show that convergence is conditional, meaning that productivity levels converge to country-specific steady states. Energy prices and wages are shown to positively affect energy- and labour-productivity growth, respectively. We also find evidence for the importance of economies of scale, whereas the investment share, openness and specialization play only a modest role in explaining cross-country variation in energy- and labour-productivity growth

  5. Is China's carbon reduction target allocation reasonable? An analysis based on carbon intensity convergence

    OpenAIRE

    Yu Hao; Hua Liao; Yi-Ming Wei

    2014-01-01

    To curb CO2 emissions, the Chinese government has announced ambitious goals to reduce the CO2 intensity of GDP, and the total target has been allocated to all Chinese provinces during the twelfth "Five-year Plan" period (2011-2015). Although setting the target allocation plan is an efficient way to achieve this goal, some key questions, including how the plan is designed, remained unanswered. From an economic perspective, this requires us to test for the existence of convergence in the CO2 in...

  6. Influence of numerical integration on convergence of eigenvalues in the MHD stability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When the eigenvalue problem of the linearized MHD equation is solved by using finite element methods, whether energy integrals are exactly carried out or not affects the convergence properties of eigenvalues. If the energy integrals are exactly carried out, the eigenvalue of the most violent instability (the lowest eigenvalue) is approximated from 'above', i.e., the approximated eigenvalue decreases towards the true eigenvalue as the number of elements increases. If the energy integrals are estimated by Gaussian quadrature formulas of which errors are the same order as the errors by the finite element method, the lowest eigenvalue is approximated from 'below'. (author)

  7. Influence of numerical integration on convergence of eigenvalues in magnetohydrodynamics stability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When the eigenvalue problem of the linearized magnetohydrodynamics equation is solved by finite-element methods, whether energy integrals are exactly carried out or not affects the convergence properties of eigenvalues. If the energy integral are exactly carried out, the eigenvalue of the most violent instability (the lowest eigenvalue) is approximated from 'above', that is, the approximated eigenvalue decreases towards the true eigenvalue as the number of elements increases. If the energy integrals are estimated by Gaussian quadrature formulas in which errors are of the same order as those by the finite-element method, the lowest eigenvalue is approximated from below'. (author)

  8. Global convergence rate analysis of unconstrained optimization methods based on probabilistic models

    OpenAIRE

    Cartis, Coralia; Scheinberg, Katya

    2015-01-01

    We present global convergence rates for a line-search method which is based on random first-order models and directions whose quality is ensured only with certain probability. We show that in terms of the order of the accuracy, the evaluation complexity of such a method is the same as its counterparts that use deterministic accurate models; the use of probabilistic models only increases the complexity by a constant, which depends on the probability of the models being good. We particularize a...

  9. Geomorphological analysis of the drainage system on the active convergent system in Azerbaijan, NW Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaveh Firouz, Amaneh; Burg, Jean-Pierre; Giachetta, Emanuele

    2016-04-01

    Rivers are important landforms to reconstruct recent tectonic history because they are sensitive to surface movements, especially uplift and tilting. The most important drainage basins of NW Iran are, from north to south, the Arax River, the Urmia Lake and the Ghezel Ozan River catchment. The morphology of the two adjacent catchments draining into the Caspian Sea, the Arax and Ghezel Ozan were studied to better understand the active tectonics and the effect of fault activity on morphology and erosion rate of NW Iran. We performed a quantitative analysis of channel steepness and concavity, from slope-area plots calculated from digital elevation model. This information has been combined with GPS velocity vectors and seismicity. Both catchments developed under uniform climate conditions. Results show that the two rivers are in morphological disequilibrium; they exhibit profiles with prominent convexities and knickpoints. The Arax River shows higher channel steepness and concavity index in downstream part of the profile. Distribution of knickpoints show scattered elevation between 700m and 3000m. GPS rates display shortening 10 ± 2 mma‑1 and 14 ± 2 mma‑1 in upstream and downstream, respectively. The river profiles of Ghezel Ozan River and its tributaries reveal more disequilibrium downstream where channel steepness and concavity index are higher than upstream. Most knickpoints occur between 1000m and 2000m. The amount of shortening by GPS measurement changes from upstream 13 ± 2 mma‑1to downstream 14 ± 2 mma‑1. Recorded earthquakes, such as Rudbar earthquake (Mw=7.3, 1990), are more frequent downstream. The Urmia Lake is surrounded by many small and large catchments. Only major catchments were considered for the analysis. One of the most active faults, the north Tabriz fault, corresponds to a major knickpoints on the Talkhe rud River. Concordance between river profile analysis, GPS and seismotectonic records suggests that the characteristics of the river

  10. Track 4: basic nuclear science variance reduction for Monte Carlo criticality simulations. 2. Assessment of MCNP Statistical Analysis of keff Eigenvalue Convergence with an Analytical Criticality Verification Test Set

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    first and second halves of the active cycles differed at the 99% confidence level. The plot of the combined keff as a function of active cycle indicated a slowly increasing combined keff trend as the number of cycles increased. If too few active cycles are used with these physically large systems, the early parts of the calculation may not reveal difficulties with the eigenfunction and may incorrectly pass the statistical checks. The addition of a few more active cycles revealed convergence problems with the spatial fission source distribution. Six test problems were run with 100 instead of 200 active cycles. The statistical checks did not discover difficulties with the one-energy group problems with a poorly converged eigenfunction until 200 active cycles were completed. The two-energy group problems reported warning messages for 100 active cycles. The statistical analysis checks provides the MCNP user with enough information to assess spatial fission source convergence of nuclear criticality eigenvalue problems. If the spatial fission source convergence appears unsatisfactory, the user is given warning messages and the final boxed keff confidence intervals may not be printed. If the number of active cycles in an ill-posed problem is sufficiently large to allow the eigenfunction to statistically change for a specified number of histories, then these statistical checks will detect an improperly converged problem. The analytic criticality verification test set was used to assess and stress the criticality convergence tests. While these checks provided enough information to determine keff and the proper confidence intervals in most problems, it is not intended to be a substitute for the experience and judgment of a criticality practitioner. (authors)

  11. Toward Sustainable Economic Growth: A Spatial Panel Data Analysis of Regional Income Convergence in US BEA Economic Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Up Lim; Donghyun Kim

    2015-01-01

    A question fundamental to sustainable economic growth is whether a poor region tends to grow faster than a rich one, such that the poor region catches up with the rich region in terms of the level of per capita income. In this article, we apply the spatial panel data approach to the analysis of regional income convergence across 177 economic areas in the contiguous US states over the period from 1969 to 2009. Using data on per capita incomes in the functionally defined economic areas, we find...

  12. A reinforcement learning approach in rotated image recognition and its convergence analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iftekharuddin, Khan M.; Li, Yaqin

    2006-08-01

    One of the major problems in automatic target recognition (ATR) involves the recognition of images in different orientations. In a classical training-testing setup for an ATR for rotated targets using neural networks, the recognition is inherently static, and the performance is largely dependent on the range of orientation angles in the training process. To alleviate this problem, we propose a reinforcement learning (RL) approach for the ATR of rotated images. The RL is implemented in an adaptive critic design (ACD) framework wherein the ACD is mainly composed of the neuro-dynamic programming of an action network and a critic network. The proposed RL provides an adaptive learning and object recognition ability without a priori training. Numerical simulations demonstrate that the proposed ACD-based ATR system can effectively recognize rotated target with the whole range of 180° rotation. Analytic characterization of the learning algorithm provides a sufficient condition for its asymptotic convergence. Finally, we obtain an upper bound for the estimation error of the cost-to-go function under the asymptotic convergence condition.

  13. AN ANALYSIS OF THE FISCAL CONVERGENCE CRITERIA IN THE EUROPEAN UNION IN TERMS OF THE SUSTAINABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulia Andreea Bucur

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the convergence criteria in the Maastricht Treaty led to the creation of the EMU and the euro area has resisted more than some of its critics believed, in the context of major macroeconomic imbalances, the issue of nominal convergence has been the subject of numerous research. This paper aims to analyze the capacity of fiscal criteria to reflect the ability of EU Member States to achieve economic development for the integration in the EMU and to comply strict fiscal policy that governing its operation. In the context of certain technical deficiencies of fiscal criteria, we analyzed the developments of budget deficit and gross public debt in the EU during 2000 and 2012. The results show that until 2007 the EU economies were able, overall, to meet the budget deficit criteria, but due to the financial crisis and the prolonged slowdown in economic growth, the fiscal balance had an unfavorable evolution since 2008, while the evolution of the gross public debt has worsened increasingly. Due to this pressure situation on the sustainability of public finances, examining the adoption, application and enforcement of the fiscal policy rules expressed by the evolution of the Fiscal Rule Index for the period 2000-2011, the importance of rules in the fiscal management of the Union and especially of the euro area appears increasingly obvious.

  14. Numerical Analysis of Cavitating Flow of Liquid Helium inHorizontal Converging-Diverging Channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishimoto, Jun; Kamijo, Kenjiro

    The basic characteristics of the two-dimensional cavitating flow of liquid helium through a horizontal converging-diverging channel near the lambda point are numerically investigated to realize the further development and high performance of new multiphase superfluid cooling systems. First, the governing equations of the cavitating flow of liquid helium based on the unsteady thermal nonequilibrium multifluid model with generalized curvilinear coordinates system are presented, and several flow characteristics are numerically calculated, taking into account the effect of superfluidity. Based on the numerical results, the two-dimensional structure of the cavitating flow of liquid helium though horizontal converging-diverging channel is shown in detail, and it is also found that the generation of superfluid counterflow against normal fluid flow based on the thermo mechanical effect is conspicuous in the large gas phase volume fraction region where the liquid- to gas-phase change actively occurs. Furthermore, it is clarified that the mechanism of the He I to He II phase transition caused by the temperature decrease is due to the deprivation of latent heat for vaporization from the liquid phase.

  15. Convergence analysis of a balalncing domain decomposition method for solving interior Helmholtz equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li,Jing; Tu, Xuemin

    2008-12-10

    A variant of balancing domain decomposition method by constraints (BDDC) is proposed for solving a class of indefinite system of linear equations, which arises from the finite element discretization of the Helmholtz equation of time-harmonic wave propagation in a bounded interior domain. The proposed BDDC algorithm is closely related to the dual-primal finite element tearing and interconnecting algorithm for solving Helmholtz equations (FETI-DPH). Under the condition that the diameters of the subdomains are small enough, the rate of convergence is established which depends polylogarithmically on the dimension of the individual subdomain problems and which improves with the decrease of the subdomain diameters. These results are supported by numerical experiments of solving a Helmholtz equation on a two-dimensional square domain.

  16. The Analysis of Regional Innovation Convergence of China from the Perspective of Spatial Effect%基于空间效应视角的中国区域创新收敛性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘雄锋; 张维维

    2013-01-01

    Since Ramsey firstly studied the regional convergence based on the neo-classical economic framework in the early 1900s, the topic had become an important topic for regional evaluative economists. For instance, the convergence of technological innovation activities largely determines the degree of regional economic convergence and their influence has attracted attention from many scholars. However, existing research on the regional innovation convergence has ignored spatial interactions among regions which can not reveal spatial characteristics of regional innovation convergence. The paper studies regional innovation convergence of China by using the spatial econometrics analysis method from the perspective of spatial effect. The Moran's I spatial autocorrelation test shows that there is significant spatial autocorrelation on the regional innovation in China. This finding shows that there are significant spillover and diffusion effects on the regional innovation of China. However, the OLS analysis method previously used to estimate regional innovation convergence of China may have biased the results. Therefore, we shouldn't overlooked the potential spatial effect while testing regional innovation convergence of China. The diagnostic test results of spatial econometric model show that the spatial error model (SEM) is more suitable to estimating the regional innovation convergence of China than the spatial lag model ( SAR). SEM test shows that regional innovation of China does not show an absolute p-convergence between 1990 and 2008, but it shows conditional p-convergence. Moreover, economic development level, human capital, R&D investment, and openness are important factors to promote regional innovation convergence in China. The test results of regional innovation convergence in China reflect the implementation of non-balanced development strategy, the economic development strategy of western regions, and revitalizing old industrial bases in the northeastern region

  17. Multiplatform analysis of 12 cancer types reveals molecular classification within and across tissues of origin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoadley, Katherine A; Yau, Christina; Wolf, Denise M;

    2014-01-01

    on 3,527 specimens from 12 cancer types, revealing a unified classification into 11 major subtypes. Five subtypes were nearly identical to their tissue-of-origin counterparts, but several distinct cancer types were found to converge into common subtypes. Lung squamous, head and neck, and a subset......Recent genomic analyses of pathologically defined tumor types identify "within-a-tissue" disease subtypes. However, the extent to which genomic signatures are shared across tissues is still unclear. We performed an integrative analysis using five genome-wide platforms and one proteomic platform...... of bladder cancers coalesced into one subtype typified by TP53 alterations, TP63 amplifications, and high expression of immune and proliferation pathway genes. Of note, bladder cancers split into three pan-cancer subtypes. The multiplatform classification, while correlated with tissue-of-origin, provides...

  18. Analysis on Convergence of Innovation Resource Attraction and Its Affecting Factors in Chinese Provinces: Based on the Perspective of New Input Allocation

    OpenAIRE

    Feng Feng; Zhouqing Wei; Leiyong Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Based on the panel data of China’s provinces from 2002 to 2009, the paper allocates new input resources among provinces reasonably using the DEA method and conducts an empirical analysis of innovation resources attraction. As indicated by the research, the innovation resource attraction in China shows the typical characteristic of zonal distribution, the east region is higher than the middle and west; the condition convergence of all provinces is identified, but the absolute convergence is no...

  19. Strain at a semiconductor nanowire-substrate interface studied using geometric phase analysis, convergent beam electron diffraction and nanobeam diffraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Johan Mikael; Wagner, Jakob Birkedal; Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.

    2011-01-01

    , we systematically investigate the interface between a nanowire and its substrate using three complementary methods for assessing strain. Results obtained using high resolution TEM for geometric phase analysis (GPA), convergent beam elecron diffraction (CBED) and nanobeam electron diffraction (NBED......) are compared and contrasted. GPA measurements were acquired at 300kV in an FEI Titan 89-300 while the two diffraction methods were applied in the same microscope at 120kV. The GPA analysis software developed by C.T. Koch and V.B. Özdöl was used [3]. For samples other than nanowires, previous comparisons of GPA...... with CBED and NBED [4,5] have shown a high degree of consistency. Strain has previously only been measured in nanowires removed from their substrate [6], or only using GPA [7]. The sample used for the present investigation was an InP nanowire grown on a Si substrate using metal organic vapor phase...

  20. Performance Convergence Analysis of Stock Exchanges: the Situation of the Ibovespa in the World Scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Rogério Faustino Matos

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the behavior of the most relevant worldwide stock exchanges indices. The semiparametric time series technique proposed by Phillips and Sul (2007 is used to a panel containing 36 stock exchanges allocated in economies with different development levels situated on all continents, during the period from January 1998 to December 2007. According to the results, there is no common trend, corroborating Antzolautos et al. (2009. The traditional São Paulo Stock Exchange Index (Ibovespa is the oldest one of the group with the highest level of the trend for the dynamic transition, which is comprised by volatile indices of stock exchanges with a reasonable level of maturity, located in developing economies with high rates of inflation in Central and Latin America. The second club comprises most of the indices, characterized by a higher level of maturity and tradition of financial markets and development, located mainly in Europe, North America and Asia. The third club with only four indices, has no clear patterns. The evidence that the convergence clubs composition has macroeconomic, geographical and financial patterns can be a useful to infer about the post world financial crisis behavior of stock exchanges.

  1. Numerical investigation on high-pressure convergent nozzle by comparative and statistical analysis method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Water jet is a kind of technology which is using nozzle structure to transform high pressure water into high velocity water jet beam. For high velocity water flow into low velocity water flow, it is extremely complicated because of the existence of velocity gradient. In this paper, convergent nozzle structure is chosen as simulation prototype and investigational region is selected as the water jet flow can fully develop, the mesh scheme of investigational region is structured mesh and numerical simulation results is independent with the grid number, various kinds of turbulence model are employed. Combining theory, experimental data and different kinds of turbulence model's computational results of the velocity distribution and flow pattern, we can figure out that k-epsilon realizable turbulent model is more suitable than any other kinds of turbulent simulation models for simulation water jet. It is useful for the application of CFD technology in water jet field and helpful for understanding the interior filed of water jet flow, at the same time, this work can also provide reference for further investigation and discussion about using turbulent model to simulate water jet flow.

  2. A Comparative Analysis of E-Learning Policy Formulation in the European Union and the United States: Discursive Convergence and Divergence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erichsen, Elizabeth Roumell; Salajan, Florin D.

    2014-01-01

    This study developed a framework that compares the content and purposes of "federal" level European Union (EU) and United States (US) e-learning policy to ascertain trends, patterns, and points of convergence and divergence across the years 1994-2010. It reveals that the EU and US are applying similar rhetoric for policy framing,…

  3. Stability and convergence analysis of a variable order replicator-mutator process in a moving medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doungmo Goufo, Emile Franc

    2016-08-21

    A more generalized approach, the concept of variable order derivative, is used to study the well-known replicator-mutator dynamics taking place in a moving medium. The biological relevance of the variable order context is explored via the language learning in social groups and stability of fixed points for the generalized model is recalled and discussed. Related graphs are plotted for different values of the derivative order γ. It happens that the threshold condition for learning accuracy symbolized by a function of payoff is a monotonically increasing function irrespective of the value of the time derivative order. Also, the limit cycles and their amplitudes are shown to vary with the value of the derivative order γ. These amplitudes become bigger as γ grows but the stability of the system is not affected. The generalized model, namely the variable order replicator-mutator dynamics in a moving medium is numerically solved via Crank-Nicholson scheme whose stability and convergence results are provided in details. An application to a variable order replicator-mutator dynamics of a population with three strategies is presented and numerical simulations are performed for some fixed values of the position variable r and the grid points. They display limit cycles appearing and disappearing in function of the values of the position r. The amplitudes of limit cycles are also proved to proportionally depend on r and the stability of the system remains unaffected. This shows the impressive effect of the transport process on the bifurcation dynamics of the model. PMID:27188252

  4. Converging Stereotactic Radiotherapy Using Kilovoltage X-Rays: Experimental Irradiation of Normal Rabbit Lung and Dose-Volume Analysis With Monte Carlo Simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To validate the feasibility of developing a radiotherapy unit with kilovoltage X-rays through actual irradiation of live rabbit lungs, and to explore the practical issues anticipated in future clinical application to humans through Monte Carlo dose simulation. Methods and Materials: A converging stereotactic irradiation unit was developed, consisting of a modified diagnostic computed tomography (CT) scanner. A tiny cylindrical volume in 13 normal rabbit lungs was individually irradiated with single fractional absorbed doses of 15, 30, 45, and 60 Gy. Observational CT scanning of the whole lung was performed every 2 weeks for 30 weeks after irradiation. After 30 weeks, histopathologic specimens of the lungs were examined. Dose distribution was simulated using the Monte Carlo method, and dose-volume histograms were calculated according to the data. A trial estimation of the effect of respiratory movement on dose distribution was made. Results: A localized hypodense change and subsequent reticular opacity around the planning target volume (PTV) were observed in CT images of rabbit lungs. Dose-volume histograms of the PTVs and organs at risk showed a focused dose distribution to the target and sufficient dose lowering in the organs at risk. Our estimate of the dose distribution, taking respiratory movement into account, revealed dose reduction in the PTV. Conclusions: A converging stereotactic irradiation unit using kilovoltage X-rays was able to generate a focused radiobiologic reaction in rabbit lungs. Dose-volume histogram analysis and estimated sagittal dose distribution, considering respiratory movement, clarified the characteristics of the irradiation received from this type of unit.

  5. The Convergence Analysis on the Economic Growth and Energy Intensity Gap between Regional Sectors%The Convergence Analysis on the Economic Growth and Energy Intensity Gap between Regional Sectors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi Shaozhou; Li Kai

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the authors have analyzed the relationship between energy intensity gap and GDP per worker gap of China's western and eastern provinces over the period 1997 2006. Using panel data model with lag adjustment, taking the above provinces and six industrial sectors (agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry, and fisheries, industry, construction industry, transport, storage and post & telecommunications, wholesale and retail trades & catering industry, and other sectors of tertiary industry.) as the investigated subjects, the authors have conducted empirical study on the convergence of GDP per worker gap and the convergence of energy intensity gap with respect to the variation of GDP per worker gap, and have concluded that: First, the GDP per worker gap of the six industrial sectors and provinces are convergent, and of this, the convergence rate of GDP per worker gap of Construction Industry is the fastest, while that of Industry is the slowest. Second, the overall energy intensity gap between eastern and western provinces is convergent, that is, with the narrowing of GDP per worker gap between eastern and western provinces, the energy intensity gap converges, but its convergence rate is slower than that of GDP per worker gap. Third, energy intensity gap between various industrial sectors of the east and the west is either convergent or divergent, and there are differences. The energy intensity gap of agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry, and fisheries, industry, and construction industry is convergent, while that of the other three industrial sectors is divergent. Fourth, the convergence of the overall energy intensity of the western provinces is not in conformity with the convergence of the various industrial sectors, and there are significant differences, indicating that the western provinces and autonomous regions should take measures to more effectively improve their overall energy utilization efficiency at the industrial sector level.

  6. Linear stability analysis reveals exclusion zone for sliding bed transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talmon Arnold M.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A bend or any another pipe component disturbs solids transport in pipes. Longitudinal pressure profiles downstream of such a component may show a stationary transient harmonic wave, as revealed by a recent settling slurry laboratory experiment. Therefore the fundamental transient response of the two-layer model for fully stratified flow is investigated as a first approach. A linear stability analysis of the sliding bed configuration is conducted. No stationary transient harmonic waves are found in this analysis, but adaptation lengths for exponential recovery are quantified. An example calculation is given for a 0.1 m diameter pipeline.

  7. The Convergence in Spatial Tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir P. Kulagin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article reveals the problem of convergence of direct and inverse problems in Earth Sciences, describes the features and application of these problems, discloses analytical features of direct and inverse problems. The convergence criteria and conditions for convergence were presented. This work is supported by the Grant of the Government of the Russian Federation for support of scientific research, implemented under the supervision of leading scientists in Russian institutions of higher education in the field "Space Research and Technologies" in 2011–2013.

  8. Fiscal Convergence in an Enlarged European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Georgeta VINTILĂ; Mihaela ONOFREI; Ioana Laura ŢIBULCĂ

    2014-01-01

    Taxation convergence in the European Union has always been a heatedly debated issue, and it has constantly resurfaced to the limelight as more and more fiscal directive proposals are being discussed. The current study is an analysis of the evolution of taxation convergence tendencies within the European Union in recent years, using sigma-convergence and cluster analysis. Our goal is to analyze the fiscal convergence trends in the context of European Union enlargement over the last two decades.

  9. Fiscal Convergence in an Enlarged European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgeta VINTILĂ

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Taxation convergence in the European Union has always been a heatedly debated issue, and it has constantly resurfaced to the limelight as more and more fiscal directive proposals are being discussed. The current study is an analysis of the evolution of taxation convergence tendencies within the European Union in recent years, using sigma-convergence and cluster analysis. Our goal is to analyze the fiscal convergence trends in the context of European Union enlargement over the last two decades.

  10. Convergence among Data Sources, Response Bias, and Reliability and Validity of a Structured Job Analysis Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jack E.; Hakel, Milton D.

    1979-01-01

    Examined are questions pertinent to the use of the Position Analysis Questionnaire: Who can use the PAQ reliably and validly? Must one rely on trained job analysts? Can people having no direct contact with the job use the PAQ reliably and validly? Do response biases influence PAQ responses? (Author/KC)

  11. Points of convergence between functional and formal approaches to syntactic analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre, Tavs; Engels, Eva; Jørgensen, Henrik;

    2008-01-01

      AbstractThe paper discusss two different approaches to linguistic theory and their relation to empirical issues in syntactic analysis. The two approaches chosen are probably the two most widespread ones in Scandinavian linguistics, here seen as representing a functional and a formal view respec...

  12. Analysis of delayed convergence in the three-noded Timoshenko beam element using the function space approach

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Somenath Mukherjee; Gangan Prathap

    2002-10-01

    Despite satisfying only completeness and continuity requirements, elements often perform erroneously in a certain class of problems, called the locking situations, where they display spurious stress oscillations and enhanced stiffness properties. The function space approach that effectively substantiates the postulates of the field consistency paradigm is an efficient tool to reveal the fundamental cause of locking phenomena, and propose methods to eliminate this pathological problem. In this paper, we review the delayed convergence behaviour of three-noded Timoshenko beam elements using the rigorous function space approach. Explicit, closed form algebraic results for the element strains, stresses and errors have been derived using this method. The performance of the field-inconsistent three-noded Timoshenko beam element is compared with that of the field-inconsistent twonoded beam element. It is demonstrated that while the field-inconsistent two-noded linear element is prone to shear locking, the field-inconsistent three-noded element is not very vulnerable to this pathological problem, despite the resulting shear oscillations.

  13. $I_{sigma}$-Convergence

    OpenAIRE

    Nuray, Fatih; Gök, Hafize; ULUSU, Uğur

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the concepts of $sigma$-uniform density of subsets A of the set $mathbb{N}$ of positive integers and corresponding $I_{sigma}$-convergence were introduced. Furthermore, inclusion relations between $I_{sigma}$-convergence and invariant convergence also $I_{sigma}$-convergence and $[V_{sigma}]_{p}$-convergence were given.

  14. On the convergence of nanotechnology and Big Data analysis for computer-aided diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Jose F; Paulovich, Fernando V; de Oliveira, Maria Cf; de Oliveira, Osvaldo N

    2016-04-01

    An overview is provided of the challenges involved in building computer-aided diagnosis systems capable of precise medical diagnostics based on integration and interpretation of data from different sources and formats. The availability of massive amounts of data and computational methods associated with the Big Data paradigm has brought hope that such systems may soon be available in routine clinical practices, which is not the case today. We focus on visual and machine learning analysis of medical data acquired with varied nanotech-based techniques and on methods for Big Data infrastructure. Because diagnosis is essentially a classification task, we address the machine learning techniques with supervised and unsupervised classification, making a critical assessment of the progress already made in the medical field and the prospects for the near future. We also advocate that successful computer-aided diagnosis requires a merge of methods and concepts from nanotechnology and Big Data analysis. PMID:26979668

  15. Opposing the nuclear threat: The convergence of moral analysis and empirical data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper examines the concept of nuclear winter from the perspective of religious and moral values. The objective is to identify points of intersection between the empirical arguments about nuclear winter and ethical perspectives on nuclear war. The analysis moves through three steps: (1) the context of the nuclear debate; (2) the ethical and empirical contributions to the nuclear debate; and (3) implications for policy drawn from the ethical-empirical data

  16. A network analysis of the individual – opportunity nexus: Convergence in entrepreneurship research?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Claus; Blenker, Per

    This paper analyses the citation pattern around the single most cited article in the entrepreneurship discipline in the last decade – ’The promise of entrepreneurship as a field of resaerch’ by Shane & Venkataraman (2000).  Using a quantitative network analysis five clusters pertaining to differe...... individual-opportunity nexus as the defining aspect of entrepreneurship research, but it has produced fundamental disagreement concerning the particular content of this nexus.......This paper analyses the citation pattern around the single most cited article in the entrepreneurship discipline in the last decade – ’The promise of entrepreneurship as a field of resaerch’ by Shane & Venkataraman (2000).  Using a quantitative network analysis five clusters pertaining to different...... areas of research disseminating from, or somehow inspired by, Shane & Venkataraman (2000) is identified. After performing a simple literary content analysis of the various articles in each cluster, five relatively diverse research areas or clusters emerge. Using measures of centrality it is argued that...

  17. A convergence and asymptotic analysis of the generalized symmetric FastICA algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Wei, Tianwen

    2014-01-01

    This contribution deals with the generalized symmetric FastICA algorithm in the domain of Independent Component Analysis (ICA). The generalized symmetric version of FastICA has been shown to have the potential to achieve the Cram\\'er-Rao Bound (CRB) by allowing the usage of different nonlinearity functions in its parallel implementations of one-unit FastICA. In spite of this appealing property, a rigorous study of the asymptotic error of the generalized symmetric FastICA algorithm is still mi...

  18. Limitations to the method of power spectrum analysis: Nonstationarity, biased estimators, and weak convergence to normality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newman, W.I. (California Univ., Los Angeles, CA (USA) Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)); Haynes, M.P.; Terzian, Y. (Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (USA))

    1991-01-01

    The Power Spectrum Analysis'' method developed by Yu and Peebles has been widely employed as a technique for establishing the existence of periodicities. This method generates a sequence of random numbers from observational data which, it was claimed, is exponentially distributed with unit mean and variance, essentially independent of the distribution of the original data. We show that the derived random process preserves a subtle imprint of the original distribution, rendering the derived process nonstationary and producing a small but systematic bias in the usual estimate of the mean and variance. Although the derived variable may be reasonably described by an exponential distribution, the tail of the distribution is far removed from that an exponential, thereby rendering statistical inference and confidence testing based on the tail of the distribution completely unreliable. 22 refs.

  19. Acceleration of Logarithmic Convergence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskin, J. G.; Ford, W. F.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper, we shall give a characterization of all monotonically decreasing sequence of positive terms, whose sum converge and then introduce a Transformation which can be used to accelerate the convergence of a large class of logarithmically convergent series.

  20. Convergence in the EU

    OpenAIRE

    Bongardt, Annette; Torres, Francisco; WUNSCH, Pierre; Hefeker, Carsten; Hermann, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    The EU has long viewed economic and institutional convergence as important goals, but the results thus far have been decidedly mixed, and there remain several open questions: How exactly should convergence be defined? How much convergence is necessary? What steps can be taken to improve convergence in the EU, and how can success be defined? Finally, how much convergence can be achieved by improving the economic performance in underperforming regions, and how can convergence in the form of har...

  1. Convergence of barycentric coordinates to barycentric kernels

    KAUST Repository

    Kosinka, Jiří

    2016-02-12

    We investigate the close correspondence between barycentric coordinates and barycentric kernels from the point of view of the limit process when finer and finer polygons converge to a smooth convex domain. We show that any barycentric kernel is the limit of a set of barycentric coordinates and prove that the convergence rate is quadratic. Our convergence analysis extends naturally to barycentric interpolants and mappings induced by barycentric coordinates and kernels. We verify our theoretical convergence results numerically on several examples.

  2. Geometric morphometric analysis reveals sexual dimorphism in the distal femur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavaignac, Etienne; Savall, Frederic; Faruch, Marie; Reina, Nicolas; Chiron, Philippe; Telmon, Norbert

    2016-02-01

    An individual's sex can be determined by the shape of their distal femur. The goal of this study was to show that differences in distal femur shape related to sexual dimorphism could be identified, visualized, and quantified using 3D geometric morphometric analysis. Geometric morphometric analysis was carried out on CT scans of the distal femur of 256 subjects living in the south of France. Ten landmarks were defined on 3D reconstructions of the distal femur. Both traditional metric and geometric morphometric analyses were carried out on these bone reconstructions; these analyses identified trends in bone shape in sex-based subgroups. Sex-related differences in shape were statistically significant. The subject's sex was correctly assigned in 77.3% of cases using geometric morphometric analysis. This study has shown that geometric morphometric analysis of the distal femur is feasible and has revealed sexual dimorphism differences in this bone segment. This reliable, accurate method could be used for virtual autopsy and be used to perform diachronic and interethnic comparisons. Moreover, this study provides updated morphometric data for a modern population in the south of France. PMID:26743712

  3. Simultaneous analysis of eight vitamin E isomers in Moringa oleifera Lam. leaves by ultra performance convergence chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Ningli; Gong, Xiao; Feng, Cuiping; Wang, Xiaoxi; Xu, Yongwei; Lin, Lijing

    2016-09-15

    A new method for simultaneous determination of eight vitamin E isomers including α-, β-, γ-, and δ-tocopherol and α-, β-, γ-, and δ-tocotrienol by ultra-performance convergence chromatography (UPC(2)) equipped with a diode array detector was reported. They were separated on a BEH 2-EP column (3.0 mm × 100 mm, 1.7 μm) using gradient elution (95:5-80:20) with a mobile phase consisted of CO2 and methanol:isopropanol (1:1, v/v), back pressure of 1800 psi, flow rate of 1.5 ml/min and detection at 294 nm. The results showed good linearity (R(2)=0.9990-0.9998) and high resolution (1.48-7.67). Limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) ranged from 23-49 ng/L and 70-150 ng/L, respectively. Relative standard deviations (RSD) for repeatability and reproducibility were 0.62-3.16% and 0.82-3.34%, respectively. Moreover, this method was successfully applied to analysis the vitamin E isomers in Moringa oleifera leaf samples. PMID:27080892

  4. Geometrical analysis of structural data collected at high South latitude: A modular arithmetic method that addresses meridional convergence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddoway, C.S.; Siddoway, M.F.

    2007-01-01

    The convergence of meridians toward the South Pole causes unique problems for geometrical comparison of structural geological and geophysical datasets from Antarctica. The true North reference direction ordinarily is used for measuring and reporting vector data (strike, trend) in Antarctica, as elsewhere. However, over a latitude distance of just 100 km at 85° South, the angular difference in the true North direction exceeds 10°. Consequently, when performing a regional tectonic analysis of vector data (strike, trend) for structures such as faults, dike arrays, or geophysical lineaments oriented with respect to North at different sites, it is necessary to rotate the data to a common reference direction. A modular arithmetic function, performed as a spreadsheet calculation, offers the means to unify data sets from sites having different longitude position, by rotation to a common reference direction. The function is SC ≡ SM + ∆L (mod 360), where SC = converted strike; SM = measured strike; ∆L = angle in degrees longitude between reference longitude and study site; and 360, the divisor, is the number of degrees in Earth’s circumference. The method is used to evaluate 1) paleomagnetic rotation of the Ellsworth-Whitmore Mountains with respect to the Transantarctic Mountains, and 2) orogenic curvature of the Ross Orogen

  5. High-throughput analysis of 19 endogenous androgenic steroids by ultra-performance convergence chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quanson, Jonathan L; Stander, Marietjie A; Pretorius, Elzette; Jenkinson, Carl; Taylor, Angela E; Storbeck, Karl-Heinz

    2016-09-15

    11-Oxygenated steroids such as 11-ketotestosterone and 11-ketodihydrotestosterone have recently been shown to play a putative role in the development and progression of castration resistant prostate cancer. In this study we report on the development of a high throughput ultra-performance convergence chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPC(2)-MS/MS) method for the analysis of thirteen 11-oxygenated and six canonical C19 steroids isolated from a cell culture matrix. Using an Acquity UPC(2) BEH 2-EP column we found that UPC(2) resulted in superior selectivity, increased chromatographic efficiency and a scattered elution order when compared to conventional reverse phase ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC). Furthermore, there was a significant improvement in sensitivity (5-50 times). The lower limits of quantification ranged between 0.01-10ngmL(-1), while the upper limit of quantification was 100ngmL(-1) for all steroids. Accuracy, precision, intra-day variation, recovery, matrix effects and process efficiency were all evaluated and found to be within acceptable limits. Taken together we show that the increased power of UPC(2)-MS/MS allows the analyst to complete in vitro assays at biologically relevant concentrations for the first time and in so doing determine the routes of steroid metabolism which is vital for studies of androgen responsive cancers, such as prostate cancer, and could highlight new mechanisms of disease progression and new targets for cancer therapy. PMID:27479683

  6. Toward Sustainable Economic Growth: A Spatial Panel Data Analysis of Regional Income Convergence in US BEA Economic Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Up Lim

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A question fundamental to sustainable economic growth is whether a poor region tends to grow faster than a rich one, such that the poor region catches up with the rich region in terms of the level of per capita income. In this article, we apply the spatial panel data approach to the analysis of regional income convergence across 177 economic areas in the contiguous US states over the period from 1969 to 2009. Using data on per capita incomes in the functionally defined economic areas, we find that the absolute value of the estimated coefficient of the initial per capita income decreases in the spatial and time-period fixed effects spatial lag model and increases in the spatial and time-period fixed effects spatial error model. This result implies that the growth rate in a specific economic area will be not only directly affected by an exogenous shock introduced into that economic area but also be impacted more by both the indirect effects of the first-order neighboring economic areas and the induced effects of the higher-order neighboring economic areas. This gives helpful hints on the issue of spatial interaction and regional policy coordination to start a virtuous circle of sustainable economic growth.

  7. [Fast analysis of common fatty acids in edible vegetable oils by ultra-performance convergence chromatography-mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chunhua; Xie, Xianqing; Fan, Naili; Tu, Yuanhong; Chen, Yan; Liao, Weilin

    2015-04-01

    A fast analytical method for five common fatty acids in six edible vegetable oils was developed by ultra-performance convergence chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPC2-MS). The five fatty acids are palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid and linolenic acid. Their contents in the corn oil, sunflower oil, soybean oil, tea oil, rapeseed oil and peanut oil were compared. The chromatographic separation was performed on an ACQUITY UPC2 BEH 2-EP column (100 mm x 2.1 mm, 1.7 µm) using the mobile phases of carbon dioxide and methanol/acetonitrile (1:1, v/v) with gradient elution. The separated compounds were detected by negative electrospray ionization ESF-MS. The results showed that the reasonable linearities were achieved for all the analytes over the range of 0.5-100 mg/L with the correlation coefficients (R2) of 0.9985-0.9998. The limits of quantification (S/N ≥ 10) of the five fatty acids were 0.15-0.50 mg/L. The recoveries of the five fatty acids at three spiked levels were in the range of 89.61%-108.50% with relative standard deviations of 0.69%-3.01%. The developed method showed high performance, good resolution and fast analysis for the underivatized fatty acids. It has been successfully used to detect the five fatty acids from corn oil, sunflower oil, soybean oil, tea oil rapeseed oil and peanut oil. PMID:26292410

  8. Stability of spherical converging shock wave

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murakami, M., E-mail: murakami-m@ile.osaka-u.ac.jp [Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Sanz, J. [ETSI Aeronauticos, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Iwamoto, Y. [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Ehime University, Ehime 790-8577 (Japan)

    2015-07-15

    Based on Guderley's self-similar solution, stability of spherical converging shock wave is studied. A rigorous linear perturbation theory is developed, in which the growth rate of perturbation is given as a function of the spherical harmonic number ℓ and the specific heats ratio γ. Numerical calculation reveals the existence of a γ-dependent cut-off mode number ℓ{sub c}, such that all the eigenmode perturbations for ℓ > ℓ{sub c} are smeared out as the shock wave converges at the center. The analysis is applied to partially spherical geometries to give significant implication for different ignition schemes of inertial confinement fusion. Two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations are performed to verify the theory.

  9. Stability of spherical converging shock wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on Guderley's self-similar solution, stability of spherical converging shock wave is studied. A rigorous linear perturbation theory is developed, in which the growth rate of perturbation is given as a function of the spherical harmonic number ℓ and the specific heats ratio γ. Numerical calculation reveals the existence of a γ-dependent cut-off mode number ℓc, such that all the eigenmode perturbations for ℓ > ℓc are smeared out as the shock wave converges at the center. The analysis is applied to partially spherical geometries to give significant implication for different ignition schemes of inertial confinement fusion. Two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations are performed to verify the theory

  10. BRAZILIAN AND INTERNATIONAL ACCOUNTING STANDARDS APPLIED TO THE PUBLIC SECTOR AND THE CHALLENGE OF CONVERGENCE: A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS - IPSAS AND NBCTSP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Francisco Ribeiro Filho (in memoriam

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim in this study is to analyze the current stage of conceptual convergence between Brazilian accounting standards applied to the public sector (NBCTSP and the International Public Sector Accounting Standard (IPSAS. The complexity and range of transactions between public or private sector entities, as a result of market internationalization, demand continuous and dynamic assessment of the events that promote quantitative or qualitative equity changes. For this evaluation process, observing accounting principles and standards is important to guarantee, among other information characteristics, understandability and comparability, thus reducing costs for investors and users in general, in view of the barriers raised by diverse languages, cultures, tax and economic policies. For convergence analysis, the standards’ contents were subject to a comparative study, based on a descriptive analysis, with a view to verifying the existing adherence between Brazilian and international standards applied to the public sector. The results found highlight that different aspects still have to be discussed with a view to an actual convergence with the international standards; the current convergence is partial. The high-quality conceptual exposure of the NBCPSPs is observed though, while the contents of the IPSAS are more focused on operating procedures

  11. Single cell transcriptional analysis reveals novel innate immune cell types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda E. Kippner

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Single-cell analysis has the potential to provide us with a host of new knowledge about biological systems, but it comes with the challenge of correctly interpreting the biological information. While emerging techniques have made it possible to measure inter-cellular variability at the transcriptome level, no consensus yet exists on the most appropriate method of data analysis of such single cell data. Methods for analysis of transcriptional data at the population level are well established but are not well suited to single cell analysis due to their dependence on population averages. In order to address this question, we have systematically tested combinations of methods for primary data analysis on single cell transcription data generated from two types of primary immune cells, neutrophils and T lymphocytes. Cells were obtained from healthy individuals, and single cell transcript expression data was obtained by a combination of single cell sorting and nanoscale quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR for markers of cell type, intracellular signaling, and immune functionality. Gene expression analysis was focused on hierarchical clustering to determine the existence of cellular subgroups within the populations. Nine combinations of criteria for data exclusion and normalization were tested and evaluated. Bimodality in gene expression indicated the presence of cellular subgroups which were also revealed by data clustering. We observed evidence for two clearly defined cellular subtypes in the neutrophil populations and at least two in the T lymphocyte populations. When normalizing the data by different methods, we observed varying outcomes with corresponding interpretations of the biological characteristics of the cell populations. Normalization of the data by linear standardization taking into account technical effects such as plate effects, resulted in interpretations that most closely matched biological expectations. Single cell transcription

  12. 梯度神经网络实时求解线性方程组之收敛性分析%Convergence Properties Analysis of Gradient Neural Network for Solving Online Linear Equations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张雨浓; 陈增海; 陈轲

    2009-01-01

    A gradient neural network (GNN) for solving online a set of simultaneous linear equations is generalized and investigated in this paper. Instead of the earlier-presented asymptotical convergence, global exponential convergence could be proved for such a class of neural networks. In addition,superior convergence could be achieved using power-sigmoid activation-functions, compared with using linear activation-functions. Computer-simulation results substantiate further the above analysis and efficacy of such neural networks.

  13. Transcriptome meta-analysis reveals dysregulated pathways in nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulalamba, Warut; Larbcharoensub, Noppadol; Sirachainan, Ekaphop; Tantiwetrueangdet, Aunchalee; Janvilisri, Tavan

    2015-08-01

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a malignant cancer arising from the epithelial surface of the nasopharynx that mostly appears in advanced stages of the disease, leading to a poor prognosis. To date, a number of mRNA profiling investigations on NPC have been reported in order to identify suitable biomarkers for early detection. However, the results may be specific to each study with distinct sample types. In this study, an integrative meta-analysis of NPC transcriptome data was performed to determine dysregulated pathways, potentially leading to identification of molecular markers. Ten independent NPC gene expression profiling microarray datasets, including 135 samples from NPC cell lines, primary cell lines, and tissues were assimilated into a meta-analysis and cross-validation to identify a cohort of genes that were significantly dysregulated in NPC. Bioinformatics analyses of these genes revealed the significant pathways and individual players involving in cellular metabolism, cell cycle regulation, DNA repair, as well as ErbB pathway. Altogether, we propose that dysregulation of these molecular pathways in NPC might play a role in the NPC pathogenesis, providing clues, which could eventually translate into diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. PMID:25724187

  14. Comparative analysis reveals the underlying mechanism of vertebrate seasonal reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikegami, Keisuke; Yoshimura, Takashi

    2016-02-01

    Animals utilize photoperiodic changes as a calendar to regulate seasonal reproduction. Birds have highly sophisticated photoperiodic mechanisms and functional genomics analysis in quail uncovered the signal transduction pathway regulating avian seasonal reproduction. Birds detect light with deep brain photoreceptors. Long day (LD) stimulus induces secretion of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) from the pars tuberalis (PT) of the pituitary gland. PT-derived TSH locally activates thyroid hormone (TH) in the hypothalamus, which induces gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and hence gonadotropin secretion. However, during winter, low temperatures increase serum TH for adaptive thermogenesis, which accelerates germ cell apoptosis by activating the genes involved in metamorphosis. Therefore, TH has a dual role in the regulation of seasonal reproduction. Studies using TSH receptor knockout mice confirmed the involvement of PT-derived TSH in mammalian seasonal reproduction. In addition, studies in mice revealed that the tissue-specific glycosylation of TSH diversifies its function in the circulation to avoid crosstalk. In contrast to birds and mammals, one of the molecular machineries necessary for the seasonal reproduction of fish are localized in the saccus vasculosus from the photoreceptor to the neuroendocrine output. Thus, comparative analysis is a powerful tool to uncover the universality and diversity of fundamental properties in various organisms. PMID:26050562

  15. Convergence réelle et convergence nominale dans les Pays de la région MENA

    OpenAIRE

    Rey, Serge

    2005-01-01

    We study the processes of real convergence (per-capita GDP, period 1950-2005) and of nominal convergence (inflation rate, period 1973-2005) for a sample of MENA countries. Using the methods of dynamic analysis based on transition matrices (Markov processes) and stochastic kernels, we show that there is not had a global real convergence process, but rather convergence clubs. Conversely, a convergence process of inflation rates is verified. Finally, we note that the speed of convergence of infl...

  16. Microsporidian genome analysis reveals evolutionary strategies for obligate intracellular growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuomo, Christina A; Desjardins, Christopher A; Bakowski, Malina A; Goldberg, Jonathan; Ma, Amy T; Becnel, James J; Didier, Elizabeth S; Fan, Lin; Heiman, David I; Levin, Joshua Z; Young, Sarah; Zeng, Qiandong; Troemel, Emily R

    2012-12-01

    Microsporidia comprise a large phylum of obligate intracellular eukaryotes that are fungal-related parasites responsible for widespread disease, and here we address questions about microsporidia biology and evolution. We sequenced three microsporidian genomes from two species, Nematocida parisii and Nematocida sp1, which are natural pathogens of Caenorhabditis nematodes and provide model systems for studying microsporidian pathogenesis. We performed deep sequencing of transcripts from a time course of N. parisii infection. Examination of pathogen gene expression revealed compact transcripts and a dramatic takeover of host cells by Nematocida. We also performed phylogenomic analyses of Nematocida and other microsporidian genomes to refine microsporidian phylogeny and identify evolutionary events of gene loss, acquisition, and modification. In particular, we found that all microsporidia lost the tumor-suppressor gene retinoblastoma, which we speculate could accelerate the parasite cell cycle and increase the mutation rate. We also found that microsporidia acquired transporters that could import nucleosides to fuel rapid growth. In addition, microsporidian hexokinases gained secretion signal sequences, and in a functional assay these were sufficient to export proteins out of the cell; thus hexokinase may be targeted into the host cell to reprogram it toward biosynthesis. Similar molecular changes appear during formation of cancer cells and may be evolutionary strategies adopted independently by microsporidia to proliferate rapidly within host cells. Finally, analysis of genome polymorphisms revealed evidence for a sexual cycle that may provide genetic diversity to alleviate problems caused by clonal growth. Together these events may explain the emergence and success of these diverse intracellular parasites. PMID:22813931

  17. In silico peptide-binding predictions of passerine MHC class I reveal similarities across distantly related species, suggesting convergence on the level of protein function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Follin, Elna; Karlsson, Maria; Lundegaard, Claus; Nielsen, Morten; Wallin, Stefan; Paulsson, Kajsa Maria; Westerdahl, Helena

    2013-01-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes are the most polymorphic genes found in the vertebrate genome, and they encode proteins that play an essential role in the adaptive immune response. Many songbirds (passerines) have been shown to have a large number of transcribed MHC class I genes...... compared to most mammals. To elucidate the reason for this large number of genes, we compared 14 MHC class I alleles (α1–α3 domains), from great reed warbler, house sparrow and tree sparrow, via phylogenetic analysis, homology modelling and in silico peptide-binding predictions to investigate their...... functional significance. The MHC class I allomorphs from house sparrow and tree sparrow, species that diverged 10 million years ago (MYA), had overlapping peptide-binding specificities, and these similarities across species were also confirmed in phylogenetic analyses based on amino acid sequences. Notably...

  18. Sequence analysis reveals mosaic genome of Aichi virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Xiaohong

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aichi virus is a positive-sense and single-stranded RNA virus, which demonstrated to be related to diarrhea of Children. In the present study, phylogenetic and recombination analysis based on the Aichi virus complete genomes available in GenBank reveal a mosaic genome sequence [GenBank: FJ890523], of which the nt 261-852 region (the nt position was based on the aligned sequence file shows close relationship with AB010145/Japan with 97.9% sequence identity, while the other genomic regions show close relationship with AY747174/German with 90.1% sequence identity. Our results will provide valuable hints for future research on Aichi virus diversity. Aichi virus is a member of the Kobuvirus genus of the Picornaviridae family 12 and belongs to a positive-sense and single-stranded RNA virus. Its presence in fecal specimens of children suffering from diarrhea has been demonstrated in several Asian countries 3456, in Brazil and German 7, in France 8 and in Tunisia 9. Some reports showed the high level of seroprevalence in adults 710, suggesting the widespread exposure to Aichi virus during childhood. The genome of Aichi virus contains 8,280 nucleotides and a poly(A tail. The single large open reading frame (nt 713-8014 according to the strain AB010145 encodes a polyprotein of 2,432 amino acids that is cleaved into the typical picornavirus structural proteins VP0, VP3, VP1, and nonstructural proteins 2A, 2B, 2C, 3A, 3B, 3C and 3D 211. Based on the phylogenetic analysis of 519-bp sequences at the 3C-3D (3CD junction, Aichi viruses can be divided into two genotypes A and B with approximately 90% sequence homology 12. Although only six complete genomes of Aichi virus were deposited in GenBank at present, mosaic genomes can be found in strains from different countries.

  19. Approximating the Geometry of Dynamics in Potential Games: Point-wise Convergence, Regions of Attraction, Average Case Performance Analysis and System Invariants

    OpenAIRE

    Panageas, Ioannis; Piliouras, Georgios

    2014-01-01

    What does it mean to fully understand the behavior of a network of competing agents? The golden standard typically is the behavior of learning dynamics in potential games, where many evolutionary dynamics, e.g., replicator, are known to converge to sets of equilibria. Even in such classic settings many critical questions remain unanswered. Inspired by topological and geometric considerations, we devise novel yardsticks and techniques that allow for much more detailed analysis of game dynamics...

  20. Precision Nutrition 4.0: A Big Data and Ethics Foresight Analysis--Convergence of Agrigenomics, Nutrigenomics, Nutriproteomics, and Nutrimetabolomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özdemir, Vural; Kolker, Eugene

    2016-02-01

    , and aggregation of the relevant life sciences data. For innovation in Big Data ethics oversight, we suggest "nested governance" wherein the processes of knowledge production are made transparent in the continuum from life sciences and social sciences to humanities, and where each innovation actor reports to another accountability and transparency layer: scientists to ethicists, and ethicists to scholars in the emerging field of ethics-of-ethics. Such nested innovation ecosystems offer safety against innovation blind spots, calibrate visible/invisible power differences in the cultures of science or ethics, and ultimately, reducing the risk of "paper values"--what people say--and "real values"--what innovation actors actually do. We are optimistic that the convergence of nutrigenomics with nutriproteomics, nutrimetabolomics, and agrigenomics can build a robust, sustainable, and trustworthy precision nutrition 4.0 agenda, as articulated in this Big Data and ethics foresight analysis. PMID:26785082

  1. Lipidome analysis reveals antifungal polyphenol curcumin affects membrane lipid homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Monika; Dhamgaye, Sanjiveeni; Singh, Ashutosh; Prasad, Rajendra

    2012-01-01

    This study shows that antifungal curcumin (CUR), significantly depletes ergosterol levels in Candida albicans. CUR while displaying synergy with fluconazole (FLC) lowers ergosterol. However, CUR alone at its synergistic concentration (lower than MIC50), could not affect ergosterol contents. For deeper insight of CUR effects on lipids, we performed high throughput mass spectroscopy (MS) based lipid profiling of C. albicans cells. The lipidome analysis revealed that there were no major changes in phosphoglycerides (PGLs) composition following CUR treatment of Candida, however, significant differences in molecular species of PGLs were detected. Among major SPLs, CUR treatment resulted in the reduction of ceramide and accumulation of IPCs levels. The lipidome of CUR treated cells confirmed a dramatic drop in the ergosterol levels with a simultaneous accumulation of its biosynthetic precursors. This was further supported by the fact that the mutants defective in ergosterol biosynthesis (ERG2 and ERG11) and those lacking the transcription factor regulating ergosterol biosynthesis, UPC2, were highly susceptible to CUR. Our study first time shows that CUR, for its antifungal activity, targets and down regulates delta 5, 6 desaturase (ERG3) resulting in depletion of ergosterol. This results in parallel accumulation of ergosterol biosynthetic precursors, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cell death. PMID:22201946

  2. Interest Convergence or Divergence? A Critical Race Analysis of Asian Americans, Meritocracy, and Critical Mass in the Affirmative Action Debate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Julie J.; Liu, Amy

    2014-01-01

    We use the Critical Race Theory frameworks of interest convergence and divergence to critique the anti-affirmative action movement's co-option of Asian Americans. Past discussions of affirmative action and Asian Americans mainly concentrate on how Asian Americans are affected by affirmative action, whether positively or negatively. We…

  3. Convergence Analysis of Distributed Control for Operation Cost Minimization of Droop Controlled DC Microgrid Based on Multiagent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Chendan; Quintero, Juan Carlos Vasquez; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2016-01-01

    collective decision for the whole system is made by proposed incremental cost consensus, and only nearest-neighbor communication is needed. The convergence characteristics of the consensus algorithm are analyzed considering different communication topologies and control parameters. Case studies verified the...... proposed method by comparing it without traditional methods. The robustness of system is tested under different communication latency and plug and play operation....

  4. Strong path convergence from Loewner driving convergence

    CERN Document Server

    Sheffield, Scott

    2010-01-01

    We show that, under mild assumptions on the limiting curve, a sequence of simple chordal planar curves converges uniformly whenever certain Loewner driving functions converge. We extend this result to random curves. The random version applies in particular to random lattice paths that have chordal SLE as a scaling limit, with kappa less than 8 (non-space-filling). Existing SLE convergence proofs often begin by showing that the Loewner driving functions of these paths (viewed from infinity) converge to Brownian motion. Unfortunately, this is not sufficient, and additional arguments are required to complete the proofs. We show that driving function convergence is sufficient if it can be established for both parametrization directions and a generic target.

  5. Comparative analysis of the tardigrade feeding apparatus: adaptive convergence and evolutionary pattern of the piercing stylet system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Guidetti

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A thorough analysis of the cuticular parts of tardigrade feeding apparatuses was performed in order to provide a more complete understanding of their evolution and their potential homologies with other animal phyla (e.g. Cycloneuralia and Arthropoda. The buccal- pharyngeal apparatuses of eight species belonging to both Eutardigrada and Heterotardigrada were studied using light and scanning electron microscopy. This study supports and completes a previous study on the relationships between form and function in the buccalpharyngeal apparatus of eutardigrades. The common sclerified structures of the tardigrade buccal-pharyngeal apparatus are: a buccal ring connected to a straight buccal tube, a buccal crown, longitudinal thickenings within the pharynx, and a stylet system composed of piercing stylets within stylet coats, and stylet supports. Specifically, heterotardigrades (Echiniscoidea have a narrow buccal tube; long piercing stylets, each with a longitudinal groove, that cross one another before exiting the mouth; pharyngeal bars and secondary longitudinal thickenings within the pharynx. In contrast, eutardigrades have stylets which are shorter than the buccal tube; Parachela have pharyngeal apophyses and placoids within the pharynx, while Apochela lack a buccal crown and cuticular thickenings within the pharynx, the buccal tube is very wide, and the short stylets are associated with triangular-shaped stylet supports. In both classes, when the piercing stylet tips emerge from the mouth to pierce food, the buccal tube opening is almost completely obstructed, which may hinder food uptake. In heterotardigrades, the crossing of the piercing stylets may further decrease food uptake, however this disadvantage may have been reduced in echiniscids by the evolution of a long buccal tube and long stylets able to run more parallel to the buccal tube. In contrast, eutardigrades evolved different strategies. In the order Apochela and in several

  6. On the Convergence of Biogeography-Based Optimization for Binary Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiping Ma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Biogeography-based optimization (BBO is an evolutionary algorithm inspired by biogeography, which is the study of the migration of species between habitats. A finite Markov chain model of BBO for binary problems was derived in earlier work, and some significant theoretical results were obtained. This paper analyzes the convergence properties of BBO on binary problems based on the previously derived BBO Markov chain model. Analysis reveals that BBO with only migration and mutation never converges to the global optimum. However, BBO with elitism, which maintains the best candidate in the population from one generation to the next, converges to the global optimum. In spite of previously published differences between genetic algorithms (GAs and BBO, this paper shows that the convergence properties of BBO are similar to those of the canonical GA. In addition, the convergence rate estimate of BBO with elitism is obtained in this paper and is confirmed by simulations for some simple representative problems.

  7. Interpolation and extrapolation of creep rupture data by the Minimum Commitment Method. I - Focal-point convergence. II - Oblique translation. III - Analysis of multiheats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manson, S. S.; Ensign, C. R.

    1978-01-01

    The framework in which minimum-commitment analyses of creep-rupture data can be implemented is outlined. The approach is termed the focal point convergence method (FPCM) because the basic parameter A, also known as stability factor, is geometrically the (imaginary) focal point of convergence of all isothermals when extended to the very long or very short times necessary for such convergence to occur. The method can be implemented either by manual-graphical analysis or by computer code. The method is illustrated in detail for the nickel-base alloy Astroloy, as well as for steels, other nickel-base alloys, and aluminum alloys. The minimum-commitment concept is extended to the analysis of creep-rupture data where each isothermal is generated by an oblique translation of the 'master curve' when plotted on log rupture time and log stress axes. The oblique translation method uses the same types of functions in the FPCM. Approaches for treating multiheats on the basis of the FPCM are discussed in detail.

  8. There is poverty convergence

    OpenAIRE

    Crespo Cuaresma, Jesus; Klasen, Stephan; Konstantin M. Wacker

    2016-01-01

    Martin Ravallion ("Why Don't We See Poverty Convergence?" American Economic Review, 102(1): 504-23; 2012) presents evidence against the existence of convergence in global poverty rates despite convergence in household mean income levels and the close linkage between income growth and poverty reduction. We show that this finding is driven by a specification that demands more than simple convergence in poverty headcount rates and assumes a growth elasticity of poverty reduction, which is well-k...

  9. ROUGH IDEAL CONVERGENCE

    OpenAIRE

    Pal, Sudip Kumar; Ch, Debraj; ,; Dutta, Sudipta

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we extend the notion of rough convergence using theconcept of ideals which automatically extends the earlier notions ofrough convergence and rough statistical convergence. We define the setof rough ideal limit points and prove several results associated with thisset.

  10. I^K-convergence

    OpenAIRE

    Mačaj, Martin; Sleziak, Martin

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we introduce I^K-convergence which is a common generalization of the I^K-convergence of sequences, double sequences and nets. We show that many results that were shown before for these special cases are true for the I^K-convergence, too

  11. Convergence Is Real

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enyeart, Mike; Staman, E. Michael; Valdes, Jose J., Jr.

    2007-01-01

    The concept of convergence has evolved significantly during recent years. Today, "convergence" refers to the integration of the communications and computing resources and services that seamlessly traverse multiple infrastructures and deliver content to multiple platforms or appliances. Convergence is real. Those in higher education, and especially…

  12. Gradient-flow-based semi-implicit finite-element method and its convergence analysis for image reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chong; Xu, Guoliang

    2012-03-01

    In this paper, we present a novel and effective L2-gradient-flow-based semi-implicit finite-element method for solving a variational problem of image reconstruction. The method is applicable to several data scenarios, especially for the contaminated data detected from uniformly sparse or randomly distributed projection directions. We also give a complete and rigorous proof for the convergence of the semi-implicit finite-element method, in which the convergence does not rely on the choices of the regularization parameter and the temporal step size. The experimental results show that our method has more desirable performance comparing with other reconstruction methods in solving a number of challenging reconstruction problems.

  13. Gradient-flow-based semi-implicit finite-element method and its convergence analysis for image reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we present a novel and effective L2-gradient-flow-based semi-implicit finite-element method for solving a variational problem of image reconstruction. The method is applicable to several data scenarios, especially for the contaminated data detected from uniformly sparse or randomly distributed projection directions. We also give a complete and rigorous proof for the convergence of the semi-implicit finite-element method, in which the convergence does not rely on the choices of the regularization parameter and the temporal step size. The experimental results show that our method has more desirable performance comparing with other reconstruction methods in solving a number of challenging reconstruction problems. (paper)

  14. Convergence Analysis of a Fully Discrete Family of Iterated Deconvolution Methods for Turbulence Modeling with Time Relaxation

    OpenAIRE

    Ingram, R; C. C. Manica; Mays, N.; I. Stanculescu

    2012-01-01

    We present a general theory for regularization models of the Navier-Stokes equations based on the Leray deconvolution model with a general deconvolution operator designed to fit a few important key properties. We provide examples of this type of operator, such as the (modified) Tikhonov-Lavrentiev and (modified) Iterated Tikhonov-Lavrentiev operators, and study their mathematical properties. An existence theory is derived for the family of models and a rigorous convergence theory is derived f...

  15. Adoption of carbon dioxide efficient technologies and practices: An analysis of sector-specific convergence trends among 12 nations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon dioxide intensities in economic terms (GDP in PPP terms) in industrialized and developing countries have been shown to converge, and it has been argued that technology diffusion, leading to the use of similar technologies in all countries, is an important reason for this convergence. Indicators based on CO2 per output in PPP terms, however, give in comparison to physical indicators limited understanding of the process of technology diffusion. In order to analyze the technology diffusion hypothesis in more detail, we therefore study the trend in carbon dioxide emissions in relation to the production output in four separate sectors: iron and steel; paper, board and pulp; coal fuelled power plants; and natural gas fuelled power plants, in each of 12 countries, between 1980 and 1998. The indicators converge in each sector, indicating that across countries, technologies with more similar carbon dioxide efficiencies are used today than 25 years ago. We also find that at least some developing countries with high energy prices use more efficient technologies than industrialized countries with low energy prices

  16. Numerical analysis of choked converging nozzle flows with surface roughness and heat flux conditions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Alper Ozalp

    2006-02-01

    Choked converging nozzle flow and heat transfer characteristics are numerically investigated by means of a recent computational model that integrates the axisymmetric continuity, state, momentum and energy equations. To predict the combined effects of nozzle geometry, friction and heat transfer rates, analyses are conducted with sufficiently wide ranges of covergence half angle, surface roughness and heat flux conditions. Numerical findings show that inlet Mach and Nusselt numbers decrease up to 23.1% and 15.8% with surface heat flux and by 15.13% and 4.8% due to surface roughness. Considering each convergence half angle case individually results in a linear relation between nozzle discharge coefficients and exit Reynolds numbers with similar slopes. Heat flux implementation, by decreasing the shear stress values, lowers the risks due to wear hazards at upstream sections of flow walls; however the final 10% downstream nozzle portion is determined to be quite critical, where shear stress attains the highest magnitudes. Heat transfer rates are seen to increase in the streamwise direction up to 2.7 times; however high convergence half angles, heat flux and surface roughness conditions lower inlet Nusselt numbers by 70%, 15.8% and 4.8% respectively.

  17. Power analysis attacks revealing the secrets of smart cards

    CERN Document Server

    Mangard, Stefan; Popp, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    A comprehensive treatment of power analysis attacks and countermeasures. Based on the principle that the only way to defend against power analysis attacks is to understand them, this book explains how power analysis attacks work. It discusses simple and differential power analysis as well as advanced techniques like template attacks.

  18. 基于CS算法的Markov模型及收敛性分析%Markov Model and Convergence Analysis Based on Cuckoo Search Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王凡; 贺兴时; 王燕; 杨松铭

    2012-01-01

    In order to perfect the convergence theory of Cuckoo Search(CS) algorithm, the Markov chain model of the CS algorithm is established and the property of the limited and homogeneous of Markov chain is analyzed. On the basis of this, through the analysis of the state transition process of a group of nest position, the stochastic sequence enters to the optimal state set. And CS algorithm meets the global convergence qualification of random search algorithms. Simulation experimental results show that CS algorithm achieves the global optimization, and the global convergence is ensured.%为完善布谷鸟搜索(CS)算法的收敛性理论,建立CS算法的Markov链模型,分析该Markov链的有限齐次性,在此基础上通过分析鸟窝位置的群体状态转移过程,指出随机序列将进入最优状态集,同时证明CS算法满足随机搜索算法全局收敛的2个条件.通过仿真实验验证CS算法可收敛于全局最优,从而确保CS算法的全局收敛性.

  19. Topologies of (strong) uniform convergence on bornologies

    OpenAIRE

    Holá, Lubica; Novotný, Branislav

    2012-01-01

    We continue the study of topologies of strong uniform convergence on bornologies initiated in [G. Beer and S. Levi, Strong uniform continuity, J. Math Anal. Appl., 350:568-589, 2009] and [G. Beer and S. Levi, Uniform continuity, uniform convergence and shields, Set-Valued and Variational Analysis, 18:251-275, 2010]. We study cardinal invariants of topologies of (strong) uniform convergence on bornologies on the space of continuous real-valued functions and we also generalize some known result...

  20. On the convergence of planar curves under smoothing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Baojiang; Ma, Kai-Kuang

    2010-08-01

    Curve smoothing has two important applications in computer vision and image processing: 1) the curvature scale-space (CSS) technique for shape analysis, and 2) the Gaussian filter for noise suppression. In this paper, we study how planar curves converge as they are smoothed with increasing scales. First, two types of convergence behavior are clarified. The coined term shrinkage refers to the reduction of arc-length of a smoothed planar curve, which describes the convergence of the curve latitudinally; and another coined term collapse refers to the movement of each point to its limiting position, which describes the convergence of the curve longitudinally. A systematic study on the shrinkage and collapse of three categories of curve models is then presented. The corner models helps to reveal how the local structures of planar curves collapse and what the smoothed curves may converge to. The sawtooth models allows us to gain insights regarding how noise is suppressed from noisy planar curves by the Gaussian filter. Our investigation on the closed curves shows that each curve collapses to a point at its center of mass. However, different curves may yield different limiting shapes at the infinity scale. Finally, based upon the derived results the performance of the CSS technique in corner detection and shape representation is analyzed, and a fast implementation method of the Gaussian filter for noise suppression is proposed. PMID:20350854

  1. Creating Concepts from Converging Features in Human Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutanche, Marc N; Thompson-Schill, Sharon L

    2015-09-01

    To make sense of the world around us, our brain must remember the overlapping features of millions of objects. Crucially, it must also represent each object's unique feature-convergence. Some theories propose that an integration area (or "convergence zone") binds together separate features. We report an investigation of our knowledge of objects' features and identity, and the link between them. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to record neural activity, as humans attempted to detect a cued fruit or vegetable in visual noise. Crucially, we analyzed brain activity before a fruit or vegetable was present, allowing us to interrogate top-down activity. We found that pattern-classification algorithms could be used to decode the detection target's identity in the left anterior temporal lobe (ATL), its shape in lateral occipital cortex, and its color in right V4. A novel decoding-dependency analysis revealed that identity information in left ATL was specifically predicted by the temporal convergence of shape and color codes in early visual regions. People with stronger feature-and-identity dependencies had more similar top-down and bottom-up activity patterns. These results fulfill three key requirements for a neural convergence zone: a convergence result (object identity), ingredients (color and shape), and the link between them. PMID:24692512

  2. Convergence of Optimization Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Jeyalakshmi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we consider a general optimization problem (OP and study the convergence and approximation of optimal values and optimal solutions to changes in the cost function and the set of feasible solutions. We consider the convergence optimization problems under the familiar notion of uniform convergence. We do not assume the convexity of the functions involved. Instead we consider a class of functions whose directional derivatives are convex. They are known as locally convex functions or following Craven and Mond nearly convex functions. We given necessary preliminaries and we prove that a sequence of locally convex optimization problems converge to a locally convex problem. We also prove that uniform convergence of locally convex optimization problems implies epi-graph convergence of the problems. Even though for simplicity we have taken locally convex functions, the results given here can be proved for locally Lipchitz functions also.

  3. Does Convergence Exist?

    OpenAIRE

    Jahan, Sumbul

    2013-01-01

    DOES CONVERGENCE EXIST? Sumbul Jahan Institute of Business Administration (IBA), 2013 Research Project Supervisor: Dr. Farooq Pasha & Dr. Heman D. Lohano The idea of convergence in economics is the hypothesis that poorer economies income will tend to grow at faster rates than richer economies. As a result, all economies should eventually converge; Developing countries have the potential to grow at a faster rate than the developed countries because of availability of better health...

  4. Conditions for Convergence in Regularized Machine Learning Objectives

    OpenAIRE

    Hop, Patrick; Pan, Xinghao

    2013-01-01

    Analysis of the convergence rates of modern convex optimization algorithms can be achived through binary means: analysis of emperical convergence, or analysis of theoretical convergence. These two pathways of capturing information diverge in efficacy when moving to the world of distributed computing, due to the introduction of non-intuitive, non-linear slowdowns associated with broadcasting, and in some cases, gathering operations. Despite these nuances in the rates of convergence, we can sti...

  5. A co-expression network analysis reveals lncRNA abnormalities in peripheral blood in early-onset schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yan; Cui, Yuehua; Li, Xinrong; Wang, Binhong; Na, Long; Shi, Junyan; Wang, Liang; Qiu, Lixia; Zhang, Kerang; Liu, Guifen; Xu, Yong

    2015-12-01

    Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are emerging as important regulators of gene expression and disease processes especially in neuropsychiatric disorders. To explore the potential regulatory roles of lncRNAs in schizophrenia, we performed an integrated co-expression network analysis on lncRNA and mRNA microarray profiles generated from the peripheral blood samples in 19 drug-naïve first-episode early-onset schizophrenia (EOS) patients and 18 demographically matched typically developing controls (TDCs). Using weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA), we showed that the lncRNAs were organized into co-expressed modules, and two lncRNA modules were associated with EOS. The mRNA networks were constructed and three disease-associated modules were identified. Gene Ontology (GO) analysis indicated that the mRNAs were highly enriched for mitochondrion and related biological processes. Moreover, our results revealed a significant correlation between lncRNAs and mRNAs using the canonical correlation analysis (CCA). Our results suggest that the convergent lncRNA alteration may be involved in the etiologies of EOS, and mitochondrial dysfunction participates in the pathological process of the disease. Our findings may shed light on the pathogenesis of schizophrenia and facilitate future diagnosis and therapeutic strategies. PMID:25967042

  6. Subfield profitability analysis reveals an economic case for cropland diversification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandes, E.; McNunn, G. S.; Schulte, L. A.; Bonner, I. J.; Muth, D. J.; Babcock, B. A.; Sharma, B.; Heaton, E. A.

    2016-01-01

    Public agencies and private enterprises increasingly desire to achieve ecosystem service outcomes in agricultural systems, but are limited by perceived conflicts between economic and ecosystem service goals and a lack of tools enabling effective operational management. Here we use Iowa—an agriculturally homogeneous state representative of the Maize Belt—to demonstrate an economic rationale for cropland diversification at the subfield scale. We used a novel computational framework that integrates disparate but publicly available data to map ˜3.3 million unique potential management polygons (9.3 Mha) and reveal subfield opportunities to increase overall field profitability. We analyzed subfield profitability for maize/soybean fields during 2010-2013—four of the most profitable years in recent history—and projected results for 2015. While cropland operating at a loss of US 250 ha-1 or more was negligible between 2010 and 2013 at 18 000-190 000 ha (<2% of row-crop land), the extent of highly unprofitable land increased to 2.5 Mha, or 27% of row-crop land, in the 2015 projection. Aggregation of these areas to the township level revealed ‘hotspots’ for potential management change in Western, Central, and Northeast Iowa. In these least profitable areas, incorporating conservation management that breaks even (e.g., planting low-input perennials), into low-yielding portions of fields could increase overall cropland profitability by 80%. This approach is applicable to the broader region and differs substantially from the status quo of ‘top-down’ land management for conservation by harnessing private interest to align profitability with the production of ecosystem services.

  7. BAHAMAS: new SNIa analysis reveals inconsistencies with standard cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Shariff, H; Trotta, R; van Dyk, D A

    2015-01-01

    We present results obtained by applying our BAyesian HierArchical Modeling for the Analysis of Supernova cosmology (BAHAMAS) software package to the 740 spectroscopically confirmed supernovae type Ia (SNIa) from the "Joint Light-curve Analysis" (JLA) dataset. We simultaneously determine cosmological parameters and standardization parameters, including host galaxy mass corrections, residual scatter and object-by-object intrinsic magnitudes. Combining JLA and Planck Cosmic Microwave Background data, we find significant discrepancies in cosmological parameter constraints with respect to the standard analysis: we find Omega_M = 0.399+/-0.027, 2.8\\sigma\\ higher than previously reported and w = -0.910+/-0.045, 1.6\\sigma\\ higher than the standard analysis. We determine the residual scatter to be sigma_res = 0.104+/-0.005. We confirm (at the 95% probability level) the existence of two sub-populations segregated by host galaxy mass, separated at log_{10}(M/M_solar) = 10, differing in mean intrinsic magnitude by 0.055+...

  8. Vitamin E analysis by ultra-performance convergence chromatography and structural elucidation of novel α-tocodienol by high-resolution mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, Ping Tou; Liew, Chen Yee; Thong, Meng Chil; Gay, Melvin C L

    2016-04-01

    We have developed a method for analysing vitamin E using ultra-performance convergence chromatography with a chromatographic runtime of 5.5 min. A well-resolved chromatogram with excellent precision in retention time revealed seven vitamin E components in the palm oil derived tocotrienol-rich fraction. The major vitamin E components were α-tocopherol, α-tocotrienol, γ-tocotrienol and δ-tocotrienol whereas the minor vitamin E components were α-tocomonoenol, β-tocotrienol and an unreported trace component. The new component was positively identified by high-resolution mass spectrometry as 2-methyl-2(4',8',12'-trimethyltrideca-7',11'-dienyl)5,7,8-trimethylchroman-6-ol or α-tocodienol. PMID:26593503

  9. Genome analysis of the platypus reveals unique signatures of evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Warren, Wesley C.; Hillier, LaDeana W.; Marshall Graves, Jennifer A.; Birney, Ewan; Ponting, Chris P; Grützner, Frank; Belov, Katherine; Miller, Webb; Clarke, Laura; Chinwalla, Asif T; Yang, Shiaw-Pyng; Heger, Andreas; Locke, Devin P.; Miethke, Pat; Waters, Paul D.

    2008-01-01

    We present a draft genome sequence of the platypus, Ornithorhynchus anatinus. This monotreme exhibits a fascinating combination of reptilian and mammalian characters. For example, platypuses have a coat of fur adapted to an aquatic lifestyle; platypus females lactate, yet lay eggs; and males are equipped with venom similar to that of reptiles. Analysis of the first monotreme genome aligned these features with genetic innovations. We find that reptile and platypus venom proteins have been co-o...

  10. Convergence or Divergence?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lema, Rasmus; Zhou, Yuan; Sagar, Ambuj

    2016-01-01

    characteristics and therefore differ along key dimensions, the increasing roles of cross-national firm interactions amplify tendencies towards global convergence. These patterns of divergence and convergence can potentially enhance the contribution of wind power to the low-carbon technology transition but also...

  11. Concordant Convergence Empirics

    OpenAIRE

    Webber, Don J; Paul White

    2004-01-01

    We present a new model to test the convergence hypothesis based on the ideas of concordance and then employ the model to test empirically for GDP per capita convergence across 97 countries. Our results suggest the presence of switching, while there is more ‘strong divergence’ than ‘strong convergence’.

  12. Normalized Convergence in Stochastic Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Y.M. Ermoliev; V.I. Norkin

    1989-01-01

    A new concept of (normalized) convergence of random variables is introduced. The normalized convergence in preserved under Lipschitz transformations. This convergence follows from the convergence in mean and itself implies the convergence in probability. If a sequence of random variables satisfies a Limit theorem then it in a normalized convergent sequence. The introduced concept is applied to the convergence rate study of a statistical approach in stochastic optimization.

  13. Changes in cod muscle proteins during frozen storage revealed by proteome analysis and multivariate data analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærsgård, Inger Vibeke Holst; Nørrelykke, M.R.; Jessen, Flemming

    2006-01-01

    myosin light chain 1, 2 and 3, triose-phosphate isomerase, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, aldolase A and two ?-actin fragments, and a nuclease diphosphate kinase B fragment to change in concentration, during frozen storage. Application of proteomics, multivariate data analysis and MS/MS to......Multivariate data analysis has been combined with proteomics to enhance the recovery of information from 2-DE of cod muscle proteins during different storage conditions. Proteins were extracted according to 11 different storage conditions and samples were resolved by 2-DE. Data generated by 2-DE...... was subjected to principal component analysis (PCA) and discriminant partial least squares regression (DPLSR). Applying PCA to 2-DE data revealed the samples to form groups according to frozen storage time, whereas differences due to different storage temperatures or chilled storage in modified...

  14. Extensive exometabolome analysis reveals extended overflow metabolism in various microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paczia Nicole

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Overflow metabolism is well known for yeast, bacteria and mammalian cells. It typically occurs under glucose excess conditions and is characterized by excretions of by-products such as ethanol, acetate or lactate. This phenomenon, also denoted the short-term Crabtree effect, has been extensively studied over the past few decades, however, its basic regulatory mechanism and functional role in metabolism is still unknown. Here we present a comprehensive quantitative and time-dependent analysis of the exometabolome of Escherichia coli, Corynebacterium glutamicum, Bacillus licheniformis, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae during well-controlled bioreactor cultivations. Most surprisingly, in all cases a great diversity of central metabolic intermediates and amino acids is found in the culture medium with extracellular concentrations varying in the micromolar range. Different hypotheses for these observations are formulated and experimentally tested. As a result, the intermediates in the culture medium during batch growth must originate from passive or active transportation due to a new phenomenon termed “extended” overflow metabolism. Moreover, we provide broad evidence that this could be a common feature of all microorganism species when cultivated under conditions of carbon excess and non-inhibited carbon uptake. In turn, this finding has consequences for metabolite balancing and, particularly, for intracellular metabolite quantification and 13C-metabolic flux analysis.

  15. Analytical and numerical analysis of tides and salinities in estuaries; part II: salinity distributions in prismatic and convergent tidal channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuijper, Kees; van Rijn, Leo C.

    2011-11-01

    Estuaries, commonly, are densely populated areas serving the needs of the inhabitants in multiple ways. Often the interests are conflicting and decisions need to be made by the local managers. Intake of fresh water for consumption, agricultural purposes or use by industries may take place within a region not far landward of the limit of salt intrusion. Human interventions (e.g. deepening of the navigation channels) or climate changes (sea level rise, reduction of the river discharge) can bring these intake locations within the reach of saline or brackish water and consequently endanger their function. To support policy and managerial decisions, a profound knowledge of processes associated with the salinity structure in estuaries is required. Although nowadays advanced numerical three-dimensional models are available that are able to cope with the complexity of the physics there is still a need for relatively simple tools for quick-scan actions in a pre-phase of a project or for instructive purposes. The analytical model described in this paper may serve these needs. It computes the maximum salinity distribution using the dispersion coefficient in the mouth as the only model parameter. The model has been calibrated using observational data in a large number of estuaries and experimental data in a tidal flume. The dispersion coefficient was successfully related to geometric and hydrodynamic parameters resulting in an expression that can be used for convergent estuaries as well as prismatic channels, see Eqs. 25a and 25b. Application of the model in a predictive mode showed its promising capabilities. Comparison with three-dimensional numerical models indicates that the channel geometry in the estuary mouth largely influences dispersive processes. The analytical model for salt intrusion may be used in combination with the analytical model for tidal propagation in convergent estuaries and tidal channels by Van Rijn (part I). In this way, input is obtained on the tidal

  16. Suite of Benchmark Tests to Conduct Mesh-Convergence Analysis of Nonlinear and Non-constant Coefficient Transport Codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani, K.; Bombardelli, F. A.

    2014-12-01

    Verification of geophysics codes is imperative to avoid serious academic as well as practical consequences. In case that access to any given source code is not possible, the Method of Manufactured Solution (MMS) cannot be employed in code verification. In contrast, employing the Method of Exact Solution (MES) has several practical advantages. In this research, we first provide four new one-dimensional analytical solutions designed for code verification; these solutions are able to uncover the particular imperfections of the Advection-diffusion-reaction equation, such as nonlinear advection, diffusion or source terms, as well as non-constant coefficient equations. After that, we provide a solution of Burgers' equation in a novel setup. Proposed solutions satisfy the continuity of mass for the ambient flow, which is a crucial factor for coupled hydrodynamics-transport solvers. Then, we use the derived analytical solutions for code verification. To clarify gray-literature issues in the verification of transport codes, we designed a comprehensive test suite to uncover any imperfection in transport solvers via a hierarchical increase in the level of tests' complexity. The test suite includes hundreds of unit tests and system tests to check vis-a-vis the portions of the code. Examples for checking the suite start by testing a simple case of unidirectional advection; then, bidirectional advection and tidal flow and build up to nonlinear cases. We design tests to check nonlinearity in velocity, dispersivity and reactions. The concealing effect of scales (Peclet and Damkohler numbers) on the mesh-convergence study and appropriate remedies are also discussed. For the cases in which the appropriate benchmarks for mesh convergence study are not available, we utilize symmetry. Auxiliary subroutines for automation of the test suite and report generation are designed. All in all, the test package is not only a robust tool for code verification but it also provides comprehensive

  17. Genome analysis of the platypus reveals unique signatures of evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Wesley C.; Hillier, LaDeana W.; Marshall Graves, Jennifer A.; Birney, Ewan; Ponting, Chris P.; Grützner, Frank; Belov, Katherine; Miller, Webb; Clarke, Laura; Chinwalla, Asif T.; Yang, Shiaw-Pyng; Heger, Andreas; Locke, Devin P.; Miethke, Pat; Waters, Paul D.; Veyrunes, Frédéric; Fulton, Lucinda; Fulton, Bob; Graves, Tina; Wallis, John; Puente, Xose S.; López-Otín, Carlos; Ordóñez, Gonzalo R.; Eichler, Evan E.; Chen, Lin; Cheng, Ze; Deakin, Janine E.; Alsop, Amber; Thompson, Katherine; Kirby, Patrick; Papenfuss, Anthony T.; Wakefield, Matthew J.; Olender, Tsviya; Lancet, Doron; Huttley, Gavin A.; Smit, Arian F. A.; Pask, Andrew; Temple-Smith, Peter; Batzer, Mark A.; Walker, Jerilyn A.; Konkel, Miriam K.; Harris, Robert S.; Whittington, Camilla M.; Wong, Emily S. W.; Gemmell, Neil J.; Buschiazzo, Emmanuel; Vargas Jentzsch, Iris M.; Merkel, Angelika; Schmitz, Juergen; Zemann, Anja; Churakov, Gennady; Kriegs, Jan Ole; Brosius, Juergen; Murchison, Elizabeth P.; Sachidanandam, Ravi; Smith, Carly; Hannon, Gregory J.; Tsend-Ayush, Enkhjargal; McMillan, Daniel; Attenborough, Rosalind; Rens, Willem; Ferguson-Smith, Malcolm; Lefèvre, Christophe M.; Sharp, Julie A.; Nicholas, Kevin R.; Ray, David A.; Kube, Michael; Reinhardt, Richard; Pringle, Thomas H.; Taylor, James; Jones, Russell C.; Nixon, Brett; Dacheux, Jean-Louis; Niwa, Hitoshi; Sekita, Yoko; Huang, Xiaoqiu; Stark, Alexander; Kheradpour, Pouya; Kellis, Manolis; Flicek, Paul; Chen, Yuan; Webber, Caleb; Hardison, Ross; Nelson, Joanne; Hallsworth-Pepin, Kym; Delehaunty, Kim; Markovic, Chris; Minx, Pat; Feng, Yucheng; Kremitzki, Colin; Mitreva, Makedonka; Glasscock, Jarret; Wylie, Todd; Wohldmann, Patricia; Thiru, Prathapan; Nhan, Michael N.; Pohl, Craig S.; Smith, Scott M.; Hou, Shunfeng; Renfree, Marilyn B.; Mardis, Elaine R.; Wilson, Richard K.

    2009-01-01

    We present a draft genome sequence of the platypus, Ornithorhynchus anatinus. This monotreme exhibits a fascinating combination of reptilian and mammalian characters. For example, platypuses have a coat of fur adapted to an aquatic lifestyle; platypus females lactate, yet lay eggs; and males are equipped with venom similar to that of reptiles. Analysis of the first monotreme genome aligned these features with genetic innovations. We find that reptile and platypus venom proteins have been co-opted independently from the same gene families; milk protein genes are conserved despite platypuses laying eggs; and immune gene family expansions are directly related to platypus biology. Expansions of protein, non-protein-coding RNA and microRNA families, as well as repeat elements, are identified. Sequencing of this genome now provides a valuable resource for deep mammalian comparative analyses, as well as for monotreme biology and conservation. PMID:18464734

  18. Genome analysis of the platypus reveals unique signatures of evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Wesley C; Hillier, LaDeana W; Marshall Graves, Jennifer A; Birney, Ewan; Ponting, Chris P; Grützner, Frank; Belov, Katherine; Miller, Webb; Clarke, Laura; Chinwalla, Asif T; Yang, Shiaw-Pyng; Heger, Andreas; Locke, Devin P; Miethke, Pat; Waters, Paul D; Veyrunes, Frédéric; Fulton, Lucinda; Fulton, Bob; Graves, Tina; Wallis, John; Puente, Xose S; López-Otín, Carlos; Ordóñez, Gonzalo R; Eichler, Evan E; Chen, Lin; Cheng, Ze; Deakin, Janine E; Alsop, Amber; Thompson, Katherine; Kirby, Patrick; Papenfuss, Anthony T; Wakefield, Matthew J; Olender, Tsviya; Lancet, Doron; Huttley, Gavin A; Smit, Arian F A; Pask, Andrew; Temple-Smith, Peter; Batzer, Mark A; Walker, Jerilyn A; Konkel, Miriam K; Harris, Robert S; Whittington, Camilla M; Wong, Emily S W; Gemmell, Neil J; Buschiazzo, Emmanuel; Vargas Jentzsch, Iris M; Merkel, Angelika; Schmitz, Juergen; Zemann, Anja; Churakov, Gennady; Kriegs, Jan Ole; Brosius, Juergen; Murchison, Elizabeth P; Sachidanandam, Ravi; Smith, Carly; Hannon, Gregory J; Tsend-Ayush, Enkhjargal; McMillan, Daniel; Attenborough, Rosalind; Rens, Willem; Ferguson-Smith, Malcolm; Lefèvre, Christophe M; Sharp, Julie A; Nicholas, Kevin R; Ray, David A; Kube, Michael; Reinhardt, Richard; Pringle, Thomas H; Taylor, James; Jones, Russell C; Nixon, Brett; Dacheux, Jean-Louis; Niwa, Hitoshi; Sekita, Yoko; Huang, Xiaoqiu; Stark, Alexander; Kheradpour, Pouya; Kellis, Manolis; Flicek, Paul; Chen, Yuan; Webber, Caleb; Hardison, Ross; Nelson, Joanne; Hallsworth-Pepin, Kym; Delehaunty, Kim; Markovic, Chris; Minx, Pat; Feng, Yucheng; Kremitzki, Colin; Mitreva, Makedonka; Glasscock, Jarret; Wylie, Todd; Wohldmann, Patricia; Thiru, Prathapan; Nhan, Michael N; Pohl, Craig S; Smith, Scott M; Hou, Shunfeng; Nefedov, Mikhail; de Jong, Pieter J; Renfree, Marilyn B; Mardis, Elaine R; Wilson, Richard K

    2008-05-01

    We present a draft genome sequence of the platypus, Ornithorhynchus anatinus. This monotreme exhibits a fascinating combination of reptilian and mammalian characters. For example, platypuses have a coat of fur adapted to an aquatic lifestyle; platypus females lactate, yet lay eggs; and males are equipped with venom similar to that of reptiles. Analysis of the first monotreme genome aligned these features with genetic innovations. We find that reptile and platypus venom proteins have been co-opted independently from the same gene families; milk protein genes are conserved despite platypuses laying eggs; and immune gene family expansions are directly related to platypus biology. Expansions of protein, non-protein-coding RNA and microRNA families, as well as repeat elements, are identified. Sequencing of this genome now provides a valuable resource for deep mammalian comparative analyses, as well as for monotreme biology and conservation. PMID:18464734

  19. An $L^p$ theory of sparse graph convergence II: LD convergence, quotients, and right convergence

    OpenAIRE

    Borgs, Christian; Chayes, Jennifer T.; Cohn, Henry; Zhao, Yufei

    2014-01-01

    We extend the $L^p$ theory of sparse graph limits, which was introduced in a companion paper, by analyzing different notions of convergence. Under suitable restrictions on node weights, we prove the equivalence of metric convergence, quotient convergence, microcanonical ground state energy convergence, microcanonical free energy convergence, and large deviation convergence. Our theorems extend the broad applicability of dense graph convergence to all sparse graphs with unbounded average degre...

  20. Bioimage analysis of Shigella infection reveals targeting of colonic crypts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arena, Ellen T; Campbell-Valois, Francois-Xavier; Tinevez, Jean-Yves; Nigro, Giulia; Sachse, Martin; Moya-Nilges, Maryse; Nothelfer, Katharina; Marteyn, Benoit; Shorte, Spencer L; Sansonetti, Philippe J

    2015-06-23

    Few studies within the pathogenic field have used advanced imaging and analytical tools to quantitatively measure pathogenicity in vivo. In this work, we present a novel approach for the investigation of host-pathogen processes based on medium-throughput 3D fluorescence imaging. The guinea pig model for Shigella flexneri invasion of the colonic mucosa was used to monitor the infectious process over time with GFP-expressing S. flexneri. A precise quantitative imaging protocol was devised to follow individual S. flexneri in a large tissue volume. An extensive dataset of confocal images was obtained and processed to extract specific quantitative information regarding the progression of S. flexneri infection in an unbiased and exhaustive manner. Specific parameters included the analysis of S. flexneri positions relative to the epithelial surface, S. flexneri density within the tissue, and volume of tissue destruction. In particular, at early time points, there was a clear association of S. flexneri with crypts, key morphological features of the colonic mucosa. Numerical simulations based on random bacterial entry confirmed the bias of experimentally measured S. flexneri for early crypt targeting. The application of a correlative light and electron microscopy technique adapted for thick tissue samples further confirmed the location of S. flexneri within colonocytes at the mouth of crypts. This quantitative imaging approach is a novel means to examine host-pathogen systems in a tailored and robust manner, inclusive of the infectious agent. PMID:26056271

  1. Layered Social Network Analysis Reveals Complex Relationships in Kindergarteners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golemiec, Mireille; Schneider, Jonathan; Boyce, W. Thomas; Bush, Nicole R.; Adler, Nancy; Levine, Joel D.

    2016-01-01

    The interplay between individuals forms building blocks for social structure. Here, we examine the structure of behavioral interactions among kindergarten classroom with a hierarchy-neutral approach to examine all possible underlying patterns in the formation of layered networks of “reciprocal” interactions. To understand how these layers are coordinated, we used a layered motif approach. Our dual layered motif analysis can therefore be thought of as the dynamics of smaller groups that tile to create the group structure, or alternatively they provide information on what the average child would do in a given local social environment. When we examine the regulated motifs in layered networks, we find that transitivity is at least partially involved in the formation of these layered network structures. We also found complex combinations of the expected reciprocal interactions. The mechanisms used to understand social networks of kindergarten children here are also applicable on a more general scale to any group of individuals where interactions and identities can be readily observed and scored. PMID:26973572

  2. Layered Social Network Analysis Reveals Complex Relationships in Kindergarteners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golemiec, Mireille; Schneider, Jonathan; Boyce, W Thomas; Bush, Nicole R; Adler, Nancy; Levine, Joel D

    2016-01-01

    The interplay between individuals forms building blocks for social structure. Here, we examine the structure of behavioral interactions among kindergarten classroom with a hierarchy-neutral approach to examine all possible underlying patterns in the formation of layered networks of "reciprocal" interactions. To understand how these layers are coordinated, we used a layered motif approach. Our dual layered motif analysis can therefore be thought of as the dynamics of smaller groups that tile to create the group structure, or alternatively they provide information on what the average child would do in a given local social environment. When we examine the regulated motifs in layered networks, we find that transitivity is at least partially involved in the formation of these layered network structures. We also found complex combinations of the expected reciprocal interactions. The mechanisms used to understand social networks of kindergarten children here are also applicable on a more general scale to any group of individuals where interactions and identities can be readily observed and scored. PMID:26973572

  3. Network analysis reveals distinct clinical syndromes underlying acute mountain sickness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David P Hall

    Full Text Available Acute mountain sickness (AMS is a common problem among visitors at high altitude, and may progress to life-threatening pulmonary and cerebral oedema in a minority of cases. International consensus defines AMS as a constellation of subjective, non-specific symptoms. Specifically, headache, sleep disturbance, fatigue and dizziness are given equal diagnostic weighting. Different pathophysiological mechanisms are now thought to underlie headache and sleep disturbance during acute exposure to high altitude. Hence, these symptoms may not belong together as a single syndrome. Using a novel visual analogue scale (VAS, we sought to undertake a systematic exploration of the symptomatology of AMS using an unbiased, data-driven approach originally designed for analysis of gene expression. Symptom scores were collected from 292 subjects during 1110 subject-days at altitudes between 3650 m and 5200 m on Apex expeditions to Bolivia and Kilimanjaro. Three distinct patterns of symptoms were consistently identified. Although fatigue is a ubiquitous finding, sleep disturbance and headache are each commonly reported without the other. The commonest pattern of symptoms was sleep disturbance and fatigue, with little or no headache. In subjects reporting severe headache, 40% did not report sleep disturbance. Sleep disturbance correlates poorly with other symptoms of AMS (Mean Spearman correlation 0.25. These results challenge the accepted paradigm that AMS is a single disease process and describe at least two distinct syndromes following acute ascent to high altitude. This approach to analysing symptom patterns has potential utility in other clinical syndromes.

  4. Convergence: Yea or Nay?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villano, Matt

    2008-01-01

    Colleges and universities can never be too prepared, whether for physical attacks or data security breaches. A quick data slice of over 7,000 US higher ed institutions, using the Office of Postsecondary Education's Campus Security Data Analysis Cutting Tool Website and cutting across public and private two- and four-year schools, reveals some…

  5. Analysis on Inter-Provincial Disparities of China's Rural Education and Convergence Rate: Empirical Analysis on 31 Provinces' (Municipalities') Panel Data from 2001 to 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Tongwei

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This article aims to analyze inter-provincial disparities of rural education and the convergence rate, and to discuss the effects of compulsory education reform after 2001. Design/methodology/approach: The article estimates the rural average education years and education Gini coefficients of China's 31 provinces (municipalities) beside…

  6. Metatranscriptomic Analysis of Groundwater Reveals an Active Anammox Bacterial Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewell, T. N. M.; Karaoz, U.; Thomas, B. C.; Banfield, J. F.; Brodie, E.; Williams, K. H.; Beller, H. R.

    2014-12-01

    Groundwater is a major natural resource, yet little is known about the contribution of microbial anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) activity to subsurface nitrogen cycling. During anammox, energy is generated as ammonium is oxidized under anaerobic conditions to dinitrogen gas, using nitrite as the final electron acceptor. This process is a global sink for fixed nitrogen. Only a narrow range of monophyletic bacteria within the Planctomycetes carries out anammox, and the full extent of their metabolism, and subsequent impact on nitrogen cycling and microbial community structure, is still unknown. Here, we employ a metatranscriptomic analysis on enriched mRNA to identify the abundance and activity of a population of anammox bacteria within an aquifer at Rifle, CO. Planktonic biomass was collected over a two-month period after injection of up to 1.5 mM nitrate. Illumina-generated sequences were mapped to a phylogenetically binned Rifle metagenome database. We identified transcripts for genes with high protein sequence identities (81-98%) to those of anammox strain KSU-1 and to two of the five anammox bacteria genera, Brocadia and Kuenenia, suggesting an active, if not diverse, anammox population. Many of the most abundant anammox transcripts mapped to a single scaffold, indicative of a single dominant anammox species. Transcripts of the genes necessary for the anammox pathway were present, including an ammonium transporter (amtB), nitrite/formate transporter, nitrite reductase (nirK), and hydrazine oxidoreductase (hzoB). The form of nitrite reductase encoded by anammox is species-dependent, and we only identified nirK, with no evidence of anammox nirS. In addition to the anammox pathway we saw evidence of the anammox bacterial dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium pathway (narH, putative nrfA, and nrfB), which provides an alternate means of generating substrates for anammox from nitrate, rather than relying on an external pool. Transcripts for hydroxylamine

  7. Toeplitz Lemma, Complete Convergence and Complete Moment Convergence

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Jiyanglin; Hu, Ze-Chun

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we study the Toeplitz lemma, the Ces\\`{a}ro mean convergence theorem and the Kronecker lemma. At first, we study "complete convergence" versions of the Toeplitz lemma, the Ces\\`{a}ro mean convergence theorem and the Kronecker lemma. Two counterexamples show that they can fail in general and some sufficient conditions for "complete convergence" version of the Ces\\`{a}ro mean convergence theorem are given. Secondly we introduce two classes of complete moment convergence, which ar...

  8. Sectoral Energy- and Labour-Productivity Convergence

    OpenAIRE

    P. Mulder; De, Groot, N.

    2004-01-01

    This paper provides an empirical analysis of convergence patterns for energy- and labour-productivity developments at a detailed sectoral level for 14 OECD countries, covering the period 1970-1997. Cross-country differences of energy-productivity levels are shown to be substantially larger than cross-country differences of labour-productivity levels at all levels of sectoral aggregation. A s-convergence analysis shows that the development of cross-country variation in productivity performance...

  9. Convergence in variable Lebesgue spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Cruz-Uribe, David; SFO; Fiorenza, Alberto

    2010-01-01

    We consider the relationship in the variable Lebesgue space Lp(•)(Ω) between convergence in norm, convergence in modular, and convergence in measure, for both bounded and unbounded exponent functions.

  10. Convergence in variable Lebesque spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Cruz-Uribe, David; Fiorenza, Alberto

    2010-01-01

    We consider the relationship in the variable Lebesgue space $L^{p(\\cdot)}(\\Omega)$ between convergence in norm, convergence in modular, and convergence in measure, for both bounded and unbounded exponent functions.

  11. Convergence properties and compactifications

    OpenAIRE

    Leek, Robert

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we will use investigate the existence of compactifications with particular convergence properties - pseudoradial, radial, sequential and Fr\\'echet-Urysohn - through the use of spoke systems.

  12. Convergent Aeronautics Solutions Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Convergent Aeronautics Solutions (CAS) Project uses short-duration activities to establish early-stage concept and technology feasibility for high-potential...

  13. Fixed mobile convergence handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Ahson, Syed A

    2010-01-01

    From basic concepts to future directions, this handbook provides technical information on all aspects of fixed-mobile convergence (FMC). The book examines such topics as integrated management architecture, business trends and strategic implications for service providers, personal area networks, mobile controlled handover methods, SIP-based session mobility, and supervisory and notification aggregator service. Case studies are used to illustrate technical and systematic implementation of unified and rationalized internet access by fixed-mobile network convergence. The text examines the technolo

  14. Forum "Convergence in the EU"

    OpenAIRE

    Hefeker, Carsten; Torres, Francisco S; Bongardt, Annette; WUNSCH, Pierre; Hermann, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    The EU has long viewed economic and institutional convergence as important goals, but the results thus far have been decidedly mixed, and there remain several open questions: How exactly should convergence be defined? How much convergence is necessary? What steps can be taken to improve convergence in the EU, and how can success be defined? Finally, how much convergence can be achieved by improving the economic performance in underperforming regions, and how can convergence in the form of har...

  15. Adaptation to different types of stress converge on mitochondrial metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lahtvee, Petri-Jaan; Kumar, Rahul; Hallstrom, B. M.;

    2016-01-01

    strains. We investigated the three most commonly encountered industrial stresses for yeast (ethanol, salt, and temperature) to identify the mechanisms of general and stress-specific responses under chemostat conditions in which specific growth rate–dependent changes are eliminated. By applying systems-level...... analysis, we found that most stress responses converge on mitochondrial processes. Our analysis revealed that stress-specific factors differ between applied stresses; however, they are underpinned by an increased ATP demand. We found that when ATP demand increases to high levels, respiration cannot provide...

  16. Rainwater-Simons-type convergence theorems for generalized convergence methods

    OpenAIRE

    Hardtke, Jan-David

    2010-01-01

    We extend the well-known Rainwater-Simons convergence theorem to various generalized convergence methods such as strong matrix summability, statistical convergence and almost convergence. In fact we prove these theorems not only for boundaries but for the more general notion of (I)-generating sets introduced by Fonf and Lindenstrauss.

  17. Topological Dichotomy and Unconditional Convergence

    OpenAIRE

    Lefevre, Pascal

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, we give a criterion for unconditional convergence with respect to some summability methods, dealing with the topological size of the set of choices of sign providing convergence. We obtain similar results for boundedness. In particular, quasi-sure unconditional convergence implies unconditional convergence.

  18. On the Fuzzy Convergence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Hameed Q. A. Al-Tai

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to introduce and study the fuzzy neighborhood, the limit fuzzy number, the convergent fuzzy sequence, the bounded fuzzy sequence, and the Cauchy fuzzy sequence on the base which is adopted by Abdul Hameed (every real number r is replaced by a fuzzy number r¯ (either triangular fuzzy number or singleton fuzzy set (fuzzy point. And then, we will consider that some results respect effect of the upper sequence on the convergent fuzzy sequence, the bounded fuzzy sequence, and the Cauchy fuzzy sequence.

  19. On the Fuzzy Convergence

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Tai, Abdul Hameed Q. A.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to introduce and study the fuzzy neighborhood, the limit fuzzy number, the convergent fuzzy sequence, the bounded fuzzy sequence, and the Cauchy fuzzy sequence on the base which is adopted by Abdul Hameed (every real number r is replaced by a fuzzy number $\\overline{r}$ (either triangular fuzzy number or singleton fuzzy set (fuzzy point))). And then, we will consider that some results respect effect of the upper sequence on the convergent fuzzy sequence, the bounded f...

  20. Convergence of Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prasad, Ramjee; Ruggieri, Marina

    2008-01-01

    integration of system componennts and the convergence of services (e.g. communications and navigation) are only some of the elements that shape the perpsected mosaic. Authors delineate this vision, highlighting the presence of the space and stratospheric components and the related services as building block......The paper focuses on the revolutionary changes that could characterise the future of networks. Those changes involve many aspects in the conceivement and exploitation of networks: architecture, services, technologies and modeling. The convergence of wired and wireless technologies along with the...

  1. Convergence of per capita carbon dioxide emissions in the EU: Legend or reality?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Designing appropriate environmental and energy policies, in order to meet the Kyoto protocol's carbon dioxide (CO2) reduction targets in the European Union (EU), requires a detailed examination and thorough understanding of CO2 emission trends across the EU member states. This paper investigates whether CO2 emissions have converged across 22 European countries over the 1971 to 2006 period. The Bayesian shrinkage estimation method is employed to do this work and the results reveal the following: first, the hypothesis of absolute convergence in per capita CO2 emissions is supported and a slight upward convergence is observed; second, the fact that countries differ considerably in both their speed of convergence and volatility in emissions makes it possible to identify different groups of countries; third, the results with respect to convergence do not vary much once the share of industry in GDP is accounted for in a conditional convergence analysis. However, a decreasing share of industry in GDP seems to contribute to a decline in per capita emissions. These findings may carry important implications for both national and EU environmental policies.

  2. Convergent Filter Bases

    OpenAIRE

    Coghetto Roland

    2015-01-01

    We are inspired by the work of Henri Cartan [16], Bourbaki [10] (TG. I Filtres) and Claude Wagschal [34]. We define the base of filter, image filter, convergent filter bases, limit filter and the filter base of tails (fr: filtre des sections).

  3. Convergence of Arnoldi method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nevanlinna, O. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Espoo (Finland)

    1994-12-31

    This note summarizes some results on (a monitored version of) the Arnoldi method in Hilbert spaces. The interest in working in infinite dimensional spaces comes partly from the fact that only then can one have meaningful asymptotical statements (which hopefully give some light to the convergence of Arnoldi in large dimensional problems with iteration indices far less than the dimension).

  4. The Convergence Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolodzy, Janet; Grant, August E.; DeMars, Tony R.; Wilkinson, Jeffrey S.

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of the Internet, social media, and digital technologies in the twenty-first century accelerated an evolution in journalism and communication that fit under the broad term of convergence. That evolution changed the relationship between news producers and consumers. It broke down the geographical boundaries in defining our communities,…

  5. Converging Spherical Detonation Waves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arisudan Rai

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available The problem of converging spherical detonation waves propagating through a gas with varyingdensity is discussed. By neglecting the effect of variation of Q on the similarity exponent, both analytical and numerical solutions for motion of the detonation front have been obtained and arepresented in graphical form.

  6. Converging Spherical Detonation Waves.

    OpenAIRE

    Arisudan Rai

    1998-01-01

    The problem of converging spherical detonation waves propagating through a gas with varyingdensity is discussed. By neglecting the effect of variation of Q on the similarity exponent, both analytical and numerical solutions for motion of the detonation front have been obtained and arepresented in graphical form.

  7. Twin Convergence Zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    NASA's QuikSCAT satellite has confirmed a 30-year old largely unproven theory that there are two areas near the equator where the winds converge year after year and drive ocean circulation south of the equator. By analyzing winds, QuikSCAT has found a year-round southern and northern Intertropical Convergence Zone. This find is important to climate modelers and weather forecasters because it provides more detail on how the oceans and atmosphere interact near the equator. The Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) is the region that circles the Earth near the equator, where the trade winds of both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres come together. North of the equator, strong sun and warm water of the equator heats the air in the ITCZ, drawing air in from north and south and causing the air to rise. As the air rises it cools, releasing the accumulated moisture in an almost perpetual series of thunderstorms. Satellite data, however, has confirmed that there is an ITCZ north of the equator and a parallel ITCZ south of the equator. Variation in the location of the ITCZ is important to people around the world because it affects the north-south atmospheric circulation, which redistributes energy. It drastically affects rainfall in many equatorial nations, resulting in the wet and dry seasons of the tropics rather than the cold and warm seasons of higher latitudes. Longer term changes in the ITCZ can result in severe droughts or flooding in nearby areas. 'The double ITCZ is usually only identified in the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans on a limited and seasonal basis,' said Timothy Liu, of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, Calif., and lead researcher on the project. In the eastern Pacific Ocean, the southern ITCZ is usually seen springtime. In the western Atlantic Ocean, the southern ITCZ was recently clearly identified only in the summertime. However, QuikSCAT's wind data has seen the southern ITCZ in all seasons across the

  8. Professional Communication and Translation in Convergence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gnecci, Marusca; Maylath, Bruce; Mousten, Birthe;

    2008-01-01

    As translation of technical documents becomes commonplace, and as translation becomes more automated, the roles of translator and technical communicator appear to be converging. This paper examines the trend revealed from recent surveys, and it suggests further research to determine if the trend is...

  9. Testing Convergence Versus History: Convergence Dominates Phenotypic Evolution for over 150 Million Years in Frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moen, Daniel S; Morlon, Hélène; Wiens, John J

    2016-01-01

    Striking evolutionary convergence can lead to similar sets of species in different locations, such as in cichlid fishes and Anolis lizards, and suggests that evolution can be repeatable and predictable across clades. Yet, most examples of convergence involve relatively small temporal and/or spatial scales. Some authors have speculated that at larger scales (e.g., across continents), differing evolutionary histories will prevent convergence. However, few studies have compared the contrasting roles of convergence and history, and none have done so at large scales. Here we develop a two-part approach to test the scale over which convergence can occur, comparing the relative importance of convergence and history in macroevolution using phylogenetic models of adaptive evolution. We apply this approach to data from morphology, ecology, and phylogeny from 167 species of anuran amphibians (frogs) from 10 local sites across the world, spanning ~160 myr of evolution. Mapping ecology on the phylogeny revealed that similar microhabitat specialists (e.g., aquatic, arboreal) have evolved repeatedly across clades and regions, producing many evolutionary replicates for testing for morphological convergence. By comparing morphological optima for clades and microhabitat types (our first test), we find that convergence associated with microhabitat use dominates frog morphological evolution, producing recurrent ecomorphs that together encompass all sampled species in each community in each region. However, our second test, which examines whether and how much species differ from their inferred optima, shows that convergence is incomplete: that is, phenotypes of most species are still somewhat distant from the estimated optimum for each microhabitat, seemingly because of insufficient time for more complete adaptation (an effect of history). Yet, these effects of history are related to past ecologies, and not clade membership. Overall, our study elucidates the dominant drivers of

  10. Morphological and molecular convergences in mammalian phylogenetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Zhengting; Zhang, Jianzhi

    2016-01-01

    Phylogenetic trees reconstructed from molecular sequences are often considered more reliable than those reconstructed from morphological characters, in part because convergent evolution, which confounds phylogenetic reconstruction, is believed to be rarer for molecular sequences than for morphologies. However, neither the validity of this belief nor its underlying cause is known. Here comparing thousands of characters of each type that have been used for inferring the phylogeny of mammals, we find that on average morphological characters indeed experience much more convergences than amino acid sites, but this disparity is explained by fewer states per character rather than an intrinsically higher susceptibility to convergence for morphologies than sequences. We show by computer simulation and actual data analysis that a simple method for identifying and removing convergence-prone characters improves phylogenetic accuracy, potentially enabling, when necessary, the inclusion of morphologies and hence fossils for reliable tree inference. PMID:27585543

  11. Integrative transcriptome analysis reveals dysregulation of canonical cancer molecular pathways in placenta leading to preeclampsia

    OpenAIRE

    Moslehi, Roxana; Mills, James L; Signore, Caroline; Kumar, Anil; Ambroggio, Xavier; Dzutsev, Amiran

    2013-01-01

    We previously suggested links between specific XPD mutations in the fetal genome and the risk of placental maldevelopment and preeclampsia, possibly due to impairment of Transcription Factor (TF)IIH-mediated functions in placenta. To identify the underlying mechanisms, we conducted the current integrative analysis of several relevant transcriptome data sources. Our meta-analysis revealed downregulation of TFIIH subunits in preeclamptic placentas. Our overall integrative analysis suggested tha...

  12. Difficult-to-detect convergence problem of variational multi-mode quantum dynamics with attractive bosons

    OpenAIRE

    Cosme, Jayson G.; Weiss, Christoph; Brand, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    We test variational quantum dynamics with the multiconfigurational time-dependent Hartree method for bosons (MCTDHB) against exact solutions for the dynamics of two attractive bosons following trap release. MCTDHB produces unphysical and qualitatively incorrect results of breathing dynamics where ballistic expansion should occur, although an analysis of participating mode functions indicates that the numerical result should be converged. Further analysis reveals that the calculations are inde...

  13. Convergence of ecological footprint and emergy analysis as a sustainability indicator of countries: Peru as case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siche, Raúl; Pereira, Lucas; Agostinho, Feni; Ortega, Enrique

    2010-10-01

    In the last decade, two scientific tools have been extensively used worldwide to measure the human impact on nature: ecological footprint (EF) and emergy analysis (EA). Papers trying to combine the strong points of EF and EA, and obtain more accurate results have appeared in scientific literature, in which Zhao's et al. (2005) [61] approach is an important one. Unfortunately, some weak points of the original methods still remain on the new approaches proposed. The aim of this present work is to discuss some weak points found in Zhao's approach, trying to overcome them through a new approach called emergetic ecological footprint (EEF). The main difference between Zhao's approach and EEF is that the last one accounted for the internal storage of capital natural in the biocapacity calculation. Besides that, soil loss and water for human consume were considered as additional categories in the footprint calculation. After discussing it through comparisons with other approaches, EEF was used to assess Peru as a case study, resulting in a biocapacity of 51.76 gha capita-1 and a footprint of 12.23 gha capita-1, with 2004 data; that resulted in an ecological surplus of 39.53 gha capita-1. The load capacity factor obtained was 4.23, meaning that Peru can support a population 4.23 times bigger considering the life style of 2004. The main limitations of the EEF are: (i) it is impossible to make comparisons between the biocapacity and footprint for each category; (ii) a need for a handbook with emergy intensity factors with good quality. On the other hand, the main positive points are: (i) its easiness of application in global and national scales; (ii) its final indicators account for all the previous energy (or emergy) used to make something; (iii) internal natural capital storage was accounted for in the biocapacity calculation, which can be a valid step towards the evaluation and assess of services provided by nature.

  14. Scale Alpha and Beta of Quantitative Convergence and Chemical Reactivity Analysis in Dual Cholinesterase/Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors for the Alzheimer Disease Treatment Using Density Functional Theory (DFT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Morales-Bayuelo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Molecular quantum similarity descriptors and Density Functional Theory (DFT based reactivity descriptors were studied for a series of cholinesterase/monoamine oxidase inhibitors used for the Alzheimer's disease treatment (AD. This theoretical study is expected to shed some light onto some molecular aspects that could contribute to the knowledge of the molecular mechanics behind interactions of these molecules with acetylcholinesterase (AChE and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE, as well as with monoamine oxidase (MAO A and B. The Topogeometrical Superposition Algorithm to handle flexible molecules (TGSA-Flex alignment method was used to solve the problem of the relative orientation in the quantum similarity (QS field. Using the molecular quantum similarity (MQS field and reactivity descriptors supported in the DFT was possible the quantification of the steric and electrostatic effects through of the Coulomb and Overlap quantitative convergence scales (alpha and beta. In addition, an analysis of reactivity indexes is development, using global and local descriptors, identifying the binding sites and selectivity in the (cholinesterase/monoamine oxidase inhibitors, understanding the retrodonor process, and showing new insight for drugs design in a disease of difficult control as Alzheimer.

  15. On Invariant Statistically Convergence and Lacunary Invariant Statistical Convergence of Sequences of Sets

    OpenAIRE

    NIMET PANCAROGLU; FATIH NURAY

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we define invariant convergence, lacunary invariant convergence, invariant statistical convergence, lacunary invariant statistical convergence for sequences of sets. We investigate some relations between lacunary invariant statistical convergence and invariant statistical convergence for sequences of sets.

  16. Human capital and convergence:Ttheory, estimation and applications.

    OpenAIRE

    A. Di Liberto

    2004-01-01

    In growth theory, convergence analysis tries to answer three fundamental questions "Are poor countries catching up with richer ones How quickly And what are the determinants of this process" This thesis deals with issues that are relevant to all these questions. It begins by setting out the key theoretical contributions to the analysis of the role of human capital in growth and convergence. Secondly, attention is turned to the way that convergence is estimated from data. The econometric techn...

  17. Technology assessment using NBIC convergence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Notwithstanding progress in the areas of nanotechnology/nanoscience, biotechnology, information technology, and cognitive sciences (NBIC), the synergy arising from convergence of these disciplines offers great potential for transformational, revolutionary, and embryonic opportunities with many technological applications. In addition, advances in synthesis and characterization methods have provided the means to study, understand, control, or even manipulate the transitional characteristics between isolated atoms and bulk material. In recent years, newly developed architectures in nanostructures and nanosystems with improved functionality, and ensuing unique characteristics have been developed with applications in chemical and biological sensors, nanobiotechnology, nanophotonics, and analysis of cellular processes. Novel convergence methodologies will integrate and advance next generation solutions to current and future technical challenges. Convergence in research methodologies transform the way research is conducted by overcoming specific barriers or filling existing knowledge gaps. NBIC Convergence and associated research methodologies has exceptionally high potential for transforming the manner in which state-of-the-art information is gathered, analyzed, and leveraged to enable future advances and applications. Examples of synergy of these disciplines include: label free, highly multiplexed over broad dynamic range, and decentralized nanotechnology based sensor platform for detection of biological and chemical agents; nucleic acid layers in conjunction with nanomaterials-based electrochemical or optical transducers as DNA Biosensor; potential targets for the next generation of vaccines, therapeutics and diagnostics to enhance human performance; basis for 'Gene Ontology' to provides an important link between gene function and systems biology to understand a global picture of host-microbe interactions - to name a few. Since the idea of 'Converging

  18. Framework for Multisensory Convergence

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kárný, Miroslav; Warwick, K.; Guy, Tatiana Valentine; Kracík, Jan

    Adelaide: Advanced Knowledge International, 2004 - ( And rýsek, J.; Kárný, M.; Kracík, J.), s. 63-74. (International Series on Advanced Intelligence .. 9). ISBN 0-9751004-5-9. [Workshop on Computer-Intensive Methods in Control and Data Processing 2004. Prague (CZ), 12.05.2004-14.05.2004] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA102/03/0049; GA ČR GP102/03/P010 Grant ostatní: ESF(FR) TED Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1075907 Keywords : sensor fusion * multisensory convergence Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/historie/karny-framework for multisensory convergence.pdf

  19. The Convergent Learning Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Lars Peter; Kjærgaard, Hanne Wacher

    2014-01-01

    The concept of the Convergent Learning Space has been hypothesized and explored in an ongoing action research project carried out at undergraduate level in select bachelor programs at a Danish University College, where classrooms are technology rich and students bring their own devices. The changes...... networks are still more prominently expected by students. Against this backdrop, an action research project has worked with the definition and testing of the hypothesized constituents of the Convergent Learning Space and how it challenges our traditional conceptions of learning spaces. The article...... describes this pilot study involving teachers in conscious, documented reflection on methods, approaches, and procedures conducive to learning processes in this new learning space. As a perspective, the article briefly outlines an intervention study aimed at investigating how students benefit from...

  20. REAL CONVERGENCE AND INTEGRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurel Iancu

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The study is based on the critical observations that competitive market forces alone are not able to assure convergence with the developed countries. These observations are grounded on the results of the computation of the marginal rate of return to capital (which contradict the neoclassical model hypotheses, as well as on the real process of polarisation of the economic activities, taking place worldwide and in accordance with the law of competition. Unlike those who trust the perfect competitive market virtues, the EU’s economic policy is realistic as it is based on the harmonisation of the market forces with an economic policy based on the principle of cohesion, which supports, by means of economic levers, the less developed regions and member countries. This paper deals with the evolution of the EU cohesion funds, as well as with the results of convergence.

  1. Real convergence and integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurel IANCU

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The study is based on the critical observations that competitive market forces alone are not able to assure convergence with the developed countries. These observations are grounded on the results of the computation of the marginal rate of return to capital (which contradict the neoclassical model hypotheses, as well as on the real process of polarisation of the economic activities, taking place worldwide and in accordance with the law of competition. Unlike those who trust the perfect competitive market virtues, the EU’s economic policy is realistic as it is based on the harmonisation of the market forces with an economic policy based on the principle of cohesion, which supports, by means of economic levers, the less developed regions and member countries. This paper deals with the evolution of the EU cohesion funds, as well as with the results of convergence.

  2. Geophysical constraints on geodynamical processes at convergent margins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Artemieva, Irina; Thybo, Hans; Shulgin, Alexey

    2016-01-01

    Convergent margins, being the boundaries between colliding lithospheric plates, form the most disastrous areas in the world due to intensive, strong seismicity and volcanism. We review global geophysical data in order to illustrate the effects of the plate tectonic processes at convergent margins...... on the crustal and upper mantle structure, seismicity, and geometry of subducting slab. We present global maps of free-air and Bouguer gravity anomalies, heat flow, seismicity, seismic Vs anomalies in the upper mantle, and plate convergence rate, as well as 20 profiles across different convergent...... margins. A global analysis of these data for three types of convergent margins, formed by ocean-ocean, ocean-continent, and continent-continent collisions, allows us to recognize the following patterns. (1) Plate convergence rate depends on the type of convergent margins and it is significantly larger...

  3. Geophysical constraints on geodynamical processes at convergent margins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Artemieva, Irina; Thybo, Hans; Shulgin, Alexey

    on the crustal and upper mantle structure, seismicity, and geometry of subducting slab. We present global maps of free-air and Bouguer gravity anomalies, heat flow, seismicity, seismic Vs anomalies in the upper mantle, and plate convergence rate, as well as 20 profiles across different convergent......Convergent margins, being the boundaries between colliding lithospheric plates, form the most disastrous areas in the world due to intensive, strong seismicity and volcanism. We review global geophysical data in order to illustrate the effects of the plate tectonic processes at convergent margins...... margins. A global analysis of these data for three types of convergent margins, formed by ocean-ocean, ocean-continent, and continent-continent collisions, allows us to recognize the following patterns. (1) Plate convergence rate depends on the type of convergent margins and it is significantly larger...

  4. Convergence Reflects Maturity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Competition has been playing a dominant role among telecommunication equipment manufacturers. In 2006, however, merger overwhelmed competition. In the tide of converging, a large number of equipment manufacturers were involved in mergers. At the same time, telecommunication equipment manufacturers, the most innovative community in the world, drive 3G technology fast in line with its technical roadmap. In addition, Chinese equipment manufacturers cut a figure in world-class telecommunication markets, whic...

  5. Convergence of Accounting Standards: The Continuing Debate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Appah Ebimobowei

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the continuing debate of convergence of accounting standards. Accounting standards are policy documents issued by recognized accountancy bodies relating to the measurements, treatments and disclosures of accounting transactions. Therefore, converging these standards reduces the differences in financial reporting practices between nations for comparability and interpretation in international financial statements. To achieve the objective of this study, relevant secondary data were obtained from accounting journals, text books and internet materials and the analysis was mainly descriptive. The findings show that converging accounting standards is very important because of the current globalised nature of businesses worldwide and the benefits of nations stand to achieve from convergence of standards. However, it is necessary to note that convergence of accounting standards does not make financial reports more reliable but rather standard setters should concentrate more on ethical issues of integrity, objectivity, accountability, independence that promotes reliability, comparability, consistency and quality financial reports than issues of converging standards without taking into consideration the dynamics of culture and business practices across nations.

  6. Convergence of functional areas in information operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett van Niekerk

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Contemporary technology and its rapid rise to a ubiquitous nature are affecting the way in which technology is used. This holds implications for military information operations and information warfare concepts as the previously separate functional areas are increasingly overlapping due to the increased convergence of information technology.Objective: The aim of the article is to illustrate the convergence of the functional areas of information operations through the use of reported examples and descriptive models. Methods: A qualitative review and analysis of practitioner documents, academic publications, and other reports is conducted. The diverse views of this phenomenon are contrasted and discussed. The possible implications of the convergence and possible management techniques are proposed and discussed. Results: There is strong opinion that the domains are not converging, however practice shows that there is an increasing overlap of operational considerations and organisational structure. Conclusion: It is concluded that the domains are not converging, but the operations and management of the information operations functional areas may converge, and this has an impact across all functional areas that needs to be taken into consideration.

  7. 自校正对角阵加权信息融合Kalman预报器%Self-tuning Information Fusion Kalman Predictor Weighted by Diagonal Matrices and Its Convergence Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓自立; 李春波

    2007-01-01

    For the multisensor systems with unknown noise statistics, using the modern time series analysis method, based on on-line identification of the moving average (MA) innovation models, and based on the solution of the matrix equations for correlation function, estimators of the noise variances are obtained, and under the linear minimum variance optimal information fusion criterion weighted by diagonal matrices, a self-tuning information fusion Kalman predictor is presented, which realizes the self-tuning decoupled fusion Kalman predictors for the state components. Based on the dynamic error system, a new convergence analysis method is presented for self-tuning fuser. A new concept of convergence in a realization is presented, which is weaker than the convergence with probability one. It is strictly proved that if the parameter estimation of the MA innovation models is consistent, then the self-tuning fusion Kalman predictor will converge to the optimal fusion Kalman predictor in a realization, or with probability one, so that it has asymptotic optimality. It can reduce the computational burden, and is suitable for real time applications. A simulation example for a target tracking system shows its effectiveness.

  8. Transcriptome analysis reveals key differentially expressed genes involved in wheat grain development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonglong Yu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Wheat seed development is an important physiological process of seed maturation and directly affects wheat yield and quality. In this study, we performed dynamic transcriptome microarray analysis of an elite Chinese bread wheat cultivar (Jimai 20 during grain development using the GeneChip Wheat Genome Array. Grain morphology and scanning electron microscope observations showed that the period of 11–15 days post-anthesis (DPA was a key stage for the synthesis and accumulation of seed starch. Genome-wide transcriptional profiling and significance analysis of microarrays revealed that the period from 11 to 15 DPA was more important than the 15–20 DPA stage for the synthesis and accumulation of nutritive reserves. Series test of cluster analysis of differential genes revealed five statistically significant gene expression profiles. Gene ontology annotation and enrichment analysis gave further information about differentially expressed genes, and MapMan analysis revealed expression changes within functional groups during seed development. Metabolic pathway network analysis showed that major and minor metabolic pathways regulate one another to ensure regular seed development and nutritive reserve accumulation. We performed gene co-expression network analysis to identify genes that play vital roles in seed development and identified several key genes involved in important metabolic pathways. The transcriptional expression of eight key genes involved in starch and protein synthesis and stress defense was further validated by qRT-PCR. Our results provide new insight into the molecular mechanisms of wheat seed development and the determinants of yield and quality.

  9. Transcriptome analysis reveals key differentially expressed genes involved in wheat grain development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yonglong Yu; Dong Zhu; Chaoying Ma; Hui Cao; Yaping Wang; Yanhao Xu; Wenying Zhang; Yueming Yan

    2016-01-01

    Wheat seed development is an important physiological process of seed maturation and directly affects wheat yield and quality. In this study, we performed dynamic transcriptome microarray analysis of an elite Chinese bread wheat cultivar (Jimai 20) during grain development using the GeneChip Wheat Genome Array. Grain morphology and scanning electron microscope observations showed that the period of 11–15 days post-anthesis (DPA) was a key stage for the synthesis and accumulation of seed starch. Genome-wide transcriptional profiling and significance analysis of microarrays revealed that the period from 11 to 15 DPA was more important than the 15–20 DPA stage for the synthesis and accumulation of nutritive reserves. Series test of cluster analysis of differential genes revealed five statistically significant gene expression profiles. Gene ontology annotation and enrichment analysis gave further informa-tion about differentially expressed genes, and MapMan analysis revealed expression changes within functional groups during seed development. Metabolic pathway network analysis showed that major and minor metabolic pathways regulate one another to ensure regular seed development and nutritive reserve accumulation. We performed gene co-expression network analysis to identify genes that play vital roles in seed development and identified several key genes involved in important metabolic pathways. The transcriptional expression of eight key genes involved in starch and protein synthesis and stress defense was further validated by qRT-PCR. Our results provide new insight into the molecular mechanisms of wheat seed development and the determinants of yield and quality.

  10. IT Convergence and Security 2012

    CERN Document Server

    Chung, Kyung-Yong

    2013-01-01

    The proceedings approaches the subject matter with problems in technical convergence and convergences of security technology. This approach is new because we look at new issues that arise from techniques converging. The general scope of the proceedings content is convergence security and the latest information technology. The intended readership are societies, enterprises, and research institutes, and intended content level is mid- to highly educated personals. The most important features and benefits of the proceedings are the introduction of the most recent information technology and its related ideas, applications and problems related to technology convergence, and its case studies and finally an introduction of converging existing security techniques through convergence security. Overall, through the proceedings, authors will be able to understand the most state of the art information strategies and technologies of convergence security.

  11. Convergence of gut microbiomes in myrmecophagous mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delsuc, Frédéric; Metcalf, Jessica L; Wegener Parfrey, Laura; Song, Se Jin; González, Antonio; Knight, Rob

    2014-03-01

    Mammals have diversified into many dietary niches. Specialized myrmecophagous (ant- and termite-eating) placental mammals represent a textbook example of evolutionary convergence driven by extreme diet specialization. Armadillos, anteaters, aardvarks, pangolins and aardwolves thus provide a model system for understanding the potential role of gut microbiota in the convergent adaptation to myrmecophagy. Here, we expand upon previous mammalian gut microbiome studies by using high-throughput barcoded Illumina sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene to characterize the composition of gut microbiota in 15 species representing all placental myrmecophagous lineages and their close relatives from zoo- and field-collected samples. We confirm that both diet and phylogeny drive the evolution of mammalian gut microbiota, with cases of convergence in global composition, but also examples of phylogenetic inertia. Our results reveal specialized placental myrmecophages as a spectacular case of large-scale convergence in gut microbiome composition. Indeed, neighbour-net networks and beta-diversity plots based on UniFrac distances show significant clustering of myrmecophagous species (anteaters, aardvarks and aardwolves), even though they belong to phylogenetically distant lineages representing different orders. The aardwolf, which diverged from carnivorous hyenas only in the last 10 million years, experienced a convergent shift in the composition of its gut microbiome to become more similar to other myrmecophages. These results confirm diet adaptation to be a major driving factor of convergence in gut microbiome composition over evolutionary timescales. This study sets the scene for future metagenomic studies aiming at evaluating potential convergence in functional gene content in the microbiomes of specialized mammalian myrmecophages. PMID:24118574

  12. Convergent and invariant object representations for sight, sound, and touch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, Kingson; Damasio, Antonio; Meyer, Kaspar; Kaplan, Jonas T

    2015-09-01

    We continuously perceive objects in the world through multiple sensory channels. In this study, we investigated the convergence of information from different sensory streams within the cerebral cortex. We presented volunteers with three common objects via three different modalities-sight, sound, and touch-and used multivariate pattern analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging data to map the cortical regions containing information about the identity of the objects. We could reliably predict which of the three stimuli a subject had seen, heard, or touched from the pattern of neural activity in the corresponding early sensory cortices. Intramodal classification was also successful in large portions of the cerebral cortex beyond the primary areas, with multiple regions showing convergence of information from two or all three modalities. Using crossmodal classification, we also searched for brain regions that would represent objects in a similar fashion across different modalities of presentation. We trained a classifier to distinguish objects presented in one modality and then tested it on the same objects presented in a different modality. We detected audiovisual invariance in the right temporo-occipital junction, audiotactile invariance in the left postcentral gyrus and parietal operculum, and visuotactile invariance in the right postcentral and supramarginal gyri. Our maps of multisensory convergence and crossmodal generalization reveal the underlying organization of the association cortices, and may be related to the neural basis for mental concepts. PMID:26047030

  13. Talent in nonnative phonetic convergence

    OpenAIRE

    Lewandowski, Natalie

    2012-01-01

    The presented study analyzes the influence of the factor "talent" on phonetic convergence in nonnative interactions. Phonetic convergence occurs when two speakers become more similar in their segemental and suprasegmental pronunciation. Summarizing the findings about the influence of talent on nonnative convergence leads to the assumption that convergence is the default tendency for natural communicative interaction, with talent probably influencing its core mechanisms, causing significant di...

  14. Δ^{m}-Ideal Convergence

    OpenAIRE

    Hafize Gok Gumus; Fatih Nuray

    2011-01-01

    Statistical convergence has several applications in different fields of Mathematics: Number theory, trigonometric series, summability theory, probability theory, measure theory, optimization and approximation theory. The notion of ideal convergence corresponds to a generalization of the statistical convergence. In this paper, we define the Δ^{m}(c_{I}) spaces by using generalized sequence spaces and ideal convergence. Furthermore we establish some topological results and give inclusion relati...

  15. Economic Convergence and Economic Policies

    OpenAIRE

    Sachs, Jeffrey D; Andrew M. Warner

    1995-01-01

    Many of the crucial debates in development economics are encapsulated in the question of economic convergence. Is there a tendency for the poorer countries to grow more rapidly than the richer countries, and thereby to converge in living standards? Some recent research on endogenous growth has emphasized increasing returns as a possible reason not to expect convergence. Other research has suggested that convergence may be achieved only after poor countries attain a threshold level of income o...

  16. Revisiting world energy intensity convergence for regional differences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liddle, Brantley [Centre for Strategic Economic Studies, Victoria University, Melbourne, VIC 8001 (Australia)

    2010-10-15

    World convergence in energy intensity is revisited using two new large data sets: a 111-country sample spanning 1971-2006, and a 134-country sample spanning 1990-2006. Both data sets confirm continued convergence. However, the larger data set, which adds the former Soviet Union republics and additional Balkan countries, indicates greater convergence over its more recent time-frame. Further investigation of geographical differences reveals that the OECD and Eurasian countries have shown considerable, continued convergence, while the Sub-Saharan African countries have converged amongst themselves, but at a slower rate than the OECD and Eurasian countries; by contrast, Latin American and Caribbean and Middle East and North African countries have exhibited no convergence to divergence in energy intensity. (author)

  17. Using Interaction Analysis to reveal Self-Regulated Learning in Virtual Communities

    OpenAIRE

    Dettori, Giuliana; Persico, Donatella

    2007-01-01

    Aim of this paper is to analyse whether Interaction Analysis can help investigate the practice and development of Self-Regulated Learning (SRL) in Virtual Learning Communities (VLC). Interaction analysis is increasingly used to study learning dynamics within online activities. It proceeds by searching expressions that reveal the aspects under study in the written messages exchanged by the learners. To this end, we devised and classified a number of indicators suggesting the existence of self-...

  18. Using team cognitive work analysis to reveal healthcare team interactions in a birthing unit

    OpenAIRE

    Ashoori, Maryam; Burns, Catherine M.; d'Entremont, Barbara; Momtahan, Kathryn

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive work analysis (CWA) as an analytical approach for examining complex sociotechnical systems has shown success in modelling the work of single operators. The CWA approach incorporates social and team interactions, but a more explicit analysis of team aspects can reveal more information for systems design. In this paper, Team CWA is explored to understand teamwork within a birthing unit at a hospital. Team CWA models are derived from theories and models of teamworkand leverage the exis...

  19. Intestinal Origin of Sourdough Lactobacillus reuteri Isolates as Revealed by Phylogenetic, Genetic, and Physiological Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Su, Marcia Shu-Wei; Oh, Phaik Lyn; Walter, Jens; Gänzle, Michael G.

    2012-01-01

    Lactobacillus reuteri is both a gut symbiont and a stable member of sourdough microbiota. This study employed multilocus sequence analysis and an analysis of host-specific physiological and genetic traits to assign five sourdough isolates to rodent- or human-specific lineages. Comparative genome hybridization revealed that the model sourdough isolate LTH2584 had a genome content very similar to that of the model rodent isolate 100-23. These results demonstrate that sourdough isolates of L. re...

  20. Decentralisation and convergence in health among the provinces of Spain (1980-2001).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero-Granados, Roberto; Jiménez, Juan de Dios; Martín, José

    2007-03-01

    This study measures the process of convergence in the state of health among the provinces and regions of Spain during 1980-2001 in order to analyse the possible influence of the decentralisation of healthcare management to the regions in this period. Sigma and beta convergence models, traditionally employed in macroeconomics, have been used, taking Life Expectancy at Birth (LEB) and Infant Mortality (IM) as health indicators. The analysis was carried out at two territorial levels: provinces and regions. The results reveal that the process of decentralisation either does not affect convergence or leads to divergence in health. Indeed, in the case of IM the so-called change of role scenario seems to have occurred. Thus, certain provinces with initially poor indicators have improved, overtaking those that were originally in a better position. The final result, however, is of greater dispersion than initially. PMID:17161891

  1. Fresnel lens solar beam convergence properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Minshuang; Tian, Feng

    2014-11-01

    Use the law of refraction of light for theoretical analysis of sunlight incident Fresnel lens, summary of the relationship between Fresnel lens solar light beam convergence characteristics and beam incident angle,beam incident position.Through the analysis of the calculation and experimental, to obtain a variety of incident angle lens center and best gathering focal spot the size of the data.Discuss the incident angle, incident location,the relationship between convergence center and focal spot size.For the sun acquisition system of the light from the sun and optical fiber coupling design do sufficient theory design basis.

  2. Knowledge Convergence and Collaborative Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Heisawn; Chi, Michelene T. H.

    2007-01-01

    This paper operationalized the notion of knowledge convergence and assessed quantitatively how much knowledge convergence occurred during collaborative learning. Knowledge convergence was defined as an increase in common knowledge where common knowledge referred to the knowledge that all collaborating partners had. Twenty pairs of college students…

  3. Convergence : Policy and Regulatory Response

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2007-01-01

    In the most general sense, convergence is the integration of any traditionally segmented areas of communications systems. Convergence is happening today in Egypt, and is driven by the growth of digital media and packet data communication. In specific terms, it is essential that the Government of Egypt should create the environment in which convergence can occur without impediment. This wil...

  4. Convergence Patterns in Latin America

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quiroga, Paola Andrea Barrientos

    Literature on convergence among Latin American countries is still scarce compared to other regions. Moreover, almost none of the research connects convergence to the economic history of Latin America and the usual finding is one speed of convergence. In this paper I analyze 32 countries and 108...

  5. Understanding the Dynamic Convergence Phenomenon from the Perspective of Diversity and Persistence: A Cross-Sector Comparative Analysis between the United States and South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to improve the explanation for the behavior of the phenomenon of technology convergence. The concepts and measurements of diversity and persistence, as inherent attributes of the phenomenon, were elaborated by reviewing different theories. Diversity was examined by analyzing the degree of capability to absorb heterogeneous technologies, while persistence was investigated by analyzing the degree of continuity in the usage of cumulated technologies. With these two dimensions, an analytic framework was proposed to compare the differences and dynamic patterns of convergence competence by countries at the technology sector level. Three major technology sectors in the United States and South Korea, namely, information and communication technology, biotechnology, and nanotechnology, were explored to explicitly illustrate the differences in technology convergence competence. The results show that although Korea has narrowed the differences of capabilities for technology convergence compared to the US, Korea not only has to continuously pursue the improvement of specialization for all three sectors, but also has to encourage the exploitation of different technology fields. The suggested framework and indicators allow for monitoring of the dynamic patterns of a technology sector and identifying the sources of the gaps. Thus, the framework and indicators are able to ensure the purpose of government innovation policy and to provide strategic directions for redistributing the proper combination of sources to accomplish technology convergence. PMID:27416495

  6. Understanding the Dynamic Convergence Phenomenon from the Perspective of Diversity and Persistence: A Cross-Sector Comparative Analysis between the United States and South Korea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    We Shim

    Full Text Available This study was designed to improve the explanation for the behavior of the phenomenon of technology convergence. The concepts and measurements of diversity and persistence, as inherent attributes of the phenomenon, were elaborated by reviewing different theories. Diversity was examined by analyzing the degree of capability to absorb heterogeneous technologies, while persistence was investigated by analyzing the degree of continuity in the usage of cumulated technologies. With these two dimensions, an analytic framework was proposed to compare the differences and dynamic patterns of convergence competence by countries at the technology sector level. Three major technology sectors in the United States and South Korea, namely, information and communication technology, biotechnology, and nanotechnology, were explored to explicitly illustrate the differences in technology convergence competence. The results show that although Korea has narrowed the differences of capabilities for technology convergence compared to the US, Korea not only has to continuously pursue the improvement of specialization for all three sectors, but also has to encourage the exploitation of different technology fields. The suggested framework and indicators allow for monitoring of the dynamic patterns of a technology sector and identifying the sources of the gaps. Thus, the framework and indicators are able to ensure the purpose of government innovation policy and to provide strategic directions for redistributing the proper combination of sources to accomplish technology convergence.

  7. Understanding the Dynamic Convergence Phenomenon from the Perspective of Diversity and Persistence: A Cross-Sector Comparative Analysis between the United States and South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, We; Kwon, Oh-Jin; Moon, Yeong-Ho; Kim, Keun-Hwan

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to improve the explanation for the behavior of the phenomenon of technology convergence. The concepts and measurements of diversity and persistence, as inherent attributes of the phenomenon, were elaborated by reviewing different theories. Diversity was examined by analyzing the degree of capability to absorb heterogeneous technologies, while persistence was investigated by analyzing the degree of continuity in the usage of cumulated technologies. With these two dimensions, an analytic framework was proposed to compare the differences and dynamic patterns of convergence competence by countries at the technology sector level. Three major technology sectors in the United States and South Korea, namely, information and communication technology, biotechnology, and nanotechnology, were explored to explicitly illustrate the differences in technology convergence competence. The results show that although Korea has narrowed the differences of capabilities for technology convergence compared to the US, Korea not only has to continuously pursue the improvement of specialization for all three sectors, but also has to encourage the exploitation of different technology fields. The suggested framework and indicators allow for monitoring of the dynamic patterns of a technology sector and identifying the sources of the gaps. Thus, the framework and indicators are able to ensure the purpose of government innovation policy and to provide strategic directions for redistributing the proper combination of sources to accomplish technology convergence. PMID:27416495

  8. EU Internet Law in the Era of Convergence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Søren Sandfeld

    2014-01-01

    An analysis of the demarcation and interplay between EU's Internet, Telecoms and Media regulation in light of the growing convergence......An analysis of the demarcation and interplay between EU's Internet, Telecoms and Media regulation in light of the growing convergence...

  9. Growth, institutions and convergence in Mexico, considering the northern border

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Celaya Tentori

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study is focused on one of the main economic problems of our time, the study of regional economic convergence and economic growth with consideration to institutions. The study conducts a literature review on the theoretical and empirical works of economic growth, with emphasis in regional economic convergence and institutions. The empirical and theoretical analysis is centered on the regional convergence of the Mexican states taking into consideration institutional and border state factors. The empirical analysis estimates an annual rate of convergence that varies from -0.018% to 4.1% for the period between 1970 and 2001, when controlling for human capital, institutional and border effects.

  10. 我国区域研发技术效率的空间相关性与收敛性分析%The Spatial Correlation & Convergence Analysis of Technical Efficiency of China's Regional R & D

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    师萍; 宋文飞; 韩先锋; 张炳南

    2011-01-01

    运用随机前沿分析法(SFA)对1999~2008年我国区域研发技术效率进行测算,采用空间计量经济学方法进行空间相关性分析,并建立空间收敛模型对我国区域研发技术效率进行空间收敛性分析.结果表明,我国区域研发技术效率表现为正的空间相关性特征,存在绝对收敛趋势,且空间地理因素对其具有显著影响.%This paper uses SFA technique to measure the regional R&D technical efficiency in China during 1999~2008, applies spatial measurement economics technique to analyze the correlation and convergence characteristics, and builds a spatial convergence model to analyze the spatial convergence characteristics of the technical efficiency of regional R&D. The analysis result shows that there appears positive correlation characteristic and an absolute convergence trend on the regional R&D technical efficiency in China, and the effect of spatial geographical factors on the regional R&D technical efficiency is significant.

  11. An integrative genomic and transcriptomic analysis reveals potential targets associated with cell proliferation in uterine leiomyomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cirilo, Priscila Daniele Ramos; Marchi, Fábio Albuquerque; Barros Filho, Mateus de Camargo;

    2013-01-01

    integrated analysis identified the top 30 significant genes (P<0.01), which comprised genes associated with cancer, whereas the protein-protein interaction analysis indicated a strong association between FANCA and BRCA1. Functional in silico analysis revealed target molecules for drugs involved in cell...... transcriptomic approach indicated that FGFR1 and IGFBP5 amplification, as well as the consequent up-regulation of the protein products, plays an important role in the aetiology of ULs and thus provides data for potential drug therapies development to target genes associated with cellular proliferation in ULs....

  12. Strictly convergent analytic structures

    OpenAIRE

    Cluckers, Raf; Lipshitz, Leonard

    2013-01-01

    We give conclusive answers to some questions about definability in analytic languages that arose shortly after the work by Denef and van den Dries, [DD], on $p$-adic subanalytic sets, and we continue the study of non-archimedean fields with analytic structure of [LR3], [CLR1] and [CL1]. We show that the language $L_K$ consisting of the language of valued fields together with all strictly convergent power series over a complete, rank one valued field $K$ can be expanded, in a definitial way, t...

  13. The Convergent Learning Space:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Hanne Wacher; Kjeldsen, Lars Peter; Asmussen, Jørgen Bering

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the concept of “The Convergent Learning Space” as it is being explored in an ongoing action research project carried out at undergraduate level in select bachelor programs at a Danish University College. The background nature, design, and beginning of this work in progress is...... described as well as the theoretical construct and hypotheses surrounding the emergence of the concept in technology-rich classrooms, where students bring their own devices and involve their personal learning spaces and networks. The need for new ways of approaching concepts like choice, learning resources...... space as it exists in undergraduate classrooms in Denmark....

  14. Medialogy - convergence and transdisciplinarity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordahl, Rolf

    2007-01-01

    Art and design have many qualities which intuitively by society are appreciated. But on daily basis they are also assessed and evaluated. Some communities also share common understandings that norms, standards, conventions evolve, both from artistic desire as well as from more physical needs for...... changes in society, developments in taste etc.  However, it certainly seems fair to say, that available technology makes a great difference to the development of any art form or practice. With the up rise of new educations such as Medialogy, new aspects of convergence and different forms of...

  15. Metagenomic analysis of a permafrost microbial community reveals a rapid response to thaw

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKelprang, R.; Waldrop, M.P.; Deangelis, K.M.; David, M.M.; Chavarria, K.L.; Blazewicz, S.J.; Rubin, E.M.; Jansson, J.K.

    2011-01-01

    Permafrost contains an estimated 1672????????Pg carbon (C), an amount roughly equivalent to the total currently contained within land plants and the atmosphere. This reservoir of C is vulnerable to decomposition as rising global temperatures cause the permafrost to thaw. During thaw, trapped organic matter may become more accessible for microbial degradation and result in greenhouse gas emissions. Despite recent advances in the use of molecular tools to study permafrost microbial communities, their response to thaw remains unclear. Here we use deep metagenomic sequencing to determine the impact of thaw on microbial phylogenetic and functional genes, and relate these data to measurements of methane emissions. Metagenomics, the direct sequencing of DNA from the environment, allows the examination of whole biochemical pathways and associated processes, as opposed to individual pieces of the metabolic puzzle. Our metagenome analyses reveal that during transition from a frozen to a thawed state there are rapid shifts in many microbial, phylogenetic and functional gene abundances and pathways. After one week of incubation at 5 ??C, permafrost metagenomes converge to be more similar to each other than while they are frozen. We find that multiple genes involved in cycling of C and nitrogen shift rapidly during thaw. We also construct the first draft genome from a complex soil metagenome, which corresponds to a novel methanogen. Methane previously accumulated in permafrost is released during thaw and subsequently consumed by methanotrophic bacteria. Together these data point towards the importance of rapid cycling of methane and nitrogen in thawing permafrost. ?? 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  16. Global convergence of an adaptive minor component extraction algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The convergence of neural networks minor component analysis (MCA) learning algorithms is crucial for practical applications. In this paper, we will analyze the global convergence of an adaptive minor component extraction algorithm via a corresponding deterministic discrete time (DDT) system. It is shown that if the learning rate satisfies certain conditions, almost all the trajectories of the DDT system are bounded and converge to minor component of the autocorrelation matrix of input data. Simulations are carried out to illustrate the results achieved

  17. Growth, institutions and convergence in Mexico, considering the northern border

    OpenAIRE

    Diana Celaya Tentori; Alejandro Díaz Bautista

    2002-01-01

    The present study is focused on one of the main economic problems of our time, the study of regional economic convergence and economic growth with consideration to institutions. The study conducts a literature review on the theoretical and empirical works of economic growth, with emphasis in regional economic convergence and institutions. The empirical and theoretical analysis is centered on the regional convergence of the Mexican states taking into consideration institutional and border stat...

  18. Agglomerative Magnets and Informal Regulatory Networks: Electricity Market Design Convergence in the USA and Continental Europe

    OpenAIRE

    WEINMANN, Jens

    2007-01-01

    The absence of one broadly accepted design template for liberalised electricity markets induces regulatory competition and institutional diversity. Focussing on continental Europe and the USA, this analysis explores how agents and structures accelerate or impede the move to one standard market design in the electricity sector. It reveals that market design convergence in Europe is driven by the ‘Florence Consensus,’ a tripartite coalition between the European Commission fostering ...

  19. Entropy and gravity concepts as new methodological indexes to investigate technological convergence: patent network-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yongrae; Kim, Minsung

    2014-01-01

    The volatility and uncertainty in the process of technological developments are growing faster than ever due to rapid technological innovations. Such phenomena result in integration among disparate technology fields. At this point, it is a critical research issue to understand the different roles and the propensity of each element technology for technological convergence. In particular, the network-based approach provides a holistic view in terms of technological linkage structures. Furthermore, the development of new indicators based on network visualization can reveal the dynamic patterns among disparate technologies in the process of technological convergence and provide insights for future technological developments. This research attempts to analyze and discover the patterns of the international patent classification codes of the United States Patent and Trademark Office's patent data in printed electronics, which is a representative technology in the technological convergence process. To this end, we apply the physical idea as a new methodological approach to interpret technological convergence. More specifically, the concepts of entropy and gravity are applied to measure the activities among patent citations and the binding forces among heterogeneous technologies during technological convergence. By applying the entropy and gravity indexes, we could distinguish the characteristic role of each technology in printed electronics. At the technological convergence stage, each technology exhibits idiosyncratic dynamics which tend to decrease technological differences and heterogeneity. Furthermore, through nonlinear regression analysis, we have found the decreasing patterns of disparity over a given total period in the evolution of technological convergence. This research has discovered the specific role of each element technology field and has consequently identified the co-evolutionary patterns of technological convergence. These new findings on the evolutionary

  20. Bifurcation Analysis of an Existing Mathematical Model Reveals Novel Treatment Strategies and Suggests Potential Cure for Type 1 Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kenneth Hagde Mandrup; Ottesen, Johnny T.; Pociot, Flemming

    2014-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes is a disease with serious personal and socioeconomic consequences that has attracted the attention of modellers recently. But as models of this disease tend to be complicated, there has been only limited mathematical analysis to date. Here we address this problem by providing a...... bifurcation analysis of a previously published mathematical model for the early stages of type 1 diabetes in diabetes-prone NOD mice, which is based on the data available in the literature. We also show positivity and the existence of a family of attracting trapping regions in the positive 5D cone, converging...

  1. I and I* convergent function sequences

    OpenAIRE

    Gezer, F.; Karakuş, S.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce the concepts of I-pointwise convergence, I-uniform convergence,I*-pointwise convergence and I*-uniform convergence of function sequences and then we examine the relation between them.

  2. A monotonically convergent algorithm for factals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KIERS, Henk A.L.; Takane, Yoshio; Mooijaart, Ab

    1993-01-01

    Takane, Young, and de Leeuw proposed a procedure called FACTALS for the analysis of variables of mixed measurement levels (numerical, ordinal, or nominal). Mooijaart pointed out that their algorithm does not necessarily converge, and Nevels proposed a new algorithm for the case of nominal variables.

  3. Cytochrome P450 genes in coronary artery diseases: Codon usage analysis reveals genomic GC adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malakar, Arup Kumar; Halder, Binata; Paul, Prosenjit; Chakraborty, Supriyo

    2016-09-15

    Establishing codon usage biases are imperative for understanding the etiology of coronary artery diseases (CAD) as well as the genetic factors associated with these diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the contribution of 18 responsible cytochrome P450 (CYP) genes for the risk of CAD. Effective number of codon (Nc) showed a negative correlation with both GC3 and synonymous codon usage order (SCUO) suggesting an antagonistic relationship between codon usage and Nc of genes. The dinucleotide analysis revealed that CG and TA dinucleotides have the lowest odds ratio in these genes. Principal component analysis showed that GC composition has a profound effect in separating the genes along the first major axis. Our findings revealed that mutational pressure and natural selection could possibly be the major factors responsible for codon bias in these genes. The study not only offers an insight into the mechanisms of genomic GC adaptation, but also illustrates the complexity of CYP genes in CAD. PMID:27275533

  4. Autotriploid origin of Carassius auratus as revealed by chromosomal locus analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Qinbo; Wang, Juan; Hu, Min; Huang, Shengnan; Liu, Shaojun

    2016-06-01

    In the Dongting water system, the Carassius auratus (Crucian carp) complex is characterized by the coexistence of diploid forms (2n=100, 2nCC) and polyploid forms. Chromosomal and karyotypic analyses have suggested that the polyploid C. auratus has a triploid (3n=150, 3nCC) and a tetraploid origin (4n=200), respectively. However, there is a lack of direct genetic evidence to support this conclusion. In this paper, analysis of the 5S rDNA chromosomal locus revealed that the 3nCC is of triploid origin. Analysis of the species-specific chromosomal centromere locus revealed that 3nCC individuals possess three sets of C. auratus-derived chromosomes. Our results provide direct cytogenetic evidence suggesting that individuals with 150 chromosomes are of autotriploid origin within the C. auratus complex. It marks an important contribution to the study of polyploidization and the evolution of vertebrates. PMID:27084707

  5. 产业融合进程中的政府规制分析%An Analysis on Government Regulation during Industrial Convergence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁爱云

    2015-01-01

    20世纪70年代以来,随着信息化进程的不断推进,产业融合已演变为势不可挡的产业发展趋势。规制放松为产业融合提供了制度基础,是产业融合的重要驱动力之一。产业融合的推进对建立在明确产业分立基础上的政府规制提出了严峻挑战。为适应产业融合的环境,政府规制亟需在规制方式和规制机构等方面进行相应变革。研究产业融合带来的新的规制问题,对于推进我国政府规制改革具有重要现实意义。%Industrial convergence has been turning into inevitable industrial trend with informatization process since 1970s. Dereg-ulation is one of the important motives to industrial convergence which provides institutional condition. Meanwhile, industrial conver-gence presents a big challenge to government regulation which is based on clear industrial division. In order to fit in with the environ-ment of industrial convergence, government regulation needs correspondingly reforming in its way and organization. Doing research work in new regulation during industrial convergence is significant to reform of government regulation.

  6. NUMERICAL CONVERGENCE IN SMOOTHED PARTICLE HYDRODYNAMICS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the convergence properties of smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) using numerical tests and simple analytic considerations. Our analysis shows that formal numerical convergence is possible in SPH only in the joint limit N → ∞, h → 0, and Nnb → ∞, where N is the total number of particles, h is the smoothing length, and Nnb is the number of neighbor particles within the smoothing volume used to compute smoothed estimates. Previous work has generally assumed that the conditions N → ∞ and h → 0 are sufficient to achieve convergence, while holding Nnb fixed. We demonstrate that if Nnb is held fixed as the resolution is increased, there will be a residual source of error that does not vanish as N → ∞ and h → 0. Formal numerical convergence in SPH is possible only if Nnb is increased systematically as the resolution is improved. Using analytic arguments, we derive an optimal compromise scaling for Nnb by requiring that this source of error balance that present in the smoothing procedure. For typical choices of the smoothing kernel, we find Nnb ∝N 0.5. This means that if SPH is to be used as a numerically convergent method, the required computational cost does not scale with particle number as O(N), but rather as O(N 1 + δ), where δ ≈ 0.5, with a weak dependence on the form of the smoothing kernel

  7. Revealing spatio-spectral electroencephalographic dynamics of musical mode and tempo perception by independent component analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Yuan-Pin; Duann, Jeng-Ren; Feng, Wenfeng; Chen, Jyh-Horng; Jung, Tzyy-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Background Music conveys emotion by manipulating musical structures, particularly musical mode- and tempo-impact. The neural correlates of musical mode and tempo perception revealed by electroencephalography (EEG) have not been adequately addressed in the literature. Method This study used independent component analysis (ICA) to systematically assess spatio-spectral EEG dynamics associated with the changes of musical mode and tempo. Results Empirical results showed that music with major mode ...

  8. Analysis of Hepatitis C Virus-Inoculated Chimpanzees Reveals Unexpected Clinical Profiles

    OpenAIRE

    Bassett, Suzanne E.; Brasky, Kathleen M.; Lanford, Robert E.

    1998-01-01

    The clinical course of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections in a chimpanzee cohort was examined to better characterize the outcome of this valuable animal model. Results of a cross-sectional study revealed that a low percentage (39%) of HCV-inoculated chimpanzees were viremic based on reverse transcription (RT-PCR) analysis. A correlation was observed between viremia and the presence of anti-HCV antibodies. The pattern of antibodies was dissimilar among viremic chimpanzees and chimpanzees that ...

  9. Reticulate evolutionary history and extensive introgression in mosquito species revealed by phylogenetic network analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Dingqiao; Yu, Yun; Hahn, Matthew W; Nakhleh, Luay

    2016-06-01

    The role of hybridization and subsequent introgression has been demonstrated in an increasing number of species. Recently, Fontaine et al. (Science, 347, 2015, 1258524) conducted a phylogenomic analysis of six members of the Anopheles gambiae species complex. Their analysis revealed a reticulate evolutionary history and pointed to extensive introgression on all four autosomal arms. The study further highlighted the complex evolutionary signals that the co-occurrence of incomplete lineage sorting (ILS) and introgression can give rise to in phylogenomic analyses. While tree-based methodologies were used in the study, phylogenetic networks provide a more natural model to capture reticulate evolutionary histories. In this work, we reanalyse the Anopheles data using a recently devised framework that combines the multispecies coalescent with phylogenetic networks. This framework allows us to capture ILS and introgression simultaneously, and forms the basis for statistical methods for inferring reticulate evolutionary histories. The new analysis reveals a phylogenetic network with multiple hybridization events, some of which differ from those reported in the original study. To elucidate the extent and patterns of introgression across the genome, we devise a new method that quantifies the use of reticulation branches in the phylogenetic network by each genomic region. Applying the method to the mosquito data set reveals the evolutionary history of all the chromosomes. This study highlights the utility of 'network thinking' and the new insights it can uncover, in particular in phylogenomic analyses of large data sets with extensive gene tree incongruence. PMID:26808290

  10. Worldwide Educational Convergence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Connie L. McNeely

    1994-11-01

    Full Text Available We argue for an examination of the role of the transnational organizational apparatus vis-a-vis nation-states in organizing national educational systems in accordance with world level educational ideologies, structures, and practices. We propose that more analytic attention be given international organizations as an institutionalizing force in examining educational convergence and change, and suggest four primary international organization activities as potentially fruitful avenues for research in this area: 1 the exchange of information, 2 charters and constitutions, 3 standard-setting instruments, and 4 technical and financial resources. Focusing on these activities, we present and discuss evidence of international organizations as world- level agencies influencing the incorporation and diffusion of educational ideologies and practices within and among nation-states.

  11. Specialisation and Convergence in European Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Marelli

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper was to analyze specialization and convergence of European countries and regions, within the framework of integration in the EU. This is important not only for long-term real convergence processes, but also for a proper functioning of the monetary union (in the line of research on the OCA's criteria, asymmetry of shocks and synchronization of business cycles. The position of new member states is particularly delicate, also considering the forthcoming adoption of the euro by some of them. As indicated by the EU Treaty, economic growth should be balanced with economic and social cohesion that includes a careful consideration of regional disparities. Our empirical investigation focuses on the regions of EU25, further broken up into other relevant groupings (EU15, EMU, and the new members' EU10 group, over the period from 1980 (or 1990 for EU10 to 2005. This paper considers a rather fine regional disaggregation (NUTS-2 level, counting 250 regions. The analysis of different indices of specialisation point to a prevalent increase of homogeneity of sector structures across European regions, although in some cases (especially in the industrial sector and in some services specialisation has increased. For convergence, a sigma convergence's analysis confirms a reduction of disparities, both at a country and regional level. However, a trade-off between fast national growth and internal distribution has emerged in the early stages of development, as in the case of new members. Moreover, beta convergence has also been established - regarding per capita income, employment and productivity - for almost all territorial aggregates (excluding the new members since 1999. The addition of structural variables, following a beta-conditional approach, indicates a positive role for services and a negative impact of agriculture. Finally, some preliminary results have been obtained by the innovative inclusion of specialisation indices within

  12. Song convergence in multiple urban populations of silvereyes (Zosterops lateralis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potvin, Dominique A; Parris, Kirsten M

    2012-08-01

    Recent studies have revealed differences between urban and rural vocalizations of numerous bird species. These differences include frequency shifts, amplitude shifts, altered song speed, and selective meme use. If particular memes sung by urban populations are adapted to the urban soundscape, "urban-typical" calls, memes, or repertoires should be consistently used in multiple urban populations of the same species, regardless of geographic location. We tested whether songs or contact calls of silvereyes (Zosterops lateralis) might be subject to such convergent cultural evolution by comparing syllable repertoires of geographically dispersed urban and rural population pairs throughout southeastern Australia. Despite frequency and tempo differences between urban and rural calls, call repertoires were similar between habitat types. However, certain song syllables were used more frequently by birds from urban than rural populations. Partial redundancy analysis revealed that both geographic location and habitat characteristics were important predictors of syllable repertoire composition. These findings suggest convergent cultural evolution: urban populations modify both song and call syllables from their local repertoire in response to noise. PMID:22957198

  13. Study of primary convergence insufficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Deshpande Shreerang; Ghosh R

    1991-01-01

    The present study was done to find out the incidence of primary insufficiency of involuntary convergence and evaluate the relative efficacy of synoptophore treatment against home exercise in its management. During the period of study, 2162 cases in the age group 15 to 35 years were studied for convergence in detail. It was found out that the incidence of primary convergence insufficiency is quite high (7.7% of total orthoptic clinic attendance). It commonly affects those who are consta...

  14. Regional Convergence in Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Bennett Sutton; Genevieve Lindow; Maria Isabel Serra; Gustavo Ramirez; Maria Fernanda Pazmino

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents empirical evidence on convergence of per capita output for regions within six large middle-income Latin American countries: Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, and Peru. It explores the role played by several exogenous sectoral shocks and differences in steady states within each country. It finds that poor and rich regions within each country converged at very low rates over the past three decades. It also finds evidence of regional "convergence clubs" within Brazi...

  15. Balkanized Research in Ecological Engineering Revealed by a Bibliometric Analysis of Earthworms and Ecosystem Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blouin, Manuel; Sery, Nicolas; Cluzeau, Daniel; Brun, Jean-Jacques; Bédécarrats, Alain

    2013-08-01

    Energy crisis, climate changes, and biodiversity losses have reinforced the drive for more ecologically-based approaches for environmental management. Such approaches are characterized by the use of organisms rather than energy-consuming technologies. Although earthworms are believed to be potentially useful organisms for managing ecosystem services, there is actually no quantification of such a trend in literature. This bibliometric analysis aimed to measure the evolution of the association of "earthworms" and other terms such as ecosystem services (primary production, nutrient cycling, carbon sequestration, soil structure, and pollution remediation), "ecological engineering" or "biodiversity," to assess their convergence or divergence through time. In this aim, we calculated the similarity index, an indicator of the paradigmatic proximity defined in applied epistemology, for each year between 1900 and 2009. We documented the scientific fields and the geographical origins of the studies, as well as the land uses, and compare these characteristics with a 25 years old review on earthworm management. The association of earthworm related keywords with ecosystem services related keywords was increasing with time, reflecting the growing interest in earthworm use in biodiversity and ecosystem services management. Conversely, no significant increase in the association between earthworms and disciplines such as ecological engineering or restoration ecology was observed. This demonstrated that general ecologically-based approaches have yet to emerge and that there is little exchange of knowledge, methods or concepts among balkanized application realms. Nevertheless, there is a strong need for crossing the frontiers between fields of application and for developing an umbrella discipline to provide a framework for the use of organisms to manage ecosystem services.

  16. CONVERGENCE RATE OF A GENERALIZED ADDITIVE SCHWARZ ALGORITHM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin-ping Zeng; Gao-jie Chen

    2006-01-01

    The convergence rate of a generalized additive Schwarz algorithm for solving boundary value problems of elliptic partial differential equations is studied. A quantitative analysis of the convergence rate is given for the model Dirichlet problem. It will be shown that a greater acceleration of the algorithm can be obtained by choosing the parameter suitably.Some numerical tests are also presented in this paper.

  17. Economic Growth and the Ehrenfest Fleas:. the Convergence among Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Gennaro, Luca; Garibaldi, Ubaldo

    The aim of this work is to predict the economic convergence among countries by using a generalization of Ehrenfest's urn. In particular this work shows that the Ehrenfest model captures the convergence among countries. A empirical analysis is presented on the European Union countries, the G7 countries and the emerging countries.

  18. Recent adaptive events in human brain revealed by meta-analysis of positively selected genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Huang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Analysis of positively-selected genes can help us understand how human evolved, especially the evolution of highly developed cognitive functions. However, previous works have reached conflicting conclusions regarding whether human neuronal genes are over-represented among genes under positive selection. METHODS AND RESULTS: We divided positively-selected genes into four groups according to the identification approaches, compiling a comprehensive list from 27 previous studies. We showed that genes that are highly expressed in the central nervous system are enriched in recent positive selection events in human history identified by intra-species genomic scan, especially in brain regions related to cognitive functions. This pattern holds when different datasets, parameters and analysis pipelines were used. Functional category enrichment analysis supported these findings, showing that synapse-related functions are enriched in genes under recent positive selection. In contrast, immune-related functions, for instance, are enriched in genes under ancient positive selection revealed by inter-species coding region comparison. We further demonstrated that most of these patterns still hold even after controlling for genomic characteristics that might bias genome-wide identification of positively-selected genes including gene length, gene density, GC composition, and intensity of negative selection. CONCLUSION: Our rigorous analysis resolved previous conflicting conclusions and revealed recent adaptation of human brain functions.

  19. IMS-based Analysis and Research of Fixed Mobile Convergence%基于IMS固移网络融合的分析与研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯艳华

    2011-01-01

    本文介绍了IMS定义和及特性,进一步阐述了IMS网络架构,深入研究了基于IMS的固移融合网络的演进趋势和技术方案,阐述了IMS对固移网络融合的作用,为运营商制定网络演进提出了方案和建议。%This paper describes the IMS and the definition and characteristics,further elaborated the IMS network architecture,in-depth study of the IMS-based fixed mobile convergence trends and the evolution of network technology program,describes the IMS network convergence on the role of solid shift for operators to develop network evolution plans and proposals put forward.

  20. Do Transitions to Adulthood Converge in Europe? An Optimal Matching Analysis of Work-Family Trajectories of Young Adults from 20 European Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Lesnard, Laurent; Cousteaux, Anne-Sophie; Chanvril, Flora; Le Hay, Viviane

    2010-01-01

    This paper compares the timing and sequencing of work-family trajectories of young adults in 20 European countries using data from the third round of the European Social Survey (2006). It addresses the question of the convergence of transitions to adulthood in Europe. The life course is derived here from five standard events – employment, leaving-home, union formation, marriage and childbearing – retrospectively observed for men and women over 35 years old (N = 26,351), over four birth coh...

  1. Price Level Convergence, Purchasing Power Parity and Multiple Structural Breaks in Panel Data Analysis: An Application to U.S. Cities

    OpenAIRE

    Basher Syed A.; Carrion-i-Silvestre Josep Lluís

    2009-01-01

    This article provides a methodological and empirical approach for assessing price level convergence and its relation to purchasing power parity (PPP) using annual price data for seventeen U.S. cities during the period 1918 to 2005. We suggest a new panel data procedure that can handle a wide range of PPP concepts in the presence of multiple structural breaks using all possible pairs of real exchange rates. Testing for PPP requires the definition of parametric restrictions (parity restrictions...

  2. Transcriptomic analysis of human retinal detachment reveals both inflammatory response and photoreceptor death.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Noëlle Delyfer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Retinal detachment often leads to a severe and permanent loss of vision and its therapeutic management remains to this day exclusively surgical. We have used surgical specimens to perform a differential analysis of the transcriptome of human retinal tissues following detachment in order to identify new potential pharmacological targets that could be used in combination with surgery to further improve final outcome. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Statistical analysis reveals major involvement of the immune response in the disease. Interestingly, using a novel approach relying on coordinated expression, the interindividual variation was monitored to unravel a second crucial aspect of the pathological process: the death of photoreceptor cells. Within the genes identified, the expression of the major histocompatibility complex I gene HLA-C enables diagnosis of the disease, while PKD2L1 and SLCO4A1 -which are both down-regulated- act synergistically to provide an estimate of the duration of the retinal detachment process. Our analysis thus reveals the two complementary cellular and molecular aspects linked to retinal detachment: an immune response and the degeneration of photoreceptor cells. We also reveal that the human specimens have a higher clinical value as compared to artificial models that point to IL6 and oxidative stress, not implicated in the surgical specimens studied here. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This systematic analysis confirmed the occurrence of both neurodegeneration and inflammation during retinal detachment, and further identifies precisely the modification of expression of the different genes implicated in these two phenomena. Our data henceforth give a new insight into the disease process and provide a rationale for therapeutic strategies aimed at limiting inflammation and photoreceptor damage associated with retinal detachment and, in turn, improving visual prognosis after retinal surgery.

  3. Network analysis of oyster transcriptome revealed a cascade of cellular responses during recovery after heat shock.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingling Zhang

    Full Text Available Oysters, as a major group of marine bivalves, can tolerate a wide range of natural and anthropogenic stressors including heat stress. Recent studies have shown that oysters pretreated with heat shock can result in induced heat tolerance. A systematic study of cellular recovery from heat shock may provide insights into the mechanism of acquired thermal tolerance. In this study, we performed the first network analysis of oyster transcriptome by reanalyzing microarray data from a previous study. Network analysis revealed a cascade of cellular responses during oyster recovery after heat shock and identified responsive gene modules and key genes. Our study demonstrates the power of network analysis in a non-model organism with poor gene annotations, which can lead to new discoveries that go beyond the focus on individual genes.

  4. A versatile multivariate image analysis pipeline reveals features of Xenopus extract spindles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenfell, Andrew W; Strzelecka, Magdalena; Crowder, Marina E; Helmke, Kara J; Schlaitz, Anne-Lore; Heald, Rebecca

    2016-04-11

    Imaging datasets are rich in quantitative information. However, few cell biologists possess the tools necessary to analyze them. Here, we present a large dataset ofXenopusextract spindle images together with an analysis pipeline designed to assess spindle morphology across a range of experimental conditions. Our analysis of different spindle types illustrates how kinetochore microtubules amplify spindle microtubule density. Extract mixing experiments reveal that some spindle features titrate, while others undergo switch-like transitions, and multivariate analysis shows the pleiotropic morphological effects of modulating the levels of TPX2, a key spindle assembly factor. We also apply our pipeline to analyze nuclear morphology in human cell culture, showing the general utility of the segmentation approach. Our analyses provide new insight into the diversity of spindle types and suggest areas for future study. The approaches outlined can be applied by other researchers studying spindle morphology and adapted with minimal modification to other experimental systems. PMID:27044897

  5. The Revealed Competitiveness of Major Ports in the East Asian Region: An Additive Market Share Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Seung Kim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the single cargo market, the ordinary market share analysis method has been the representative tool for revealed competitiveness analysis. This paper develops and employs an applied market share index called the additive market share (AMS. Data are collected from 15 major container ports for the 1998-2013 period. In comparison to the results of an ordinary market share analysis, the highest AMS is observed for the Bohai Rim port cluster from 2008, not for the Yangtze River cluster or the Pearl River cluster. There are substitutable relationships between Yangtze River and non-Chinese ports and between Pearl River and Bohai Rim ports from 2001. Finally, there is an internal competition at Pearl River and Yangtze River ports, whereas Bohai Rim and non-Chinese ports show internally complementary relationships.

  6. Limited Macroeconomic Convergence in Transition Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Kocenda, Evzen

    1999-01-01

    This paper analyzes performance of the transition economies in the Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries in terms of their convergence in selected macroeconomic fundamentals. The analysis uses monthly data on industrial output, money aggregate (M1), consumer prices and producer prices from 1991 to 1998. The analysis is carried out within distinctive groups of countries based on different trade and geographical arrangements, and uses a panel unit-root test as an econometric tool. In gen...

  7. Proteomic and genomic analysis reveals novel Campylobacter jejuni outer membrane proteins and potential heterogeneity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleanor Watson

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Gram-negative bacterial outer membrane proteins play important roles in the interaction of bacteria with their environment including nutrient acquisition, adhesion and invasion, and antibiotic resistance. In this study we identified 47 proteins within the Sarkosyl-insoluble fraction of Campylobacter jejuni 81-176, using LC–ESI-MS/MS. Comparative analysis of outer membrane protein sequences was visualised to reveal protein distribution within a panel of Campylobacter spp., identifying several C. jejuni-specific proteins. Smith–Waterman analyses of C. jejuni homologues revealed high sequence conservation amongst a number of hypothetical proteins, sequence heterogeneity of other proteins and several proteins which are absent in a proportion of strains.

  8. Some Observations on Grid Convergence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas, manuel D.

    2006-01-01

    It is claimed that current practices in grid convergence studies, particularly in the field of external aerodynamics, are flawed. The necessary conditions to properly establish grid convergence are presented. A theoretical model and a numerical example are used to demonstrate these ideas.

  9. {\\Delta}- convergence on time scale

    OpenAIRE

    Seyyidoglu, M. Seyyit; Tan, N. Özkan

    2011-01-01

    In the present paper we will give some new notions, such as {\\Delta}-convergence and {\\Delta}-Cauchy, by using the {\\Delta}-density and investigate their relations. It is important to say that, the results presented in this work generalize some of the results mentioned in the theory of statistical convergence.

  10. High-speed image analysis reveals chaotic vibratory behaviors of pathological vocal folds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: → Low-dimensional human glottal area data. → Evidence of chaos in human laryngeal activity from high-speed digital imaging. → Traditional perturbation analysis should be cautiously applied to aperiodic high speed image signals. → Nonlinear dynamic analysis may be helpful for understanding disordered behaviors in pathological laryngeal systems. - Abstract: Laryngeal pathology is usually associated with irregular dynamics of laryngeal activity. High-speed imaging facilitates direct observation and measurement of vocal fold vibrations. However, chaotic dynamic characteristics of aperiodic high-speed image data have not yet been investigated in previous studies. In this paper, we will apply nonlinear dynamic analysis and traditional perturbation methods to quantify high-speed image data from normal subjects and patients with various laryngeal pathologies including vocal fold nodules, polyps, bleeding, and polypoid degeneration. The results reveal the low-dimensional dynamic characteristics of human glottal area data. In comparison to periodic glottal area series from a normal subject, aperiodic glottal area series from pathological subjects show complex reconstructed phase space, fractal dimension, and positive Lyapunov exponents. The estimated positive Lyapunov exponents provide the direct evidence of chaos in pathological human vocal folds from high-speed digital imaging. Furthermore, significant differences between the normal and pathological groups are investigated for nonlinear dynamic and perturbation analyses. Jitter in the pathological group is significantly higher than in the normal group, but shimmer does not show such a difference. This finding suggests that the traditional perturbation analysis should be cautiously applied to high speed image signals. However, the correlation dimension and the maximal Lyapunov exponent reveal a statistically significant difference between normal and pathological groups. Nonlinear dynamic

  11. Notes on Some Convergences in Riesz Space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Zhi-jie; AI Fu-ju

    2007-01-01

    An equivalent description of u-uniform convergence is presented first. Then the relations among the order convergence,u-uniform convergence and norm convergence of sequences are discussed in Riesz spaces. An equivalence of the three convergences is brought forward; namely, {fn} is a u-uniform Cauchy sequence. Finally the relations among the three convergences of sequences am also extended to the relations among the convergences of nets in Riesz spaces.

  12. Real convergence in the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Veiga, Francisco José

    2000-01-01

    This essay deals with real convergence in the European Union (EU). Real convergence is here defined as convergence of GDP per capita in Purchasing Power Standard. I examine whether there is empirical evidence of real convergence among EU countries or regions and if the current effort towards nominal convergence has slowed real convergence. The main findings are that there has been some real convergence at the country level, mainly before the mid- 1970s, but not much evidence of...

  13. The relationship between periodic dinucleotides and the nucleosomal DNA deformation revealed by normal mode analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nucleosomes, which contain DNA and proteins, are the basic unit of eukaryotic chromatins. Polymers such as DNA and proteins are dynamic, and their conformational changes can lead to functional changes. Periodic dinucleotide patterns exist in nucleosomal DNA chains and play an important role in the nucleosome structure. In this paper, we use normal mode analysis to detect significant structural deformations of nucleosomal DNA and investigate the relationship between periodic dinucleotides and DNA motions. We have found that periodic dinucleotides are usually located at the peaks or valleys of DNA and protein motions, revealing that they dominate the nucleosome dynamics. Also, a specific dinucleotide pattern CA/TG appears most frequently

  14. VNTR analysis reveals unexpected genetic diversity within Mycoplasma agalactiae, the main causative agent of contagious agalactia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayling Roger D

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mycoplasma agalactiae is the main cause of contagious agalactia, a serious disease of sheep and goats, which has major clinical and economic impacts. Previous studies of M. agalactiae have shown it to be unusually homogeneous and there are currently no available epidemiological techniques which enable a high degree of strain differentiation. Results We have developed variable number tandem repeat (VNTR analysis using the sequenced genome of the M. agalactiae type strain PG2. The PG2 genome was found to be replete with tandem repeat sequences and 4 were chosen for further analysis. VNTR 5 was located within the hypothetical protein MAG6170 a predicted lipoprotein. VNTR 14 was intergenic between the hypothetical protein MAG3350 and the hypothetical protein MAG3340. VNTR 17 was intergenic between the hypothetical protein MAG4060 and the hypothetical protein MAG4070 and VNTR 19 spanned the 5' end of the pseudogene for a lipoprotein MAG4310 and the 3' end of the hypothetical lipoprotein MAG4320. We have investigated the genetic diversity of 88 M. agalactiae isolates of wide geographic origin using VNTR analysis and compared it with pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD analysis. Simpson's index of diversity was calculated to be 0.324 for PFGE and 0.574 for VNTR analysis. VNTR analysis revealed unexpected diversity within M. agalactiae with 9 different VNTR types discovered. Some correlation was found between geographical origin and the VNTR type of the isolates. Conclusion VNTR analysis represents a useful, rapid first-line test for use in molecular epidemiological analysis of M. agalactiae for outbreak tracing and control.

  15. Single-cell analysis reveals a novel uncultivated magnetotactic bacterium within the candidate division OP3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolinko, Sebastian; Jogler, Christian; Katzmann, Emanuel; Wanner, Gerhard; Peplies, Jörg; Schüler, Dirk

    2012-07-01

    Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) are a diverse group of prokaryotes that orient along magnetic fields using membrane-coated magnetic nanocrystals of magnetite (Fe(3) O(4) ) or greigite (Fe(3) S(4) ), the magnetosomes. Previous phylogenetic analysis of MTB has been limited to few cultivated species and most abundant members of natural populations, which were assigned to Proteobacteria and the Nitrospirae phyla. Here, we describe a single cell-based approach that allowed the targeted phylogenetic and ultrastructural analysis of the magnetotactic bacterium SKK-01, which was low abundant in sediments of Lake Chiemsee. Morphologically conspicuous single cells of SKK-01 were micromanipulated from magnetically collected multi-species MTB populations, which was followed by whole genome amplification and ultrastructural analysis of sorted cells. Besides intracellular sulphur inclusions, the large ovoid cells of SKK-01 harbour ∼175 bullet-shaped magnetosomes arranged in multiple chains that consist of magnetite as revealed by TEM and EDX analysis. Sequence analysis of 16 and 23S rRNA genes from amplified genomic DNA as well as fluorescence in situ hybridization assigned SKK-01 to the candidate division OP3, which so far lacks any cultivated representatives. SKK-01 represents the first morphotype that can be assigned to the OP3 group as well as the first magnetotactic member of the PVC superphylum. PMID:22003954

  16. Computed tomography findings in convergent strabismus fixus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    X-ray computed tomography (CT) of the eyeball and orbit revealed the cause of eye movement disorder in convergent strabismus fixus. The findings suggest that the disease can be diagnosed and treated at an early stage. Twelve cases of progressive esotropia with high myopia and 20 cases with normal visual acuity served as subjects in this study. The CT slice was parallel to the German horizontal plane, and the lens and medial and lateral rectus muscles were scanned. The average axial length of the affected eyes was significantly longer than in normal eyes. In progressive esotropia, the characteristic CT findings are an elongated eyeball, mechanical contact between the eyeball and lateral wall of the orbit, and a downward displacement of the lateral rectus muscle. Thus, it is reasonable to conclude that eye movement disorder in convergent strabismus fixus results from weakness of the lateral rectus muscle which has been displaced downward due to compression of the eyeball against the orbital wall. (author)

  17. Computed tomography findings in convergent strabismus fixus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohta, Michitaka; Iwashige, Hiroyasu; Hayashi, Takao; Maruo, Toshio [Teikyo Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1995-08-01

    X-ray computed tomography (CT) of the eyeball and orbit revealed the cause of eye movement disorder in convergent strabismus fixus. The findings suggest that the disease can be diagnosed and treated at an early stage. Twelve cases of progressive esotropia with high myopia and 20 cases with normal visual acuity served as subjects in this study. The CT slice was parallel to the German horizontal plane, and the lens and medial and lateral rectus muscles were scanned. The average axial length of the affected eyes was significantly longer than in normal eyes. In progressive esotropia, the characteristic CT findings are an elongated eyeball, mechanical contact between the eyeball and lateral wall of the orbit, and a downward displacement of the lateral rectus muscle. Thus, it is reasonable to conclude that eye movement disorder in convergent strabismus fixus results from weakness of the lateral rectus muscle which has been displaced downward due to compression of the eyeball against the orbital wall. (author).

  18. Novel aspects of COP9 signalosome functions revealed through analysis of hypomorphic csn mutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Jane E

    2009-01-01

    The COP9 signalosome (CSN) is a conserved eukaryotic protein complex implicated in the regulation of cullin-RING type E3 ubiquitin ligases by cleaving the small peptide RUB/Nedd8 from cullins. However, detailed analysis of CSN physiological functions in Arabidopsis has been hampered by the early seedling-lethality of csn null mutants. We and others have now identified a number of viable hypomorphic csn mutants which start to reveal novel CSN-dependent activities in adult Arabidopsis plants.1 Here, we present a detailed comparative analysis of the csn5a-1 and csn2-5 mutants as a mean to improve understanding of CSN functions in plant cells. Our observations point to CSN-independent activities of CSN5 and suggest a role of the CSN in cytoskeleton assembly/organization. PMID:19847120

  19. Global analysis of gene expression in pulmonary fibrosis reveals distinct programs regulating lung inflammation and fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminski, Naftali; Allard, John D.; Pittet, Jean F.; Zuo, Fengrong; Griffiths, Mark J. D.; Morris, David; Huang, Xiaozhu; Sheppard, Dean; Heller, Renu A.

    2000-02-01

    The molecular mechanisms of pulmonary fibrosis are poorly understood. We have used oligonucleotide arrays to analyze the gene expression programs that underlie pulmonary fibrosis in response to bleomycin, a drug that causes lung inflammation and fibrosis, in two strains of susceptible mice (129 and C57BL/6). We then compared the gene expression patterns in these mice with 129 mice carrying a null mutation in the epithelial-restricted integrin 6 subunit (6/-), which develop inflammation but are protected from pulmonary fibrosis. Cluster analysis identified two distinct groups of genes involved in the inflammatory and fibrotic responses. Analysis of gene expression at multiple time points after bleomycin administration revealed sequential induction of subsets of genes that characterize each response. The availability of this comprehensive data set should accelerate the development of more effective strategies for intervention at the various stages in the development of fibrotic diseases of the lungs and other organs.

  20. 模糊神经Petri网算法优化及其收敛性分析%Optimization of Fuzzy Neural Petri Net Algorithm and Convergence Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李孝忠; 周艳军

    2014-01-01

    针对模糊神经Petri网(fuzzy neural Petri net,FNPN)学习算法计算精度低、收敛性差及训练过程中网络震荡较大的问题,提出一种优化的 FNPN 算法。本算法采用两种 S 型连续函数分别表示变迁使能及变迁点燃后的新标记值,并在传统参数修正公式的基础上考虑修正前的数值进而增加新型的动量项,从而改善网络的收敛性。本文证明了优化后的参数修正算法可以保证FNPN网络的收敛性。%Aimed at the poor computational accuracy and convergence as well as too violent network concussion during the training of fuzzy neural Petri net(FNPN)learning algorithm,an optimized algorithm was proposed. Two S-type continuous functions were used to express transition enablement and the new tag values after transition firing.In addition,the value before correction was considered,and then the new momentum was added based on the traditional parameter correction for-mula,which can ensure the convergence of the proposed optimization algorithm. It was proved that the optimized parameter correction algorithm can ensure the convergence of the FNPN network.

  1. CONVERGENCE OF TECHNOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Siriram

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Technology is a catalyst for competitive advantage. However, it is how technology is used that leads to a firm’s improved performance. In this article, an investigative framework is constructed to understand better what strategically drives new technology adoption. The strategic drivers include technology and business strategy alignment, better technology planning and selection of new technologies, the effects on a firm’s culture and climate, links to a firm’s organisational and environmental evolution, and benefits through convergence and collaboration. Using an investigative framework, it is shown how the strategic drivers link to improve a firm’s performance, producing competitive advantage. The investigative framework is tested using structural equation modelling. Various hypotheses are formed, and recommendations for further research are made.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Tegnologie is ‘n katalisator vir mededingende voordeel. Dit is egter hoe tegnologie aangewend word wat aanleiding gee tot ‘n onderneming se verbeterde prestasie. In hierdie artikel word ‘n ondersoekende raamwerk gekonstrueer om insig te kry in dit wat die aanvaarding van nuwe tegnologie strategies dryf. Die strategiese dryfvere sluit in die belyning van tegnologie en ondernemingstrategie, beter tegnologiebeplanning en seleksie van nuwe tegnologieë, die effek op ‘n onderneming se kultuur en klimaat, koppeling na ‘n onderneming se organisatoriese en omgewingsevolusie, en voordele verkry deur konvergensie en samewerking. Deur ‘n ondersoekende raamwerk te gebruik, word daar getoon dat die strategiese dryfvere koppel om ‘n onderneming se prestasie te verbeter en sodoende ‘n mededingende voordeel te skep. Die raamwerk word getoets en hipoteses geformuleer waarna aanbevelings oor verdere navorsing aan die hand gedoen word.

  2. Convergence or divergence?: a longitudinal analysis of behaviour problems among disabled and non-disabled children aged 3 to 7 in England

    OpenAIRE

    Fauth, Rebecca; Parsons, Samantha; Platt, Lucinda

    2014-01-01

    This study sets out to identify the incidence and development of disabled children’s problem behaviours, including conduct, peer, hyperactivity and emotional problems during the early years using the Millennium Cohort Study, a large-scale, nationally representative UK study. We track the behaviour problems from age 3 to 7 to examine the emergence of problems and whether disabled girls’ and boys’ behaviour converges or diverges from non-disabled children over time. Childhood disability i...

  3. The role of the internet in the cultural convergence: a theoretical analysis based on the dynamic-constructivist approach from the consumers’ online interactions perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IGNACIO TAMAYO TORRES

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper poses, from a theoretical perspective, the role that may have Internet as a key factor to foster the cultural convergence among countries. In this regard, we refl ect about a central theoretic proposal, taking as main reference the dynamic constructivist approach. The gist of the paper goes down the lines of how shared values generated in the on-line communication processes developed by individuals (consumers from different cultures-either between each other or between them and the medium-, can be passed on to every culture of origin, fostering their rapprochement in the long run.

  4. Phenotypic Analysis Reveals that the 2010 Haiti Cholera Epidemic Is Linked to a Hypervirulent Strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satchell, Karla J F; Jones, Christopher J; Wong, Jennifer; Queen, Jessica; Agarwal, Shivani; Yildiz, Fitnat H

    2016-09-01

    Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor strains have been responsible for pandemic cholera since 1961. These strains have evolved over time, spreading globally in three separate waves. Wave 3 is caused by altered El Tor (AET) variant strains, which include the strain with the signature ctxB7 allele that was introduced in 2010 into Haiti, where it caused a devastating epidemic. In this study, we used phenotypic analysis to compare an early isolate from the Haiti epidemic to wave 1 El Tor isolates commonly used for research. It is demonstrated that the Haiti isolate has increased production of cholera toxin (CT) and hemolysin, increased motility, and a reduced ability to form biofilms. This strain also outcompetes common wave 1 El Tor isolates for colonization of infant mice, indicating that it has increased virulence. Monitoring of CT production and motility in additional wave 3 isolates revealed that this phenotypic variation likely evolved over time rather than in a single genetic event. Analysis of available whole-genome sequences and phylogenetic analyses suggested that increased virulence arose from positive selection for mutations found in known and putative regulatory genes, including hns and vieA, diguanylate cyclase genes, and genes belonging to the lysR and gntR regulatory families. Overall, the studies presented here revealed that V. cholerae virulence potential can evolve and that the currently prevalent wave 3 AET strains are both phenotypically distinct from and more virulent than many El Tor isolates. PMID:27297393

  5. A beamformer analysis of MEG data reveals frontal generators of the musically elicited mismatch negativity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Lappe

    Full Text Available To localize the neural generators of the musically elicited mismatch negativity with high temporal resolution we conducted a beamformer analysis (Synthetic Aperture Magnetometry, SAM on magnetoencephalography (MEG data from a previous musical mismatch study. The stimuli consisted of a six-tone melodic sequence comprising broken chords in C- and G-major. The musical sequence was presented within an oddball paradigm in which the last tone was lowered occasionally (20% by a minor third. The beamforming analysis revealed significant right hemispheric neural activation in the superior temporal (STC, inferior frontal (IFC, superior frontal (SFC and orbitofrontal (OFC cortices within a time window of 100-200 ms after the occurrence of a deviant tone. IFC and SFC activation was also observed in the left hemisphere. The pronounced early right inferior frontal activation of the auditory mismatch negativity has not been shown in MEG studies so far. The activation in STC and IFC is consistent with earlier electroencephalography (EEG, optical imaging and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI studies that reveal the auditory and inferior frontal cortices as main generators of the auditory MMN. The observed right hemispheric IFC is also in line with some previous music studies showing similar activation patterns after harmonic syntactic violations. The results demonstrate that a deviant tone within a musical sequence recruits immediately a distributed neural network in frontal and prefrontal areas suggesting that top-down processes are involved when expectation violation occurs within well-known stimuli.

  6. Network Analysis of a Comprehensive Knowledge Repository Reveals a Dual Role for Ceramide in Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Satoshi; Ogishima, Soichi; Kitatani, Kazuyuki; Kikuchi, Masataka; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Yaegashi, Nobuo; Nakaya, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of senile dementia. Many inflammatory factors such as amyloid-β and pro-inflammatory cytokines are known to contribute to the inflammatory response in the AD brain. Sphingolipids are widely known to have roles in the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases, where the precise roles for sphingolipids in inflammation-associated pathogenesis of AD are not well understood. Here we performed a network analysis to clarify the importance of sphingolipids and to model relationships among inflammatory factors and sphingolipids in AD. In this study, we have updated sphingolipid signaling and metabolic cascades in a map of AD signaling networks that we named "AlzPathway," a comprehensive knowledge repository of signaling pathways in AD. Our network analysis of the updated AlzPathway indicates that the pathways related to ceramide are one of the primary pathways and that ceramide is one of the important players in the pathogenesis of AD. The results of our analysis suggest the following two prospects about inflammation in AD: (1) ceramide could play important roles in both inflammatory and anti-inflammatory pathways of AD, and (2) several factors such as Sphingomyelinase and Siglec-11 may be associated with ceramide related inflammation and anti-inflammation pathways in AD. In this study, network analysis of comprehensive knowledge repository reveals a dual role for ceramide in AD. This result provides a clue to clarify sphingolipids related inflammatory and anti-inflammatory pathways in AD. PMID:26849355

  7. Network Analysis of a Comprehensive Knowledge Repository Reveals a Dual Role for Ceramide in Alzheimer's Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Mizuno

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD is the most common cause of senile dementia. Many inflammatory factors such as amyloid-β and pro-inflammatory cytokines are known to contribute to the inflammatory response in the AD brain. Sphingolipids are widely known to have roles in the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases, where the precise roles for sphingolipids in inflammation-associated pathogenesis of AD are not well understood. Here we performed a network analysis to clarify the importance of sphingolipids and to model relationships among inflammatory factors and sphingolipids in AD. In this study, we have updated sphingolipid signaling and metabolic cascades in a map of AD signaling networks that we named "AlzPathway," a comprehensive knowledge repository of signaling pathways in AD. Our network analysis of the updated AlzPathway indicates that the pathways related to ceramide are one of the primary pathways and that ceramide is one of the important players in the pathogenesis of AD. The results of our analysis suggest the following two prospects about inflammation in AD: (1 ceramide could play important roles in both inflammatory and anti-inflammatory pathways of AD, and (2 several factors such as Sphingomyelinase and Siglec-11 may be associated with ceramide related inflammation and anti-inflammation pathways in AD. In this study, network analysis of comprehensive knowledge repository reveals a dual role for ceramide in AD. This result provides a clue to clarify sphingolipids related inflammatory and anti-inflammatory pathways in AD.

  8. Transcriptome-wide Analysis Of Vernalization Reveals Conserved and Species-specific Mechanisms in Brachypodium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing Huan; Zhiwei Mao; Jingyu Zhang; Yunyuan Xu; Kang Chong

    2013-01-01

    Several temperate cereals need vernalization to promote flowering.Little,however,is known about the vernalization-memory-related genes,and almost no comparative analysis has been performed.Here,RNA-Seq was used for transcriptome analysis in non-vernalized,vernalized and post-vernalized Brachypodium distachyon (L.) Beauv.seedlings.In total,the expression of 1,665 genes showed significant changes (fold change ≥4) in response to vernalization.Among them,674 putative vernalization-memory-related genes with a constant response to vernalization were significantly enriched in transcriptional regulation and monooxygenase-mediated biological processes.Comparative analysis of vernalization-memory-related genes with barley demonstrated that the oxidative-stress response was the most conserved pathway between these two plant species.Moreover,Brachypodium preferred to regulate transcription and protein phosphorylation processes,while vernalization-memory-related genes,whose products are cytoplasmic membrane-bound-vesicle-located proteins,were preferred to be regulated in barley.Correlation analysis of the vernalization-related genes with barley revealed that the vernalization mechanism was conserved between these two plant species.In summary,vernalization,including its memory mechanism,is conserved between Brachypodium and barley,although several species-specific features also exist.The data reported here will provide primary resources for subsequent functional research in vernalization.

  9. Pretreatment and integrated analysis of spectral data reveal seaweed similarities based on chemical diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Feifei; Ito, Kengo; Sakata, Kenji; Date, Yasuhiro; Kikuchi, Jun

    2015-03-01

    Extracting useful information from high dimensionality and large data sets is a major challenge for data-driven approaches. The present study was aimed at developing novel integrated analytical strategies for comprehensively characterizing seaweed similarities based on chemical diversity. The chemical compositions of 107 seaweed and 2 seagrass samples were analyzed using multiple techniques, including Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and solid- and solution-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, thermogravimetry-differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA), inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), CHNS/O total elemental analysis, and isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IR-MS). The spectral data were preprocessed using non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) and NMF combined with multivariate curve resolution-alternating least-squares (MCR-ALS) methods in order to separate individual component information from the overlapping and/or broad spectral peaks. Integrated analysis of the preprocessed chemical data demonstrated distinct discrimination of differential seaweed species. Further network analysis revealed a close correlation between the heavy metal elements and characteristic components of brown algae, such as cellulose, alginic acid, and sulfated mucopolysaccharides, providing a componential basis for its metal-sorbing potential. These results suggest that this integrated analytical strategy is useful for extracting and identifying the chemical characteristics of diverse seaweeds based on large chemical data sets, particularly complicated overlapping spectral data. PMID:25647718

  10. CONVERGENCE ANALYSIS IN SENSE OF LEBESGUE-p NORM OF DECENTRALIZED NON-REPETITIVE ITERATIVE LEARNING CONTROL FOR LINEAR LARGE-SCALE SYSTEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoe RUAN; Huizhuo WU; Na LI; Baiwu WAN

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, a decentralized iterative learning control strategy is embedded into the procedure of hierarchical steady-state optimization for a class of linear large-scale industrial processes which consists of a number of subsystems. The task of the learning controller for each subsystem is to iteratively generate a sequence of upgraded control inputs to take responsibilities of a sequential step functional control signals with distinct scales which are determined by the local decision-making units in the two-layer hierarchical steady-state optimization processing. The objective of the designated strategy is to consecutively improve the transient performance of the system. By means of the generalized Young inequality of convolution integral, the convergence of the learning algorithm is analyzed in the sense of Lebesgue-p norm. It is shown that the inherent feature of system such as the multi-dimensionality and the interaction may influence the convergence of the non-repetitive learning rule. Numerical simulations illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme and the validity of the conclusion.

  11. Convergence Analysis of a FV-FE Scheme for Partially Miscible Two-Phase Flow in Anisotropic Porous Media

    KAUST Repository

    Saad, Bilal Mohammed

    2014-01-01

    We study the convergence of a combined finite volume nonconforming finite element scheme on general meshes for a partially miscible two-phase flow model in anisotropic porous media. This model includes capillary effects and exchange between the phase. The diffusion term,which can be anisotropic and heterogeneous, is discretized by piecewise linear nonconforming triangular finite elements. The other terms are discretized by means of a cell-centered finite volume scheme on a dual mesh. The relative permeability of each phase is decentred according the sign of the velocity at the dual interface. The convergence of the scheme is proved thanks to an estimate on the two pressures which allows to show estimates on the discrete time and compactness results in the case of degenerate relative permeabilities. A key point in the scheme is to use particular averaging formula for the dissolution function arising in the diffusion term. We show also a simulation of CO2 injection in a water saturated reservoir and nuclear waste management. Numerical results are obtained by in-house numerical code. © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014.

  12. Complete Convergence of Exchangeable Sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Stoica

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We prove that exchangeable sequences converge completely in the Baum-Katz sense under the same conditions as i.i.d. sequences do. Problem statement: The research was needed as the rate of convergence in the law of large numbers for exchangeable sequences was previously obtained under restricted hypotheses. Approach: We applied powerful techniques involving inequalities for independent sequences of random variables. Results: We obtained the maximal rate of convergence and provided an example to show that our findings are sharp. Conclusion/Recommendations: The technique used in the paper may be adapted in the similar study for identically distributed sequences.

  13. Convergence insufficiency and vision therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, Mary Lou

    2014-06-01

    There is no standard meaning of the term "vision therapy", and for this reason it is often a controversial topic between some members of the ophthalmic and optometric community. Most pediatric ophthalmologists avoid using the term because it is nonspecific. Convergence Insufficiency (CI) is a binocular visual problem that causes problems and symptoms with near fixation. There is consensus among eye care professionals that convergence therapy is effective in treating CI. Convergence therapy is not effective in treating learning disabilities, but can sometimes relieve symptoms that might be a barrier to reading. PMID:24852157

  14. Study of primary convergence insufficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deshpande Shreerang

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was done to find out the incidence of primary insufficiency of involuntary convergence and evaluate the relative efficacy of synoptophore treatment against home exercise in its management. During the period of study, 2162 cases in the age group 15 to 35 years were studied for convergence in detail. It was found out that the incidence of primary convergence insufficiency is quite high (7.7% of total orthoptic clinic attendance. It commonly affects those who are constantly engaged in near work. Response to synoptophore exercises and home exercises is comparably equal. Recurrence of the ailment after stopping the exercises is not uncommon.

  15. Copy number and targeted mutational analysis reveals novel somatic events in metastatic prostate tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Christiane M; Tembe, Waibov A; Baker, Angela; Sinari, Shripad; Moses, Tracy Y; Beckstrom-Sternberg, Stephen; Beckstrom-Sternberg, James; Barrett, Michael; Long, James; Chinnaiyan, Arul; Lowey, James; Suh, Edward; Pearson, John V; Craig, David W; Agus, David B; Pienta, Kenneth J; Carpten, John D

    2011-01-01

    Advanced prostate cancer can progress to systemic metastatic tumors, which are generally androgen insensitive and ultimately lethal. Here, we report a comprehensive genomic survey for somatic events in systemic metastatic prostate tumors using both high-resolution copy number analysis and targeted mutational survey of 3508 exons from 577 cancer-related genes using next generation sequencing. Focal homozygous deletions were detected at 8p22, 10q23.31, 13q13.1, 13q14.11, and 13q14.12. Key genes mapping within these deleted regions include PTEN, BRCA2, C13ORF15, and SIAH3. Focal high-level amplifications were detected at 5p13.2-p12, 14q21.1, 7q22.1, and Xq12. Key amplified genes mapping within these regions include SKP2, FOXA1, and AR. Furthermore, targeted mutational analysis of normal-tumor pairs has identified somatic mutations in genes known to be associated with prostate cancer including AR and TP53, but has also revealed novel somatic point mutations in genes including MTOR, BRCA2, ARHGEF12, and CHD5. Finally, in one patient where multiple independent metastatic tumors were available, we show common and divergent somatic alterations that occur at both the copy number and point mutation level, supporting a model for a common clonal progenitor with metastatic tumor-specific divergence. Our study represents a deep genomic analysis of advanced metastatic prostate tumors and has revealed candidate somatic alterations, possibly contributing to lethal prostate cancer. PMID:21147910

  16. Global Positioning System Technology (GPS for Psychological Research: A Test of Convergent and Nomological Validity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro eWolf

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to examine the convergent and nomological validity of a GPS-based measure of daily activity, operationalized as Number of Places Visited (NPV. Relations among the GPS-based measure and two self-report measures of NPV, as well as relations among NPV and two factors made up of self-reported individual differences were examined. The first factor was composed of variables related to an Active Lifestyle (AL (e.g. positive affect, extraversion… and the second factor was composed of variables related to a Sedentary Lifestyle (SL (e.g. depression, neuroticism…. NPV was measured over a four-day period. This timeframe was made up of two week and two weekend days. A bi-variate analysis established one level of convergent validity and a Split-Plot GLM examined convergent validity, nomological validity, and alternative hypotheses related to constraints on activity throughout the week simultaneously. The first analysis revealed significant correlations among NPV measures- weekday, weekend, and the entire four day blocks, supporting the convergent validity of the Diary-, Google Maps-, and GPS-NPV measures. Results from the second analysis, indicating non-significant mean differences in NPV regardless of method, also support this conclusion. We also found that AL is a statistically significant predictor of NPV no matter how NPV was measured. We did not find a statically significant relation among NPV and SL. These results permit us to infer that the GPS-based NPV measure has convergent and nomological validity.

  17. Analysis of economic convergence within Chiapas municipalities, regions and apparent inconsistencies Análisis de convergencia económica en el interior de Chiapas: municipios, regiones e inconsistencias aparentes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Óscar PELÁEZ HERREROS

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The data of annual per capita income estimated by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP for the municipal human development index in Mexico shows that, in Chiapas, during the period 2000-2005, there was a strong convergence at the municipal level while there was no regional convergence. To explain this apparent inconsistency, the article «Regression towards mediocrity in hereditary stature», published by Galton in 1886, is examined, concluding that the clustering level of the data (municipal or regional determines the convergence analysis results, because the grouping of municipalities in regions causes loss of information that can generate phenomena of «regression towards the mean» or just the opposite, as is the case. In Chiapas, the municipal convergence would have led to convergence within the regions but not between regions.A partir de los datos de ingreso per cápita anual estimados por el Programa de las Naciones Unidas para el Desarrollo (PNUD en la elaboración del índice de desarrollo humano municipal en México, se comprueba que, en el interior de Chiapas durante el periodo 2000- 2005, se dio un proceso de fuerte convergencia a nivel municipal al tiempo que no hubo convergencia regional. Para explicar esta aparente inconsistencia, se reexamina el artículo «Regression towards mediocrity in hereditary stature» publicado por Galton en 1886, concluyendo que el nivel de agrupación de los datos (municipal o regional condiciona los resultados del análisis de convergencia, ya que la agrupación de los municipios en regiones origina pérdidas de información que pueden generar fenómenos de «regresión hacia la media» o justo lo contrario, como es el caso. En Chiapas, la convergencia municipal habría dado lugar a la convergencia dentro de las regiones, pero no entre regiones.

  18. An International Comparative Analysis on China's Economic Growth and the Convergence in Energy Intensity Gap and Its Economic Mechanism%An International Comparative Analysis on China's Economic Growth and the Convergence in Energy Intensity Gap and Its Economic Mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi Shaozhou; Yun Bo; Li Kai

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the authors have empirically analyzed the convergence in per capita GDP gap and the convergence in the variation of energy intensity with respect to the change of per capita GDP between China and eight developed countries. Then, the authors run a regression on the impact of decisive factors of economic growth on energy intensity and its change, so as to find out the economic mechanism of energy intensity gap changing with respect to the variation of economic growth. This study concludes that: First, there is a convergence in per capita GDP gap between China and the eight developed countries. With the convergence in per capita GDP gap, the energy intensity gap between China and eight different countries also converge, and the convergence rate of the latter is faster than that of the former, i.e. if the per capita GDP gap between China and the eight developed countries decreases by 1%, the energy intensity gap between them will correspondingly decrease by 1.552%. Second, the energy intensity decreases with the improvement of industrial structure, the rising of energy prices, the advances of technology, and the expansion of investment in fixed assets, and it slightly increases with the increase of FDI. Third, the energy intensity gap between China and eight developed countries narrows with the lessening of the difference in fixed assets investment, energy prices, and technological progress between China and eight developed countries, yet increases with the narrowing of the difference in FDI, and has no significant correlation with the difference in industrial structure. Fourth, the narrowing of difference in per capita GDP between China and the eight developed countries can result in the lessening of energy intensity gap, whose economic mechanism is that the decisive factors, such as difference in investment, technology, and the competition mechanism of prices, which can determine the difference in economic growth, can significantly affect the energy

  19. Dynamic functional connectivity analysis reveals transient states of dysconnectivity in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Damaraju

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia is a psychotic disorder characterized by functional dysconnectivity or abnormal integration between distant brain regions. Recent functional imaging studies have implicated large-scale thalamo-cortical connectivity as being disrupted in patients. However, observed connectivity differences in schizophrenia have been inconsistent between studies, with reports of hyperconnectivity and hypoconnectivity between the same brain regions. Using resting state eyes-closed functional imaging and independent component analysis on a multi-site data that included 151 schizophrenia patients and 163 age- and gender matched healthy controls, we decomposed the functional brain data into 100 components and identified 47 as functionally relevant intrinsic connectivity networks. We subsequently evaluated group differences in functional network connectivity, both in a static sense, computed as the pairwise Pearson correlations between the full network time courses (5.4 minutes in length, and a dynamic sense, computed using sliding windows (44 s in length and k-means clustering to characterize five discrete functional connectivity states. Static connectivity analysis revealed that compared to healthy controls, patients show significantly stronger connectivity, i.e., hyperconnectivity, between the thalamus and sensory networks (auditory, motor and visual, as well as reduced connectivity (hypoconnectivity between sensory networks from all modalities. Dynamic analysis suggests that (1, on average, schizophrenia patients spend much less time than healthy controls in states typified by strong, large-scale connectivity, and (2, that abnormal connectivity patterns are more pronounced during these connectivity states. In particular, states exhibiting cortical–subcortical antagonism (anti-correlations and strong positive connectivity between sensory networks are those that show the group differences of thalamic hyperconnectivity and sensory hypoconnectivity

  20. Standards, IPR and digital TV convergence: theories and empirical evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Nicola MATTEUCCI

    2013-01-01

    Media convergence presents a few noticeable dimensions, and requests an interdisciplinary research approach. We conduct a long-run analysis of the main initiatives of technological standardization carried out in the realm of “traditional” (cable, satellite and terrestrial) digital TV, focusing on Europe, to assess the technological determinants of its apparent trends to convergence. This analysis inevitably calls into question IPR strategies and policies. In particular, we investigate how pri...

  1. Societal response to nanotechnology: converging technologies–converging societal response research?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanotechnology is an emerging technology particularly vulnerable to societal unrest, which may hinder its further development. With the increasing convergence of several technological domains in the field of nanotechnology, so too could convergence of social science methods help to anticipate societal response. This paper systematically reviews the current state of convergence in societal response research by first sketching the predominant approaches to previous new technologies, followed by an analysis of current research into societal response to nanotechnology. A set of 107 papers on previous new technologies shows that rational actor models have played an important role in the study of societal response to technology, in particular in the field of information technology and the geographic region of Asia. Biotechnology and nuclear power have, in contrast, more often been investigated through risk perception and other affective determinants, particularly in Europe and the USA. A set of 42 papers on societal response to nanotechnology shows similarities to research in biotechnology, as it also builds on affective variables such as risk perception. Although there is a tendency to extend the rational models with affective variables, convergence in social science approaches to response to new technologies still has a long way to go. The challenge for researchers of societal response to technologies is to converge to some shared principles by taking up the best parts from the rational actor models dominant in information technology, whilst integrating non-rational constructs from biotechnology research. The introduction of nanotechnology gives a unique opportunity to do so.

  2. Molecular analysis of endothelial progenitor cell (EPC subtypes reveals two distinct cell populations with different identities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simpson David A

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The term endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs is currently used to refer to cell populations which are quite dissimilar in terms of biological properties. This study provides a detailed molecular fingerprint for two EPC subtypes: early EPCs (eEPCs and outgrowth endothelial cells (OECs. Methods Human blood-derived eEPCs and OECs were characterised by using genome-wide transcriptional profiling, 2D protein electrophoresis, and electron microscopy. Comparative analysis at the transcript and protein level included monocytes and mature endothelial cells as reference cell types. Results Our data show that eEPCs and OECs have strikingly different gene expression signatures. Many highly expressed transcripts in eEPCs are haematopoietic specific (RUNX1, WAS, LYN with links to immunity and inflammation (TLRs, CD14, HLAs, whereas many transcripts involved in vascular development and angiogenesis-related signalling pathways (Tie2, eNOS, Ephrins are highly expressed in OECs. Comparative analysis with monocytes and mature endothelial cells clusters eEPCs with monocytes, while OECs segment with endothelial cells. Similarly, proteomic analysis revealed that 90% of spots identified by 2-D gel analysis are common between OECs and endothelial cells while eEPCs share 77% with monocytes. In line with the expression pattern of caveolins and cadherins identified by microarray analysis, ultrastructural evaluation highlighted the presence of caveolae and adherens junctions only in OECs. Conclusions This study provides evidence that eEPCs are haematopoietic cells with a molecular phenotype linked to monocytes; whereas OECs exhibit commitment to the endothelial lineage. These findings indicate that OECs might be an attractive cell candidate for inducing therapeutic angiogenesis, while eEPC should be used with caution because of their monocytic nature.

  3. Phototaxis of Haloarcula marismortui revealed through a novel microbial motion analysis algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Cheng; Fu, Hsu-Yuan; Yang, Chii-Shen

    2010-01-01

    Haloarcula marismortui has been described to be nonmotile prior to the recent identification of flagellar filaments, suggesting the motile nature of H. marismortui. Here we observed the locomotion of freshly cultured H. marismortui cells and tracked the swimming trajectories via ImageJ. Trajectories of H. marismortui are intrinsically noisy, posing difficulties in motion analysis with previously established algorithms. By introducing the concept of "window vector," a Microsoft Excel-VBA-implemented microbial motion analysis algorithm reported here was able to (1) discriminate nonswimming objects from swimming cells without empirical customization by applying a power-law relationship and (2) reduce the noise caused by Brownian motion, thus enhancing the accuracy of swim reversal identification. Based on this motion analysis algorithm, two recently identified sensory rhodopsins, HmSRI and HmSRII, were shown to mediate photoattractant and photorepellent responses, respectively, revealing the phototactic activity of H. marismortui, the only archaeon showing such phenomenon other than Halobacterium salinarum. PMID:20553410

  4. REVEAL - A tool for rule driven analysis of safety critical software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As the determination of ultrahigh reliability figures for safety critical software is hardly possible, national and international guidelines and standards give mainly requirements for the qualitative evaluation of software. An analysis whether all these requirements are fulfilled is time and effort consuming and prone to errors, if performed manually by analysts, and should instead be dedicated to tools as far as possible. There are many ''general-purpose'' software analysis tools, both static and dynamic, which help analyzing the source code. However, they are not designed to assess the adherence to specific requirements of guidelines and standards in the nuclear field. Against the background of the development of I and C systems in the nuclear field which are based on digital techniques and implemented in high level language, it is essential that the assessor or licenser has a tool with which he can automatically and uniformly qualify as many aspects as possible of the high level language software. For this purpose the software analysis tool REVEAL has been developed at ISTec and the Halden Reactor Project. (author)

  5. Meta-Analysis of EMT Datasets Reveals Different Types of EMT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Mengdan; Yang, Xiao; Kuang, Rui; Zheng, Hui

    2016-01-01

    As a critical process during embryonic development, cancer progression and cell fate conversions, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) has been extensively studied over the last several decades. To further understand the nature of EMT, we performed meta-analysis of multiple microarray datasets to identify the related generic signature. In this study, 24 human and 17 mouse microarray datasets were integrated to identify conserved gene expression changes in different types of EMT. Our integrative analysis revealed that there is low agreement among the list of the identified signature genes and three other lists in previous studies. Since removing the datasets with weakly-induced EMT from the analysis did not significantly improve the overlapping in the signature-gene lists, we hypothesized the existence of different types of EMT. This hypothesis was further supported by the grouping of 74 human EMT-induction samples into five distinct clusters, and the identification of distinct pathways in these different clusters of EMT samples. The five clusters of EMT-induction samples also improves the understanding of the characteristics of different EMT types. Therefore, we concluded the existence of different types of EMT was the possible reason for its complex role in multiple biological processes. PMID:27258544

  6. Comparative Analysis of 35 Basidiomycete Genomes Reveals Diversity and Uniqueness of the Phylum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, Robert; Salamov, Asaf; Otillar, Robert; Fagnan, Kirsten; Boussau, Bastien; Brown, Daren; Henrissat, Bernard; Levasseur, Anthony; Held, Benjamin; Nagy, Laszlo; Floudas, Dimitris; Morin, Emmanuelle; Manning, Gerard; Baker, Scott; Martin, Francis; Blanchette, Robert; Hibbett, David; Grigoriev, Igor V.

    2013-03-11

    Fungi of the phylum Basidiomycota (basidiomycetes), make up some 37percent of the described fungi, and are important in forestry, agriculture, medicine, and bioenergy. This diverse phylum includes symbionts, pathogens, and saprobes including wood decaying fungi. To better understand the diversity of this phylum we compared the genomes of 35 basidiomycete fungi including 6 newly sequenced genomes. The genomes of basidiomycetes span extremes of genome size, gene number, and repeat content. A phylogenetic tree of Basidiomycota was generated using the Phyldog software, which uses all available protein sequence data to simultaneously infer gene and species trees. Analysis of core genes reveals that some 48percent of basidiomycete proteins are unique to the phylum with nearly half of those (22percent) comprising proteins found in only one organism. Phylogenetic patterns of plant biomass-degrading genes suggest a continuum rather than a sharp dichotomy between the white rot and brown rot modes of wood decay among the members of Agaricomycotina subphylum. There is a correlation of the profile of certain gene families to nutritional mode in Agaricomycotina. Based on phylogenetically-informed PCA analysis of such profiles, we predict that that Botryobasidium botryosum and Jaapia argillacea have properties similar to white rot species, although neither has liginolytic class II fungal peroxidases. Furthermore, we find that both fungi exhibit wood decay with white rot-like characteristics in growth assays. Analysis of the rate of discovery of proteins with no or few homologs suggests the high value of continued sequencing of basidiomycete fungi.

  7. Potential microRNA-mediated oncogenic intercellular communication revealed by pan-cancer analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yue; Zhang, Zhaolei

    2014-11-01

    Carcinogenesis consists of oncogenesis and metastasis, and intriguingly microRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in both processes. Although aberrant miRNA activities are prevalent in diverse tumor types, the exact mechanisms for how they regulate cancerous processes are not always clear. To this end, we performed a large-scale pan-cancer analysis via a novel probabilistic approach to infer recurrent miRNA-target interactions implicated in 12 cancer types using data from The Cancer Genome Atlas. We discovered ~20,000 recurrent miRNA regulations, which are enriched for cancer-related miRNAs/genes. Notably, miRNA 200 family (miR-200/141/429) is among the most prominent miRNA regulators, which is known to be involved in metastasis. Importantly, the recurrent miRNA regulatory network is not only enriched for cancer pathways but also for extracellular matrix (ECM) organization and ECM-receptor interactions. The results suggest an intriguing cancer mechanism involving miRNA-mediated cell-to-cell communication, which possibly involves delivery of tumorigenic miRNA messengers to adjacent cells via exosomes. Finally, survival analysis revealed 414 recurrent-prognostic associations, where both gene and miRNA involved in each interaction conferred significant prognostic power in one or more cancer types. Together, our comprehensive pan-cancer analysis provided not only biological insights into metastasis but also brought to bear the clinical relevance of the proposed recurrent miRNA-gene associations.

  8. Topological robustness analysis of protein interaction networks reveals key targets for overcoming chemotherapy resistance in glioma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, Hátylas; Moreira-Filho, Carlos Alberto

    2015-11-01

    Biological networks display high robustness against random failures but are vulnerable to targeted attacks on central nodes. Thus, network topology analysis represents a powerful tool for investigating network susceptibility against targeted node removal. Here, we built protein interaction networks associated with chemoresistance to temozolomide, an alkylating agent used in glioma therapy, and analyzed their modular structure and robustness against intentional attack. These networks showed functional modules related to DNA repair, immunity, apoptosis, cell stress, proliferation and migration. Subsequently, network vulnerability was assessed by means of centrality-based attacks based on the removal of node fractions in descending orders of degree, betweenness, or the product of degree and betweenness. This analysis revealed that removing nodes with high degree and high betweenness was more effective in altering networks’ robustness parameters, suggesting that their corresponding proteins may be particularly relevant to target temozolomide resistance. In silico data was used for validation and confirmed that central nodes are more relevant for altering proliferation rates in temozolomide-resistant glioma cell lines and for predicting survival in glioma patients. Altogether, these results demonstrate how the analysis of network vulnerability to topological attack facilitates target prioritization for overcoming cancer chemoresistance.

  9. Meta-Analysis of EMT Datasets Reveals Different Types of EMT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Lining; Sun, Hao; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Mengdan; Yang, Xiao; Kuang, Rui; Zheng, Hui

    2016-01-01

    As a critical process during embryonic development, cancer progression and cell fate conversions, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) has been extensively studied over the last several decades. To further understand the nature of EMT, we performed meta-analysis of multiple microarray datasets to identify the related generic signature. In this study, 24 human and 17 mouse microarray datasets were integrated to identify conserved gene expression changes in different types of EMT. Our integrative analysis revealed that there is low agreement among the list of the identified signature genes and three other lists in previous studies. Since removing the datasets with weakly-induced EMT from the analysis did not significantly improve the overlapping in the signature-gene lists, we hypothesized the existence of different types of EMT. This hypothesis was further supported by the grouping of 74 human EMT-induction samples into five distinct clusters, and the identification of distinct pathways in these different clusters of EMT samples. The five clusters of EMT-induction samples also improves the understanding of the characteristics of different EMT types. Therefore, we concluded the existence of different types of EMT was the possible reason for its complex role in multiple biological processes. PMID:27258544

  10. Weak Convergence of Probability Measures Revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Salinetti, G.; Wets, R. J.-B.

    1987-01-01

    The hypo-convergence of upper semicontinuous functions provides a natural framework for the study of the convergence of probability measures. This approach also yields some further characterizations of weak convergence and tightness.

  11. Convergence of knowledge, technology and society beyond convergence of nano-bio-info-cognitive technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Bainbridge, William; Tonn, Bruce; Whitesides, George

    2013-01-01

    Convergence of knowledge and technology for the benefit of society (CKTS) is the core opportunity for progress in the 21st century, based on five principles: (1) the interdependence of all components of nature and society, (2) enhancement of creativity and innovation through evolutionary processes of convergence that combine existing principles, and divergence that generates new ones, (3) decision analysis for research and development based on system-logic deduction, (4) higher-level cross-domain languages to generate new solutions and support transfer of new knowledge, and (5) vision-inspired basic research embodied in grand challenges. Solutions are outlined for key societal challenges, including creating new industries and jobs, improving lifelong wellness and human potential, achieving personalized and integrated healthcare and education, and securing a sustainable quality of life for all. This report provides a ten-year “NBIC2” vision within a longer-term framework for converging technology and human...

  12. Is the environmental performance of industrialized countries converging? A 'SURE' approach to testing for convergence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we test for convergence in the environmental performance of a sample of OECD countries, with data ranging from 1971 to 2002. First, we use Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) to compute two environmental performance indicators (EPIs) in the production theory framework. Second, we propose the use of a sequential multivariate approach to test for convergence in environmental performance. These tests allow us to reconcile the time series literature with the cross-sectional dimension, which is basic when testing for convergence in regional blocs. The SURE technique is used, which allows for the existence of correlations across the series without imposing a common speed of mean reversion. The empirical results show that the group of countries as a whole, as well as the majority of countries considered on an individual basis (results for some countries vary between EPIs), are catching-up with Switzerland (the benchmark country). (author)

  13. Europe of energy: convergencies - complexity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This issue of 'Economies et Societes' journal comprises 16 articles dealing with the evolution of European energy markets: the security of European petroleum supplies (P.R. Bauquis); the security of European natural gas supplies (J.M. Dauger); an empirical analysis of the power prices convergence in the European union (J.A. Vega-Cervera, A. Jurado-Malaga); the integration of European power markets, from the juxtaposition of national market to the establishment of a regional market (D. Finon); the fusions-acquisitions in the energy sector and the globalization impact (C.A. Michalet); the reorganization of power economics and the share of right (M.A. Frison-Roche); the European industry facing the new economy (J.M. Chevalier); the confidence stake of the traditional power operators (Y. Benamour, A. Bonanni); status and prospects of gas prices in continental Europe (G. Bellec); the gas and power transport challenges and the access charges fixing (L. David, J. Percebois); the strategic challenges of underground storage in the new European gas context (B. Esnault); stranded costs and deregulation of power networks: some questions raised by the US experience (J. Bezzina); natural gas in Europe and the emergence of spot markets and trading hubs (G. Heyvaert); the competitiveness of the power exchange market of the Netherlands (F. Boisseleau); setting up and de-regulated trades in European markets (H. Geman); the Californian power market (P.L. Joskow). (J.S.)

  14. Genetic analysis reveals candidate species in the Scinax catharinae clade (Amphibia: Anura) from Central Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Lídia; Solé, Mirco; Siqueira, Sérgio; Affonso, Paulo Roberto Antunes de Mello; Strüssmann, Christine; Sampaio, Iracilda

    2016-03-01

    Scinax (Anura: Hylidae) is a species-rich genus of amphibians (113 spp.), divided into five species groups by morphological features. Cladistic analyses however revealed only two monophyletic clades in these groups: Scinax catharinae and Scinax ruber. Most species from the S. catharinae clade are found in Atlantic rainforest, except for Scinax canastrensis,S. centralis, S. luizotavioi, S. machadoi,S. pombali and S. skaios. In the present work, specimens of Scinax collected in Chapada dos Guimarães, central Brazil, were morphologically compatible with species from theS. catharinae group. On the other hand, genetic analysis based on mitochondrial (16S and 12S) and nuclear (rhodopsin) sequences revealed a nucleotide divergence of 6 to 20% between Scinax sp. and other congeners from the Brazilian savannah (Cerrado). Accordingly, Bayesian inference placed Scinax sp. in the S. catharinae clade with high support values. Hence, these findings strongly indicate the presence of a new species in the S. catharinae clade from the southwestern portion of the Brazilian savannah. To be properly validated as a novel species, detailed comparative morphological and bioacustic studies with other taxa from Brazil such asS. canastrensis, S. centralis, S. luizotavioi, S. machadoi, S. pombali and S. skaios are required. PMID:27007898

  15. Dependency Network Analysis (DEPNA) Reveals Context Related Influence of Brain Network Nodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Yael; Winetraub, Yonatan; Raz, Gal; Ben-Simon, Eti; Okon-Singer, Hadas; Rosenberg-Katz, Keren; Hendler, Talma; Ben-Jacob, Eshel

    2016-01-01

    Communication between and within brain regions is essential for information processing within functional networks. The current methods to determine the influence of one region on another are either based on temporal resolution, or require a predefined model for the connectivity direction. However these requirements are not always achieved, especially in fMRI studies, which have poor temporal resolution. We thus propose a new graph theory approach that focuses on the correlation influence between selected brain regions, entitled Dependency Network Analysis (DEPNA). Partial correlations are used to quantify the level of influence of each node during task performance. As a proof of concept, we conducted the DEPNA on simulated datasets and on two empirical motor and working memory fMRI tasks. The simulations revealed that the DEPNA correctly captures the network’s hierarchy of influence. Applying DEPNA to the functional tasks reveals the dynamics between specific nodes as would be expected from prior knowledge. To conclude, we demonstrate that DEPNA can capture the most influencing nodes in the network, as they emerge during specific cognitive processes. This ability opens a new horizon for example in delineating critical nodes for specific clinical interventions. PMID:27271458

  16. Stable isotope analysis of vertebrae reveals ontogenetic changes in habitat in an endothermic pelagic shark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlisle, Aaron B; Goldman, Kenneth J; Litvin, Steven Y; Madigan, Daniel J; Bigman, Jennifer S; Swithenbank, Alan M; Kline, Thomas C; Block, Barbara A

    2015-01-22

    Ontogenetic changes in habitat are driven by shifting life-history requirements and play an important role in population dynamics. However, large portions of the life history of many pelagic species are still poorly understood or unknown. We used a novel combination of stable isotope analysis of vertebral annuli, Bayesian mixing models, isoscapes and electronic tag data to reconstruct ontogenetic patterns of habitat and resource use in a pelagic apex predator, the salmon shark (Lamna ditropis). Results identified the North Pacific Transition Zone as the major nursery area for salmon sharks and revealed an ontogenetic shift around the age of maturity from oceanic to increased use of neritic habitats. The nursery habitat may reflect trade-offs between prey availability, predation pressure and thermal constraints on juvenile endothermic sharks. The ontogenetic shift in habitat coincided with a reduction of isotopic niche, possibly reflecting specialization upon particular prey or habitats. Using tagging data to inform Bayesian isotopic mixing models revealed that adult sharks primarily use neritic habitats of Alaska yet receive a trophic subsidy from oceanic habitats. Integrating the multiple methods used here provides a powerful approach to retrospectively study the ecology and life history of migratory species throughout their ontogeny. PMID:25621332

  17. Transcriptome analysis reveals novel regulatory mechanisms in a genome-reduced bacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazin, Pavel V; Fisunov, Gleb Y; Gorbachev, Alexey Y; Kapitskaya, Kristina Y; Altukhov, Ilya A; Semashko, Tatiana A; Alexeev, Dmitry G; Govorun, Vadim M

    2014-12-01

    The avian bacterial pathogen Mycoplasma gallisepticum is a good model for systems studies due to small genome and simplicity of regulatory pathways. In this study, we used RNA-Seq and MS-based proteomics to accurately map coding sequences, transcription start sites (TSSs) and transcript 3'-ends (T3Es). We used obtained data to investigate roles of TSSs and T3Es in stress-induced transcriptional responses. We identified 1061 TSSs at a false discovery rate of 10% and showed that almost all transcription in M. gallisepticum is initiated from classic TATAAT promoters surrounded by A/T-rich sequences. Our analysis revealed the pronounced operon structure complexity: on average, each coding operon has one internal TSS and T3Es in addition to the primary ones. Our transcriptomic approach based on the intervals between the two nearest transcript ends allowed us to identify two classes of T3Es: strong, unregulated, hairpin-containing T3Es and weak, heat shock-regulated, hairpinless T3Es. Comparing gene expression levels under different conditions revealed widespread and divergent transcription regulation in M. gallisepticum. Modeling suggested that the core promoter structure plays an important role in gene expression regulation. We have shown that the heat stress activation of cryptic promoters combined with the hairpinless T3Es suppression leads to widespread, seemingly non-functional transcription. PMID:25361977

  18. Power convergence of Abel averages

    OpenAIRE

    Kozitsky, Yuri; Shoikhet, David; Zemanek, Jaroslav

    2012-01-01

    Necessary and sufficient conditions are presented for the Abel averages of discrete and strongly continuous semigroups, $T^k$ and $T_t$, to be power convergent in the operator norm in a complex Banach space. These results cover also the case where $T$ is unbounded and the corresponding Abel average is defined by means of the resolvent of $T$. They complement the classical results by Michael Lin establishing sufficient conditions for the corresponding convergence for a bounded $T$.

  19. Digital convergence and its consequences:

    OpenAIRE

    Mueller, Milton

    1999-01-01

    The concept of convergence has been bandied about for at least 25 years. Initially, concepts of convergence conflated technological integration of print, telecommunications and broadcasting systems with firm-level integration of publishers, telephone companies, cable TV operators, and broadcasters. It hiel de Sola Pool's (1983) concept of a single integrated common carrier that met all media needs exemplified the prevailing vision. This paper conducts a broad historical survey of the market s...

  20. Positive dependence and weak convergence

    OpenAIRE

    A. Colangelo; Müller, A.; Scarsini, M.

    2006-01-01

    A more general definition of MTP2 (multivariate total positivity of order 2) probability measure is given, without assuming the existence of a density. Under this definition the class of MTP2 measures is proved to be closed under weak convergence. Characterizations of the MTP2 property are proved under this more general definition. Then a precise definition of conditionally increasing measure is provided, and closure under weak convergence of the class of conditionally...

  1. Ocular convergence deficits in schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    MarkSBolding; KristineB.Hopkins; AdrienneC.Lahti

    2012-01-01

    Individuals with schizophrenia have been reported to exhibit a higher prevalence of convergence insufficiency (CI) than the “normal” adult population. The purpose of this study was to determine if individuals with schizophrenia exhibit clinical signs of CI and to determine if the Convergence Insufficiency Symptom Survey (CISS) is an effective instrument for identifying CI in this population. Twenty participants with schizophrenia (SZ) and 20 healthy controls (HC) completed the study. The p...

  2. Ocular Convergence Deficits in Schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Bolding, Mark S; Lahti, Adrienne C.; Gawne, Timothy J.; Hopkins, Kristine B.; Gurler, Demet; Gamlin, Paul D.

    2012-01-01

    Individuals with schizophrenia (SZ) have been reported to exhibit a higher prevalence of convergence insufficiency (CI) than the “normal” adult population. The purpose of this study was to determine if individuals with SZ exhibit clinical signs of CI and to determine if the Convergence Insufficiency Symptom Survey (CISS) is an effective instrument for identifying CI in this population. Twenty participants with SZ and 20 healthy controls (HC) completed the study. The prevalence of CI (15%) in ...

  3. Distribution patterns of firearm discharge residues as revealed by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A systematic investigation using a variety of handguns has revealed the existence of distinguisable distribution patterns of firearm discharge residues on surfaces below the flight path of a bullet. The residues are identificable even at distances of 12 meters from the gun using nondestructive neutron activation analysis. The results of these investigations show that the distribution pattern for a gun is reproducible using similar ammunition and that there exist two distinct regions to the patterns developed between the firearm and the target-one with respect to the position of the gun and the other in the vicinity of the target. The judicious applications of these findings could be of significant value in criminal investigations. (T.G.)

  4. Zebrafish Embryonic Lipidomic Analysis Reveals that the Yolk Cell Is Metabolically Active in Processing Lipid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Fraher

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The role of lipids in providing energy and structural cellular components during vertebrate development is poorly understood. To elucidate these roles further, we visualized lipid deposition and examined expression of key lipid-regulating genes during zebrafish embryogenesis. We also conducted a semiquantitative analysis of lipidomic composition using liquid chromatography (LC-mass spectrometry. Finally, we analyzed processing of boron-dipyrromethene (BODIPY lipid analogs injected into the yolk using thin layer chromatography. Our data reveal that the most abundant lipids in the embryo are cholesterol, phosphatidylcholine, and triglyceride. Moreover, we demonstrate that lipids are processed within the yolk prior to mobilization to the embryonic body. Our data identify a metabolically active yolk and body resulting in a dynamic lipid composition. This provides a foundation for studying lipid biology during normal or pharmacologically compromised embryogenesis.

  5. Differential proteomic analysis reveals novel links between primary metabolism and antibiotic production in Amycolatopsis balhimycina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gallo, G.; Renzone, G.; Alduina, R.;

    2010-01-01

    constitutively expressed protein isoforms, which were associated with 203 ORFs in the A. balhimycina genome. These data, providing insights on the major metabolic pathways/molecular processes operating in this organism, were used to compile 2-DE reference maps covering 3-10, 4-7 and 4.5-5.5 pH gradients...... available over the World Wide Web as interactive web pages (http://www.unipa.it/ampuglia/Abal-proteome-maps). Functional clustering analysis revealed that differentially expressed proteins belong to functional groups involved in central carbon metabolism, amino acid metabolism and protein biosynthesis......, energetic and redox balance, sugar/amino sugar metabolism, balhimycin biosynthesis and transcriptional regulation or with hypothetical and/or unknown function. Interestingly, proteins involved in the biosynthesis of balhimycin precursors, such as amino acids, amino sugars and central carbon metabolism...

  6. Metagenomic Analysis Reveals Unexpected Subgenomic Diversity of Magnetotactic Bacteria within the Phylum Nitrospirae ▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wei; Jogler, Christian; Schüler, Dirk; Pan, Yongxin

    2011-01-01

    A targeted metagenomic approach was applied to investigate magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) within the phylum Nitrospirae in Lake Miyun near Beijing, China. Five fosmids containing rRNA operons were identified. Comparative sequence analysis of a total of 172 kb provided new insights into their genome organization and revealed unexpected subgenomic diversity of uncultivated MTB in the phylum Nitrospirae. In addition, affiliation of two novel MTB with the phylum Nitrospirae was verified by fluorescence in situ hybridization. One of them was morphologically similar to “Candidatus Magnetobacterium bavaricum,” but the other differed substantially in cell shape and magnetosome organization from all previously described “Ca. Magnetobacterium bavaricum”-like bacteria. PMID:21057016

  7. Bifidobacterium asteroides PRL2011 genome analysis reveals clues for colonization of the insect gut.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Bottacini

    Full Text Available Bifidobacteria are known as anaerobic/microaerophilic and fermentative microorganisms, which commonly inhabit the gastrointestinal tract of various animals and insects. Analysis of the 2,167,301 bp genome of Bifidobacterium asteroides PRL2011, a strain isolated from the hindgut of Apis mellifera var. ligustica, commonly known as the honey bee, revealed its predicted capability for respiratory metabolism. Conservation of the latter gene clusters in various B. asteroides strains enforces the notion that respiration is a common metabolic feature of this ancient bifidobacterial species, which has been lost in currently known mammal-derived Bifidobacterium species. In fact, phylogenomic based analyses suggested an ancient origin of B. asteroides and indicates it as an ancestor of the genus Bifidobacterium. Furthermore, the B. asteroides PRL2011 genome encodes various enzymes for coping with toxic products that arise as a result of oxygen-mediated respiration.

  8. Bifidobacterium asteroides PRL2011 Genome Analysis Reveals Clues for Colonization of the Insect Gut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottacini, Francesca; Milani, Christian; Turroni, Francesca; Sánchez, Borja; Foroni, Elena; Duranti, Sabrina; Serafini, Fausta; Viappiani, Alice; Strati, Francesco; Ferrarini, Alberto; Delledonne, Massimo; Henrissat, Bernard; Coutinho, Pedro; Fitzgerald, Gerald F.; Margolles, Abelardo; van Sinderen, Douwe; Ventura, Marco

    2012-01-01

    Bifidobacteria are known as anaerobic/microaerophilic and fermentative microorganisms, which commonly inhabit the gastrointestinal tract of various animals and insects. Analysis of the 2,167,301 bp genome of Bifidobacterium asteroides PRL2011, a strain isolated from the hindgut of Apis mellifera var. ligustica, commonly known as the honey bee, revealed its predicted capability for respiratory metabolism. Conservation of the latter gene clusters in various B. asteroides strains enforces the notion that respiration is a common metabolic feature of this ancient bifidobacterial species, which has been lost in currently known mammal-derived Bifidobacterium species. In fact, phylogenomic based analyses suggested an ancient origin of B. asteroides and indicates it as an ancestor of the genus Bifidobacterium. Furthermore, the B. asteroides PRL2011 genome encodes various enzymes for coping with toxic products that arise as a result of oxygen-mediated respiration. PMID:23028506

  9. Metagenomic analysis reveals significant changes of microbial compositions and protective functions during drinking water treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Yuanqing; Ma, Liping; Yang, Ying; Ju, Feng; Zhang, Xu-Xiang; Wu, Wei-Min; Zhang, Tong

    2013-12-01

    The metagenomic approach was applied to characterize variations of microbial structure and functions in raw (RW) and treated water (TW) in a drinking water treatment plant (DWTP) at Pearl River Delta, China. Microbial structure was significantly influenced by the treatment processes, shifting from Gammaproteobacteria and Betaproteobacteria in RW to Alphaproteobacteria in TW. Further functional analysis indicated the basic metabolic functions of microorganisms in TW did not vary considerably. However, protective functions, i.e. glutathione synthesis genes in `oxidative stress' and `detoxification' subsystems, significantly increased, revealing the surviving bacteria may have higher chlorine resistance. Similar results were also found in glutathione metabolism pathway, which identified the major reaction for glutathione synthesis and supported more genes for glutathione metabolism existed in TW. This metagenomic study largely enhanced our knowledge about the influences of treatment processes, especially chlorination, on bacterial community structure and protective functions (e.g. glutathione metabolism) in ecosystems of DWTPs.

  10. Proteomic Analysis of Human Brown Adipose Tissue Reveals Utilization of Coupled and Uncoupled Energy Expenditure Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Sebastian; Balaz, Miroslav; Stefanicka, Patrik; Varga, Lukas; Amri, Ez-Zoubir; Ukropec, Jozef; Wollscheid, Bernd; Wolfrum, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Human brown adipose tissue (BAT) has become an attractive target to combat the current epidemical spread of obesity and its associated co-morbidities. Currently, information on its functional role is primarily derived from rodent studies. Here, we present the first comparative proteotype analysis of primary human brown adipose tissue versus adjacent white adipose tissue, which reveals significant quantitative differences in protein abundances and in turn differential functional capabilities. The majority of the 318 proteins with increased abundance in BAT are associated with mitochondrial metabolism and confirm the increased oxidative capacity. In addition to uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), the main functional effector for uncoupled respiration, we also detected the mitochondrial creatine kinases (CKMT1A/B, CKMT2), as effective modulators of ATP synthase coupled respiration, to be exclusively expressed in BAT. The abundant expression and utilization of both energy expenditure pathways in parallel highlights the complex functional involvement of BAT in human physiology. PMID:27418403

  11. Anomalous dispersion of Lagrangian particles in local regions of turbulent flows revealed by convex hull analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Pratt, J; Mueller, W -C; Chapman, S C; Watkins, N W

    2014-01-01

    Local regions of anomalous particle dispersion, and intermittent events that occur in turbulent flows can greatly influence the global statistical description of the flow. These local behaviors can be identified and analyzed by comparing the growth of neighboring convex hulls of Lagrangian tracer particles. Although in our simulations of homogeneous turbulence the convex hulls generally grow in size, after the Lagrangian particles that define the convex hulls begin to disperse, our analysis reveals short periods when the convex hulls of the Lagrangian particles shrink, evidence that particles are not dispersing simply. Shrinkage can be associated with anisotropic flows, since it occurs most frequently in the presence of a mean magnetic field or thermal convection. We compare dispersion between a wide range of statistically homogeneous and stationary turbulent flows ranging from homogeneous isotropic Navier-Stokes turbulence over different configurations of magnetohydrodynamic turbulence and Boussinesq convect...

  12. Proteomic Analysis of Human Brown Adipose Tissue Reveals Utilization of Coupled and Uncoupled Energy Expenditure Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Sebastian; Balaz, Miroslav; Stefanicka, Patrik; Varga, Lukas; Amri, Ez-Zoubir; Ukropec, Jozef; Wollscheid, Bernd; Wolfrum, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Human brown adipose tissue (BAT) has become an attractive target to combat the current epidemical spread of obesity and its associated co-morbidities. Currently, information on its functional role is primarily derived from rodent studies. Here, we present the first comparative proteotype analysis of primary human brown adipose tissue versus adjacent white adipose tissue, which reveals significant quantitative differences in protein abundances and in turn differential functional capabilities. The majority of the 318 proteins with increased abundance in BAT are associated with mitochondrial metabolism and confirm the increased oxidative capacity. In addition to uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), the main functional effector for uncoupled respiration, we also detected the mitochondrial creatine kinases (CKMT1A/B, CKMT2), as effective modulators of ATP synthase coupled respiration, to be exclusively expressed in BAT. The abundant expression and utilization of both energy expenditure pathways in parallel highlights the complex functional involvement of BAT in human physiology. PMID:27418403

  13. On Convergence Properties of Shannon Entropy

    OpenAIRE

    Piera, Francisco J.; Parada, Patricio

    2007-01-01

    Convergence properties of Shannon Entropy are studied. In the differential setting, it is shown that weak convergence of probability measures, or convergence in distribution, is not enough for convergence of the associated differential entropies. A general result for the desired differential entropy convergence is provided, taking into account both compactly and uncompactly supported densities. Convergence of differential entropy is also characterized in terms of the Kullback-Liebler discrimi...

  14. DOES THE MAASTRICHT CONVERGENCE CRITERIA WORK?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karsai Zoltán-Krisztián

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available During its 13 year history, the euro area experienced the most severe economic downturn in the late 2000s as a result of the 2007 financial-economic crisis stemming from the US banking sector. The crisis in the monetary union, besides posting a significant economic and social cost, revealed several weaknesses not just of the currency block as a whole, but also of its constituting members, which were masked by the prosperous economic environment characteristic for the 2000s. These conditions have put to the test the solidarity among the euro zone members, or in other words the existence of the currency block. One important problem of the currency block is the lack of harmony between the fiscal and economic policies of the member states, creating several and occasionally very divergent parts of the currency block. The aim of this research is to enhance the Maastricht convergence criteria’s and the Stability and Growth Pact’s role as a monitoring mechanism, allowing them to become more informative tools for the policy makers. For this, based on the relevant literature, we propose new potential explanatory variables which could enhance the role of the Maastricht convergence criteria and the Stability and Growth Pact. Some of the studied variables, like indebtedness of the private sector, capital flow compared to the size of the economy, government revenue compared to total public debt and current account balance help in enforcing the nominal convergence, while others (real labour productivity contribute to the real convergence. The explanatory power of the proposed variables are investigated in the case of France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Portugal and Spain for the period comprised between 2000Q1-2011Q4. Results of the research show that with the exception of government revenue compared to total public debt, all proposed variables have significant explanatory power regarding the evolution of the state of the economy in all

  15. Metabolomic analysis reveals metabolic disturbance in the cortex and hippocampus of subchronic MK-801 treated rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liya Sun

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although a number of proteins and genes relevant to schizophrenia have been identified in recent years, few are known about the exact metabolic pathway involved in this disease. Our previous proteomic study has revealed the energy metabolism abnormality in subchronic MK-801 treated rat, a well-established animal model for schizophrenia. This prompted us to further investigate metabolite levels in the same rat model to better delineate the metabolism dysfunctions and provide insights into the pathology of schizophrenia. METHODS: Metabolomics, a high-throughput investigatory strategy developed in recent years, can offer comprehensive metabolite-level insights that complement protein and genetic findings. In this study, we employed a nondestructive metabolomic approach (1H-MAS-NMR to investigate the metabolic traits in cortex and hippocampus of MK-801 treated rats. Multivariate statistics and ingenuity pathways analyses (IPA were applied in data processing. The result was further integrated with our previous proteomic findings by IPA analysis to obtain a systematic view on our observations. RESULTS: Clear distinctions between the MK-801 treated group and the control group in both cortex and hippocampus were found by OPLS-DA models (with R(2X = 0.441, Q(2Y = 0.413 and R(2X = 0.698, Q(2Y = 0.677, respectively. The change of a series of metabolites accounted for the separation, such as glutamate, glutamine, citrate and succinate. Most of these metabolites fell in a pathway characterized by down-regulated glutamate synthesis and disturbed Krebs cycle. IPA analysis further confirmed the involvement of energy metabolism abnormality induced by MK-801 treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Our metabolomics findings reveal systematic changes in pathways of glutamate metabolism and Krebs cycle in the MK-801 treated rats' cortex and hippocampus, which confirmed and improved our previous proteomic observation and served as a valuable reference to

  16. Partial sequencing of the bottle gourd genome reveals markers useful for phylogenetic analysis and breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Sha

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bottle gourd [Lagenaria siceraria (Mol. Standl.] is an important cucurbit crop worldwide. Archaeological research indicates that bottle gourd was domesticated more than 10,000 years ago, making it one of the earliest plants cultivated by man. In spite of its widespread importance and long history of cultivation almost nothing has been known about the genome of this species thus far. Results We report here the partial sequencing of bottle gourd genome using the 454 GS-FLX Titanium sequencing platform. A total of 150,253 sequence reads, which were assembled into 3,994 contigs and 82,522 singletons were generated. The total length of the non-redundant singletons/assemblies is 32 Mb, theoretically covering ~ 10% of the bottle gourd genome. Functional annotation of the sequences revealed a broad range of functional types, covering all the three top-level ontologies. Comparison of the gene sequences between bottle gourd and the model cucurbit cucumber (Cucumis sativus revealed a 90% sequence similarity on average. Using the sequence information, 4395 microsatellite-containing sequences were identified and 400 SSR markers were developed, of which 94% amplified bands of anticipated sizes. Transferability of these markers to four other cucurbit species showed obvious decline with increasing phylogenetic distance. From analyzing polymorphisms of a subset of 14 SSR markers assayed on 44 representative China bottle gourd varieties/landraces, a principal coordinates (PCo analysis output and a UPGMA-based dendrogram were constructed. Bottle gourd accessions tended to group by fruit shape rather than geographic origin, although in certain subclades the lines from the same or close origin did tend to cluster. Conclusions This work provides an initial basis for genome characterization, gene isolation and comparative genomics analysis in bottle gourd. The SSR markers developed would facilitate marker assisted breeding schemes for efficient

  17. Measure theory of statistical convergence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The question of establishing measure theory for statistical convergence has been moving closer to center stage, since a kind of reasonable theory is not only fundamental for unifying various kinds of statistical convergence, but also a bridge linking the studies of statistical convergence across measure theory, integration theory, probability and statistics. For this reason, this paper, in terms of subdifferential, first shows a representation theorem for all finitely additive probability measures defined on the σ-algebra A of all subsets of N, and proves that every such measure can be uniquely decomposed into a convex combination of a countably additive probability measure and a statistical measure (i.e. a finitely additive probability measure μ with μ(k) = 0 for all singletons {k}). This paper also shows that classical statistical measures have many nice properties, such as: The set S of all such measures endowed with the topology of point-wise convergence on A forms a compact convex Hausdorff space; every classical statistical measure is of continuity type (hence, atomless), and every specific class of statistical measures fits a complementation minimax rule for every subset in N. Finally, this paper shows that every kind of statistical convergence can be unified in convergence of statistical measures.

  18. Measure theory of statistical convergence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG LiXin; LIN GuoChen; LAN YongYi; LIU Hui

    2008-01-01

    The question of establishing measure theory for statistical convergence has been moving closer to center stage, since a kind of reasonable theory is not only fundamental for unifying various kinds of statistical convergence, but also a bridge linking the studies of statistical convergence across measure theory, integration theory, probability and statistics. For this reason, this paper, in terms of subdifferential, first shows a representation theorem for all finitely additive probability measures defined on the σ-algebra of all subsets of N, and proves that every such measure can be uniquely decomposed into a convex combination of a countably additive probability measure and a statistical measure (i.e. a finitely additive probability measure μ with μ(k) = 0 for all singletons {k}). This paper also shows that classical statistical measures have many nice properties, such as: The set of all such measures endowed with the topology of point-wise convergence on forms a compact convex Hausdorff space; every classical statistical measure is of continuity type (hence, atomless), and every specific class of statistical measures fits a complementation minimax rule for every subset in N. Finally, this paper shows that every kind of statistical convergence can be unified in convergence of statistical measures.

  19. Convergence rates in precise asymptotics for a kind of complete moment convergence

    OpenAIRE

    Kong, Lingtao; Dai, Hongshuai

    2015-01-01

    In Liu and Lin (Statist. Probab. Letters, 2006), they introduced a kind of complete moment convergence which includes complete convergence as a special case. Inspired by the study of complete convergence, in this paper, we study the convergence rates of the precise asymptotics for this kind of complete moment convergence and get the corresponding convergence rates.

  20. Intratumor Heterogeneity and Branched Evolution Revealed by Multiregion Sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlinger, Marco; Rowan, Andrew J.; Horswell, Stuart; Larkin, James; Endesfelder, David; Gronroos, Eva; Martinez, Pierre; Matthews, Nicholas; Stewart, Aengus; Tarpey, Patrick; Varela, Ignacio; Phillimore, Benjamin; Begum, Sharmin; McDonald, Neil Q.; Butler, Adam; Jones, David; Raine, Keiran; Latimer, Calli; Santos, Claudio R.; Nohadani, Mahrokh; Eklund, Aron Charles; Spencer-Dene, Bradley; Clark, Graham; Pickering, Lisa; Stamp, Gordon; Gore, Martin; Szallasi, Zoltan Imre; Downward, Julian; Futreal, P. Andrew; Swanton, Charles

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Intratumor heterogeneity may foster tumor evolution and adaptation and hinder personalized-medicine strategies that depend on results from single tumor-biopsy samples.METHODSTo examine intratumor heterogeneity, we performed exome sequencing, chromosome aberration analysis, and ploidy...... mutations within a single tumor, suggesting convergent phenotypic evolution. Gene-expression signatures of good and poor prognosis were detected in different regions of the same tumor. Allelic composition and ploidy profiling analysis revealed extensive intratumor heterogeneity, with 26 of 30 tumor samples...

  1. Comparative transcriptomic analysis reveals similarities and dissimilarities in Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine strains response to nitrogen availability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catarina Barbosa

    Full Text Available Nitrogen levels in grape-juices are of major importance in winemaking ensuring adequate yeast growth and fermentation performance. Here we used a comparative transcriptome analysis to uncover wine yeasts responses to nitrogen availability during fermentation. Gene expression was assessed in three genetically and phenotypically divergent commercial wine strains (CEG, VL1 and QA23, under low (67 mg/L and high nitrogen (670 mg/L regimes, at three time points during fermentation (12 h, 24 h and 96 h. Two-way ANOVA analysis of each fermentation condition led to the identification of genes whose expression was dependent on strain, fermentation stage and on the interaction of both factors. The high fermenter yeast strain QA23 was more clearly distinct from the other two strains, by differential expression of genes involved in flocculation, mitochondrial functions, energy generation and protein folding and stabilization. For all strains, higher transcriptional variability due to fermentation stage was seen in the high nitrogen fermentations. A positive correlation between maximum fermentation rate and the expression of genes involved in stress response was observed. The finding of common genes correlated with both fermentation activity and nitrogen up-take underlies the role of nitrogen on yeast fermentative fitness. The comparative analysis of genes differentially expressed between both fermentation conditions at 12 h, where the main difference was the level of nitrogen available, showed the highest variability amongst strains revealing strain-specific responses. Nevertheless, we were able to identify a small set of genes whose expression profiles can quantitatively assess the common response of the yeast strains to varying nitrogen conditions. The use of three contrasting yeast strains in gene expression analysis prompts the identification of more reliable, accurate and reproducible biomarkers that will facilitate the diagnosis of deficiency of this

  2. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis Reveals Substantial Tissue Specificity in Human Aortic Valve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Wang, Ying; Gu, Weidong; Ni, Buqing; Sun, Haoliang; Yu, Tong; Gu, Wanjun; Chen, Liang; Shao, Yongfeng

    2016-01-01

    RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) has revolutionary roles in transcriptome identification and quantification of different types of tissues and cells in many organisms. Although numerous RNA-seq data derived from many types of human tissues and cell lines, little is known on the transcriptome repertoire of human aortic valve. In this study, we sequenced the total RNA prepared from two calcified human aortic valves and reported the whole transcriptome of human aortic valve. Integrating RNA-seq data of 13 human tissues from Human Body Map 2 Project, we constructed a transcriptome repertoire of human tissues, including 19,505 protein-coding genes and 4,948 long intergenic noncoding RNAs (lincRNAs). Among them, 263 lincRNAs were identified as novel noncoding transcripts in our data. By comparing transcriptome data among different human tissues, we observed substantial tissue specificity of RNA transcripts, both protein-coding genes and lincRNAs, in human aortic valve. Further analysis revealed that aortic valve-specific lincRNAs were more likely to be recently derived from repetitive elements in the primate lineage, but were less likely to be conserved at the nucleotide level. Expression profiling analysis showed significant lower expression levels of aortic valve-specific protein-coding genes and lincRNA genes, when compared with genes that were universally expressed in various tissues. Isoform-level expression analysis also showed that a majority of mRNA genes had a major isoform expressed in the human aortic valve. To our knowledge, this is the first comparative transcriptome analysis between human aortic valve and other human tissues. Our results are helpful to understand the transcriptome diversity of human tissues and the underlying mechanisms that drive tissue specificity of protein-coding genes and lincRNAs in human aortic valve. PMID:27493474

  3. Beyond division: convergences between postmodern qualitative research and family therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Haene, Lucia

    2010-01-01

    Starting from examples of postmodern research and therapeutic practice, we raise the question on the role of the research-therapy dichotomy within these approaches. The article aims to show the profound convergence between postmodern ethnographic research and constructionist, collaborative therapeutic approaches on a double, epistemological and practice level. First, we point out their converging development toward narrative and constructionist epistemologies. Second, an inquiry into the core features of these disciplinary activities' goal, process, and expert role reveals their profound convergence into a dialogical practice in which the boundaries between research and therapy are radically transgressed. We conclude by questioning the implications and acceptability of this convergence for researchers' and therapists' understanding of their practices. PMID:20074120

  4. System convergence in transport models: algorithms efficiency and output uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rich, Jeppe; Nielsen, Otto Anker

    2015-01-01

    Transport models most often involve separate models for traffic assignment and demand. As a result, two different equilibrium mechanisms are involved, (i) the internal traffic assignment equilibrium, and (ii) the external equilibrium between the assignment model and the demand model. The objective...... of this paper is to analyse convergence performance for the external loop and to illustrate how an improper linkage between the converging parts can lead to substantial uncertainty in the final output. Although this loop is crucial for the performance of large-scale transport models it has not been......-scale in the Danish National Transport Model (DNTM). It is revealed that system convergence requires that either demand or supply is without random noise but not both. In that case, if MSA is applied to the model output with random noise, it will converge effectively as the random effects are gradually...

  5. Analysis of wheat SAGE tags reveals evidence for widespread antisense transcription

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gibbings J George

    2008-10-01

    role in the regulation of gene expression. Conclusion Our results indicate that the detailed analysis of transcriptome data, such as SAGE tags, is essential to understand fully the factors that regulate gene expression and that such analysis of the wheat grain transcriptome reveals that antisense transcripts maybe widespread and hence probably play a significant role in the regulation of gene expression during grain development.

  6. Time-series analysis reveals genetic responses to intensive management of razorback sucker (Xyrauchen texanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, Thomas E; Turner, Thomas F; Carson, Evan W; Saltzgiver, Melody J; Adams, Deborah; Kesner, Brian; Marsh, Paul C

    2014-03-01

    Time-series analysis is used widely in ecology to study complex phenomena and may have considerable potential to clarify relationships of genetic and demographic processes in natural and exploited populations. We explored the utility of this approach to evaluate population responses to management in razorback sucker, a long-lived and fecund, but declining freshwater fish species. A core population in Lake Mohave (Arizona-Nevada, USA) has experienced no natural recruitment for decades and is maintained by harvesting naturally produced larvae from the lake, rearing them in protective custody, and repatriating them at sizes less vulnerable to predation. Analyses of mtDNA and 15 microsatellites characterized for sequential larval cohorts collected over a 15-year time series revealed no changes in geographic structuring but indicated significant increase in mtDNA diversity for the entire population over time. Likewise, ratios of annual effective breeders to annual census size (N b /N a) increased significantly despite sevenfold reduction of N a. These results indicated that conservation actions diminished near-term extinction risk due to genetic factors and should now focus on increasing numbers of fish in Lake Mohave to ameliorate longer-term risks. More generally, time-series analysis permitted robust testing of trends in genetic diversity, despite low precision of some metrics. PMID:24665337

  7. Bach Is the Father of Harmony: Revealed by a 1/f Fluctuation Analysis across Musical Genres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dan; Kendrick, Keith M; Levitin, Daniel J; Li, Chaoyi; Yao, Dezhong

    2015-01-01

    Harmony is a fundamental attribute of music. Close connections exist between music and mathematics since both pursue harmony and unity. In music, the consonance of notes played simultaneously partly determines our perception of harmony; associates with aesthetic responses; and influences the emotion expression. The consonance could be considered as a window to understand and analyze harmony. Here for the first time we used a 1/f fluctuation analysis to investigate whether the consonance fluctuation structure in music with a wide range of composers and genres followed the scale free pattern that has been found for pitch, melody, rhythm, human body movements, brain activity, natural images and geographical features. We then used a network graph approach to investigate which composers were the most influential both within and across genres. Our results showed that patterns of consonance in music did follow scale-free characteristics, suggesting that this feature is a universally evolved one in both music and the living world. Furthermore, our network analysis revealed that Bach's harmony patterns were having the most influence on those used by other composers, followed closely by Mozart. PMID:26545104

  8. Integrative microbial community analysis reveals full-scale enhanced biological phosphorus removal under tropical conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Yingyu; Kirkegaard, Rasmus Hansen; Cokro, Angel Anisa; Liu, Xianghui; Arumugam, Krithika; Xie, Chao; Stokholm-Bjerregaard, Mikkel; Drautz-Moses, Daniela I; Nielsen, Per Halkjær; Wuertz, Stefan; Williams, Rohan B H

    2016-01-01

    Management of phosphorus discharge from human waste is essential for the control of eutrophication in surface waters. Enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) is a sustainable, efficient way of removing phosphorus from waste water without employing chemical precipitation, but is assumed unachievable in tropical temperatures due to conditions that favour glycogen accumulating organisms (GAOs) over polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs). Here, we show these assumptions are unfounded by studying comparative community dynamics in a full-scale plant following systematic perturbation of operational conditions, which modified community abundance, function and physicochemical state. A statistically significant increase in the relative abundance of the PAO Accumulibacter was associated with improved EBPR activity. GAO relative abundance also increased, challenging the assumption of competition. An Accumulibacter bin-genome was identified from a whole community metagenomic survey, and comparative analysis against extant Accumulibacter genomes suggests a close relationship to Type II. Analysis of the associated metatranscriptome data revealed that genes encoding proteins involved in the tricarboxylic acid cycle and glycolysis pathways were highly expressed, consistent with metabolic modelling results. Our findings show that tropical EBPR is indeed possible, highlight the translational potential of studying competition dynamics in full-scale waste water communities and carry implications for plant design in tropical regions. PMID:27193869

  9. Expression analysis of five zebrafish RXFP3 homologues reveals evolutionary conservation of gene expression pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donizetti, Aldo; Fiengo, Marcella; Iazzetti, Giovanni; del Gaudio, Rosanna; Di Giaimo, Rossella; Pariante, Paolo; Minucci, Sergio; Aniello, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Relaxin peptides exert different functions in reproduction and neuroendocrine processes via interaction with two evolutionarily unrelated groups of receptors: RXFP1 and RXFP2 on one hand, RXFP3 and RXFP4 on the other hand. Evolution of receptor genes after splitting of tetrapods and teleost lineage led to a different retention rate between mammals and fish, with the latter having more gene copies compared to the former. In order to improve our knowledge on the evolution of the relaxin ligands/receptors system and have insights on their function in early stages of life, in the present paper we analyzed the expression pattern of five zebrafish RXFP3 homologue genes during embryonic development. In our analysis, we show that only two of the five genes are expressed during embryogenesis and that their transcripts are present in all the developmental stages. Spatial localization analysis of these transcripts revealed that the gene expression is restricted in specific territories starting from early pharyngula stage. Both genes are expressed in the brain but in different cell clusters and in extra-neural territories, one gene in the interrenal gland and the other in the pancreas. These two genes share expression territories with the homologue mammalian counterpart, highlighting a general conservation of gene expression regulatory processes and their putative function during evolution that are established early in vertebrate embryogenesis. PMID:25384467

  10. Transcriptome analysis reveals dynamic changes in the gene expression of tobacco seedlings under low potassium stress

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Liming Lu; Yong Chen; Lin Lu; Yifei Lu; Liqin Li

    2015-09-01

    Potassium plays a key role in plant development and reproduction. In agricultural practice, potassium deficiency is common worldwide, and leads to crop growth inhibition and output reduction. In this study, we analysed the transcriptome of tobacco seedlings under low potassium stress. Tobacco seedlings with or without decreased potassium treatment were harvested after 0 (control), 6, 12, or 24 h and were submitted for microarray analysis. The results showed that up to 3790 genes were upregulated or downregulated more than 2-fold as a result of the decreased potassium treatment. Gene ontology analysis revealed significantly differentially expressed genes that were categorized as cation binding, transcription regulation, metabolic processes, transporter activity and enzyme regulation. Some potassium, nitrogen and phosphorus transporters; transcription factors; and plant signal molecules, such as CPKs were also significantly differentially expressed under potassium deficiency. Our results indicate that the expression profiles of a large number of genes involved in various plant physiological processes are significantly altered in response to potassium deficiency, which can result in physiological and morphological changes in tobacco plants.

  11. Independent component analysis of DTI data reveals white matter covariances in Alzheimer's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Xin; Sun, Xiaoyu; Guo, Ting; Sun, Qiaoyue; Chen, Kewei; Yao, Li; Wu, Xia; Guo, Xiaojuan

    2014-03-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease with the clinical symptom of the continuous deterioration of cognitive and memory functions. Multiple diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) indices such as fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) can successfully explain the white matter damages in AD patients. However, most studies focused on the univariate measures (voxel-based analysis) to examine the differences between AD patients and normal controls (NCs). In this investigation, we applied a multivariate independent component analysis (ICA) to investigate the white matter covariances based on FA measurement from DTI data in 35 AD patients and 45 NCs from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) database. We found that six independent components (ICs) showed significant FA reductions in white matter covariances in AD compared with NC, including the genu and splenium of corpus callosum (IC-1 and IC-2), middle temporal gyral of temporal lobe (IC-3), sub-gyral of frontal lobe (IC-4 and IC-5) and sub-gyral of parietal lobe (IC-6). Our findings revealed covariant white matter loss in AD patients and suggest that the unsupervised data-driven ICA method is effective to explore the changes of FA in AD. This study assists us in understanding the mechanism of white matter covariant reductions in the development of AD.

  12. Proteome analysis of schizophrenia patients Wernicke's area reveals an energy metabolism dysregulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marangoni Sérgio

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Schizophrenia is likely to be a consequence of DNA alterations that, together with environmental factors, will lead to protein expression differences and the ultimate establishment of the illness. The superior temporal gyrus is implicated in schizophrenia and executes functions such as the processing of speech, language skills and sound processing. Methods We performed an individual comparative proteome analysis using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of 9 schizophrenia and 6 healthy control patients' left posterior superior temporal gyrus (Wernicke's area – BA22p identifying by mass spectrometry several protein expression alterations that could be related to the disease. Results Our analysis revealed 11 downregulated and 14 upregulated proteins, most of them related to energy metabolism. Whereas many of the identified proteins have been previously implicated in schizophrenia, such as fructose-bisphosphate aldolase C, creatine kinase and neuron-specific enolase, new putative disease markers were also identified such as dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase, tropomyosin 3, breast cancer metastasis-suppressor 1, heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins C1/C2 and phosphate carrier protein, mitochondrial precursor. Besides, the differential expression of peroxiredoxin 6 (PRDX6 and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP were confirmed by western blot in schizophrenia prefrontal cortex. Conclusion Our data supports a dysregulation of energy metabolism in schizophrenia as well as suggests new markers that may contribute to a better understanding of this complex disease.

  13. Large-scale analysis by SAGE reveals new mechanisms of v-erbA oncogene action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faure Claudine

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: The v-erbA oncogene, carried by the Avian Erythroblastosis Virus, derives from the c-erbAα proto-oncogene that encodes the nuclear receptor for triiodothyronine (T3R. v-ErbA transforms erythroid progenitors in vitro by blocking their differentiation, supposedly by interference with T3R and RAR (Retinoic Acid Receptor. However, v-ErbA target genes involved in its transforming activity still remain to be identified. Results: By using Serial Analysis of Gene Expression (SAGE, we identified 110 genes deregulated by v-ErbA and potentially implicated in the transformation process. Bioinformatic analysis of promoter sequence and transcriptional assays point out a potential role of c-Myb in the v-ErbA effect. Furthermore, grouping of newly identified target genes by function revealed both expected (chromatin/transcription and unexpected (protein metabolism functions potentially deregulated by v-ErbA. We then focused our study on 15 of the new v-ErbA target genes and demonstrated by real time PCR that in majority their expression was activated neither by T3, nor RA, nor during differentiation. This was unexpected based upon the previously known role of v-ErbA. Conclusion: This paper suggests the involvement of a wealth of new unanticipated mechanisms of v-ErbA action.

  14. Genomic and transcriptomic analysis of NDM-1 Klebsiella pneumoniae in spaceflight reveal mechanisms underlying environmental adaptability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia; Liu, Fei; Wang, Qi; Ge, Pupu; Woo, Patrick C Y; Yan, Jinghua; Zhao, Yanlin; Gao, George F; Liu, Cui Hua; Liu, Changting

    2014-01-01

    The emergence and rapid spread of New Delhi Metallo-beta-lactamase-1 (NDM-1)-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae strains has caused a great concern worldwide. To better understand the mechanisms underlying environmental adaptation of those highly drug-resistant K. pneumoniae strains, we took advantage of the China's Shenzhou 10 spacecraft mission to conduct comparative genomic and transcriptomic analysis of a NDM-1 K. pneumoniae strain (ATCC BAA-2146) being cultivated under different conditions. The samples were recovered from semisolid medium placed on the ground (D strain), in simulated space condition (M strain), or in Shenzhou 10 spacecraft (T strain) for analysis. Our data revealed multiple variations underlying pathogen adaptation into different environments in terms of changes in morphology, H2O2 tolerance and biofilm formation ability, genomic stability and regulation of metabolic pathways. Additionally, we found a few non-coding RNAs to be differentially regulated. The results are helpful for better understanding the adaptive mechanisms of drug-resistant bacterial pathogens. PMID:25163721

  15. Integrative microbial community analysis reveals full-scale enhanced biological phosphorus removal under tropical conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Yingyu; Kirkegaard, Rasmus Hansen; Cokro, Angel Anisa; Liu, Xianghui; Arumugam, Krithika; Xie, Chao; Stokholm-Bjerregaard, Mikkel; Drautz-Moses, Daniela I.; Nielsen, Per Halkjær; Wuertz, Stefan; Williams, Rohan B. H.

    2016-01-01

    Management of phosphorus discharge from human waste is essential for the control of eutrophication in surface waters. Enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) is a sustainable, efficient way of removing phosphorus from waste water without employing chemical precipitation, but is assumed unachievable in tropical temperatures due to conditions that favour glycogen accumulating organisms (GAOs) over polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs). Here, we show these assumptions are unfounded by studying comparative community dynamics in a full-scale plant following systematic perturbation of operational conditions, which modified community abundance, function and physicochemical state. A statistically significant increase in the relative abundance of the PAO Accumulibacter was associated with improved EBPR activity. GAO relative abundance also increased, challenging the assumption of competition. An Accumulibacter bin-genome was identified from a whole community metagenomic survey, and comparative analysis against extant Accumulibacter genomes suggests a close relationship to Type II. Analysis of the associated metatranscriptome data revealed that genes encoding proteins involved in the tricarboxylic acid cycle and glycolysis pathways were highly expressed, consistent with metabolic modelling results. Our findings show that tropical EBPR is indeed possible, highlight the translational potential of studying competition dynamics in full-scale waste water communities and carry implications for plant design in tropical regions. PMID:27193869

  16. Automated image analysis reveals the dynamic 3-dimensional organization of multi-ciliary arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico F. Galati

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Multi-ciliated cells (MCCs use polarized fields of undulating cilia (ciliary array to produce fluid flow that is essential for many biological processes. Cilia are positioned by microtubule scaffolds called basal bodies (BBs that are arranged within a spatially complex 3-dimensional geometry (3D. Here, we develop a robust and automated computational image analysis routine to quantify 3D BB organization in the ciliate, Tetrahymena thermophila. Using this routine, we generate the first morphologically constrained 3D reconstructions of Tetrahymena cells and elucidate rules that govern the kinetics of MCC organization. We demonstrate the interplay between BB duplication and cell size expansion through the cell cycle. In mutant cells, we identify a potential BB surveillance mechanism that balances large gaps in BB spacing by increasing the frequency of closely spaced BBs in other regions of the cell. Finally, by taking advantage of a mutant predisposed to BB disorganization, we locate the spatial domains that are most prone to disorganization by environmental stimuli. Collectively, our analyses reveal the importance of quantitative image analysis to understand the principles that guide the 3D organization of MCCs.

  17. Integrative microbial community analysis reveals full-scale enhanced biological phosphorus removal under tropical conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Yingyu; Kirkegaard, Rasmus Hansen; Cokro, Angel Anisa; Liu, Xianghui; Arumugam, Krithika; Xie, Chao; Stokholm-Bjerregaard, Mikkel; Drautz-Moses, Daniela I.; Nielsen, Per Halkjær; Wuertz, Stefan; Williams, Rohan B. H.

    2016-05-01

    Management of phosphorus discharge from human waste is essential for the control of eutrophication in surface waters. Enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) is a sustainable, efficient way of removing phosphorus from waste water without employing chemical precipitation, but is assumed unachievable in tropical temperatures due to conditions that favour glycogen accumulating organisms (GAOs) over polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs). Here, we show these assumptions are unfounded by studying comparative community dynamics in a full-scale plant following systematic perturbation of operational conditions, which modified community abundance, function and physicochemical state. A statistically significant increase in the relative abundance of the PAO Accumulibacter was associated with improved EBPR activity. GAO relative abundance also increased, challenging the assumption of competition. An Accumulibacter bin-genome was identified from a whole community metagenomic survey, and comparative analysis against extant Accumulibacter genomes suggests a close relationship to Type II. Analysis of the associated metatranscriptome data revealed that genes encoding proteins involved in the tricarboxylic acid cycle and glycolysis pathways were highly expressed, consistent with metabolic modelling results. Our findings show that tropical EBPR is indeed possible, highlight the translational potential of studying competition dynamics in full-scale waste water communities and carry implications for plant design in tropical regions.

  18. Metagenomic analysis reveals symbiotic relationship among bacteria in Microcystis-dominated community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meili eXie

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Microcystis bloom, a cyanobacterial mass occurrence often found in eutrophicated water bodies, is one of the most serious threats to freshwater ecosystems worldwide. In nature, Microcystis forms aggregates or colonies that contain heterotrophic bacteria. The Microcystis-bacteria colonies were persistent even when they were maintained in lab culture for a long period. The relationship between Microcystis and the associated bacteria was investigated by a metagenomic approach in this study. We developed a visualization-guided method of binning for genome assembly after total colony DNA sequencing. We found that the method was effective in grouping sequences and it did not require reference genome sequence. Individual genomes of the colony bacteria were obtained and they provided valuable insights into microbial community structures. Analysis of metabolic pathways based on these genomes revealed that while all heterotrophic bacteria were dependent upon Microcystis for carbon and energy, Vitamin B12 biosynthesis, which is required for growth by Microcystis, was accomplished in a cooperative fashion among the bacteria. Our analysis also suggests that individual bacteria in the colony community contributed a complete pathway for degradation of benzoate, which is inhibitory to the cyanobacterial growth, and its ecological implication for Microcystis bloom is discussed.

  19. Pre-2014 mudslides at Oso revealed by InSAR and multi-source DEM analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J. W.; Lu, Z.; QU, F.

    2014-12-01

    The landslide is a process that results in the downward and outward movement of slope-reshaping materials including rocks and soils and annually causes the loss of approximately $3.5 billion and tens of casualties in the United States. The 2014 Oso mudslide was an extreme event costing nearly 40 deaths and damaging civilian properties. Landslides are often unpredictable, but in many cases, catastrophic events are repetitive. Historic record in the Oso mudslide site indicates that there have been serial events in decades, though the extent of sliding events varied from time to time. In our study, the combination of multi-source DEMs, InSAR, and time-series InSAR analysis has enabled to characterize the Oso mudslide. InSAR results from ALOS PALSAR show that there was no significant deformation between mid-2006 and 2011. The combination of time-series InSAR analysis and old-dated DEM indicated revealed topographic changes associated the 2006 sliding event, which is confirmed by the difference of multiple LiDAR DEMs. Precipitation and discharge measurements before the 2006 and 2014 landslide events did not exhibit extremely anomalous records, suggesting the precipitation is not the controlling factor in determining the sliding events at Oso. The lack of surface deformation during 2006-2011 and weak correlation between the precipitation and the sliding event, suggest other factors (such as porosity) might play a critical role on the run-away events at this Oso and other similar landslides.

  20. Comparative Metagenomic Analysis Reveals Mechanisms for Stress Response in Hypoliths from Extreme Hyperarid Deserts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Phuong Thi; Makhalanyane, Thulani P; Guerrero, Leandro D; Vikram, Surendra; Van de Peer, Yves; Cowan, Don A

    2016-01-01

    Understanding microbial adaptation to environmental stressors is crucial for interpreting broader ecological patterns. In the most extreme hot and cold deserts, cryptic niche communities are thought to play key roles in ecosystem processes and represent excellent model systems for investigating microbial responses to environmental stressors. However, relatively little is known about the genetic diversity underlying such functional processes in climatically extreme desert systems. This study presents the first comparative metagenome analysis of cyanobacteria-dominated hypolithic communities in hot (Namib Desert, Namibia) and cold (Miers Valley, Antarctica) hyperarid deserts. The most abundant phyla in both hypolith metagenomes were Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, Cyanobacteria and Bacteroidetes with Cyanobacteria dominating in Antarctic hypoliths. However, no significant differences between the two metagenomes were identified. The Antarctic hypolithic metagenome displayed a high number of sequences assigned to sigma factors, replication, recombination and repair, translation, ribosomal structure, and biogenesis. In contrast, the Namib Desert metagenome showed a high abundance of sequences assigned to carbohydrate transport and metabolism. Metagenome data analysis also revealed significant divergence in the genetic determinants of amino acid and nucleotide metabolism between these two metagenomes and those of soil from other polar deserts, hot deserts, and non-desert soils. Our results suggest extensive niche differentiation in hypolithic microbial communities from these two extreme environments and a high genetic capacity for survival under environmental extremes. PMID:27503299

  1. Metagenomic analysis reveals that bacteriophages are reservoirs of antibiotic resistance genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subirats, Jéssica; Sànchez-Melsió, Alexandre; Borrego, Carles M; Balcázar, José Luis; Simonet, Pascal

    2016-08-01

    A metagenomics approach was applied to explore the presence of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in bacteriophages from hospital wastewater. Metagenomic analysis showed that most phage sequences affiliated to the order Caudovirales, comprising the tailed phage families Podoviridae, Siphoviridae and Myoviridae. Moreover, the relative abundance of ARGs in the phage DNA fraction (0.26%) was higher than in the bacterial DNA fraction (0.18%). These differences were particularly evident for genes encoding ATP-binding cassette (ABC) and resistance-nodulation-cell division (RND) proteins, phosphotransferases, β-lactamases and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance. Analysis of assembled contigs also revealed that blaOXA-10, blaOXA-58 and blaOXA-24 genes belonging to class D β-lactamases as well as a novel blaTEM (98.9% sequence similarity to the blaTEM-1 gene) belonging to class A β-lactamases were detected in a higher proportion in phage DNA. Although preliminary, these findings corroborate the role of bacteriophages as reservoirs of resistance genes and thus highlight the necessity to include them in future studies on the emergence and spread of antibiotic resistance in the environment. PMID:27312355

  2. Comparative transcriptome and proteome analysis to reveal the biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles in Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Manish; Krishnamurthy, Sneha; Shukla, Devesh; Kiiskila, Jeffrey; Jain, Ajay; Datta, Rupali; Sharma, Nilesh; Sahi, Shivendra V.

    2016-01-01

    A large number of plants have been tested and exploited in search of a green chemistry approach for the fabrication of gold or other precious metal nanomaterials. Despite the potential of plant based methods, very little is known about the underlying biochemical reactions and genes involved in the biotransformation mechanism of AuCl4 into gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). In this research, we thus focused on studying the effect of Au on growth and nanoparticles formation by analyses of transcriptome, proteome and ionome shift in Arabidopsis. Au exposure favored the growth of Arabidopsis seedling and induced formation of nanoparticles in root and shoot, as indicated by optical and hyperspectral imaging. Root transcriptome analysis demonstrated the differential expression of the members of WRKY, MYB and BHLH gene families, which are involved in the Fe and other essential metals homeostasis. The proteome analysis revealed that Glutathione S-transferases were induced in the shoot and suggested its potential role in the biosynthesis AuNPs. This study also demonstrated the role of plant hormone auxin in determining the Au induced root system architecture. This is the first study using an integrated approach to understand the in planta biotransformation of KAuCl4 into AuNPs. PMID:26902325

  3. Multifractal analysis of Barkhausen noise reveals the dynamic nature of criticality at hysteresis loop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadić, Bosiljka

    2016-06-01

    The field-driven magnetisation reversal processes in disordered systems exhibit a collective behaviour that is manifested in the scale-invariance of avalanches, closely related to underlying dynamical mechanisms. Using the multifractal time series analysis, we study the structure of fluctuations at different scales in the accompanying Barkhausen noise. The stochastic signal represents the magnetisation discontinuities along the hysteresis loop of a three-dimensional random field Ising model simulated for varied disorder strength and driving rates. The analysis of the spectrum of the generalised Hurst exponents reveals that the dominant segments of the signal with large fluctuations represent two distinct classes of stochastic processes in weak and strong pinning regimes. Furthermore, in the weak pinning regime, the part of the signal originating from the beginning of the hysteresis loop has a different multifractal spectrum than the signal near the coercive field. The enhanced fluctuations (primarily in the central part of the hysteresis loop) for increased driving rate and larger system size, lead to a further broadening of the spectrum. The analysed Barkhausen signals are also shown to exhibit temporal correlations and power-law distributions of the magnetisation discontinuity and avalanche sizes, in agreement with previous studies. The multifractal properties of Barkhausen noise describe the dynamical state of domains and precisely discriminate the weak pinning, permitting the motion of individual walls, from the mechanisms occurring in strongly disordered systems.

  4. DNA polymorphisms in banana and sugar cane varieties revealed by RAPD analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugar cane is the fourth most important cash crop of Pakistan and is grown on 1 million hectares of land, with a total production of 37 million tonnes. It does not flower under existing environmental conditions. Sugar cane is vegetatively propagated and the national breeding programmes is restricted to the adaptation and multiplication of exotic varieties. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers were used to establish polymorphisms among various local sugar cane varieties. DNA from the varieties L-118, L-116, BL-4, BF-162, Col-44, Col-54, Triton and Puri was isolated and amplified by polymerase chain reaction using ten nucleotide primers. The amplification profiles of all the sugar cane varieties were compared and the polymorphisms detected. DNA was isolated from the embryogenic calli of sugar cane subjected to gamma irradiation at different doses (0, 0.5, 2.0, 4.0 and 6.0 krad) and salt stresses (NaCl: 0, 50, 100, 150 and 200 mM), and was amplified with random primers to detect the polymorphisms introduced by stress. The banana is another important vegetatively propagated crop in Pakistan. DNA isolation from micropropagated banana was optimized and RAPD analysis performed on several clones of the banana variety Williams. The level of genetic variability revealed from calli and vegetatively propagated sugar cane and banana by RAPD analysis is discussed. (author). 10 refs, 5 figs, 2 tabs

  5. Proteomic analysis reveals differentially regulated protein acetylation in human amyotrophic lateral sclerosis spinal cord.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Liu

    Full Text Available Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is a progressive fatal neurodegenerative disease that primarily affects motor neurons in the brain and spinal cord. Histone deacetylase (HDAC inhibitors have neuroprotective effects potentially useful for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases including ALS; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying their potential efficacy is not well understood. Here we report that protein acetylation in urea-soluble proteins is differently regulated in post-mortem ALS spinal cord. Two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE analysis reveals several protein clusters with similar molecular weight but different charge status. Liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS identifies glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP as the dominant component in the protein clusters. Further analysis indicates six heavily acetylated lysine residues at positions 89, 153, 189, 218, 259 and 331 of GFAP. Immunoprecipitation followed by Western blotting confirms that the larger form of GFAP fragments are acetylated and upregulated in ALS spinal cord. Further studies demonstrate that acetylation of the proteins additional to GFAP is differently regulated, suggesting that acetylation and/or deacetylation play an important role in pathogenesis of ALS.

  6. Bach Is the Father of Harmony: Revealed by a 1/f Fluctuation Analysis across Musical Genres.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Wu

    Full Text Available Harmony is a fundamental attribute of music. Close connections exist between music and mathematics since both pursue harmony and unity. In music, the consonance of notes played simultaneously partly determines our perception of harmony; associates with aesthetic responses; and influences the emotion expression. The consonance could be considered as a window to understand and analyze harmony. Here for the first time we used a 1/f fluctuation analysis to investigate whether the consonance fluctuation structure in music with a wide range of composers and genres followed the scale free pattern that has been found for pitch, melody, rhythm, human body movements, brain activity, natural images and geographical features. We then used a network graph approach to investigate which composers were the most influential both within and across genres. Our results showed that patterns of consonance in music did follow scale-free characteristics, suggesting that this feature is a universally evolved one in both music and the living world. Furthermore, our network analysis revealed that Bach's harmony patterns were having the most influence on those used by other composers, followed closely by Mozart.

  7. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis Reveals Different Silk Yields of Two Silkworm Strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Juan; Qin, Sheng; Yu, Huanjun; Zhang, Jing; Liu, Na; Yu, Ye; Hou, Chengxiang; Li, Muwang

    2016-01-01

    Cocoon and silk yields are the most important characteristics of sericulture. However, few studies have examined the genes that modulate these features. Further studies of these genes will be useful for improving the products of sericulture. JingSong (JS) and Lan10 (L10) are two strains having significantly different cocoon and silk yields. In the current study, RNA-Seq and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) were performed on both strains in order to determine divergence of the silk gland, which controls silk biosynthesis in silkworms. Compared with L10, JS had 1375 differentially expressed genes (DEGs; 738 up-regulated genes and 673 down-regulated genes). Nine enriched gene ontology (GO) terms were identified by GO enrichment analysis based on these DEGs. KEGG enrichment analysis results showed that the DEGs were enriched in three pathways, which were mainly associated with the processing and biosynthesis of proteins. The representative genes in the enrichment pathways and ten significant DEGs were further verified by qPCR, the results of which were consistent with the RNA-Seq data. Our study has revealed differences in silk glands between the two silkworm strains and provides a perspective for understanding the molecular mechanisms determining silk yield. PMID:27159277

  8. Structure analysis reveals the flexibility of the ADAMTS-5 active site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shieh, Huey-Sheng; Tomasselli, Alfredo G.; Mathis, Karl J.; Schnute, Mark E.; Woodard, Scott S.; Caspers, Nicole; Williams, Jennifer M.; Kiefer, James R.; Munie, Grace; Wittwer, Arthur; Malfait, Anne-Marie; Tortorella, Micky D. (Pfizer)

    2012-03-02

    A ((1S,2R)-2-hydroxy-2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-1-yl) succinamide derivative (here referred to as Compound 12) shows significant activity toward many matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), including MMP-2, MMP-8, MMP-9, and MMP-13. Modeling studies had predicted that this compound would not bind to ADAMTS-5 (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs-5) due to its shallow S1' pocket. However, inhibition analysis revealed it to be a nanomolar inhibitor of both ADAMTS-4 and -5. The observed inconsistency was explained by analysis of crystallographic structures, which showed that Compound 12 in complex with the catalytic domain of ADAMTS-5 (cataTS5) exhibits an unusual conformation in the S1' pocket of the protein. This first demonstration that cataTS5 can undergo an induced conformational change in its active site pocket by a molecule like Compound 12 should enable the design of new aggrecanase inhibitors with better potency and selectivity profiles.

  9. Convergência local de renda no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Cristina Barbosa de Almeida Ribeiro

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Diversos trabalhos verificam a hipótese de convergência de renda para as regiões brasileiras. Contudo, a persistência da desigualdade de renda ainda é verificada entre as regiões. Nesse contexto, utilizando a metodologia de Regressões Ponderadas Geograficamente (RPG, o presente trabalho busca analisar a hipótese de convergência local para as áreas mínimas comparáveis (AMCs. Os principais resultados confirmam a hipótese de múltiplos equilíbrios. Entretanto, de maneira mais sofisticada que a análise de clubes de convergência, os resultados da análise local indicam que cada AMC estaria convergindo para o seu específico estado estacionário.Several works verify the hypothesis of income convergence for Brazilian regions. However, income inequality's persistence can still be verified. In this context, using the methodology of Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR, this study aims to analyze the local income convergence among the Brazilians areas (AMCs. The main results indicate multiple equilibria hypotheses. But, in a more sophisticated manner than convergence clubs analysis, local analysis results indicate that each AMC would be converging to its specific steady state.

  10. Bioinformatic analysis of the neprilysin (M13 family of peptidases reveals complex evolutionary and functional relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinney John W

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The neprilysin (M13 family of endopeptidases are zinc-metalloenzymes, the majority of which are type II integral membrane proteins. The best characterised of this family is neprilysin, which has important roles in inactivating signalling peptides involved in modulating neuronal activity, blood pressure and the immune system. Other family members include the endothelin converting enzymes (ECE-1 and ECE-2, which are responsible for the final step in the synthesis of potent vasoconstrictor endothelins. The ECEs, as well as neprilysin, are considered valuable therapeutic targets for treating cardiovascular disease. Other members of the M13 family have not been functionally characterised, but are also likely to have biological roles regulating peptide signalling. The recent sequencing of animal genomes has greatly increased the number of M13 family members in protein databases, information which can be used to reveal evolutionary relationships and to gain insight into conserved biological roles. Results The phylogenetic analysis successfully resolved vertebrate M13 peptidases into seven classes, one of which appears to be specific to mammals, and insect genes into five functional classes and a series of expansions, which may include inactive peptidases. Nematode genes primarily resolved into groups containing no other taxa, bar the two nematode genes associated with Drosophila DmeNEP1 and DmeNEP4. This analysis reconstructed only one relationship between chordate and invertebrate clusters, that of the ECE sub-group and the DmeNEP3 related genes. Analysis of amino acid utilisation in the active site of M13 peptidases reveals a basis for their biochemical properties. A relatively invariant S1' subsite gives the majority of M13 peptidases their strong preference for hydrophobic residues in P1' position. The greater variation in the S2' subsite may be instrumental in determining the specificity of M13 peptidases for their substrates

  11. Explaining slow convergence of EM in low noise linear mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kaare Brandt; Winther, Ole

    2005-01-01

    This report conducts an investigation of the convergence properties of the EM algorithm used for linear mixture models. Since the linear mixture model is a rather general approach, the analysis is relevant for a wide range of models which to some degree are subsets of each other: Independent...... Component Analysis (ICA), probabilistic PCA, Factor Analysis (FA), Independent Factor Analysis (IFA) and Mean Field ICA....

  12. Electricity wholesale market prices in Europe: Convergence?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper tests the hypothesis that the ongoing restructuring process in the European electricity sector has led to a common European market for electricity. Based on a Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of wholesale electricity prices in 2002-2006, we reject the assumption of full market integration. For several pairs of countries, the weaker hypothesis of (bilateral) convergence is accepted based on unit root tests (KPSS and ADF) and a convergence test based on filtered pairwise price relations. This indicates that the efforts to develop a single European market for electricity were so far only partially successful. We show that the daily auction prices of scarce cross-border transmission capacities are insufficient to explain the persistence of international price differentials. Empirically, our findings confirm the insufficiency of explicit capacity auctions as stated in the theoretical literature. (author)

  13. Electricity wholesale market prices in Europe: Convergence?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zachmann, Georg [DIW Berlin, Department of International Economics, Koenigin Luise Str. 5p, Berlin (Germany)

    2008-07-15

    This paper tests the hypothesis that the ongoing restructuring process in the European electricity sector has led to a common European market for electricity. Based on a Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of wholesale electricity prices in 2002-2006, we reject the assumption of full market integration. For several pairs of countries, the weaker hypothesis of (bilateral) convergence is accepted based on unit root tests (KPSS and ADF) and a convergence test based on filtered pairwise price relations. This indicates that the efforts to develop a single European market for electricity were so far only partially successful. We show that the daily auction prices of scarce cross-border transmission capacities are insufficient to explain the persistence of international price differentials. Empirically, our findings confirm the insufficiency of explicit capacity auctions as stated in the theoretical literature. (author)

  14. Transcriptional regulation of rod photoreceptor homeostasis revealed by in vivo NRL targetome analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Hao

    Full Text Available A stringent control of homeostasis is critical for functional maintenance and survival of neurons. In the mammalian retina, the basic motif leucine zipper transcription factor NRL determines rod versus cone photoreceptor cell fate and activates the expression of many rod-specific genes. Here, we report an integrated analysis of NRL-centered gene regulatory network by coupling chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by high-throughput sequencing (ChIP-Seq data from Illumina and ABI platforms with global expression profiling and in vivo knockdown studies. We identified approximately 300 direct NRL target genes. Of these, 22 NRL targets are associated with human retinal dystrophies, whereas 95 mapped to regions of as yet uncloned retinal disease loci. In silico analysis of NRL ChIP-Seq peak sequences revealed an enrichment of distinct sets of transcription factor binding sites. Specifically, we discovered that genes involved in photoreceptor function include binding sites for both NRL and homeodomain protein CRX. Evaluation of 26 ChIP-Seq regions validated their enhancer functions in reporter assays. In vivo knockdown of 16 NRL target genes resulted in death or abnormal morphology of rod photoreceptors, suggesting their importance in maintaining retinal function. We also identified histone demethylase Kdm5b as a novel secondary node in NRL transcriptional hierarchy. Exon array analysis of flow-sorted photoreceptors in which Kdm5b was knocked down by shRNA indicated its role in regulating rod-expressed genes. Our studies identify candidate genes for retinal dystrophies, define cis-regulatory module(s for photoreceptor-expressed genes and provide a framework for decoding transcriptional regulatory networks that dictate rod homeostasis.

  15. Time series analysis of satellite data reveals continuous deforestation of New England since the 1980s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olofsson, Pontus; Holden, Christopher E.; Bullock, Eric L.; Woodcock, Curtis E.

    2016-06-01

    Land cover and land change were monitored continuously between 1985 and 2011 at 30 m resolution across New England in the Northeastern United States in support of modeling the terrestrial carbon budget. It was found that the forest area has been decreasing throughout the study period in each state of the region since the 1980s. A total of 386 657 ± 98 137 ha (95% confidence interval) of forest has been converted to other land covers since 1985. Mainly driven by low density residential development, the deforestation accelerated in the mid-1990s until 2007 when it plateaued as a result of declining new residential construction and in turn, the financial crisis of 2007–08. The area of forest harvest, estimated at 226 519 ± 66 682 ha, was mapped separately and excluded from the deforestation estimate, while the area of forest expansion on non-forested lands was found to not be significantly different from zero. New England is often held as a principal example of a forest transition with historical widespread deforestation followed by recovery of forestlands as farming activities diminished, but the results of this study support the notion of a reversal of the forest transition as the region again is experiencing widespread deforestation. All available Landsat imagery acquired after 1985 for the study area were collected and used in the analysis. Areas of land cover and land change were estimated from a random sample of reference observations stratified by a twelve-class land change map encompassing the entire study area and period. The statistical analysis revealed that the net change in forest area and the associated modeled impact on the terrestrial carbon balance would have been considerably different if the results of the map were used without inferring the area of forest change by analysis of a reference sample.

  16. Co-expression network analysis reveals transcription factors associated to cell wall biosynthesis in sugarcane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Savio Siqueira; Hotta, Carlos Takeshi; Poelking, Viviane Guzzo de Carli; Leite, Debora Chaves Coelho; Buckeridge, Marcos Silveira; Loureiro, Marcelo Ehlers; Barbosa, Marcio Henrique Pereira; Carneiro, Monalisa Sampaio; Souza, Glaucia Mendes

    2016-05-01

    Sugarcane is a hybrid of Saccharum officinarum and Saccharum spontaneum, with minor contributions from other species in Saccharum and other genera. Understanding the molecular basis of cell wall metabolism in sugarcane may allow for rational changes in fiber quality and content when designing new energy crops. This work describes a comparative expression profiling of sugarcane ancestral genotypes: S. officinarum, S. spontaneum and S. robustum and a commercial hybrid: RB867515, linking gene expression to phenotypes to identify genes for sugarcane improvement. Oligoarray experiments of leaves, immature and intermediate internodes, detected 12,621 sense and 995 antisense transcripts. Amino acid metabolism was particularly evident among pathways showing natural antisense transcripts expression. For all tissues sampled, expression analysis revealed 831, 674 and 648 differentially expressed genes in S. officinarum, S. robustum and S. spontaneum, respectively, using RB867515 as reference. Expression of sugar transporters might explain sucrose differences among genotypes, but an unexpected differential expression of histones were also identified between high and low Brix° genotypes. Lignin biosynthetic genes and bioenergetics-related genes were up-regulated in the high lignin genotype, suggesting that these genes are important for S. spontaneum to allocate carbon to lignin, while S. officinarum allocates it to sucrose storage. Co-expression network analysis identified 18 transcription factors possibly related to cell wall biosynthesis while in silico analysis detected cis-elements involved in cell wall biosynthesis in their promoters. Our results provide information to elucidate regulatory networks underlying traits of interest that will allow the improvement of sugarcane for biofuel and chemicals production. PMID:26820137

  17. Numerical simulation on turbulent flow field in convergent-divergent nozzle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Yi-yu; LIO Yong; LI Xiao-hong; FANG Yong; ZHAO Jian-xin

    2009-01-01

    Because of the complication of turbulence's mechanism and law as well as the jet pressure in nozzle is difficult to test by experiment, five turbulent models were applied to numerically simulate the turbulent flow field in convergent-divergent nozzle. Theory analysis and experiment results of mass flow rates conclude that the RNG κ-ε model is the most suitable model. The pressure distribution in the convergent-divergent nozzle was revealed by computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulating on the turbulent flow field under different pressure conditions. The growing conditions of cavitation bubbles were shown; meanwhile, the phenomena in the experiment could be explained. The differential pressure between the upstream and downstream in nozzle throat section can improve the cavitating effect of cavitation water jet.

  18. Genome sequencing and analysis reveals possible determinants of Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cole Alexander M

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus is a major risk factor in clinical and community settings due to the range of etiologies caused by the organism. We have identified unique immunological and ultrastructural properties associated with nasal carriage isolates denoting a role for bacterial factors in nasal carriage. However, despite extensive molecular level characterizations by several groups suggesting factors necessary for colonization on nasal epithelium, genetic determinants of nasal carriage are unknown. Herein, we have set a genomic foundation for unraveling the bacterial determinants of nasal carriage in S. aureus. Results MLST analysis revealed no lineage specific differences between carrier and non-carrier strains suggesting a role for mobile genetic elements. We completely sequenced a model carrier isolate (D30 and a model non-carrier strain (930918-3 to identify differential gene content. Comparison revealed the presence of 84 genes unique to the carrier strain and strongly suggests a role for Type VII secretion systems in nasal carriage. These genes, along with a putative pathogenicity island (SaPIBov present uniquely in the carrier strains are likely important in affecting carriage. Further, PCR-based genotyping of other clinical isolates for a specific subset of these 84 genes raise the possibility of nasal carriage being caused by multiple gene sets. Conclusion Our data suggest that carriage is likely a heterogeneic phenotypic trait and implies a role for nucleotide level polymorphism in carriage. Complete genome level analyses of multiple carriage strains of S. aureus will be important in clarifying molecular determinants of S. aureus nasal carriage.

  19. Proteome-wide analysis of arginine monomethylation reveals widespread occurrence in human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Sara C; Sylvestersen, Kathrine B; Mund, Andreas; Lyon, David; Mullari, Meeli; Madsen, Maria V; Daniel, Jeremy A; Jensen, Lars J; Nielsen, Michael L

    2016-01-01

    The posttranslational modification of proteins by arginine methylation is functionally important, yet the breadth of this modification is not well characterized. Using high-resolution mass spectrometry, we identified 8030 arginine methylation sites within 3300 human proteins in human embryonic kidney 293 cells, indicating that the occurrence of this modification is comparable to phosphorylation and ubiquitylation. A site-level conservation analysis revealed that arginine methylation sites are less evolutionarily conserved compared to arginines that were not identified as modified by methylation. Through quantitative proteomics and RNA interference to examine arginine methylation stoichiometry, we unexpectedly found that the protein arginine methyltransferase (PRMT) family of arginine methyltransferases catalyzed methylation independently of arginine sequence context. In contrast to the frequency of somatic mutations at arginine methylation sites throughout the proteome, we observed that somatic mutations were common at arginine methylation sites in proteins involved in mRNA splicing. Furthermore, in HeLa and U2OS cells, we found that distinct arginine methyltransferases differentially regulated the functions of the pre-mRNA splicing factor SRSF2 (serine/arginine-rich splicing factor 2) and the RNA transport ribonucleoprotein HNRNPUL1 (heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein U-like 1). Knocking down PRMT5 impaired the RNA binding function of SRSF2, whereas knocking down PRMT4 [also known as coactivator-associated arginine methyltransferase 1 (CARM1)] or PRMT1 increased the RNA binding function of HNRNPUL1. High-content single-cell imaging additionally revealed that knocking down CARM1 promoted the nuclear accumulation of SRSF2, independent of cell cycle phase. Collectively, the presented human arginine methylome provides a missing piece in the global and integrative view of cellular physiology and protein regulation. PMID:27577262

  20. Genome-wide analysis of gene expression in primate taste buds reveals links to diverse processes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Hevezi

    Full Text Available Efforts to unravel the mechanisms underlying taste sensation (gustation have largely focused on rodents. Here we present the first comprehensive characterization of gene expression in primate taste buds. Our findings reveal unique new insights into the biology of taste buds. We generated a taste bud gene expression database using laser capture microdissection (LCM procured fungiform (FG and circumvallate (CV taste buds from primates. We also used LCM to collect the top and bottom portions of CV taste buds. Affymetrix genome wide arrays were used to analyze gene expression in all samples. Known taste receptors are preferentially expressed in the top portion of taste buds. Genes associated with the cell cycle and stem cells are preferentially expressed in the bottom portion of taste buds, suggesting that precursor cells are located there. Several chemokines including CXCL14 and CXCL8 are among the highest expressed genes in taste buds, indicating that immune system related processes are active in taste buds. Several genes expressed specifically in endocrine glands including growth hormone releasing hormone and its receptor are also strongly expressed in taste buds, suggesting a link between metabolism and taste. Cell type-specific expression of transcription factors and signaling molecules involved in cell fate, including KIT, reveals the taste bud as an active site of cell regeneration, differentiation, and development. IKBKAP, a gene mutated in familial dysautonomia, a disease that results in loss of taste buds, is expressed in taste cells that communicate with afferent nerve fibers via synaptic transmission. This database highlights the power of LCM coupled with transcriptional profiling to dissect the molecular composition of normal tissues, represents the most comprehensive molecular analysis of primate taste buds to date, and provides a foundation for further studies in diverse aspects of taste biology.

  1. On the non-convergence of energy intensities: evidence from a pair-wise econometric approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper evaluates convergence of energy intensities for a group of 97 countries in the period 1971-2003. Convergence is tested using a recent method proposed by Pesaran (2007) [M.H. Pesaran. A pair- wise approach to testing for output and growth convergence. Journal of Econometrics 138, 312-355.] based on the stochastic convergence criterion. Main advantages of this method are that results do not depend on a benchmark against which convergence is assessed, and that it is more robust. Applications of several unit-root tests as well as a stationarity test uniformly reject the global convergence hypothesis. Locally, for Middle- East, OECD and Europe sub-groups, non-convergence is less strongly rejected. The introduction of possible structural breaks in the analysis only marginally provides more support to the convergence hypothesis. (authors)

  2. On the non-convergence of energy intensities. Evidence from a pair-wise econometric approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Pen, Yannick [Universite de Nantes LEMNA, Nantes (France); Sevi, Benoit [Universite d' Angers GRANEM, Faculte de Droit, Economie et Gestion, Universite d' Angers, 13 allee Francois Mitterrand, BP 13633, 49036 Angers cedex 01 (France)

    2010-01-15

    This paper evaluates the convergence of energy intensities for a group of 97 countries in the period 1971-2003. Convergence is tested using a recent method proposed by Pesaran (2007) [Pesaran, M.H., 2007. A pair-wise approach to testing for output and growth convergence. Journal of Econometrics 138, 312-355] based on the stochastic convergence criterion. An advantage of this method is that results do not depend on a benchmark against which convergence is assessed. It gives more robust results. Applications of several unit-root tests as well as a stationarity test uniformly reject the global convergence hypothesis. Locally, for Middle East, OECD and Europe sub-groups, non-convergence is less strongly rejected. The introduction of possible structural breaks in the analysis only marginally provides more support to the convergence hypothesis. (author)

  3. The anticipation of converging industries a concept applied to nutraceuticals and functional foods

    CERN Document Server

    Curran, Clive-Steven

    2013-01-01

    The blurring of boundaries between hitherto distinct scientific disciplines, technologies or markets is a common and powerful phenomenon. Subjects of this convergence often change consumer behaviours, favouring products and platforms with multiple functions. The Anticipation of Converging Industries provides a detailed focus on the triggers, drivers and consequences of convergence to create a more concise definition of convergence.   This detailed analysis includes a specifically developed toolbox for ‘convergence foresight’, creating a forecasting method for convergence trends. With the focus on the chemical, biotechnological and pharmaceutical industries, several indicators of convergence in the areas of Nutraceuticals/Functional Foods, Cosmeceuticals and ICT are derived from samples including over 1million patents and scientific publications.   By supporting this methodical approach with real world data, The Anticipation of Converging Industries is perfect for industry practitioners looking for a com...

  4. Verification of the coupled fluid/solid transfer in a CASL grid-to-rod-fretting simulation : a technical brief on the analysis of convergence behavior and demonstration of software tools for verification.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Copps, Kevin D.

    2011-12-01

    For a CASL grid-to-rod fretting problem, Sandia's Percept software was used in conjunction with the Sierra Mechanics suite to analyze the convergence behavior of the data transfer from a fluid simulation to a solid mechanics simulation. An analytic function, with properties relatively close to numerically computed fluid approximations, was chosen to represent the pressure solution in the fluid domain. The analytic pressure was interpolated on a sequence of grids on the fluid domain, and transferred onto a separate sequence of grids in the solid domain. The error in the resulting pressure in the solid domain was measured with respect to the analytic pressure. The error in pressure approached zero as both the fluid and solids meshes were refined. The convergence of the transfer algorithm was limited by whether the source grid resolution was the same or finer than the target grid resolution. In addition, using a feature coverage analysis, we found gaps in the solid mechanics code verification test suite directly relevant to the prototype CASL GTRF simulations.

  5. Convergence and applications of Newton-type iterations

    CERN Document Server

    Argyros, Ioannis K

    2008-01-01

    Recent results in local convergence and semi-local convergence analysis constitute a natural framework for the theoretical study of iterative methods. This monograph provides a comprehensive study of both basic theory and new results in the area. Each chapter contains new theoretical results and important applications in engineering, dynamic economic systems, input-output systems, optimization problems, and nonlinear and linear differential equations. Several classes of operators are considered, including operators without Lipschitz continuous derivatives, operators with high order derivatives

  6. Structural change, labor productivity growth, and convergence of BRIC countries

    OpenAIRE

    Chansomphou, Vatthanamixay; Ichihashi, Masaru

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we seek to understand the patterns of structural change, labor productivity growth and convergence in BRIC countries. In the first part, we employ the dataset of labor productivity from de Vries et al. (2012) and the Groningen Growth and Development Center (2013) and utilize the shift and share analysis to investigate the contribution of within shift, static shift and dynamic shift effects on growth of labor productivity. In the second part, we use the convergence tests to chec...

  7. Convergence in European Corporate Governance: the audit committee concept

    OpenAIRE

    Zaman, M

    2005-01-01

    This paper analyses recent corporate governance codes issued by 20 countries for evidence of convergence in corporate governance systems in Europe. The analysis shows that there has been a degree of convergence towards an Anglo-Saxon model of corporate governance as the audit committee concept is widely accepted in countries with both unitary and two-tier governance systems. Further, the latest audit committee recommendations in countries that have issued several governance codes show a stren...

  8. Economic convergence and rent-seeking in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Dreger, Christian; Rahmani, Teymur; Eckey, Hans-Friedrich

    2007-01-01

    The neoclassical growth model predicts convergence of productivity or per capita output levels across regions. If participation in the labor force is constant, convergence of per capita income is implied. We investigate this hypothesis for the Iranian economy using data on demand deposits as a proxy for GDP. Furthermore, the analysis controls for the effects of rent seeking. Due to its impact on the allocation of resources, rent-seeking is likely an impediment to overall growth. The results s...

  9. Convergence of a Boundary Integral Method for Water Waves

    OpenAIRE

    Beale, J. Thomas; Hou, Thomas Y.; Lowengrub, John

    1996-01-01

    We prove nonlinear stability and convergence of certain boundary integral methods for time-dependent water waves in a two-dimensional, inviscid, irrotational, incompressible fluid, with or without surface tension. The methods are convergent as long as the underlying solution remains fairly regular (and a sign condition holds in the case without surface tension). Thus, numerical instabilities are ruled out even in a fully nonlinear regime. The analysis is based on delicate energy estimates, fo...

  10. Industrial Evolution Through Complementary Convergence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frøslev Christensen, Jens

    2011-01-01

    evidence from the IT security sector, two trajectories of complementary convergence are identified, “lower-order integration”, the integration of different product markets in a sectoral context, and “higher-end integration”, the integration of product markets into the offerings of established industries......The article addresses the dynamics through which product markets become derailed from early product life cycle (PLC)-tracks and engaged in complementary convergence with other product markets or industries. We compare and contrast the theories that can explain, respectively, the PLC and the...... derailing of this cycle into a process of complementary convergence. The article challenges the standard industry conception and proposes a distinction between the emergent industrial sector, the emergent product market (or niche) and the industry as a more well-established entity. Based on empirical...

  11. Order Handling in Convergent Environments

    CERN Document Server

    Vrtanoski, Jordan

    2012-01-01

    The rapid development of IT&T technology had big impact on the traditional telecommunications market, transforming it from monopolistic market to highly competitive high-tech market where new services are required to be created frequently. This paper aims to describe a design approach that puts order management process (as part of enterprise application integration) in function of rapid service creation. In the text we will present a framework for collaborative order handling supporting convergent services. The design splits the order handling processes in convergent environments in three business process groups: order capture, order management and order fulfillment. The paper establishes abstract framework for order handling and provides design guidelines for transaction handling implementation based on the checkpoint and inverse command strategy. The proposed design approach is based in a convergent telecommunication environment. Same principles are applicable in solving problems of collaboration in fun...

  12. An evolutionary analysis of antigen processing and presentation across different timescales reveals pervasive selection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Forni

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The antigenic repertoire presented by MHC molecules is generated by the antigen processing and presentation (APP pathway. We analyzed the evolutionary history of 45 genes involved in APP at the inter- and intra-species level. Results showed that 11 genes evolved adaptively in mammals. Several positively selected sites involve positions of fundamental importance to the protein function (e.g. the TAP1 peptide-binding domains, the sugar binding interface of langerin, and the CD1D trafficking signal region. In CYBB, all selected sites cluster in two loops protruding into the endosomal lumen; analysis of missense mutations responsible for chronic granulomatous disease (CGD showed the action of different selective forces on the very same gene region, as most CGD substitutions involve aminoacid positions that are conserved in all mammals. As for ERAP2, different computational methods indicated that positive selection has driven the recurrent appearance of protein-destabilizing variants during mammalian evolution. Application of a population-genetics phylogenetics approach showed that purifying selection represented a major force acting on some APP components (e.g. immunoproteasome subunits and chaperones and allowed identification of positive selection events in the human lineage. We also investigated the evolutionary history of APP genes in human populations by developing a new approach that uses several different tests to identify the selection target, and that integrates low-coverage whole-genome sequencing data with Sanger sequencing. This analysis revealed that 9 APP genes underwent local adaptation in human populations. Most positive selection targets are located within noncoding regions with regulatory function in myeloid cells or act as expression quantitative trait loci. Conversely, balancing selection targeted nonsynonymous variants in TAP1 and CD207 (langerin. Finally, we suggest that selected variants in PSMB10 and CD207 contribute to human

  13. An evolutionary analysis of antigen processing and presentation across different timescales reveals pervasive selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forni, Diego; Cagliani, Rachele; Tresoldi, Claudia; Pozzoli, Uberto; De Gioia, Luca; Filippi, Giulia; Riva, Stefania; Menozzi, Giorgia; Colleoni, Marta; Biasin, Mara; Lo Caputo, Sergio; Mazzotta, Francesco; Comi, Giacomo P; Bresolin, Nereo; Clerici, Mario; Sironi, Manuela

    2014-03-01

    The antigenic repertoire presented by MHC molecules is generated by the antigen processing and presentation (APP) pathway. We analyzed the evolutionary history of 45 genes involved in APP at the inter- and intra-species level. Results showed that 11 genes evolved adaptively in mammals. Several positively selected sites involve positions of fundamental importance to the protein function (e.g. the TAP1 peptide-binding domains, the sugar binding interface of langerin, and the CD1D trafficking signal region). In CYBB, all selected sites cluster in two loops protruding into the endosomal lumen; analysis of missense mutations responsible for chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) showed the action of different selective forces on the very same gene region, as most CGD substitutions involve aminoacid positions that are conserved in all mammals. As for ERAP2, different computational methods indicated that positive selection has driven the recurrent appearance of protein-destabilizing variants during mammalian evolution. Application of a population-genetics phylogenetics approach showed that purifying selection represented a major force acting on some APP components (e.g. immunoproteasome subunits and chaperones) and allowed identification of positive selection events in the human lineage. We also investigated the evolutionary history of APP genes in human populations by developing a new approach that uses several different tests to identify the selection target, and that integrates low-coverage whole-genome sequencing data with Sanger sequencing. This analysis revealed that 9 APP genes underwent local adaptation in human populations. Most positive selection targets are located within noncoding regions with regulatory function in myeloid cells or act as expression quantitative trait loci. Conversely, balancing selection targeted nonsynonymous variants in TAP1 and CD207 (langerin). Finally, we suggest that selected variants in PSMB10 and CD207 contribute to human phenotypes

  14. RNA-Seq analysis reveals a six-gene SoxR regulon in Streptomyces coelicolor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nawar Naseer

    Full Text Available The redox-regulated transcription factor SoxR is conserved in diverse bacteria, but emerging studies suggest that this protein plays distinct physiological roles in different bacteria. SoxR regulates a global oxidative stress response (involving > 100 genes against exogenous redox-cycling drugs in Escherichia coli and related enterics. In the antibiotic producers Streptomyces coelicolor and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, however, SoxR regulates a smaller number of genes that encode membrane transporters and proteins with homology to antibiotic-tailoring enzymes. In both S. coelicolor and P. aeruginosa, SoxR-regulated genes are expressed in stationary phase during the production of endogenously-produced redox-active antibiotics. These observations suggest that SoxR evolved to sense endogenous secondary metabolites and activate machinery to process and transport them in antibiotic-producing bacteria. Previous bioinformatics analysis that searched the genome for SoxR-binding sites in putative promoters defined a five-gene SoxR regulon in S. coelicolor including an ABC transporter, two oxidoreductases, a monooxygenase and an epimerase/dehydratase. Since this in silico screen may have missed potential SoxR-targets, we conducted a whole genome transcriptome comparison of wild type S. coelicolor and a soxR-deficient mutant in stationary phase using RNA-Seq. Our analysis revealed a sixth SoxR-regulated gene in S. coelicolor that encodes a putative quinone oxidoreductase. Knowledge of the full complement of genes regulated by SoxR will facilitate studies to elucidate the function of this regulatory molecule in antibiotic producers.

  15. RNA-Seq analysis reveals a six-gene SoxR regulon in Streptomyces coelicolor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naseer, Nawar; Shapiro, Joshua A; Chander, Monica

    2014-01-01

    The redox-regulated transcription factor SoxR is conserved in diverse bacteria, but emerging studies suggest that this protein plays distinct physiological roles in different bacteria. SoxR regulates a global oxidative stress response (involving > 100 genes) against exogenous redox-cycling drugs in Escherichia coli and related enterics. In the antibiotic producers Streptomyces coelicolor and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, however, SoxR regulates a smaller number of genes that encode membrane transporters and proteins with homology to antibiotic-tailoring enzymes. In both S. coelicolor and P. aeruginosa, SoxR-regulated genes are expressed in stationary phase during the production of endogenously-produced redox-active antibiotics. These observations suggest that SoxR evolved to sense endogenous secondary metabolites and activate machinery to process and transport them in antibiotic-producing bacteria. Previous bioinformatics analysis that searched the genome for SoxR-binding sites in putative promoters defined a five-gene SoxR regulon in S. coelicolor including an ABC transporter, two oxidoreductases, a monooxygenase and an epimerase/dehydratase. Since this in silico screen may have missed potential SoxR-targets, we conducted a whole genome transcriptome comparison of wild type S. coelicolor and a soxR-deficient mutant in stationary phase using RNA-Seq. Our analysis revealed a sixth SoxR-regulated gene in S. coelicolor that encodes a putative quinone oxidoreductase. Knowledge of the full complement of genes regulated by SoxR will facilitate studies to elucidate the function of this regulatory molecule in antibiotic producers. PMID:25162599

  16. Proteomic analysis of Ketogulonicigenium vulgare under glutathione reveals high demand for thiamin transport and antioxidant protection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Ma

    Full Text Available Ketogulonicigenium vulgare, though grows poorly when mono-cultured, has been widely used in the industrial production of the precursor of vitamin C with the coculture of Bacillus megaterium. Various efforts have been made to clarify the synergic pattern of this artificial microbial community and to improve the growth and production ability of K. vulgare, but there is still no sound explanation. In previous research, we found that the addition of reduced glutathione into K. vulgare monoculture could significantly improve its growth and productivity. By performing SEM and TEM, we observed that after adding GSH into K. vulgare monoculture, cells became about 4-6 folds elongated, and formed intracytoplasmic membranes (ICM. To explore the molecular mechanism and provide insights into the investigation of the synergic pattern of the co-culture system, we conducted a comparative iTRAQ-2-D-LC-MS/MS-based proteomic analysis of K. vulgare grown under reduced glutathione. Principal component analysis of proteomic data showed that after the addition of glutathione, proteins for thiamin/thiamin pyrophosphate (TPP transport, glutathione transport and the maintenance of membrane integrity, together with several membrane-bound dehydrogenases had significant up-regulation. Besides, several proteins participating in the pentose phosphate pathway and tricarboxylic acid cycle were also up-regulated. Additionally, proteins combating intracellular reactive oxygen species were also up-regulated, which similarly occurred in K. vulgare when the co-cultured B. megaterium cells lysed from our former research results. This study reveals the demand for transmembrane transport of substrates, especially thiamin, and the demand for antioxidant protection of K. vulgare.

  17. Analysis of lipids reveals differences between 'Mycobacterium habana' and Mycobacterium simiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mederos, L M; Valdivia, J A; Sempere, M A; Valero-Guillén, P L

    1998-05-01

    Fatty and mycolic acids and the pattern of glycolipids were studied in a collection of 34 strains of 'Mycobacterium habana' and in two strains of Mycobacterium simiae. Major glycolipids of these micro-organisms were assigned to the glycopeptidolipid (GPL) structural type, but both mycobacteria differed in the patterns obtained by TLC. The strains of 'M. habana' were separated into four groups (A-D), taking into account the presence or absence of several polar GPLs: group A contained GPL-I, GPL-II and GPL-III; group B contained GPL-I, GPL-II', GPL-II and GPL-III; group C contained GPL-II', GPL-II and GPL-III; group D did not contain any of these compounds. Fatty acids of both bacteria were similar, and ranged from 14 to 26 carbon atoms, hexadecanoic, octadecenoic and tuberculostearic acids being predominant. Mycolic acids were also similar by TLC and HPLC, and consisted of alpha-, alpha'- and ketomycolates. Partial structural analysis by MS carried out in strains 'M. habana' TMC 5135 and M. simiae ATCC 25275T revealed that alpha- and ketomycolates ranged, in general, from 79 to 87 carbon atoms, and alpha'-mycolates from 58 to 67 carbon atoms. The alpha- and ketomycolates belonged to several structural series, and minor variations were found between the two strain examined. The data obtained justified the synonymy between 'M. habana' and M. simiae but indicated, in turn, that the former can be distinguished on the basis of GPL analysis. Most strains of 'M. habana' can be defined by the presence of GPL-II and GPL-III, a finding that could be useful in the quality control of potential vaccine strains. PMID:9611792

  18. Comorbid Analysis of Genes Associated with Autism Spectrum Disorders Reveals Differential Evolutionary Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Maude M.; Enard, David; Ozturk, Alp; Daniels, Jena; Jung, Jae-Yoon; Diaz-Beltran, Leticia; Wall, Dennis. P.

    2016-01-01

    The burden of comorbidity in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is substantial. The symptoms of autism overlap with many other human conditions, reflecting common molecular pathologies suggesting that cross-disorder analysis will help prioritize autism gene candidates. Genes in the intersection between autism and related conditions may represent nonspecific indicators of dysregulation while genes unique to autism may play a more causal role. Thorough literature review allowed us to extract 125 ICD-9 codes comorbid to ASD that we mapped to 30 specific human disorders. In the present work, we performed an automated extraction of genes associated with ASD and its comorbid disorders, and found 1031 genes involved in ASD, among which 262 are involved in ASD only, with the remaining 779 involved in ASD and at least one comorbid disorder. A pathway analysis revealed 13 pathways not involved in any other comorbid disorders and therefore unique to ASD, all associated with basal cellular functions. These pathways differ from the pathways associated with both ASD and its comorbid conditions, with the latter being more specific to neural function. To determine whether the sequence of these genes have been subjected to differential evolutionary constraints, we studied long term constraints by looking into Genomic Evolutionary Rate Profiling, and showed that genes involved in several comorbid disorders seem to have undergone more purifying selection than the genes involved in ASD only. This result was corroborated by a higher dN/dS ratio for genes unique to ASD as compare to those that are shared between ASD and its comorbid disorders. Short-term evolutionary constraints showed the same trend as the pN/pS ratio indicates that genes unique to ASD were under significantly less evolutionary constraint than the genes associated with all other disorders. PMID:27414027

  19. LRpath analysis reveals common pathways dysregulated via DNA methylation across cancer types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Jung H

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The relative contribution of epigenetic mechanisms to carcinogenesis is not well understood, including the extent to which epigenetic dysregulation and somatic mutations target similar genes and pathways. We hypothesize that during carcinogenesis, certain pathways or biological gene sets are commonly dysregulated via DNA methylation across cancer types. The ability of our logistic regression-based gene set enrichment method to implicate important biological pathways in high-throughput data is well established. Results We developed a web-based gene set enrichment application called LRpath with clustering functionality that allows for identification and comparison of pathway signatures across multiple studies. Here, we employed LRpath analysis to unravel the commonly altered pathways and other gene sets across ten cancer studies employing DNA methylation data profiled with the Illumina HumanMethylation27 BeadChip. We observed a surprising level of concordance in differential methylation across multiple cancer types. For example, among commonly hypomethylated groups, we identified immune-related functions, peptidase activity, and epidermis/keratinocyte development and differentiation. Commonly hypermethylated groups included homeobox and other DNA-binding genes, nervous system and embryonic development, and voltage-gated potassium channels. For many gene sets, we observed significant overlap in the specific subset of differentially methylated genes. Interestingly, fewer DNA repair genes were differentially methylated than expected by chance. Conclusions Clustering analysis performed with LRpath revealed tightly clustered concepts enriched for differential methylation. Several well-known cancer-related pathways were significantly affected, while others were depleted in differential methylation. We conclude that DNA methylation changes in cancer tend to target a subset of the known cancer pathways affected by genetic aberrations.

  20. Human processing of short temporal intervals as revealed by an ERP waveform analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshitaka Nakajima

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available To clarify the time course over which the human brain processes information about durations up to ~300 ms, we reanalyzed the data that were previously reported by Mitsudo et al. (2009 using a multivariate analysis method. Event-related potentials were recorded from 19 scalp electrodes on 11 (9 original and 2 additional participants while they judged whether two neighboring empty time intervals—called t1 and t2 and marked by three tone bursts—had equal durations. There was also a control condition in which the participants were presented the same temporal patterns but without a judgment task. In the present reanalysis, we sought to visualize how the temporal patterns were represented in the brain over time. A correlation matrix across channels was calculated for each temporal pattern. Geometric separations between the correlation matrices were calculated, and subjected to multidimensional scaling. We performed such analyses for a moving 100-ms time window after the t1 presentations. In the windows centered at < 100 ms after the t2 presentation, the analyses revealed the local maxima of categorical separation between temporal patterns of perceptually equal durations versus perceptually unequal durations, both in the judgment condition and in the control condition. Such categorization of the temporal patterns was prominent only in narrow temporal regions. The analysis indicated that the participants determined whether the two neighboring time intervals were of equal duration mostly within 100 ms after the presentation of the temporal patterns. A very fast brain activity was related to the perception of elementary temporal patterns without explicit judgments. This is consistent with the findings of Mitsudo et al., and it is in line with the processing time hypothesis proposed by Nakajima et al. (2004. The validity of the correlation matrix analyses turned out to be an effective tool to grasp the overall responses of the brain to temporal

  1. Single cell analysis reveals gametic and tissue-specific instability of the SCA1 CAG repeat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chong, S.S.; McCall, A.E.; Cota, J. [Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disease caused by expansion of a CAG trinucleotide repeat within the SCA1 gene on chromosome 6p22-23. We performed a comparative analysis of the SCA1 CAG repeat from blood and sperm of an affected male. Genomic amplification revealed a broader smear of the SCA1 allele product from sperm compared to that from peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL). To resolve this observed difference, we analyzed single sperm directly and demonstrate that the SCA1 allele in PBL is also heterogeneous, although the range of variability in allele sizes is much less than that observed in sperm. Limited genome analysis was also performed on PBL DNA from an unaffected individual with an upper normal allele of 36 repeats in parallel with an affected individual with an expanded allele of 40 repeats. The 36 repeat normal allele, which contains a CAT interruption, was completely stable compared to the uninterrupted repeat of the SCA1 allele, demonstrating a direct correlation between absence of a CAT interruption and somatic instability of the repeat. We also analyzed the size of the CAG repeat in tissues derived from various brain regions from a patient with juvenile-onset disease to determine if the size of the expansion correlated with the site of neuropathology. The results clearly show tissue-specific differences in mosaicism of repeat length. More importantly, the pattern of tissue-specific differences in repeat-length mosaicism in SCA1 within the brain parallels those seen in Huntington disease. In both disorders the expanded alleles are smaller in cerebellar tissue. These results suggest that the observed tissue-specific differences in instability of the SCA1 CAG repeat, either within the brain or between blood and sperm, are a function of the intracellular milieu or the intrinsic replicative potential of the various celltypes.

  2. Gamma-Tocotrienol Modulated Gene Expression in Senescent Human Diploid Fibroblasts as Revealed by Microarray Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Makpol

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of γ-tocotrienol, a vitamin E isomer, in modulating gene expression in cellular aging of human diploid fibroblasts was studied. Senescent cells at passage 30 were incubated with 70 μM of γ-tocotrienol for 24 h. Gene expression patterns were evaluated using Sentrix HumanRef-8 Expression BeadChip from Illumina, analysed using GeneSpring GX10 software, and validated using quantitative RT-PCR. A total of 100 genes were differentially expressed (P<0.001 by at least 1.5 fold in response to γ-tocotrienol treatment. Amongst the genes were IRAK3, SelS, HSPA5, HERPUD1, DNAJB9, SEPR1, C18orf55, ARF4, RINT1, NXT1, CADPS2, COG6, and GLRX5. Significant gene list was further analysed by Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA, and the Normalized Enrichment Score (NES showed that biological processes such as inflammation, protein transport, apoptosis, and cell redox homeostasis were modulated in senescent fibroblasts treated with γ-tocotrienol. These findings revealed that γ-tocotrienol may prevent cellular aging of human diploid fibroblasts by modulating gene expression.

  3. Genomic analysis reveals the molecular basis for capsule loss in the group B Streptococcus population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Rosini

    Full Text Available The human and bovine bacterial pathogen Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B Streptococcus, GBS expresses a thick polysaccharide capsule that constitutes a major virulence factor and vaccine target. GBS can be classified into ten distinct serotypes differing in the chemical composition of their capsular polysaccharide. However, non-typeable strains that do not react with anti-capsular sera are frequently isolated from colonized and infected humans and cattle. To gain a comprehensive insight into the molecular basis for the loss of capsule expression in GBS, a collection of well-characterized non-typeable strains was investigated by genome sequencing. Genome based phylogenetic analysis extended to a wide population of sequenced strains confirmed the recently observed high clonality among GBS lineages mainly containing human strains, and revealed a much higher degree of diversity in the bovine population. Remarkably, non-typeable strains were equally distributed in all lineages. A number of distinct mutations in the cps operon were identified that were apparently responsible for inactivation of capsule synthesis. The most frequent genetic alterations were point mutations leading to stop codons in the cps genes, and the main target was found to be cpsE encoding the portal glycosyl transferase of capsule biosynthesis. Complementation of strains carrying missense mutations in cpsE with a wild-type gene restored capsule expression allowing the identification of amino acid residues essential for enzyme activity.

  4. AKAP signaling in reinstated cocaine seeking revealed by iTRAQ proteomic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reissner, Kathryn J; Uys, Joachim D; Schwacke, John H; Comte-Walters, Susanna; Rutherford-Bethard, Jennifer L; Dunn, Thomas E; Blumer, Joe B; Schey, Kevin L; Kalivas, Peter W

    2011-04-13

    To identify candidate proteins in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) as potential pharmacotherapeutic targets for treating cocaine addition, an 8-plex iTRAQ (isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation) proteomic screen was performed using NAc tissue obtained from rats trained to self-administer cocaine followed by extinction training. Compared with yoked-saline controls, 42 proteins in a postsynaptic density (PSD)-enriched subfraction of the NAc from cocaine-trained animals were identified as significantly changed. Among proteins of interest whose levels were identified as increased was AKAP79/150, the rat ortholog of human AKAP5, a PSD scaffolding protein that localizes signaling molecules to the synapse. Functional downregulation of AKAP79/150 by microinjecting a cell-permeable synthetic AKAP (A-kinase anchor protein) peptide into the NAc to disrupt AKAP-dependent signaling revealed that inhibition of AKAP signaling impaired the reinstatement of cocaine seeking. Reinstatement of cocaine seeking is thought to require upregulated surface expression of AMPA glutamate receptors, and the inhibitory AKAP peptide reduced the PSD content of protein kinase A (PKA) as well as surface expression of GluR1 in NAc. However, reduced surface expression was not associated with changes in PKA phosphorylation of GluR1. This series of experiments demonstrates that proteomic analysis provides a useful tool for identifying proteins that can regulate cocaine relapse and that AKAP proteins may contribute to relapse vulnerability by promoting increased surface expression of AMPA receptors in the NAc. PMID:21490206

  5. Genome-Wide Analysis Revealed the Complex Regulatory Network of Brassinosteroid Effects in Photomorphogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Song; Xiao-Yi Zhou; Li Li; Liang-Jiao Xue; Xi Yang; Hong-Wei Xue

    2009-01-01

    Light and brassinosteroids (BRs) have been proved to be crucial in regulating plant growth and development;however,the mechanism of how they synergistically function is still largely unknown.To explore the underlying mechanisms in photomorphogenesis,genome-wide analyses were carried out through examining the gene expressions of the dark-grown WT or BR biosynthesis-defective mutant det2 seedlings in the presence of light stimuli or exogenous Brassinolide (BL).Results showed that BR deficiency stimulates,while BL treatment suppresses,the expressions of lightresponsive genes and photomorphogenesis,confirming the negative effects of BR in photomorphogenesis.This is consistent with the specific effects of BR on the expression of genes involved in cell wall modification,cellular metabolism and energy utilization during dark-light transition.Further analysis revealed that hormone biosynthesis and signaling-related genes,especially those of auxin,were altered under BL treatment or light stimuli,indicating that BR may modulate photomorphogenesis through synergetic regulation with other hormones.Additionally,suppressed ubiquitin-cycle pathway during light-dark transition hinted the presence of a complicated network among light,hormone,and protein degradation.The study provides the direct evidence of BR effects in photomorphogenesis and identified the genes involved in BR and light signaling pathway,which will help to elucidate the molecular mechanism of plant photomorphogenesis.

  6. The complement system of elasmobranches revealed by liver transcriptome analysis of a hammerhead shark, Sphyrna zygaena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goshima, Masayuki; Sekiguchi, Reo; Matsushita, Misao; Nonaka, Masaru

    2016-08-01

    Comprehensive studies of the complement genes in basal vertebrates have revealed that cyclostomes have apparently primitive complement systems whereas bony fish have well-developed complement systems comparable to those of mammals. Here we have performed liver transcriptome analysis of a hammerhead shark, Sphyrna zygaeana, to elucidate the early history of vertebrate complement evolution. Identified genes were; one C1qB, one C1r, one C1s, one MASP-1/-3, one MASP-2, two factor B/C2, one C3, three C4, one C5, one C6, one C7, one C8A, three C8B, one C8G, one C9, two factor I and one S protein. No MBL, ficolin, C1qA or C1qC were found. These results indicate that the lectin, classical, alternative and lytic pathways were established in the common ancestor of jawed vertebrates. In addition to the absence of MBL and ficolin, the MASP transcripts lacked the serine protease domain, suggesting that the lectin pathway was lost in the hammerhead shark lineage. PMID:26987526

  7. Latent physiological factors of complex human diseases revealed by independent component analysis of clinarrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen David P

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diagnosis and treatment of patients in the clinical setting is often driven by known symptomatic factors that distinguish one particular condition from another. Treatment based on noticeable symptoms, however, is limited to the types of clinical biomarkers collected, and is prone to overlooking dysfunctions in physiological factors not easily evident to medical practitioners. We used a vector-based representation of patient clinical biomarkers, or clinarrays, to search for latent physiological factors that underlie human diseases directly from clinical laboratory data. Knowledge of these factors could be used to improve assessment of disease severity and help to refine strategies for diagnosis and monitoring disease progression. Results Applying Independent Component Analysis on clinarrays built from patient laboratory measurements revealed both known and novel concomitant physiological factors for asthma, types 1 and 2 diabetes, cystic fibrosis, and Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Serum sodium was found to be the most significant factor for both type 1 and type 2 diabetes, and was also significant in asthma. TSH3, a measure of thyroid function, and blood urea nitrogen, indicative of kidney function, were factors unique to type 1 diabetes respective to type 2 diabetes. Platelet count was significant across all the diseases analyzed. Conclusions The results demonstrate that large-scale analyses of clinical biomarkers using unsupervised methods can offer novel insights into the pathophysiological basis of human disease, and suggest novel clinical utility of established laboratory measurements.

  8. Differential proteomic analysis of STAT6 knockout mice reveals new regulatory function in liver lipid homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iff, Joël; Wang, Wei; Sajic, Tatjana; Oudry, Nathalie; Gueneau, Estelle; Hopfgartner, Gérard; Varesio, Emmanuel; Szanto, Ildiko

    2009-10-01

    Increased inflammatory signaling is a key feature of metabolic disorders. In this context, the role of increased pro-inflammatory signals has been extensively studied. By contrast, no efforts have been dedicated to study the contrasting scenario: the attenuation of anti-inflammatory signals and their role in metabolic homeostasis. IL-4 and IL-13 are anti-inflammatory cytokines signaling through the Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 6 (STAT6). Our study was aimed at evaluating the lack of STAT6 signaling on liver homeostasis. To this end we analyzed the liver proteome of wild type and STAT6 knock-out mice using 2D nanoscale LC-MS/MS with iTRAQ labeling technique. The coordinated changes in proteins identified by this quantitative proteome analysis indicated disturbed lipid homeostasis and a state of hepatocellular stress. Most significantly, the expression of the liver fatty acid binding protein (FABP1) was increased in the knock-out mice. In line with the elevated FABP1 expression we found latent liver lipid accumulation in the STAT6-deficient mice which was further aggravated when mice were challenged by a high fat diet. In conclusion, our study revealed a so far uncharacterized role for STAT6 in regulating liver lipid homeostasis and demonstrates the importance of anti-inflammatory signaling in the defense against the development of liver steatosis. PMID:19663508

  9. Solutions to Peto's paradox revealed by mathematical modelling and cross-species cancer gene analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caulin, Aleah F; Graham, Trevor A; Wang, Li-San; Maley, Carlo C

    2015-07-19

    Whales have 1000-fold more cells than humans and mice have 1000-fold fewer; however, cancer risk across species does not increase with the number of somatic cells and the lifespan of the organism. This observation is known as Peto's paradox. How much would evolution have to change the parameters of somatic evolution in order to equalize the cancer risk between species that differ by orders of magnitude in size? Analysis of previously published models of colorectal cancer suggests that a two- to three-fold decrease in the mutation rate or stem cell division rate is enough to reduce a whale's cancer risk to that of a human. Similarly, the addition of one to two required tumour-suppressor gene mutations would also be sufficient. We surveyed mammalian genomes and did not find a positive correlation of tumour-suppressor genes with increasing body mass and longevity. However, we found evidence of the amplification of TP53 in elephants, MAL in horses and FBXO31 in microbats, which might explain Peto's paradox in those species. Exploring parameters that evolution may have fine-tuned in large, long-lived organisms will help guide future experiments to reveal the underlying biology responsible for Peto's paradox and guide cancer prevention in humans. PMID:26056366

  10. Genome-wide analysis reveals adaptation to high altitudes in Tibetan sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Caihong; Wang, Huihua; Liu, Gang; Zhao, Fuping; Kijas, James W; Ma, Youji; Lu, Jian; Zhang, Li; Cao, Jiaxue; Wu, Mingming; Wang, Guangkai; Liu, Ruizao; Liu, Zhen; Zhang, Shuzhen; Liu, Chousheng; Du, Lixin

    2016-01-01

    Tibetan sheep have lived on the Tibetan Plateau for thousands of years; however, the process and consequences of adaptation to this extreme environment have not been elucidated for important livestock such as sheep. Here, seven sheep breeds, representing both highland and lowland breeds from different areas of China, were genotyped for a genome-wide collection of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). The FST and XP-EHH approaches were used to identify regions harbouring local positive selection between these highland and lowland breeds, and 236 genes were identified. We detected selection events spanning genes involved in angiogenesis, energy production and erythropoiesis. In particular, several candidate genes were associated with high-altitude hypoxia, including EPAS1, CRYAA, LONP1, NF1, DPP4, SOD1, PPARG and SOCS2. EPAS1 plays a crucial role in hypoxia adaption; therefore, we investigated the exon sequences of EPAS1 and identified 12 mutations. Analysis of the relationship between blood-related phenotypes and EPAS1 genotypes in additional highland sheep revealed that a homozygous mutation at a relatively conserved site in the EPAS1 3' untranslated region was associated with increased mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration and mean corpuscular volume. Taken together, our results provide evidence of the genetic diversity of highland sheep and indicate potential high-altitude hypoxia adaptation mechanisms, including the role of EPAS1 in adaptation. PMID:27230812

  11. A Simple Geotracer Compositional Correlation Analysis Reveals Oil Charge and Migration Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yunlai; Arouri, Khaled

    2016-03-01

    A novel approach, based on geotracer compositional correlation analysis is reported, which reveals the oil charge sequence and migration pathways for five oil fields in Saudi Arabia. The geotracers utilised are carbazoles, a family of neutral pyrrolic nitrogen compounds known to occur naturally in crude oils. The approach is based on the concept that closely related fields, with respect to filling sequence, will show a higher carbazole compositional correlation, than those fields that are less related. That is, carbazole compositional correlation coefficients can quantify the charge and filling relationships among different fields. Consequently, oil migration pathways can be defined based on the established filling relationships. The compositional correlation coefficients of isomers of C1 and C2 carbazoles, and benzo[a]carbazole for all different combination pairs of the five fields were found to vary extremely widely (0.28 to 0.94). A wide range of compositional correlation coefficients allows adequate differentiation of separate filling relationships. Based on the established filling relationships, three distinct migration pathways were inferred, with each apparently being charged from a different part of a common source kitchen. The recognition of these charge and migration pathways will greatly aid the search for new accumulations.

  12. Highly distinct chromosomal structures in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), as revealed by molecular cytogenetic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata-Otsubo, Aiko; Lin, Jer-Young; Gill, Navdeep; Jackson, Scott A

    2016-05-01

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) is an important legume, particularly in developing countries. However, little is known about its genome or chromosome structure. We used molecular cytogenetics to characterize the structure of pachytene chromosomes to advance our knowledge of chromosome and genome organization of cowpea. Our data showed that cowpea has highly distinct chromosomal structures that are cytologically visible as brightly DAPI-stained heterochromatic regions. Analysis of the repetitive fraction of the cowpea genome present at centromeric and pericentromeric regions confirmed that two retrotransposons are major components of pericentromeric regions and that a 455-bp tandem repeat is found at seven out of 11 centromere pairs in cowpea. These repeats likely evolved after the divergence of cowpea from common bean and form chromosomal structure unique to cowpea. The integration of cowpea genetic and physical chromosome maps reveals potential regions of suppressed recombination due to condensed heterochromatin and a lack of pairing in a few chromosomal termini. This study provides fundamental knowledge on cowpea chromosome structure and molecular cytogenetics tools for further chromosome studies. PMID:26758200

  13. Molecular systematic analysis reveals cryptic tertiary diversification of a widespread tropical rain forest tree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, Christopher W; Abdul-Salim, Kobinah; Bermingham, Eldredge

    2003-12-01

    The broad geographic range of many Neotropical rain forest tree species implies excellent dispersal abilities or range establishment that preceded the formation of current dispersal barriers. In order to initiate historical analyses of such widespread Neotropical trees, we sequenced the nuclear ribosomal spacer (ITS) region of Symphonia globulifera L. f. (Clusiaceae) from populations spanning the Neotropics and western Africa. This rain forest tree has left unmistakable Miocene fossils in Mesoamerica (15.5-18.2 Ma) and in South America ( approximately 15 Ma). Although marine dispersal of S. globulifera is considered improbable, our study establishes three marine dispersal events leading to the colonization of Mesoamerica, the Amazon basin, and the West Indies, thus supporting the paleontological data. Our phylogeographic analysis revealed the spatial extent of the three Neotropical S. globulifera clades, which represent trans-Andes (Mesoamerica+west Ecuador), cis-Andes (Amazonia+Guiana), and the West Indies. Strong phylogeographic structure found among trans-Andean populations of S. globulifera stands in contrast to an absence of ITS nucleotide variation across the Amazon basin and indicates profound regional differences in the demographic history of this rain forest tree. Drawing from these results, we provide a historical biogeographic hypothesis to account for differences in the patterns of beta diversity within Mesoamerican and Amazonian forests. PMID:14737707

  14. Rapid Holocene coastal change revealed by high-resolution micropaleontological analysis, Pamlico Sound, North Carolina, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grand, Pre C.; Culver, S.J.; Mallinson, D.J.; Farrell, K.M.; Corbett, D.R.; Horton, B.P.; Hillier, C.; Riggs, S.R.; Snyder, S.W.; Buzas, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    Foraminiferal analyses of 404 contiguous samples, supported by diatom, lithologic, geochronologic and seismic data, reveal both rapid and gradual Holocene paleoenvironmental changes in an 8.21-m vibracore taken from southern Pamlico Sound, North Carolina. Data record initial flooding of a latest Pleistocene river drainage and the formation of an estuary 9000. yr ago. Estuarine conditions were punctuated by two intervals of marine influence from approximately 4100 to 3700 and 1150 to 500. cal. yr BP. Foraminiferal assemblages in the muddy sand facies that accumulated during these intervals contain many well-preserved benthic foraminiferal species, which occur today in open marine settings as deep as the mid shelf, and significant numbers of well-preserved planktonic foraminifera, some typical of Gulf Stream waters. We postulate that these marine-influenced units resulted from temporary destruction of the southern Outer Banks barrier islands by hurricanes. The second increase in marine influence is coeval with increased rate of sea-level rise and a peak in Atlantic tropical cyclone activity during the Medieval Climate Anomaly. This high-resolution analysis demonstrates the range of environmental variability and the rapidity of coastal change that can result from the interplay of changing climate, sea level and geomorphology in an estuarine setting. ?? 2011 University of Washington.

  15. Proteome analysis of Paenibacillus larvae reveals the existence of a putative S-layer protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fünfhaus, Anne; Genersch, Elke

    2012-04-01

    Honey bee pathology has attracted much interest recently due to the problems with honey bee declines in many regions of the world. American Foulbrood (AFB) caused by Paenibacillus larvae is the most devastating bacterial brood disease of the Western honey bee (Apis mellifera) causing considerable economic losses to beekeepers worldwide. AFB outbreaks are mainly caused by two differentially virulent genotypes of P. larvae, P. larvae ERIC I and ERIC II. To better understand AFB pathogenesis and to complement already existing data from the genetic level we aimed at obtaining expression data from the protein level. We successfully developed a protocol for two-dimensional proteome analysis of P. larvae with subsequent mass-spectrometry based protein sequencing. Based on the obtained master protein maps of P. larvae genotypes ERIC I and II we identified the dominantly expressed cytosolic proteins of both genotypes, some of them presumably linked to pathogenesis and virulence. Comparing the master maps of both genotypes revealed differentially expressed proteins, i.e. a putative S-layer protein which is expressed by P. larvae ERIC II but absent from the proteome of P. larvae ERIC I. The implications of our findings for pathogenesis of AFB and virulence of P. larvae will be discussed. PMID:23757273

  16. Global analysis of transcriptionally engaged yeast RNA polymerase III reveals extended tRNA transcripts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turowski, Tomasz W; Leśniewska, Ewa; Delan-Forino, Clementine; Sayou, Camille; Boguta, Magdalena; Tollervey, David

    2016-07-01

    RNA polymerase III (RNAPIII) synthesizes a range of highly abundant small stable RNAs, principally pre-tRNAs. Here we report the genome-wide analysis of nascent transcripts attached to RNAPIII under permissive and restrictive growth conditions. This revealed strikingly uneven polymerase distributions across transcription units, generally with a predominant 5' peak. This peak was higher for more heavily transcribed genes, suggesting that initiation site clearance is rate-limiting during RNAPIII transcription. Down-regulation of RNAPIII transcription under stress conditions was found to be uneven; a subset of tRNA genes showed low response to nutrient shift or loss of the major transcription regulator Maf1, suggesting potential "housekeeping" roles. Many tRNA genes were found to generate long, 3'-extended forms due to read-through of the canonical poly(U) terminators. The degree of read-through was anti-correlated with the density of U-residues in the nascent tRNA, and multiple, functional terminators can be located far downstream. The steady-state levels of 3'-extended pre-tRNA transcripts are low, apparently due to targeting by the nuclear surveillance machinery, especially the RNA binding protein Nab2, cofactors for the nuclear exosome, and the 5'-exonuclease Rat1. PMID:27206856

  17. GC--MS analysis reveals production of 2--Phenylethanol from Aspergillus niger endophytic in rose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wani, Masood Ahmed; Sanjana, Kaul; Kumar, Dhar Manoj; Lal, Dhar Kanahya

    2010-02-01

    Endophytes include all organisms that during a variable period of their life, colonize the living internal tissues of their hosts without causing detectable symptoms. Several fungal endophytes have been isolated from a variety of plant species which have proved themselves as a rich source of secondary metabolites. The reported natural products from endophytes include antibiotics, immunosuppresants, anticancer compounds, antioxidant agents, etc. For the first time Rosa damacaena (rose) has been explored for its endophytes. The rose oil industry is the major identified deligence for its application in perfumery, flavouring, ointments, and pharmaceuticals including various herbal products. During the present investigation fungal endophytes were isolated from Rosa damacaena. A total of fifty four isolates were isolated out of which sixteen isolates were screened for the production of secondary metabolites. GCMS analysis reveals the production of 2-phenylethanol by one of the isolates JUBT 3M which was identified as Aspergillus niger. This is the first report of production of 2-phenylethanol from endophytic A. niger. 2-phenylethanol is an important constituent of rose oil constituting about 4.06% of rose oil. Presence of 2-phenylethanol indicates that the endophyte of rose may duplicate the biosynthesis of phenyl propanoids by rose plant. Besides this, the other commercial applications of phenylethanol include its use in antiseptics, disinfectants, anti-microbials and preservative in pharmaceuticals. PMID:20082377

  18. How Riemannian Manifolds Converge: A Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Sormani, Christina

    2010-01-01

    This is an intuitive survey of extrinsic and intrinsic notions of convergence of manifolds complete with pictures of key examples and a discussion of the properties associated with each notion. We begin with a description of three extrinsic notions which have been applied to study sequences of submanifolds in Euclidean space: Hausdorff convergence of sets, flat convergence of integral currents, and weak convergence of varifolds. We next describe a variety of intrinsic notions of convergence w...

  19. Functional proteomic analysis reveals the involvement of KIAA1199 in breast cancer growth, motility and invasiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KIAA1199 is a recently identified novel gene that is up-regulated in human cancer with poor survival. Our proteomic study on signaling polarity in chemotactic cells revealed KIAA1199 as a novel protein target that may be involved in cellular chemotaxis and motility. In the present study, we examined the functional significance of KIAA1199 expression in breast cancer growth, motility and invasiveness. We validated the previous microarray observation by tissue microarray immunohistochemistry using a TMA slide containing 12 breast tumor tissue cores and 12 corresponding normal tissues. We performed the shRNA-mediated knockdown of KIAA1199 in MDA-MB-231 and HS578T cells to study the role of this protein in cell proliferation, migration and apoptosis in vitro. We studied the effects of KIAA1199 knockdown in vivo in two groups of mice (n = 5). We carried out the SILAC LC-MS/MS based proteomic studies on the involvement of KIAA1199 in breast cancer. KIAA1199 mRNA and protein was significantly overexpressed in breast tumor specimens and cell lines as compared with non-neoplastic breast tissues from large-scale microarray and studies of breast cancer cell lines and tumors. To gain deeper insights into the novel role of KIAA1199 in breast cancer, we modulated KIAA1199 expression using shRNA-mediated knockdown in two breast cancer cell lines (MDA-MB-231 and HS578T), expressing higher levels of KIAA1199. The KIAA1199 knockdown cells showed reduced motility and cell proliferation in vitro. Moreover, when the knockdown cells were injected into the mammary fat pads of female athymic nude mice, there was a significant decrease in tumor incidence and growth. In addition, quantitative proteomic analysis revealed that knockdown of KIAA1199 in breast cancer (MDA-MB-231) cells affected a broad range of cellular functions including apoptosis, metabolism and cell motility. Our findings indicate that KIAA1199 may play an important role in breast tumor growth and invasiveness, and that it

  20. Proteomic and bioinformatic analysis of epithelial tight junction reveals an unexpected cluster of synaptic molecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang Vivian W

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Zonula occludens, also known as the tight junction, is a specialized cell-cell interaction characterized by membrane "kisses" between epithelial cells. A cytoplasmic plaque of ~100 nm corresponding to a meshwork of densely packed proteins underlies the tight junction membrane domain. Due to its enormous size and difficulties in obtaining a biochemically pure fraction, the molecular composition of the tight junction remains largely unknown. Results A novel biochemical purification protocol has been developed to isolate tight junction protein complexes from cultured human epithelial cells. After identification of proteins by mass spectroscopy and fingerprint analysis, candidate proteins are scored and assessed individually. A simple algorithm has been devised to incorporate transmembrane domains and protein modification sites for scoring membrane proteins. Using this new scoring system, a total of 912 proteins have been identified. These 912 hits are analyzed using a bioinformatics approach to bin the hits in 4 categories: configuration, molecular function, cellular function, and specialized process. Prominent clusters of proteins related to the cytoskeleton, cell adhesion, and vesicular traffic have been identified. Weaker clusters of proteins associated with cell growth, cell migration, translation, and transcription are also found. However, the strongest clusters belong to synaptic proteins and signaling molecules. Localization studies of key components of synaptic transmission have confirmed the presence of both presynaptic and postsynaptic proteins at the tight junction domain. To correlate proteomics data with structure, the tight junction has been examined using electron microscopy. This has revealed many novel structures including end-on cytoskeletal attachments, vesicles fusing/budding at the tight junction membrane domain, secreted substances encased between the tight junction kisses, endocytosis of tight junction